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Sample records for demographic characteristics results

  1. Analysis of patterns of patient compliance after an abnormal Pap smear result: the influence of demographic characteristics on patient compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Christine; Zhou, Ming K; Khamis, Harry J; Amesse, Lawrence

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to determine population characteristics that correlate to suboptimal follow-up after an abnormal cervical cytology result. Nonpregnant women, ages 21 to 65 years, with newly diagnosed abnormal cervical cytology result between January 2009 and January 2012 at an urban clinic were eligible for inclusion in this retrospective chart review. Cervical cytology data and demographic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, employment, marital and smoking status, health insurance and number of pregnancies were abstracted from electronic medical record. A log-linear model was used to determine which factors influenced patient compliance. Of the total of 206 women, 78 (37.9%) had optimal follow-up and 128 (62.1%) had suboptimal follow-up. The 3 variables that were statistically significant in influencing patient follow-up after adjusted analyses included severity of cytology result (p = .0013), ethnicity (p = .02), and employment status (p = .0159). The risk ratio for optimal follow-up for those with severe cytology result was 1.81; for the non-whites, 1.77; and for the employed, 1.53. Ethnicity, severity of cervical cytology result, and employment status play an important role in patient follow-up after an abnormal cervical cytology result. Detecting trends in our patient population that influence adherence to follow-up will help health care providers formulate strategies that target this problem.

  2. The demographics, treatment characteristics and quality of life of adult people with haemophilia in China - results from the HERO study.

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    Sun, J; Zhao, Y; Yang, R; Guan, T; Iorio, A

    2017-01-01

    Haemophilia management in China needs to be further developed. To further improve the quality of life (QoL) of people with haemophilia (PWH) in China, it is important to investigate the peculiarities of China as compared to other countries. The primary objective of the Haemophilia Experiences, Results and Opportunities (HERO) project was to quantify the impact of key psychosocial factors affecting PWH. This article presents the demographics, treatment characteristics, and QoL of adult PWH in China as compared with the results of the other nine countries participating in the HERO study. This was a web- (except in Algeria) and questionnaire-based survey conducted in 10 countries. A total of 110 adult PWH from China and 565 from other countries completed the questionnaire. Compared with other countries, respondents in China reported: lower rate of employment (45.6% vs. 63.1%); lower percentages of being treated by prophylaxis (4.1% vs. 36.8%), being treated always at home (27.8% vs. 54.3%) and following treatment recommendation as instructed (6.2% vs. 40.5%); greater difficulty in obtaining replacement factor products (97.3% vs. 29.6%) and visiting their treatment centre (60.9% vs. 26.4%); more annual bleeds requiring treatment (mean: 29.4/year vs. 15.4/year); lower mean self-evaluated disease control score (5.5 vs. 7.7), EQ-5D index (0.71 vs. 0.75) and visual analogue scale (7.1 vs. 7.5) scores. Employed PWH in China had a better self-reported generic QoL than those unemployed. The study suggests that there is a major need for further improvement of both medical care and ongoing psychosocial support for PWH in China. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. THE SELECTED ASPECTS OF SOCIOLOGICAL AND DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTIC OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS PATIENTS. INTRODUCTORY RESULTS OF A SOCIOLOGICAL SURVEY

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    Karina Erenkfeit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study is a sociological description of people suffering from a pneumoconiosis. A sociological pilot survey performed on a group of patients with confirmed pneumoconiosis was conducted. Material and methods: The study was carried out by means of questionnaire in 133 patients. Following features were taken into consideration: age, sex, educational background, profession, type of activity, personal assessment of legislative acts, changes of professional ability after having been diagnosed as having pneumoconiosis, attitude towards offered aid to patients and preferred methods of support. Results: The population of people suffering from pneumoconiosis consists of mainly middle-aged and elderly men (98%. Most of them are pensioners (93%. Diagnosis of pneumoconiosis usually involves the patients going into retirement or a disability pension. The patients complain that they cannot count on government’s support. Rehabilitation and financial help are the major expected forms of support. Conclusions: People suffering from pneumoconiosis should be provided with rehabilitation and legal advices according to the advanced age and health condition. The results of research showed a lack of help in mentioned above issues, which should be a clue recommendation for institutions in charge of helping people suffering from occupational disease.

  4. [[Demographic characteristics of "business bachelors" in Japan

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    Yamamoto, C

    1987-01-01

    The demographic characteristics of those obliged to live away from their families because of the distance between their normal homes and places of work or education in Japan are described. Data are from a variety of official and other sources. The author notes that such persons are generally male. Factors affecting the growth of this phenomenon in Japan are the concept of lifetime employment with the same company and the popularity of sending children away to school.

  5. Demographic characteristics of patients with pulmonary thromboembolism

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    Ali Duman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE is a common disease with high mortality and difficult diagnosis.The incidence in our country cannot be calculated because there is no adequate and regular data. In our study,we aimed to investigate the demographic characteristics,risk factors, incidence, Wells and Geneva scores diagnostic and treatment methods of the patients in our emergency department with a diagnosis of PTE. Methods:Files of the 112 patients who were admitted to Erciyes University Medical Faculty Emergency Department between January 2010 - February 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Data were analyzed with SPSS 17.0 statistical software. Results:The mean age of patients was 65.02 ± 16.23.Forty-one (36.6% of the patients were male and 71 (63.4% were female. The most common complaint of patients was shortness of breath (81.3%, respectively.Immobilization(35.7% and history of previous surgery(19.6% were among the risk factors of the patients. Average troponin levels of the patients was 0.13 ± 0.48 ng/Land average d-dimer levels was 12.698.12 ± 8.779.92 μg/L. Geneva scores of the patients were: 4 patients (3.6% low score, 88 patients (78.6% medium score and 20 patients (17.9% high score. Wells Clinical Probability scores of the patients were; 1 patient (0.9% low probability, 74 patients (66.1% intermediate probability and 37 patients (33% high probability. In the treatmentof patients; heparin infusion (36.6%, enoxaparin sodium(59.8% and tPA (3.6% were used. Conclusion: In spite of improvements in diagnosis and treatment methods, pulmonary embolism diagnosis is stil a problem. The first step to diagnosis in patients with risk factors begin to suspect.J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (1:10-15

  6. Demographic Characteristics of World Class Jamaican Sprinters

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    Rachael Irving

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dominance of Jamaican sprinters in international meets remains largely unexplained. Proposed explanations include demographics and favorable physiological characteristics. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographic characteristics of world class Jamaican sprinters. Questionnaires administered to 120 members of the Jamaican national team and 125 controls elicited information on place of birth, language, ethnicity, and distance and method of travel to school. Athletes were divided into three groups based on athletic disciplines: sprint (s: 100–400 m; n=80, jump and throw (j/t: jump and throw; n=25 and, middle distance (md: 800–3000 m; n=15. Frequency differences between groups were assessed using chi-square tests. Regional or county distribution of sprint differed from that of middle distance (P<0.001 but not from that of jump and throw athletes (P=0.24 and that of controls (P=0.59. Sprint athletes predominately originated from the Surrey county (s = 46%, j/t = 37%, md = 17, C = 53%, whilst middle distance athletes exhibited excess from the Middlesex county (md = 60%. The language distribution of all groups showed uniformity with a predominance of English. A higher proportion of middle distance and jump and throw athletes walked to school (md = 80%, j/t = 52%, s = 10%, and C = 12% and travelled greater distances to school. In conclusion, Jamaica’s success in sprinting may be related to environmental and social factors.

  7. Sessile serrated adenomas:Demographic,endoscopic and pathological characteristics

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    Suryakanth; R; Gurudu; Russell; I; Heigh; Giovanni; De; Petris; Evelyn; G; Heigh; Jonathan; A; Leighton; Shabana; F; Pasha; Isaac; B; Malagon; Ananya; Das

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To study the demographic and endoscopic characteristics of patients with sessile serrated adenoma(SSA) in a single center.METHODS:Patients with SSA were identified by review of the pathology database of Mayo Clinic Arizona from 2005 to 2007.A retrospective chart review was performed to extract data on demographics,polyp characteristics,presence of synchronous adenomatous polyps or cancer,polypectomy methods,and related complications.RESULTS:One hundred and seventy-one(2.9%) of all patients undergoing co...

  8. Sessile serrated adenomas: Demographic, endoscopic and pathological characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurudu, Suryakanth R; Heigh, Russell I; Petris, Giovanni De; Heigh, Evelyn G; Leighton, Jonathan A; Pasha, Shabana F; Malagon, Isaac B; Das, Ananya

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To study the demographic and endoscopic characteristics of patients with sessile serrated adenoma (SSA) in a single center. METHODS: Patients with SSA were identified by review of the pathology database of Mayo Clinic Arizona from 2005 to 2007. A retrospective chart review was performed to extract data on demographics, polyp characteristics, presence of synchronous adenomatous polyps or cancer, polypectomy methods, and related complications. RESULTS: One hundred and seventy-one (2.9%) of all patients undergoing colonoscopy had a total of 226 SSAs. The mean (SE) size of the SSAs was 8.1 (0.4) mm; 42% of SSAs were ≤ 5 mm, and 69% were ≤ 9 mm. Fifty-one per cent of SSAs were located in the cecum or ascending colon. Approximately half of the patients had synchronous polyps of other histological types, including hyperplastic and adenomatous polyps. Synchronous adenocarcinoma was present in seven (4%) cases. Ninety-seven percent of polyps were removed by colonoscopy. CONCLUSION: Among patients with colon polyps, 2.9% were found to have SSAs. Most of the SSAs were located in the right side and were safely managed by colonoscopy. PMID:20632442

  9. Bolivia 1998: results from the Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    This document presents the results of the Bolivia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), or Encuesta Nacional de Demografia y Salud 1998, conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, La Paz, Bolivia, within the framework of the DHS Program of Macro International. Data were collected from 12,109 households and complete interviews were conducted with 11,187 women aged 15-49. A male survey was also conducted, which collected data from 3780 men aged 15-64. The information collected include the following: 1) general characteristics of the population, 2) fertility, 3) fertility preferences, 4) current contraceptive use, 5) contraception, 6) marital and contraceptive status, 7) postpartum variables, 8) infant mortality, 9) health: disease prevention and treatment, and 10) nutritional status: anthropometric measures.

  10. Clinical and demographic characteristics of 165 patients with lichen planus

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    Bilge Bülbül Şen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Lichen planus (LP, is a papulosquamous inflammatory disease, which involves the skin, mucous membranes, nails and scalp. The incidence varies according to geographical regions. In this study, it was aimed to detect the clinical and demographic characteristics of the patients with LP who have been under follow-up at our clinic. Methods: One hundred sixty five patients, who were diagnosed as LP in our clinic between 2010 and 2013, were enrolled to the study. The age, gender, disease duration, time of onset of disease, characteristics of involvement, associated systemic diseases, laboratory findings and treatment were recorded retrospectively. Results: In our study, 0.6% of all patients admitted to our clinic were diagnosed as LP. A total of 165 patients included in the study, 92 women (56% and 73 men (44%, respectively. Patients’ ages ranged 8-78 (mean 44.7±16.7. Disease duration ranged from 1 month to 20 years (mean 15.6±29.7. One hundred thirty four patients (81.2% had skin involvement, 51 (31% had oral mucosal involvement, and 15 (9% had genital involvement. Five (4.5% of 111 patients with viral hepatitis tests were positive for hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis B virus positivity was seen in 4 (4% patients. Conclusion: There is a need for further studies with more patients to better understand the epidemiological, clinical and pathological characteristics of LP. We believe that our study will contribute to the determination of our country’s data.

  11. Demographic and Behavioral Characteristics of Osher Lifelong Learning Institute Members

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    Hansen, Robert Jack; Brady, E. Michael; Thaxton, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    The number of lifelong learning institutes (LLIs) is growing across the United States and it is important for educational planners and administrators to know about current demographic and behavioral characteristics of program participants. A 14-question survey was administered via SurveyMonkey to members who use computers in eight Osher Lifelong…

  12. Demographic and personality characteristics of Internet Child Pornography Offenders

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    Reijnen, L.; Bulten, B.H.; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2009-01-01

    This research study was conducted to map out the demographic and psychological aspects of Internet child pornography offenders. The backgrounds, characteristics, and MMPI profiles of 22 Internet child pornography offenders were statistically compared to those of 112 perpetrators of other offenses. I

  13. Trauma-associated tinnitus: audiological, demographic and clinical characteristics.

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    Peter M Kreuzer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tinnitus can result from different etiologies. Frequently, patients report the development of tinnitus after traumatic injuries. However, to which extent this specific etiologic factor plays a role for the phenomenology of tinnitus is still incompletely understood. Additionally, it remains a matter of debate whether the etiology of tinnitus constitutes a relevant criterion for defining tinnitus subtypes. OBJECTIVE: By investigating a worldwide sample of tinnitus patients derived from the Tinnitus Research Initiative (TRI Database, we aimed to identify differences in demographic, clinical and audiological characteristics between tinnitus patients with and without preceding trauma. MATERIALS: A total of 1,604 patients were investigated. Assessment included demographic data, tinnitus related clinical data, audiological data, the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, the Tinnitus Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, various numeric tinnitus rating scales, and the World Health Organisation Quality of Life Scale (WHOQoL. RESULTS: Our data clearly indicate differences between tinnitus patients with and without trauma at tinnitus onset. Patients suffering from trauma-associated tinnitus suffer from a higher mental burden than tinnitus patients presenting with phantom perceptions based on other or unknown etiologic factors. This is especially the case for patients with whiplash and head trauma. Patients with posttraumatic noise-related tinnitus experience more frequently hyperacousis, were younger, had longer tinnitus duration, and were more frequently of male gender. CONCLUSIONS: Trauma before tinnitus onset seems to represent a relevant criterion for subtypization of tinnitus. Patients with posttraumatic tinnitus may require specific diagnostic and therapeutic management. A more systematic and - at best - standardized assessment for hearing related sequelae of trauma is needed for a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and

  14. Does Financial Literacy Moderate the Relationship among Demographic Characteristics and Financial Risk Tolerance? Evidence from Egypt

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    Amir Ali Shusha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Financial risk tolerance is certainly an important topic for researchers, investors and personal financial planners or consultants. This study purposed to investigate the effect of demographic characteristics on financial risk tolerance among Egyptians. A literature review of demographic determinants of financial risk tolerance showed dialectical results. Therefore, this study attempts to clarify the debatable issues in these results by studying the moderating role of financial literacy in relationships among demographic characteristics and financial risk tolerance. The study sample included 386 respondents representing different segments of Egyptian people. Using the hierarchical regression analysis, the results demonstrated that there were significant effects of gender, age, educational level and annual income on financial risk tolerance. Moreover, the financial literacy moderates the relationships among demographic characteristics of individuals and their tendency to take a risk.

  15. Evaluating the Characteristics of Social Vulnerability to Wildfire: Demographics, Perceptions, and Parcel Characteristics.

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    Paveglio, Travis B; Prato, Tony; Edgeley, Catrin; Nalle, Darek

    2016-09-01

    A large body of research focuses on identifying patterns of human populations most at risk from hazards and the factors that help explain performance of mitigations that can help reduce that risk. One common concept in such studies is social vulnerability-human populations' potential exposure to, sensitivity from and ability to reduce negative impacts from a hazard. While there is growing interest in social vulnerability for wildfire, few studies have critically evaluated the characteristics that scholars often indicate influence social vulnerability to that hazard. This research utilizes surveys, wildfire simulations, and GIS data to test the relationships between select demographic, perceptual and parcel characteristics of property owners against empirically simulated metrics for wildfire exposure or wildfire-related damages and their performance of mitigation actions. Our results from Flathead County, MT, USA, suggest that parcel characteristics such as property value, building value, and the year structures were built explaining a significant amount of the variance in elements of social vulnerability. Demographic characteristics commonly used in social vulnerability analysis did not have significant relationships with measures of wildfire exposure or vulnerability. Part-time or full-time residency, age, perceived property risk, and year of development were among the few significant determinants of residents' performance of fuel reduction mitigations, although the significance of these factors varied across the levels of fuel reduction performed by homeowners. We use these and other results to argue for a renewed focus on the finer-scale characteristics that expose some populations to wildfire risk more than others.

  16. Evaluating the Characteristics of Social Vulnerability to Wildfire: Demographics, Perceptions, and Parcel Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paveglio, Travis B.; Prato, Tony; Edgeley, Catrin; Nalle, Darek

    2016-09-01

    A large body of research focuses on identifying patterns of human populations most at risk from hazards and the factors that help explain performance of mitigations that can help reduce that risk. One common concept in such studies is social vulnerability—human populations' potential exposure to, sensitivity from and ability to reduce negative impacts from a hazard. While there is growing interest in social vulnerability for wildfire, few studies have critically evaluated the characteristics that scholars often indicate influence social vulnerability to that hazard. This research utilizes surveys, wildfire simulations, and GIS data to test the relationships between select demographic, perceptual and parcel characteristics of property owners against empirically simulated metrics for wildfire exposure or wildfire-related damages and their performance of mitigation actions. Our results from Flathead County, MT, USA, suggest that parcel characteristics such as property value, building value, and the year structures were built explaining a significant amount of the variance in elements of social vulnerability. Demographic characteristics commonly used in social vulnerability analysis did not have significant relationships with measures of wildfire exposure or vulnerability. Part-time or full-time residency, age, perceived property risk, and year of development were among the few significant determinants of residents' performance of fuel reduction mitigations, although the significance of these factors varied across the levels of fuel reduction performed by homeowners. We use these and other results to argue for a renewed focus on the finer-scale characteristics that expose some populations to wildfire risk more than others.

  17. Predicting Psychiatric Rehabilitation Outcome Using Demographic Characteristics: A Replication

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    Anthony, William A.; Buell, Gregory J.

    1974-01-01

    Replication was undertaken of a recent study conducted by Buell and Anthony which had found that recidivism and posthospital employment could be predicted by a single demographic variable, number of previous hospitalizations and employment history, respectively. Results of the replication were consistent for posthospital employment but not for…

  18. Socio-demographic characteristics as determinants of differences in perception of local gastronomy

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    Vuksanović Nikola; Tešanović Dragan; Kalenjuk Bojana; Portić Milijanko; Knežević Marija

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to research differences in socio-demographic characteristics of foreign tourists in consumption of local food in the city centres Belgrade and Novi Sad, Republic of Serbia. The research was conducted on a sample of 673 respondents. The results of this study point out the importance of socio-demographic variables in research of local gastronomy as a significant component of tourism product. The research included the determining of the impact of the city the tourists stayed at. ...

  19. Hemodialysis versus peritoneal dialysis: epidemiologic and demographic characteristics

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    Hekmat R

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: The preferred modality of dialysis is a controversial issue in nephrology. In this study we compare some demographic and epidemiological characteristics of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients in an attempt to analyze this issue."n"n Methods: The results of the research protocol "A survey of the epidemiological characteristics of chronic dialyzed patients in Khorassan province", was used to compare some demographic and epidemiological aspects of chronic hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients in search of any statistically significant difference."n"n Results: A total of 836 chronic dialysis patients entered this study, 802 (95.9% of which were under chronic hemodialysis, and 34 (4.1% patients were undergoing peritoneal dialysis, with 339 (42.3% and 12 (35.3% being female, respectively. The mean age for each group was 47.57 and 46.75 years, respectively. The causes of end-stage renal disease in hemodialzed patients were most commonly hypertension (32.2%, followed by diabetes mellitus (22.3%, unknown causes (19.6% and chronic glomeru-lonephritis (10.2%. In the peritoneal dialysis group, chronic glomerulonephritis (32.4% was the most common reason for dialysis, followed by diabetes mellitus (26

  20. Socio-demographic characteristics affecting sport tourism choices: A structural model

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    Nataša Slak Valek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Effective tourism management in the field of sports tourism requires an understanding of differences in socioeconomic characteristics both within and between different market segments. Objective: In the broad tourism market demographic characteristics have been extensively analyzed for differences in destination choices, however little is known about demographic factors affecting sport tourists' decisions. Methods: A sample of Slovenian sports tourists was analyzed using data from a comprehensive survey of local and outbound tourist activity conducted by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia in 2008. After data weighting the information for 353,783 sports related trips were available for analysis. The research model adopted suggests that four socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age, level of education and income significantly affect a tourist's choice of sports related travel either locally within Slovenia or to a foreign country. Furthermore the destination (local or foreign has an influence on the choice of the type of accommodation selected and the tourist's total expenditure for the trip. For testing the first part of our model (the socio-demographic characteristics effects a linear regression was used, and for the final part of the model (the selection of accommodation type and travel expenditure t-test were applied. Results: The result shows the standardized β regression coefficients are all statistically significant at the .001 level for the tested socio-demographic characteristics and also the overall regression model was statistically significant at .001 level. Conclusions: With these results the study confirmed that all the selected socio-demographic characteristics have a significant influence on the sport-active tourist when choosing between a domestic and foreign tourism destination which in turn affect the type of accommodation chosen and the level of expenditure while travelling.

  1. Influence of stress factors and socio-demographic characteristics on the sleep quality of nursing students

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    Sonia Betzabeth Ticona Benavente

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To analyze the influence of stress factors and socio-demographic characteristics on the sleep quality of nursing students. Method: An analytical cross-sectional and quantitative study, conducted with 151 nursing students in São Paulo between March and April of 2012. A form for socio-demographic characteristics, the Instrument to Evaluate Stress in Nursing Students and the Pittsburgh Sleep Index were applied. Results: High levels of stress was predominant for Time Management (27.8% and Professional Training (30.5% and low sleep quality (78.8%. The Professional Communication, Professional Training and Theoretical Activity are positively correlated to sleep quality. Work activity, academic year and time for daily studies contributed to a low quality of sleep. Conclusion: Few stress factors from the academic environment and some socio-demographic characteristics contributed to the reduction of sleep quality in students.

  2. Demographic Characteristics as Determinants of Unemployment among University Graduates in Nigeria

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    Pitan, Oluyomi S.; Adedeji, Segun O.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated demographic characteristics such as type of university attended, course of study and gender as determinants of duration of unemployment among university graduates in Nigeria. Data were collected from 1 451 employed university graduates in 300 firms in Nigeria. Results showed a significant difference between duration of…

  3. The Geography of Happiness: Connecting Twitter Sentiment and Expression, Demographics, and Objective Characteristics of Place

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    Mitchell, Lewis; Frank, Morgan R.; Harris, Kameron Decker; Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Danforth, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    We conduct a detailed investigation of correlations between real-time expressions of individuals made across the United States and a wide range of emotional, geographic, demographic, and health characteristics. We do so by combining (1) a massive, geo-tagged data set comprising over 80 million words generated in 2011 on the social network service Twitter and (2) annually-surveyed characteristics of all 50 states and close to 400 urban populations. Among many results, we generate taxonomies of states and cities based on their similarities in word use; estimate the happiness levels of states and cities; correlate highly-resolved demographic characteristics with happiness levels; and connect word choice and message length with urban characteristics such as education levels and obesity rates. Our results show how social media may potentially be used to estimate real-time levels and changes in population-scale measures such as obesity rates. PMID:23734200

  4. The geography of happiness: connecting twitter sentiment and expression, demographics, and objective characteristics of place.

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    Lewis Mitchell

    Full Text Available We conduct a detailed investigation of correlations between real-time expressions of individuals made across the United States and a wide range of emotional, geographic, demographic, and health characteristics. We do so by combining (1 a massive, geo-tagged data set comprising over 80 million words generated in 2011 on the social network service Twitter and (2 annually-surveyed characteristics of all 50 states and close to 400 urban populations. Among many results, we generate taxonomies of states and cities based on their similarities in word use; estimate the happiness levels of states and cities; correlate highly-resolved demographic characteristics with happiness levels; and connect word choice and message length with urban characteristics such as education levels and obesity rates. Our results show how social media may potentially be used to estimate real-time levels and changes in population-scale measures such as obesity rates.

  5. The Geography of Happiness: Connecting Twitter sentiment and expression, demographics, and objective characteristics of place

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    Mitchell, Lewis; Frank, Morgan R; Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Danforth, Christopher M

    2013-01-01

    We conduct a detailed investigation of correlations between real-time expressions of individuals made across the United States and a wide range of emotional, geographic, demographic, and health characteristics. We do so by combining (1) a massive, geo-tagged data set comprising over 80 million words generated over the course of several recent years on the social network service Twitter and (2) annually-surveyed characteristics of all 50 states and close to 400 urban populations. Among many results, we generate taxonomies of states and cities based on their similarities in word use; estimate the happiness levels of states and cities; correlate highly-resolved demographic characteristics with happiness levels; and connect word choice and message length with urban characteristics such as education levels and obesity rates. Our results show how social media may potentially be used to estimate real-time levels and changes in population-level measures such as obesity rates.

  6. Diversity and Demographics of Zooarchaeologists: Results from a Digital Survey

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    Suzanne E. Pilaar Birch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 25 years ago, a “Zooarchaeology Practitioner Survey” was distributed via conventional mail to individuals in the USA and Canada and received 122 responses over a period of several months in 1991. Now, a revised “Demographics in Zooarchaeology Survey” provides an update to  those data and assesses the current state of the field. The 2014 survey remained open for 3 months and received 288 responses from practitioners worldwide. Global participation was made possible by hosting the survey online. Key findings of the 1991 survey included disparities in employment rank for women despite similar levels of degree level attainment as men, a point which the 2014 survey sought to investigate. This trend appears to persist for those without the PhD and at the highest levels of income for those holding a PhD. In addition, the recent survey asked participants about their racial or ethnic identity in order to evaluate the demographic diversity of the discipline beyond sex, age, and nationality. Data regarding topical and geographic research area were also collected and reflect a subtle bias towards working with mammals and a focus on research questions grounded in prehistory in Europe and North America, followed by Australia and Southwest Asia. Results are compared with those of the earlier survey and membership information from the International Council for Archaeozoology.

  7. Facebook addiction among Turkish college students: the role of psychological health, demographic, and usage characteristics.

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    Koc, Mustafa; Gulyagci, Seval

    2013-04-01

    This study explored Facebook addiction among Turkish college students and its behavioral, demographic, and psychological health predictors. The Facebook Addiction Scale (FAS) was developed and its construct validity was assessed through factor analyses. A total of 447 students reported their personal information and Facebook usage and completed the FAS and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). The results revealed that weekly time commitment, social motives, severe depression, and anxiety and insomnia positively predicted Facebook addiction. Neither demographic variables nor the interactions of gender by usage characteristics were found to be significant predictors.

  8. The Impact of Demographic Characteristics on Awareness and Usage of Support Groups.

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    Coleman, Linda Jane; Shah, Nehal; Jain, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    There are support groups established for one's emotional and/or physical health; as a result, marketing has appeared in regards to the needs, benefits, and hesitations regarding these groups. This study addresses several types of individuals and situations that lend themselves to using support groups. The authors conducted a study designed to examine demographic characteristics as they relate to a person's decision to go to support groups for health conditions. Looking at the demographics of users and the types of support groups, the authors discuss diverse opportunities for support groups and their organizations to promote communication, improve marketing strategies, and create influential users.

  9. The relationship between bisphosphonate use and demographic characteristics of male osteoporosis patients

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    Alev Cevikoi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate a number of demographic characteristics in males with osteoporosis (OP treated with bisphosphonate and determine whether any of these measures could act as an effective indicator of medication persistence and compliance. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Among the patients with OP who applied to our clinic and were prescribed weekly oral bisphosphonate treatment, 89 patients over 50 years of age were included in this study. The demographic characteristics of these patients were evaluated. The number of medications used by the patients over the past 1 and 3 years were counted, and the persistence and compliance with bisphosphonate treatment was estimated. The patients were divided into two groups: fully compliant and noncompliant subjects. The two groups of patients were compared separately for 1 and 3 years while considering their demographic characteristics. RESULTS: The mean age of the 89 patients included in the study was 62.43 + 9.41 years. Comparisons among the studied demographic characteristics during the 1-year period of medication use indicated that the educational status of the fully compliant patients was higher. During the 3-year period of medication use, educational status was the only demographic characteristic that was determined to be significantly lower in the noncompliant patients than in the fully compliant group. CONCLUSION: Although deficiencies in medication persistence and compliance during osteoporosis treatment can lead to serious health and social problems in both genders, the causes of these deficiencies have not been thoroughly clarified. We suggest that the educational status of the patient may contribute to these deficiencies.

  10. The Interaction of Learning Disability Status and Student Demographic Characteristics on Mathematics Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Joseph J; Schulte, Ann C

    This study examined mathematics achievement growth of students without disabilities (SWoD) and students with learning disabilities (LD) and tested whether growth and LD status interacted with student demographic characteristics. Growth was estimated in a statewide sample of 79,554 students over Grades 3 to 7. The LD group was significantly lower in achievement in each grade and had less growth than the SWoD group. We also found that student demographic characteristics were significantly related to mathematics growth, but only three demographic characteristics were statistically significant as interactions. We found that LD-SWoD differences at Grade 3 were moderated by student sex, while Black race/ethnicity and free or reduced lunch (FRL) status moderated LD-SWoD differences at all grades. These results provide practitioners and policy makers with more specific information about which particular LD students show faster or slower growth in mathematics. Our results show that simply including predictors in a regression equation may produce different results than direct testing of interactions and achievement gaps may be larger for some LD subgroups of students than previously reported.

  11. Demographic Characteristics of Our Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

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    Ebru Umay

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Carpal tunnel (CTS is the most common trap neuropathy but, still fully understood the cause of this and effective factors. In this study was aimed to the evaluation demographic features of the cases with CTS admitted to our electroneuromyography (ENMG laboratory. Material and Methods: In the study, 119 patients with CTS to evaluate our ENMG laboratory were received. All patients age, sex, dominant and affected hand, duration of education, marital status, height, weight, additional diseases, occupational, hand and wrist repetitive motion made, use of computer and smoking status was assessed. Patients’ body mass index (BMI was calculated. Results: 102 cases (85.7% females, mean age was 46.32 years ± 12: 18. While in 115 (96.6% cases using the right hand is dominant, in 85 cases (76.6% with bilateral involvement were at hand. While the rate of patient who between five to eight year duration of education had was 47.1%, 84% patients were married. Also, BMI were determined as 29.33± 3.01. According to the state in 22 patients with additional diseases, diabetes mellitus in 22, hypothyroidism in 4, also 1 patient had arthritis. The majority of our patients (70.6% housewives formed. The 67.2% rate of repetetive activities as making crafts, the computer usage at a rate of 11.8% had history. The rate of smoking was 19.3%.  Conclusions:  As a result, CTS, especially in middle-aged housewives and obese is a common syndrome. Despite many reasons to be reported in the etiology of idiopathic 85%. At a rate of 25.4% of women in our society is considered paid work, especially in terms of determining the etiology of the more detailed studies are needed to ousewives.

  12. Demographic Characteristics of Syphilis Patients Followed Between 1994 and 2006

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    Esra Adışen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Backgorund and Design: We undertook this retrospective study to analyze demographics of patients with syphilis that had attended to Gazi University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Dermatology between 1994 and 2006. Material and Method: In this retrospective study, data including age, sex, stage of the disease, clinical finding at the time of presentation, transmission route and source, and serology results of 53 patients with syphilis were recorded. Positive VDRL test and TPHA was essential in the diagnosis of the disease. Results: Fifty-three patients (43 male, 10 female were evaluated in the study. Male/female ratio was 4.3. Patients’ age ranged between 19-58 (mean, 32.92±8.7. Forty-two (80.6%; 34 male, 8 female of 53 patients were married. Of 53 patients 50 (94.3% was Turkish, 3 (5.6% was foreigner. The source of the transmission was not defined in 26 patients (49.1% while all of married women defined their husbands as source of the infection. Of 53 patients, 40 (75.47% were primary syphilis, 7 (12.8% were secondary syphilis, 6 (11.32% were latent syphilis. 14 had (++++, 20 had (+++, one had (++ and 18 had (+ VDRL. All patients were positive for TPHA. In 1994, syphilis patients attending to outpatient clinic constituted 0.027% of the total visits of the outpatient clinic, whereas it was 0.004% in 2006.Conclusion: Syphilis is still an epidemiologic problem in our country. Prevalence is higher in some other countries. This disease may mimic almost every disease, therefore it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of disorders affecting oral and genital mucosal surfaces. Our study shows that syphilis have a tendency to decrease in Ankara and patients’ preference regarding the health services have changed during past years, in our country. (Turkderm 2008; 42: 9-12

  13. Recreational road runners: injuries, training, demographics and physical characteristics

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    Lisiane Schilling Poeta,

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to study recreational road runners in order to identify: their physical characteristics, demographics, running profile (training distance, frequency, duration, and experience and the prevalence of injuries and their association with age, running profile, and other sports practiced. Body mass, height (from which BMI was calculated and waist circumference were also measured. The sample of runners was composed of 115 men who participated in two events organized in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, in 2006: 22nd Maratona de Blumenau and 5th Desafio Praias e Trilhas (Florianópolis. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and the chi-square test to identify associations between injury prevalence and other variables (pResumoO objetivo deste estudo foi: identificar características físicas, demográficas, de treinamento e a prevalência de lesões musculares/osteoarticulares em corredores de rua amadores. Verificar também o grau de associação entre lesões com a idade, freqüência do treinamento diário e semanal, distância percorrida por semana, orientação especializada, prática de outra atividade física e tempo de prática da corrida. Além disso, mediu-se o perímetro da cintura, massa corporal e estatura e, assim, também se determinou o índice de massa corporal (IMC dos corredores. O grupo estudado foi composto por 115 homens, participantes de provas realizadas em Santa Catarina, no ano de 2006: 22ª Maratona de Blumenau e 5º Desafio Praias e Trilhas (Florianópolis. A estatística descritiva e o teste do Qui-quadrado foram utilizados para caracterização do grupo e para verificar a associação da prevalência de lesões com as variáveis estudadas, tendo como referência p<0,05. Os corredores de rua apresentaram as seguintes características: 63,2% com idade entre 18-50 anos e 36,8% acima de 50 anos; 24,3% cursaram ensino fundamental, 35,4% o ensino médio e 40% o superior; a renda familiar de R

  14. Correlation between demographic characteristics, cognitive functioning and functional independence in stroke patients

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    Arsić Slađana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It has been assumed that there is causality of the achieved level of functional independence with the degree of preservation of cognitive function in stroke patients. Demographic characteristics may be important for monitoring the achieved level of functional independence. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of demographic characteristics and functional independence in regard to the level of cognitive impairment in stroke patients. Methods. The study included 50 stroke patients after rehabilitation, as well as age- and gender-matched 50 subjects selected randomly, according to the demographic characteristics of the studied sample, who in their medical history had no neurological disorders. For the assessment of functional independence, the Functional Independence Measure (FIM test was used. The general cognition was estimated by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE test. The statistical analyses included the Mann-Whitney test, for two independent samples, measures of canonical correlation, and χ2 test. Results. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups in relation to risk factors, hypertension and diabetes mellitus type II (p<0.001; There was a statistically significant difference within the groups in relation to the cognitive impairment in all the examined demographic characteristics (p<0.001; the differences within the groups in relation to the cognitive impairment are present on all subscales of the FIM test (p<0.05; the differences within the groups in relation to handedness, hemiparesis, show that mild cognitive impairment is more common among left hemiparesis, while a more severe one is more common among right-sided hemiparesis (p<0.05; More severe cognitive impairment is common among women, the elderly and in persons with lower education (p<0.05. Conclusion. By prevention of risk factors, and prevention of possible cognitive impairment, consequences of stroke can be

  15. Relation Between Emotional Intelligence, Socio-Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Depressive Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellatif, Sayeda Ahmed; Hussien, El-Sayed Saleh; Hamed, Warda Elshahat; Zoromba, Mohamed Ali

    2017-02-01

    The present study aims to assess the emotional intelligence in relation to socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with depressive disorders. A descriptive correlational study was utilized with a sample of (106) depressed patients who were diagnosed by a psychiatrist with depressive disorders at psychiatric outpatient clinics in Mansoura University Hospital. Data were collected through assessing socio demographic and clinical characteristics, assessing level of depression using Beck Depression Inventory BDI-II, and assessing emotional intelligence using Barchard emotional intelligence scales. Results revealed that emotional intelligence not related significantly to socio demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with depressive disorders, there is a highly significant relationship between emotional intelligence in relation to level of depression and other practices used to alleviate depression. Therefore, it is recommended to conduct a periodical workshops and training programs for adolescents and young in the universities, schools, social clubs, camps and youth organizations to enhance their emotional intelligence in order to prevent depression. In addition, assessing the effect of emotional intelligence programs on preventing and managing depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Demographic characteristics of exploited tropical lutjanids: a comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Heupel, Michelle R.; Williams, Ashley A.; David J. Welch; Campbell R. Davies; Penny, Ann; Jacob P Kritzer; Marriott, Ross J.; Bruce D. Mapstone

    2010-01-01

    Demographic parameters from seven exploited coral reef lutjanid species were compared as a case study of the implications of intrafamily variation in life histories for multispecies harvest management. Modal lengths varied by 4 cm among four species (Lutjanus fulviflamma, L. vitta, L. carponotatus, L. adetii), which were at least 6 cm smaller than the modal lengths of the largest species (L. gibbus, Symphorus nematophorus, Aprion virescens). Modal ages, indicating ages of full selection to...

  17. Socio-demographic characteristics as determinants of differences in perception of local gastronomy

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    Vuksanović Nikola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to research differences in socio-demographic characteristics of foreign tourists in consumption of local food in the city centres Belgrade and Novi Sad, Republic of Serbia. The research was conducted on a sample of 673 respondents. The results of this study point out the importance of socio-demographic variables in research of local gastronomy as a significant component of tourism product. The research included the determining of the impact of the city the tourists stayed at. The differences were examined via two-factor ANOVA analysis of variance. The obtained results indicate that there are differences between age groups, in the level of education, monthly income and countries that foreign tourists come from, whereas there is no difference between genders in relation to the perception of local gastronomy. At the same time, the findings indicate that there are no differences in the perception of local gastronomy between the cities of Novi Sad and Belgrade. The results confirm previous studies and point out the significance of socio-demographic characteristics of foreign tourists in their perception of local gastronomy and adapting it to the visitors, regardless of the city they visited.

  18. Socio-demographic characteristics of transsexuals referred to the forensic medicine center in southwest of Iran

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    A Hedjazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transsexualism or gender identity disorder affects person′s gender identity. Aim: This study was to describe socio-demographic characteristics in a population of transsexuals. Materials and Methods: We studied 44 persons of both sexes with diagnostic criteria of gender identity disorder who were referred to the Legal Medicine Organization of Fars, southwest of Iran during the time period 2005-2010. The general practitioners examined the following socio-demographic characteristics and then recorded them in a semi-structured questionnaire, which was developed by the Forensic Medicine Center in Shiraz: Sex, age, educational level, place of residence, marital status, duration of treatment, and employment status. Results: A total of 44 persons (18 (40.9% males versus 26 (59.1% females were referred for sex change during the study period. The sex ratio was 0.69:1. The mean age was 27.6 ± 2.9 years. The majority of patients were diploma and higher diploma education (77.3%, lived in urban areas (81.8%, were employed (56.9%, were single (93.1%, and were under six months of hormonal treatment (61.4%. Conclusions: It seems that social acceptance is lower for male to female transsexuals, since these patients have lower employment and literacy statuses. Further studies should be designed to evaluate and deeper analyze more socio-demographic, clinical, and psychiatric variables about transsexual patients.

  19. Demographics, Psychiatric Diagnoses, and Other Characteristics of North American Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Patricia A.; Glickman, Neil S.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined demographic and clinical data from a specialty deaf inpatient unit so as to better understand characteristics of severely and chronically mentally ill deaf people. The study compares deaf and hearing psychiatric inpatients on demographic variables, psychiatric discharge diagnoses, a language assessment measure, a cognitive…

  20. Impact of environmental factors on the demographic characteristics in Tomsk Oblast (Russia, 1980-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugacheva, E.; Mezhibor, A.; Makarenko, T.

    2016-09-01

    The research represents the analysis of essential demographic indexes in Tomsk Oblast (Russia): birth-rate, death-rate, natural increase (1980-2015), migration increase (19972014), and child mortality (1990-2015). Environmental factors were determined as influencing the health and as a consequence, having the impact on the demographic characteristics of the studied region.

  1. Nicaragua 1998: results from the Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    This article presents summary statistics gathered from the 1998 Nicaragua Demographic and Health Survey (Encuesta Nicaraguense de Demografia y Salud 1998, ENDESA-98). Data from the nationally representative ENDESA-98 were collected from 11,528 households. Interviews were conducted with 13,634 women aged 15-49 years and 2912 men aged 15-59 years between December 1, 1997, and May 31, 1998. The statistics presented were on fertility trends, fertility differentials, age-specific fertility, fertility preferences, current contraceptive use, contraception, marital and contraceptive status, differentials in median age at first birth, postpartum variables, and infant mortality. In addition, statistical data on the health and nutritional status of children were also presented.

  2. Demographic, medical, and behavioral characteristics associated with over the counter non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use in a population based cohort: results from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Joseph A C; Biggs, Mary L.; Kronmal, Richard A; Psaty, Bruce M

    2010-01-01

    Background Three types of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can be obtained both over the counter (OTC) and by prescription in the United States. OTC NSAID use is not recorded in prescription claims databases; this might lead to differential misclassification of NSAID exposure status in studies that use computerized pharmacy databases to study NSAID use. Objective To evaluate characteristics of OTC versus prescription NSAID users Methods This analysis is set within the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) study; a prospective cohort study of 6,814 adults from 4 ethnic groups (European descent, Asian, African-American and Hispanic) with a mean age of 62 years. The cohort was restricted to those who initiated NSAID use (aspirin, ibuprofen or naproxen) during follow-up. We compared information about age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, medication use, education, income, health insurance status and exercisebetween groups. Results OTC NSAID use was prevalent at baseline (25% Aspirin, 9% Ibuprofen, 2% Naproxen). Compared to prescribed NSAID use, OTC NSAID use was lower for users of non-European descent for all classes: aspirin (p<0.0001), ibuprofen (p<0.0001) and naproxen (p=0.0094). For aspirin, differences were seen for male gender (Relative Risk (RR):0.92; 95%(Confidence interval) CI:0.86–0.98), use of lipid lowering drugs (RR:0.88; 95% CI: 0.80–0.96), low income (RR:0.89; 95%CI:0.81–0.97), and participants one standard deviation above average in intentional exercise (RR:1.03; 95%CI:1.01–1.05). Conclusions OTC NSAID use is prevalent in an older multi-ethnic population and OTC users differ from prescription NSAID users. Caution should be exercised when using prescribed NSAIDs as a proxy for NSAID use. PMID:21182156

  3. Socio-demographic characteristics of Danish blood donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Simonsen, Jacob; Sundby, Anna; Rostgaard, Klaus; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Sørensen, Erik; Nielsen, Kaspar René; Bruun, Mie Topholm; Frisch, Morten; Edgren, Gustaf; Erikstrup, Christian; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Ullum, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Background Blood transfusion is an essential component of a modern healthcare system. Because knowledge about blood donor demography may inform the design of strategies for donor recruitment and retention, we used nationwide registers to characterize the entire population of blood donors in Denmark in 2010. Methods The study population comprised all Danes in the age range eligible for blood donation (N = 3,236,753) at the end of 2010. From the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT) register, we identified 174,523 persons who donated blood in Danish blood banks at least once in 2010. The association between sociodemographic characteristics and blood donor prevalence was examined using regression models. Results The overall prevalence of blood donation was 5.4% among both women and men. The age-specific prevalence of blood donation peaked at 25 years of age (6.8%) for women and 30 years of age (5.7%) for men. Children of any age were associated with lower prevalence of blood donation among women, while the opposite was seen for men. Middle to high income groups, but not the highest income group, had fourfold higher donor prevalence than the lowest income group (6.7% compared to 1.7%). The prevalence of blood donation was considerably lower among men living with their parents (2.9%) or alone (3.9%) than among men cohabitating with a woman (6.2%). Summary Social marginalization, as indicated by low income and being a male living without a woman, was associated with lower prevalence of blood donation. However, individuals with very high incomes and women with children were underrepresented in the Danish blood donor population. PMID:28182624

  4. Demographic, clinical and radiological characteristics of seronegative spondyloarthritis Egyptian patients: A rheumatology clinic experience in Mansoura

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    Adel Abdelsalam

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: The demographic, clinical and radiological characteristics of Egyptian SpA patients are comparable to those from other countries except for the lower prevalence of extra-articular manifestations.

  5. Comparison of the Five Danish Regions Regarding Demographic Characteristics, Healthcare Utilization, and Medication Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Rasmussen, Lotte; Hansen, Morten Rix;

    2015-01-01

    nationwide registers: The Danish National Patient Register, The Danish Civil Registration System, The Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics, and The Danish National Health Service Register for Primary Care. We compared the Danish regions regarding demographic and socioeconomic characteristics...

  6. The Relationship Between Verified Organ Donor Designation and Patient Demographic and Medical Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, N K R; Scallan, C; Sullivan, C; Cedeño, M; Pencak, J; Kirkland, J; Scott, K; Thornton, J D

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies on the correlates of organ donation consent have focused on self-reported willingness to donate and on self-reported medical suitability to donate. However, these may be subject to social desirability bias and inaccurate assessments of medical suitability. The authors sought to overcome these limitations by directly verifying donor designation on driver's licenses and by abstracting comorbid conditions from electronic health records. Using a cross-sectional study design, they reviewed the health records of 2070 randomly selected primary care patients at a large urban safety-net medical system to obtain demographic and medical characteristics. They also examined driver's licenses that were scanned into electronic health records as part of the patient registration process for donor designation. Overall, 943 (46%) patients were designated as a donor on their driver's license. On multivariate analysis, donor designation was positively associated with age 35-54 years, female sex, nonblack race, speaking English or Spanish, being employed, having private insurance, having an income >$45 000, and having fewer comorbid conditions. These demographic and medical characteristics resulted in patient subgroups with donor designation rates ranging from 21% to 75%. In conclusion, patient characteristics are strongly related to verified donor designation. Further work should tailor organ donation efforts to specific subgroups.

  7. Behçet’s disease: The clinical and demographic characteristics of 182 patients

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    Ercan Karabacak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Behçet’s disease (BD is a multisystem inflammatory disorder that is an important cause of morbidity worldwide. In this study, we aimed to investigate the clinical and demographic characteristics of Turkish patients diagnosed with BD. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the hospital records of patients with BD who attended the Dermatoveneorology Department at the GATA Haydarpaşa Teaching and Research Hospital between 2001 and 2012. One hundred eighty-two male patients who met the diagnostic criteria of the International Study Group for BD were included in the study. The clinical and demographic characteristics, including symptoms and age at onset, systemic symptoms, duration of the disease and initial signs were recorded. Results: The ages of the 182 male patients included in the study varied from 20 to 53. The mean age at disease onset was 20.59±4.55 years. The leading clinical features were aphthous ulcers (100% followed by genital ulcers (86.8% and papulopustular lesions (80.3%. The pathergy test was positive in 57.3% of the patients. Ocular involvement was present in 527%, vascular involvement in 22.5%, and neurological manifestations was found in 7.1% of the patients. Joint involvement was reported in 18.1% of the subjects. Only 0.5% had genitourinary involvement. There was no relationship of BD with the age at onset and disease duration. Conclusion: We assume that the present study will contribute to the data on demographic and clinical characteristics of especially male BD patients in Turkey

  8. Demographic and fertility characteristics of 4 squatter settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, K; Zulkifli, S N

    1985-01-01

    The demographic and fertility profiles of 4 squatter areas, 2 with Sang Kancil, a community development project designed specifically for squatter settlements in Kuala Lumpur, are described. Data were taken from a census conducted in 1982. Figure 1 maps out the location of the study areas in the Federal Territory. The squatter household (5.4 members) varied little from the average Malaysian household. The average age of the male head of household was 40 years, i.e., not within the high fertility group; the mean duration of stay was 10 years. Household income/month averaged M$760, falling between estimates for urban and rural mean. Comparing the data on the 2 squatter areas, the non-Sang Kancil head of household was, on average, slightly older and had stayed about 2 years longer than his Sang Kancil counterpart. These differences were statistically significant. Both areas were comparable with regard to household income and size. Ethnically, the Sang Kancil areas were predominantly Malay, comprising 86% of total households. The control areas had a more mixed ethnic structure. From 1978-81, annual increases in total population had been fairly uniform, at around 2%, in non-Sang Kancil Areas. Yet, the Sang Kancil population experienced a growth spurt in 1980, which subsequently declined and appeared to level off. 1982 figures were disregarded in this analysis as they were based on a 1/2 year enumeration only. The age distribution pattern of all squatter areas combined was fairly similar to the national distribution pyramid but for a higher proportion of people in the 15-44 age group than national figures. The proportion of dependents, 0-14 years, was comparable despite having more people in this fertile age group. The proportion of infants (0-11 months) in the control population was constant, but there was a decline down to control values by the end of the surveyed period in the Sang Kancil group. In the toddler group, decreases were evident for both populations

  9. ADOPTING SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS IN PROFILING GREEN CONSUMERS: A REVIEW OF HYPOTHESES

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    Arif Hartono

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last three decades worldwide environmental consciousness has increased dramatically as well as profiling green consumers have gained tremendous attention in the past. Segmenting and targeting markets base on pro-environmental purchase behavior are essential when companies positioning their green products. Socio-demographic characteristics have gained a lot of attention as the key profiling variables. Such characteristics have been employed by many scholars more frequently for the bases of segmenting and profiling green consumers. However, most existing studies of green consumers’ socio-demographic were US based. The present article attempts to review the common hypotheses of socio-demographic characteristics in profiling green consumers. The present article reviews five general hypotheses relating to socio-demographics and environmental consciousness of green consumers, namely the gender, age, education level, income, and occupation hypotheses, as well as the theoretical explanation for each hypothesis. Most previous studies tend to have the same conclusion in the gender, age, education level, and  income characteristics. Critics to socio-demographic characteristics and a need to conduct green marketing research in Indonesia was also reviewed.Key words: profiling, socio-demographic, green consumer, hypotheses.

  10. The demographic and clinical characteristics of leprosy in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Mohammad H; Bahammam, Salman A; Ur Rahman, Saeed; Bahnassy, Ahmed A; Hassan, Imad S; Alothman, Adel F; Alkayal, Abdulkareem M

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Although the occurrence of leprosy has declined in Saudi Arabia, it has not yet been eradicated. To our knowledge, this descriptive retrospective study is the first to assess the clinical presentation of leprosy at the time of diagnosis in Saudi Arabia. All study subjects were leprosy patients admitted to Ibn Sina hospital, the only referral hospital for leprosy in Saudi Arabia, between January 2000 and May 2012. A total of 164 subjects, the majority of whom (65%) were between 21 and 50 years of age, were included, and the male-to-female ratio was 2.8:1. Of these 164 patients, 63% were Saudis, and 77% of all admitted patients were from the western region. Lepromatous leprosy was observed most frequently (33%), and 31% of cases had a positive history of close contact with leprosy. At the time of diagnosis, 84% of all subjects presented with skin manifestation. The prevalence of neurological deficit at the time of diagnosis was 87%. Erythema nodosum leprosum (E.N.L.) developed in only 10% of all subjects. Further studies are needed to determine the clinical characteristics pertaining to each type of leprosy in the region, and training courses in caring for and diagnosing patients with leprosy should be organized for health workers.

  11. Relationship between Socioeconomic Demographic Characteristics with Antibiotic Self-Medication in Community Dwelling Adults

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    Michael Aditya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infectious diseases escalation in developing countries especially in Indonesia lead to increasing use of antibiotics in the community. Self-medication with antibiotics may increase the risk of resistant bacteria and irrational use of antibiotics. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between socioeconomic -demographic characteristics with antibiotic self-medication. Methods: An analytical cross sectional study was conducted on people from Sayang Village in West Java Indonesia aged over 18 years and had experience in using antibiotics. A total of 146 respondents were selected as the sample of this study. A validated questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were analysed by using descriptive statistics and Chi-Square test to analyze the relationship between socioeconomic demographic characteristics with antibiotic self-medication. Results: Out of 146 questionnaires that were completed, 111 were female and 35 male respondents, 75 respondents had experience in using antibiotics without prescription. The survey showed significant relation between antibiotics use with monthly income (p=0,031 and source of income (p=0,009. Conclusions: The study confirms that there is relation between monthly income and source of income with antibiotic self-medication.

  12. Comorbid Depressive Disorders in Anxiety-Disordered Youth: Demographic, Clinical, and Family Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Kelly A.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that depression and anxiety are highly comorbid in youth. Little is known, however, about the clinical and family characteristics of youth with principal anxiety disorders and comorbid depressive diagnoses. The present study examined the demographic, clinical, and family characteristics of 200 anxiety-disordered children and…

  13. Common Diseases and Some Demographic Characteristics among Saudi Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haramlah, Ahmed Abdulrahman; Al-Bakr, Fawziah; Merza, Haniah

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to detect the common diseases among Saudi women and their relationship with the level of physical activity and some variables. This study was applied to 1233 Saudi woman in different regions of the Kingdom, and adopted to explore the common diseases: obesity, hypertension, diabetes, cholesterol and asthma. The study results showed…

  14. The Relationship between Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Snorkeling Satisfaction in Pulau Payar Marine Park, Kedah

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    Nurbaidura Salim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to its popularity and lucrative business opportunity, snorkeling has become the predominant activity in many marine parks. Continuous growth in the number of tourists and mass tourism has resulted in uncontrolled number of tourists, sometimes to pass over the carrying capacity of the site. Due to the lack of control and enforcement, many tour boat operators are seen bringing snorkelers to small fragile sites at the same timeframe. Such situation has resulted in reduced quality of tourist experience and satisfaction level as they need to cram in with others at the designated snorkeling areas. This study analyzes the influence of tourist demographic profile on the satisfaction level with snorkeling experience in the Pulau Payar Marine Park, a small coral island in Malaysia. A total of 259 snorkelers answered the survey that forms the basis of this paper. The results tested using t-tests and ANOVA, show significant differences between satisfaction level and respondents’ socio-demographic characteristics. Findings of the study indicated that only origin and education level positively associated with visitor satisfaction. Several issues, such as limiting the numbers of boats to be allowed at the site and facilities management such as toilets, changing rooms and solid waste management were among issues need to be considered by the Marine Park Department, in order to protect the island and its sustainability. This study highlights the importance of site management, in environmentally sensitive areas, for marine park managers and tour operators toward developing strategic marketing mixes for the different market segments.

  15. Proximal attrition facets: morphometric, demographic, and aging characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarig, Rachel; Hershkovitz, Israel; Shvalb, Nir; Sella-Tunis, Tatiana; May, Hila; Vardimon, Alexander D

    2014-08-01

    Although interproximal attrition is considered to be limited in modern populations, it has important clinical implications. However, in contrast to occlusal attrition, proximal attrition receives limited scientific attention. The main purpose of the current study was to fill this void. Seven-hundred and sixty-five teeth were collected from 255 skulls of subjects 18-75 yr of age. For each individual, three mandibular teeth (the first and second premolars and the first molar) were examined for proximal attrition facets (PAFs). The results provide detailed information on the size, shape, and location of the facets according to age cohort, gender, and ethnicity. The validity of the method used to measure the facets was also examined. The major findings were as follows: PAFs are usually located on the upper half of the crown proximal aspect; in each tooth, the mesial facet is more lingually positioned and the distal facet is more buccally positioned; the majority of the facets are subrectangular in shape; the size of the facets tends to increase in an anteroposterior direction (from premolars to molars); and facet size and location are age- and sex-dependent and ethnicity-independent. It is our recommendation that dentists bear in mind that interproximal attrition is a dynamic, long-term process and needs to be considered in many clinical scenarios.

  16. Low forager fertility: demographic characteristic or methodological artifact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, J D

    1985-09-01

    Anthropological literature has long held that traditional foraging populations have low fertility levels. This research examines the number of live births per woman for 9 non-western forager groups who have been investigated in the last 20 years. Data are derived from 1) birth registration systems, 2) surveys conducted during short stays with the group, and 3) surveys conducted as part of longer ethnographic studies. Fertility rates for the groups are 1) 3.5 for the Kiunga area of Papula, New Guinea, 2) 4.2 for Northern Territory Australian aborigines, 3) 5.0 for Cayapo groups in Brazil, 4) 5.3 for Hiowe people of New Guinea, 5) 5.7 for 3 Xavante groups in Brazil, 6) 6.0 for West Alaskan Eskimos, 7) 6.9 for Nunamiut Eskimos of Alaska, 8) 7.6 for the Bisman-Asmat group of Indonesian New Guinea, and 9) 8.4 for the Winikina Warao of Venezuela. Since fertility rates are highest when ethnographic studies, which allow for question clarification, memory recall, and cross-checking, are used, the author believes that high fertility rates most accurately represent forager societies. Research on the Dobe ]Kung (fertility rate - 4.7), may contradict these findings, but the author believes that the ]Kung fertility rates are higher than reported because of infanticide practices, sexual abstinence during lactation, and disease related fertility problems. In summary, the study finds high fertility (7-9 births) in traditional foraging societies. Although the study examines small populations, correlation strength and overall consistency help verify the results.

  17. Multiple sclerosis in malaysia: demographics, clinical features, and neuroimaging characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, S; Rose, N; Masita, A; Dhaliwal, J S; Puvanarajah, S D; Rafia, M H; Muda, S

    2013-01-01

    Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an uncommon disease in multiracial Malaysia. Diagnosing patients with idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating diseases has been greatly aided by the evolution in diagnostic criterion, the identification of new biomarkers, and improved accessibility to neuroimaging in the country. Objectives. To investigate the spectrum of multiple sclerosis in Malaysia. Methods. Retrospective analysis with longitudinal follow-up of patients referred to a single tertiary medical center with neurology services in Malaysia. Results. Out of 245 patients with idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease, 104 patients had multiple sclerosis. Female to male ratio was 5 : 1. Mean age at onset was 28.6 ± 9.9 years. The Malays were the predominant racial group affected followed by the Chinese, Indians, and other indigenous groups. Subgroup analysis revealed more Chinese having neuromyelitis optica and its spectrum disorders rather than multiple sclerosis. Positive family history was reported in 5%. Optic neuritis and myelitis were the commonest presentations at onset of disease, and relapsing remitting course was the commonest disease pattern observed. Oligoclonal band positivity was 57.6%. At disease onset, 61.5% and 66.4% fulfilled the 2005 and 2010 McDonald's criteria for dissemination in space. Mean cord lesion length was 1.86 ± 1.65 vertebral segments in the relapsing remitting group as opposed to 6.25 ± 5.18 vertebral segments in patients with neuromyelitis optica and its spectrum disorders. Conclusion. The spectrum of multiple sclerosis in Malaysia has changed over the years. Further advancement in diagnostic criteria will no doubt continue to contribute to the evolution of this disease here.

  18. Multiple Sclerosis in Malaysia: Demographics, Clinical Features, and Neuroimaging Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Viswanathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS is an uncommon disease in multiracial Malaysia. Diagnosing patients with idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating diseases has been greatly aided by the evolution in diagnostic criterion, the identification of new biomarkers, and improved accessibility to neuroimaging in the country. Objectives. To investigate the spectrum of multiple sclerosis in Malaysia. Methods. Retrospective analysis with longitudinal follow-up of patients referred to a single tertiary medical center with neurology services in Malaysia. Results. Out of 245 patients with idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease, 104 patients had multiple sclerosis. Female to male ratio was 5 : 1. Mean age at onset was 28.6 ± 9.9 years. The Malays were the predominant racial group affected followed by the Chinese, Indians, and other indigenous groups. Subgroup analysis revealed more Chinese having neuromyelitis optica and its spectrum disorders rather than multiple sclerosis. Positive family history was reported in 5%. Optic neuritis and myelitis were the commonest presentations at onset of disease, and relapsing remitting course was the commonest disease pattern observed. Oligoclonal band positivity was 57.6%. At disease onset, 61.5% and 66.4% fulfilled the 2005 and 2010 McDonald’s criteria for dissemination in space. Mean cord lesion length was 1.86 ± 1.65 vertebral segments in the relapsing remitting group as opposed to 6.25 ± 5.18 vertebral segments in patients with neuromyelitis optica and its spectrum disorders. Conclusion. The spectrum of multiple sclerosis in Malaysia has changed over the years. Further advancement in diagnostic criteria will no doubt continue to contribute to the evolution of this disease here.

  19. Predicting voluntary turnover in employees using demographic characteristics: A South African case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton F. Schlechter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Employee turnover presents arguably the biggest threat to business sustainability and is a dynamic challenge faced by businesses globally. In South Africa, organisations compete to attract and retain skilled employees in an environment characterised by a burgeoning skills deficit. Turnover risk management is becoming an important strategy to ensure organisational stability and promote the effective retention of employees. The purpose of this research was to contribute to the practice of turnover risk management by proposing an approach and constructing a model to predict employee turnover based on demographic characteristics readily available in a human resource information system.Design: An exploratory research design was employed. Secondary quantitative data were extracted from an existing human resources database and analysed. Data obtained for 2592 employees in a general insurance company based in South Africa and Namibia formed the basis for the analysis. Logistic regression analysis was employed to predict employee turnover using various demographic characteristics available within the database. A likelihood ratio test was used to build a predictive model and the Akaike information criterion and Schwarz criterion were used to test how much value each variable added to the model and if its inclusion was warranted. The model was tested by conducting statistical tests of the significance of the coefficients. Deviance and Pearson goodness-of-fit statistics as well as the R-square test of significance were used. The overall goodness-of-fit of the model was also tested using the Hosmer and Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test.Findings: The current findings provide partial support for a predictive model explaining employee turnover. The model tested 14 demographic variables and the following five variables were found to have statistically significant predictive value: age, years of service, cost centre, performance score and the interaction

  20. Demographic characteristics and ocular involvement in Behçet patients in Southeast Anatolia

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    Fatih Mehmet Türkcü

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographiccharacteristics of Behcet’s disease (BD patientswith and without ocular involvement.Methods: In this retrospective study BD patients followedup between 2009 and 2013 years in ophthalmology anddermatology clinics were reviewed. Patients were dividedinto 2 groups according to the ocular involvement asocular or non-ocular BD. For each patient, age of onset,gender, family history, and systemic involvement were examined.The frequency of these data was analyzed.Results: Of the 295 patients 177 were ocular BD and 118were non-ocular BD. Ocular involvement were seen morefrequently in male patients than in females. There wasno change between the groups in terms of age at onsetof the disease, a history of thrombophlebitis or gastrointestinal,pulmonary and joint involvement. Pathergy testpositivity and the presence of genital ulcers had more frequentin non-ocular BD.Conclusion: In this study clinical and demographic characteristicsof ocular and non-ocular BD patients in theSoutheast Anatolian Region of Turkey were presented. Asimilar study was not performed previously in our regiontherefore we believe that those data will be useful for diagnosisand follow-up of BD patients. J Clin Exp Invest2013; 4 (3: 339-342Key words: Behçet disease, eye involvement, demographic characteristics

  1. Investigating the Impact of Demographic Characteristics on Encouraging Public Donations via SMS Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Hosseini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has been conducted to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics including age, gender, marital status, education level, occupation type, and income level on encouraging public donations through advertising via SMS service in order to evaluate the effects rate of these elements on individuals’ attention and measure/action factors. The research is based on data obtained by distributing the questionnaire among 560 individuals who have formed the sample size of this study. The dependent variable of donation attraction has been analyzed along with two indices of attention and action, which are regarded as its measurement criteria. Therefore, the effects rate of demographic factors on these two parameters has been investigated. It is noteworthy that the analysis of collected data was done by SPSS software. The results have determined specific boundaries for people in sending SMS in order to encourage public donations. For instance, how many people among the sample size of this research will pay attention to the messages, how many of them are potential donators, and which individuals and groups have been identified as real executives.

  2. Investigating the Impact of Demographic Characteristics on Encouraging Public Donations via SMS Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MirzaHassan Hossainee

    2011-07-01

    This study has been conducted to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics including age, gender, marital status, education level, occupation type, and income level on encouraging public donations through advertising via SMS service in order to evaluate the effects rate of these elements on individuals’ attention and measure/action factors. The research is based on data obtained by distributing the questionnaire among 560 individuals who have formed the sample size of this study. The dependent variable of donation attraction has been analyzed along with two indices of attention and action, which are regarded as its measurement criteria. Therefore, the effects rate of demographic factors on these two parameters has been investigated. It is noteworthy that the analysis of collected data was done by SPSS software. The results have determined specific boundaries for people in sending SMS in order to encourage public donations. For instance, how many people among the sample size of this research will pay attention to the messages, how many of them are potential donators, and which individuals and groups have been identified as real executives.

  3. The Effect of Demographic, Socio-economic and Other Characteristics on Donations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Younus Awan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to find the effect of demographic, socio-economic and other characteristics on donations. Secondly, the relationship of fundraising campaigns and trust of an individual on an organization is explored. The objectives of the study are to find out the characteristics that can effect donations and to verify which characteristics have strong influence on donations. Data is collected from the donors of a non-profit organization (Shaukat Khanum Memorial Trust and classify into two categories on the basis of an amount of donation given in last 6 months. The sample size is 600 donors. Factor analysis and logistic regression is employed to measure the results. Independent sample t-test is used to make comparison between the means of donors and non-donors. Results show insignificant impact of age and gender compared to other factors such as income, education, religion, individual attitude, perceived generosity, perceived financial security, fundraising campaigns and trust have significant impact on the amount of donations. The implication for practitioners suggests that non-profit organization should focus on advertising on television to let people know about its existence. It not only helps to increase awareness but to boost trust of an organization as well. Future study might test the theoretical model in other cultures, in different industry with different sample size. The inclusion of variables such as volunteering and motivation of an individual can better describe the relationship with organization and hence increases the amount of donations.

  4. Burnout and demographic characteristics of workers experiencing different types of work-home interaction

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    Dorota Merecz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore configurations of positive versus negative interactions between work and home (WHI and their relation to burnout and demographic characteristics. Material and Methods: Sample of 533 Polish workers were interviewed by means of self-administered questionnaires (SWING and MBI-GS. Demographic and work characteristics were also controlled. Results: Cluster analysis distinguished 5 types of WHIs: positive WHI (18%, negative WHI (15.9%, no interaction (29.3%, mutual positive interactions (15.4% and positive HWI (21.4%. The quality of WHI was associated with number of work hours and tenure at main place of employment. The effect of gender on the quality of work-home interaction was not significant. Configuration of WHIs affected the level of burnout. Again, there was no significant difference between men and women in terms of burnout and its sub-dimensions. The least burned-out were people from positive WHI, positive HWI and mutual positive interaction groups. The most burned-out were people who experienced negative WHI the most often. In this group, predominance of men working more than 10 h per day was observed. The majority of study group (71% experienced rather integration than segmentation of both spheres. Conclusions: Our results suggest that segmentation is not an universal and effective strategy of coping with work and home demands – it may prevent the positive home-work spillover, which can be buffer or remedy against stress or burnout. We consider cluster analysis the appropriate method in research on relation to work-family balance issue, which may be useful in unraveling relationships between this phenomenon and attitudes and behaviors.

  5. Evaluating Iowa Community College Student Demographics, Characteristics, Enrollment Factors, and Educational Goals Influence on Retention Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchley-McAvoy, Joan A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence that previously researched and affirmed persistence and early withdrawal factors such as student demographics, enrollment status factors, student characteristics, and student educational goals had on Iowa community college retention rates for the 2005, 2007, and 2009 academic years. It is the researcher's…

  6. Student Media in U.S. Secondary Schools: Associations with School Demographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkowski, Piotr S.; Goodman, Mark; Bowen, Candace Perkins

    2012-01-01

    This study provides an up-to-date counting of student media in U.S. public high schools. The analysis underscores the importance of school demographic characteristics in predicting whether schools offer student media. The disparities identified here should inform how journalism schools, scholastic journalism organizations, funding agencies, and…

  7. The Effects of Faculty Demographic Characteristics and Disciplinary Context on Dimensions of Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Tricia A.; Umbach, Paul D.

    2008-01-01

    This study applies Kalleberg's framework to better understand the effects of diverse demographic faculty characteristics on dimensions of job satisfaction. We also extend his work and the work of others to explore the contextual effects of academic disciplines on faculty job satisfaction. We find that women are consistently less satisfied than…

  8. Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics Among Primary Health Care Users Diagnosed with Osteoarthritis in Albania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoxha, F.; Tafaj, A.; Roshi, E.; Burazeri, G.

    2015-01-01

    Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics Among Primary Health Care Users Diagnosed with Osteoarthritis in Albania. Hoxha F, Tafaj A, Roshi E, Burazeri G. Mater Sociomed. 2015 Jun;27(3):163-6. doi: 10.5455/msm.2015.27.163-166. Epub 2015 Jun 8. PMID: 26236161 [PubMed] Free PMC Article

  9. The Effects of Structural Attributes and Demographic Characteristics on Protege Satisfaction in Mentoring Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Brian D.; Oppler, Edward S.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined whether the structural attributes of a formal mentoring program and/or certain demographic characteristics of participants in the program influence protege satisfaction. Proteges, employed in a traditionally male occupation, were sampled from a federal agency's mentoring program. According to policy, the agency attempted to…

  10. Variation in School Health Policies and Programs by Demographic Characteristics of US Schools, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Alexandra B.; Brener, Nancy D.; McManus, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Background: To identify whether school health policies and programs vary by demographic characteristics of schools, using data from the School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) 2006. This study updates a similar study conducted with SHPPS 2000 data and assesses several additional policies and programs measured for the first time in SHPPS…

  11. Burnout in Social Workers Treating Children as Related to Demographic Characteristics, Work Environment, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamama, Liat

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sense of burnout among 126 social workers who directly treat children and adolescents within the human service professions. Burnout was investigated in relation to social workers' demographic characteristics (age, family status, education, and seniority at work), extrinsic and intrinsic work conditions, and social support by…

  12. The Social Characteristics and Demographics of Australian Vice-Chancellors, 1960-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, Bernard; Petzall, Stanley

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the key demographics and social characteristics of Vice-Chancellors of Australian universities so that an accurate profile of Vice-Chancellors can be established. At present, there is no contemporary profile of incumbents despite the high level of responsibility associated with these roles.…

  13. Demographic and Personality Characteristics of Internet Child Pornography Downloaders in Comparison to Other Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijnen, Lotte; Bulten, Erik; Nijman, Henk

    2009-01-01

    This research study was conducted to map out the demographic and psychological aspects of Internet child pornography offenders. The backgrounds, characteristics, and MMPI profiles of 22 Internet child pornography offenders were statistically compared to those of 112 perpetrators of other offenses. In comparison to the other sexual offenders, the…

  14. Burnout in Social Workers Treating Children as Related to Demographic Characteristics, Work Environment, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamama, Liat

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sense of burnout among 126 social workers who directly treat children and adolescents within the human service professions. Burnout was investigated in relation to social workers' demographic characteristics (age, family status, education, and seniority at work), extrinsic and intrinsic work conditions, and social support by…

  15. The Demographic Characteristics of Patients Admitted To the Emergency Due To Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Boyraz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We want to examine the demographic characteristics of patients admitted to the emergency department due to waist complaints between 2007-2015 years.Materials-Methods: Records of the patients presented to the emergency with low back pain emergency services of Abant Izzet Baysal University Medical Faculty and Public Hospitals affiliated Public Hospitals Alliance between 2007-2015 years were analyzed retrospectively. The demographic characteristics of patients and information were obtained from the records. The patients’ diagnosed low back pain at the time they admitted to emergency were included in the study. The patients undergoing trauma or accident and diagnosed acute fracture were excluded from the study. The patients elaborated in terms of age, gender, admission time at which clock, day, month, year, and season, how to remain in emergency and if referred to another service, to which department was referred and how many days they were admitted. If referred to one of the surgical departments, they were recorded to undergo surgery.Results: Total number of patients diagnosed low back pain and received treatment in emergency was 43233. Of these, 22372 patients were male, 20861 patients were female. 11 patients were admitted to general surgery, 14 patients to the Orthopedics and Traumatology service, 3 patients to Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1 patient to Urology, 1 patient to Thoracic Surgery, 699 patients to Neurosurgery service. 5 patients were admitted to algology, 3 patients to Pediatrics, 20 patients to Infectious Disease, 89 patients to Physical Therapy, 9 patients to Internal Medicine, 5 patients to Cardiology, 11 patients to Neurology, 1 patient to Intensive Care Unit.Conclusion: If the patient's anamnesis and physical examination is done very well, it will prevent unnecessary tests and treatments. Paradigm about diagnose and treatment strategies for the patients with low back pain that emergency doctors can follow when they

  16. Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian C. O' Neill

    2006-08-09

    This report describes results of the research project on "Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics". The overall objective of this project was to improve projections of energy demand and associated greenhouse gas emissions by taking into account demographic factors currently not incorporated in Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) of global climate change. We proposed to examine the potential magnitude of effects on energy demand of changes in the composition of populations by household characteristics for three countries: the U.S., China, and Indonesia. For each country, we planned to analyze household energy use survey data to estimate relationships between household characteristics and energy use; develop a new set of detailed household projections for each country; and combine these analyses to produce new projections of energy demand illustrating the potential importance of consideration of households.

  17. The effects of socioeconomic and cultural characteristics of regions on the spatial patterns of the Second Demographic Transition in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Mäenpää

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article studies to what extent regional socioeconomic and cultural characteristics explain spatial patterns in the Second Demographic Transition in Finland. The country's 75 functional regions are used as area units. A summary indicator of the transition based on divorce and cohabitation is used as the dependent variable. The results show that the spatial pattern is mainly determined according to the regional level of urbanization, but the effect is mediated by cultural characteristics (secularization and support for the socialist and green parties. The cultural characteristics have only a modest independent effect.

  18. Classic Kaposi’s sarcoma: The clinical, demographic and teratment characteristics of seventy-four patients

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    Beril Gülüş Demirel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Classic Kaposi's sarkoma (CKS is a rare disease, generally seen across Mediterranean and the Middle East region. It's an angioproliferative disorder associated with human herpes virus-8 infection. There is a few data on epidemiology and clinical characteristics among Turkish patients with CKS. This study aims to evaluate epidemiologic, clinical characteristics and treatment results in patients with the diagnosis of CKS in Zonguldak. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the hospital records of patients with CKS who attended the dermatological and venereal diseases department between 2003 and 2014. Seventy-four patients were included in this study. Demographic and clinical characteristics, applied treatments and responses to treatments were evaluated. Results: During the eleven year examination period, 74 CKS patients have been diagnosed in the dermatology clinic. The prevalence of CKS among dermatologic patients was found to be 0.02%. Patient age at diagnosis ranged from 33 to 90 years (mean: 70.2±11.7. Fifty-two patients were male (70.3% and 22 patients were female (29.7%. Multiple nodules were the most frequently seen clinical forms and the distal lower extremity was the most common site of involvement (80.6%. According to the CKS staging system, it was observed that 47 patients (62.7% were at stage 1, 11 patients (15.49% at stage 2, eight patients (10.7% at stage 3, and six patients (8% were at stage 4. Treatment options were excision for 35.1% of patients (n=26, radiotherapy for 25.7% of patients (n=19, cryosurgery for 14.9% of patients (n=11, and chemotherapy for 10.8% of patients (n=8. Relapse was found to occur most commonly after excision (58.3%. Conclusion: Larger, multicenter studies are needed in order to determine the prevalence of CKS and characteristics of patients with CKS in our country.

  19. The influence of farmer demographic characteristics on environmental behaviour: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Rob J F

    2014-03-15

    Many agricultural studies have observed a relationship between farmer demographic characteristics and environmental behaviours. These relationships are frequently employed in the construction of models, the identification of farmer types, or as part of more descriptive analyses aimed at understanding farmers' environmental behaviour. However, they have also often been found to be inconsistent or contradictory. Although a considerable body of literature has built up around the subject area, research has a tendency to focus on factors such as the direction, strength and consistency of the relationship - leaving the issue of causality largely to speculation. This review addresses this gap by reviewing literature on 4 key demographic variables: age, experience, education, and gender for hypothesised causal links. Overall the review indicates that the issue of causality is a complex one. Inconsistent relationships can be attributed to the presence of multiple causal pathways, the role of scheme factors in determining which pathway is important, inadequately specified measurements of demographic characteristics, and the treatment of non-linear causalities as linear. In addition, all demographic characteristics were perceived to be influenced (to varying extents) by cultural-historical patterns leading to cohort effects or socialised differences in the relationship with environmental behaviour. The paper concludes that more work is required on the issue of causality.

  20. The Evaluation Clinical and Demographic Characteristics of 115 Patients Diagnosed with Herpes Zoster in Eeastern Turkey

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    Hatice Uce Özkol

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients diagnosed with herpes zoster and to explore the similarities and differences with other epidemiological studies from Turkey and the world. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 115 patients diagnosed with herpes zoster in the Yuzuncu Yıl University Medical Faculty Dermatology Department between January 2007 and December 2010. Results: The mean age of the patients was 42.21±23.88 years. 115 patients, -47 female (40.9%, 68 male (59.1%- aged between 2 and 93 years were assessed. Pediatric age group, 20 (17.4%, adult age group, 95 (82.6% patients, respectively. The incidence of HZ was found to be 0.43%. HZ was observed winter rarely (13.04%. Is mostly seen in the months of March (17.39% The affected dermatome were thorasic (49 patient, 42.6%, servical (21 patient, 18.3%, ophtalmic (22 patient, 19.1%, lomber (16 patient, 13.9%, sacral (7 patient, 6.1% respectively. Complications developed in 13% of patients. Conclusion: We observed that our findings were more or less similar to the findings of the literature data. Cases of HZ in our study was very rare during the winter season. Multi-center studies are needed to the emergence of clinical and epidemiological characteristics of HZ in Turkey.

  1. Demographical and Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Pityriasis Rosea in 1 Year in A Tertiary Care Hospital

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    Seval Karasatı

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pityriasis rosea is a disease still taking interest with its unknown etiology, different clinical aspects and diagnosis and treatment alternatives. The clinical and demographical characteristics of the patients with pityriasis rosea were investigated in this study. Methods: A total of 70 patients, who were diagnosed as pityriasis rosea, between June 2011 and June 2012 were evaluated. The patients were examined prospectively in terms of their demographical characteristics, related environmental and personal factors, clinical characteristics and course of the disease. Results: The mean age of 70 patients (41 females, 29 males was 25.9±15.26 (2-69 years. Seasons in which the disease is seen most frequently were winter (37.1% and autumn (27.2%. The most common symptom was fatigue (64.3% in patients who had prodromal symptoms (n=28. Primary plaque was determined in 44 cases (58.6% and the most frequent localization was neck (22.7%. The most frequent symptom was pruritus and it was present in 41 patients. Eleven patients were diagnosed as atypical pityriasis rosea. One patient demonstrated unusual presentation of pityriasis rosea with localization to neck, and another one with secondary lesions on external ear tunnel which has not been described previously. Pityriasis rosea frequency in dermatology outpatients was 1/1000. Conclusion: The demographical results of this study were consistent with the results of the previously reported studies in Turkey.

  2. TNM and Modified Dukes staging along with the demographic characteristics of patients with colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoca, Ayşe Neslin; Yanık, Serdar; Ozdemir, Zeynep Tuğba; Cihan, Fatma Gökşin; Sayar, Süleyman; Cincin, Tarık Gandi; Cam, Akın; Ozer, Cahit

    2014-01-01

    Colon adenocarcinoma, is the most common cancer in gastrointesinal system (GIS). The whole world is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. TNM and modified Dukes classification which has great importance in the diagnosis and treatment of Colorectal cancer (CRC). TNM and Modified Dukes classification results of histopathological examination and the demographic characteristics of patients and their relation were investigated. Lower gastrointestinal operation results of 85 patients were examined accepted to clinical Pathology between January 1997-November 2013. Colon cancer had been diagnosed at 85 patients with pathology materials and staging was done according to the TNM and Modified Duke classification. The demographic characteristics of patients, differentiation grade, lymph node involvement, serous involvement were evaluated retrospectively. In this study 37 patients (43.52%) were men and 48 (56.47%) were women. Ages of patients were between 19 and 87 with a mean age of 57.31 ± 15.31. Lymph node, differentiation, serosa involvement, Modified Dukes and TNM classification was assessed according to sex and age. TNM classification by sex was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). There was no statistically significant relationship between age and differentiation (p = 0.085). Value of differentiation increased towards from 1 to 3 inversely proportional to age. So young patients defined as well-differentiated at the conclusion. Negative relationship was evaluated between age and TNM Class variables. As a result, the relationship between age and TNM was not significant (p > 0.05). However, with increasing age the degree of staging was also found to increase. TNM classification was associated with the differentiation and it was significant (p = 0.043). Colon cancer, when contracted at an early stage, it is suitable for surgery and curative treatment can be done with minimal morbidity and mortality. However, some of the patients have advanced disease at

  3. Clinical and Demographical Characteristics of Patients with Medication Overuse Headache in Argentina and Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shand, Beatriz; Goicochea, Maria Teresa; Valenzuela, Raul

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on the characteristics of Medication Overuse Headache (MOH) in Latin American (LA) are scarce. Here we report the demographic and clinical features of the MOH patients from Argentina and Chile enrolled in the multinational COMOESTAS project in the period 2008-2010. METHODS: The LA...... population was formed by 240 MOH subjects, 110 from Chile and 130 from Argentina, consecutively attending the local headache centres. In each centre, specifically trained neurologist interviewed and confirmed the diagnosis according to the ICHD-II criteria. A detailed history was collected on an electronic......, where it affects mostly women, in the most active decades of life. Some differences emerge as regards the demographic and clinical characteristics of MOH in this population as compared to Europe or Northern America. What seems more worrying about MOH in Argentina and Chile is that most patients overuse...

  4. Correlation of Demographic and Clinical Characteristics with Rheumatoid Factor Seropositivity in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Maizatul Akmal; Ghazali, Wan Syamimee Wan; Yahya, Nurul Khaiza; Wong, Kah Keng

    2016-11-01

    The rheumatoid factor (RF) blood test is the most commonly adopted test for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA patients who are seropositive for RF might face a greater likelihood of developing more aggressive symptoms. Our goal was to study the demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as their correlation with RF seropositivity, among a series of 80 RA patients aged ≥ 18 years who attend Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). Of the 80 RA patients included in this study, 66 (82.5%) were female and 14 (17.5%) were male. No significant associations between RF seropositivity and demographic and/or clinical characteristics or other laboratory investigations were observed, including gender, morning stiffness, individual joint involvement (from multiple sites of the body), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) measurement. However, a significant association between RF seropositivity and patients aged ≥ 50 was found (P = 0.032). RF seropositivity was found to be more common in much older RA patients.

  5. Do Demographic Characteristics Make Differences? Demographic Characteristics as Moderators in the Associations between Only Child Status and Cognitive/Non-cognitive Outcomes in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Chen, Yiting; Yang, Xiangdong; Hu, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Different family compositions and sizes may affect child development through the different modes of interaction between family members. Previous studies have compared only children with non-only children in cognitive/non-cognitive outcomes. However, relatively little research has systematically investigated the potential moderators among them. Using a large and representative sample of Chinese students (Grades 7–8; N = 5,752), this study examines the roles of demographic characteristics, such as gender, region, parental educational level, parental expectations, family socio-economic status and family structure, in the associations between only child status and cognitive/non-cognitive outcomes. For the cognitive outcomes, only child status exerts an influence on the students' academic performance in Chinese and mathematics in the sample of three districts' students. The examined associations between only child status and cognitive outcomes are different in region, parental education, parental expectations and family structure, while gender and family socio-economic status did not. For the non-cognitive outcomes, only child status exerts an influence on the students' school well-being, academic self-efficacy, academic self-concept, and internal academic motivation in the full sample of students, but not on external academic motivation. Further, the examined associations between only child status and non-cognitive outcomes are different in region, parental education, family socio-economic status and family structure, while gender and parental expectations did not. These findings suggest that the associations between only child status and cognitive/non-cognitive outcomes are heterogeneous in terms of some of the demographic characteristics. Possible explanations are proposed in some concepts of region and family environment in China. PMID:28421006

  6. The counseling african americans to control hypertension (caatch) trial: baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Gloster Marleny; Cassells Andrea; Tobin Jonathan N; Fernandez Senaida; Kalida Chamanara; Ogedegbe Gbenga

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Effectiveness of combined physician and patient-level interventions for blood pressure (BP) control in low-income, hypertensive African Americans with multiple co-morbid conditions remains largely untested in community-based primary care practices. Demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics of participants in the Counseling African American to Control Hypertension (CAATCH) Trial are described. CAATCH evaluates the effectiveness of a multi-level, mu...

  7. IMPACT OF CORPORATE AND DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS ON THE CREDIBILITY OF INTERNET NEWS MEDIA

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    And ALGÜL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The intensive use of news in the social media leads to the discussions about whether the social media is reliable in terms of news. The study aims to reveal what the elements which affect the credibility of Internet news media are, whether there is any difference in media credibility between corporate and non-corporate Internet news organizations, and the impacts of demographic characteristics on the credibility of Internet news media. Therefore, a questionnaire was performed with some 936 university students in April 2015 by employing the method of random sampling. The result of the research reveals that although the use of mobile devices and personal computers in terms of the use of the media is at a higher rate than the other types of media, television ranks first at the level of credibility in media news. Another important result puts forward that the credibility of Internet news media decreases with an increase in the ages of respondents; thus, a break with this media is experienced. Even though the presence of a positive correlation between the perceptions of credibility of Internet news media organizations – whether they are corporate or not – appears an advantage, the occurrence of a decrease in the credibility perceived with an increase in the ages of respondents indicates that there are many castles which must be won in terms of credibility.

  8. Prevalence, Demographics and Clinical Characteristics of Multiple Sclerosis in North of Khuzestan Province, Iran

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    Radmehr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic, idiopathic and the most common inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that progresses to severe disability. Prevalence of MS is 2 - 150 per 100,000 people. The main cause of the disease is not clear and occurs due to a combination of both genetic and environmental factors. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of MS in the northern cities of Khuzestan Province, Iran, as well as to determine the demographic characteristics, initial symptoms at onset, clinical features and the correlation between the above factors with each other. Patients and Methods In this descriptive correlational study, patients were recruited through the MS Society as well as the neurology clinics and departments of hospitals in north cities of Khuzestan Province (Iran. Data were collected through completing a face to face questionnaire and were analyzed using SPSS version 17 and the chi-square test. P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significance. Results A total of 142 patients were participated in this study. Prevalence of MS was 15 per 100,000 people. Seventy-eight percent of the patients had low literacy, and 81% were unemployed. Female to male ratio was 2.08: 1 that became less in younger patients. 69% and 15% of the patients were relapsing remitting and progressive relapsing, respectively. Demographic characteristics of the patients did not show any statistically significant relationship with clinical courses and signs at onset; however, a significant correlation was seen between severe disability and sex (P = 0.001 as well as between severe disability and progressive-relapsing subtype (P = 0.02. Conclusions The prevalence of MS showed an increasing rate of the disease in recent years. Decreasing of the female to male ratio and patients’ low socio-economic level, need more studies. The increasing rate of patients with progressive relapsing feature

  9. The Role of Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Lifestyle of Consumers in Determinig Buying Tendency

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    Ana Slišković

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was based on a three-dimensional conceptualization of the buying tendency stemming from cognitive and affective impulsivity and susceptibility to the situational factors of buying. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships of different dimensions of buying tendency to basic socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyles of consumers. The study was conducted using a survey on a sample of 194 respondents from Bosnia and Herzegovina. The obtained results indicate greater levels of cognitive and affective buying impulsivity in women compared to men, with no gender differences identified in the susceptibility to buying situational factors. Furthermore, significant effects were obtained by the level of total monthly family income of respondents in all dimensions of buying tendency, while the level of respondents' monthly income had a significant effect only on cognitive impulsivity. Employment status and education level had no significant effect on the buying tendency. Among the four studied consumers’ lifestyles (innovative, family, social and leadership oriented, innovatively oriented lifestyle has the strongest correlation to all three dimensions of buying tendency. In other words, innovatively oriented subjects are more prone to impulsive buying and susceptible to buying situational factors. In addition to the innovative orientation lifestyle, impulsive buying was also associated with the leadership orientation, but to a lesser extent. Susceptibility to buying situational factors was associated with all lifestyle orientations, apart from the family orientation.

  10. [Nurses of large public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro: socio demographic and work related characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griep, Rosane Härter; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Portela, Luciana Fernandes; Rotenberg, Lucia

    2013-09-01

    The study aimed at analyzing socio-demographic and working characteristics of nurses from public hospitals. It was carried out a cross-sectional study, involving 3.229 nurses from the eighteen largest public hospitals of the city of Rio de Janeiro. It was observed a feminine predominance (87.3%), with mean age of 39.9 ± 10 years. Around 7% referred having master or doctorate degree, 58.5% got their degree from public institutions and 24.5% used to work at the health sector before becoming nurses. Half the group has thought of abandoning their career, and almost a quarter is unsatisfied with their profession. Around 10% searched for a job outside nursing area in the previous month and 30% searched for a job in the same working area. Night work, engagement in more than one job and long professional work hours were more frequently found among men. The study has pointed challengeable aspects of nurses' profession. Results can subsidize support strategies to improve the working conditions in public hospitals due to their comprehensiveness.

  11. Association of Aggression with Socio-Demographic Characteristics A Cross Sectional Study among Rural Adolescents

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    Pratyay Pratim Datta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a period of immense physical, mental and social changes. Aggression is very common feature in this period in the present day world. But very limited studies have been conducted regarding aggression among adolescents in rural India. The present study was conducted to find out different socio-demographic characteristics associated with aggression among adolescents. Materials and methods: The community based cross sectional study was conducted in Ramnagar, Jalapara and Rasulpur villages of Singur block of Hooghly district of West Bengal in Eastern India. The study included adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years of age. To assess aggression, Direct and Indirect Aggression Scale (DIAS was used. Collected data was compiled, tabulated and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: A high proportion of adolescents scored very high in DIAS scale. Total aggression score was significantly higher among older adolescents (18-19 years of age, among males, among adolescents belonging to lower income groups and whose mothers were working. Physical aggression score was significantly higher in younger adolescents, but other types of aggression were found to be significantly higher among older group. [Natl J of Med Res 2012; 2(4.000: 442-447

  12. Organ Donation in the 50+ Age Demographic: Survey Results on Decision Rationale and Information Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglia, Alexander; Dodd-McCue, Diane; Myer, Kevin A; Mullins, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    The rate of organ donation by older potential donors is significantly declining even though recent studies show positive clinical outcomes with organs transplanted from older donors. This study examined the 50+ age demographic to identify the rationale for donation decisions, preferred media methods of donation information delivery, and responsiveness to an age-tailored donation message. Results from 579 surveys, 87% from the 50+ age demographic, found respondents prone to self-select themselves as medically ineligible based on current medication and health status, even though they might be medically suitable donors. Their incentive to pursue additional information on donation is limited except when motivated by personal accounts within their families and communities. In addition, even when computer literate, they continue to favor the printed or spoken word for donation information delivery. The results suggest an opportunity for those working with older adults to develop more personalized, localized donation education programs targeting this age demographic.

  13. Can Psychological, Social and Demographical Factors Predict Clinical Characteristics Symptomatology of Bipolar Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciukiewicz, Malgorzata; Pawlak, Joanna; Kapelski, Pawel; Łabędzka, Magdalena; Skibinska, Maria; Zaremba, Dorota; Leszczynska-Rodziewicz, Anna; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Hauser, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia (SCH) is a complex, psychiatric disorder affecting 1 % of population. Its clinical phenotype is heterogeneous with delusions, hallucinations, depression, disorganized behaviour and negative symptoms. Bipolar affective disorder (BD) refers to periodic changes in mood and activity from depression to mania. It affects 0.5-1.5 % of population. Two types of disorder (type I and type II) are distinguished by severity of mania episodes. In our analysis, we aimed to check if clinical and demographical characteristics of the sample are predictors of symptom dimensions occurrence in BD and SCH cases. We included total sample of 443 bipolar and 439 schizophrenia patients. Diagnosis was based on DSM-IV criteria using Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. We applied regression models to analyse associations between clinical and demographical traits from OPCRIT and symptom dimensions. We used previously computed dimensions of schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder as quantitative traits for regression models. Male gender seemed protective factor for depression dimension in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder sample. Presence of definite psychosocial stressor prior disease seemed risk factor for depressive and suicidal domain in BD and SCH. OPCRIT items describing premorbid functioning seemed related with depression, positive and disorganised dimensions in schizophrenia and psychotic in BD. We proved clinical and demographical characteristics of the sample are predictors of symptom dimensions of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We also saw relation between clinical dimensions and course of disorder and impairment during disorder.

  14. Clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with urinary tract hydatid disease.

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    Mou Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human cystic echinococcosis (CE is caused by flatworm larvae of Echinococcus granulosus and is endemic in many parts of the world. In humans, CE cysts primarily affect the liver and pulmonary system, but can also affect the renal system. However, the clinical manifestations of renal CE can be subtle, so healthcare professionals often overlook renal CE in differential diagnosis. In this study, we examined the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with urinary tract CE and analyzed the diagnosis and treatment procedures for this disease. METHODS: The records of 19 consecutive renal CE patients who were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from January 1983 to April 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. In all cases, CE of the urinary tract was confirmed by pathological examination and visual inspection during surgery. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were males and 4 were females. The most common symptoms were non-specific lower back pain and percussion tenderness on the kidney region. All patients were followed up for 9-180 months after surgery. None of the patients experienced a recurrence of renal CE, but 4 patients experienced non-renal recurrence of hydatid disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hydatid cysts from E. granulosus are structurally similar in the liver and urinary tract. Thus, the treatment regimen for liver CE developed by the World Health Organization/Informal Working Group on Echinococcosis (WHO/IWGE could also be used for urinary tract CE. In our patients, the use of ultrasound, computed tomography, serology, and clinical characteristics provided a diagnostic accuracy of 66.7% to 92.3%.

  15. Haemophilia Experiences, Results and Opportunities (HERO) Study: survey methodology and population demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, A L; Gregory, M; Nugent, D; Garrido, C; Pilgaard, T; Cooper, D L; Iorio, A

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial factors have a significant impact on the quality of life of persons with haemophilia (PWH). The Haemophilia Experiences, Results and Opportunities (HERO) initiative was developed to provide a greater understanding of the psychological components which influence the lives of PWH. This article describes the HERO methodology and the characteristics of respondents. Two online surveys (one for adult PWH ≥18 years and one for parents of children surveys included demographic and treatment characteristics, relationships, sexual intimacy, quality of life, barriers to treatment and sources of information. A total of 675 PWH [age, median (range) 36 (18-86 years)] and 561 parents [39 (23-68 years)] completed the survey. PWH/parents reported haemophilia A (74%/76%), B (13%/16%) or with inhibitors (13%/8%). Spontaneous joint bleeding was reported in 76%/52% of PWH/children with haemophilia A, 67%/47% with haemophilia B and 93%/76% with inhibitors. Median number of bleeds (interquartile range) was 7 (2-20) for PWH and 4 (2-10) for children in the past year. Most PWH and children were treated with factor concentrate. PWH reported arthritis (49%) and HIV/HCV infections (18%/43%) related to haemophilia. Most PWH and parent respondents had received formal education (85%/89%) and were employed full- or part-time (60%/72%). HERO is one of the largest multinational studies focused on psychosocial issues in haemophilia, including historical and treatment information that will allow for multivariate analyses of determinants of health in haemophilia.

  16. The heterogeneous health latent classes of elderly people and their socio-demographic characteristics in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Fan; Tian, Wei-Hua; Yao, Hui-Ping

    2014-01-01

    The health care needs of elderly people were influenced by their heterogeneity. This study aimed to identify the health latent classes of elderly people by using latent class analysis to deal with heterogeneity and examine their socio-demographic characteristics. Data came from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) in Taiwan. In total, 2449 elderly individuals with available health indicators were examined in latent class analysis (LCA), and 2217 elderly community-dwellings with complete socio-demographic data were analyzed by multinomial logistic regression. Four health latent classes were identified which included 1066 (43.5%) people in the High Comorbidity (HC), 152 (6.2%) in the Functional Impairment (FI), 252 (10.3%) in the Frail (FR), and 979 (40.0%) in the Relatively Healthy (RH) group. Multinomial logistic regressions revealed socio-demographic characteristics among health classes. The variables associated with an increased likelihood of being in the FR group were age, female, and living with families. They were also correlated to ethnicity and educations. Apart from age and gender, the Functional Impairment group was less likely to be ethnicity of Hakka, more likely to live with others than were the RH group. The HC group tended to be younger, with higher educations, and more likely to live in urban area than the Functional Impairment group. The correlations between health classes and socio-demographic factors were discussed. The health status of elderly people includes a variety of health indicators. A person-centered approach is critical to identify the health heterogeneity of elderly people and manage their care needs by targeting differential aging.

  17. Socio-demographic characteristics of cancer patients: Hospital based cancer registry in a tertiary care hospital of India

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    S Puri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the socio-demographic characteristics of cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Review of the Cancer registry, and patient interview. Information on socio-demographic profile, medical history, family history and previous treatment, if any, was retrieved from the patient. If the patient couldn′t be contacted then information was taken from pathology/radiotherapy or medical records department. Results: A total of 684 patients participated in the study. More than 40% of males and 53.7% of females were illiterate, P < 0.05. The majority (33.5% of participants were of low socioeconomic status. The most frequently reported cancer (ca in males it was ca lung (40.9 and ca oesophagus (9.8. In females most common cancer were ca breast (23.9 followed by ca cervix (11.7.

  18. Modern Russian Demographic Policy in the Field of Fertility: Results and Areas for Improvement

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    Larisa Alekseevna Popova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During last years in Russia the active state demographic policy, directed on the support of second and subsequent births, is leading. The article describes its evolution, evaluates efficiency and recommends directions of its improvement. It was detected, that increment of measures of demographic policy by introduction in 2011 the regional maternity capitals to a third child in addition to the federal capital to a second child gave a perceptible positive results. It allowed continuing the positive trend of fertility already in the condition of the beginning deterioration the age structure of the women in the childbearing age; maximally realize the births, which were postponed by the older generations; to increase number of children on account of additional births; to enhance the family component of fertility. Despite of concerns, the growth of reproductive attitudes happened not only in the older cohorts of the population. Conducted in 2013 sociological research gives grounds to expect, that minorities generations 1990 years of birth, which will be determine prospects of fertility, will reach the level of slightly expanded reproduction of population. In the conditions of deterioration the age structure of fertile contingents the demographic policy must be elongated and improved. All components of economic demographic measures must be saved, including child allowances to needy families, but with increasing the horizon of its assignment to adulthood of child. The directions of maternity capitals realizations must be expanded. During the develop of new measures of demographic policy need to focus on psychological measures of formation the value orientations of the population in area of number of children, on improvement of qualitative structure of fertility and strengthening of the family institute. The economic measures need to redirect on the second births, which are more family. The general line of family demographic policy is the increasing of

  19. Young adults' sources of contraceptive information: variations based on demographic characteristics and sexual risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Atika; Bleakley, Amy

    2015-02-01

    Sexual information sources used by young adults can influence their contraceptive knowledge and behaviors, yet little is known about sources most frequently used by young adults, especially by groups with histories of sexual risk involvement. Nationally representative data from 1800 unmarried young adults, aged 18-29 years, were analyzed to (1) examine the sources of contraceptive information most frequently used by young adults and (2) assess variations (if any) in source use based on demographic characteristics and sexual risk history (determined based on past sexual behaviors). "Doctors/nurses" was the most frequently used contraceptive information source reported by young adults. Significant variations existed in source use based on demographic characteristics and sexual risk history. Females were more likely to obtain contraceptive information from health care professionals, whereas males were more likely to report friends, partners, internet and television/radio as their frequently used source. Young adults with a sexual risk history were more likely to rely on doctors/nurses and less likely to report friends and internet as their frequently used source than those without a sexual risk history. Receiving contraceptive information from doctors/nurses was associated with greater accuracy in knowledge about contraceptive use and efficacy as compared to all other sources. Young adults' use of specific contraceptive information sources can vary based on their demographic characteristics and sexual risk involvement. Future research should identify better strategies to connect young adults, especially young males, with sexual risk histories to more reliable sources of information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Motivations, enrollment decisions, and socio-demographic characteristics of healthy volunteers in phase 1 research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Christine; Bedarida, Gabriella; Sinaii, Ninet; Gregorio, Mark Anthony; Emanuel, Ezekiel J

    2017-08-01

    Phase 1 trials with healthy volunteers are an integral step in drug development. Commentators worry about the possible exploitation of healthy volunteers because they are assumed to be disadvantaged, marginalized, and inappropriately influenced by the offer of money for research for which they do not appreciate the inherent risks. Yet there are limited data to support or refute these concerns. This study aims to describe the socio-demographic characteristics, motivations, and enrollment decision-making of a large cohort of healthy volunteers. We used a cross-sectional anonymous survey of 1194 healthy volunteers considering enrollment in phase 1 studies at Pfizer Clinical Research Units in New Haven, CT; Brussels, Belgium; and Singapore. Descriptive statistics describe motivations and socio-demographic characteristics. Comparisons between groups were examined. The majority rated consideration of risks as more important to their enrollment decision than the amount of money, despite reporting that their primary motivation was financial. Risk, time, money, the competence and friendliness of research staff, and contributing to medical research were important factors influencing enrollment decisions for most participants. The majority of healthy volunteers in this cohort were male, single, reported higher than high school education, and 70% had previous research experience. Many reported low annual incomes (50% below USD$25,000) and high rates of unemployment (33% overall). Nonetheless, risk as an important consideration, money, and other reported considerations and motivations, except for time, did not vary by income, employment, education, or previous experience. There were regional differences in both socio-demographic characteristics and factors important to participation decisions. Healthy volunteers in phase 1 studies consider risks as more important to their enrollment decisions than the amount of money offered, although most are motivated to participate by the

  1. Identity of organizational conflict framework: Evaluating model factors based on demographic characteristics in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Hasani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE FA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to Identity of organizational conflict framework:  Evaluating model factors based on demographic characteristics in Iran. Design/methodology/approach: Research method is descriptive - applied. The statistical population includes all of the employees in Iran`s Azad Universites with 600 individuals at the time of the study and statistical sample included 234 individuals who were selected using Morgan table. Beside this study, descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Also, reliability approved through Cronbach alpha (0.87. Then, to detect the dimensions causes of organizational conflict, factor analysis in line with the main components was used. Through exploratory analysis, ten principal factors identified. Thereafter, confirmatory factor analysis reconfirmed these factors. Findings and originality/value: The results of study showed that there is no significant difference between the causes of organizational conflict based on the gender. Also, there are significant differences among the causes of organizational conflict based on the variables of age, education and work experience. Research limitations/implications: we adopt a cross sectional research design and as a result inferences regarding causality cannot be drawn. Future studies following a longitudinal design could provide a more dynamic perspective and contribute further to this stream of research. Originality/value: A lot of researches about the conflict management styles, organizational conflict's effects, etc. are conducted by different researchers, but a handful of researches have been conducted in the field of resources and causes of organizational conflict and this is one of the reasons that it is important for researchers to address this issue.

  2. The Comparison between Socio-Demographic Characteristic on Quality of Life and Marital Happiness in Sub-Urban and Rural Area in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Rozmi Ismail; Mohammad Hesam Hafezi; Rahim Mohd Nor

    2014-01-01

    The present paper reports results of the study on effect of socio-demographic characteristic to Quality of Life (QOL) and marital happiness in Malaysia. The sample was drawn from Selangor state and Klang Valley. The objective of the study is to determine the influence socio-demographic parameters on quality of life and happiness among Malaysian household who live in sub-urban and rural area. Data was collected through interview using a set of questionnaire asking about their perception toward...

  3. Demographic, phenotypic, and genetic characteristics of centenarians in Okinawa and Japan: Part 1-centenarians in Okinawa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Bradley J; Willcox, Donald Craig; Suzuki, Makoto

    2017-07-01

    A study of elderly Okinawans has been carried out by the Okinawa Centenarian Study (OCS) research group for over four decades. The OCS began in 1975 as a population-based study of centenarians (99-year-olds and older) and other selected elderly persons residing in the main island of the Japanese prefecture of Okinawa. As of 2015, over 1000 centenarians have been examined. By several measures of health and longevity the Okinawans can claim to be the world's healthiest and longest-lived people. In this paper we explore the demographic, phenotypic, and genetic characteristics of this fascinating population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Self-Reported Non-Celiac Wheat Sensitivity in High School Students: Demographic and Clinical Characteristics

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    Antonio Carroccio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-Celiac Wheat Sensitivity (NCWS has recently been included among the gluten-related disorders. As no biomarkers of this disease exist, its frequency has been estimated based on self-reported symptoms, but to date no data are available about self-reported NCWS in teenagers. Aim: To explore the prevalence of self-reported NCWS in a group of high school students and to study their demographic and clinical characteristics. Methods: The study was performed between April 2015 and January 2016 in two high schools of a coastal town in the south of Sicily (Italy. A total of 555 students (mean age 17 years, 191 male, 364 female completed a modified validated questionnaire for self-reported NCWS. The subjects who self-reported NCWS were then compared with all the others. Results: Seven individuals (1.26% had an established diagnosis of CD. The prevalence of self-reported NCWS was 12.2%, and 2.9% were following a gluten-free diet (GFD. Only 15 out of 68 (23% NCWS self-reporters had consulted a doctor for this problem and only nine (14% had undergone serological tests for celiac disease. The NCWS self-reporters very often had IBS symptoms (44%. Conclusions: Self-reported NCWS was found to be common in teenagers, with a frequency of 12.2%; the frequency of GFD use was 2.9%, which was much higher than the percentage of known CD in the same population (1.26%. A greater awareness of the possible implications on the part of the subjects involved, and a more thorough medical approach to the study of self-reported wheat-induced symptoms are required.

  5. Relating demographic characteristics of a small mammal to remotely sensed forest-stand condition.

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    Hania Lada

    Full Text Available Many ecological systems around the world are changing rapidly in response to direct (land-use change and indirect (climate change human actions. We need tools to assess dynamically, and over appropriate management scales, condition of ecosystems and their responses to potential mitigation of pressures. Using a validated model, we determined whether stand condition of floodplain forests is related to densities of a small mammal (a carnivorous marsupial, Antechinus flavipes in 60,000 ha of extant river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis forests in south-eastern Australia in 2004, 2005 and 2011. Stand condition was assessed remotely using models built from ground assessments of stand condition and satellite-derived reflectance. Other covariates, such as volumes of fallen timber, distances to floods, rainfall and life stages were included in the model. Trapping of animals was conducted at 272 plots (0.25 ha across the region. Densities of second-year females (i.e. females that had survived to a second breeding year and of second-year females with suckled teats (i.e. inferred to have been successful mothers were higher in stands with the highest condition. There was no evidence of a relationship with stand condition for males or all females. These outcomes show that remotely-sensed estimates of stand condition (here floodplain forests are relatable to some demographic characteristics of a small mammal species, and may provide useful information about the capacity of ecosystems to support animal populations. Over-regulation of large, lowland rivers has led to declines in many facets of floodplain function. If management of water resources continues as it has in recent decades, then our results suggest that there will be further deterioration in stand condition and a decreased capacity for female yellow-footed antechinuses to breed multiple times.

  6. Relating demographic characteristics of a small mammal to remotely sensed forest-stand condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lada, Hania; Thomson, James R; Cunningham, Shaun C; Mac Nally, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Many ecological systems around the world are changing rapidly in response to direct (land-use change) and indirect (climate change) human actions. We need tools to assess dynamically, and over appropriate management scales, condition of ecosystems and their responses to potential mitigation of pressures. Using a validated model, we determined whether stand condition of floodplain forests is related to densities of a small mammal (a carnivorous marsupial, Antechinus flavipes) in 60,000 ha of extant river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) forests in south-eastern Australia in 2004, 2005 and 2011. Stand condition was assessed remotely using models built from ground assessments of stand condition and satellite-derived reflectance. Other covariates, such as volumes of fallen timber, distances to floods, rainfall and life stages were included in the model. Trapping of animals was conducted at 272 plots (0.25 ha) across the region. Densities of second-year females (i.e. females that had survived to a second breeding year) and of second-year females with suckled teats (i.e. inferred to have been successful mothers) were higher in stands with the highest condition. There was no evidence of a relationship with stand condition for males or all females. These outcomes show that remotely-sensed estimates of stand condition (here floodplain forests) are relatable to some demographic characteristics of a small mammal species, and may provide useful information about the capacity of ecosystems to support animal populations. Over-regulation of large, lowland rivers has led to declines in many facets of floodplain function. If management of water resources continues as it has in recent decades, then our results suggest that there will be further deterioration in stand condition and a decreased capacity for female yellow-footed antechinuses to breed multiple times.

  7. Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of youth onset Diabetes Mellitus in Kashmir India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyaz Daga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a major public health problem. Objective of current study was to know the demography, clinical characteristics and etiology of youth Diabetes mellitus (DM in Kashmir, North India. METHODS: A prospective hospital based study, carried out in the Department of Endocrinology, SKIMS Srinagar, Kashmir India over the period from 2008 July - September 2010. Setting: A teaching, Research and tertiary care hospital at Srinagar Kashmir North India. PARTICIPANTS: All the new youth onset diabetes patients whose age were less than 25 years and were admitted in endocrinology ward for various reasons over the period from 2008 July - September 2010. PROCEDURE: All children with diabetes mellitus less than twenty five years of age were enrolled in this study. Variables recorded were demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory tests. RESULTS: A total of seventy two patients of youth onset diabetes mellitus were studied, Forty six were less than 20 years and twenty six more than 20 years of age. There were 33 males (45.8% and 39 females (54.2%. Family history of diabetes was present in nineteen (26.4%, fourteen were less than 20 yrs and five more than 20 yrs. Fifty nine (81.9% presented with osmotic symptoms, Thirteen (18.1% with DKA. Hypoglycemic episodes were present in forty one patients. Sixteen patients had nephropathy and nine had Retinopathy. CONCLUSION: Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is emerging as the form of diabetes in young diabetic patients, due to epidemic of childhood obesity.

  8. Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Omani Children - Single Center Experience

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    Saif Al-Yaarubi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the demographic characteristics and clinical presentation of Omani children with type 1 diabetes mellitus at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. Methods: A retrospective analysis of all children with type 1 diabetes mellitus attending the Pediatric Endocrine Unit at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman from June 2006 to May 2013. Results: One hundred and forty-four patients were included in the study. The mean±SD of age at diagnosis was 6.7 ± 3.7 years. The median duration of symptoms was 10 days (IQR; 5-14. The most commonly reported presenting symptoms were polyuria (94%, polydipsia (82%, and weight loss (59%. Diabetic ketoacidosis at initial presentation was diagnosed in 31% of the patients. Different insulin regimens were prescribed: multiple daily injections in 109 (76% patients, twice daily insulin regimen in 23 (16% patients, and insulin pump therapy in 12 (8% patients. Family history of type 1 diabetes mellitus was present in 31 (22% patients. There were no significant differences in presenting complaints (polyuria, p=0.182; polydipsia, p=0.848, duration of symptoms (p=0.331, reported weight loss (p=0.753, or diabetic ketoacidosis at presentation (p=0.608 between patients with and without family history of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: Polyuria, polydipsia and weight loss are the most common presenting symptoms. Family history of type 1 diabetes mellitus is highly prevalent among the studied patients. Diabetic ketoacidosis was found to be less common in Oman compared to other diabetes centers in the Middle East.

  9. [Influence of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics on the quality of life].

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    Grbić, Gordana; Djokić, Dragoljub; Kocić, Sanja; Mitrašinović, Dejan; Rakić, Ljiljana; Prelević, Rade; Krivokapić, Žarko; Miljković, Snežana

    2011-01-01

    The quality of life is a multidimensional concept, which is best expressed by the subjective well-being. Evaluation of the quality of life is the basis for measuring the well-being, and the determination of factors that determine the quality of life quality is the basis for its improvement. To evaluate and assess the determinants of the perceived quality of life of group distinguishing features which characterize demographic and socioeconomic factors. This was a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the population in Serbia aged over 20 years (9479 examinees). The quality of life was expressed by the perception of well-being (pleasure of life). Data on the examinees (demographic and socioeconomic characteristics) were collected by using a questionnaire for adults of each household. To process, analyze and present the data, we used the methods of parametric descriptive statistics (mean value, standard deviation, coefficient of variation), variance analysis and factor analysis. Although men evaluated the quality of life with a slightly higher grading, there was no statistically significant difference in the evaluation of the quality of life in relation to the examinee's gender (p > 0.005). Among the examinees there was a high statistically significant difference in grading the quality of life depending on age, level of education, marital status and type of job (p life (p > 0.005). The quality of life is influenced by numerous factors that characterize each person (demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of individual). Determining factors of the quality of life are numerous and diverse, and the manner and the strength of their influence are variable.

  10. The counseling african americans to control hypertension (caatch trial: baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics

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    Diaz-Gloster Marleny

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effectiveness of combined physician and patient-level interventions for blood pressure (BP control in low-income, hypertensive African Americans with multiple co-morbid conditions remains largely untested in community-based primary care practices. Demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics of participants in the Counseling African American to Control Hypertension (CAATCH Trial are described. CAATCH evaluates the effectiveness of a multi-level, multi-component, evidence-based intervention compared with usual care (UC in improving BP control among poorly controlled hypertensive African Americans who receive primary care in Community Health Centers (CHCs. Methods Participants included 1,039 hypertensive African Americans receiving care in 30 CHCs in the New York Metropolitan area. Baseline data on participant demographic, clinical (e.g., BP, anti-hypertensive medications, psychosocial (e.g., depression, medication adherence, self-efficacy, and behavioral (e.g., exercise, diet characteristics were gathered through direct observation, chart review, and interview. Results The sample was primarily female (71.6%, middle-aged (mean age = 56.9 ± 12.1 years, high school educated (62.4%, low-income (72.4% reporting less than $20,000/year income, and received Medicaid (35.9% or Medicare (12.6%. Mean systolic and diastolic BP were 150.7 ± 16.7 mm Hg and 91.0 ± 10.6 mm Hg, respectively. Participants were prescribed an average of 2.5 ± 1.9 antihypertensive medications; 54.8% were on a diuretic; 33.8% were on a beta blocker; 41.9% were on calcium channel blockers; 64.8% were on angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs. One-quarter (25.6% of the sample had resistant hypertension; one-half (55.7% reported medication non-adherence. Most (79.7% reported one or more co-morbid medical conditions. The majority of the patients had a Charlson Co-morbidity score ≥ 2. Diabetes

  11. Disparities in the frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption by socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics in Canada

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    Sharaf Mesbah F

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health benefits of adequate fruit and vegetable (F&V consumption are significant and widely documented. However, many individuals self-report low F&V consumption frequency per day. This paper examines the disparities in the frequency of F&V consumption by socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Method This study uses a representative sample of 93,719 individuals from the Canadian Community Health Survey (2007. A quantile regression model is estimated in order to capture the differential effects of F&V determinants across the conditional distribution of F&V consumption. Results The conditional and unconditional analyses reveal the existence of a socioeconomic gradient in F&V consumption frequency, in which the low income-education groups consume F&V less frequently than the high income-education groups. We also find significant disparities in F&V consumption frequency by demographic and lifestyle characteristics. The frequency of F&V consumption is relatively lower among: males, those in middle age, singles, smokers, individuals with weak social interaction and households with no children. The quantile regression results show that the association between F&V consumption frequency, and socio-demographic and lifestyle factors varies significantly along the conditional F&V consumption distribution. In particular, individual educational attainment is positively and significantly associated with F&V consumption frequency across different parts of the F&V distribution, while the income level matters only over the lower half of the distribution. F&V consumption follows a U-shaped pattern across the age categories. Those aged 30-39, 40-49 and 50-59 years consume F&V less frequently than those aged 18-29 years. The smallest F&V consumption is among the middle aged adults (40-49. Conclusions Understanding the socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics of individuals with low F&V consumption frequency could increase the

  12. Mental health problems in a regional population of Australian adolescents: association with socio-demographic characteristics.

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    Dray, Julia; Bowman, Jenny; Freund, Megan; Campbell, Elizabeth; Hodder, Rebecca K; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Wiggers, John

    2016-01-01

    Population level data regarding the general mental health status, and the socio-demographic factors associated with the mental health status of adolescents in Australia aged 12-16 years is limited. This study assessed prevalence of mental health problems in a regional population of Australian students in Grades 7-10, and investigated associations between mental health problems and socio-demographic factors. A web-based survey was conducted in 21 secondary schools located in disadvantaged local government areas in one regional local health district of NSW Australia. Mental health problems were measured using the youth self-report Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) total SDQ score and three subscale scores (internalising problems, externalising problems and prosocial behaviour). Associations between each SDQ outcome and student socio-demographic characteristics (age, gender, Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Status, remoteness of residential location and socio-economic disadvantage) were investigated. Data are reported for 6793 students aged 12-16 years. Nineteen percent of participants scored in the 'very high' range for the total SDQ, 18.0 % for internalising problems, 11.3 % for externalising problems and 8.9 % for prosocial behaviour problems. Gender and Aboriginal status were associated with all four SDQ outcomes, while age was associated with two, excluding externalising problems and prosocial behaviour. Aboriginal adolescents scored higher for mental health problems than non-Aboriginal adolescents for all four SDQ outcomes. Females scored higher than males for total SDQ and internalising problems, with mean difference greatest at age 15. Males scored higher for externalising problems and lower for prosocial behaviour than females. The finding that mental health problems significantly varied by age, gender and Aboriginality may suggest a need for tailored interventions for groups of adolescents with highest levels of mental health

  13. The Impact of Demographic, Clinical, Symptom and Psychological Characteristics on the Trajectories of Acute Postoperative Pain After Total Knee Arthroplasty

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    Miaskowski, Christine; Rustøen, Tone; Rosseland, Leiv Arne; Paul, Steven M.; Cooper, Bruce A.; Lerdal, Anners

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Total knee arthroplasty is a painful procedure. No studies have evaluated modifiable predictors of acute postoperative pain trajectories during hospitalization. Methods. Consecutive patients (N = 188) were enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study and completed a demographic questionnaire, as well as the Brief Pain Inventory, Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale, Lee Fatigue Scale, Fatigue Severity Scale, and Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire on the day before surgery. Clinical data were extracted from medical records. Setting and Patients. Each patient completed a pain diary that assessed pain at rest and with activity, and hours per day in pain every evening from day of surgery until postoperative day 3. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we investigated which demographic, clinical, symptom, and psychological characteristics predicted initial levels as well as the trajectories of acute pain at rest and with activity, and hours per day in pain. Results. Higher levels of all three acute pain characteristics on the day of surgery resulted in worse trajectories. Higher pain scores with rest and with activity on the day of surgery were associated with more days with femoral block, higher average dose of opioids, and higher emotional response to osteoarthritis. Higher number of comorbidities, higher average dose of opioids, and lower perceived control predicted more hours per day in pain on the day of surgery. Conclusions. This study identified several potentially modifiable predictors of worsening pain trajectories following total knee arthroplasty. Optimal pain management warrants identification of these high-risk patients and treatment of modifiable risk factors. PMID:27165969

  14. Bottle milk feeding and its association with food group consumption, growth and socio-demographic characteristics in Chinese young children.

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    Yeung, Suey; Chan, Ruth; Li, Liz; Leung, Shirley; Woo, Jean

    2017-07-01

    It is recommended that infants from the age of 12 months should be weaned from bottles. However, an overwhelming proportion of young children were still using bottle after the recommended age of bottle-weaning. This cross-sectional study examined the association between utensils for milk drinking and food group consumption, growth and socio-demographic characteristics among young children. Data from the Survey of Infant and Young Child Feeding in Hong Kong were analyzed for 649 children aged 18-48 months old. Dietary outcomes were obtained via 3-day dietary records, while utensils for milk drinking and socio-demographic characteristics were collected from a self-developed questionnaire. Length/height and weight of the children were measured by the nurses. Results showed that daily consumption of formula milk was significantly greater among bottle users or bottle plus cup users than non-bottle users (p socio-economic factors and child's age (p = 0.006). The results showed that the milk drinking utensil was associated with the amount of formula milk and food group consumption as well as BMI z-score. There is a need to actively discourage prolonged bottle use in order to help young children develop good dietary habits. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Trends in the demographic and clinicopathological characteristics in Japanese patients with endometrial cancer, 1990–2010

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    Hachisuga T

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Taisei Honda, Rie Urabe, Tomoko Kurita, Seiji Kagami, Toshinori Kawagoe, Naoyuki Toki, Yusuke Matsuura, Toru HachisugaDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Yahatanishi-ku, Kitakyushu, JapanObjective: Over the past 20 years, the incidence of endometrial cancer has increased remarkably in Japan. The number of elderly females has also increased within the population of Japan. We examined the impact of advanced age on the demographic and clinicopathological characteristics in Japanese patients with endometrial cancer.Methods: Data were collected from 319 surgically treated Japanese females with endometrial cancer from the files of the University Hospital of Occupational and Environmental Health, Yahatanishi-ku, Kitakyushu, Japan, between 1990 and 2010. χ2 tests were performed to evaluate the trends in the variables between two decades (A: 116 cases from 1990–2000 and (B: 203 cases in 2001–2010. The histological subtypes were also evaluated based on the immunohistochemical expressions of p53, estrogen receptor, and Ki-67.Results: The mean ages ± standard deviation in the decade A group and the decade B group were 57.5 years ± 9.7 years and 61.0 years ± 11.3 years, respectively (P < 0.02. There was an increase in the proportion of patients aged 70 years or older and of high-risk histological tumors including serous carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma, and carcinosarcoma (decade A group and decade B group: 9.5% vs 27.6%, P < 0.001, 10.4% vs 21.6%, P = 0.01, respectively, while the advanced surgical stage (III and IV, obesity (≥25 of body mass index, and nulliparity of the decade A group and decade B group were 23.3% vs 29.1%, P = 0.30, 28.4% vs 33.0%, P = 0.40, and 19.0% vs 21.2%, P = 0.66, respectively. The cancer-specific survival rates in the decade A group and the decade B group were 78.6% and 77.6%, respectively (P = 0.93.Conclusion: The increase in number of elderly

  16. Sexual assault victims in the emergency department: analysis by demographic and event characteristics.

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    Avegno, Jennifer; Mills, Trevor J; Mills, Lisa D

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze demographic and event characteristics of patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) for evaluation after sexual assault, using a Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner standardized database. Data were prospectively collected as part of the Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner program at an urban teaching hospital. This study reviewed all ED patient records with a complaint of sexual assault between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2004. Data were collected on 1172 patients; 92.6% were women, with a mean age of 27 years. The sample was 59.1% black, 38.6% white, and 2.3% "Other." Black victims of sexual assault were significantly more likely to be young (25 years or less) than Whites. Over half (54%) reported involvement of drugs or alcohol during the event. Fifty-three percent knew their assailant(s), and black and young patients were significantly more likely to know the perpetrator(s). Threats of force were common (72.4% of sample), and multiple assailants were uncommon (18.1% of sample). Physical evidence of trauma was present in more than half (51.7%), with increased rates among Whites and older persons. Multivariate analysis showed that race, age, threats, and substance use during the event were independent risk factors for evident trauma on physical examination. Survivors of sexual assault who present to the ED are overwhelmingly female, relatively young, often know the perpetrator of the event, and are likely to be threatened and show signs of physical trauma. Differences between patients according to demographic and event characteristics may have important implications for ED management and treatment plans.

  17. Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of People with Intellectual Disabilities with and without Substance Abuse Disorders in a Medicaid Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayter, Elspeth Maclean

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the demographic and clinical characteristics of people with intellectual disabilities and substance abuse problems. Drawing on health care billing claims for people with Medicaid coverage aged 12-99 years, the characteristics of people with intellectual disability and a history of substance abuse (N = 9,484) were explored and…

  18. The Structure of Pathological Gambling among Korean Gamblers: A Cluster and Factor Analysis of Clinical and Demographic Characteristics

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    Lee, Tae Kyung; LaBrie, Richard A.; Grant, Jon E.; Kim, Suck Won; Shaffer, Howard J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the underlying structure of the demographic and clinical characteristics of level 3 (i.e., pathological) Korean casino gamblers. The participants reported their gambling behavior and clinical characteristics known to be associated with gambling problems (e.g., alcohol use problems, eating disorders, depression, anxiety, and…

  19. An analysis of the socio-demographic characteristics of sole registered births and infant deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Differences in birth characteristics and infant mortality rates by marital status and birth registration type reflect complex underlying factors. In particular, births registered solely by the mother are seen as a disadvantaged group. This article analyses the socio-demographic characteristics of births by registration type and parents' marital status and explores these differences for health outcomes. Birth notifications data from the NHS Numbers for Babies system was linked to birth registration data held by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) for births occurring in 2007 and 2008 in England and Wales. This dataset was further linked to death registration data to identify infants who died before their first birthday.Regression analysis was used to compare factors and health outcomes across marital and registration status groups. Regression models were calculated to determine the main risk factors for poor outcomes. The registration groups differed in the age of the mother at birth, the proportion of young mothers, ethnic group distribution and measures of deprived circumstances. The joint registered-different address and sole registered groups were similar in the proportion of young mothers and the deprivation indices. The groups also differed in the proportion of low birthweight and premature babies. The joint registered-different address and sole registered groups both had higher percentages of 'small for gestational age' babies compared with the within-marriage and joint registered-same address groups. The stillbirth rate was highest in the sole registered group. Both the joint registered-different address and sole registered groups had higher infant mortality rates compared with the within-marriage and joint registered-same address groups. Multivariate analysis indicated that low birthweight was a key factor in infant mortality. Births registered solely by the mother were found to be a disadvantaged group but were also similar to the joint

  20. Demographics, clinical characteristics and quality of life of Brazilian women with driving phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rafael T da; Carvalho, Marcele Regine de; Cantini, Jessye; Freire, Rafael Christophe da Rocha; Nardi, Antonio E

    2014-02-01

    Driving phobia is associated with serious consequences such as restriction of freedom, career impairments and social embarrassment. The main objective of this paper is to compare clinical characteristics and quality of life between women with driving phobia and women without this phobia. These factors were assessed using structured interviews, semi-structured questionnaires, scales and inventories. We accessed diagnoses, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, anxiety traits, driving cognitions and quality of life. There was no difference between groups with regard to demographic data and driving history. Both groups were also equivalent in the number of traumatic events and accidents experienced while driving or riding. The fear of driving group showed higher state and trait anxiety scores. A high frequency of cognitive distortions can explain why people with driving phobia often engage in maladaptive safety behaviors in an attempt to protect themselves from unpredicted dangers when driving. Regarding quality of life, the control group had slightly higher scores on all subscales, but significant differences were observed for only three scales: "functional capacity", "social aspects", and "mental health". More studies with larger samples more instruments and other contexts are needed to further investigate the clinical characteristics and personality traits of people who have a fear of driving. © 2014.

  1. Morphogenetic characteristics and demographic patterns of tillers on andropogon grass under different forage allowances

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    Daniel Louçana da Costa Araújo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphogenetic and structural characteristics and the demographic patterns of tillering in the grass Andropogon gayanus Kunth var. Bisquamulatus (Hochst Hack. cv. Planaltina subjected to three forage allowances: 11, 15 and 19% of the LW, under continuous grazing by goats. The experimental design for the evaluation of the pasture morphogenetic characteristics was set in (two random blocks, with six replications (tussocks within the block. To evaluate the tillering dynamics and population density, we adopted the experimental design of (two random blocks, in a split-plot arrangement. In the plots, we evaluated the effect of forage allowances and in the subplots, the months of April, May and June. Forage allowances did not affect the leaf elongation rate, leaf senescence or the number of live leaves. The leaf appearance rate was highest at the masses of 11 and 15% of the LW. Managing the pasture with a forage allowance of 19% of the LW increases the stem elongation rate, leaf lifespan and the lengths of leaf and stem. The number of vegetative tillers and the tiller appearance and survival rates are not affected by the forage allowances from 11 to 19% of the LW.

  2. Patient satisfaction in urology: effects of hospital characteristics, demographic data and patients' perceptions of received care.

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    Schoenfelder, Tonio; Schaal, Tom; Klewer, Joerg; Kugler, Joachim

    2014-09-06

    To identify factors that are significantly associated with patient satisfaction in urology and to assess the extent to which satisfaction ratings might be related to hospital and patient characteristics. Data used in this study were obtained from 1040 randomly selected urology patients discharged from nine hospitals who responded to a mailed survey. Bivariate and multivariate techniques were used to reveal relations between patient assessments of received care, hospital and patient characteristics. Bivariate analysis showed a strong association between satisfaction scores and length of stay, provider status, work load of nurses and hospital size, with weaker findings pertaining to type of hospital (teaching versus non-teaching) and patient demographics. The multivariate analysis identified nine vari­ables which are associated with overall satisfaction. Strong factors were treatment outcome, the interper­sonal manner of medical practitioners and nurses, as well as hotel aspects like accommodation and quality of food. Variables reflecting information receiving about the undergoing treatment were not found to have a significant influence on patient satisfaction. This study identified variables that are related to satisfaction in a urological setting and de­livers information about aspects of the hospital stay that are not perceived as relevant by patients. These findings support healthcare professionals with valuable information to meet needs and preferences of pa­tients in urology.

  3. The relationship of neighborhood demographic characteristics to point-of-sale tobacco advertising and marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widome, Rachel; Brock, Betsy; Noble, Petra; Forster, Jean L

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to tobacco marketing has been associated with an increased likelihood that youth start smoking and may interfere with tobacco cessation. We aimed to describe the prevalence, placement, and features of tobacco advertising at the point of sale by race, ethnicity, and other neighborhood demographics, as well as by store type. A cross-sectional assessment of the advertising environment in establishments that held tobacco licenses in our study region (a metropolitan area in the Midwest USA) was conducted in 2007. Stores were geocoded and linked with block group demographic data taken from the Year 2000 US census. We calculated associations between our hypothesized predictors, race, ethnicity, and other neighborhood demographics, and two types of outcomes (1) amount and (2) characteristics of the advertising. Tobacco advertising at the point of sale was most common in gas stations/convenience stores, liquor stores, and tobacco stores. A 10% difference in a block group's African-American/Black population was associated with 9% (95% confidence interval [CI]=3%, 16%) more ads as well as a greater likelihood that ads would be close to the ground (prevalence ratio [PR]=1.15 [95% CI=1.04, 1.28]). Block groups with greater African-American/Black, Asian, people on public assistance or below 150% of the poverty threshold, or people under the age of 18 years had more ads for menthol brands. Block groups with greater proportions of Whites were more likely to have ads that used health words, such as 'light' or 'natural' (PR for 10% difference in White population=1.41 [95% CI=1.17-1.70]). Chain stores were more likely to have greater amounts of advertising, ads close to the ground, ads for price deals, or ads that use words that imply health. Tobacco advertising targets communities with various racial and ethnic profiles in different ways. Now that US Food and Drug Administration has the authority to regulate the marketing and sale of tobacco products, there is new

  4. Spatially Analyzing the Inequity of the Hong Kong Urban Heat Island by Socio-Demographic Characteristics.

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    Wong, Man Sing; Peng, Fen; Zou, Bin; Shi, Wen Zhong; Wilson, Gaines J

    2016-03-12

    Recent studies have suggested that some disadvantaged socio-demographic groups face serious environmental-related inequities in Hong Kong due to the rising ambient urban temperatures. Identifying heat-vulnerable groups and locating areas of Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI) inequities is thus important for prioritizing interventions to mitigate death/illness rates from heat. This study addresses this problem by integrating methods of remote sensing retrieval, logistic regression modelling, and spatial autocorrelation. In this process, the SUHI effect was first estimated from the Land Surface Temperature (LST) derived from a Landsat image. With the scale assimilated to the SUHI and socio-demographic data, a logistic regression model was consequently adopted to ascertain their relationships based on Hong Kong Tertiary Planning Units (TPUs). Lastly, inequity "hotspots" were derived using spatial autocorrelation methods. Results show that disadvantaged socio-demographic groups were significantly more prone to be exposed to an intense SUHI effect: over half of 287 TPUs characterized by age groups of 60+ years, secondary and matriculation education attainment, widowed, divorced and separated, low and middle incomes, and certain occupation groups of workers, have significant Odds Ratios (ORs) larger than 1.2. It can be concluded that a clustering analysis stratified by age, income, educational attainment, marital status, and occupation is an effective way to detect the inequity hotspots of SUHI exposure. Additionally, inequities explored using income, marital status and occupation factors were more significant than the age and educational attainment in these areas. The derived maps and model can be further analyzed in urban/city planning, in order to mitigate the physical and social causes of the SUHI effect.

  5. Spatially Analyzing the Inequity of the Hong Kong Urban Heat Island by Socio-Demographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Man Sing; Peng, Fen; Zou, Bin; Shi, Wen Zhong; Wilson, Gaines J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that some disadvantaged socio-demographic groups face serious environmental-related inequities in Hong Kong due to the rising ambient urban temperatures. Identifying heat-vulnerable groups and locating areas of Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI) inequities is thus important for prioritizing interventions to mitigate death/illness rates from heat. This study addresses this problem by integrating methods of remote sensing retrieval, logistic regression modelling, and spatial autocorrelation. In this process, the SUHI effect was first estimated from the Land Surface Temperature (LST) derived from a Landsat image. With the scale assimilated to the SUHI and socio-demographic data, a logistic regression model was consequently adopted to ascertain their relationships based on Hong Kong Tertiary Planning Units (TPUs). Lastly, inequity “hotspots” were derived using spatial autocorrelation methods. Results show that disadvantaged socio-demographic groups were significantly more prone to be exposed to an intense SUHI effect: over half of 287 TPUs characterized by age groups of 60+ years, secondary and matriculation education attainment, widowed, divorced and separated, low and middle incomes, and certain occupation groups of workers, have significant Odds Ratios (ORs) larger than 1.2. It can be concluded that a clustering analysis stratified by age, income, educational attainment, marital status, and occupation is an effective way to detect the inequity hotspots of SUHI exposure. Additionally, inequities explored using income, marital status and occupation factors were more significant than the age and educational attainment in these areas. The derived maps and model can be further analyzed in urban/city planning, in order to mitigate the physical and social causes of the SUHI effect. PMID:26985899

  6. Spatially Analyzing the Inequity of the Hong Kong Urban Heat Island by Socio-Demographic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Sing Wong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested that some disadvantaged socio-demographic groups face serious environmental-related inequities in Hong Kong due to the rising ambient urban temperatures. Identifying heat-vulnerable groups and locating areas of Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI inequities is thus important for prioritizing interventions to mitigate death/illness rates from heat. This study addresses this problem by integrating methods of remote sensing retrieval, logistic regression modelling, and spatial autocorrelation. In this process, the SUHI effect was first estimated from the Land Surface Temperature (LST derived from a Landsat image. With the scale assimilated to the SUHI and socio-demographic data, a logistic regression model was consequently adopted to ascertain their relationships based on Hong Kong Tertiary Planning Units (TPUs. Lastly, inequity “hotspots” were derived using spatial autocorrelation methods. Results show that disadvantaged socio-demographic groups were significantly more prone to be exposed to an intense SUHI effect: over half of 287 TPUs characterized by age groups of 60+ years, secondary and matriculation education attainment, widowed, divorced and separated, low and middle incomes, and certain occupation groups of workers, have significant Odds Ratios (ORs larger than 1.2. It can be concluded that a clustering analysis stratified by age, income, educational attainment, marital status, and occupation is an effective way to detect the inequity hotspots of SUHI exposure. Additionally, inequities explored using income, marital status and occupation factors were more significant than the age and educational attainment in these areas. The derived maps and model can be further analyzed in urban/city planning, in order to mitigate the physical and social causes of the SUHI effect.

  7. Socio-demographic characteristics and tobacco use among the adults in urban slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandker, Nusrat Nausheen; Biswas, Tuhin; Khan, Abdullah Nurus Salam; Hasib, Enamul; Rawal, Lal B

    2017-01-01

    Use of tobacco has become one of the major causes of premature deaths in most developing countries, including Bangladesh. The poorest and most disadvantaged populations, such as those living in slums, are considered to be extremely vulnerable to non-communicable diseases and their risk factors, especially tobacco use. The objective of this study was to assess the current status of tobacco consumption among slum dwellers and its association with socio-demographic factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in three slums of Dhaka city. Information about tobacco use as well as socio-demographic characteristics was collected from adult slum dwellers via face to face interviews using WHO STEPS questionnaire. Overall proportion of smoking, smokeless tobacco consumption and dual use of tobacco was 35% [95% CI: 31.6-39.8], 40.6% [95% CI: 36.5-45.2] and 12% [95% CI: 9.3-15.0] respectively. Elderly people (55-64 years) were more likely to smoke (OR: 2.34, 95% CI: 1.21-4.49) than younger people (aged 25-34 years). On the other hand, those who had no schooling history (OR: 2.95, 95% CI: 1.66-5.25) were more likely to consume smokeless tobacco than those who had higher education (secondary or above). At the same time, manual workers were more likely to indulge in dual use of tobacco (OR: 5.17, 95% CI: 2.82-9.48) as compared to non-manual workers. The urban slum population of Dhaka city has a high prevalence of tobacco use, which increases their likelihood of developing non-communicable diseases. Proper attention needs to be directed towards addressing the risk factors related to non-communicable diseases within this vulnerable population.

  8. WHAT SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS DO INFLUENCE THE LEVEL OF TOURIST’S SATISFACTION IN MONTENEGRO? EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

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    Đurđica PEROVIĆ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Montenegro as tourist destination is committed to providing a high quality experience for the tourists while carefully managing the use of a rare natural resource. In order to achieve the strategic objectives in sustainable tourism development in the future, the main focus should be given to the analysis of the main determinants of tourist satisfaction. Using a database that provides information on tourist travel behaviour and satisfaction during her/his stay in Montenegro, we have conducted empirical analysis to understand if the socio-demographic characteristics are associated with the level of tourist’s satisfaction. The effect of socio-demographic characteristics is measured through five dimensions: gender, age, country of residence, occupation and wage. Using multinomial logit model we analyze above mentioned socio-demographic characteristics and their influence on the level of tourist’s satisfaction in Montenegro.

  9. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and treatment characteristics of spondyloarthritis patients with and without acute anterior uveitis

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    Marcelo Gehlen

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Acute anterior uveitis is a common extra-articular manifestation in spondyloarthritis patients. The aim of this study was to compare demographic, clinical, laboratory and treatment data among spondyloarthritis patients with and without acute anterior uveitis. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a cross-sectional analytical study at the Rheumatology Outpatient Clinic of the Evangelical University Hospital, Curitiba, Brazil. METHODS: Spondyloarthritis patients with without acute anterior uveitis were compared regarding demographic data, spondyloarthritis subtype, peripheral arthritis, enthesitis, disease activity, functional index, physical examination, radiological involvement, HLA-B27 and treatment. RESULTS: Presence of acute anterior uveitis was not found to have any relationship with functional index, degree of radiological involvement, peripheral arthritis or enthesitis. Acute anterior uveitis showed a negative association with skin manifestations (P = 0.04 and a trend towards higher disease activity (P = 0.06. CONCLUSION: In the study sample, it could not be shown that AAU had any association with the functional and radiological prognoses. The patients with spondyloarthritis with and without acute anterior uveitis did not differ clinically except for a higher proportion of ankylosing spondylitis and smaller presence of skin involvement in those with uveitis.

  10. Personal and socio-demographic characteristics as correlates of value orientations and interests of students in Vojvodina

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    Gajić Olivera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Social transition and changes in the cultural context inevitably impose the need of redefining the value systems which are particularly reflected through the differences of the multicultural framework such as, for example, Vojvodina. The paper presents the results of a theoretical and empirical study of students’ interests and value orientations. The results are viewed through the prism of influence of respondents’ individual and socio-demographic characteristics. Non-experimental causal method was used to study the correlation between variable groups. Interviewing was the research technique. The instrument for data collection was the questionnaire constructed for the purposes of the research. The study was conducted during the school year 2007/08 in Novi Sad, on the sample of 480 respondents - students of the University of Novi Sad, aged 19 to 24. Gender was studied in the group of personal (individual, constitutional features and it proved out to be a significant correlate of certain interests: sport, cultural and creative, as well as relational values (nourishing harmonious family relations, marriage, parenthood, partnership, feeling of belonging et al.. In the group of socio-demographic characteristics (structural forms of the family, financial status, social background, socio-cultural space: rural-urban it was established that social background correlates with interest in sport activities, educational and artistic interests, while variables social background and place of residence correlate with social life and social relations as dominant value orientations. Research results provide pedagogical implications for educational work with youth aimed at developing the values connected with constructive activities and encouragement of proactive orientation with respect to one’s own surroundings and existence, as well as the guidelines for introducing new contents into the existing curricula, in accordance with the expressed values and

  11. ALS Multicenter Cohort Study of Oxidative Stress (ALS COSMOS): study methodology, recruitment, and baseline demographic and disease characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Andrews, Howard; Goetz, Raymond R; Andrews, Leslie; Rabkin, Judith G; McElhiney, Martin; Nieves, Jeri; Santella, Regina M; Murphy, Jennifer; Hupf, Jonathan; Singleton, Jess; Merle, David; Kilty, Mary; Heitzman, Daragh; Bedlack, Richard S; Miller, Robert G; Katz, Jonathan S; Forshew, Dallas; Barohn, Richard J; Sorenson, Eric J; Oskarsson, Bjorn; Fernandes Filho, J Americo M; Kasarskis, Edward J; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Mozaffar, Tahseen; Rollins, Yvonne D; Nations, Sharon P; Swenson, Andrea J; Shefner, Jeremy M; Andrews, Jinsy A; Koczon-Jaremko, Boguslawa A

    2014-06-01

    Abstract In a multicenter study of newly diagnosed ALS patients without a reported family history of ALS, we are prospectively investigating whether markers of oxidative stress (OS) are associated with disease progression. Methods utilize an extensive structured telephone interview ascertaining environmental, lifestyle, dietary and psychological risk factors associated with OS. Detailed assessments were performed at baseline and at 3-6 month intervals during the ensuing 30 months. Our biorepository includes DNA, plasma, urine, and skin. Three hundred and fifty-five patients were recruited. Subjects were enrolled over a 36-month period at 16 sites. To meet the target number of subjects, the recruitment period was prolonged and additional sites were included. Results showed that demographic and disease characteristics were similar between 477 eligible/non-enrolled and enrolled patients, the only difference being type of health insurance among enrolled patients. Sites were divided into three groups by the number of enrolled subjects. Comparing these three groups, the Columbia site had fewer 'definite ALS' diagnoses. This is the first prospective, interdisciplinary, in-depth, multicenter epidemiological investigation of OS related to ALS progression and has been accomplished by an aggressive recruitment process. The baseline demographic and disease features of the study sample are now fully characterized.

  12. Child Pornography Possessors and Child Contact Sex Offenders: A Multilevel Comparison of Demographic Characteristics and Rates of Recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Erik; Bickart, William; Renaud, Cheryl; Camp, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Considerable debate surrounds the topic of whether possessing or distributing online images of child pornography (CP) represents a new type of crime perpetrated by conventional sex offenders (e.g., child contact [CC] sex offenders), or whether individuals who commit these crimes differ from contact sex offenders in meaningful ways. The current study compares groups of Internet (CP) and CC sexual offenders, with each group's sexual offending history exclusively confined to its offense category. T tests were used to conduct bivariate comparisons of group demographics and criminal histories. Rates of recidivism were examined using survival curves and Cox proportional hazard regression models. Results showed significant differences on demographic and criminal history variables, with CP offenders demonstrating a lower frequency of prior criminal offending and substance abuse, and higher rates of pre-incarceration employment and level of education. Rates of recidivism were significantly different between the two groups, with CP offenders showing lower rates of re-offense for most measures of recidivism. When controlling for background characteristics and the timing of the event, CC offenders were at much greater risk for having an arrest for a new crime or a non-sexual violent crime than CP offenders. Treatment and policy implications are discussed, along with suggestions for future research. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Pharmacological treatment and demographic characteristics of pediatric patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmanyar, Shahram; Sundström, Anders; Kaijser, Magnus; von Knorring, Anne-Liis; Kieler, Helle

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the pediatric population with ADHD and their pharmacological treatment. Using the Swedish National Patient Register and the Prescribed Drug Register we identified individuals below 19 years of age who were diagnosed or medically treated for ADHD for the first time 2006-2007. The unique patient identifiers were used to link information from the two registers to describe demographic characteristics, hospital care and drug treatments. Logistic regression model estimated the association between age, sex, frequency of hospitalization, diagnosis or treatment for other mental disorders and risk of gap in the treatment. Totally the study included 7931 patients of whom 74% were males. The mean age at first diagnosis was 12 years. Some 84% were medically treated for ADHD and approximately 90% received methylphenidate as the first substance. Combination therapy was rare and the most common combination was methylphenidate and atomoxetine. More than 55% of the patients, which could be followed up for two years after start of treatment, had at least one treatment gap of six months. Older age at diagnosis, lower number of hospitalizations and comorbidity with other mental disorders increased risks of gaps in medication. Approximately one fifth of the patients recorded in the National Patient Register as diagnosed with ADHD did not receive pharmacological treatment. Medication adherence seems to be low, when measured as gaps in treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  14. Quality of Life in Patients With Schizophrenia in China: Relationships Among Demographic Characteristics, Psychosocial Variables, and Symptom Severity.

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    Cai, Chunfeng; Yu, Liping

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the relationships among demographic characteristics, psychosocial variables, symptom severity, and quality of life (QOL), and the way these variables affect QOL in patients with schizophrenia living in Hubei, China. A convenience sample of 178 individuals with schizophrenia participated. The results suggest that the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale was positively and statistically significantly correlated with employment status (r = 0.232, p empowerment (r = 0.692; p empowerment (accounting for 22.1% of variance) was the best positive predictor, whereas symptom severity (accounting for 7.6% of variance) was the best negative predictor of QOL in patients with schizophrenia. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(8), 48-54.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Impact of socio-demographic characteristics on travel expenditures of Hungarian tourists in the village of Skorenovac

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    Krejić Živana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of rural tourism in Vojvodina affects the survival of village and livelihoods of its people. Despite the numerous problems that villages of Vojvodina face, an example of good practice is the village of Skorenovac in the municipality of Kovin in Banat. Local culture, traditions and legends of the distant past, and a unique way of life of the population of this village are the primary motives and grounds of the arrival of tourists and they affect the development of rural tourism. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences in the consumption of Hungarian tourists in the village Skorenovac in relation to age, level of education and gender. The results of research should serve as encouragement of rural households to monitor socio-demographic characteristics of tourists to suitably form the tourist offer in order to increase profit.

  16. Quality of life of caregivers for patients of cerebrovascular accidents: association of (socio-demographic characteristics and burden

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    Tatiana Ferreira da Costa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Investigating the association between quality of life with socio-demographic characteristics and the burden of caregivers for individuals with cerebrovascular accident sequelae. METHOD A descriptive, cross-sectional study with a sample composed of 136 caregivers. For data collection, a semi-structured questionnaire, the Barthel, Burden Interview and Short-Form-36 scales were used. Correlation analysis, t-Student test and F-test were used for the analysis in order to compare averages. RESULTS Significant averages in quality of life were demonstrated in association with female caregivers and those over 60 years in the field 'functional capacity,' and in the domains of 'mental health' and 'vitality' for those with higher income. Regarding burden association, the highlighted areas were 'functional capacity,' 'physical aspects,' 'emotional aspects' and 'pain.' CONCLUSION The creation of public policies and social support to effectively reduce the burden on caregivers is a necessity.

  17. Demographics of HIV-1 infection in Denmark: results from the Danish HIV Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Nicolai; Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Kronborg, Gitte; Kvinesdal, Birgit; Pedersen, Court; Larsen, Carsten S; Møller, Axel; Willumsen, Lars; Obel, Niels

    2005-01-01

    We used a population-based cohort study design to describe the demographic characteristics of the HIV-infected population in Denmark and their variation over time. HIV treatment in Denmark is restricted to 9 centres, and all 3941 HIV-1 infected patients more than 15 y old seen at these centres in 1995-2003 were included. We found an estimated HIV prevalence of 70 per 100,000, and a mean annual incidence rate of 5.1 per 100,000 persons. The number of newly infected individuals was stable with a median of 231 per y (period 1995-2002), whereas the number of deaths decreased from 166 in 1995 to 50 in 2000 (p=0.000) and remained stable thereafter. Of the enrolled patients, 75% were males, 80% were Caucasian, 13% were black African, and the primary risk behaviour was male-to-male sexual contact (44%), heterosexual contact (36%), and injection drug use (11%). During the y 1995-2003 we found an increase in age at diagnosis (p=0.000), and no major changes in gender, race, mode of infection, or baseline CD4+ cell count and viral load, neither overall not within subgroups of patients. In this period 14.5% had AIDS at the time of HIV diagnosis. Our data do not confirm concerns about unmonitored evolution in the HIV epidemic in Denmark.

  18. The Relationship of Parental Military Background to the Demographic Characteristics of 11,195 Navy Recruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-19

    listed in this table. All chisquares are signficant at p < .01. Nonsignficant changes in multivariate odds for specific demographic subgroups are noted...demographic variables identifying subgroups with significantly different percentages of CONFs among them are listed in this table. All chisquares are

  19. The Clinical and Demographic Characteristics of Pediatric Behçet’s Patients

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    Hayriye Sarıcaoğlu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, we aimed to compare the clinical and demographic features of pediatric Behçet’s patients with those of adult age.Materials and Method: We examined the clinical and demographic features of the 18 and under 18-year-old children who were followed-up in the Behçet's Center of Uludağ University Medical Faculty between 1992 and 2007, retrospectively. The information of age, sex, presence of oral aphthous ulcers, genital ulcers, erythema nodosum, papulopustular eruption, pathergy test positivity, ocular, articular, neurological, gastrointestinal, renal involvements and HLA-B5 positivity were obtained from the medical charts of the patients.Results: There were 30 pediatric Behçet diagnosed according to the diagnostic criteria of International Study Group for Behçet's Disease. The mean age of the patients was 15.9. At the time of the diagnosis, most of the patients were aged between 17-18 (43.3%. There was only one patient under 10. Oral aphthae was observed in all, and genital ulceration or the scar of the ulcer was observed in 23 patients; 15 females, 8 males (76.6%. Ocular involvement was present in 18 patients; 8 females, 10 males (60%; erythema nodosum in 13 patients; 8 females, 5 males (43.3%, papulopustular eruption in 16 patients; 10 females, 6 males and pathergy test positivity in 12 patients; 7 females, 5 males (36.6%. Vascular symptoms were observed in 2 patients, arthralgia-arthritis in 15 patients and neurological involvement in 4 patients.Conclusion: In this study, it was concluded that ocular involvement was more frequent in Behçet’s patients aged between 0-18 than adult Behçet’s patients, but mucocutaneous findings had similar frequency. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2008; 6: 89-93

  20. Comparison of Population Pyramid and Demographic Characteristics between People with an Intellectual Disability and the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chiu, Tzu-Ying

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to measure disparities of age structure between people with an intellectual disability and general population, and to explore the difference of demographic characteristics between these two populations by using data from a population based register in Taiwan. Data were analyzed by SPSS 20.0 statistical software.…

  1. A Survey Study to Find out the Relationship between Leadership Styles and Demographic Characteristics of Elementary and Secondary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatlah, Ijaz Ahmed; Quraishi, Uzma; Hussain, Ishtiaq

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a study aiming to investigate the leadership styles of elementary and secondary school teachers' in Public Sector schools in Lahore, Pakistan. The study also explored if there was any correlation between demographic characteristics of teachers and their leadership styles. A survey was conducted using Task-oriented and…

  2. Adult Learners in Higher Education: A Rural-Urban Analysis of Pennsylvania FAFSA Applicants' Educational, Demographic, and Financial Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Esther; Kassab, Cathy; Campbell, Kimeka

    2015-01-01

    This article paints a comprehensive portrait of the demographic, financial, and educational characteristics of Pennsylvania postsecondary students who are adult learners, and identifies rural-urban differences within this group. The study analyzed data from the 2010-11 Free Application for Federal Student Aid (n = 610,925), supplemented by…

  3. GED Recipients in Postsecondary Education: A Rural-Urban Analysis of Pennsylvania FAFSA Applicants' Educational, Demographic, and Financial Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Esther; Kassab, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Transitions to postsecondary education for GED graduates are a growing concern for educators and policy makers. This article analyzes the educational, demographic, and financial characteristics of Pennsylvania postsecondary students with a GED credential compared with traditional high school graduates, and identifies rural-urban differences within…

  4. Multiple Sclerosis and Several Demographic Characteristics, Family History of MS, and Month of Birth: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Several factors have been reported as risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS); however, the main causes of the disease are still unknown. A geographical area with a low MS incidence is Ahvaz, Iran. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of several demographic characteristics, family history, and birth month with MS in Ahvaz. Patients and Methods ...

  5. Demographic and Lifestyle Characteristics, but Not Apolipoprotein E Genotype, Are Associated with Intelligence among Young Chinese College Students.

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    Xiao-Fen Chen

    Full Text Available Intelligence is an important human feature that strongly affects many life outcomes, including health, life-span, income, educational and occupational attainments. People at all ages differ in their intelligence but the origins of these differences are much debated. A variety of environmental and genetic factors have been reported to be associated with individual intelligence, yet their nature and contribution to intelligence differences have been controversial.To investigate the contribution of apolipoprotein E (APOE genotype, which is associated with the risk for Alzheimer's disease, as well as demographic and lifestyle characteristics, to the variation in intelligence.A total of 607 Chinese college students aged 18 to 25 years old were included in this prospective observational study. The Chinese revision of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (the fourth edition, short version was used to determine the intelligence level of participants. Demographic and lifestyle characteristics data were obtained from self-administered questionnaires.No significant association was found between APOE polymorphic alleles and different intelligence quotient (IQ measures. Interestingly, a portion of demographic and lifestyle characteristics, including age, smoking and sleep quality were significantly associated with different IQ measures.Our findings indicate that demographic features and lifestyle characteristics, but not APOE genotype, are associated with intelligence measures among young Chinese college students. Thus, although APOE ε4 allele is a strong genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, it does not seem to impact intelligence at young ages.

  6. Comparison of Population Pyramid and Demographic Characteristics between People with an Intellectual Disability and the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chiu, Tzu-Ying

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to measure disparities of age structure between people with an intellectual disability and general population, and to explore the difference of demographic characteristics between these two populations by using data from a population based register in Taiwan. Data were analyzed by SPSS 20.0 statistical software.…

  7. Effects of Demographic Characteristics, Educational Background, and Supporting Factors on ICT Readiness of Technical and Vocational Teachers in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazzam, Abu-Obaideh; Bakar, Ab Rahim; Hamzah, Ramlah; Asimiran, S.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine ICT readiness and the effects of demographic characteristics, educational background, and support factors on the ICT readiness of technical and vocational teachers in Malaysia. The questionnaire was administered to 329 technical and vocational teachers who are teaching engineering subjects in Malaysian…

  8. Multiple Sclerosis and Several Demographic Characteristics, Family History of MS, and Month of Birth: A Case-Control Study

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    Bagheri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Several factors have been reported as risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS; however, the main causes of the disease are still unknown. A geographical area with a low MS incidence is Ahvaz, Iran. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of several demographic characteristics, family history, and birth month with MS in Ahvaz. Patients and Methods This was a case-control study including 155 MS cases and 155 controls matched for age, sex, and residential status. The participants were selected randomly, using a systematic method, from the MS patients referred to the MS Society of Khuzestan (Iran. The data collection tool was a standardized questionnaire designed by the authors to assess demographic characteristics. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics including mean, frequency, and standard deviation and inferential statistical tests including χ2, Fisher’s exact test, and logistic regression using SPSS version 19. Results In both cases and controls, no significant associations were found between Arab ethnicity and incidence of MS, marital status and risk of MS in Ahvaz, or more than 15-year residency in Ahvaz, birth in Khuzestan, and month of birth and the risk of MS (P > 0.05. However, there was a marginally significant association between living from birth to age 15 years in Ahvaz and MS (P = 0.05. Furthermore, there was an association between a family history of MS and the risk of MS in Ahvaz (P = 0.02, which was significant in univariate logistic regression (P = 0.006. Conclusions The findings suggested that according to the ecological conditions of Ahvaz, a family history of MS may increase the risk of developing MS.

  9. Factor structure of the Athens Insomnia Scale and its associations with demographic characteristics and depression in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; King, Bryan H; Chang, Yu-Ping

    2010-03-01

    The eight-item Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS-8) is an instrument that has been used frequently to assess insomnia problems. Previous research on adults has found that the AIS-8 functioned as a sole component. This study aimed to examine the prevalence rates of insomnia problems on the AIS-8, the factor structure of the AIS-8 in adolescents and its associations with demographic characteristics and depression in adolescents. A total of 8319 adolescent students (4334 girls and 3985 boys, mean age = 14.7 years, standard deviation = 1.7 years) in southern Taiwan were recruited into this study and completed the AIS-8. We performed an exploratory factor analysis to examine the factor structure of the AIS-8, and used the parallel analysis for making decisions regarding factor retention. We also used multiple regression analysis models to determine the associations between insomnia and demographic characteristics and depression. The results found that a high proportion of adolescents had insomnia problems as measured by the AIS-8. The AIS-8 was composed of two different factors when used among a large adolescent population, including insomnia symptoms (factor 1) and subjective sleep and daytime distress (factor 2). While being male, being younger, and having depression were associated positively with the severity of insomnia symptoms (factor 1), being older, living in urban areas, and having depression were associated positively with the severity of subjective sleep and daytime distress (factor 2). Clinicians and researchers should consider the different meanings of the two factors of the AIS-8 when using this tool to assess insomnia problems in adolescents.

  10. The Role of Employers’ Demographic and Socio-Economical Characteristics in their Decision to Introduce Sports Programs in their Companies

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    Ioannis Trigonis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the role of the employer’s demographic and socio-economic characteristics in his/her decision to introduce and organize sports programmes in their companies. The sample of this research consisted of more than one hundred employers employing more than thirty workers each, in the districts of Rodopi, Kozani, and Thessaloniki. A survey was conducted in which the employers were asked to provide information and statistical data about the people working in their companies, as well as their own opinion concerning the introduction of sports at work. In addition, their demographic and socio-economic characteristics were recorded. The results indicated that the employers with a higher level of education make use of sports programmes in their companies more often, compared to those with a lower level of education. Sex, age and salary of employers did not affect the frequency of sports programmes at work. The employers claim that the introduction of sports activities in their companies helped reduce the appearance of illnesses and employees’ absence from work due to health reasons, and the number of accidents at work. Consequently, it contributed to the increase in production, creativity and team spirit among the employees, while raising their morale, and self-confidence. Moreover, it brought about a rise in profits and improved the image of the company offering such programmes. A research focus on the legal status, organization and establishment of sports activities at work could provide valuable information on whether health and safety measures are applied according to the provisions of the law.

  11. An evaluation of the relations between flow regime components, stream characteristics, species traits and meta-demographic rates of warmwater stream fishes: Implications for aquatic resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, James T.; Shea, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Fishery biologists are increasingly recognizing the importance of considering the dynamic nature of streams when developing streamflow policies. Such approaches require information on how flow regimes influence the physical environment and how those factors, in turn, affect species-specific demographic rates. A more cost-effective alternative could be the use of dynamic occupancy models to predict how species are likely to respond to changes in flow. To appraise the efficacy of this approach, we evaluated relative support for hypothesized effects of seasonal streamflow components, stream channel characteristics, and fish species traits on local extinction, colonization, and recruitment (meta-demographic rates) of stream fishes. We used 4 years of seasonal fish collection data from 23 streams to fit multistate, multiseason occupancy models for 42 fish species in the lower Flint River Basin, Georgia. Modelling results suggested that meta-demographic rates were influenced by streamflows, particularly short-term (10-day) flows. Flow effects on meta-demographic rates also varied with stream size, channel morphology, and fish species traits. Small-bodied species with generalized life-history characteristics were more resilient to flow variability than large-bodied species with specialized life-history characteristics. Using this approach, we simplified the modelling framework, thereby facilitating the development of dynamic, spatially explicit evaluations of the ecological consequences of water resource development activities over broad geographic areas. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. What Demographic and Clinical Characteristics Correlate With Expectations With Trapeziometacarpal Arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Lana; Nguyen, Joseph; Hashmi, Sohaib Z; Lee, Steve K; Weiland, Andrew J; Mancuso, Carol A

    2017-04-19

    Pretreatment variables have been shown to be associated with the fulfillment of patient expectations, yet in treating thumb trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis (OA) it remains unclear how patient expectations correlate with the effectiveness of treatment. An increased understanding of the variables that affect patient expectations enables tailored patient education and patient-provider communication. (1) Is there a correlation between patient demographics and clinical characteristics, and the expectations the patients have when seeking treatment for trapeziometacarpal OA? (2) What factors are independently associated with the total expectations score and frequency of expecting "back to normal" among patients treated for trapeziometacarpal OA? Between March 2011 and October 2013, 89 patients of all 96 eligible patients seeking treatment for trapeziometacarpal OA were approached and agreed to participate in this study. Participants completed a validated expectations survey measuring the number of expectations and the degree of improvement expected. Comparative analysis of demographic and clinical characteristics and multivariate regression analysis against patients' expectations were performed to assess and identify factors that correlate with the number and degree of expectations. Sample size was determined with an a priori power analysis (with 80% power and statistical significance set at p < 0.05), which showed that 88 patients were needed to detect the minimal clinical difference of 12 points in the Michigan Hand Questionnaire; we then increased this by 10% to allow for potential dropouts. After controlling for potential confounding variables such as age, hand dominance, and work status, the following factors were associated with a higher expectations score: choice of surgery (β = 11.5; 95% CI, 0.7-23.8; p = 0.044), female gender (β = 19.0; 95% CI, 5.3-32.7; p = 0.007), and dominant side affected (β = -41.6; 95% CI, -63.7 to -19.5; p < 0.001). For

  13. Socio-demographic factors and selected clinical characteristics of patients with retinal vein occlusions in transitional Albania

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    Manushaqe Rustani-Batku

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of our study was to assess the distribution of socio-demographic factors and the clinical profile of individuals diagnosed with retinal vein occlusion (RVO in Albania, a former communist country in South-eastern Europe which has been undergoing a rapid transition in the past decades. Methods: This study was carried out in 2013-2016 at the Primary Health Care Centre No. 2 in Tirana municipality, which is the capital of Albania. During this timeframe, on the whole, 44 patients were diagnosed with RVO at this primary health care centre (17 women and 27 men; overall mean age: 69.5±11.5 years. The diagnosis of RVO was based on signs and symptoms indicating a quick reduction of the sight (vision, fundoscopy, fluorescein angiography and the optical coherence tomography. Data on socio-demographic factors and clinical characteristics were also gathered for each study participant. Results: The prevalence of glaucoma was considerably higher in men than in women (67% vs. 24%, respectively, P=0.01. Diabetic retinopathy was somehow more prevalent in women than in men (18% vs. 11%, respectively, whereas an opposite finding was noted for the presence of hypertensive retinopathy (6% vs. 11%, respectively. The prevalence of cataract was higher in female patients compared with their male counterparts (18% vs. 7%, respectively, P=0.36. Both macular oedema and papillary oedema were almost equally distributed in men and in women (22% vs. 18% and 4% vs. 6%, respectively. All female patients had comorbid conditions compared to 85% of their male counterparts (P=0.15. The prevalence of hypertension was almost identical in both sexes (52% in men vs. 53% in women, whereas the prevalence of diabetes was somehow higher in men than in women (26% vs. 18%, respectively.   Conclusion: This is one of the very few studies informing about the distribution of socio-demographic factors and selected clinical characteristics of individuals diagnosed with RVO in

  14. Racial Disparities in Obesity Prevalence in Mississippi: Role of Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qobadi, Mina; Payton, Marinelle

    2017-03-03

    Although the etiology of obesity is complex, social disparities are gaining attention for their contribution to obesity. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of obesity and to explore the associations between socio-demographic characteristics and obesity by race in Mississippi. Data from the 2014 Mississippi Behavior Risk Factors Surveillance System (BRFSS) were used in this study (n = 3794). Descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests and logistic regressions were conducted using SAS Proc. Survey procedures to account for BRFSS's multistage complex survey design and sample weights. The overall prevalence of self-reported obesity was 37%. Multiple logistic regression model showed gender was the only variable associated with increased risk of obesity among blacks. Black females were more likely to be obese (Adjusted OR [aOR] = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.4-2.7, ref = male) after controlling for confounders. Among white adults, obesity was significantly associated with physical activity, gender, age and education levels. Those aged 25-44 years (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.6, ref ≥ 64 years), those were physically inactivity (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4-2.5, ref = physically active) or had high school education (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.3, ref = college graduate) or some college (aOR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-2.3, ref = college graduate) were more likely to be obese; females (aOR = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.6-0.9, ref = male) and those aged 18-24 years (aOR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.21-0.9, ref ≥ 64 years) were less likely to be obese.

  15. Childhood sleep duration and associated demographic characteristics in an English cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Peter S; Humphreys, Joanna S; Gringras, Paul; Taheri, Shahrad; Scott, Nicola; Emond, Alan; Henderson, John; Fleming, Peter J

    2012-03-01

    To provide reference data on sleep duration throughout childhood and explore the demographic characteristics associated with sleep. Population-based prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study. South-West England, children born in 1991-1992 and followed since birth. Eleven thousand five hundred children with repeat measures of sleep from birth based on parent-reported questionnaires. Data on daytime and nighttime sleep duration and timings and night awakenings at 8 timepoints from age 6 months to 11 years. Total sleep duration steadily fell from 13 hours and 12 minutes during infancy to 9 hours and 49 minutes at 11 years of age. Compared with earlier studies, the younger children in this cohort slept for a shorter period. The variation in sleep duration was very wide: from 10 to 17 hours in early infancy, narrowing to 8.5 to 11 hours at 11 years. Half of the children at preschool age woke at least once during the night, but frequent waking (> 3 times) peaked in infancy (10% of all infants) and steadily declined in the preschool-aged years. Despite going to bed at the same time, girls slept consistently longer than boys (by 5-10 minutes). Children from low-income families went to bed later and woke up later, but there was little difference in total sleep duration. Children of younger mothers ( 35 years) slept persistently less. Children in larger families tended to go to bed later, as did the minority group of non-White children in the cohort. Given the wide natural variation of sleep in the childhood population, any recommendations on optimal sleep duration at any age must take into account considerable individual variability.

  16. Racial Disparities in Obesity Prevalence in Mississippi: Role of Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Qobadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the etiology of obesity is complex, social disparities are gaining attention for their contribution to obesity. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of obesity and to explore the associations between socio-demographic characteristics and obesity by race in Mississippi. Data from the 2014 Mississippi Behavior Risk Factors Surveillance System (BRFSS were used in this study (n = 3794. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests and logistic regressions were conducted using SAS Proc. Survey procedures to account for BRFSS’s multistage complex survey design and sample weights. The overall prevalence of self-reported obesity was 37%. Multiple logistic regression model showed gender was the only variable associated with increased risk of obesity among blacks. Black females were more likely to be obese (Adjusted OR [aOR] = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.4–2.7, ref = male after controlling for confounders. Among white adults, obesity was significantly associated with physical activity, gender, age and education levels. Those aged 25–44 years (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1–2.6, ref ≥ 64 years, those were physically inactivity (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4–2.5, ref = physically active or had high school education (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2–2.3, ref = college graduate or some college (aOR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2–2.3, ref = college graduate were more likely to be obese; females (aOR = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.6–0.9, ref = male and those aged 18–24 years (aOR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.21–0.9, ref ≥ 64 years were less likely to be obese.

  17. Relationship between apoptotic markers in semen from fertile men and demographic, hormonal and seminal characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ina O Specht; Marcello Spanò; Karin S Hougaard; Gian C Manicardi; Davide Bizzaro; Gunnar Toft; Aleksander Giwercman; Jens-Peter E Bonde

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis in the testis has two putative roles during normal spermatogenesis; limitation of the germ ceil population to numbers that can be supported by the Sertoli cells,and,possibly,selective depletion of meiotic and postmeiotic abnormal germ cells.We investigated the demographic and biological correlates of the pro-apoptotic marker Fas and the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-xL in sperm cells of fertile men.Six hundred and four men from Greenland,Poland and Ukraine were consecutively enrolled during their pregnant wife's antenatal visits.Semen analysis was performed as recommended by the World Health Organization.Immunofluorescence coupled to flow cytometry was utilized for detection of apoptotic markers in the sperm cell.DNA damage was assessed by flow cytometry using both the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay.The percentage of Fas-positive sperm cells was higher in men with high total sperm count (P<O.01),more motile sperms (P=O.04) and fewer sperm head defects (P=O.05).These associations were consistent within and across study regions.Furthermore,testosterone,follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and sexual hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were significantly negatively correlated with Fas within and across regions as well.The data indicated no association between the anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL marker and semen or personal characteristics.The finding of Fas-positive sperm cells associated with better semen quality in a cohort of spouses of pregnant women seems different from previous data obtained in infertile men and warrants further investigation to clarifv the biological significance of sperm apoptotic markers.

  18. Hysterectomy in a Danish cohort. Prevalence, incidence and socio-demographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settnes, A; Jorgensen, T

    1996-03-01

    The aim has been to assess the frequency of hysterectomy in relation to sociodemographic characteristics. A cross-sectional survey of 2,403 women selected at random from the population in the western part of Copenhagen County. One thousand seven hundred and sixty-five Danish women (77%) filled in the questionnaire and took part in the interview. The cohort was followed for eight years through central registers to assess the incidence of hysterectomy. Logistic and Cox regression were used as main statistics. Life time prevalence of hysterectomy was 10.4%. In the prevalence study, hysterectomy on benign diagnoses (85%) was related to short schooling, lack of vocational education, and low social status personally as well as regards the family. In the multivariate analyses school education, vocational education, and ascending social status by marriage were independent explanatory variables. In the incidence study, the crude rate of hysterectomy on benign diagnoses was 3.4 pr. 1000 years, with the 40-year-old women having the highest rate (7.8 pr. 1000 years). Risk factors as regards hysterectomy due to bleeding disorders and uterine fibroids at ages unemployment and lack of vocational education, only the latter reached significant level in the multivariate analysis. There are social inequalities regarding premenopausal hysterectomy on benign diagnoses, but the social-demographic indicators of interest have changed through the last decades. Short schooling and lack of social mobility by marriage were only associated with the hysterectomies performed before 1982, whereas lack of vocational education was related to hysterectomy independent of the calendar period involved. A woman without education has a relative risk of 2.2 (1.1-4.4) for hysterectomy compared to an educated woman.

  19. Socio-demographic, behavioral and functional characteristics of groups of community and institutionalized elderly Quechua Indians of Peru, and their association with nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Laura; Drusini, Andrea G

    2005-06-01

    Socio-demographic, behavioral, functional and anthropometric data for groups of elderly Quechua Indians of Peru were used to investigate the effects of gender and lifestyle patterns on nutritional status. Two community-dwelling samples were selected for study, representative of divergent lifestyles in terms of their combination of socio-economic, demographic and cultural contexts, plus an ad-hoc sample of institutionalized individuals with controlled food intake and reduced physical activity. Results suggest that differences in socio-demographic, behavioral and functional characteristics exist between the sexes and across settings (low- vs. highland) and lifestyles (institutionalized vs. community-dwelling; semi-urban vs. rural). These factors are likely to be related to diverging dietary and physical activity patterns, and have considerable effects on the nutritional status of the respondents.

  20. Effect of socio-demographic characteristics and clinical findings on the quality of life of patients with chronic venous insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soydan, Ebru; Yılmaz, Emel; Baydur, Hakan

    2017-08-01

    Objective This study was planned and implemented to evaluate the effect of socio-demographic characteristics and clinical findings on the quality of life of patients with chronic venous insufficiency. Methods The sample of this cross-sectional study consisted of 163 patients that presented with the diagnosis of chronic venous insufficiency to the cardiovascular surgery clinic of an education and research hospital in the west of Turkey. The data were collected during face-to-face interviews using a personal information form, clinical, etiology, anatomy, pathophysiology classification, venous insufficiency epidemiological and economic study-quality of life/symptoms scales and the Short Form-36. Descriptive statistics as well as univariate and multivariate analyses were used to analyze the data. Results The chronic venous insufficiency patients were found to have a low quality of life. Advanced age, higher body mass index, longer working times, being on regular medication, hypertension and presence of pigmentation according to the clinical, etiology, anatomy, pathophysiology classification were found to be associated with a reduced physical score in SF-36. Furthermore, longer weekly working hours and presence of pigmentation reduced the Venous Insufficiency Epidemiological and Economic Study-Quality of Life/Symptoms scores. Undertaking physical exercise at twice and more than twice a week increased the overall physical scores in SF-36. Conclusions The results of the study showed that the quality of life of chronic venous insufficiency patients are affected by not only physical characteristics, working hours and physical activity but also presence of edema and pigmentation.

  1. Baseline Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Adrenal Incidentaloma from a Single Center in China: A Survey

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    Lele Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the clinical and endocrinological characteristics of patients with adrenal incidentaloma (AI. Materials and Methods. This retrospective study enrolled 1941 AI patients hospitalized at the Department of Endocrinology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China, between January 1997 and December 2016. The patient gender, age at visits, imaging features, functional status, and histological results were analyzed. Results. Of the 1941 patients, 984 (50.70% were men. The median age was 52 years (interquartile range: 44–69 years. 140 cases had bilateral AI. Endocrine evaluation showed that 1411 (72.69% patients had nonfunctional tumor, 152 (7.83% had subclinical Cushing syndrome (SCS, and 82 (4.33% had primary hyperaldosteronism. A total of 925 patients underwent operation for removal of 496 cortical adenomas (53.62%, 15 adrenal cortical carcinomas (1.62%, and 172 pheochromocytomas (18.59%. The bilateral group had a higher proportion of SCS (18.57% versus 7.10%, P<0.001, P=0.006. A mass size of 46 mm was of great value in distinguishing malignant tumors from the benign tumors, with sensitivity of 88.2% and specificity of 95.5%. Conclusions. We reported the baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with AI in a large series from a single center in China.

  2. Socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics of illegal motorcycle street racers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Li Ping

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study sought to understand the factors associated with street racing among the illegal motorcycle racers in Malaysia or known as the "Mat Rempit". Methods Street outreach interviewer-administered surveys were conducted from June 2008 to January 2009 in this multi-state study. Results A total of 2022 participants were surveyed, the mean ± SD age of the participants was 20.5 ± 3.4 years (age range: 12 to 35 years. Mean duration of street racing was 2.65(SD ± 1.77 years (range: 2 months to 12 years, with 50.1% and 35.8% reporting stunt riding and alcohol drinking while racing, respectively. With regard to risk behaviours, cigarette smoking was highly prevalent among the study participants (78.3%, followed by alcohol drinking (27.8% and recreational drug use (18.8%. Participants scored high on the masculinity scale (15.7 ± 4.0 out of 21.0. The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that socio-demographic variables, risk behaviour and masculinity scores were associated with racing frequency. Conclusion Given these associations, tailoring family-centered interventions to the needs of the lower socio-economic groups and interventions recognizing the negative consequences of health risk behaviours related to street racing as an expression of traditional masculinity should be emphasized.

  3. Predicting Language Teachers’ Classroom Management Orientations on the Basis of Their Computer Attitude and Demographic Characteristics

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    Sara Jalali

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The advent of modern technologies has had a remarkable role in revolutionizing the classroom setting. It is, therefore, incumbent on teachers to utilize strategies for effective managing of the change. The aim of the present study was to find out English as a Foreign Language (EFL teachers’ beliefs regarding classroom management. In so doing, the relationship between EFL teachers’ demographic variables (age and years of teaching experience, computer attitude, and their classroom instructional and behavior management orientations was explored. The participants of the study comprised a total of 105 male and female EFL language school teachers in Iran. The data for the current study were collected through two questionnaires. The results of the multiple linear regression analyses revealed that the independent variables of participants’ computer attitude, age, and teaching experience are not suitable predictors of both behavioral and instructional management. The results also showed that as the age and teaching experience of the participants increased their attitudes towards computers became more negative

  4. Longitudinal change in the use of services in autism spectrum disorder: understanding the role of child characteristics, family demographics, and parent cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siller, Michael; Reyes, Nuri; Hotez, Emily; Hutman, Ted; Sigman, Marian

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify child characteristics, family demographics, and parent cognitions that may affect access to early intervention, special education, and related services. The sample included 70 families of young children with autism spectrum disorders. All parents were enrolled in a short education program, providing them with basic information and resources on advocating for a young child with autism spectrum disorders (Parent Advocacy Coaching). Longitudinal change in children's intervention program in the community was evaluated over a period of about 27 months, starting 12 months prior to enrollment in Parent Advocacy Coaching. Results revealed large individual differences in the intensity of children's individual and school-based services. Despite this variability, only two child characteristics (age, gender) emerged as independent predictors. In contrast, the intensity of children's intervention programs was independently predicted by a broad range of demographic characteristics, including parental education, child ethnicity and race, and family composition. Finally, even after child characteristics and family demographics were statistically controlled, results revealed associations between specific parental cognitions (parenting efficacy, understanding of child development) and the subsequent rate of change in the intensity of children's intervention programs. Implications for improving educational programs that aim to enhance parent advocacy are discussed.

  5. Demographic Characteristics and Clinical Outcome of Work-related Open Globe Injuries in the Most Industrialised Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kıvanç, Sertaç Argun; Akova Budak, Berna; Skrijelj, Emina; Tok Çevik, Mediha

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate demographic characteristics and clinical outcomes of work-related open globe injuries in the most industrialized region of Turkey. The demographic and medical records of patients with work-related open globe injuries who presented to the ophthalmology or emergency departments with an official occupational accident report were retrospectively reviewed. Visual acuity categories were defined according to the World Health Organization. The injury types and zones of the open globes were classified according to Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology System. Among 479 patients with work-related eye injuries in 5 years, there were 102 eyes of 101 patients with open globe injuries (21%). The mean age of the patients was 34.5±8.9 years with a mean follow-up of 12.5±12.6 months. The injuries peaked in June in the hour between 12:00 and 13:00. Eighty-six percent presented to emergency services within 12 hours after the injury. Twenty-two percent of the patients had been wearing protective eyewear at the time of injury. The open globe injuries were penetrating in 51%, intraocular foreign body in 40%, rupture in 7% and perforation in 2% of the eyes. The most frequent finding was traumatic cataract. Final visual acuity of 33.3% of patients was below 3/60. Seventy-eight percent of patients that had visual acuity worse than 6/18 at presentation had visual acuity of 6/18 or better at final visit. Sixty-three percent of eyes which had injuries involving all 3 zones resulted in phthisis bulbi, enucleation or evisceration. Work-related open globe injuries may have severe consequences such as visual impairment and blindness among the young male working population in industrialized areas. Nearly half of the occupational open globe injuries resulted in visual impairment and blindness.

  6. Socio-demographic characteristics and career choices amongst Chilean dental students.

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    Karla Gambetta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the socio-demographic and career choice characteristics of dental students in two publicly funded universities in Chile. A total of 601 dental students participated in the study with a 53% response rate.The written survey covered age, gender, type of school attended, place of residence, parental occupation, level of education, tuition fees payment methods, along with motivations and preferences towards dentistry as a career. The respondents had an average age of 22 years old. Sixty one percent of respondents were female, and the majority had completed secondary education in private and subsidized schools with only 21.5% having finished in public schools. Most of the students covered their tuition fees with parental money (37.1%, followed by any type of loan (27.9%. The majority of students (63.8% had placed dentistry as their first career choice with self-motivation being the most important reason for their decision. This study provides a description of the socio-demographic and economic profile of Chilean dental students and provides insights about career decision issues. It also purposes areas for further research and management by academics for future program development. RESUMEN El presente estudio descriptivo de corte transversal explora el perfil socio-demográfico y los factores asociados a la elección de la carrera de los estudiantes de odontología pertenecientes a dos universidades estales chilenas. Un total de 601 estudiantes participaron de esta investigación con una tasa de respuesta del 53%.La encuesta escrita incluyó, edad, género, educación secundaria, lugar de residencia, nivel educacional y ocupación de los padres, método de pago junto con las motivaciones y proyecciones de los estudiantes hacia la carrera. Los participantes reportaron una edad promedio de 22 años. Sesenta y un por ciento de los participantes fueron mujeres, y la mayoría terminó la enseñanza media

  7. Socio-Demographic Characteristics, Partner Characteristics, Socioeconomic Variables, and Intimate Partner Violence in Women with Schizophrenia in South-South Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afe, Taiwo Opekitan; Emedoh, Thomas C; Ogunsemi, Olawale O; Adegohun, Abosede Adekeje

    2017-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is common among patients with severe mental illness such as schizophrenia. Few surveys have explored IPV among this specific group of patients and the demographic characteristics of victims in Nigeria. The aim of this survey was to explore socio-demographic, socioeconomic characteristics of victims and partners. A cross-sectional randomized survey of 79 women with schizophrenia from a major adult psychiatric outpatient in South-south Nigeria was done. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) was used to establish the diagnosis of schizophrenia among the participants and a purposely designed questionnaire to assess IPV. The mean age of the participants was 38.3 ± 2.8 years; the majority (73%) reported at least one form of IPV. Verbal abuse was the most (71%) prevalent form of IPV. Our findings highlight a need for proper attention to demographics of both victims and their male partners by clinicians.

  8. Socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics of illegal motorcycle street racers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping

    2011-06-08

    This study sought to understand the factors associated with street racing among the illegal motorcycle racers in Malaysia or known as the "Mat Rempit". Street outreach interviewer-administered surveys were conducted from June 2008 to January 2009 in this multi-state study. A total of 2022 participants were surveyed, the mean ± SD age of the participants was 20.5 ± 3.4 years (age range: 12 to 35 years). Mean duration of street racing was 2.65(SD ± 1.77) years (range: 2 months to 12 years), with 50.1% and 35.8% reporting stunt riding and alcohol drinking while racing, respectively. With regard to risk behaviours, cigarette smoking was highly prevalent among the study participants (78.3%), followed by alcohol drinking (27.8%) and recreational drug use (18.8%). Participants scored high on the masculinity scale (15.7 ± 4.0 out of 21.0). The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that socio-demographic variables, risk behaviour and masculinity scores were associated with racing frequency. Given these associations, tailoring family-centered interventions to the needs of the lower socio-economic groups and interventions recognizing the negative consequences of health risk behaviours related to street racing as an expression of traditional masculinity should be emphasized.

  9. Demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics related to persistent organic pollutants and mercury levels in pregnant women in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Chihiro; Sasaki, Seiko; Saijo, Yasuaki; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Baba, Toshiaki; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Todaka, Takashi; Iwasaki, Yusuke; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Hachiya, Noriyuki; Yasutake, Akira; Murata, Katsuyuki; Kishi, Reiko

    2015-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants and mercury are known environmental chemicals that have been found to be ubiquitous in not only the environment but also in humans, including women of reproductive age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between personal lifestyle characteristics and environmental chemical levels during the perinatal period in the general Japanese population. This study targeted 322 pregnant women enrolled in the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health. Each participant completed a self-administered questionnaire and a food-frequency questionnaire to obtain relevant information on parental demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics. In total, 58 non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, 17 dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofuran, and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls congeners, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and mercury were measured in maternal samples taken during the perinatal period. Linear regression models were constructed against potential related factors for each chemical concentration. Most concentrations of environmental chemicals were correlated with the presence of other environmental chemicals, especially in the case of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibezofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls which had similar exposure sources and persistence in the body. Maternal smoking and alcohol habits, fish and beef intake and household income were significantly associated with concentrations of environmental chemicals. These results suggest that different lifestyle patterns relate to varying exposure to environmental chemicals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Episodes of falling among elderly people: a systematic review and meta-analysis of social and demographic pre-disposing characteristics

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    F. Bloch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The multifactorial nature of falls among elderly people is well-known. Identifying the social-demographic characteristics of elderly people who fall would enable us to define the typical profile of the elderly who are at risk of falling. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to isolate studies in which the social-demographic risk factors for falls among the elderly have been evaluated and to carry out a meta-analysis by combining the results of all of these selected studies. METHOD: We did a systematic literature review using the key words "accidental fall / numerical data" and "risk factors." Inclusion criteria entailed the selection of articles with the following characteristics: population of subjects aged 60 years or over, falls that took place in everyday life, and social-demographic risk factors for falls. RESULTS: 3,747 indexed articles published between 1981 and 2007 were identified, and 177 studies with available data were included, of which 129 had data on social-demographic risk factors for falls. Difficulties in activities of daily living (ADL or in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL double the risk of falling: The OR and 95% Cl were 2.26 (2.09, 2.45 for disturbance ADL and 2.10 (1.68, 2.64 for IADL. The OR and 95% Cl for Caucasians were 1.68 (0.98 - 2.88 and 0.64 (0.51 - 0.80 for Hispanics. In the subgroup of patients older than eighty, being married protected people from falling with an OR and 95% Cl =0.68 (0.53 - 0.87. CONCLUSION: Defining factors that create a risk of falling and protect elderly people from falls using social-demographic characteristics lets us focus on an "at risk" population for which a specific program could be developed.

  11. Who Tweets with Their Location? Understanding the Relationship between Demographic Characteristics and the Use of Geoservices and Geotagging on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Luke; Morgan, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we take advantage of recent developments in identifying the demographic characteristics of Twitter users to explore the demographic differences between those who do and do not enable location services and those who do and do not geotag their tweets. We discuss the collation and processing of two datasets-one focusing on enabling geoservices and the other on tweet geotagging. We then investigate how opting in to either of these behaviours is associated with gender, age, class, the language in which tweets are written and the language in which users interact with the Twitter user interface. We find statistically significant differences for both behaviours for all demographic characteristics, although the magnitude of association differs substantially by factor. We conclude that there are significant demographic variations between those who opt in to geoservices and those who geotag their tweets. Not withstanding the limitations of the data, we suggest that Twitter users who publish geographical information are not representative of the wider Twitter population.

  12. Time 2 tlk 2nite: Youths’ use of electronic media during family meals and associations with demographic characteristics, family characteristics and foods served

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The study purpose was to examine the frequency of adolescents’ use of electronic media (TV/movie watching, text messaging, talking on the phone, listening to music with headphones and playing with handheld games) at family meals and examine associations with demographic characteristics, rules about media use, family characteristics and the types of foods served at meals using an observational, cross-sectional design. Data were drawn from two coordinated, population-based studies of adolescent...

  13. Travel patterns and demographic characteristics of malaria cases in Swaziland, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor-Garavito, Natalia; Dlamini, Nomcebo; Pindolia, Deepa; Soble, Adam; Ruktanonchai, Nick W; Alegana, Victor; Le Menach, Arnaud; Ntshalintshali, Nyasatu; Dlamini, Bongani; Smith, David L; Tatem, Andrew J; Kunene, Simon

    2017-09-08

    As Swaziland progresses towards national malaria elimination, the importation of parasites into receptive areas becomes increasingly important. Imported infections have the potential to instigate local transmission and sustain local parasite reservoirs. Travel histories from Swaziland's routine surveillance data from January 2010 to June 2014 were extracted and analysed. The travel patterns and demographics of rapid diagnostic test (RDT)-confirmed positive cases identified through passive and reactive case detection (RACD) were analysed and compared to those found to be negative through RACD. Of 1517 confirmed cases identified through passive surveillance, 67% reported travel history. A large proportion of positive cases reported domestic or international travel history (65%) compared to negative cases (10%). The primary risk factor for malaria infection in Swaziland was shown to be travel, more specifically international travel to Mozambique by 25- to 44-year old males, who spent on average 28 nights away. Maputo City, Inhambane and Gaza districts were the most likely travel destinations in Mozambique, and 96% of RDT-positive international travellers were either Swazi (52%) or Mozambican (44%) nationals, with Swazis being more likely to test negative. All international travellers were unlikely to have a bed net at home or use protection of any type while travelling. Additionally, paths of transmission, important border crossings and means of transport were identified. Results from this analysis can be used to direct national and well as cross-border targeting of interventions, over space, time and by sub-population. The results also highlight that collaboration between neighbouring countries is needed to tackle the importation of malaria at the regional level.

  14. Demographic characteristics and clinical profile of poor responders in IVF / ICSI: A comparative study

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    Nabaneeta Padhy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ovarian response varies considerably among individuals and depends on various factors. Poor response in IVF yields lesser oocytes and is associated with poorer pregnancy perspective. Cycle cancellation due to poor response is frustrating for both clinician and the patient. Studies have shown that women conceiving after poor ovarian response have more pregnancy complications like PIH and preeclampsia than women with normal ovarian response. In addition, poor ovarian response could be a predictor of early menopause. This paper studies various demographic and clinical profiles of poor responders and tries to look at the known and unknown factors which could contribute to poor ovarian response in IVF. Materials and Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from 104 poor responders who had less than four oocytes at retrieval and compared with 324 good responders for factors like age, BMI, type of sub fertility, duration of sub fertility, environmental factors like stress at work, smoking, pelvic surgery, chronic medical disorder, indication of IVF, basal FSH, mean age of menopause in their mothers etc. Results: Among the poor responders, 60.57% were above 35 years of age compared to 36.41% in control group, which is statistically significant. Mean age of menopause in mother was found to be four years earlier in poor responder group. Male factor and unexplained infertility were significantly (P<0.05 higher in good responders (P<0.05. Significant proportion (31.73% of women in study group had undergone some pelvic surgery (P<0.05. Conclusion: Apart from age, prior pelvic surgery also could be used as predictors for poor ovarian response. Heredity also plays a major role in determining ovarian response.

  15. Bipolar disorder subtypes in children and adolescents: demographic and clinical characteristics from an Australian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirneth, Stephen J; Hazell, Philip L; Hanstock, Tanya L; Lewin, Terry J

    2015-04-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) phenomenology in children and adolescents remains contentious. The study investigated Australian children and adolescents with bipolar I disorder (BD-I), bipolar II disorder (BD-II), or BD not otherwise specified (BD-NOS). Index episode demographics, symptomatology, functioning and diagnostic data were compared for 88 participants (63 female) aged 8-18 years (M=14.8, SD=2.5) meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for BD-I (n=24), BD-II (n=13) or BD-NOS (n=51). BD-I had higher rates of previous episodes, psychotropic medication (compared to BD-II but not BD-NOS), rates of inpatient admissions (compared to BD-NOS), and number of inpatient admissions (compared to BD-II). BD-II had lower rates of lifetime depression and anxiety disorders, higher frequency of hypomania, shorter duration of illness, and fewer previous episodes. BD-NOS had younger age of onset, chronic course, irritability and mixed presentation. All BD subtypes had high rates of self-harm (69.3%), suicidal ideation (73.9%), suicide attempts (36.4%), psychiatric admission (55.7%), and psychosis (36.4%). There were relatively small numbers of BD-I and BD-II. Diagnoses were based on retrospective recall. All BD subtypes had high levels of acuity and clinical risk. In accord with previous results, BD-I and BD-II participants' phenomenology was consistent with classical descriptions of these subtypes. BD-NOS participants were younger, with less euphoric mania but otherwise phenomenologically on a continuum with BD-I, suggesting that child and adolescent BD-NOS may be an early and less differentiated phase of illness of BD-I or BD-II and hence a target for early intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Lichen planopilaris: Demographic, clinical and histopathological characteristics and treatment outcomes of 25 cases

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    Deren Özcan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Lichen planopilaris (LPP is a type of cicatricial alopecia characterized by autoreactive lymphocytic destruction of the hair follicle. We aimed to evaluate the demographic, clinical and histopathological features, and treatment outcomes of patients with LPP. Materials and Methods: Medical reports of 25 patients, who have been diagnosed with LPP according to the clinical and histopathological findings between January 2006 and June 2012, were retrospectively reviewed. The transverse and vertical sections of scalp biopsy specimens were re-evaluated by a pathologist, and the findings were noted. Results: Of the 25 patients, 18 were female and 7 were male, the mean age was 49.8±12.4 years. Eighteen patients had been diagnosed with classic LPP and 7 patients with frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA. The alopecia has begun in postmenopausal period in 5 patients with FFA. Alopecia was associated with pruritus, pain and/or burning in 19 patients. Extra-scalp involvement was observed in 11 patients. The most common clinical findings were follicular hyperkeratosis (92%, perifollicular erythema (48%, perifollicular lichenoid papules, and positive hair-pull test (44%. Dermatoscopic examination was performed in 14 patients, and most commonly, absence of follicular openings (100%, perifollicular scales (92.9% and perifollicular erythema (50% were noted. The most common diagnostic histopathological findingsmwere follicular vacuolar and lichenoid degeneration (88% and vacuolar and lichenoid interface changes (56%. Twenty-three patients who were started on treatment received topical, intramuscular and intralesional corticosteroids, topical minoxidil, oral tetracycline, cyclosporine A, and hydroxychloroquine either alone or in combination. Progression of alopecia was prevented and the symptoms and/or signs were reduced in 12 (75% of 16 patients whose follow-up data were available. Conclusion: LPP can be diagnosed accurately through a detailed

  17. Local Community, Mobility and Belonging. Identification of and Socio- demographic Characteristics of Neighbourhoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth B.; Arp Fallov, Mia; Jørgensen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    In a perspective of socio-geographic segregation and it’s socio-demographic consequences, depopulation of specific rural areas in the outskirts of Denmark has become an issue of increasing importance in public debate and in part of the research community. The question of depopulation is also part...

  18. General and Special Education Teachers' Relations within Teamwork in Inclusive Education: Socio-Demographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radic-Sestic, Marina; Radovanovic, Vesna; Milanovic-Dobrota, Biljana; Slavkovic, Sanela; Langovic-Milicvic, Ana

    2013-01-01

    The general objective of this study was to establish the relation between general and special education teachers within teamwork and to define socio-demographic factors that affect teamwork. The sample encompassed 223 general and special education teacher of both genders, age 25 to 60, who are employed in regular elementary schools in Serbia. The…

  19. Latino Population Growth, Demographic Characteristics, and Educational Stagnation: An Examination of Recent Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa, Jorge; Valencia, Richard R.

    1993-01-01

    Presents data on rapid growth of the Latino population during the 1980s. Outlines ethnic and racial differences in educational attainment, family income, language status, age distribution, and other demographic variables. Discusses the impact of school segregation, growth of youth population, and low socioeconomic status on Latino access to…

  20. Demographic Characteristics as Predictors of Quality of Life in a Population of Psychiatric Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masthoff, Erik; Trompenaars, Fons; Van Heck, Guus; Hodiamont, Paul; De Vries, Jolanda

    2006-01-01

    Studies examining relationships between demographic variables in a general population of psychiatric outpatients and quality of life (QOL), in which QOL was assessed according to current recommendations, have not been performed yet. The aim of this study was to examine one particular aspect of this relationship: the question to what extent QOL…

  1. Baseline demographic, anthropometric, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics of rural, Southern women in early pregnacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning life in a healthy uterine environment is essential for future well-being, particularly as it relates to chronic disease risk. Baseline (early pregnancy) demographic, anthropometric (height and weight), psychosocial (depression and perceived stress), and behavioral (diet and exercise) char...

  2. The Role of Employers’ Demographic and Socio-Economical Characteristics in their Decision to Introduce Sports Programs in their Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis Trigonis; Ourania Matsouka; George Costa; George Tzetzis

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the role of the employer’s demographic and socio-economic characteristics in his/her decision to introduce and organize sports programmes in their companies. The sample of this research consisted of more than one hundred employers employing more than thirty workers each, in the districts of Rodopi, Kozani, and Thessaloniki. A survey was conducted in which the employers were asked to provide information and statistical data about the people working in ...

  3. Demographic and clinical characteristics in relation to patient and health system delays in a tuberculosis low-incidence country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leutscher, Peter; Madsen, Gitte; Erlandsen, Mogens;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Delays in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) are commonly encountered. Methods: A study was undertaken among pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) patients in a Danish university hospital to describe demographic and clinical characteristics ...... of TB. Conclusions: This study confi rmed a typical delay of months in duration in the diagnosis and treatment of TB in the low endemic country of Denmark. Increased TB awareness is needed, in particular in communities with immigrants originating from high-endemic areas....

  4. Socio-demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Patients who Attempt Suicide: A Hospital-based Study from Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, S; Mahato, A K

    2016-09-01

    Suicide has become an important public health concern with a high number of deaths and increasing number of attempted suicides every year. There are multiple factors that underlie a suicide attempt. Although mental illness and severe stress have long been known to be associated with suicide, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of those attempting suicide can also provide indications of suicidal intent. The present study aimed to explore the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of patients in Kolkata, India who attempted suicide. Consecutive patients (n = 100) with failed suicide attempt who were referred to the psychiatry department of 2 multispecialty hospitals in Kolkata were included in the study. Their socio-demographic details and clinical characteristics were recorded. Suicidal intent and depressive symptoms were assessed and psychosocial risk factors were identified following detailed clinical interview. Suicide attempt was more frequent among younger female patients. Reaction to stress was the most common risk factor. The majority of attempts were impulsive in nature rather than planned. Young adults under stress are more vulnerable. Early identification of such individuals and psychosocial support to prevent suicidal ideation is vital.

  5. Socio-Demographic Moderators of Environment-Physical Activity Associations: Results From the International Prevalence Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Lilian G; Conway, Terry L; Bauman, Adrian; Kerr, Jacqueline; Elder, John P; Arredondo, Elva M; Sallis, Jim F

    2017-08-03

    Associations between the built environment and physical activity (PA) may vary by socio-demographic factors. However, such evidence from international studies is limited. This study tested moderating effects of socio-demographic factors on associations between perceived environment and self-report total PA among adults from the International Prevalence Study. Between 2002-2003, adults from nine countries (N=10,258) completed surveys assessing total PA (IPAQ-short), perceived environment, and socio-demographics (age, gender, and education). Total PA was dichotomized as meeting/not meeting a) high PA levels and b) minimum PA guidelines (PAG). Logistic models tested environment by socio-demographic interactions (24 total). Education and gender moderated the association between safety from crime and meeting high PA levels (interaction p<0.05), with inverse associations found only among the high-education group and men. Education and gender also moderated associations of safety from crime and the presence of transit stops with meeting minimum PAG (interaction p<0.05), with positive associations found for safety from crime only among women and presence of transit stops only among men and the high-education group. The limited number of moderating effects found provides support for population-wide environment-PA associations. International efforts to improve built environments are needed to promote health-enhancing PA, and maintain environmental sustainability.

  6. Analysis of demographic characteristics in 3242 young age gastric cancer patients in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hye; Won; Chung; Sung; Hoon; Noh; Jong-Baeck; Lim

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the epidemiologic features of young age gastric cancer(GC). METHODS:Retrospectively,a total of 3242 patients with GC between 18 and 45 years of age and 3000 sex-and age-matched controls were reviewed.All subjects were stratified into 3 groups based on age (A,18-30 years;B,31-40 years;C,41-45 years). Epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors were investigated with reference to their age and gender. RESULTS:Compared to controls,more frequent intake of high risk diet(P=0.00075),history of ...

  7. Socio-demographic characteristics and psychosocial consequences of sickle cell disease: the case of patients in a public hospital in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzika, Vincent A; Glozah, Franklin N; Ayim-Aboagye, Desmond; Ahorlu, Collins S K

    2017-01-31

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is of major public health concern globally, with majority of patients living in Africa. Despite its relevance, there is a dearth of research to determine the socio-demographic distribution and psychosocial impact of SCD in Ghana. The objective of this study was to examine the socio-demographic distribution and psychosocial consequences of SCD among patients in Ghana and to assess their quality of life and coping mechanisms. A cross-sectional research design was used that involved the completion of questionnaires on socio-demographic characteristics, quality of life, coping mechanisms, anxiety and depression. Participants were 387 male and female patients attending a sickle cell clinic in a public hospital. Results showed that majority of the patients were single, female, less than 39 years old and had attained secondary school level of education or less. Also, patients were more satisfied by the presence of love, friends and relatives as well as home, community and neighbourhood environment. While pains of varied nature and severity were the major reasons for attending hospital in SCD condition, going to the hospital as well as having faith in God was the most frequently reported mechanisms for coping with an unbearable SCD attacks. Results of multiple regression analysis showed that some socio-demographic and quality of life indicators had strong associations with anxiety and/or depression. It is recommended that a holistic intervention strategy incorporating psychosocial dimensions should be considered in the treatment and management of SCD.

  8. Association of Socioeconomic Position and Demographic Characteristics with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Healthcare Access among Adults Living in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosey, G M; Samo, M; Gregg, E W; Barker, L; Padden, D; Bibb, S G

    2014-01-01

    Background. The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing in low-to-middle income countries. We examined how socioeconomic and demographic characteristics may be associated with CVD risk factors and healthcare access in such countries. Methods. We extracted data from the World Health Organization's STEPwise approach to surveillance 2002 cross-sectional dataset from Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). We used these data to estimate associations for socioeconomic position (education, income, and employment) and demographics (age, sex, and urban/rural) with CVD risk factors and with healthcare access, among a sample of 1638 adults (25-64 years). Results. In general, we found significantly higher proportions of daily tobacco use among men than women and respondents reporting primary-level education (12 years). Results also revealed significant positive associations between paid employment and waist circumference and systolic blood pressure. Healthcare access did not differ significantly by socioeconomic position. Women reported significantly higher mean waist circumference than men. Conclusion. Our results suggest that socioeconomic position and demographic characteristics impact CVD risk factors and healthcare access in FSM. This understanding may help decision-makers tailor population-level policies and programs. The 2002 Pohnpei data provides a baseline; subsequent population health surveillance data might define trends.

  9. Association of Socioeconomic Position and Demographic Characteristics with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Healthcare Access among Adults Living in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Hosey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD is increasing in low-to-middle income countries. We examined how socioeconomic and demographic characteristics may be associated with CVD risk factors and healthcare access in such countries. Methods. We extracted data from the World Health Organization’s STEPwise approach to surveillance 2002 cross-sectional dataset from Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM. We used these data to estimate associations for socioeconomic position (education, income, and employment and demographics (age, sex, and urban/rural with CVD risk factors and with healthcare access, among a sample of 1638 adults (25–64 years. Results. In general, we found significantly higher proportions of daily tobacco use among men than women and respondents reporting primary-level education (12 years. Results also revealed significant positive associations between paid employment and waist circumference and systolic blood pressure. Healthcare access did not differ significantly by socioeconomic position. Women reported significantly higher mean waist circumference than men. Conclusion. Our results suggest that socioeconomic position and demographic characteristics impact CVD risk factors and healthcare access in FSM. This understanding may help decision-makers tailor population-level policies and programs. The 2002 Pohnpei data provides a baseline; subsequent population health surveillance data might define trends.

  10. Results of shielding characteristics tests in Monju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usami, Shin; Suzuoki, Zenro; Deshimaru, Takehide; Nakashima, Fumiaki [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    In the prototype fast breeder reactor Monju, the shielding characteristics tests were made around the reactor core, the primary heat transport system, and the fuel handling and storage system as a part of the system start-up tests from 0% to 45% of rated power from October 1993 through December 1995. The results of the measurements, analyses and evaluations in these tests validated the FBR shielding analysis methods and demonstrated that there was a safe shielding design margin in Monju. The important basic data for use in future FBR shielding design were successfully acquired. In order to obtain more substantial basic data and to improve the accuracy of the analyses, the next shielding measurements are planned for the period of the system start-up tests at the restart of Monju. (author)

  11. Socio-demographic characteristics as determinants of quality of life and depression of older people in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaredić Biljana N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying the process of aging and old age is an important question in social sciences. The quality of life at this age, among other things, is being enriched with new life opportunities and challenges, as well as developmental tasks every single individual has to face with. Therefore the focus of this research is the correlation of the quality of life and depressiveness with different demographic characteristics of older people in Serbia. The demographic variables included: gender, age, education, marital status and monthly income of the respondents. The quality of life is measured using the Older People's Quality of Life Questionnaire - OPQOL (Bowling, 2009, as well as several questions on life domain satisfaction and chronical disease, while depressiveness was measured using Geriatric Depression Scale - GDS (Greenberg, 2007. The sample was a convenience one, consisted of 497 respondents, 50,35% of men and 49,7% of women, 65-92 years old. The final results show that the quality of life of older people in Serbia is within the average range, and depressiveness belongs to the -category with the level of mild occurence. Men are more satisfied with a job they have or used to have, while women better estimate their independence and control over their life. The age of respondents positively correlates with marital satisfaction, satisfaction with job, with parental role, health, social relations, independence and monthly incomes. The amount of monthly income positively correlates with job satisfaction and well-being, while it is negatively correlated with health, social relations, independence, home and neighbourhood, financial status and the depressiveness of the respondents. The level of education is significantly correlated with marital satisfaction, job, whole life, health, social relations and activities, satisfaction with home and neighbourhood, emotional and psychic well-being, financial status and the level of depressiveness of the respondents

  12. Childhood body mass index trajectories: modeling, characterizing, pairwise correlations and socio-demographic predictors of trajectory characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Xiaozhong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modeling childhood body mass index (BMI trajectories, versus estimating change in BMI between specific ages, may improve prediction of later body-size-related outcomes. Prior studies of BMI trajectories are limited by restricted age periods and insufficient use of trajectory information. Methods Among 3,289 children seen at 81,550 pediatric well-child visits from infancy to 18 years between 1980 and 2008, we fit individual BMI trajectories using mixed effect models with fractional polynomial functions. From each child's fitted trajectory, we estimated age and BMI at infancy peak and adiposity rebound, and velocity and area under curve between 1 week, infancy peak, adiposity rebound, and 18 years. Results Among boys, mean (SD ages at infancy BMI peak and adiposity rebound were 7.2 (0.9 and 49.2 (11.9 months, respectively. Among girls, mean (SD ages at infancy BMI peak and adiposity rebound were 7.4 (1.1 and 46.8 (11.0 months, respectively. Ages at infancy peak and adiposity rebound were weakly inversely correlated (r = -0.09. BMI at infancy peak and adiposity rebound were positively correlated (r = 0.76. Blacks had earlier adiposity rebound and greater velocity from adiposity rebound to 18 years of age than whites. Higher birth weight z-score predicted earlier adiposity rebound and higher BMI at infancy peak and adiposity rebound. BMI trajectories did not differ by birth year or type of health insurance, after adjusting for other socio-demographics and birth weight z-score. Conclusions Childhood BMI trajectory characteristics are informative in describing childhood body mass changes and can be estimated conveniently. Future research should evaluate associations of these novel BMI trajectory characteristics with adult outcomes.

  13. Psychosocial service needs of pediatric transport accident survivors: Using clinical data-mining to establish demographic and service usage characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manguy, Alys-Marie; Joubert, Lynette; Bansemer, Leah

    2016-09-01

    The objectives in this article are the exploration of demographic and service usage data gained through clinical data mining audit and suggesting recommendations for social work service delivery model and future research. The method is clinical data-mining audit of 100 sequentially sampled cases gathering quantitative demographic and service usage data. Descriptive analysis of file audit data raised interesting trends with potential to inform service delivery and usage; the key areas of the results included patient demographics, family involvement and impact, and child safety and risk issues. Transport accidents involving children often include other family members. Care planning must take into account psychosocial issues including patient and family emotional responses, availability of primary carers, and other practical needs that may impact on recovery and discharge planning. This study provides evidence to plan for further research and development of more integrated models of care.

  14. Comparing Machine Learning Classifiers and Linear/Logistic Regression to Explore the Relationship between Hand Dimensions and Demographic Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Hurtado, Oscar; Guest, Richard; Stevenage, Sarah V; Neil, Greg J; Black, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between physiological measurements from human subjects and their demographic data is important within both the biometric and forensic domains. In this paper we explore the relationship between measurements of the human hand and a range of demographic features. We assess the ability of linear regression and machine learning classifiers to predict demographics from hand features, thereby providing evidence on both the strength of relationship and the key features underpinning this relationship. Our results show that we are able to predict sex, height, weight and foot size accurately within various data-range bin sizes, with machine learning classification algorithms out-performing linear regression in most situations. In addition, we identify the features used to provide these relationships applicable across multiple applications.

  15. Comparing Machine Learning Classifiers and Linear/Logistic Regression to Explore the Relationship between Hand Dimensions and Demographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between physiological measurements from human subjects and their demographic data is important within both the biometric and forensic domains. In this paper we explore the relationship between measurements of the human hand and a range of demographic features. We assess the ability of linear regression and machine learning classifiers to predict demographics from hand features, thereby providing evidence on both the strength of relationship and the key features underpinning this relationship. Our results show that we are able to predict sex, height, weight and foot size accurately within various data-range bin sizes, with machine learning classification algorithms out-performing linear regression in most situations. In addition, we identify the features used to provide these relationships applicable across multiple applications. PMID:27806075

  16. Relationships between menstrual and menopausal attitudes and associated demographic and health characteristics: the Hilo Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Lynn A; Sievert, Lynnette L; Brown, Daniel E; Rahberg, Nichole; Reza, Angela

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relation of menstrual attitudes to menopausal attitudes and the demographic and health characteristics associated with each. This cross-sectional study consisted of a randomly selected sample of 1,824 respondents aged 16 to 100 years in multi-ethnic Hilo, Hawai'i. Women completed questionnaires for demographic and health information, such as age, ethnicity, education, residency in Hawai'i, menopausal status, exercise, and attitudes toward menstruation and menopause. Women more often chose positive terms, such as "natural," to describe menstruation (60.8%) and menopause (59.4%). In bivariate analyses, post-menopausal women were significantly more likely to have positive menstrual and menopausal attitudes than pre-menopausal women. Factor analyses were used to cluster attitudes followed by linear regression to identify demographic characteristics associated with factor scores. Asian-American ethnicity, higher education, reporting more exercise, and growing up outside of Hawai'i were associated with positive menstrual attitudes. Higher education, older age, post-menopausal status, growing up outside of Hawai'i and having hot flashes were associated with positive menopausal attitudes. Bivariate correlation analyses suggested significant associations between factor scores for menstrual and menopausal attitudes. Both negative and positive menstrual attitudes were positively correlated with the anticipation of menopause, although negative attitudes toward menstruation were negatively correlated with menopause as a positive, natural life event. Demographic variables, specifically education and where one grows up, influenced women's attitudes toward menstruation and menopause and should be considered for inclusion in subsequent multi-ethnic studies. Further research is also warranted in assessing the relationship between menstrual and menopausal attitudes.

  17. The relationships between quality of life and anxiety symptoms and the moderating effects of socio-demographic characteristics in Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Hsu, Fan-Ching; Wu, Yu-Yu

    2011-09-01

    To examine the associations of the seven domains of quality of life (QOL) on the Taiwanese Quality of Life Questionnaire for Adolescents (TQOLQA) with the severity of anxiety symptoms on the total Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC-T) and the moderating effects of socio-demographic characteristics on the association between QOL and anxiety symptoms among Taiwanese adolescents in the community. A total of 5,322 adolescents completed the TQOLQA, MASC-T, and the questionnaire for socio-demographic characteristics without omission. The associations of the QOL on the TQOLQA with the severity of anxiety symptoms on the total MASC-T and socio-demographic characteristics were examined using multiple regression analysis. The moderating effects of socio-demographic characteristics on the association between QOL and anxiety symptoms were also examined. After controlling for the effects of socio-demographic characteristics, more severe anxiety symptoms on the total MASC-T were significantly associated with poorer QOL in all seven domains of QOL on the TQOLQA. Meanwhile, socio-demographic characteristics had moderating effects on the associations between some domains of QOL and anxiety symptoms. Anxiety symptoms require intervention when developing strategies to improve the QOL of adolescents. Meanwhile, clinicians should take socio-demographic characteristics into consideration when working on QOL issues and anxiety symptoms in adolescents.

  18. Preliminary results of ground-motion characteristics

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    Francesca Bozzoni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary results are presented herein for the engineering applications of the characteristics of the ground motion induced by the May 20, 2012, Emilia earthquake. Shake maps are computed to provide estimates of the spatial distribution of the induced ground motion. The signals recorded at the Mirandola (MRN station, the closest to the epicenter, have been processed to obtain acceleration, velocity and displacement response spectra. Ground-motion parameters from the MRN recordings are compared with the corresponding estimates from recent ground-motion prediction equations, and with the spectra prescribed by the current Italian Building Code for different return periods. The records from the MRN station are used to plot the particle orbit (hodogram described by the waveform. The availability of results from geotechnical field tests that were performed at a few sites in the Municipality of Mirandola prior to this earthquake of May 2012 has allowed preliminary assessment of the ground response. The amplification effects at Mirandola are estimated using fully stochastic site-response analyses. The seismic input comprises seven actual records that are compatible with the Italian code-based spectrum that refers to a 475-year return period. The computed acceleration response spectrum and the associated dispersion are compared to the spectra calculated from the recordings of the MRN station. Good agreement is obtained for periods up to 1 s, especially for the peak ground acceleration. For the other periods, the spectral acceleration of the MRN recordings exceeds that of the computed spectra.

  19. Suicides in the indigenous and non-indigenous populations in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Northwestern Russia, and associated socio-demographic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury A. Sumarokov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To describe suicide rates in the indigenous and non-indigenous populations of the Nenets Autonomous Okrug (NAO in 2002–2012, as well as associated socio-demographic characteristics. Study design: Retrospective population-based mortality study. Methods: Data from autopsy reports were used to identify 252 cases of suicide in the NAO in 2002–2012. Data on socio-demographic characteristics of these cases were obtained from passports and medical records at local primary health care units, and were then linked to total population data from the Censuses in 2002 and 2010. Suicide rates for the indigenous Nenets population and the non-indigenous population were standardized to the European standard population. The rates were also estimated according to different socio-demographic characteristics and compared by calculating relative risks. Results: The crude suicide rates were 79.8 per 100,000 person-years (PYs in the Nenets population and 49.2 per 100,000 PYs in the non-indigenous population. The corresponding standardized estimates were 72.7 per 100,000 PYs and 50.7 per 100,000 PYs. The highest suicide rates in the Nenets population were observed in the age group 20–29 years (391 per 100,000 PYs, and in females aged 30–39 years (191 per 100,000 PYs. Socio-demographic characteristics associated with high suicide rates in the Nenets population were age 20–39 years, male, urban residence, having secondary school or higher education, being an employee or employer, and being single or divorced. Males aged 20–29 years, and females aged 30–39 and aged 70 years and above had the highest suicide rates in the non-indigenous population (137.5, 21.6 and 29.9 per 100,000 PYs, respectively. The elevated suicide rates observed in the non-indigenous population were associated with male sex, rural residence, secondary school education, being an employee or employer, and being single or divorced. Conclusions: Suicide rates in the NAO were

  20. Disability acquisition and mental health: effect modification by demographic and socioeconomic characteristics using data from an Australian longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Zoe; Simpson, Julie Anne; Bentley, Rebecca; Kavanagh, Anne Marie

    2017-09-18

    There is evidence of a causal relationship between disability acquisition and poor mental health, but the substantial heterogeneity in the magnitude of the effect is poorly understood and may be aetiologically informative. This study aimed to identify demographic and socioeconomic factors that modify the effect of disability acquisition on mental health. The Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of Australian households that has been conducted annually since 2001. Four waves of data were included in this analysis, from 2011 to 2014. Individuals who acquired a disability (n=387) were compared with those who remained disability-free in all four waves (n=7936). Mental health was measured using the mental health subscale of the Short Form 36 (SF-36) general health questionnaire, which measures symptoms of depression, anxiety and psychological well-being. Linear regression models were fitted to estimate the effect of disability acquisition on mental health, testing for effect modification by key demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. To maximise causal inference, we used a propensity score approach with inverse probability of treatment weighting to control for confounding and multiple imputation using chained equations to assess the impact of missing data. On average, disability acquisition was associated with a 5-point decline in mental health score (estimated mean difference: -5.1, 95% CI -7.2 to -3.0). There was strong evidence that income and relationship status modified the effect, with more detrimental effects in the lowest (-12.5, 95% CI -18.5 to -6.5) compared with highest income quintile (-1.1, 95% CI -4.9 to 2.7) and for people not in a relationship (-8.8, 95% CI -12.9 to -4.8) compared with those who were (-3.7, 95% CI -6.1 to -1.4). Our results suggest that the detrimental effect of disability acquisition on mental health is substantially greater for socioeconomic

  1. Do sedentary behaviors mediate associations between socio-demographic characteristics and BMI in women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods?

    OpenAIRE

    Compernolle, Sofie; De Cocker, Katrien; Abbott, Gavin; Verloigne, Maïté; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Ball, Kylie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Women living in deprived neighborhoods are a risk group for overweight and obesity, particularly during the childbearing years. Several socio-demographic characteristics may compound this risk, but little is known about why this might be the case. Sedentary behaviors are emerging as a socio-demographically patterned risk factor for obesity. The purpose of the present study was to assess socio-demographic differences in sedentary behaviors, and to examine whether these behaviors co...

  2. What Do Deep Statistical Analysis on Gaming Motivation and Game Characteristics Clusters Reveal about Targeting Demographics when Designing Gamified Contents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Tavakkoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comprehensive results of the study of a cohort of college graduate and undergraduate students who participated in playing a Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game (MMORPG as a gameplay rich with social interaction as well as intellectual and aesthetic features. We present the full results of the study in the form of inferential statistics and a review of our descriptive statistics previously reported in [46]. Separate one-way independent-measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA's were used to analyze the data from several instruments to determine if there were statistically significant differences first by gender, then by age group, and then by degree. Moreover, a one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to determine if there was a statistically significant difference between the clusters in the 5 gaming clusters on the Game Characteristic Survey. Follow-up paired samples t-tests were used to see if there was a statistically significant difference between each of the 10 possible combinations of paired clusters. Our results support the hypotheses and outline the features that may need to be taken into account in support of tailoring gamified educational content targeting a certain demographic. Sections 1, 2, and 3 below from our pervious study [46] are included because this is the second part of the two-part study. [46] Tavakkoli, A., Loffredo, D., Ward, M., Sr. (2014. "Insights from Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games to Enhance Gamification in Education", Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics, and Informatics, 12(4, 66-78.

  3. PSA testing without clinical indication for prostate cancer in relation to socio-demographic and clinical characteristics in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Randi V; Larsen, Signe B; Christensen, Jane

    2013-01-01

    associations between socio-demographic or clinical characteristics and PSA testing without clinical indication. Material and methods. In the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort, we identified 1051 men with PC diagnosed in 1993-2008. Diagnostic and clinical characteristics were obtained from medical records......, and socio-demographic information was retrieved from administrative registers. We used general logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between socio-demographic or clinical characteristics and PSA testing without clinical indication. Cox...

  4. Characteristics of the USA dairy herd as related to management and demographic elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data characteristics of the United States dairy herd related to animals enrolled in milk recording (dairy herd improvement) are the basic foundation and important influencers for the management and genetic progress achieved in a population or animal production unit. The amount, characteristics ...

  5. Relationship between parent demographic characteristics, perinatal and early childhood behaviors, and body mass index among preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, Sarah E; Asfour, Lila; Arheart, Kristopher L; Selem, Sarah M; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Natale, Ruby

    2015-04-01

    Approximately 25% of US 2-to-5-year olds are overweight and ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected. We explored the relationship between parent demographic characteristics, various perinatal/early childhood (EC) factors, and child body mass index (BMI) to determine possible contributors to these disparities. A preschool-based randomized controlled (N = 28 centers) obesity prevention intervention was conducted among multiethnic 2-to-5 year olds. Baseline assessment of demographic characteristics, various perinatal/EC factors, and child BMI were analyzed via generalized linear mixed models and logistic regression analysis. Foreign-born parents were almost 2.5 times as likely to have an obese child versus children of US-born parents (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.53-3.87). Families who spoke Spanish only or a combination of Creole/English at home were over twice as likely to have an obese preschool child versus families who spoke English only at home. Parent place of birth and language spoken at home plays a significant role in early childhood obesity. Future early childhood healthy weight initiatives should incorporate strategies that take into account these particular parent characteristics.

  6. Characteristics Of Street Children In Cameroon: A Situational Analysis Of Demographic, Socio-Economic And Behavioural Profiles And Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel N. Cumber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The issue of street children is one of the global social problems rising in low- and middle-income countries. These children are vulnerable, but because of a lack of sufficient information, it is very difficult for stakeholders to address their plight in Cameroon.Aim: To examine the situation and characteristics of street children in three Cameroonian cities.Objectives: To describe the demographic, socio-economic and behavioural profiles of street children. To identify challenges of street children and to compare the results from the three cities on account of their different settings, cultural history and challenges.Materials and methods: The study was an analytical cross-sectional survey conducted through researcher-administered questionnaires to 399 street children (homeless for at least a month, in three Cameroonian cities from 1 January 2015 to 30 March 2015.Results: The majority of the participants were boys, more than 70% were homeless for less than 12 months and poverty was found to be the most common reason for being on the street. Most of the participants earned less than 500CFA francs (USD 0.85, with many of them resorting to begging, drug abuse, sex work and other risky behaviours. Only two of the respondents (0.5% regarded the public attitude towards them as supportive.Conclusion: As children roam the streets in search of shelter, food and other basic needs, their future hangs in the balance. Understanding the plight of street children highlights the need for immediate design and implementation of intervention strategies to prevent children from living in the streets and assist those who have become street children.

  7. Relationship between adolescents’ family function with socio-demographic characteristics and behaviour risk factors in a primary care facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu S. Muyibi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The family as a unit of care has great effect in tackling adolescent problems and this could be influenced by family functioning.Objective: This study assesses the relationship between adolescents’ family functioning with socio-demographic characteristics and behavioural risk factors.Method: The research was a cross-sectional, hospital-based study carried out at the General Outpatients Department, University College Hospital (GOPD,UCH, Ibadan, over a period of three months. Four hundred subjects were recruited using a modified Guideline for Adolescent Preventive Services (GAPS questionnaire, with an incorporated family APGAR (Adaptation,Partnership, Growth, Affection, Resolve score table. The results were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, version 11 and the findings on the family assessment and behavioural risk factors were relayed to the respondents.Results: The ages of the adolescents ranged from 10 to 19 years. Of the subjects, 8% were sexually active. Mean age for first coitus among the respondents was 15 ± 2.4 years. The rate of ingestion of alcohol and cigarette smoking was very low. The family APGAR scores obtained revealed that 84.5% subjects were rated as having a functional family (7–10 points and 15.5% of the subjects were rated as having a dysfunctional family (0–6 points. There was a significant association between perceived family function and subjects’ occupation (p = 0.01, parent social class (p = 0.00 and subjects’ sexual activities (p = 0.00.Conclusion: The majority of the adolescents were rated as having functional families. Dysfunctional families had significantly sexually active respondents.

  8. Characteristics Of Street Children In Cameroon: A Situational Analysis Of Demographic, Socio-Economic And Behavioural Profiles And Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel N. Cumber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The issue of street children is one of the global social problems rising in low- and middle-income countries. These children are vulnerable, but because of a lack of sufficient information, it is very difficult for stakeholders to address their plight in Cameroon.Aim: To examine the situation and characteristics of street children in three Cameroonian cities.Objectives: To describe the demographic, socio-economic and behavioural profiles of street children. To identify challenges of street children and to compare the results from the three cities on account of their different settings, cultural history and challenges.Materials and methods: The study was an analytical cross-sectional survey conducted through researcher-administered questionnaires to 399 street children (homeless for at least a month, in three Cameroonian cities from 1 January 2015 to 30 March 2015.Results: The majority of the participants were boys, more than 70% were homeless for less than 12 months and poverty was found to be the most common reason for being on the street. Most of the participants earned less than 500CFA francs (USD 0.85, with many of them resorting to begging, drug abuse, sex work and other risky behaviours. Only two of the respondents (0.5% regarded the public attitude towards them as supportive.Conclusion: As children roam the streets in search of shelter, food and other basic needs, their future hangs in the balance. Understanding the plight of street children highlights the need for immediate design and implementation of intervention strategies to prevent children from living in the streets and assist those who have become street children.

  9. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the children with aminoacidopathy in Isfahan Province, Central Iran in 2007–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Reza; Hashemipour, Mahin; Yaghini, Omid; Najafi, Fatemeh; Rashidianfar, Amirsalar

    2016-01-01

    Context: Aminoacidopathies refer to defects in protein synthesis pathways which result in a range of biochemical disorders and clinical presentations. The enzyme defects in intermediate metabolic pathways lead to accumulation of one or more amino acids or metabolites. Despite higher prevalence rates, screening infants for inherited metabolic disorders is not run in many Middle East countries. Aim: This research is part of a larger study of inherited metabolic disorders to characterize and measure the prevalence of aminoacidopathies. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study in the population aged 0–17 years old in Isfahan province of Iran, 2007–2015. Subjects and Methods: Demographic characteristics, history of disease, development of clinical condition and socioeconomic status were obtained from interviews as well as patient records of pediatric tertiary referral hospitals and metabolic disorders centers. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS qualitative and quantitative analysis. Results: The incidence rate of aminoacidopathies was derived to be 9/100,000 live births. The frequency of consanguineous marriages in this group of the patients was 89.2%. Of the patients with aminoacidopathies, 76.6% required hospitalization with tyrosinemia having the highest rate overall (>10 times). The most prevalent symptoms in this group of patients were developmental disorders and convulsions while half presented with growth disorders during follow-up. Of the 35.5% patients, who died at various ages, one-third was in the maple syrup urine disease subgroup. Conclusion: Although metabolic disorders are identified as rare diseases, they are more prevalent in the studied population of Isfahan.

  10. Tuberculosis among homeless population from Medellín, Colombia: associated mental disorders and socio-demographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Sarmiento, José Mauricio; Correa, Nidia; Correa, Marta; Franco, José Gabriel; Alvarez, Matilde; Ramírez, Clara; Gómez, Lina M; Toro, Antonio Carlos; Londoño, Nora Helena; Martínez, Milton; Restrepo, Mary Alejandra; Zapata, Elsa; Mejía, Gloria Isabel; Robledo, Jaime

    2013-08-01

    Homeless people are highly susceptible to tuberculosis. It has been suggested that this population have high rates of mental disorders associated with tuberculosis. We assessed tuberculosis incidence, its transmission patterns and association with socio-demographic factors and mental disorders in Colombian homeless people. Prospective study which socio-demographic characteristics and mental disorders were assessed through interviews. Sputa from patients with respiratory symptoms were processed and clinical isolates analyzed by IS6110-RFLP. Multivariate analysis performed by logistic regression model. From 426 homeless studied, tuberculosis incidence found was 7.9 %. 44 % of isolates were clustering. It was found high risk of having tuberculosis associated with income from drugs trade (OR: 3.40 [95 % CI: 1.28-9.05]), dysthymia (OR: 2.54 [95 % CI: 1.10-5.86]) and receiving food from other homeless (OR: 2.47 [95 % CI: 1.16-5.25]). Tuberculosis incidence and degree of transmission are high in homeless studied. Implementing programs to better control tuberculosis among homeless population must consider socio-demographic factors and mental disorders associated with the disease.

  11. Clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with occupational contact dermatitis: A 3-year single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Aytekin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD is responsible for 80-90% of the occupational dermatoses. The aim of this work was to evaluate the clinical features of patients with OCD admitted to our hospital. Materials and Methods: The records of patients, who were admitted to our hospital with OCD between December 2009 and January 2013, were evaluated retrospectively. One hundred fifty-nine patients, who were diagnosed with OCD according to the Mathias criteria, were included in the study. Age, sex, location of the lesions, atopic status, glove use, occupational exposure time and total IgE levels of the patients were assessed. Patients with positive allergic reaction with "European Standard Series Skin Patch Test" were identified as allergic OCD and patients with negative test results as "irritant OCD". The clinical features and patch results of patients are evaluated. Results: One hundred fifty-nine patients with a mean age of 39±7.9 years consisted of 151 men and 8 women. The hands were the most common site of OCD; the palms were the most common affected areas of hand eczema. Eighty-one patients (50.1% were identified to have allergic OCD and 78 (49.9% as irritant OCD. Irritant OCD was most commonly seen in dental technicians, whereas allergic OCD was most commonly seen in tailors. The top 3 most frequent allergens were potassium dichromate (15.1%, nickel sulfate (9.11% and cobalt chloride (10.7%. Conclusion: In our country, there has been no comprehensive study presenting the clinical and descriptive characteristics of OCD. For preventing OCD and reducing sick leave we need to have data that belong to our country. Consequently, multicenter studies should be performed for establishing our own database on OCD.

  12. Relationship between apoptotic markers in semen from fertile men and demographic, hormonal and seminal characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O Specht, Ina; Spanò, Marcello; S Hougaard, Karin

    2012-01-01

    and biological correlates of the pro-apoptotic marker Fas and the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-xL in sperm cells of fertile men. Six hundred and four men from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine were consecutively enrolled during their pregnant wife's antenatal visits. Semen analysis was performed as recommended...... (TUNEL) assay. The percentage of Fas-positive sperm cells was higher in men with high total sperm count (P......Apoptosis in the testis has two putative roles during normal spermatogenesis; limitation of the germ cell population to numbers that can be supported by the Sertoli cells, and, possibly, selective depletion of meiotic and postmeiotic abnormal germ cells. We investigated the demographic...

  13. Supermarket and fast food accessibility in Copenhagen: associations with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Nordahl Jensen, Helene; Glümer, Charlotte

    -economic indicators in 2006. Food business addresses were obtained from commercial and public business locators for all neighborhoods in the city of Copenhagen (n = 400). We applied area-level socio-economic and demographic information from Statistics Denmark. Counts of fast food outlets and supermarkets were......Purpose: To investigate whether fast food outlets and supermarkets are socially patterned in the city of Copenhagen. Methods: The study was based on a cross-sectional multivariate approach to examine the association between the number of fast food outlets, supermarkets, and neighborhood level socio...... regressed on SES indicators (percentage of: recent immigrants, lack of high school diploma, population under 35 yr, and average household income in Euros) using negative binomial analysis. Findings: In the fully adjusted models, income was significantly associated with fast food exposure...

  14. Language Disorders in a Child Psychiatric Center: Demographic Characteristics and Comorbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrborg, Jørgen; Goldschmidt, Vibeke V.

    1996-01-01

    In this study demographic variables and comorbidity were registered in a group of children and adolescents with language disorders. Ss were drawn from 1,151 consecutively admitted psychiatric patients (0-17 yrs) in a 5-yr period. 116 patients had language disorders (10%), and 73% were boys. 27% had...... expressive language disorders, 47% receptive language disorders, and 26% mixed specific developmental disorders (inclusive language disorder). The prevalence of previously unsuspected language disorders was 27%. 75% of patients with language disorders could furthermore be psychiatrically diagnosed...... in accordance with 8 main categories of ICD-10. Language disorders were most often found to be comorbid with conduct disorders, and the comorbidity was most frequent in the adolescent group. Boys had significantly more conduct disorders than girls, and girls had significantly more emotional disorders than boys...

  15. Indicators of nutritional status in Turkish preschool children: results of Turkish Demographic and Health Survey 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunçbilek, E; Unalan, T; Coşkun, T

    1996-04-01

    The Turkish Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS), conducted in 1993, provided data on the magnitude of malnutrition in a sample of 3152 preschool children from five geographical regions, and on its causal and conditioning factors. Stunting was found to be the dominant form of malnutrition (21 per cent). Altogether 10 per cent of children were underweight and 3 per cent were wasted. There were urban-rural (16 v. 27 per cent, P rank of children, birth spacing, number of children in an individual family, family size, and mother's welfare and hygiene indices. The need for an intersectoral approach for the development of remedial programs to reduce the effect of these factors and for periodic assessment of nutritional status of preschool children is stressed.

  16. Demographic and Indication-Specific Characteristics Have Limited Association With Social Network Engagement: Evidence From 24,954 Members of Four Health Care Support Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Digital health social networks (DHSNs) are widespread, and the consensus is that they contribute to wellness by offering social support and knowledge sharing. The success of a DHSN is based on the number of participants and their consistent creation of externalities through the generation of new content. To promote network growth, it would be helpful to identify characteristics of superusers or actors who create value by generating positive network externalities. Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility of developing predictive models that identify potential superusers in real time. This study examined associations between posting behavior, 4 demographic variables, and 20 indication-specific variables. Methods Data were extracted from the custom structured query language (SQL) databases of 4 digital health behavior change interventions with DHSNs. Of these, 2 were designed to assist in the treatment of addictions (problem drinking and smoking cessation), and 2 for mental health (depressive disorder, panic disorder). To analyze posting behavior, 10 models were developed, and negative binomial regressions were conducted to examine associations between number of posts, and demographic and indication-specific variables. Results The DHSNs varied in number of days active (3658-5210), number of registrants (5049-52,396), number of actors (1085-8452), and number of posts (16,231-521,997). In the sample, all 10 models had low R2 values (.013-.086) with limited statistically significant demographic and indication-specific variables. Conclusions Very few variables were associated with social network engagement. Although some variables were statistically significant, they did not appear to be practically significant. Based on the large number of study participants, variation in DHSN theme, and extensive time-period, we did not find strong evidence that demographic characteristics or indication severity sufficiently explain the variability in

  17. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of clients seeking assisted conception at Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewunmi, Adeniyi A; Ottun, Tawakwalit A; Abiara, Tayo; Chukwuma, Jane-Frances; Okorie, Lauretta

    2017-10-01

    The socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of 246 consecutive couples seeking assisted conception in a university teaching hospital in Nigeria from inception in 2011 till 2014 were reviewed restrospectively. Eighty-five (34.5%) were in the 35-40 years age group. The body mass index of the women showed that 111 (45.1%) were overweight. One hundred and ninety five (88%) were referred on account of secondary infertility. The mean duration of infertility was 9.6 ± 4.8 years. Major factors identified were male factor 128 (52%), ovarian/age-related decline in fertility 107 (43.5%), tubal 83 (33.7%) and combined male/female factor 71 (28.9%). One hundred and ninety (77.2%) clients seeking assisted conception were Christians at advanced age (greater than 35 years) with a longstanding duration of infertility of more than 10 years. Government, private and religious organisations need to raise public awareness about the availability of in-vitro fertilisation services as well as encourage early resort to assisted reproductive technologies. Impact statement What we already know: Secondary infertility due mainly to tubal factor is reported to be the commonest cause of infertility in developing countries like Nigeria and clients affected seek assisted reproductive techniques late. What the results of this study add: Male factor infertility is more common amongst infertile couples seeking in vitro fertilisation in LASUTH. The implications of the findings for practice and/or further research: A thorough examination of the male partner followed by investigation is vital at the initial visit so that they can be referred early for assisted conception.

  18. A national registry of thalassemia in Turkey; demographic and disease characteristics of patients, achievements and challenges in prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydınok, Yeşim; Oymak, Yeşim; Atabay, Berna; Aydoğan, Gönül; Yeşilipek, Akif; Ünal, Selma; Kılınç, Yurdanur; Oflaz, Banu; Akın, Mehmet; Vergin, Canan; Sezgin Evim, Melike; Çalışkan, Ümran; Ünal, Şule; Bay, Ali; Kazancı, Elif; İleri, Dilber Talia; Atay, Didem; Patıroğlu, Türkan; Kahraman, Selda; Söker, Murat; Akcan, Mediha; Akdeniz, Aydan; Büyükavcı, Mustafa; Alanoğlu, Güçhan; Bör, Özcan; Soyer, Nur; Özdemir Karadaş, Nihal; Uysalol, Ezgi; Türker, Meral; Akçay, Arzu; Ocak, Süheyla; Güneş, Adalet Meral; Tokgöz, Hüseyin; Uysal, Zümrüt; Tiftik, Naci; Karakaş, Zeynep

    2017-04-13

    Turkish Society of Pediatric Hematology set up a National Hemoglobinopathy Registry to demonstrate demographic and disease characteristics of patients, and assessed the efficacy of hemoglobinopathy control program (HCP) over 10 years in Turkey. A total of 2046 patients from 27 Thalassemia Centers were registered in which 1988 were eligible for analysis. This cohort mainly comprised patients with β-thalassemia major (n=1658, 83.4%) and intermedia (n=215, 10.8%). The majority of patients were accumulated into the costal areas of Turkey. The high number of patients in South Eastern Anatolia would be contributed by the highest rate of consanguinity marriage and fertility. The most common 11 mutations represented 90% of all β-thalassemia alleles in which 47% of those was IVS1-110(G->A). The probability to undergo splenectomy within the first 10 years of life was 20% and unchanged since 1980s. The iron chelators were administered as monotherapy regimen in 95% of patients and deferasirox was prescribed in 81.3% of those. Deferasirox administration was the highest (93.6%) in patients aged thalassemia major patients had match-related hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with a success rate of 77%. Cardiac disease was detected as a major cause of deaths and didn't show a decreasing trend at 5 years' cohorts since 1999. While, HCP has been implemented since 2003, the affected births have shown a consistent decrease only after 2009, at lowest 34 cases per year. The program failure was resulted from missing premarital screening in the majority. Following problems were unawareness of the risk and misinformation of the risk couples. In addition, prenatal diagnosis was either not offered to or not accepted by the risk families. This study indicated that a continuous effort is needed for optimizing management of thalassemia and developing strategies are essential for further achievements in HCP in Turkey.

  19. Characteristics Of Street Children In Cameroon: A Situational Analysis Of Demographic, Socio-Economic And Behavioural Profiles And Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumber, Samuel N; Tsoka-Gwegweni, Joyce M

    2016-11-18

    The issue of street children is one of the global social problems rising in low- and middle-income countries. These children are vulnerable, but because of a lack of sufficient information, it is very difficult for stakeholders to address their plight in Cameroon. To examine the situation and characteristics of street children in three Cameroonian cities. To describe the demographic, socio-economic and behavioural profiles of street children. To identify challenges of street children and to compare the results from the three cities on account of their different settings, cultural history and challenges. The study was an analytical cross-sectional survey conducted through researcher-administered questionnaires to 399 street children (homeless for at least a month), in three Cameroonian cities from 1 January 2015 to 30 March 2015. The majority of the participants were boys, more than 70% were homeless for less than 12 months and poverty was found to be the most common reason for being on the street. Most of the participants earned less than 500CFA francs (USD 0.85), with many of them resorting to begging, drug abuse, sex work and other risky behaviours. Only two of the respondents (0.5%) regarded the public attitude towards them as supportive. As children roam the streets in search of shelter, food and other basic needs, their future hangs in the balance. Understanding the plight of street children highlights the need for immediate design and implementation of intervention strategies to prevent children from living in the streets and assist those who have become street children.

  20. Quality of life of individuals with schizophrenia living in the community: relationship to socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Hsieh, Ming-Hong; Tseng, Chiu-Jung; Chien, Shu-Hui; Chang, Ching-Chi

    2012-08-01

    To examine the level of quality of life in individuals with schizophrenia and to test its association with socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics. Quality of life has been a focus of concern in mental health care, yet the level of quality of life and its determinants for individuals with schizophrenia are not well known. Cross-sectional, descriptive design. A total of 148 individuals with schizophrenia participated in the study. A demographic information sheet, the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Chinese Health Questionnaires, the Mutuality Scale and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale, brief version, were used to collect data. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlation and stepwise multiple linear regression. Most of participants were single, unemployed, had a low education level and were supported financially by family. Quality of life was positively correlated with age of mental illness onset, mutuality, employment status and monthly household income, whereas it was negatively associated with the length of mental illness, symptom severity and health status. Health status, mutuality, symptom severity, monthly household income and employment status were found to be key significant predictors with mutuality having the greatest effect on quality of life. The findings increase our understanding of socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics influencing the degree of quality of life in individuals with schizophrenia. Incorporation of families and communities into the treatment programmes would enhance patients' capabilities of social integration and satisfaction with their lives. Health care providers should make use of community-oriented intervention programmes that aim to strengthen psychosocial functioning. Particularly, programmes that enhance health status and mutuality should be identified and developed for both individuals with schizophrenia and their

  1. Coping strategies in Spanish older adults: a MIMIC model of socio-demographic characteristics and activity level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Laura; Dumitrache, Cristina G; García, Alfonso J; Cordón-Pozo, Eulogio

    2016-11-02

    The aim of this study was to analyze the combined effect of socio-demographic characteristics and activity level on coping strategies and to test which of these variables has a greater impact on coping. A sample of 243 men and women aged 55-99 years old was selected from different elderly activity centers in Granada, Spain, using a convenience sampling. Associations between eight coping strategies measured by Coping Strategies Inventory and the above mentioned variables were examined using a Multiple Indicator and Multiple Causes model. Age was negatively related with problem solving, express emotions and social support. Activity level was positively related with problem solving, cognitive restructuring, express emotions and social support and it was negatively associated with social withdrawal. Gender only predicted the scores in self-criticism and living alone was related with higher emotional expression. Participation in creative activities, attending University for the third age and practicing physical exercise were related with differences in the use of several coping strategies. There is a complex relationship between socio-demographic characteristics, activity level and the coping strategies used by the elderly. It is important to understand this relationship in order to identify older adults who use ineffective coping, and to subsequently include them in intervention programs to improve their coping abilities.

  2. Differences in Food and Beverage Marketing Policies and Practices in US School Districts, by Demographic Characteristics of School Districts, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Caitlin L; Michael, Shannon; Brener, Nancy D; Coffield, Edward; Kingsley, Beverly S; Zytnick, Deena; Blanck, Heidi

    2016-12-15

    Foods and beverages marketed in schools are typically of poor nutritional value. School districts may adopt policies and practices to restrict marketing of unhealthful foods and to promote healthful choices. Students' exposure to marketing practices differ by school demographics, but these differences have not yet been examined by district characteristics. We analyzed data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine how food and beverage marketing and promotion policies and practices varied by district characteristics such as metropolitan status, size, and percentage of non-Hispanic white students. Most practices varied significantly by district size: a higher percentage of large districts than small or medium-sized districts restricted marketing of unhealthful foods and promoted healthful options. Compared with districts whose student populations were majority (>50%) non-Hispanic white, a higher percentage of districts whose student populations were minority non-Hispanic white (≤50% non-Hispanic white) prohibited advertising of soft drinks in school buildings and on school grounds, made school meal menus available to students, and provided families with information on school nutrition programs. Compared with suburban and rural districts, a higher percentage of urban districts prohibited the sale of soft drinks on school grounds and used several practices to promote healthful options. Preliminary findings showing significant associations between district demographics and marketing policies and practices can be used to help states direct resources, training, and technical assistance to address food and beverage marketing and promotion to districts most in need of improvement.

  3. Differences in demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics and quality of life outcomes among oncology patients with different types of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posternak, Victoria; Dunn, Laura B; Dhruva, Anand; Paul, Steven M; Luce, Judith; Mastick, Judy; Levine, Jon D; Aouizerat, Bradley E; Hammer, Marylin; Wright, Fay; Miaskowski, Christine

    2016-04-01

    The purposes of this study, in oncology outpatients receiving chemotherapy (n = 926), were to: describe the occurrence of different types of pain (ie, no pain, only noncancer pain [NCP], only cancer pain [CP], or both CP and NCP) and evaluate for differences in demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics, and quality of life (QOL) among the 4 groups. Patients completed self-report questionnaires on demographic and symptom characteristics and QOL. Patients who had pain were asked to indicate if it was or was not related to their cancer or its treatment. Medical records were reviewed for information on cancer and its treatments. In this study, 72.5% of the patients reported pain. Of the 671 who reported pain, 21.5% reported only NCP, 37.0% only CP, and 41.5% both CP and NCP. Across the 3 pain groups, worst pain scores were in the moderate to severe range. Compared with the no pain group, patients with both CP and NCP were significantly younger, more likely to be female, have a higher level of comorbidity, and a poorer functional status. In addition, these patients reported: higher levels of depression, anxiety, fatigue, and sleep disturbance; lower levels of energy and attentional function; and poorer QOL. Patients with only NCP were significantly older than the other 3 groups. The most common comorbidities in the NCP group were back pain, hypertension, osteoarthritis, and depression. Unrelieved CP and NCP continue to be significant problems. Oncology outpatients need to be assessed for both CP and NCP conditions.

  4. Factors associated with patient satisfaction in surgery: the role of patients' perceptions of received care, visit characteristics, and demographic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfelder, Tonio; Klewer, Joerg; Kugler, Joachim

    2010-11-01

    Measures of satisfaction of surgical patients can be used to evaluate and redesign the process of care or to complement established procedures to improve quality of services. However, study findings regarding aspects of patient satisfaction are often inconsistent and depend on the setting. The primary goals of this research were to identify factors associated with satisfaction among patients in a surgical setting. Data used in this study were obtained from randomly selected 2699 surgical patients discharged during January-December 2008 from 26 hospitals who responded to a mailed survey. The instrument assessed satisfaction regarding 23 items of perceived care, patient demographic, and visit characteristics. Bivariate and multivariate techniques were used to reveal relations between indicators and overall satisfaction. Bivariate statistics showed strong relations between overall satisfaction and perceived care with weaker findings pertaining to demographic and visit characteristics. The Multivariate logistic regression predicting overall satisfaction demonstrated that patients receiving surgical services predominantly have similar demands and priorities regardless of age and gender. The strongest factors were (P < 0.05) the interpersonal manner of medical practitioners and nurses, organization of operations, admittance, and discharge, as well as perceived length of stay. This study identified factors that are related to satisfaction of surgical patients and indicated the intensity of this relationship. These findings support health care providers and medical practitioners with valuable information to meet needs and preferences of patients receiving surgical services. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Angry and Alone: Demographic Characteristics of Those Who Post to Online Comment Sections

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    Michael Artime

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Internet and social media afford individuals the opportunity to post their thoughts instantaneously and largely without filters. While this has tremendous democratic potential, it also raises questions about the quality of the discourse these technological changes portend. Online comment sections may be a particularly unique form of communication within social media to investigate because of their ubiquitous and often anonymous nature. A longitudinal examination of Pew Center data over the course of 4 years suggests that there are demographic differences between people who post and those who do not post to online comment sections. Specifically, in 2008 and 2010 regression analysis demonstrates there is an increased likelihood of posting among men, the unmarried, and the unemployed. However, the 2012 data tells a different story and suggests the possibility that the nature of comment sections might be changing. The findings have important implications for understanding the character of online discourse as well as the vitriol undergirding the political attitudes of disaffected citizens.

  6. Demographic characteristics associated with homelessness and risk among female and male veterans accessing VHA outpatient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Dichter, Melissa E; Thomasson, Arwin M; Fu, Xiaoying; Roberts, Christopher B

    2015-01-01

    This study explored demographic influences on veterans' reports of homelessness or imminent risk of homelessness with a particular focus on gender. We analyzed data for a cohort of veterans who responded to the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), Veterans Health Administration (VHA) universal screener for homelessness and risk during a 3-month period. Multinomial mixed effects models-stratified by gender-predicted veterans' reports of homelessness or risk based on age, race, marital status, and receipt of VA compensation. The proportion of positive screens-homelessness or risk-was 2.7% for females and 1.7% for males. Women more likely to report being at risk of homelessness were aged 35 to 54 years, Black, and unmarried; those more likely to experience homelessness were Black and unmarried. Among male veterans, the greatest predictors of both homelessness and risk were Black race and unmarried status. Among both genders, receiving VA disability compensation was associated with lesser odds of being homeless or at risk. The findings describe the current population of veterans using VHA health care services who may benefit from homelessness prevention or intervention services, identify racial differences in housing stability, and distinguish subpopulations who may be in particular need of intervention. Interventions to address these needs are described. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Typology of adults diagnosed with mental disorders based on socio-demographics and clinical and service use characteristics

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    Perreault Michel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental disorder is a leading cause of morbidity worldwide. Its cost and negative impact on productivity are substantial. Consequently, improving mental health-care system efficiency - especially service utilisation - is a priority. Few studies have explored the use of services by specific subgroups of persons with mental disorder; a better understanding of these individuals is key to improving service planning. This study develops a typology of individuals, diagnosed with mental disorder in a 12-month period, based on their individual characteristics and use of services within a Canadian urban catchment area of 258,000 persons served by a psychiatric hospital. Methods From among the 2,443 people who took part in the survey, 406 (17% experienced at least one episode of mental disorder (as per the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI in the 12 months pre-interview. These individuals were selected for cluster analysis. Results Analysis yielded four user clusters: people who experienced mainly anxiety disorder; depressive disorder; alcohol and/or drug disorder; and multiple mental and dependence disorder. Two clusters were more closely associated with females and anxiety or depressive disorders. In the two other clusters, males were over-represented compared with the sample as a whole, namely, substance abuses with or without concomitant mental disorder. Clusters with the greatest number of mental disorders per subject used a greater number of mental health-care services. Conversely, clusters associated exclusively with dependence disorders used few services. Conclusion The study found considerable heterogeneity among socio-demographic characteristics, number of disorders, and number of health-care services used by individuals with mental or dependence disorders. Cluster analysis revealed important differences in service use with regard to gender and age. It reinforces the relevance of developing targeted programs

  8. Latino Population Growth, Socioeconomic and Demographic Characteristics, and Implications for Educational Attainment

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    Chapa, Jorge; De La Rosa, Belinda

    2004-01-01

    Data from the U.S. Census Bureau and the National Center for Education Statistics indicate that Latinos lag behind non-Latinos in education and in other socioeconomic characteristics. Although there are some positive indications such as the decrease of individuals and children living in poverty and an increase in the number of individuals working…

  9. Female migrants, family members and community socio-demographic characteristics influence facility delivery in Rufiji, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levira, Francis; Gaydosh, Lauren; Ramaiya, Astha

    2014-09-23

    Health professionals and public health experts in maternal and newborn health encourage women to deliver at health facilities in an effort to reduce maternal and newborn mortality. In the existing literature, there is scant information on how migration, family members and community influence facility delivery. This study addresses this knowledge gap using 10 years of longitudinal surveillance data from a rural district of Tanzania. Multilevel logistic regression was used to quantify the influence of hypothesized migration, family and community-level factors on facility delivery while adjusting for known confounders identified in the literature. We report adjusted odds ratios (AOR). Overall, there has been an increase of 14% in facility delivery over the ten years, from 63% in 2001 to 77% in 2010 (p community were more likely to give birth in a facility AOR = 1.2 (95% CI 1.11-1.29). Furthermore, the previous facility delivery of sisters and sisters-in-law has a significant influence on women's facility delivery; AOR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.15-1.45 and AOR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.35-2.13 respectively. Community level characteristics play a role as well; women in communities with higher socioeconomic status and older women of reproductive age had increased odds of facility delivery; AOR = 2.37, 95% CI 1.88-2.98 and AOR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.03-1.32 respectively. Although there has been an increase in facility delivery over the last decade in Rufiji, this study underscores the importance of female migrants, family members and community in influencing women's place of delivery. The findings of this study suggest that future interventions designed to increase facility delivery must integrate person-to-person facility delivery promotion, especially through women of the community and within families. Furthermore, the results suggest that investment in formal education of the community and increased community socio-economic status may increase facility delivery.

  10. Demographic characteristics and metabolic risk factors in Croatian children with urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milošević, Danko; Batinić, Danica; Turudić, Daniel; Batinić, Danko; Topalović-Grković, Marija; Gradiški, Ivan Pavao

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess demographic data, clinical presentation, metabolic features, and treatment in 76 children with urolithiasis presented from 2002 to 2011. Urolithiasis is responsible for 2.5/1,000 pediatric hospitalizations, with new cases diagnosed in 1.1/1,000 admissions. From the observed period, two-fold rise of incidence rate was observed. Compiling the data from other pediatric institutions in our country, we estimated present overall incidence rate in Croatia as 6.5/100,000 children under 18 years. There were 41 boys and 35 girls (ratio 1.17:1). The mean age at diagnosis was 9.7 (range 0.8-16) years and follow-up duration was 5.3 (range 1.8-10) years. Renal colic (75.0 %) and hematuria (57.89 %) were the main symptoms. In 65.78 % of children, stones were unilateral. Stones were located in kidney in 52.63 %, in the ureter in 26.32 %, and in bladder in 6.58 % cases. Stone analysis showed calcium oxalate in 75.0 % of the cases. Associated urinary tract abnormalities were found in 19.73 % children. Most common metabolic disturbances were hypercalciuria (47.37 %) and idiopathic or mild hyperoxaluria (18.42 %). Urine saturation (EQUIL2) was elevated in 61.84 % cases. Spontaneous stone evacuation occurred in 51.21 % children. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, surgical evacuation, and endoscopic removal of calculi were performed in 21.0, 6.58, and 5.26 % of cases, respectively. Follow-up conservative therapy, consisting of fluid/diet recommendations and additional potassium citrate and/or chlorothiazide in children with increased risk, was sufficient for stone recurrence prevention in 92.1 % of children. In conclusion, the study gave insight in epidemiology and metabolic disturbances of urinary stone disease in Croatian children.

  11. Demographic Characteristics of a Maine Woodcock Population and Effects of Habitat Management

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    Dwyer, T.J.; Sepik, G.F.; Derleth, E.L.; McAuley, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    A population of American woodcock (Scolopax minor) was studied on a 3,401-ha area of the Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge in northeastern Maine from 1976 through 1985. During 1976-83, from 4 to 64 clearcuts were created each year, opening up large contiguous blocks of forest. A combination of mist nets, ground traps, nightlighting techniques, and trained dogs were used to capture and band 1,884 birds during the first 5 years. Capture and recapture data (totaling 3,009 observations) were used with both demographically closed and open population models to estimate population size and, for open population models, summer survival. Flying young, especially young males, represented the greatest proportion of all captures; analysis showed that young males were more prone to capture than young females. Male courtship began about 24 March each year, usually when there was still snow in wooded areas. Males ~2 years old dominated singing grounds during April each year, but this situation changed and first-year males dominated singing grounds in May. Singing males shifted from older established singing grounds to new clearcuts soon after we initiated forest management. Many males were subdominant at singing grounds despite an abundance of unoccupied openings. Three hundred adult females were captured and, except for 1978, the majority were ~2 years old. The year in which female homing rate was lowest(1979) was preceded by the year with the largest number of l-year-old brood female captures and a summer drought. Summer survival of young was lowest in 1978 and was attributed to summer drought. The year 1979 had an abnormally cool and wet spring, and was the poorest for production of young. Capture ratios of young-to-adult females obtained by nightlighting could be used to predict production on our study area. Closed population model estimates did not seem to fit either young or adult data sets well. Instead, a partially open capture-recapture model that allowed death but no

  12. Demographics, clinical disease characteristics, and quality of life in a large cohort of psoriasis patients with and without psoriatic arthritis

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    Truong B

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available B Truong,1,* N Rich-Garg,2,* BD Ehst,1 AA Deodhar,2 JH Ku,2 K Vakil-Gilani,2 A Danve,2 A Blauvelt,1,3 1Department of Dermatology, Oregon Health and Science University, 2Division of Arthritis and Rheumatic Diseases, Oregon Health and Science University, 3Oregon Medical Research Center, Portland, OR, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Innovation: What is already known about the topic: psoriasis (PsO is a common skin disease with major impact on quality of life (QoL. Patient-reported data on QoL from large number of PsO patients with and without psoriatic arthritis (PsA are limited. What this study adds: In a large cohort referred to a university psoriasis center, patients with PsO and concomitant PsA (~30% in this group had greater degrees of skin and nail involvement and experienced greater negative impacts on QoL. Despite large numbers of patients with moderate-to-severe disease, use of systemic therapy by community practitioners was uncommon. Background: PsO and PsA are common diseases that have marked adverse impacts on QoL. The disease features and patient-reported QoL data comparing PsO and PsA patients are limited. Objective: To identify and compare demographics, clinical disease characteristics, and QoL scores in a large cohort of PsO patients with and without PsA. Methods: All PsO patients seen in a psoriasis specialty clinic, named the Center of Excellence for Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis, were enrolled in an observational cohort. Demographic, QoL, and clinical data were collected from patient-reported questionnaires and from physical examinations performed by Center of Excellence for Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis dermatologists and a rheumatologists. Cross sectional descriptive data were collected and comparisons between patients with PsO alone and those with concomitant PsA are presented. Results: A total of 568 patients were enrolled in the database. Mean age of PsO onset was 28 years and mean disease

  13. Frequency of physical restraint and its associations with demographic and clinical characteristics in a Chinese psychiatric institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Min; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Zhou, Jian-Song; Gou, Lei; Himelhoch, Seth; Ungvari, Gabor S; Chiu, Helen F K; Lai, Kelly Y C; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2014-10-01

    Physical restraint (PR) is a highly controversal topic in psychiatry. Little is known about PR among psychiatric inpatients in China. This study examined the frequency of PR and its relationships with demographic and clinical characteristics among a large psychiatric institution in the Hunan Province, China. The study included a consecutively assessed sample of 160 psychiatric inpatients. Sociodemographic and clinical data including use of PR were collected from the medical records using a form designed for this study and confirmed via interview. The frequency of PR was 51.3% in the whole sample; 63.2% among female and 39.2% among male patients. In multiple logistic regression analysis PR was independently associated with male gender (p = 0.001, odds ratio [OR] = 0.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.1-0.6), less outpatient treatment prior to admission (p = 0.03, OR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.9), more frequent use of mood stabilizers (p = 0.002, OR = 5.6, 95% CI 1.9-16.7), more aggressive behavior prior to admission (p = 0.002, OR = 1.1, 95% CI 1.04-1.2), and younger age (p = 0.04, OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.93-0.99). PR is very common in clinical practice in China. Its demographic and clinical correlates are similar to findings in Western settings. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The Relationship between Socio-demographic Characteristics, Family Environment, and Caregiver Coping in Families of Children with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Katie A.; Heckler, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    The factors that influence caregiver coping mechanism preferences after a child’s diagnosis with cancer are not fully understood. This study examines the relationship between caregivers’ socio-demographic characteristics and the coping strategies they use to adapt to childhood cancer. Sixty caregivers of pediatric cancer patients completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Family Environment Scale, and the COPE inventory. There were no significant differences in family environment by income or education. Caregiver educational attainment was positively associated with use of planning and active coping styles, while income was not associated with caregiver coping style. Mothers were more likely than fathers to use active coping, instrumental support, religious coping, and emotional support. Men with lower education engaged in greater substance use coping and lower planning. The findings show that educational attainment and caregiver gender influence caregiver coping styles following a pediatric cancer diagnosis and suggest that educational attainment rather than financial resources drive the association between SES and coping. Programs that address educational gaps and teach caregivers planning and active coping skills may be beneficial for parents with lower educational attainment, particularly men. PMID:23670676

  15. The relationship between socio-demographic characteristics, family environment, and caregiver coping in families of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage-Bouchard, Elizabeth A; Devine, Katie A; Heckler, Charles E

    2013-12-01

    The factors that influence caregiver coping mechanism preferences after a child's diagnosis with cancer are not fully understood. This study examines the relationship between caregivers' socio-demographic characteristics and the coping strategies they use to adapt to childhood cancer. Sixty caregivers of pediatric cancer patients completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Family Environment Scale, and the COPE inventory. There were no significant differences in family environment by income or education. Caregiver educational attainment was positively associated with use of planning and active coping styles, while income was not associated with caregiver coping style. Mothers were more likely than fathers to use active coping, instrumental support, religious coping, and emotional support. Men with lower education engaged in greater substance use coping and lower planning. The findings show that educational attainment and caregiver gender influence caregiver coping styles following a pediatric cancer diagnosis and suggest that educational attainment rather than financial resources drive the association between SES and coping. Programs that address educational gaps and teach caregivers planning and active coping skills may be beneficial for parents with lower educational attainment, particularly men.

  16. Socio-demographic and lifestyle-related characteristics associated with self-reported any, daily and occasional smoking during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ruth; Manniën, Judith; de Jonge, Ank; Heymans, Martijn W; Klomp, Trudy; Hutton, Eileen K; Brug, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for various adverse birth outcomes. In order to develop effective interventions, insight is needed into the characteristics associated with pregnant women who smoke. Unknown is whether these characteristics differ for women who smoke daily and women who smoke occasionally. Our study sample, drawn from the DELIVER study (Sept 2009-March 2011), consisted of 6107 pregnant women in primary care in the Netherlands who were up to 34 weeks pregnant. The associations of thirteen socio-demographic or lifestyle-related characteristics with 'any smoking', 'daily smoking' and 'occasional smoking' during pregnancy were tested using multiple binary logistic regression with general estimating equations (GEE). Characteristics most strongly associated with any smoking were low education (OR 10.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.0-15.4), being of Turkish ethnicity (OR 3.9; 95%CI 2.3-6.7) and having no partner (OR 3.7; 95%CI 2.3-6.0). Women of Dutch ethnicity were three times more likely to smoke than those from Dutch-speaking Caribbean countries and non-religious women were much more likely to smoke than religious women. Low education was markedly more strongly associated with daily smoking than with occasional smoking (OR 20.3; 95%CI 13.2-31.3 versus OR 6.0; 95%CI 3.4-10.5). Daily smokers were more likely to be associated with other unfavorable lifestyle-related characteristics, such as not taking folic acid, being underweight, and having had an unplanned pregnancy. There is still much potential for health gain with respect to smoking during pregnancy in the Netherlands. Daily and occasional smokers appear to differ in characteristics, and therefore possibly require different interventions.

  17. Socio-demographic and lifestyle-related characteristics associated with self-reported any, daily and occasional smoking during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Baron

    Full Text Available Smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for various adverse birth outcomes. In order to develop effective interventions, insight is needed into the characteristics associated with pregnant women who smoke. Unknown is whether these characteristics differ for women who smoke daily and women who smoke occasionally. Our study sample, drawn from the DELIVER study (Sept 2009-March 2011, consisted of 6107 pregnant women in primary care in the Netherlands who were up to 34 weeks pregnant. The associations of thirteen socio-demographic or lifestyle-related characteristics with 'any smoking', 'daily smoking' and 'occasional smoking' during pregnancy were tested using multiple binary logistic regression with general estimating equations (GEE. Characteristics most strongly associated with any smoking were low education (OR 10.3; 95% confidence interval (CI 7.0-15.4, being of Turkish ethnicity (OR 3.9; 95%CI 2.3-6.7 and having no partner (OR 3.7; 95%CI 2.3-6.0. Women of Dutch ethnicity were three times more likely to smoke than those from Dutch-speaking Caribbean countries and non-religious women were much more likely to smoke than religious women. Low education was markedly more strongly associated with daily smoking than with occasional smoking (OR 20.3; 95%CI 13.2-31.3 versus OR 6.0; 95%CI 3.4-10.5. Daily smokers were more likely to be associated with other unfavorable lifestyle-related characteristics, such as not taking folic acid, being underweight, and having had an unplanned pregnancy. There is still much potential for health gain with respect to smoking during pregnancy in the Netherlands. Daily and occasional smokers appear to differ in characteristics, and therefore possibly require different interventions.

  18. Socio-demographic Characteristics of Individuals with History of Crack Cocaine Use in the US General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yur'yev, Andriy; Akerele, Evaristo

    2016-11-01

    This study explores socio-demographic characteristics of individuals with history of crack cocaine use. Data from the 29th Round of General Social Survey was used. Respondents with history of crack cocaine use were compared to respondents without such history. T test was applied to identify differences between groups. Approximately 6 % of respondents reported lifetime history of crack cocaine use. Groups with and without history of crack cocaine use differed significantly in gender, marital status, education, income distribution, employment, health perception, family and financial satisfaction, criminal history, happiness, sexual history, history of injection drug use, and HIV testing. There were no significant differences for race. The study provides insights that could improve identification and prevention of substance use disorders.

  19. An Examination of Extension Professionals’ Demographic and Personal Characteristics Toward Fostering Diversity-Inclusive 4-H Programs

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    Douglas D. LaVergne

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available 4-H youth professionals’ attitudes about the perceptions of diversity inclusion in their programs are variables that may have an influence on the number of youths that enroll in 4-H. This study examines the impact of Extension professionals’ demographic and personal characteristics on their perceptions of the benefits of diversity inclusion, perceived barriers to diversity inclusion, and proposed solutions to increase diversity inclusion in 4-H youth programs. Using a web-based questionnaire, the researchers employed a nonproportional stratified random sampling technique, and 117 Extension professionals participated. Through comparative analysis, the researcher found statistically significant differences existed in professionals’ perceptions toward the benefits of diversity inclusion, the perceived barriers toward diversity inclusion, and the proposed solutions to increase diversity inclusion in 4-H programs. Additional research should be conducted to understand better why these differences exist.

  20. Clinical, socio-demographic and psychological characteristics in individuals with persistent psychotic experiences with and without a "need for care".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Emmanuelle; Ward, Thomas; Jackson, Mike; Morgan, Craig; Charalambides, Monica; McGuire, Philip; Woodruff, Peter; Jacobsen, Pamela; Chadwick, Paul; Garety, Philippa A

    2016-02-01

    Individuals reporting persistent psychotic experiences (PEs) in the general population, but without a "need for care", are a unique group of particular importance in identifying risk and protective factors for psychosis. We compared people with persistent PEs and no "need for care" (non-clinical, N=92) with patients diagnosed with a psychotic disorder (clinical, N=84) and controls without PEs (N=83), in terms of their phenomenological, socio-demographic and psychological features. The 259 participants were recruited from one urban and one rural area in the UK, as part of the UNIQUE (Unusual Experiences Enquiry) study. Results showed that the non-clinical group experienced hallucinations in all modalities as well as first-rank symptoms, with an earlier age of onset than in the clinical group. Somatic/tactile hallucinations were more frequent than in the clinical group, while commenting and conversing voices were rare. Participants in the non-clinical group were differentiated from their clinical counterparts by being less paranoid and deluded, apart from ideas of reference, and having fewer cognitive difficulties and negative symptoms. Unlike the clinical group, they were characterized neither by low psychosocial functioning nor by social adversity. However, childhood trauma featured in both groups. They were similar to the controls in psychological characteristics: they did not report current emotional problems, had intact self-esteem, displayed healthy schemas about the self and others, showed high life satisfaction and well-being, and high mindfulness. These findings support biopsychosocial models postulating that environmental and psychological factors interact with biological processes in the aetiology of psychosis. While some PEs may be more malign than others, lower levels of social and environmental adversity, combined with protective factors such as intact IQ, spirituality, and psychological and emotional well-being, may reduce the likelihood of persistent

  1. Identifying socio-demographic and clinical characteristics associated with medication beliefs about aromatase inhibitors among postmenopausal women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Teresa M; Davis, Emily J; Farris, Karen B; Fawaz, Souhiela; Batra, Peter; Henry, N Lynn

    2017-06-01

    Non-adherence/persistence to adjuvant endocrine therapy can negatively impact survival. Beliefs about medicines are known to affect adherence. This study aims to identify socio-demographic and clinical characteristics associated with medication beliefs among women taking aromatase inhibitors (AIs). Women completed an online survey on beliefs about AI therapy [Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ)], beliefs about breast cancer [Assessment of Survivor Concerns scale (ASC)], and depression [Personal Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8)]. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were collected. Bivariate analyses and linear regression models were performed to investigate relationships between variables. A total of 224 women reported currently taking AI therapy and were included in the analysis. Significantly higher concern beliefs were found among women who had at least mild depression, experienced side effects from AIs, and previously stopped therapy with another AI. Significant correlations were found between concern and necessity beliefs and cancer and health worry. Women age 70 and older displayed less fear of cancer recurrence and health worry, and a trend towards lower necessity and concern beliefs. No differences were found for other variables. In the regression model, greater necessity beliefs were found with increases in the number of current prescription medications (B = 1.06, 95% CI 0.31-1.81, p = 0.006) and shorter duration of current AI therapy (B = -0.65, 95% CI -1.23 to -0.07, p = 0.029), whereas greater concern beliefs were associated with higher depression scores (B = 1.19, 95% CI 0.35-2.03, p = 0.006). Medication necessity and concern beliefs were associated with a definable subset of patients who may be at higher risk for non-persistence.

  2. Associations between socio-demographic characteristics and pubertal status with disordered eating among primary school children in Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Lin Siew; Chin, Yit Siew; Gan, Wan Ying; Nasir, Mohd Taib Mohd

    2017-03-01

    To determine the associations between socio-demographic characteristics and pubertal status with disordered eating among primary school children. Using a stratified multi-stage sampling, a total of 816 children (282 boys and 534 girls) aged 10 to 11 years from 12 selected primary schools in the state of Selangor, participated in this study. Data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics, pubertal status and disordered eating behaviors. The Pubertal Development Scale and the Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) were used to assess pubertal status and disordered eating, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the risk factors of disordered eating. The prevalence of disordered eating was 30.8% (32.8% in boys and 29.7% in girls). However, the sex difference in the prevalence was not statistically significant. Age, ethnicity and pubertal status were significantly associated with disordered eating in univariate logistic regression analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that among boys, being either in an advanced or post-pubertal stage (adjusted OR=8.64) and older age group (adjusted OR=2.03) were risk factors of disordered eating. However, among girls, being a Malay (adjusted OR=3.79) or Indian (adjusted OR=5.04) in an advanced or post-pubertal stage (adjusted OR=2.34) and older age group (adjusted OR=1.53) were risk factors of disordered eating. This study found one in three children had disordered eating. Since ethnicity and pubertal status were identified as risk factors, ethnicity-specific intervention programs on the prevention of disordered eating among children should take into consideration their pubertal status.

  3. Lead and eagles: demographic and pathological characteristics of poisoning, and exposure levels associated with other causes of mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Russell, Robin E.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate demographic and pathologic characteristics in 484 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 68 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) diagnosed with lead poisoning at the U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center. As part of our analysis, we compared characteristics of lead poisoned eagles with those that died of other causes. Odds of lead poisoning were greater for bald eagles versus golden eagles, females versus males, adults versus juveniles, and eagles from the Mississippi and Central flyways versus the Atlantic and Pacific flyways. In addition to spatial, species, and demographic associations, we detected a distinct temporal trend in the collection date of lead poisoned bald eagle carcasses. These carcasses were found at greater frequency in late autumn and winter than spring and summer. Lesions in lead poisoned birds included emaciation, evidence of bile stasis, myocardial degeneration and necrosis, and renal tubular nephrosis and necrosis. Ingested lead ammunition or fragments were found in 14.2 % of bald eagles and 11.8 % of golden eagles. The overall mean liver lead concentration (wet weight basis) for eagles diagnosed with lead poisoning was 28.9 ± 0.69 SE mg/kg in bald eagles and 19.4 ± 1.84 SE mg/kg in golden eagles. In eagles diagnosed with collision trauma, electrocution, poisoning (other than lead), emaciation, infectious disease, trapping death, other, and undetermined causes, average liver lead concentrations were low (<1 mg/kg) and did not differ among causes of mortality. Thus, based on our data, we found no evidence that lead exposure of eagles predisposed them to other causes of mortality.

  4. Fast food intake in Canada: Differences among Canadians with diverse demographic, socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer L; Billette, Jean-Michel

    2015-02-03

    To estimate the contribution of fast food to daily energy intake, and compare intake among Canadians with varied demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics. Using the National Cancer Institute method, nationally representative estimates of mean usual daily caloric intake from fast food were derived from 24-hour dietary recall data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2 (n = 17,509) among participants age ≥ 2 years. Mean daily intake and relative proportion of calories derived from fast food were compared among respondents with diverse demographic (age, sex, provincial and rural/urban residence), socio-economic (income, education, food security status) and health and lifestyle characteristics (physical activity, fruit/vegetable intake, vitamin/ mineral supplement use, smoking, binge drinking, body mass index (BMI), self-rated health and dietary quality). On average, Canadians reported consuming 146 kcal/day from fast food, contributing to 6.3% of usual energy intake. Intake was highest among male teenagers (248 kcal) and lowest among women ≥ 70 years of age (32 kcal). Fast food consumption was significantly higher among respondents who reported lower fruit and vegetable intake, poorer dietary quality, binge drinking, not taking vitamin/mineral supplements (adults only), and persons with higher BMI. Socio-economic status, physical activity, smoking and self-rated health were not significantly associated with fast food intake. While average Canadian fast food consumption is lower than national US estimates, intake was associated with lower dietary quality and higher BMI. Findings suggest that research and intervention strategies should focus on dietary practices of children and adolescents, whose fast food intakes are among the highest in Canada.

  5. Male clients of male escorts: satisfaction, sexual behavior, and demographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grov, Christian; Wolff, Margaret; Smith, Michael D; Koken, Juline; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined male clients who pay for sex with male escorts. In 2012, clients (n = 495) completed an online survey about their most recent hire. Most clients were White/Caucasian (87.7%), HIV negative (89.5%), employed full time (71.1%), single (58.6%), with a mean age of 54. Three-quarters of clients were gay identified, 18% bisexual, and 4% heterosexual. The median rate paid to escorts was $250 per hour with a modal appointment time of 1 to 2 hours (41.6%). Oral sex was common (80% gave, 69% received), 30% reported anal insertive sex, and 34% reported anal receptive sex. In total, few (12%) reported unprotected anal sex. Satisfaction with encounters was high. Receptive unprotected anal intercourse was associated with greater satisfaction in bivariate analyses but not in multivariable analyses. In a multivariable model, having receptive anal sex (whether protected or not) and rating the financial cost of the encounter as "worth it" were significantly associated with greater satisfaction. This study contributes to a scarce literature regarding clients of male sex workers and, in particular, provides information on the characteristics of men hiring men for sexual services, behavioral event-level data about their encounters, and analysis of factors directly associated with client satisfaction.

  6. [Socio-demographic and food insecurity characteristics of soup-kitchen users in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Kátia Cruz; Sávio, Karin Eleonora Oliveira; Akutsu, Rita de Cássia; Gubert, Muriel Bauermann; Botelho, Raquel Braz Assunção

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to characterize users of a government soup-kitchen program and the association with family food insecurity, using a cross-sectional design and random sample of 1,637 soup-kitchen users. The study used a questionnaire with socioeconomic variables and the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale, and measured weight and height. The chi-square test was applied, and the crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated using Poisson regression. Prevalent characteristics included per capita income ranging from one-half to one minimum wage (35.1%), complete middle school (39.8%), and food security (59.4%). Users in the North of Brazil showed the worst data: incomplete primary school (39.8%), per capita income up to one-half the minimum wage (50.8%), and food insecurity (55.5%). Prevalence ratios for food insecurity were higher among users with per capita income up to one-fourth the minimum wage (p kitchen users with food insecurity can help orient the program's work, location, and operations.

  7. Plasma retinol and association with socio-demographic and dietary characteristics of free-living older persons: the Bordeaux sample of the three-city study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Féart, Catherine; Siewe, Aisha; Samieri, Cécilia; Peuchant, Evelyne; Helmer, Catherine; Alfos, Serge; Pallet, Véronique; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to describe retinol plasma concentration and its association with socio-demographic characteristics and dietary habits in French older persons. The study population consisted of 1664 subjects aged 65 + from Bordeaux (France), included in the Three-City cohort. Retinol plasma concentration was determined in fasting blood samples. Dietary assessment was performed by a food frequency questionnaire allowing estimation of weekly intake of dietary sources of vitamin A or provitamin A. The weekly number of glasses of alcohol was also recorded. Age, sex, marital status, educational and income levels, body-mass index (BMI), and smoking were registered. Cross-sectional analysis of the association between plasma retinol and socio-demographic characteristics and dietary habits was performed by multilinear regression. Mean plasma retinol was close to the homeostatically regulated concentration of 2.0 micromol/L but ranged from 0.35 to 6.77 micromol/L. It was higher in women and divorced or separated individuals, and increased with income but not with age or educational level. Plasma retinol was positively and independently associated with the frequency of offal consumption and to the number of glasses of alcohol consumed per week. These results allow targeting older individuals who are at risk of either excessive or deficient vitamin A status and who should benefit from dietary counseling.

  8. Characteristics of genomic test consumers who spontaneously share results with their health care provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darst, Burcu F; Madlensky, Lisa; Schork, Nicholas J; Topol, Eric J; Bloss, Cinnamon S

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of direct-to-consumer (DTC) genomic test consumers who spontaneously shared their test results with their health care provider. Utilizing data from the Scripps Genomic Health Initiative, we compared demographic, behavioral, and attitudinal characteristics of DTC genomic test consumers who shared their results with their physician or health care provider versus those who did not share. We also compared genomic risk estimates between the two groups. Of 2,024 individuals assessed at approximately 6 months post testing, 540 individuals (26.5%) reported sharing their results with their physician or health care provider. Those who shared were older (p consumers.

  9. Predicting Middle Level State Standardized Test Results Using Family and Community Demographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Colella, Anthony; Angelillo, Christian; Fox, Meredith; McCahill, Kevin R.; Wolfe, Adam

    2017-01-01

    The use of standardized test results to drive school administrator evaluations pervades education policymaking in more than 40 states. However, the results of state standardized tests are strongly influenced by non-school factors. The models of best fit (n = 18) from this correlational, explanatory, longitudinal study predicted accurately the…

  10. Prevalence, demographic characteristics and associated risk factors of malnutrition among 0-5 aged children: a cross-sectional study from Van, eastern Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Baran Serdar Kizilyildiz; Bülent Sönmez; Kamuran Karaman; Burhan Beger; Adnan Mercen; Süleyman Alioğlu; Yaşar Cesur

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and ot...

  11. Prevalence, Demographic Characteristics and Associated Risk Factors of Malnutrition Among 0-5 Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study From Van, Eastern Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kizilyildiz, Baran Serdar; SÖNMEZ Bülent; Karaman, Kamuran; Beger, Burhan; Mercen, Adnan; Alioglu, Süleyman; CESUR, Yasar

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and ot...

  12. Demographic Characteristics, Referrals and Patients’ Accessibility to an Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veneti Katerina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Throughout the financial crisis in Greece, health expenditures have been significantly reduced. As a result, patients’ accessibility to various health care providers has been significantly reduced. The aim of the present study was to determine the profile of patients visiting a maxillofacial clinic in Northern Greece and the patients’ accessibility to the specific healthcare.

  13. Socio-demographic and reproductive health profile of women who experienced signs of obstetric fistula: Results from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS) 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sadaf; Zaheer, Sidra

    2017-08-18

    to examine the socio-demographic profile of women experiencing signs of obstetric fistula and factors contributing to the development of this condition in Pakistan. secondary data analysis of Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2006-07, which for the first time measured signs of obstetric fistula, using a questionnaire at a population level. For the present study, questions directly related to obstetric fistula signs were used to construct a dependent variable. Data were analysed by descriptive and logistic regression analysis, to examine factors associated with development of fistula. among women of reproductive age (n = 9134, aged 15-49 years), some 277 (3.0%, 30 per 1000 women who ever gave birth) experienced obstetric fistula signs, whereas 103 (1.1% of all women) were still experiencing the condition at the time of survey. In a logistic regression model, women from the Punjab region (OR = 5.67, 95%CI = 2.10-15.31), women who delivered by caesarean section (OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.06-3.42) and reported having complications during pregnancy were more likely to develop obstetric fistula (OR = 1.96, 95%CI = 1.19-3.16). Obstetric fistula is one of the neglected public and reproductive health concerns in Pakistan. To eliminate this preventable tragedy, there is a need for better emergency obstetric care facilities and the availability of a fistula repair service throughout the country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics of illegal motorcycle street racers in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Wong Li Ping

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background This study sought to understand the factors associated with street racing among the illegal motorcycle racers in Malaysia or known as the "Mat Rempit". Methods Street outreach interviewer-administered surveys were conducted from June 2008 to January 2009 in this multi-state study. Results A total of 2022 participants were surveyed, the mean ± SD age of the participants was 20.5 ± 3.4 years (age range: 12 to 35 years). Mean duration of street racing was 2.65(SD ± 1.77) year...

  15. Relationships Between Using Other Substances and Socio-Demographic Characteristics in Opiate Dependents

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    Melike Nebioglu,Hacer Yalniz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to determine the variables that can be a risk factor for addiction like age, gender, education level, school cession, first using age, substance use period, frequency and using other addictive substances among people who have a diagnosis of opiate addiction. Methods: This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study in AMBAUM ( Akdeniz University Alcohol and Substance Dependence Research and Practice Center between February 1,2010- April30, 2010. 84 inpatient and outpatient patients (60 men, 24 women between age 14-37, who have a diagnosis of opiate addiction according to DSM IV-TR diagnostic criteria recruited in this study. All participating patients completed a standard questionaire and sociodemographic data form face to face. The results were analyzed with chi-squared test by using SPSS 16 statistics program. Results: In our patients nicotin addiction prevalance is 100%, alcohol using prevalance is 91.7%, cannabis using prevalance 86.9%, ecstasy using prevalance 54.8%, cocain using prevalance 48.8%, polysubstance using prevalance 47.6%, hallucinogen using prevalance 27.4%, addictive medical drug using prevalance 17.9%. Conclusions: This epidemiological study guide us in the monitoring and evalution of the opiate use and prevalance of other substance use with opiate addiction. Keywords: Prevalence, heroin, polysubstance dependence. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(1.000: 35-42

  16. Socio-demographic characteristics of traditional gold smelters in Makassar, south Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habo Abbas, Hasriwiani; Sakakibara, Masayuki; Hakim Arma, Lukmanul; Hardi Yanti, Iva

    2017-06-01

    The traditional gold smelting in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, is an informal work with the manufacture of gold jewelry as the core activity. Stages of the gold processing include panning, smelting, and refining with mercury. In the current study, we used a social demography analysis to classify the traditional gold smelter workers in this region. Data (e.g. sex, age, education level, time working, and income) were obtained from a questionnaire survey of 58 smelter workers in the Wajo and Tallo Sub-districts of Makassar. Results showed that 84.5% of the workers were males aged from 21 to 50 years with on the average 15 year of work. The gold smelter were last educated in elementary school (31.0%), junior high school (36.2%), and senior high school (27.6%) levels whereas 5.1% have no education. We found that the monthly income of an un-skilled worker was ∼Rp. 2 million (USD 147.0) whereas that of a skilled worker was between Rp. 2.5 million (USD 183.76) and Rp. 5 million (USD 367.51). An owner could earn over Rp. 5 million (USD 367.51) per month. The result suggested that the traditional gold smelting used rudimentary technique and attracted young people with a low education level. This business continues to exist because the worker earn sufficient income and may higher through mastering gold smelter proficiency.

  17. Demographic and life history characteristics influence the cytonuclear composition of mosquitofish populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Kim T.; Avise, John C.; Beaumont, A.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental laboratory crosses and population experiments reveal significant differences in individual life-history traits and population demography between two related species of mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis and G. holbrooki. With respect to life-history traits, progeny from G. holbrooki exhibit larger size at birth and earlier age at sexual maturity than do progeny from G. affinis parents. With respect to demography, populations of G. holbrooki exhibit higher recruitment and carrying capacity and loser overwinter mortality than do populations of G. affinis. These differences help t explain the dramatic changes in cytonuclear genotype frequency observed in replicated experimental hybrid populations of Gambusia monitored over 52 weeks. These experimental results are interpreted in the context of introgression patterns previously studied indirectly from distributions of cytonuclear genotypes in a natural mosquitofish hybrid zone.

  18. Prevalence and socio-demographic characteristics of disability in older adults in China: Findings from China Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lina; Li, Zhenzhen; Tang, Zhe; Sun, Fei; Diao, Lijun; Li, Jian; He, Yao; Dong, Birong; Li, Yun

    2017-11-01

    Disability affects older adults' quality of life. This study aimed to examine the socio-demographic characteristics of disability in older adults in China. Data was obtained from the China Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment Study (CCGAS). The sample comprised 6864 people aged 60 years and above from seven provinces in China. A door-to-door survey was conducted by formally trained interviewers using a unified questionnaire. Disability was assessed with physical health assessment comprising activities of daily living (ADL), and independent activities of daily living (IADL). For the purpose of this study, we analyzed only disability and some socio-demographic dimensions. The rates were standardized based on China's Sixth National Census population distribution. The disability rate in older adults was 7.0%. The disability rate was significantly higher in women than men, significantly higher in rural areas than urban areas, and higher in northern China than southern China. Urban disability rates ranged from 5.7% to 1.2%. The differences were statistically significant, with Beijing having the highest and Shanghai the lowest disability rates. Disability increased with age. In China, the disability rate in older adults is 7.0%, and increases with age. The disability rate is significantly higher in women, rural area, and northern China. This is the first study to report the epidemiology of disability in older adults in China in recent years and indicates the need for further epidemiological data on disability in China to facilitate long-term care and care policy formulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Understanding nurses' and physicians' fear of repercussions for reporting errors: clinician characteristics, organization demographics, or leadership factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Evan S; Ginsburg, Liane R; Zaheer, Shahram; Tamim, Hala

    2015-08-14

    Identifying and understanding factors influencing fear of repercussions for reporting and discussing medical errors in nurses and physicians remains an important area of inquiry. Work is needed to disentangle the role of clinician characteristics from those of the organization-level and unit-level safety environments in which these clinicians work and learn, as well as probing the differing reporting behaviours of nurses and physicians. This study examines the influence of clinician demographics (age, gender, and tenure), organization demographics (teaching status, location of care, and province) and leadership factors (organization and unit leadership support for safety) on fear of repercussions, and does so for nurses and physicians separately. A cross-sectional analysis of 2319 nurse and 386 physician responders from three Canadian provinces to the Modified Stanford patient safety climate survey (MSI-06). Data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis, multiple linear regression, and hierarchical linear regression. Age, gender, tenure, teaching status, and province were not significantly associated with fear of repercussions for nurses or physicians. Mental health nurses had poorer fear responses than their peers outside of these areas, as did community physicians. Strong organization and unit leadership support for safety explained the most variance in fear for both nurses and physicians. The absence of associations between several plausible factors including age, tenure and teaching status suggests that fear is a complex construct requiring more study. Substantially differing fear responses across locations of care indicate areas where interventions may be needed. In addition, since factors affecting fear of repercussions appear to be different for nurses and physicians, tailoring patient safety initiatives to each group may, in some instances, be fruitful. Although further investigation is needed to examine these and other factors in detail, supportive

  20. Demographic characteristic and analysis of pulmonary paragonimiasis in patients attending RIMS, Manipur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunanda, Haorongbam; Shivalingaiah, Bhavya; Paley, Tamar; Asoka, Wangkheimayum

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human infection by the lung fluke Paragonimus westermani is widely distributed in Africa, Asia, and South America. Transmission of the parasite to humans primarily occurs through the consumption of raw or undercooked crabs. Clinical features of recently diagnosed pulmonary Paragonimiasis show that patients present with a variety of clinical and radiological findings, frequently mimics tuberculosis and lung cancer. Methods: Here in this study, we report a cross-sectional study of pulmonary paragonimiasis in our institute over a period of two year. Results: it was observed that out of eleven cases, prevalence of paragonimiasis was almost equal among both the genders, with a mean age of 38.1 ± 16.96, affecting people from hills. Three patients were erroneously treated with antitubercular drugs without any relief. The association with eosinophilia in the peripheral blood and tissue[16] was seen in all the study subjects and majority patients had pleural fluid eosinophilia. Patients were diagnosed by serological test, Paragonimus ova in Sputum smear and Pleural fluid. All study subjects had excellent clinical responses to praziquantel given at dose of 25 mg/kg given orally 3 times daily for 3 consecutive days. Conclusions: There is a need to generate awareness among the clinicians and public regarding Paragonimiasis and to consider it in differential diagnosis of TB and carcinoma lung. Physicians should consider the possibility of paragonimiasis among patients who present with chest complaints with eosinophilia from the endemic regions. PMID:27051099

  1. Demographic characteristic and analysis of pulmonary paragonimiasis in patients attending RIMS, Manipur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haorongbam Sunanda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human infection by the lung fluke Paragonimus westermani is widely distributed in Africa, Asia, and South America. Transmission of the parasite to humans primarily occurs through the consumption of raw or undercooked crabs. Clinical features of recently diagnosed pulmonary Paragonimiasis show that patients present with a variety of clinical and radiological findings, frequently mimics tuberculosis and lung cancer. Methods: Here in this study, we report a cross-sectional study of pulmonary paragonimiasis in our institute over a period of two year. Results: it was observed that out of eleven cases, prevalence of paragonimiasis was almost equal among both the genders, with a mean age of 38.1 ± 16.96, affecting people from hills. Three patients were erroneously treated with antitubercular drugs without any relief. The association with eosinophilia in the peripheral blood and tissue[16] was seen in all the study subjects and majority patients had pleural fluid eosinophilia. Patients were diagnosed by serological test, Paragonimus ova in Sputum smear and Pleural fluid. All study subjects had excellent clinical responses to praziquantel given at dose of 25 mg/kg given orally 3 times daily for 3 consecutive days. Conclusions: There is a need to generate awareness among the clinicians and public regarding Paragonimiasis and to consider it in differential diagnosis of TB and carcinoma lung. Physicians should consider the possibility of paragonimiasis among patients who present with chest complaints with eosinophilia from the endemic regions.

  2. Workers’ Health Risk Behaviors by State, Demographic Characteristics, and Health Insurance Status

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    Yi Huang, MD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionEmployers often lack data about their workers’ health risk behaviors. We analyzed state-level prevalence data among workers for 4 common health risk behaviors: obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, and missed influenza vaccination (among workers older than 50 years.MethodsWe analyzed 2007 and 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data, restricting the sample to employed respondents aged 18 to 64 years. We stratified health risk behavior prevalence by annual household income, educational attainment, health insurance status, and race/ethnicity.ResultsFor all 4 health risk behaviors, we found significant differences across states and significant disparities related to social determinants of health — income, education, and race/ethnicity. Among uninsured workers, prevalence of smoking was high and influenza vaccinations were lacking.ConclusionIn this national survey study, we found that workers’ health risk behaviors vary substantially by state and by workers’ socioeconomic status, insurance status, and race/ethnicity. Employers and workplace health promotion practitioners can use the prevalence tables presented in this article to inform their workplace health promotion programs.

  3. An epidemiological study on hearing loss and its demographic characteristics within Garhwal region of Uttarakhand

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    Ravindra Singh Bisht

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hearing impaired cases attending ear, nose, and throat (ENT OPD were assessed for hearing loss and associated factors of Garhwal region of Uttarakhand. There has not been any such study yet in this region. Objective: Epidemiological study to investigate the hearing loss and its associated diseases in general population Garhwal region of Uttarakhand reporting in ENT OPD. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study carried out on OPD basis and a total of 300 patients were included in the study. The study included all the patients attending ENT OPD with a complaint of hearing loss. The exclusion criteria were as follows: Patients who were unable to respond to pure tone audiometry (PTA test. Assessment of hearing loss was done by PTA, which was done by a certified audiologist of the department. Results: Predominantly, patients were male of the late 50s. Moderate-severe sensory neural hearing loss was the most common type of hearing loss and intact tympanic membrane being most common otoscopic finding. The most common cause of hearing loss in this study group was presbycusis. Conclusion: Presbycusis is most common presentation of hearing loss in Garhwal region of Uttarakhand.

  4. IMPACT OF CORPORATE AND DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS ON THE CREDIBILITY OF INTERNET NEWS MEDIA

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    Ceyda DENEÇLİ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It can be observed that, celebrities are used in advertisements in order to help to transmit cultural and utilitarian meanings to consumers, with the purpose of persuading them. Factors such as consumers finding the celebrities in these advertisements as experts, trust-worthy and reliable, liking, admiring them, can influence consumers’ attitude towards advertisements and this can cause differences in consumers’ evaluation related to the image of brands. However, the gender of the celebrities in advertisements can also cause differences in the attitudes of individuals towards advertisements. In this study, it has been aimed at determining the effects of celebrities used in advertisements being male or female have on brands’ images. Two advertisements, in which a female and a male celebrity endorsers, have been shown to consumers and the effect of consumers’ attitudes towards advertisements on the change in the perception of brands’ images have been determined. According to the results of the study, use of celebrities in advertisements has a positive impact on the perception related to the brands. In addition, the gender of the celebrity used in the advertisement being female has been determined to have a more positive impact in comparison to a male celebrity, on both female and male consumers’ evaluation related to the brand’s image.

  5. Clinical and demographic characteristics of women with intrauterine adhesion in abuja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efetie, Efena R; Umezulike, Augustine C; Okafor, Ugochukwu V

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Infertility menstrual abnormalities continue to constitute a significant bulk of gynecological consultation in Africa. Both of these problems are sometimes traced to intrauterine adhesions which are preventable in the majority of cases. Study Design. A retrospective analysis of intrauterine adhesions at the National Hospital Abuja, Nigeria, was carried out, covering the period from 1st September 1999 to 1st September 2004. A total of 72 cases were analyzed. Statical analysis was done using X(2). Results. The incidence of intrauterine adhesions was 1.73% of new patients. Mean age ± SD was 29.97 ± 4.82 years. Patients who were Para 0 to 1 constituted 81.9% of the total. Intrauterine adhesions significantly (P < 0.02) occurred in nulliparae. The majority (68%) were educated only up to secondary level which was significant (P < 0.05). Menstrual abnormalities were present in 90.3%. The commonest predisposing factor identified was a history of dilatation and curettage or uterine evacuation. Conclusion. Intrauterine adhesions are associated with lower educational status and low parity. Increasing educational targets nationally, poverty alleviation, nationwide retraining in manual vacuum aspiration, and wider application of this technique are recommended.

  6. Clinical and Demographic Characteristics of Women with Intrauterine Adhesion in Abuja, Nigeria

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    Efena R. Efetie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Infertility menstrual abnormalities continue to constitute a significant bulk of gynecological consultation in Africa. Both of these problems are sometimes traced to intrauterine adhesions which are preventable in the majority of cases. Study Design. A retrospective analysis of intrauterine adhesions at the National Hospital Abuja, Nigeria, was carried out, covering the period from 1st September 1999 to 1st September 2004. A total of 72 cases were analyzed. Statical analysis was done using 2. Results. The incidence of intrauterine adhesions was 1.73% of new patients. Mean age ± SD was 29.97±4.82 years. Patients who were Para 0 to 1 constituted 81.9% of the total. Intrauterine adhesions significantly (<0.02 occurred in nulliparae. The majority (68% were educated only up to secondary level which was significant (<0.05. Menstrual abnormalities were present in 90.3%. The commonest predisposing factor identified was a history of dilatation and curettage or uterine evacuation. Conclusion. Intrauterine adhesions are associated with lower educational status and low parity. Increasing educational targets nationally, poverty alleviation, nationwide retraining in manual vacuum aspiration, and wider application of this technique are recommended.

  7. Soy food intake behavior by socio-demographic characteristics of Korean housewives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-June; Park, Ok-Jin

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the soy food intake behaviors including perception and intake frequency of soybean foods by sociodemographic variables were analyzed in housewives. The perception of housewives for soy foods showed that soybean paste, soybean curd, and Dambuk were high in the descending order for nutritional quality and health promotion effect, and soybean paste received the highest score in taste and flavor. Soybean sprouts received the highest evaluation score in the economic aspect. In the aspect of safe food, soybean paste received the highest evaluation score, as mush as a traditional food. The analysis of perception by sociodemographic variables showed that soybean curd, Dambuk, and soybean sprouts had higher perceptions as education level increased, and soy milk had higher perceptions in subjects with younger age and with employment. In the intake frequency, more than 50% of the subjects had soybean curd, soybean sprouts, and soybean paste more than once a week. The analysis for correlation between the intake frequency of soy foods and the degree of perception showed that taste and flavor had high correlation with the intake frequency of soy foods except soybean sprouts. The intake frequency of soybean paste, Dambuk, and soy milk had positive correlations to familiarity and that of soy milk had positive correlations to nutrition and health perception, and those of soybeam paste, soybean sprouts, and soy milk had positive correlations to safe food perception. From the above results, housewives in Korea had very high perceptions to nutritional quality and health promotion effect of soy foods and the degree of perception and accompanied intake frequency had significant differences by age, education level, and economic level among sociodemographic variables.

  8. Analysis of factors associated with patient satisfaction in ophthalmology: the influence of demographic data, visit characteristics and perceptions of received care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfelder, Tonio; Klewer, Joerg; Kugler, Joachim

    2011-11-01

    To identify factors associated with satisfaction among patients receiving ophthalmic services and to indicate the intensity of this relationship. The data used was obtained through a self-administered, post-visit questionnaire from randomly selected 507 patients treated in seven eye clinics in Germany. The instrument assessed satisfaction with several aspects of care and patient baseline and visit characteristics. Bivariate and multivariate techniques were used to reveal relations between indicators and overall satisfaction. Factor analysis yielded two factors, 'medical aspects of care' and 'performance of service', explaining 55% of total variance. Cronbach's α coefficient for both scales indicates acceptable internal consistency. Bivariate analysis showed strong relations between overall satisfaction and perceived care with weaker findings pertaining to visit characteristics. Not any of the demographic variables was associated with overall satisfaction. Perceived length of stay, intention to return to the clinic, and occurrence of complications were influential attributes on satisfaction ratings. The multivariate analysis identified seven factors associated with overall satisfaction including the treatment outcome (OR: 4.57), kindness of the nurses (OR: 5.27) and medical practitioners (OR: 2.23), room amenities (OR: 2.72), organization of procedures and operations (OR: 2.71), information about anaesthesia (OR: 1.95), and cleanliness (OR: 1.93). Factors associated with patient satisfaction in ophthalmology concern medical aspects like the organization of procedures and operations but also aspects that are not directly related to technical care, such as kindness of the nurses and cleanliness. Results show that patients' subjective experiences of received care and services relate more strongly and consistently to overall satisfaction than patient demographic data or visit characteristics. Revealed factors predicting patient satisfaction are alterable by health care

  9. The influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure on the overall health of a conflict-affected population in Southern Sudan

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    Roberts Bayard

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There remains limited evidence on how armed conflict affects overall physical and mental well-being rather than specific physical or mental health conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on general physical and mental health in Southern Sudan which is emerging from 20 years of armed conflict. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1228 adults was conducted in November 2007 in the town of Juba, the capital of Southern Sudan. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the associations and relative influence of variables in three models of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure, on general physical and mental health status. These models were run separately and also as a combined model. Data quality and the internal consistency of the health status instrument (SF-8 were assessed. Results The variables in the multivariate analysis (combined model with negative coefficients of association with general physical health and mental health (i.e. worse health, respectively, were being female (coef. -2.47; -2.63, higher age (coef.-0.16; -0.17, absence of soap in the household (physical health coef. -2.24, and experiencing within the past 12 months a lack of food and/or water (coef. -1.46; -2.27 and lack of medical care (coef.-3.51; -3.17. A number of trauma variables and cumulative exposure to trauma showed an association with physical and mental health (see main text for data. There was limited variance in results when each of the three models were run separately and when they were combined, suggesting the pervasive influence of these variables. The SF-8 showed good data quality and internal consistency. Conclusions This study provides evidence on the pervasive influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on the general physical and

  10. Socio-demographic characteristics of female and male population of Central Serbia, at beginning of the first decade of 21st century

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    Kuburović Ankica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing state of gender inequalities has led demographers to give their contribution to the research of female and male population relations. Differentiation of demographic characteristics is an aspect of enlightening the social structure of population of both sexes and revealing gender differences as a consequence of demographic and social factors. Sociodemographic structures of population, according to data from the 2002 census were analyzed from the gender perspective. The accent was placed on the differences between male and female population in view of age, marriage state, education and economic activity. Gender inequalities were perceived not only on the level of Central Serbia but according to settlement type as demographically and socially different contexts.

  11. [Association between demographic characteristics and psychosocial factors of job stress in a sample of health care workers employed in two Italian hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, C G; Gerbaudo, Laura; Benso, P G; Violante, B

    2009-01-01

    Job stress has negative effects on both health care work ers' (HCW) health and on work organization. To assess whether the presence of stressful conditions, individually considered, or combined in the iso-strain model, is significantly associated with specific socio-demographic characteristics, also with the aim of providing organizational tools for management to reduce stress in the working environment according to Italian law 81/2008. The extended version of the Job Content Questionnaire was administered to 265 healthy HCW in seven paired wards of two hospitals. The five psychosocial scales Job Demand (JD), Job Control (JC), Social Support (SS), Skill Underutilization (SuS), and Job Insecurity (JI) were calculated. The factors JD, JC, and SS were combined together to separate a group of 33 HCW in iso-strain conditions from another group of 232 HCW not in iso-strain conditions. Several socio-demographic variables were collected. Statistically significant associations were found between socio-demographic characteristics and psychosocial factors, whereas the iso-strain conditions were not related to any socio-demographic parameter. Data suggest the need for alternative policies to reduce job stress: for example, actions addressed to operative units or HCW with specific socio-demographic characteristics could be effective in improving individual psychosocial factors; however, integrated actions aimed at reorganizing the working environment as a whole should be implemented to correct iso-strain conditions.

  12. Work participation in adults with Marfan syndrome: Demographic characteristics, MFS related health symptoms, chronic pain, and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velvin, Gry; Bathen, Trine; Rand-Hendriksen, Svend; Geirdal, Amy Østertun

    2015-12-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a severe autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder that might influence peoples work ability. This cross sectional study aims to investigate work participation in adults with verified MFS diagnosis and to explore how the health related consequences of MFS and other factors might influence work participation. The prevalence of health problems in young adults compared to older adults with MFS was examined in association to work participation. A postal questionnaire including questions about work participation, demographic characteristics, MFS related health problems, chronic pain, and fatigue was sent to 117 adults with verified MFS (Ghent 1), and 62% answered. Fifty-nine percent were employed or students, significantly lower work participation than the General Norwegian Population (GNP), but higher than the Norwegian population of people with disability. Most young adults worked full-time despite extensive health problems, but the average age for leaving work was low. Few had received any work adaptations prior to retiring from work. In multiple logistic regression analysis, only age, lower educational level and severe fatigue were significantly associated with low work participation; not MFS related health problems or chronic pain. Fatigue appears to be the most challenging health problem to deal with in work, but the covariance is complex. Focus on vocational guidance early in life, more appropriate work adaptations, and psychosocial support might improve the possibility for sustaining in work for adults with MFS. More research about work challenges in adults with MFS is needed.

  13. What children do on the Internet: domains visited and their relationship to socio-demographic characteristics and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Linda A; Samona, Ricky; Moomaw, Jeff; Ramsay, Lauren; Murray, Christopher; Smith, Amy; Murray, Lindsay

    2007-04-01

    HomeNetToo is a longitudinal field study designed to examine the antecedents and consequences of home Internet use in low-income families. Participants included 140 children, mostly 13-year-old African American (83%) boys (58%), living in single-parent households (75%) where the median annual income was $15,000 (USD). This report focuses on children's Internet activities, socio-demographic characteristics related to their Internet activities, and the relationship between academic performance and Internet activities. Overall, findings indicate that low-income children initially use the Internet primarily for entertainment. As home Internet use loses its novelty children become more focused in their Internet activities, reducing the number of websites they visit and visiting more websites targeted to their specific interests. Pornography websites are popular initially, especially among boys, but their popularity decreases dramatically after 3 months. Age, race, and sex have little influence on which websites are most popular. Academic performance predicts subsequent Internet activities, and Internet activities predict subsequent academic performance. Directions for future research to identify mechanisms that mediate the relationship between Internet activities and academic performance and implications for the digital divide are discussed.

  14. Comparing Medical and Recreational Cannabis Users on Socio-Demographic, Substance and Medication Use, and Health and Disability Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet-Stock, Sybil; Rueda, Sergio; Vafaei, Afshin; Ialomiteanu, Anca; Manthey, Jakob; Rehm, Jürgen; Fischer, Benedikt

    2017-01-01

    While recreational cannabis use is common, medical cannabis programs have proliferated across North America, including a federal program in Canada. Few comparisons of medical and recreational cannabis users (RCUs) exist; this study compared these groups on key characteristics. Data came from a community-recruited sample of formally approved medical cannabis users (MCUs; n = 53), and a sub-sample of recreational cannabis users (RCUs; n = 169) from a representative adult survey in Ontario (Canada). Samples were telephone-surveyed on identical measures, including select socio-demographic, substance and medication use, and health and disability measures. Based on initial bivariate comparisons, multivariate logistical regression with a progressive adjustment approach was performed to assess independent predictors of group status. In bivariate analyses, older age, lower household income, lower alcohol use, higher cocaine, prescription opioid, depression and anxiety medication use, and lower health and disability status were significantly associated with medical cannabis use. In the multivariate analysis, final model, household income, alcohol use, and disability levels were associated with medical cannabis use. Conclusions/Scientific Significance: Compared to RCUs, medical users appear to be mainly characterized by factors negatively influencing their overall health status. Future studies should investigate the actual impact and net benefits of medical cannabis use on these health problems. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of pregnant and puerperal crack-cocaine using women: preliminary data

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    MARIA LUCRÉCIA SCHERER ZAVASCHI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The literature provides several studies on the effects of cocaine when exposed to the fetus. However, the majority of these data comes from animal models. Objective The objective of this study is to present socio-demographic and clinical data in crack-cocaine using pregnant women and their babies, as compared to non-users. Methods Cross-sectional study, comprised by 56 dyads of crack-cocaine using mothers-babies and 89 control dyads. In addition to the socio-demographic data and the babies’ information, data collection was based on ABIPEMI for socioeconomic level, WAIS for IQ, MINI for psychopathology and ASSIST for drug use. Results Most crack users, in comparison to non-users, did not have a partner (10.52% vs 4.4%, P = 0.001 and presented lower IQ (78.15, +/-8.07 vs 84.27 +/- 9.87; P = 0.002. The prevalence of antisocial personality disorder and suicide risk in users was higher than in non-users (24.44% vs none, P < 0.001; 28.26% vs 10.46% P = 0.01. Most of the users did not participate in prenatal care (75%. The babies that the crack-cocaine using mothers gave birth to weighed significantly less than the controls (2.858 g vs 3.240 g, P = 0.002. Discussion Users had a higher degree of psychopathology and lower attendance in prenatal care. There was an overlap of adverse factors, both for exposed mothers and babies. The sum of these vulnerabilities could result in significant harm to the developing infant.

  16. Time 2 tlk 2nite: use of electronic media by adolescents during family meals and associations with demographic characteristics, family characteristics, and foods served.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Loth, Katie; Bruening, Meg; Berge, Jerica; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-07-01

    We examined the frequency of adolescents' use of electronic media (ie, television/movie watching, text messaging, talking on the telephone, listening to music with headphones, and playing with hand-held games) at family meals and examined associations with demographic characteristics, rules about media use, family characteristics, and the types of foods served at meals using an observational, cross-sectional design. Data were drawn from two coordinated, population-based studies of adolescents (Project Eating Among Teens 2010) and their parents (Project Families and Eating Among Teens). Surveys were completed during 2009-2010. Frequent television/movie watching during family meals by youth was reported by 25.5% of parents. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated significantly higher odds of mealtime media use (Pmealtime media use (Pmealtime media use was significantly associated with lower scores on family communication (Pmealtimes (Pmealtime media use was associated with lower odds of serving green salad, fruit, vegetables, 100% juice, and milk at meals, whereas higher odds were seen for serving sugar-sweetened beverages (Pmealtime media by adolescents and differences by sex, race/ethnicity, age, and parental rules suggest that supporting parents in their efforts to initiate and follow-through on setting mealtime media use rules may be an important public health strategy.

  17. Demographic characteristics, social competence, and behavior problems in children with gender identity disorder : A cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Kettenis, PT; Owen, A; Kaijser, VG; Bradley, SJ; Zucker, KJ

    2003-01-01

    This study examined demographic characteristics, social competence, and behavior problems in clinic-referred children with gender identity problems in Toronto, Canada (N = 358), and Utrecht, The Netherlands (N = 130). The Toronto sample was, on average, about a year younger than the Utrecht sample a

  18. Reasons for Referral, Intervention Approaches and Demographic Characteristics of Clients with Intellectual Disability Attending Adult Psychiatric Outpatient Services in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, I.; Al-Saihati, B. A.; Al-Haddad, M.; McClean, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Relatively little information is available regarding the use of psychiatric services by individuals with intellectual disability (ID) in Arab countries. The current study aimed to identify (1) the reasons for referral; (2) demographic characteristics of individuals referred; (3) previous contact with child psychiatric services; (4)…

  19. Academic, Socio-Emotional and Demographic Characteristics of Adolescents Involved in Traditional Bullying, Cyberbullying, or Both: Looking at Variables and Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomontos-Kountouri, Olga; Tsagkaridis, Konstantinos; Gradinger, Petra; Strohmeier, Dagmar

    2017-01-01

    The present paper (1) examined variables, which could predict traditional bullying, cyberbullying, traditional victimization and cybervictimization and (2) looked at persons to examine whether academic, socio-emotional and demographic characteristics differed between traditional, cyber and mixed bullies, victims and bully-victims. A sample of…

  20. Understanding Water Storage Practices of Urban Residents of an Endemic Dengue Area in Colombia: Perceptions, Rationale and Socio-Demographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Uribe, Catalina; Cortés, Sebastian; Quintero, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The main preventive measure against dengue virus transmission is often based on actions to control Ae. Aegypti reproduction by targeting water containers of clean and stagnant water. Household water storage has received special attention in prevention strategies but the evidence about the rationale of this human practice is limited. The objective was to identify and describe water storage practices among residents of an urban area in Colombia (Girardot) and its association with reported perceptions, rationales and socio-demographic characteristics with a mixed methods approach. Methods Knowledge, attitudes and practices and entomological surveys from 1,721 households and 26 semi-structured interviews were conducted among residents of Girardot and technicians of the local vector borne disease program. A multivariate analysis was performed to identify associations between a water storage practice and socio-demographic characteristics, and knowledge, attitudes and practices about dengue and immature forms of the vector, which were then triangulated with qualitative information. Results Water storage is a cultural practice in Girardot. There are two main reasons for storage: The scarcity concern based on a long history of shortages of water in the region and the perception of high prices in water rates, contrary to what was reported by the local water company. The practice of water storage was associated with being a housewife (Inverse OR: 2.6, 95% CI 1.5 -4.3). The use of stored water depends on the type of container used, while water stored in alberca (Intra household cement basins) is mainly used for domestic cleaning chores, water in plastic containers is used for cooking. Conclusions It is essential to understand social practices that can increase or reduce the number of breeding sites of Ae. Aegypti. Identification of individuals who store water and the rationale of such storage allow a better understanding of the social dynamics that lead to water

  1. [Socio-demographic differences in the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases among women and men in Poland--results from the Courage in Europe Project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Gałaś, Aleksander; Zawisza, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess differences in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) (hypertension, coronary artery disease - CAD, stroke) in women and men in relation to demographic and social characteristics in adult population in Poland. Study was performed in the representative group of 4071 individuals (18+) in Poland. Face to face interviews were done using structured questionnaire. Chi-squared test and decision tree analysis have been used to assess the presence of difference between groups and to determine characteristics typical for the ill. Age was a factor significantly associated with the diversity of CVD prevalence in women and men. Similar role played the level of education and marital status. Low income was additional significant determinant of the CVD for both women and men. Analysis based on decision trees additionally confirmed the differences in characteristics of ill persons in younger age groups. Our results indicate that especially in younger age groups it may be more than expected number of women suffering from early stage ischemic heart disease. Due to atypical or less severe symptoms some cases remain probably undiagnosed on the level of health care system. Our finding is supported by the consistency between the frequency of physician diagnosed CAD and WHO algorithm in 60-79 age category.

  2. Do sedentary behaviors mediate associations between socio-demographic characteristics and BMI in women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compernolle, Sofie; De Cocker, Katrien; Abbott, Gavin; Verloigne, Maïté; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Ball, Kylie

    2015-04-09

    Women living in deprived neighborhoods are a risk group for overweight and obesity, particularly during the childbearing years. Several socio-demographic characteristics may compound this risk, but little is known about why this might be the case. Sedentary behaviors are emerging as a socio-demographically patterned risk factor for obesity. The purpose of the present study was to assess socio-demographic differences in sedentary behaviors, and to examine whether these behaviors could explain the relation between socio-demographic variables and BMI (BMI) in this risk group. Women aged 18-46 years were recruited from 40 urban and 40 rural deprived neighborhoods in Victoria, Australia. In total, 3879 women reported socio-demographic variables (age, educational level, employment status, marital status, number of children, residential location and country of birth), sedentary behaviors (television time, computer time, total screen time and total sedentary time), physical activity, and height and weight, which were used to calculate BMI. For each socio-demographic variable, four single mediation models were conducted using two-level mixed-models regression analyses. Mediating effects were examined using the MacKinnon product-of-coefficients procedure and the Sobel test. All socio-demographic variables were significantly associated with sedentary behaviors. Single mediation analyses revealed that television time (αβ = 0.017, 95% CI = 0.000, 0.030) and total screen time (αβ = 0.006, 95% CI = 0.000, 0.012) mediated 14.1% and 4.9% of the relationship between educational level and BMI, respectively. Total screen time mediated 45.1% of the relationship between employment status and BMI (αβ = -0.020, 95% CI = -0.033, -0.006), and television time mediated 8.2% of the relationship between country of birth and BMI (αβ = -0.008, 95% CI = -0.016, -0.001). Sedentary behaviors differed depending on socio-demographic characteristics, and partly

  3. Socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of sickle cell disease patients from a low-income region of northeastern Brazil

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    Thales Allyrio Araújo de Medeiros Fernandes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the socioeconomic and demographic aspects of sickle cell disease patients from the state of Rio Grande do Norte (RN, Northeast Brazil, and their adherence to the recommended treatment. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed at referral centers for the treatment of hematological diseases. One hundred and fifty-five unrelated individuals with sickle cell disease who went to these centers for outpatient visits were analyzed. All the patients, or their caregivers, were informed about the research procedures and objectives, and answered a standardized questionnaire. Results: The patients were predominantly younger than 12 years old, self-declared as mulatto, lived in small towns fairly distant from the referral center, and had low education and socioeconomic levels. Individuals who were ten or younger were diagnosed at an earlier age. Almost 50% of the patients were taking hydroxyurea, 91.4% reported having received pneumococcal/meningococcal vaccinations and 76.1% received penicillin as antibiotic prophylaxis. However, the majority of them reported having difficulties following the recommendations of the physicians, mainly in respect to attaining the prescribed medications and transportation to the referral centers. Conclusion: These individuals have a vulnerable socioeconomic situation that can lead to an aggravation of their general health and thus deserve special attention from the medical and psychosocial perspectives. Thus, it is necessary to improve public policies that provide Brazilian sickle cell disease patients with better access to medical treatment, living conditions, and integration into society.

  4. The association between socio-demographic characteristics and adherence to breast and colorectal cancer screening: Analysis of large sub populations

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    Vainer Anna

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Populations having lower socioeconomic status, as well as ethnic minorities, have demonstrated lower utilization of preventive screening, including tests for early detection of breast and colorectal cancer. The objective To explore socio-demographic disparities in adherence to screening recommendations for early detection of cancer. Methods The study was conducted by Maccabi Healthcare Services, an Israeli HMO (health plan providing healthcare services to 1.9 million members. Utilization of breast cancer (BC and colorectal cancer (CC screening were analyzed by socio-economic ranks (SERs, ethnicity (Arab vs non-Arab, immigration status and ownership of voluntarily supplemental health insurance (VSHI. Results Data on 157,928 and 303,330 adults, eligible for BC and CC screening, respectively, were analyzed. Those having lower SER, Arabs, immigrants from Former Soviet Union countries and non-owners of VSHI performed fewer cancer screening examinations compared with those having higher SER, non-Arabs, veterans and owners of VSHI (p Conclusion Patients from low socio-economic backgrounds, Arabs, immigrants and those who do not own supplemental insurance do fewer tests for early detection of cancer. These sub-populations should be considered priority populations for targeted intervention programs and improved resource allocation.

  5. Clinical, demographic, and epidemiologic characteristics of hepatitis B virus-infected patients at a tertiary public hospital in Presidente Prudente, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Euribel Prestes-Carneiro

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Few studies have addressed the primary characteristics of patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV in the general population, especially those living in small- and medium-sized cities in Brazil. We aimed to determine the clinical, demographic, and epidemiologic characteristics of patients diagnosed with HBV who were followed up at an infectious diseases clinic of a public hospital in State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Medical records of patients aged >18 years and diagnosed with HBV infection between January 2000 and December 2013 were reviewed. RESULTS: Seventy-five patients were enrolled with male-female main infection-associated risk factors; 9 (12% were co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, 5 (6.7% with hepatitis C virus (HCV, and 3 (4% were co-infected with both HIV and HCV. Antiviral HBV therapy was applied in 21 (28% patients and tenofovir monotherapy was the most prescribed medication. After approximately 2 years of antiviral treatment, the HBV-DNA viral load was undetectable in 12 (92.3% patients and lower levels of alanine aminotransferase were found in these patients. CONCLUSIONS: Over a 13-year interval, very few individuals infected with HBV were identified, highlighting the barriers for caring for patients with HBV in developing countries. New measures need to be implemented to complement curative practices.

  6. Long term marijuana users seeking medical cannabis in California (2001–2007: demographics, social characteristics, patterns of cannabis and other drug use of 4117 applicants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bou-Matar Ché B

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis (marijuana had been used for medicinal purposes for millennia. Cannabinoid agonists are now attracting growing interest and there is also evidence that botanical cannabis is being used as self-medication for stress and anxiety as well as adjunctive therapy by the seriously ill and by patients with terminal illnesses. California became the first state to authorize medicinal use of cannabis in 1996, and it was recently estimated that between 250,000 and 350,000 Californians may now possess the physician's recommendation required to use it medically. More limited medical use has also been approved in 12 additional states and new initiatives are being considered in others. Despite that evidence of increasing public acceptance of "medical" use, a definitional problem remains and all use for any purpose is still prohibited by federal law. Results California's 1996 initiative allowed cannabis to be recommended, not only for serious illnesses, but also "for any other illness for which marijuana provides relief," thus maximally broadening the range of allowable indications. In effect, the range of conditions now being treated with federally illegal cannabis, the modes in which it is being used, and the demographics of the population using it became potentially discoverable through the required screening of applicants. This report examines the demographic profiles and other selected characteristics of 4117 California marijuana users (62% from the Greater Bay Area who applied for medical recommendations between late 2001 and mid 2007. Conclusion This study yielded a somewhat unexpected profile of a hitherto hidden population of users of America's most popular illegal drug. It also raises questions about some of the basic assumptions held by both proponents and opponents of current policy.

  7. SOCIO - DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE AND BASAL METABOLIC INDEX CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENTS WITH PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS AND THEIR TREATMENT OUTCOME IN MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL, AMRITSAR, INDIA

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    Kajal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis is an ancient disease associated with high degree of morbidity and mortality worldwide, more so in developing countries having overwhelming problems of poverty, poor living conditions, illiteracy, malnutrition, drug addiction. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the socio - demographic profile and BMI characteristics of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and their treatment outcome. MATERIAL & METHOD: This prospective study was conducted on 200 new sputum smear positive patients having ag e >15 years. OBSERVATIONS & RESULT: The present study (n= 200 with 121 males and 79 female revealed that 75.8% of males and 87.5% of females were in the age group of 15 - 45 years, being the most productive years of life. 60.5% cases lived in overcrowded houses with inadequate ventilation (7 3%, poor lighting (68.5%, majority with lower socio - economic status (72.5%. 66% were from medium to large sized families, 65% joint family while 35% with nuclear families. 57.5% were working & thus were included in income generating activity group. illi teracy was observed in 40% & addiction in 47%. 69.5% of the cases were underweight (BMI < 18.5kg/m2 at initiation of treatment and percentage improved to 62.5% at the end of anti - tubercular treatment. CONCLUSION: The study findings emphasise the associati on of the socio - demographic profile including overcrowding, inadequate ventilation of the dwellings, ill - ventilated kitchens, under - nutrition with poor BMI, poor level of education (illiteracy, ignorance, poor knowledge about the disease, low socio - econom ic status with poverty contributing as significant risk factors for tuberculosis & its spread in family & community.

  8. The Demographics of Exoplanetary Companions to M Dwarfs: Synthesizing Results from Microlensing, Radial Velocity, and Direct Imaging Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clanton, Christian Dwain

    Over the past 20 years, we have learned that exoplanets are ubiquitous throughout our Galaxy and show a diverse set of demographics, yet there is much work to be done to understand this diversity. Determining the distributions of the fundamental properties of exoplanets will provide vital clues regarding their formation and evolution. This is a difficult task, as exoplanet surveys are not uniformly sensitive to the full range of planet parameter space. Various observational biases and selection effects intrinsic to each of the different discovery techniques constrain the types of planets to which they are sensitive. Herein, I record a collection of the first studies to develop and apply the methodology of synthesizing results from multiple detection techniques to construct a statistically-complete census of planetary companions to M dwarfs that samples a wide region of their parameter space. I present a robust comparison of exoplanet discoveries from microlensing and radial velocity (RV) surveys of M dwarfs which infer giant planet frequencies that differ by more than an order of magnitude and are, prima facie, in direct conflict. I demonstrate that current, state-of-the-art RV surveys are capable of detecting only the high-mass tail of the population of planets beyond the ice line inferred by microlensing studies, engendering a large, apparent difference in giant planet frequency. This comparison further establishes that results from these types of surveys are, in fact, consistent over the region of parameter space wherein their sensitivities overlap. A synthesis of results from microlensing and RV surveys yields planet occurrence rates for M dwarfs that span several orders of magnitude in mass and orbital period. On average, each M dwarf hosts about two planets, and while Jupiter and super-Jupiter companions are relatively rare ( 3%), gas giants, in general, are quite common ( 15%). These occurrence rates are significantly lower than those inferred around FGK

  9. [Demographic characteristics of Down's syndrome in Navarra. Trends of pre and postnatal diagnosis for the period 1991-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Arroyo, M A; Lizarraga Rojas, M; Hernández Charro, B; Martínez Jaurrieta, M D; Zabaleta Jurio, J; Alonso Sánchez, A

    2013-09-06

    This study describes the development of pre and postnatal diagnosis of sindrome de Down (SD) in the Autonomous Community of Navarre from 1991 to 2009 and assesses its preventive impact in the population, as well as to associated socio-demographic changes. In the absence of a prenatal diagnosis for DS, the change in maternal age from 1991 to 2009 would have caused a 50% increase in births with this disorder. However, the antenatal rate detection of DS increased from 15.8% in 1991-4 to 64.3% in 2006-9, giving rise to a decreasing incidence trend, not statistically significant, during the study period and to a higher mean age of mothers of live births with DS (32.75± 5,02 and 34.8±4,82 years during the first and second periods of the study, respectively). The proportion of young mothers (<35 years) of live births with DS was 66% in 1991-4 and 45% in 2006-9. Close to one fifth of the total population of pregnant women, however, did not want to go through a maternal screening test or amniocentesis. Seventeen per cent of all live births with DS had a positive screening test, but mothers decided to continue pregnancy. These results suggest that, despite the application of new and more sensitive prenatal screening tests, the incidence of DS may still be relatively high in our population, an important factor to be considered for future antenatal preventive programs and adequate postnatal care.

  10. Clinical and demographic characteristics of elderly patients with dementia assisted at an outpatient clinic in Southern Brazil

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    Cláudia Godinho

    Full Text Available Abstract The aging of the population is a worldwide phenomenon, where 60% of elders live in developing areas of the world such as Brazil, regions in which few studies have been carried out. Objectives: The goal of this study was to evaluate the clinical and demographic profile of patients with dementing disorders seen at a specialized outpatient clinic in South Brazil. Methods: A sample of 105 demented patients seen at the Dementia Outpatient Clinic from Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA, Brazil between June 2004 and June 2008. Evaluation of patients consisted of medical history, cognitive testing, assessment of functional status (Activities of Daily Living Scale - ADL; Instrumental Activities Daily Living - IADL and application of the Neuropsychiatry Inventory (NPI for behavioral symptoms. Severity of dementia was evaluated based on the CDR scale. All patients underwent laboratory screening tests and brain imaging exams to define etiology of dementia. Results: Of the whole sample, 71% were female. Age was 79±8 years (mean±SD. Educational level was 4±3 years (mean±SD. Sixty-four patients (60% presented the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Of the whole sample, 26.7% were classified as CDR=1, 44% as CDR=2 and 29. 3% as CDR=3. A significant difference on the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and functional status scores was observed among the CDR categories (severity. No significant association was found between severity and impairment on memory tests and behavioral symptoms. Conclusions: Alzheimer's disease was the most common etiology, followed by vascular dementia. At diagnosis, most patients presented mild to moderate severity of dementia, independent of cause.

  11. Personality and Demographic Characteristics of Mothers and Their Ratings of Their 3- to 10-Year-Old Children's Temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mednick, Birgitte R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Association between maternal ratings of child temperament and 8 maternal personality and demographic factors was examined in 3 age-stratified samples with children ranging from 3 to 10 years old. Found that mothers' anxiety was related to negative temperament ratings in all three samples, as were lower levels of maternal adaptation in analyses of…

  12. A study to evaluate the relationship between socio-economic, demographic characteristics and complications of acceptors in double puncture laparoscopic and conventional tubal ligation procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhir Babu Palli; Vijaya Lakshmi Akkupalli

    2013-01-01

    Background: To discover the relationship between the socio-economic, demographic characteristics and complications for acceptors following Double puncture laparoscopic (DPL ) and conventional tubal ligation (CTL) procedures in rural and urban communities and additionally, we also sought to study the occurrence of post tubal ligation syndrome. Methods: A follow up study on 1000 women over a period of two years was conducted. The study was divided into 2 groups: 500 women undergone double punct...

  13. The Multivariate Resultant Is NP-hard in Any Characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenet, Bruno; Koiran, Pascal; Portier, Natacha

    The multivariate resultant is a fundamental tool of computational algebraic geometry. It can in particular be used to decide whether a system of n homogeneous equations in n variables is satisfiable (the resultant is a polynomial in the system's coefficients which vanishes if and only if the system is satisfiable). In this paper we present several NP-hardness results for testing whether a multivariate resultant vanishes, or equivalently for deciding whether a square system of homogeneous equations is satisfiable. Our main result is that testing the resultant for zero is NP-hard under deterministic reductions in any characteristic, for systems of low-degree polynomials with coefficients in the ground field (rather than in an extension). We also observe that in characteristic zero, this problem is in the Arthur-Merlin class AM if the generalized Riemann hypothesis holds true. In positive characteristic, the best upper bound remains PSPACE.

  14. Demographic Characteristics of Voluntary Donors Registered in Beijing Tongren Hospital Eye Bank of China: A Retrospective Study From 2007 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Zhang, Y N; Liu, Y; Zhang, J; Li, A P; Liang, Q F; Pan, Z Q

    2017-10-01

    Lack of willingness to pledge eyes among the general population is the main cause for the shortage of cornea tissue in China. A few studies have implied that general-population adults with specific demographics showed more willingness to donate their eyes. In this study, we analyzed the demographic characteristics of 918 voluntary donors registered in Beijing Tongren Hospital Eye Bank in the past 10 years for possible predictors that might help us to identify potential donors in Beijing and increase the donation rate. All copies of voluntary eye donation application forms filled by the registrants from 2007 to 2016 were collected. Basic demographics listed in the application form were extracted for analysis. Demographics were described as proportions and compared by means of a χ(2) test. Besides that, donor counts and proportions of combining 2 demographics from the 4 main demographics were described and compared. Voluntary donors greater than 50 years of age (n = 477, 53.0%) predominated the proportions. Regarding education level and occupation, donors with tertiary education (n = 484, 57.4%) were more numerous than donors with primary and secondary education (n = 355, 42.1%); office clerks, workers, and government officers were more willing to pledge eyes than were donors engaged in other occupations. In addition, donors of the Han race (n = 856, 94.9%) made up the majority and mainly were distributed in 5 central administrative districts of Beijing (n = 629, 77.5%). The present study suggests that older women (>50 years of age), living in a central district, with higher education level and engaged in white-collar work, were possible predictors for potential donors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High School Staff Characteristics and Mathematics Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Fetler

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between measures of mathematics teacher skill and student achievement in California high schools. Test scores are analyzed in relation to teacher experience and education and student demographics. The results are consistent with the hypotheses that there is a shortage of qualified mathematics teachers in California and that this shortage is associated with low student scores in mathematics. After controlling for poverty, teacher experience and preparation significantly predict test scores. Short-term strategies to increase the supply of qualified mathematics teachers could include staff development, and recruitment incentives. A long-term strategy addressing root causes of the shortage requires more emphasis on mathematics in high school and undergraduate programs.

  16. The Prevalence and Types of Child Abuse among Teachers and its Relationship with their Demographic Characteristics and General Health in Primary Schools

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    Zahra Boroumandfar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Teachers are one of the groups that in addition to teaching the students can have a role in control and identification of child abuse and violence in schools. Certainly, before doing any action and choose an approach to reduce misbehavior, we should be aware of situation, how and prevalence of child abuse in schools. The present study aims to investigate the prevalence and types of child abuse among teachers and its relationship with demographic characteristics and general health in teachers whom teaching in primary schools. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study on 350 female and male students and 82 teachers that performed with a multi-stage sampling method. The tools for data gathering included: questionnaire of teachers' personal and job characteristics (12 questions, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ (28 questions, and standard questionnaire of Conflict Tactics Scale. Data were analyzed by the statistical tests of independent t-test, Mann–Whitney, chi-square, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, with SPSS version 16. Results Results of statistical analysis revealed that there wasn’t a significant association between general health and physical abuse. But there was a significant association between general health, emotional abuse and neglect. So that their general health score was higher (more score was not associated with better general health, the emotional abuse and neglect were also higher. Conclusions According to the results, it is suggested to design and implement some programs for prevention and reduction of violence in schools of our country and education of violence prevention methods should be part of school curriculum.

  17. A description of the demographic characteristics of the New Zealand non-commercial horse population with data collected using a generalised random-tessellation stratified sampling design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosanowski, S M; Cogger, N; Rogers, C W; Benschop, J; Stevenson, M A

    2012-12-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional survey to determine the demographic characteristics of non-commercial horses in New Zealand. A sampling frame of properties with non-commercial horses was derived from the national farms database, AgriBase™. Horse properties were stratified by property size and a generalised random-tessellated stratified (GRTS) sampling strategy was used to select properties (n=2912) to take part in the survey. The GRTS sampling design allowed for the selection of properties that were spatially balanced relative to the distribution of horse properties throughout the country. The registered decision maker of the property, as identified in AgriBase™, was sent a questionnaire asking them to describe the demographic characteristics of horses on the property, including the number and reason for keeping horses, as well as information about other animals kept on the property and the proximity of boundary neighbours with horses. The response rate to the survey was 38% (1044/2912) and the response rate was not associated with property size or region. A total of 5322 horses were kept for recreation, competition, racing, breeding, stock work, or as pets. The reasons for keeping horses and the number and class of horses varied significantly between regions and by property size. Of the properties sampled, less than half kept horses that could have been registered with Equestrian Sports New Zealand or either of the racing codes. Of the respondents that reported knowing whether their neighbours had horses, 58.6% (455/776) of properties had at least one boundary neighbour that kept horses. The results of this study have important implications for New Zealand, which has an equine population that is naïve to many equine diseases considered endemic worldwide. The ability to identify, and apply accurate knowledge of the population at risk to infectious disease control strategies would lead to more effective strategies to control and prevent disease spread during an

  18. Predicting dementia using socio-demographic characteristics and the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Thibault; Baramova, Marieta; Gabelle, Audrey; Artero, Sylvaine; Dartigues, Jean-François; Amieva, Hélène; Berr, Claudine

    2017-03-23

    Our study aimed to determine whether the consideration of socio-demographic features improves the prediction of Alzheimer's dementia (AD) at 5 years when using the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) in the general older population. Our analyses focused on 2558 subjects from the prospective Three-City Study, a cohort of community-dwelling individuals aged 65 years and over, with FCSRT scores. Four "residual scores" and "risk scores" were built that included the FCSRT scores and socio-demographic variables. The predictive performance of crude, residual and risk scores was analyzed by comparing the areas under the ROC curve (AUC). In total, 1750 subjects were seen 5 years after completing the FCSRT. AD was diagnosed in 116 of them. Compared with the crude free-recall score, the predictive performances of the residual score and of the risk score were not significantly improved (AUC: 0.83 vs 0.82 and 0.88 vs 0.89 respectively). Using socio-demographic features in addition to the FCSRT does not improve its predictive performance for dementia or AD.

  19. Comparison of clinical and demographic characteristics among borderline personality disorder patients with and without suicidal attempts and non-suicidal self-injury behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Sandra; Marco, José H; García-Alandete, Joaquín

    2014-12-30

    Research has shown that both suicidal and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) behaviors are co-morbid phenomena that are present in BPD patients, considered phenomenologically distinct, and associated with different methods, motives, frequency, and severity of psychopathology. This study is aimed at extending previous research by examining differences in demographical, clinical and psychological characteristics of BPD patients with or without a history of Suicide Attempts (SAs) and/or NSSI behaviors. Our sample included 89 outpatients with a BPD diagnosis assessed through clinical, structured interviews, and self-reports. The major findings showed that patients with a history of suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury were characterized by major number of lifetime suicide attempts and more severe feelings of hopelessness than patients with NSSI. Additionally, more violent thoughts towards others were observed in patients with NSSI. These results support a relatively more severe profile inherent in patients with SA and NSSI and allow us to differentiate NSSI from suicide attempts, highlighting the importance of evaluating and treating hopelessness and exploring the tendency to have violent thoughts towards others in this clinical population.

  20. Methodology of an International Study of People with Multiple Sclerosis Recruited through Web 2.0 Platforms: Demographics, Lifestyle, and Disease Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadgkiss, Emily J; Jelinek, George A; Weiland, Tracey J; Pereira, Naresh G; Marck, Claudia H; van der Meer, Dania M

    2013-01-01

    Background. Despite evidence of the potential importance of the role of health and lifestyle behaviours in multiple sclerosis (MS) outcomes, there has not been a significant focus on this area of research. Aim. We aimed to recruit an international sample of people with MS at baseline and over a five-year timeframe, examine their health and lifestyle behaviours, and determine the relationship of these behaviours to self-reported disability, disease activity, and quality of life. Methods. People with MS were recruited through web 2.0 platforms including interactive websites, social media, blogs, and forums and completed a comprehensive, multifaceted online questionnaire incorporating validated and researcher-derived tools. Results. 2519 participants met inclusion criteria for this study. This paper describes the study methodology in detail and provides an overview of baseline participant demographics, clinical characteristics, summary outcome variables, and health and lifestyle behaviours. The sample described is unique due to the nature of recruitment through online media and due to the engagement of the group, which appears to be well informed and proactive in lifestyle modification. Conclusion. This sample provides a sound platform to undertake novel exploratory analyses of the association between a variety of lifestyle factors and MS outcomes.

  1. Methodology of an International Study of People with Multiple Sclerosis Recruited through Web 2.0 Platforms: Demographics, Lifestyle, and Disease Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Hadgkiss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite evidence of the potential importance of the role of health and lifestyle behaviours in multiple sclerosis (MS outcomes, there has not been a significant focus on this area of research. Aim. We aimed to recruit an international sample of people with MS at baseline and over a five-year timeframe, examine their health and lifestyle behaviours, and determine the relationship of these behaviours to self-reported disability, disease activity, and quality of life. Methods. People with MS were recruited through web 2.0 platforms including interactive websites, social media, blogs, and forums and completed a comprehensive, multifaceted online questionnaire incorporating validated and researcher-derived tools. Results. 2519 participants met inclusion criteria for this study. This paper describes the study methodology in detail and provides an overview of baseline participant demographics, clinical characteristics, summary outcome variables, and health and lifestyle behaviours. The sample described is unique due to the nature of recruitment through online media and due to the engagement of the group, which appears to be well informed and proactive in lifestyle modification. Conclusion. This sample provides a sound platform to undertake novel exploratory analyses of the association between a variety of lifestyle factors and MS outcomes.

  2. Demographics and Scholarly Productivity of American Board of Anesthesiology Volunteers: Results of an Internet-Based Bibliometric Analysis.

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    Pagel, Paul S

    2016-10-01

    The American Board of Anesthesiology (ABA) has been responsible for certification of anesthesiologists since 1938. Selected ABA diplomates provide their expertise to write the ABA's written and oral examinations and to administer the oral examination required for primary certification. The demographics, administrative and educational duties, and scholarly productivity of ABA volunteers and their dependence on subspecialty certification, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) credentials, and grant funding are unknown. Observational study. Internet analysis. ABA volunteers who participated in the 2015 primary certification examinations identified from the 2016 issue of ABA News. None. The 2016 issue of ABA News was downloaded from the public ABA website and was used to identify all volunteers who participated in any aspect of the 2015 primary certification process. Each individual's practice type, faculty rank if applicable, and affiliation were identified using Google with the keyword "anesthesiology." The practice location, time, and interval after original ABA certification; additional ABA subspecialty certification; the number of publications and citations; publication rate; citations per publication; and the H-, M-, and i-10 indices were obtained using the ABA and Scopus databases. Credentials in TEE were identified for each individual using the National Board of Echocardiography database. National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Foundation for Anesthesia Education and Research (FAER) funding for each volunteer was evaluated using NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools and the FAER alumni databases, respectively. Three hundred ninety-three ABA volunteers were identified and analyzed. Three hundred ten individuals currently hold academic appointments (83.5%), whereas 83 (16.5%) hold private practice or military positions. Sixty-seven volunteers have major administrative roles (eg, dean, chief executive officer, associate or assistant dean, chair, vice

  3. Understanding the Social Context of the ASGM Sector in Ghana: A Qualitative Description of the Demographic, Health, and Nutritional Characteristics of a Small-Scale Gold Mining Community in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Rachel N; Renne, Elisha P; Basu, Niladri

    2015-10-12

    This descriptive paper describes factors related to demographics and health in an artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) community in Ghana's Upper East Region. Participants (n = 114) were surveyed in 2010 and 2011, adapting questions from the established national Demographic Health Survey (DHS) on factors such as population characteristics, infrastructure, amenities, education, employment, maternal and child health, and diet. In the study community, some indicators of household wealth (e.g., radios, mobile phones, refrigerators) are more common than elsewhere in Ghana, yet basic infrastructure (e.g., cement flooring, sanitation systems) and access to safe water supplies are lacking. Risk factors for poor respiratory health, such as cooking with biomass fuel smoke and smoking tobacco, are common. Certain metrics of maternal and child health are comparable to other areas of Ghana (e.g., frequency of antenatal care), whereas others (e.g., antenatal care from a skilled provider) show deficiencies. Residents surveyed do not appear to lack key micronutrients, but report lower fruit and vegetable consumption than other rural areas. The results enable a better understanding of community demographics, health, and nutrition, and underscore the need for better demographic and health surveillance and data collection across ASGM communities to inform effective policies and programs for improving miner and community health.

  4. Understanding the Social Context of the ASGM Sector in Ghana: A Qualitative Description of the Demographic, Health, and Nutritional Characteristics of a Small-Scale Gold Mining Community in Ghana

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    Rachel N. Long

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive paper describes factors related to demographics and health in an artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM community in Ghana’s Upper East Region. Participants (n = 114 were surveyed in 2010 and 2011, adapting questions from the established national Demographic Health Survey (DHS on factors such as population characteristics, infrastructure, amenities, education, employment, maternal and child health, and diet. In the study community, some indicators of household wealth (e.g., radios, mobile phones, refrigerators are more common than elsewhere in Ghana, yet basic infrastructure (e.g., cement flooring, sanitation systems and access to safe water supplies are lacking. Risk factors for poor respiratory health, such as cooking with biomass fuel smoke and smoking tobacco, are common. Certain metrics of maternal and child health are comparable to other areas of Ghana (e.g., frequency of antenatal care, whereas others (e.g., antenatal care from a skilled provider show deficiencies. Residents surveyed do not appear to lack key micronutrients, but report lower fruit and vegetable consumption than other rural areas. The results enable a better understanding of community demographics, health, and nutrition, and underscore the need for better demographic and health surveillance and data collection across ASGM communities to inform effective policies and programs for improving miner and community health.

  5. Effects of selected socio-demographic characteristics on nutrition knowledge and eating behavior of elementary students in two provinces in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ling; Zhang, Fan; Newman, Ian M; Shell, Duane F; Du, Weijing

    2017-07-14

    National and international child health surveys have indicated an increase in childhood obesity in China. The increase has been attributed to a rising standard of living, increasing availability of unhealthy foods, and a lack of knowledge about healthy diet. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of selected socio-demographic characteristics on the BMI, nutrition knowledge, and eating behavior of elementary school children. Multistage stratified cluster sampling was used. Information on demographics, nutrition knowledge, and eating behavior was gathered by means of questionnaires. The schools' doctors provided the height and weight data. The study was set in one economically advantaged and one economically disadvantaged province in China. The participants were Grade 3 students, ages 8-10 years (N = 3922). A cluster analysis identified four socio-demographic variables distinguished by parental education and family living arrangement. A one-way ANOVA compared differences among the clusters in BMI, child nutrition knowledge, and child eating behavior. Students in the cluster with lowest parent education level had the lowest nutrition knowledge scores and eating behavior scores. There was no significant benefit from college education versus high school education of parents in the other three clusters. BMI was not affected by parent education level. The nutrition status of elementary school age children will benefit most by increasing the general level of education for those adults who are presently least educated.

  6. Dietary patterns of men in ALSPAC: associations with socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, nutrient intake and comparison with women's dietary patterns.

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    Northstone, K; Emmett, P M

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study is to obtain distinct dietary patterns using principal components analysis (PCA) in men taking part in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children and to determine the associations with (a) the patterns derived in the study women (the men's partners), (b) socio-demographic and lifestyle factors and (c) estimated nutrient intakes. A total of 4681 men taking part in a population-based cohort study recorded their current frequency of food consumption through questionnaire. Dietary patterns were identified using PCA, and scores were calculated for each pattern. A wide variety of social and demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors were also collected through self-completion questionnaire. Four dietary patterns were established: 'health conscious', 'traditional', 'processed/confectionery' and 'semi-vegetarian'. There were relatively strong correlations and levels of agreement between the 'health conscious' and 'vegetarian' style patterns in men and women (Psocio-demographic variables and the dietary patterns, similar to those earlier reported in women. Finally, nutrient intakes were plausibly associated with dietary pattern scores. Distinct dietary patterns in men have been identified using PCA that are similar, but not identical to those obtained in their partners at the same time point. Researchers should always consider stratifying by gender when examining dietary patterns. This study will form the basis for further work investigating the associations between parental and child dietary patterns.

  7. Demographic characteristics and rates of progress of deaf and hard of hearing persons receiving substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dennis; McAweeney, Mary

    A lack of demographic information and data related to the achievement of short-term goals during substance abuse treatment among persons who are deaf or hard of hearing dictated the need for the study. New York State maintains a database on all individuals who participate in treatment. Within this database, 1.8% of persons in treatment for substance use disorder (SUD) were also deaf or hard of hearing. As hypothesized, members of the deaf and hard of hearing sample were older, likelier to be white, and likelier to be female, relative to the SUD-only group. For both groups, alcohol, heroin, and cocaine had the highest rates of reported use. Achievement of short-term goals in the areas of alcohol use, drug use, vocational/educational goals, and overall goals indicated no differences between the deaf and hard of hearing group and the SUD-only group. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  8. Associations between socio-demographic characteristics and chemical concentrations contributing to cumulative exposures in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongtai; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Barzyk, Timothy M

    2017-09-13

    Association rule mining (ARM) has been widely used to identify associations between various entities in many fields. Although some studies have utilized it to analyze the relationship between chemicals and human health effects, fewer have used this technique to identify and quantify associations between environmental and social stressors. Socio-demographic variables were generated based on U.S. Census tract-level income, race/ethnicity population percentage, education level, and age information from the 2010-2014, 5-Year Summary files in the American Community Survey (ACS) database, and chemical variables were generated by utilizing the 2011 National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) census tract-level air pollutant exposure concentration data. Six mobile- and industrial-source pollutants were chosen for analysis, including acetaldehyde, benzene, cyanide, particulate matter components of diesel engine emissions (namely, diesel PM), toluene, and 1,3-butadiene. ARM was then applied to quantify and visualize the associations between the chemical and socio-demographic variables. Census tracts with a high percentage of racial/ethnic minorities and populations with low income tended to have higher estimated chemical exposure concentrations (fourth quartile), especially for diesel PM, 1,3-butadiene, and toluene. In contrast, census tracts with an average population age of 40-50 years, a low percentage of racial/ethnic minorities, and moderate-income levels were more likely to have lower estimated chemical exposure concentrations (first quartile). Unsupervised data mining methods can be used to evaluate potential associations between environmental inequalities and social disparities, while providing support in public health decision-making contexts.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 13 September 2017; doi:10.1038/jes.2017.15.

  9. Relation between demographic and epidemiological characteristics and permanency under a dental health care program for HIV infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squassi, A; Khaszki, C; Blanco, B; Schnaiderman, M; Scholnik, L; Bonazzi, M; Bordoni, N

    1998-01-01

    The association between factors involved in health care and the health status of the people has been proven. The use of health care services, particularly in the case of patients who suffer from chronic pathologies, has been the object of many studies aimed at establishing factors which contribute to guarantee permanence in treatment and implementation of health care controls. The purpose of the present study was to identify the response of HIV infected or AIDS patients to the oral health care program and establish the association between permanence in treatment and the presence of risk factors, epidemiological or demographic conditions of the users. Ninety patients selected at random from the 300 who attended the Clinic for High Risk Patient Care, School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires (CLAPAR, Spanish acronym) during 1994-1995 were included in this study. The patients were assigned to one of seven groups, according to their permanence in treatment and commitment to the program during the phase of maintenance in health. Each of these categories was characterized in terms of age, sex, educational level, place of residence (CIRFS, 1990), type of job, type of health coverage and place where healthcare was received, risk behavior and date of positive serological diagnosis. The frequency of each variable was established. Contingency tables were employed to establish the statistical significance of the association between the different variables and the patient categories. The data revealed that 24.2% of the patients performed occasional or emergency consultation, 57.1% achieved discharge with or without the assistance of the social worker or are still in treatment and 18.7% abandoned the program. Significant association were found between the response to odontological treatment and the following variables: place of residence, date of positive serological diagnosis, and risk behavior. We may conclude that certain demographic, epidemiological or life

  10. Demographic characteristics and food choices of participants in the Special Diabetes Program for American Indians Diabetes Prevention Demonstration Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel-Shone, Nicolette I; Jiang, Luohua; Beals, Janette; Henderson, William G; Zhang, Lijing; Acton, Kelly J; Roubideaux, Yvette; Manson, Spero M

    2015-01-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) suffer a disproportionate burden of diabetes. Identifying food choices of AI/ANs at risk of type 2 diabetes, living in both rural and urban settings, is critical to the development of culturally relevant, evidence-based education strategies designed to reduce morbidity and mortality in this population. At baseline, 3135 AI/AN adults participating in the Special Diabetes Program for American Indians Diabetes Prevention Demonstration Project (SDPI-DP) completed a socio-demographic survey and a 27-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The primary dietary behavior goal of SDPI-DP education sessions and lifestyle coaching is changes in food choices, i.e., increased fruits, vegetables and whole grains, decreased high sugar beverages, red meat, and processed foods. Subsequently, program assessment focuses on changes in food types. Foods were delineated using a 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' classification as defined by the educators advising participants. Urban and rural differences were examined using χ(2) tests and two sample t-tests. Multiple linear regressions and linear mixed models were used to assess the association between socio-demographic factors and food choice. Retired participants, those living in urban areas and with high income and education selected healthy foods most frequently. Young males, those with low income and education consumed unhealthy foods most frequently. Selection of unhealthy foods did not differ by urban and rural setting. The ubiquitous nature of unhealthy food choices makes them hard to avoid. Food choice differences by gender, age, income, and setting suggest that nutrition education should more effectively target and meets the needs of young AI/AN males.

  11. Demographic and Psychosocial Characteristics of Mobile Phone Ownership and Usage among Youth Living in the Slums of Kampala, Uganda

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    Monica H. Swahn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of mobile phones and other technology for improving health through research and practice is growing quickly, in particular in areas with difficult-to-reach population or where the research infrastructure is less developed. In Sub-Saharan Africa, there appears to be a dramatic increase in mobile phone ownership and new initiatives that capitalize on this technology to support health promotion campaigns to change behavior and to increase health literacy. However, the extent to which difficult-to-reach youth in the slums of Kampala may own and use mobile phones has not been reported despite the burden of injuries, substance use, and HIV that they face. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of mobile phone ownership and use in this high-risk population and to identify psychosocial characteristics that may differentiate those owning and using a phone from those who do not. Methods: We conducted secondary analyses of the Kampala Youth Survey (N¼457. Data collection took place in 2011, and the survey was designed to quantify high-risk behaviors in a convenience sample of urban youth living on the streets or in the slums, 14–24 years of age, who were participating in a Uganda Youth Development Link drop-in center for disadvantaged street youth. We computed chisquare analyses to determine any significant differences in psychosocial characteristics based on phone ownership and use. Results: Overall, 46.9% of youth reported owning a mobile phone and ownership did not vary by sex but was more common among youth older than 18 years of age. Mobile phone ownership was also more common among those who reported taking care of themselves at night, who reported current drug use and who reported trading sex for money, food or other things. Conclusion: Given that nearly half of the youth own and use phones daily, new research is needed to determine next steps for mobile health (mhealth, including the feasibility of using

  12. Demographic and Psychosocial Characteristics of Mobile Phone Ownership and Usage among Youth Living in the Slums of Kampala, Uganda

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    Monica H. Swahn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of mobile phones and other technology for improving health through research and practice is growing quickly, in particular in areas with difficult-to-reach population or where the research infrastructure is less developed. In Sub-Saharan Africa, there appears to be a dramatic increase in mobile phone ownership and new initiatives that capitalize on this technology to support health promotion campaigns to change behavior and to increase health literacy. However, the extent to which difficult-to-reach youth in the slums of Kampala may own and use mobile phones has not been reported despite the burden of injuries, substance use, and HIV that they face. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of mobile phone ownership and use in this high-risk population and to identify psychosocial characteristics that may differentiate those owning and using a phone from those who do not. Methods: We conducted secondary analyses of the Kampala Youth Survey (N¼457. Data collection took place in 2011, and the survey was designed to quantify high-risk behaviors in a convenience sample of urban youth living on the streets or in the slums, 14–24 years of age, who were participating in a Uganda Youth Development Link drop-in center for disadvantaged street youth. We computed chisquare analyses to determine any significant differences in psychosocial characteristics based on phone ownership and use. Results: Overall, 46.9% of youth reported owning a mobile phone and ownership did not vary by sex but was more common among youth older than 18 years of age. Mobile phone ownership was also more common among those who reported taking care of themselves at night, who reported current drug use and who reported trading sex for money, food or other things. Conclusion: Given that nearly half of the youth own and use phones daily, new research is needed to determine next steps for mobile health (mhealth, including the feasibility of using

  13. Socio-demographic characteristics of parents and emotional burden on discovery of disabilities of their children in a South African community

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    U. Useh

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated the socio-demographic characteristicsof parents of children with disabilities in a South African community. Also studiedwere their emotional responses. Design and methodology: A social survey research and focus group designs wereemployed in this study to explore and describe parental emotions Participants: 174 parents of children with disabilities were randomly selected andinterviewed by this author and four research assistants at different locations in theVenda area of Limpopo Province of South Africa. Results: Out of the 174 parents interviewed 95 (54.6% were parents of children with physical impairment (PCWPI,51 (29.3% parents of children with hearing impairment (PCWHI and 28 (16.1% were parents of children with visual impairment (PCWVI.  Only 16 (9.2% of the parents interviewed had tertiary education with a majority (121 (or 69.5% of them unemployed. These unemployed parents solely relied on the monthly, government disabilitygrant of R620 (or US$89. Responses to grief, anger, shame were highest amongst PCWVI, while PCWPI were most worried (64.2% and demonstrated the highest percentage emotions of fear (22.1% and guilt (221.1%. The following percentage of emotions were expresses by parents with formal tertiary education, anger (44%, shame (37.5%, disbelief (25%, guilt (6.3%, worry (50% and fear (25%. While participants with the highest income (over R1800or about US$257, expressed the following percentage of emotions: grief (70.6%, and disbelief (47.1%. Conclusion: Physiotherapist working with the disabled and their carers in the community within the concept of community based rehabilitation and social model of care would need to understand the characteristics and their emotional burden prior to assisting in creating an enabling environment and holistic empowering activities that wouldassist all.

  14. DEMOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION, ETIOLOGICAL SPECTRUM, INJURY CHARACTERISTICS, MANAGEMENT AND PREVENTIVE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR MAXILLOFACIAL INJURIES AT A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE IN CENTRAL INDIA

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    Karuna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Oral and maxillofacial injuries worldwide can pose considerable long term orofacial deformity and disability. They present a therapeutic challenge to trauma, maxillofacial and plastic surgeons practicing in developing countries. OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study was conducted to find out the epidemiological characteristics, et iology, pattern of maxillofacial injury and the subsequent treatment planned in northern regions of Madhya Pradesh at a tertiary care teaching institution at Gwalior. METHODOLOGY: A total of 170 consecutive maxillofacial trauma patients reporting at the tr auma C entre and the outpatient department (OPD of dental surgery at Gajra Raja Medical College, Gwalior were analyzed in a span of 18 months to determine the demographic details, etiological risk factors, pattern of facial injuries and treatment given at this institute. RESULTS: A n 18 months survey was conducted from November 2013 till March 2015 to evaluate 170 subjects. Males outnumbered females with a male: female ratio of 5.5: 1. Road traffic accidents (RTA turned out to be the dominant etiological ri sk factor involved in 52.9% of the cases. Motor cycle accidents and the influence of alcohol played a prominent role in etiology. Mandible was the most common bone involved in injuries. Parasymphysis and midsymphysis were the commonly involved sites. Close d reduction with arch bar fixation under local anesthesia was the commonly given treatment modality used in 73.5% cases. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: R TA on two - wheelers and under the influence of alcohol is still the most promising risk factor of facial trauma. Periodic review of driving skills, stricter implementation of traffic rules, timely maintenance of faulty roads and promotion of educational campaigns to create general awareness regarding the relation between risk factors and the mortality and morbidity associated with maxillofacial injuries are recommended.

  15. Socio-demographic characteristics and factors associated with hospitalization in psychiatry of old age patients: an international comparison between Ireland and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpar, Elif; McCarthy, Geraldine; Adamis, Dimitrios; Donmezler, Gizem; Cesur, Ender; Fistikci, Nurhan

    2017-08-14

    Taking predictors of hospitalization characteristics into consideration internationally would broaden our understanding of this population on a local basis. We aimed to examine and compare socio-demographic profiles along with hospitalization characteristics including length of hospital stay (LOS), reasons for admission and diagnoses among older adult inpatients hospitalized in Ireland and Turkey, and to assess factors predicting these features. The admission charts of 356 psychiatric inpatients over 65 years of age who were admitted to two different acute psychiatric hospitals (Sligo/Ireland and Istanbul/Turkey) were analysed by means of descriptive modalities and logistic regression. There were significant differences in several domains of socio-demographics, reasons of admission and diagnoses. LOS was significantly longer in Ireland. Living alone was the only significant predictor for longer LOS in both countries, whereas in addition to living alone, younger age was also a contributor for longer LOS in Turkey. Given that the only factor predicting LOS both in Turkey and Ireland was living alone, helping to identify more acceptable ways of providing social support for living arrangements constitutes an important service to shorten LOS in old age psychiatric population. It is possible to infer that independent from the cultural diversities, living arrangement is a consistent entity to influence length of hospital stay in older adult population.

  16. The knowledge and attitudes of midwives regarding legal and religious commandments on induced abortion and their relationship with some demographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afhami, Narges; Bahadoran, Parvin; Taleghani, Hamid Reza; Nekuei, Nafisehsadat

    2016-01-01

    Induced abortion is an important medical issue. Knowledge and attitude of midwives regarding legal and religious commandments on induced abortion can be useful in confronting this issue. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of midwives of Isfahan regarding these rules and to find their relationship with demographic characteristics. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study. The study participants consisted of 189 midwives working in hospitals, health centers, private gynecology clinics, and university. Random quota sampling method was used. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire. Data were analyzed using mean, frequency distribution tables, Pearson correlation, and Spearman's coefficient. For all tests, an error of less than 0.05 was considered. The majority of the participants had extremely low to moderate (73%) knowledge about the subject of the study. Their attitudes toward effective implementation of these rules were mostly extremely weak to moderate (68.72%). No correlation was observed between knowledge, age, work experience, and education. However, there was a relationship between the level of knowledge about these rules and the location of service. There was no significant correlation between attitude and demographic characteristics. Due to less knowledge of the midwives and their low attitude score in this regard, training them, improving their attitude toward these issues, and effective implementation of these laws are necessary. Therefore, by identifying the factors affecting the formation of attitudes and the level of knowledge, more constructive proceedings can be taken to promote them.

  17. Food insecurity and budgeting among Liberians in the US: how are they related to socio-demographic and pre-resettlement characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnery, D L; Haldeman, L A; Morrison, S D; Dharod, J M

    2015-04-01

    Objectives of this study: (1) Examine food insecurity (FI) prevalence and its relationship with sociodemographic and pre-resettlement characteristics; (2) Investigate differences in amount of money spent on food/month by food security status and socio-demographic characteristics. A pilot study with semi-structured in-home interviews was conducted with Liberian caregivers (n = 33). FI was indicated in 61% of households. FI was higher among women >40, had ≤ high school education and those making ≤$1,000/month. Women arriving in US >15 years of age were more likely to be food insecure. Participants spent an average $109/month on groceries/member. Food insecure women, and those without a car spent more money on food (P food security status. These findings call for future research to understand how preresettlement conditions affect food choices, budgeting and thereby food security status.

  18. Demographic, Psychological, and Social Characteristics of Self-Identified Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults in a US Probability Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herek, Gregory M; Norton, Aaron T; Allen, Thomas J; Sims, Charles L

    2010-09-01

    Using data from a US national probability sample of self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults (N = 662), this article reports population parameter estimates for a variety of demographic, psychological, and social variables. Special emphasis is given to information with relevance to public policy and law. Compared with the US adult population, respondents were younger, more highly educated, and less likely to be non-Hispanic White, but differences were observed between gender and sexual orientation groups on all of these variables. Overall, respondents tended to be politically liberal, not highly religious, and supportive of marriage equality for same-sex couples. Women were more likely than men to be in a committed relationship. Virtually all coupled gay men and lesbians had a same-sex partner, whereas the vast majority of coupled bisexuals were in a heterosexual relationship. Compared with bisexuals, gay men and lesbians reported stronger commitment to a sexual-minority identity, greater community identification and involvement, and more extensive disclosure of their sexual orientation to others. Most respondents reported experiencing little or no choice about their sexual orientation. The importance of distinguishing among lesbians, gay men, bisexual women, and bisexual men in behavioral and social research is discussed.

  19. Demographic, Psychological, and Social Characteristics of Self-Identified Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults in a US Probability Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Aaron T.; Allen, Thomas J.; Sims, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from a US national probability sample of self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults (N = 662), this article reports population parameter estimates for a variety of demographic, psychological, and social variables. Special emphasis is given to information with relevance to public policy and law. Compared with the US adult population, respondents were younger, more highly educated, and less likely to be non-Hispanic White, but differences were observed between gender and sexual orientation groups on all of these variables. Overall, respondents tended to be politically liberal, not highly religious, and supportive of marriage equality for same-sex couples. Women were more likely than men to be in a committed relationship. Virtually all coupled gay men and lesbians had a same-sex partner, whereas the vast majority of coupled bisexuals were in a heterosexual relationship. Compared with bisexuals, gay men and lesbians reported stronger commitment to a sexual-minority identity, greater community identification and involvement, and more extensive disclosure of their sexual orientation to others. Most respondents reported experiencing little or no choice about their sexual orientation. The importance of distinguishing among lesbians, gay men, bisexual women, and bisexual men in behavioral and social research is discussed. PMID:20835383

  20. Association of adult tobacco use with household food access insecurity: results from Nepal demographic and health survey, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Ramakrishnareddy, N

    2017-07-24

    Food insecurity is a very common problem in developing countries particularly among the poorer households. Very few studies have tested the association between adult smoking and food insecurity. We analysed the data from a nationally representative sample of 10,826 households in which women and men (in a sub sample of 4121 households) aged 15-49 years were interviewed in Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011. Data from households in which both men and women were interviewed were analysed for association of household food insecurity access score (HFIAS), with tobacco use among men and women, socio-demographic and spatial factors. Univariate comparisons followed by zero-inflated negative binomial regression analyses were done to determine the association between HFIAS and individual, household and spatial factors. Mean HFIAS score was 3.5 (SD, 4.6) whereas the median was 0 (IQR 0-6). Prevalence of tobacco use among men and women was 50.2% (95% CIs 47.9, 52.6), and 17.3% (95% CIs 15.7, 18.9). HFIAS scores were significantly higher among households where men used tobacco (4.96), and men either smoked or use SLT (3.82) as compared to those without tobacco users (2.79). HFIAS scores were not significantly different by tobacco use status of women. HFIAS score was highest in the poorest households and vice versa. After adjusting for covariates association between HFIAS score and male tobacco use remained significant but effect size decreased when covariates were included into regression models (adjusted OR 1.11). HFIAS score was also associated wealth index (adjusted OR 0.86-0.62) and ecological region (adjusted OR 1.33) and development regions (adjusted OR 1.10-1.21). Tobacco users in poor(er) households should be encouraged to 'quit' their habit. Less affluent sectors of the population also need to be educated about the non-health benefits of quitting, such as improved economic status and reduced food insecurity.

  1. Spatial Distribution of Underweight, Overweight and Obesity among Women and Children: Results from the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey

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    Kedir N. Turi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available While undernutrition and infectious diseases are still persistent in developing countries, overweight, obesity, and associated comorbidities have become more prevalent. Uganda, a developing sub-Saharan African country, is currently experiencing the public health paradox of undernutrition and overnutrition. We utilized the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (DHS to examine risk factors and hot spots for underweight, overweight, and obesity among adult females (N = 2,420 and their children (N = 1,099 using ordinary least squares and multinomial logit regression and the ArcGIS Getis-Ord Gi* statistic. Overweight and obese women were significantly more likely to have overweight children, and overweight was correlated with being in the highest wealth class (OR = 2.94, 95% CI = 1.99–4.35, and residing in an urban (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.34–2.29 but not a conflict prone (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.29–0.78 area. Underweight clustered significantly in the Northern and Northeastern regions, while overweight females and children clustered in the Southeast. We demonstrate that the DHS can be used to assess geographic clustering and burden of disease, thereby allowing for targeted programs and policies. Further, we pinpoint specific regions and population groups in Uganda for targeted preventive measures and treatment to reduce the burden of overweight and chronic diseases in Uganda.

  2. Who tweets? Deriving the demographic characteristics of age, occupation and social class from twitter user meta-data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Luke; Morgan, Jeffrey; Burnap, Pete; Williams, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This paper specifies, designs and critically evaluates two tools for the automated identification of demographic data (age, occupation and social class) from the profile descriptions of Twitter users in the United Kingdom (UK). Meta-data data routinely collected through the Collaborative Social Media Observatory (COSMOS: http://www.cosmosproject.net/) relating to UK Twitter users is matched with the occupational lookup tables between job and social class provided by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) using SOC2010. Using expert human validation, the validity and reliability of the automated matching process is critically assessed and a prospective class distribution of UK Twitter users is offered with 2011 Census baseline comparisons. The pattern matching rules for identifying age are explained and enacted following a discussion on how to minimise false positives. The age distribution of Twitter users, as identified using the tool, is presented alongside the age distribution of the UK population from the 2011 Census. The automated occupation detection tool reliably identifies certain occupational groups, such as professionals, for which job titles cannot be confused with hobbies or are used in common parlance within alternative contexts. An alternative explanation on the prevalence of hobbies is that the creative sector is overrepresented on Twitter compared to 2011 Census data. The age detection tool illustrates the youthfulness of Twitter users compared to the general UK population as of the 2011 Census according to proportions, but projections demonstrate that there is still potentially a large number of older platform users. It is possible to detect "signatures" of both occupation and age from Twitter meta-data with varying degrees of accuracy (particularly dependent on occupational groups) but further confirmatory work is needed.

  3. Assessment of the Influence of Demographic and Professional Characteristics on Health Care Providers' Pain Management Decisions Using Virtual Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissoneault, Jeff; Mundt, Jennifer M; Bartley, Emily J; Wandner, Laura D; Hirsh, Adam T; Robinson, Michael E

    2016-05-01

    Disparities in health care associated with patients' gender, race, and age are well documented. Previous studies using virtual human (VH) technology have demonstrated that provider characteristics may play an important role in pain management decisions. However, these studies have largely emphasized group differences. The aims of this study were to examine dentists' and physicians' use of VH characteristics when making clinical judgments (i.e., cue use) and to identify provider characteristics associated with the magnitude of the impact of these cues (β-weights). Providers (N=152; 76 physicians, 76 dentists) viewed video vignettes of VH patients varying in gender (male/female), race (white/black), and age (younger/older). Participants rated VH patients' pain intensity and unpleasantness and then rated their own likelihood of administering non-opioid and opioid analgesics. Compared to physicians, dentists had significantly lower β-weights associated with VH age cues for all ratings (p0.69). These effects varied by provider race and gender. For pain intensity, professional differences were present only among non-white providers. White providers had greater β-weights than non-white providers for pain unpleasantness but only among men. Provider differences regarding the use of VH age cues in non-opioid analgesic administration were present among all providers except non-white males. These findings highlight the interaction of patient and provider factors in driving clinical decision making. Although profession was related to use of VH age cues in pain-related clinical judgments, this relationship was modified by providers' personal characteristics. Additional research is needed to understand what aspects of professional training or practice may account for differences between physicians and dentists and what forms of continuing education may help to mitigate the disparities.

  4. Help-Seeking Behavior for Children with Acute Respiratory Infection in Ethiopia: Results from 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey.

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    Tigist Astale

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory infection is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among children under five years of age in Ethiopia. While facilities have been implemented to address this problem they are underused due to a lack in help-seeking behavior. This study investigates factors related to the help-seeking behavior of mothers for children with acute respiratory infection using data from the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey.Data on 11,030 children aged 0-59 months obtained through interviewing women aged 15-49 years throughout Ethiopia was available. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine which factors are related to help-seeking behavior for acute respiratory infection.In the two weeks prior to the survey, 773(7% of the children were reported to have symptoms of acute respiratory infection while treatment was sought for only 209 (27.2%. The odds ratio for acute respiratory infection was 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.0 for rural residence with only 25.2% of these mothers seeking help compared to 46.4% for mothers with an urban residence. Smaller family size, younger mothers' age and having had prenatal care had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for both urban and rural residences. Highest wealth index had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for rural residence only, whereas primary education or higher had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for urban residence.Children from rural areas are more at risk for acute respiratory infection while their mothers are less likely to seek help. Nevertheless, there is also underuse of available services in urban areas. Interventions should target mothers with less education and wealth and older mothers. Expanding prenatal care among these groups would encourage a better use of available facilities and subsequently better care for their children.

  5. Help-Seeking Behavior for Children with Acute Respiratory Infection in Ethiopia: Results from 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astale, Tigist; Chenault, Michelene

    2015-01-01

    Acute respiratory infection is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among children under five years of age in Ethiopia. While facilities have been implemented to address this problem they are underused due to a lack in help-seeking behavior. This study investigates factors related to the help-seeking behavior of mothers for children with acute respiratory infection using data from the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey. Data on 11,030 children aged 0-59 months obtained through interviewing women aged 15-49 years throughout Ethiopia was available. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine which factors are related to help-seeking behavior for acute respiratory infection. In the two weeks prior to the survey, 773(7%) of the children were reported to have symptoms of acute respiratory infection while treatment was sought for only 209 (27.2%). The odds ratio for acute respiratory infection was 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.0) for rural residence with only 25.2% of these mothers seeking help compared to 46.4% for mothers with an urban residence. Smaller family size, younger mothers' age and having had prenatal care had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for both urban and rural residences. Highest wealth index had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for rural residence only, whereas primary education or higher had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for urban residence. Children from rural areas are more at risk for acute respiratory infection while their mothers are less likely to seek help. Nevertheless, there is also underuse of available services in urban areas. Interventions should target mothers with less education and wealth and older mothers. Expanding prenatal care among these groups would encourage a better use of available facilities and subsequently better care for their children.

  6. Description of selected characteristics of familial glioma patients – Results from the Gliogene Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadetzki, Siegal; Bruchim, Revital; Oberman, Bernice

    2013-01-01

    While certain inherited syndromes (e.g. Neurofibromatosis or Li-Fraumeni) are associated with an increased risk of glioma, most familial gliomas are non-syndromic. This study describes the demographic and clinical characteristics of the largest series of non-syndromic glioma families ascertained...

  7. Prevalence, Demographic Characteristics and Associated Risk Factors of Malnutrition Among 0-5 Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study From Van, Eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilyildiz, Baran Serdar; Sönmez, Bülent; Karaman, Kamuran; Beger, Burhan; Mercen, Adnan; Alioglu, Süleyman; Cesur, Yasar

    2016-11-17

    Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and other data were obtained. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometric indices including weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, head circumference and body mass index-for-age. Multivariate logistic regressions were carried out to assess malnutrition-associated factors. Prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting were 19.7, 17.7 and 16.2%, respectively. Socio-demographic variables that statistical significantly in association with malnutrition were low monthly family income, educational level and employment status of father, parental consanguinity, number of pregnancies, regular intake of vitamin D and history of prematurity. The prevalence of children with head circumference-z score ≤2SD and body mass index-for-age ≤2SD were 9.8 and 16.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis detected following risk factors for these indices; low monthly family income, history of prematurity, unemployed father and the period between pregnancies (1-2 years). We found that prevalence of malnutrition in the city of Van, was still higher than more developed regions of Turkey. The associated risk factors of malnutrition should be specifically interpreted by health professionals and also by government authorities that are responsible for making practical politics of public health.

  8. Prevalence, demographic characteristics and associated risk factors of malnutrition among 0-5 aged children: a cross-sectional study from Van, eastern Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran Serdar Kizilyildiz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and other data were obtained. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometric indices including weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, head circumference and body mass index-for-age. Multivariate logistic regressions were carried out to assess malnutrition- associated factors. Prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting were 19.7, 17.7 and 16.2%, respectively. Socio-demographic variables that statistical significantly in association with malnutrition were low monthly family income, educational level and employment status of father, parental consanguinity, number of pregnancies, regular intake of vitamin D and history of prematurity. The prevalence of children with head circumference-z score ≤−2SD and body mass index-for-age ≤−2SD were 9.8 and 16.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis detected following risk factors for these indices; low monthly family income, history of prematurity, unemployed father and the period between pregnancies (1- 2 years. We found that prevalence of malnutrition in the city of Van, was still higher than more developed regions of Turkey. The associated risk factors of malnutrition should be specifically interpreted by health professionals and also by government authorities that are responsible for making practical politics of public health.

  9. Anaemia in Relation to Body Mass Index (BMI) and Socio-Demographic Characteristics in Adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwuja, Emmanuel Ike; Ogbonnaya, Lawrence Ulu; Obuna, Akuma Johnson; Awelegbe, Femi; Uro-Chukwu, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Anaemia, a multifactorial health challenge has been found to affect every stage of human development with negative health impacts. Providing information on the factors associated with Anaemia will help in formulating mitigating strategies against this important public health problem. To determine the prevalence of Anaemia and its relationship with body mass index (BMI) and sociodemographic characteristics in adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State, South-eastern Nigeria. Adults (n=428) aged ≥ 18 y (mean=38.4±13.7 y) randomly selected from 130 political wards from the 13 Local Government Areas of the state were studied. Sociodemographic data was collected with questionnaire while blood samples were collected for hemoglobin determination using colorimetric cyanmethemoglobin method. Data was analysed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS(®) for Windows(®) ver. 16). In general, 21.7% of the subjects were anemic with Anaemia prevalence of 9.9%, 15.8% and 39.8% in male, non-pregnant and pregnant female, respectively. About four percent (3.7%) of the subjects were underweight, while 37.6% had excess weight with hemoglobin concentration having no relationship with BMI and sociodemographic parameters. It may be conclude that the Anaemia in adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State has no definite relationship with BMI and sociodemographic characteristics studied. Further studies are needed to document other factors that may be associated with Anaemia among adults in the State.

  10. Socio-demographic disparities in the utilisation of general practice services for Australian children - Results from a nationally representative longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Lixin; Chen, Jack; Hillman, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the pattern of general practice services utilization for Australian children and to examine socio-demographic disparities in general practitioner (GP) visits. Methods We used the linked data from the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) and the Medicare Australia claims data record. We used survey negative binomial and logistic regression to examine the socio-demographic factors associated with the utilisation of general practice services. Results The average number of annual GP visits gradually declined from 7.0 at 0–1 year old to 2.4 at 5–8 years (pSocio-demographic disparities existed in the utilisation of general practice services and varied at different age periods. Family socio-economic position, private health insurance coverage and region of residence strongly associates with the utilisation disparities over all age period. Further policy interventions are called to minimise the disparities in GP utilisation for children in Australian context. PMID:28448555

  11. [Socio-demographic characteristics, subjective well-being, and homophobia experienced by a sample of gay men from three cities in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos-Delgado, Jaime; Cárdenas-Castro, Manuel; Gómez-Ojeda, Fabiola

    2014-06-01

    This article describes the socio-demographic characteristics of a sample of gay men in three cities in Chile, as well as experience with homophobia and subjective well-being. Snowball sampling was used to interview 325 gay men. The main findings included high levels of perceived discrimination and victimization, but interviewees reported higher levels of social well-being compared to studies elsewhere in the country. Age was related to differences in levels of social well-being, but not other variables. Individuals with university education reported higher levels of victimization and greater impact of discrimination on their lives. Gay men in Santiago reported a higher relative impact from incidents of aggression, but better levels of social well-being and happiness compared to those in other regions of Chile.

  12. Phylogenetic associations with demographic, epidemiological and drug resistance characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages in the SITVIT2 database: Macro- and micro-geographical cleavages and phylogeographical specificities

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    Nalin Rastogi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: This research was focused to improve the in-depth phylogenetic characterization of MTBC lineages in conjunction with epidemiological analysis of circulating clones to generate evidence-based geographical mapping of predominant clinical isolates of tubercle bacilli causing the bulk of the disease both at the country and regional levels. Further superimposition of these maps with socio-political, economical, and demographical characteristics available through Geographic Information Systems (GIS allows access to a precise view of prevailing disparities as seen at the level of the United Nation's sub-regional stratification. An in-depth comprehension of these disparities and drawbacks is important to take appropriate actions by decision-makers and public health authorities alike, in order to better monitor, understand and control the tuberculosis epidemic worldwide.

  13. A study on socio-demographic characteristics of alcoholics attending the de-addiction center at Burdwan medical college and hospital in West Bengal

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    Aditya Prasad Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of alcohol use in India is reported to be 21.4% and there is increasing alcohol intake among the young people. The present study was undertaken to study the socio-demographic characteristics of patients having alcohol-related disorders attending the de-addiction center at Burdwan Medical College in West Bengal and to find out some factors responsible for that. A clinic-based descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 187 patients with the help of pre-tested pre-designed schedule after obtaining informed consent. Data analysis was carried out with the help of Epi info software version 6. Majority of the patients were male, in productive age group and married. Age of initiation and amount of alcohol intake were significantly associated with positive family history of alcoholism. Children having family history of alcoholism should be counseled to prevent development of alcoholism.

  14. Understanding Water Storage Practices of Urban Residents of an Endemic Dengue Area in Colombia: Perceptions, Rationale and Socio-Demographic Characteristics.

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    Tatiana García-Betancourt

    Full Text Available The main preventive measure against dengue virus transmission is often based on actions to control Ae. Aegypti reproduction by targeting water containers of clean and stagnant water. Household water storage has received special attention in prevention strategies but the evidence about the rationale of this human practice is limited. The objective was to identify and describe water storage practices among residents of an urban area in Colombia (Girardot and its association with reported perceptions, rationales and socio-demographic characteristics with a mixed methods approach.Knowledge, attitudes and practices and entomological surveys from 1,721 households and 26 semi-structured interviews were conducted among residents of Girardot and technicians of the local vector borne disease program. A multivariate analysis was performed to identify associations between a water storage practice and socio-demographic characteristics, and knowledge, attitudes and practices about dengue and immature forms of the vector, which were then triangulated with qualitative information.Water storage is a cultural practice in Girardot. There are two main reasons for storage: The scarcity concern based on a long history of shortages of water in the region and the perception of high prices in water rates, contrary to what was reported by the local water company. The practice of water storage was associated with being a housewife (Inverse OR: 2.6, 95% CI 1.5 -4.3. The use of stored water depends on the type of container used, while water stored in alberca (Intra household cement basins is mainly used for domestic cleaning chores, water in plastic containers is used for cooking.It is essential to understand social practices that can increase or reduce the number of breeding sites of Ae. Aegypti. Identification of individuals who store water and the rationale of such storage allow a better understanding of the social dynamics that lead to water accumulation.

  15. Demographic and psychosocial characteristics of mobile phone ownership and usage among youth living in the slums of Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahn, Monica H; Braunstein, Sarah; Kasirye, Rogers

    2014-08-01

    The use of mobile phones and other technology for improving health through research and practice is growing quickly, in particular in areas with difficult-to-reach population or where the research infrastructure is less developed. In Sub-Saharan Africa, there appears to be a dramatic increase in mobile phone ownership and new initiatives that capitalize on this technology to support health promotion campaigns to change behavior and to increase health literacy. However, the extent to which difficult-to-reach youth in the slums of Kampala may own and use mobile phones has not been reported despite the burden of injuries, substance use, and HIV that they face. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of mobile phone ownership and use in this high-risk population and to identify psychosocial characteristics that may differentiate those owning and using a phone from those who do not. We conducted secondary analyses of the Kampala Youth Survey (N=457). Data collection took place in 2011, and the survey was designed to quantify high-risk behaviors in a convenience sample of urban youth living on the streets or in the slums, 14-24 years of age, who were participating in a Uganda Youth Development Link drop-in center for disadvantaged street youth. We computed chi-square analyses to determine any significant differences in psychosocial characteristics based on phone ownership and use. Overall, 46.9% of youth reported owning a mobile phone and ownership did not vary by sex but was more common among youth older than 18 years of age. Mobile phone ownership was also more common among those who reported taking care of themselves at night, who reported current drug use and who reported trading sex for money, food or other things. Given that nearly half of the youth own and use phones daily, new research is needed to determine next steps for mobile health (mhealth), including the feasibility of using mobile phones for data collection and interventions with this

  16. Twenty years trends and socio-demographic characteristics of HIV prevalence in women giving birth in Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicer-Pont, Dolors; Montoliu, Alexandra; Marín, José Luis; Almeda, Jesús; González, Victoria; Muñoz, Rafael; Martínez, Carmen; Jané, Mireia; Casabona, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the prevalence of HIV in sentinel populations are one of the key strategies to monitor the HIV epidemic. We describe HIV prevalence trends and identify differences across time in the sociodemographic characteristics of HIV-infected women giving birth in Catalonia. We used dried blood specimens, residual to newborn screening, which have been collected in Catalonia every 2 months since 1994. The total number of samples obtained until 2009 and in 2013 represented half of yearly newborns. From 2010 to 2012, the total number of samples obtained represented a quarter of yearly newborns. We studied the prevalence by year and place of current residence (Barcelona-city, cities>200,000 inhabitants and cities ≤ 200,000 inhabitants) and by the mother's birth country. A total of 624,912 infants were tested for HIV antibodies from January 1994 to December 2013. HIV prevalence trends among women giving birth in Catalonia decreased until 2007. Thereafter, there was a change to a steady trend until 2013. However, among foreign women giving birth and living in cities ≤ 200,000 inhabitants, the prevalence of HIV increased from 2007 to 2013. To ensure early identification and treatment of HIV-infected mothers, it is essential to maintain HIV surveillance programs and pre- and post-natal screening programs, both in Barcelona and in cities with 200,000 inhabitants or less, especially in immigrant women. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of baseline demographic and clinical characteristics in the visual outcome of intermediate uveitis: a survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abásolo, Lydia; Prieto-García, Ángela; Díaz-Valle, David; Benítez-Del-Castillo, José Manuel; Pato, Esperanza; García-Feijoo, Julián; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis

    2016-12-01

    To describe in patients diagnosed with intermediate uveitis (IU) the incidence rate (IR) of visual loss and newly diagnosed clinical complications during follow-up. Also, to analyse the influence of baseline complications on visual loss. Longitudinal retrospective cohort study which included 97 affected eyes of 67 consecutive patients diagnosed with IU according to the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature group, first seen in our clinic between 1986 and 2014, and until loss to follow-up, or 1 January 2015. Kaplan-Meier curves were set to account for temporary and permanent visual loss and development of clinical complications during follow-up. Cox's bivariate and multivariate regression models were constructed to examine the risk factors for visual loss. IRs (in events per 100 eyes-year) for the development of cystic macular oedema (CMO), epiretinal membrane (ERM) and cataracts were 5.9 (3.70-9.4), 1.2 (0.50-2.6) and 6.6 (4.4-10.1), respectively. IRs per 100 eyes-year of temporary moderate and severe visual loss episodes were 43.8 (37.3-51.4) and 6.4 (4.5-9.0), respectively. IR of permanent moderate visual loss was 5.3 (3.3-8.3). After 2 years of follow-up, 21% of eyes had developed a permanent moderate visual loss. Presence at baseline of lower visual acuity was associated with higher IR of temporary visual loss episodes, and CMO was associated with higher IR of temporary moderate visual loss. IU seems to have a favourable long-term prognosis. Permanent visual loss occurs during the first year of the disease. Baseline characteristics could identify patients with a higher risk of poor visual prognosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Demographic changes and nationalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskii, A G

    1995-01-01

    This article examines the different characteristics of the many peoples inhabiting what used to be the Soviet Union and communist Eastern Europe, including Yugoslavia. The differences among these nationalities, or ethnic groups, are illustrated using the example of demographic modernization, showing how different peoples have or have not passed through the demographic transition process. The author looks at ethnic differences in mortality, fertility, natural increase, and migration, as well as economic and social inequalities among ethnic groups. The prospects for inter-ethnic conflict are assessed.

  19. Investigation the quality of life and its relation with clinical and demographic characteristics in women with breast cancer under chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Musarezaie

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed a direct correlation with regard to results of this study, there was a direct correlation between the number of chemotherapy sessions and patients quality of life. The attitude of the population toward chemotherapy is usually inhibiting and negative, so patients, students and nurses should be trained about chemotherapy efficacy to improve their attitude about chemotherapy, which in turn would lead to improvement of the patients′ quality of life.

  20. Civilian First Responder Decontamination Equipment Characteristics Survey Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    of Standards and Technology (DHS/NIST) Standards Development Team to develop a survey to determine important characteristics of first responder decontamination...a draft American Society for Testing Materials standard for civilian first responder decontamination systems.

  1. Long term marijuana users seeking medical cannabis in California (2001-2007): demographics, social characteristics, patterns of cannabis and other drug use of 4117 applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Thomas J; Bou-Matar, Ché B

    2007-11-03

    Cannabis (marijuana) had been used for medicinal purposes for millennia. Cannabinoid agonists are now attracting growing interest and there is also evidence that botanical cannabis is being used as self-medication for stress and anxiety as well as adjunctive therapy by the seriously ill and by patients with terminal illnesses. California became the first state to authorize medicinal use of cannabis in 1996, and it was recently estimated that between 250,000 and 350,000 Californians may now possess the physician's recommendation required to use it medically. More limited medical use has also been approved in 12 additional states and new initiatives are being considered in others. Despite that evidence of increasing public acceptance of "medical" use, a definitional problem remains and all use for any purpose is still prohibited by federal law. California's 1996 initiative allowed cannabis to be recommended, not only for serious illnesses, but also "for any other illness for which marijuana provides relief," thus maximally broadening the range of allowable indications. In effect, the range of conditions now being treated with federally illegal cannabis, the modes in which it is being used, and the demographics of the population using it became potentially discoverable through the required screening of applicants. This report examines the demographic profiles and other selected characteristics of 4117 California marijuana users (62% from the Greater Bay Area) who applied for medical recommendations between late 2001 and mid 2007. This study yielded a somewhat unexpected profile of a hitherto hidden population of users of America's most popular illegal drug. It also raises questions about some of the basic assumptions held by both proponents and opponents of current policy.

  2. Key demographic characteristics of patients with bacteriuria due to extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in a multiethnic community, in North West London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal Rao, G; Batura, Deepak; Batura, Neha; Nielsen, Peder Bo

    2015-01-01

    Infections with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLE) are encountered worldwide, particularly in certain regions of the world and in certain ethnic groups. Simple criteria for identification of patients likely to be infected with ESBLE may enable clinicians to select appropriate empirical antibiotics for treatment. The aim of this study was to explore the association between ESBLE bacteriuria and readily available key demographic characteristics (age, gender and ethnicity) in a multiethnic population. In this cross-sectional observational study, we explored the association between ESBLE bacteriuria and age, gender and ethnicity in 134 831 patients who submitted urine specimens for culture during 2007-2009 in two multiethnic boroughs in London, UK. In multivariate analysis, the risk of ESBLE bacteriuria was higher in males (odds ratio, OR = 1.3) and in patients older than 60 years (OR > 2). Patients from an Asian ethnic group were significantly more likely than White British subjects to have ESBLE bacteriuria (Indians, OR = 2.7; Asians of any other background, OR = 2.4; and Pakistanis, OR = 1.8). In contrast, patients who were of white ethnic background other than Irish were 0.66 times less likely to have ESBLE bacteriuria than White British patients (p = 0.025). Our study shows that in our local multiethnic population, older patients (> 60 years), males and those of South Asian ethnicity were significantly more likely to have ESBLE bacteriuria than others. Knowledge of these simple and readily available demographic data can help identify groups of patients at risk of urinary tract infection (UTI) with ESBLE and may aid in choice of empirical antibiotics.

  3. Demographic characteristics and inci-dence of ocular disease in patients at Shahid Rahnemoon Hospital (Yazd, Iran

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    M.R. Besharati

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The type and frequency of diseases in a com-munity represents genetic structure, nutritional status, social health standards, and the cultural traditions of the community. In addition, the different types of disorders that are common in an area are directly or indirectly under environ-mental effects. The epidemiological information of these disorders is important when developing health services programs and influences the way medical services are offered.The aim of the present study was to determine the epidemiology and frequency of ocular diseas-es in patients referred to the Ophthalmic Clinic of Shahid Rahnemoon Hospital, Yazd, Iran. A cross sectional descriptive study was done by means of a questionnaire and statistical analysis on the data collected. A total number of 994 patients were surveyed and more than 70 types of disorders were diagnosed. The disorders were classified into 15 main groups. The most commonly detect-ed conditions in the patients were refractive errors and conjunctival diseases (16.9% each, followed by disorders of the lens (12.7%, retinal diseases (11.9%, eye traumas (11.9%, eyelid disorders (7.3% and glaucoma (5.2%. The majority of the patients were more than 40 years old. Regarding their education, most of them were illiterate. Most of the patients were housewives. Our results showed that the majority of the patients were liv-ing in urban areas. An association of diabetes and hypertension was seen more with retinal disease than with other conditions.

  4. Evaluation of Exam Anxiety Level among Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences Students and its Association with Demographic Characteristics in 2014

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    MM Mohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Test -anxiety is one of the most common mental health problems among the students that can impair performance and leads to failure of the exam. So, this study aimed to determine the rate of exam-anxiety among Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences' students. Methods: This cross sectional-analytic study was conducted on 510 students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences by convenience sampling method in 2014. In this study, data collection tool was Test-Anxiety questionnaire includes 25 questions. Data were analyzed with the Pearson correlation and t-test using SPSS 16 software. Results: 198 students (38. 8% had mild exam-anxiety, 140 students (27. 5% moderate exam-anxiety and 172 students (33. 7% had severe exam-anxiety. The difference between the mean of anxiety scores was significant at various fields of study (P <0. 05.  Midwifery students experienced more stress in comparison with the students of other fields. There was a significant relationship between exam anxiety level, and the variables of gender, location, age and total grades average of students (P<0/05. There was not a significant relationship between exam anxiety level and marital status, parental occupation, semester entrance and employment of students. Conclusion: Due to the high level of exam anxiety among the different fields of medicine as well as the negative effect of this type of anxiety on academic performance of students, the necessity of the use of psychological services, counseling, identification of causes of anxiety, and planning for decreasing this problem was recommended. Obviously, in this regard, more attention should be paid to the highest-risk groups such as female midwifery students.

  5. Supermarket and fast-food outlet exposure in Copenhagen: associations with socio-economic and demographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svastisalee, Chalida M; Nordahl, Helene; Glümer, Charlotte; Holstein, Bjørn E; Powell, Lisa M; Due, Pernille

    2011-09-01

    To investigate whether exposure to fast-food outlets and supermarkets is socio-economically patterned in the city of Copenhagen. The study was based on a cross-sectional multivariate approach to examine the association between the number of fast-food outlets and supermarkets and neighbourhood-level socio-economic indicators. Food business addresses were obtained from commercial and public business locators and geocoded using a geographic information system for all neighbourhoods in the city of Copenhagen (n 400). The regression of counts of fast-food outlets and supermarkets v. indicators of socio-economic status (percentage of recent immigrants, percentage without a high-school diploma, percentage of the population under 35 years of age and average household income in Euros) was performed using negative binomial analysis. Copenhagen, Denmark. The unit of analysis was neighbourhood (n 400). In the fully adjusted models, income was not a significant predictor for supermarket exposure. However, neighbourhoods with low and mid-low income were associated with significantly fewer fast-food outlets. Using backwise deletion from the fully adjusted models, low income remained significantly associated with fast-food outlet exposure (rate ratio = 0·66-0·80) in the final model. In the city of Copenhagen, there was no evidence of spatial patterning of supermarkets by income. However, we detected a trend in the exposure to fast-food outlets, such that neighbourhoods in the lowest income quartile had fewer fast-food outlets than higher-income neighbourhoods. These findings have similarities with studies conducted in the UK, but not in the USA. The results suggest there may be socio-economic factors other than income associated with food exposure in Europe.

  6. Epidemiological analysis of demographic characteristics and type of injuries in patients with multiple trauma with respect to conclusive treatment outcome

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    Zagorac Slaviša

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Multiple trauma is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the population of people under 45 years of age. The consequences of multiple trauma have huge epidemiological, social and economic significance. Objective The aim of the paper was to analyze the conclusive treatment outcome of multiply traumatized patients with respect to their sex, age, injury mechanism and type. METHOD This retrospective study included 100 patients with multiple injuries (ISS>16 treated in the Emergency Room of the Clinical Centre of Serbia in the course of 2004. Clinical, X-ray, laboratory and numerical presentation methods - scores (ISS and GCS were used to show the injury severity. Results Most of the injured were males (80%, and the average age was 40±20 (5-83. Out of the total number of patients who died, 23 (82% were males, and 5 (18% were females. The average age of the patients with fatal outcomes was 48±21 (8-86. Traffic accidents were the leading cause of injury (59%. The median GCS was 10±3 (3-15. The average ISS was 30 (20-66 in the surviving patients, and 53 (27-77 in those who died. Conclusion With respect to sex, in most cases multiple trauma affects males (p<0.01, with the average age of about 40. With respect to injury mechanism, the main cause of the occurrence of multiple trauma is traffic accidents (p<0.01. There is a statistically significant difference in the values of GCS and ISS relative to the definitive outcome (p<0.01. Statistical data processing indicated that there was a statistically significant correlation between mortality and type of injury in a given organic system (p<0.01, but that there was no statistically significant correlation between mortality and age. .

  7. Socio-demographic patterning of physical activity across migrant groups in India: results from the Indian Migration Study.

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    Ruth Sullivan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between rural to urban migration and physical activity (PA in India. METHODS: 6,447 (42% women participants comprising 2077 rural, 2,094 migrants and 2,276 urban were recruited. Total activity (MET hr/day, activity intensity (min/day, PA Level (PAL television viewing and sleeping (min/day were estimated and associations with migrant status examined, adjusting for the sib-pair design, age, site, occupation, education, and socio-economic position (SEP. RESULTS: Total activity was highest in rural men whereas migrant and urban men had broadly similar activity levels (p<0.001. Women showed similar patterns, but slightly lower levels of total activity. Sedentary behaviour and television viewing were lower in rural residents and similar in migrant and urban groups. Sleep duration was highest in the rural group and lowest in urban non-migrants. Migrant men had considerably lower odds of being in the highest quartile of total activity than rural men, a finding that persisted after adjustment for age, SEP and education (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.37, 0.74. For women, odds ratios attenuated and associations were removed after adjusting for age, SEP and education. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that migrants have already acquired PA levels that closely resemble long-term urban residents. Effective public health interventions to increase PA are needed.

  8. Demographics and economic burden of un-owned cats and dogs in the UK: results of a 2010 census

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    Stavisky Jenny

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The population of dogs and cats passing through rescue shelters may be subject to compromised welfare and increased susceptibility to disease. Little information exists to describe this population, its dynamics and associated management practices. The aim of this study was to carry out a census of un-owned cats and dogs in the UK in 2010, and to document the origins, destinations, husbandry and costs associated with the care of these animals. Results A sampling frame was constructed by searching the databases of publicly registered charities for England, Scotland and Wales, registers of breed rescues, and by internet searches of animal welfare websites. Overall, 2,352 contacts for 1,380 organisations were identified. All were sent a postal questionnaire asking for data on the number of dogs and cats housed, their origins and eventual outcomes, and details of husbandry between January 1st and December 31st 2010. For those which were registered charities (595, financial records were also obtained. A response rate of 38.8% was obtained. Overall, in 2010, 89,571 dogs and 156,826 cats entered the care of the participating organisations. Approximately half of these animals were relinquished by their owners. Other origins included being found as strays or confiscated for welfare purposes. Seventy-five per cent of dogs and 77.1% of cats were rehomed. The next most common outcome was euthanasia, accounting for 10.4% of dogs and 13.2% cats. For dogs and cats, 44.3% and 62% of participants respectively reported having a waiting list, which frequently exceeded the actual capacity of the facility. Over 19,000 people were involved in the care of these animals, on a paid or voluntary basis. Financial records were available for 519/595 (87.2% of the registered charities, and their total expenditure in 2010 was £340 million. Conclusions This study showed that a large number of animals become un-owned each year, which could have considerable

  9. Demographics and economic burden of un-owned cats and dogs in the UK: results of a 2010 census

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The population of dogs and cats passing through rescue shelters may be subject to compromised welfare and increased susceptibility to disease. Little information exists to describe this population, its dynamics and associated management practices. The aim of this study was to carry out a census of un-owned cats and dogs in the UK in 2010, and to document the origins, destinations, husbandry and costs associated with the care of these animals. Results A sampling frame was constructed by searching the databases of publicly registered charities for England, Scotland and Wales, registers of breed rescues, and by internet searches of animal welfare websites. Overall, 2,352 contacts for 1,380 organisations were identified. All were sent a postal questionnaire asking for data on the number of dogs and cats housed, their origins and eventual outcomes, and details of husbandry between January 1st and December 31st 2010. For those which were registered charities (595), financial records were also obtained. A response rate of 38.8% was obtained. Overall, in 2010, 89,571 dogs and 156,826 cats entered the care of the participating organisations. Approximately half of these animals were relinquished by their owners. Other origins included being found as strays or confiscated for welfare purposes. Seventy-five per cent of dogs and 77.1% of cats were rehomed. The next most common outcome was euthanasia, accounting for 10.4% of dogs and 13.2% cats. For dogs and cats, 44.3% and 62% of participants respectively reported having a waiting list, which frequently exceeded the actual capacity of the facility. Over 19,000 people were involved in the care of these animals, on a paid or voluntary basis. Financial records were available for 519/595 (87.2%) of the registered charities, and their total expenditure in 2010 was £340 million. Conclusions This study showed that a large number of animals become un-owned each year, which could have considerable implications for their

  10. Demographic characteristics of epilepsy patients and antiepileptic drug utilization in adult patients: Results of a cross-sectional survey

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    Sanket Newale

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Epilepsy is common in adult patients. Hypertension is the most common comorbidity. Levetiracetam is the most commonly used AED across all studied age groups and both genders. Control of epilepsy with current treatment is satisfactory with no major adverse events.

  11. A Potential Synergy between Incomplete Arsenic Methylation Capacity and Demographic Characteristics on the Risk of Hypertension: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study in an Arsenic-Endemic Area of Inner Mongolia, China

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    Yongfang Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Inefficient arsenic methylation capacity has been associated with various health hazards induced by arsenic. In this study, we aimed to explore the interaction effect of lower arsenic methylation capacity with demographic characteristics on hypertension risk. A total of 512 adult participants (126 hypertension subjects and 386 non-hypertension subjects residing in an arsenic-endemic area in Inner Mongolia, China were included. Urinary levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA, and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA were measured for all subjects. The percentage of urinary arsenic metabolites (iAs%, MMA%, and DMA%, primary methylation index (PMI and secondary methylation index (SMI were calculated to assess arsenic methylation capacity of individuals. Results showed that participants carrying a lower methylation capacity, which is characterized by lower DMA% and SMI, have a higher risk of hypertension compared to their corresponding references after adjusting for multiple confounders. A potential synergy between poor arsenic methylation capacity (higher MMA%, lower DMA% and SMI and older age or higher BMI were detected. The joint effects of higher MMA% and lower SMI with cigarette smoking also suggest some evidence of synergism. The findings of present study indicated that inefficient arsenic methylation capacity was associated with hypertension and the effect might be enhanced by certain demographic factors.

  12. Demographic characteristics of patients and their assessment of selected hygienic practices of hospital personnel in the context of safety climate of hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różańska, Anna; Bulanda, Małgorzata

    2015-04-01

    Hand hygiene (HH) is a key factor in hospital infection prevention and patient safety. The objectives of this article were to examine patients' observations concerning compliance with selected procedures for hospital hygiene among medical personnel and assess the correlation between patients' key demographic characteristics and their awareness and sense of safety associated with hospitalization. The study was conducted in January 2012 on a sample of 491 subjects by means of a standardized 10-minute computer-assisted telephone interview survey. There was a statistically significant correlation between the sense of safety associated with hospitalization declared by patients and their observation of HH practices among health care personnel. A positive correlation was also found between the respondents experiencing personal complications in the form of health care-associated infections themselves or among their family members and the sense of safety associated with hospital treatment. Performing HH among hospital staff is one of the factors affecting patients' increased sense of safety during their hospitalization; therefore, HH contributes to the perception of good quality of service provided. Knowledge of the risk of HH does not affect the patients' sense of safety, in contrast with their real-life experiences. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Socio-demographic characteristics and quality of life of elderly patients with systemic arterial hypertension who live in rural areas: the importance of nurses' role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Darlene Mara dos Santos; de Paiva, Mariana Mapelli; Dias, Flavia Aparecida; Diniz, Marina Aleixo; Martins, Nayara Paula Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    To describe the socio-demographic characteristics and quality of life of elderly patients with systemic arterial hypertension; to correlate the quality of life with the time of diagnosis and number of medication, as well as to compare the quality of life with the type of medication. In this cross sectional home survey design, 460 elderly people from rural areas were involved. The data was collected with the use of the following instruments: World Health Organization Quality of Life-bref and World Health Organization Quality of Life Olders. A descriptive analysis, Pearson correlation and t-Student test (pcharacteristics were: women between the age of 60 and 70, married, four to eight years of formal education, income of one minimum wage, living with their partners. The time of diagnosis was associated with lower quality of life in the physical domain. Elderly patients who used Inhibitors and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme and who did not use AT1 blocker had lower scores in relation to functioning of the senses. Those who used calcium channel blocker scored higher in relation to autonomy. there is a need for actions to control systemic arterial hypertension and its associated complications, with the purpose of improving quality of life.

  14. Characteristics associated with being overweight among the population of Ukraine, results of 2000 survey

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    Chagarna, Natalia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Being overweight is considered among major risk factors of chronic non-communicable diseases. The goal of this study was to investigate main determinants associated with being overweight and obese among the population of Ukraine in transitional period.METHODS. Data from the survey “Health and Well-being in the Transitions” (2000 were used. Body mass index (BMI was used to estimate the level of overweight. Binary dependent variable was computed by setting BMI of 25 as the borderline between normal weight and overweight. Risk of being overweight was compared by educational groups, demographic characteristics, occupation, level of physical activity, and behavioral and eating habits, after adjustment for age and stratification by gender.RESULTS. Among men, those overweight were less likely to smoke (adjusted odds ratio 2,5, while more likely to eat meat more often (AOR=2,3 and to consume more vegetable oil. However, among women being overweight was associated with eating more potatoes (AOR = 0,4 and with frequent vodka intake (AOR = 1,7. Those women who drank beer were less likely to be overweight (AOR = 0,3. Risk of being overweight was related to occupation: those unemployed, housekeepers, and self-employed people were less likely to be overweight than those employed with salaries. Obesity risk was greater in those older than 30. Education and physical activity did not show significant associations with risk of being overweight.CONCLUSION. Eating habits, occupational status, and unhealthy habits were associated with obesity among men and women in different ways. Age was found to be an important factor of being overweight both for males and females. Some of the associated characteristics may be considered causes of being overweight and the others as consequences.

  15. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the association with socio-demographic characteristics and physical activity in urban population of Iranian adults: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajian-Tilaki, K; Heidari, B; Firouzjahi, A; Bagherzadeh, M; Hajian-Tilaki, A; Halalkhor, S

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is the main concern of health problem in transition population. The objective was to determine the prevalence of MetS and its association with socio-demographic and physical activity in Iranian adults. A population-based cross-sectional study of 1000 representative samples aged 20-70 years was conducted in urban area in northern Iran. The socio-demographic data were collected by interview and the physical activity was assessed by standard International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Weight, height, waist circumference and the systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured by standard methods. Fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level and low density lipoprotein cholesterol level were measured using enzymatic method. The ATP III criteria were used for diagnosis of MetS. The prevalence rate of MetS was 42.3% (36.5% men and 47.1% women, p=0.001). The higher education at university level was appeared inversely associated with MetS (age adjusted OR=0.34, p=0.001) compared with illiterate. The prevalence rates of MetS were 49.0%, 42.5% and 22.6% in low, moderate and vigorous physical activity level respectively (p=0.001). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the vigorous physical activity was inversely associated with MetS compared with low level (adjusted OR=0.46, p=0.001). These results highlight an immediate action of preventive measures programs for modification of cardio metabolic risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characteristics of effective health and safety committees: survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Tim; Bracker, Anne; Warren, Nicholas; Goyzueta, Jeanette; Cook, Matthew

    2013-02-01

    Although perhaps the most common worker-management structure, there has been surprisingly little research on describing and evaluating the characteristics of health and safety committees. A survey of 380 health and safety committee members from 176 manufacturing workplaces was supplemented with administrative data and compared with reported workers' compensation rates. Survey respondents also reported perceptions of overall safety, committee, effectiveness, committee activities, and "best practices." Extensive descriptive data is presented, including a mean of 8.7 members per committee spending 1,167 hr per year on committee business for an estimate of $40,500 worth of time per committee. Higher speed to correct action items, a focus on ergonomics, and planning for safety training was associated with lower injury rates. The discrepancy between managers and hourly committee members in estimating overall safety was strongly positively associated with injury rates. Communications and worker involvement may be important to address discrepancy issues. Prospective studies are needed to distinguish directionality of associations. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Clinicopathological and demographical characteristics of non-small cell lung cancer patients with ALK rearrangements: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Fan

    Full Text Available This meta-analysis aimed to comprehensively examine the relationship between the clinicopathological and demographical characteristics and ALK rearrangements in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC.In total, 62 qualified articles including 1178 ALK rearranged cases from 20541 NSCLC patients were analyzed, and the data were extracted independently by two investigators. NSCLC patients with ALK rearrangements tended to be younger than those without (mean difference: -7.16 years; 95% confidence interval (95% CI: -9.35 to -4.96; P<0.00001, even across subgroups by race. Compared with female NSCLC patients, the odds ratio (OR of carrying ALK rearrangements was reduced by 28% (95% CI: 0.58-0.90; P = 0.004 in males, and this reduction was potentiated in Asians, yet in opposite direction in Caucasians. Likewise, smokers were less likely to have ALK rearrangements than never-smokers (OR = 0.33; 95% CI: 0.25-0.44; P<0.00001, even in race-stratified subgroups. Moreover, compared with NSCLC patients with tumor stage IV, ALK rearrangements were underrepresented in those with tumor stage I-III (OR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.44-0.78; P = 0.0002. Patients with lung adenocarcinomas had a significantly higher rate of ALK rearrangements (7.2% than patients with non-adenocarcinoma (2.0% (OR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.54-3.27; P<0.0001.Our findings demonstrate that ALK rearrangements tended to be present in NSCLC patients with no smoking habit, younger age and tumor stage IV. Moreover, race, age, gender, smoking status, tumor stage and histology might be potential sources of heterogeneity.

  18. Breast and bowel cancer screening uptake patterns over 15 years for UK south Asian ethnic minority populations, corrected for differences in socio-demographic characteristics

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    Price Charlotte

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies have reported low uptake of cancer screening programmes by South Asian populations in the UK. However, studies to date have not adjusted findings for differences in demographics and socio-economic status of these populations. Methods Subjects: All residents in Coventry and Warwickshire, UK, eligible for screening. Uptakes compared for round 1 (2000–02 and round 2 (2003–05 of a national bowel cancer screening pilot, and for rounds 1, 2 and 5 of the established NHS breast cancer screening programme (commenced 1989. Data: Bowel screening data were analysed for 123,367 invitees in round 1 and 116,773 in round 2 (total 240,140 cases. Breast screening data were analysed for 61,934, 62,829 and 86,749 invitees in rounds 1, 2 and 5 respectively (total 211,512 cases. Analysis: Screening uptake was compared for two broad meta-categories (South Asian and non-Asian and for five Asian subgroups (Hindu-Gujarati; Hindu-Other; Muslim; Sikh; South Asian Other. Univariate and multivariate analyses examined screening uptake and various demographic attributes of invitees, including age, gender, deprivation and ethnic group. Results South Asians demonstrated significantly lower (p For Muslims registered with an Asian (vs. non-Asian GP, bowel screening uptake was significantly lower (p p = 0.12 in the same period. Colonoscopy and breast assessment uptakes were similar for both meta-categories, but Asian response time appeared slower for colonoscopy. The percentage of abnormal FOBT results was significantly higher for South Asian invitees. A slight increase in abnormal mammograms was observed for Muslims over time (2.7% to 4.2% in rounds 1 and 5 respectively. Conclusion The lower cancer screening uptakes observed for the South Asian population cannot be attributed to socio-economic, age or gender population differences. Although breast screening disparities have reduced over time, significant differences remain. We conclude

  19. Demographic Characteristics, Nicotine Dependence, and Motivation to Quit as Possible Determinants of Smoking Behaviors and Acceptability of Shocking Warnings in Italy

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    Alice Mannocci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper presents the final results of a cross-sectional study started in 2010. It compares the perceived efficacy of different types of tobacco health warning (texts versus shocking pictures to quit or reduce tobacco use. Methods. The study conducted between 2010 and 2012 in Italy enrolled adults smokers. Administering a questionnaire demographic data, smokers behaviors were collected. Showing text and graphic warnings (the corpse of a smoker, diseased lungs, etc. the most perceived efficacy to reduce tobacco consumption or to encourage was quit. Results. 666 subjects were interviewed; 6% of responders referred that they stopped smoking at least one month due to the textual warnings. The 81% of the smokers perceived that the warnings with shocking pictures are more effective in reducing/quitting tobacco consumption than text-only warnings. The younger group (<45 years, who are more motivated to quit (Mondor’s score ≥ 12, and females showed a higher effectiveness of shocking warnings to reduce tobacco consumption of, 76%, 78%, and 43%, respectively with P<0.05. Conclusions. This study suggests that pictorial warnings on cigarette packages are more likely to be noticed and rated as effective by Italian smokers. Female and younger smokers appear to be more involved by shock images. The jarring warnings also appear to be supporting those who want to quit smoking. This type of supportive information in Italy may become increasingly important for helping smokers to change their behavior.

  20. Demographic characteristics, nicotine dependence, and motivation to quit as possible determinants of smoking behaviors and acceptability of shocking warnings in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannocci, Alice; Colamesta, Vittoria; Conti, Vittoria; Cattaruzza, Maria Sofia; Paone, Gregorino; Cafolla, Maria; Saulle, Rosella; Bulzomì, Vincenzo; Antici, Daniele; Cuccurullo, Pasquale; Boccia, Antonio; La Torre, Giuseppe; Terzano, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the final results of a cross-sectional study started in 2010. It compares the perceived efficacy of different types of tobacco health warning (texts versus shocking pictures) to quit or reduce tobacco use. The study conducted between 2010 and 2012 in Italy enrolled adults smokers. Administering a questionnaire demographic data, smokers behaviors were collected. Showing text and graphic warnings (the corpse of a smoker, diseased lungs, etc.) the most perceived efficacy to reduce tobacco consumption or to encourage was quit. 666 subjects were interviewed; 6% of responders referred that they stopped smoking at least one month due to the textual warnings. The 81% of the smokers perceived that the warnings with shocking pictures are more effective in reducing/quitting tobacco consumption than text-only warnings. The younger group (shocking warnings to reduce tobacco consumption of, 76%, 78%, and 43%, respectively with P shock images. The jarring warnings also appear to be supporting those who want to quit smoking. This type of supportive information in Italy may become increasingly important for helping smokers to change their behavior.

  1. Demographic and Social Correlates of Tobacco, Alcohol and Cannabis Use Among 15-16-Year-Old Students in Albania: Results of the ESPAD Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toçi Ervin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – Our aim was to assess the demographic and social factors associated with lifetime use of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis among school students aged 15–16 in Albania in order to make information and knowledge available for health promotion specialists working on substance use prevention. DESIGN – This cross-sectional study was conducted in March–May 2011 in the framework of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD. In total, 3189 students born in 1995 participated in the survey. The standardised ESPAD questionnaire was used to collect data about substance use. RESULTS – Our multivariable adjustment analysis showed that being a male and having easy access to cigarettes were the only universal factors significantly increasing the likelihood of ever using tobacco, alcohol or cannabis. Own smoking was strongly and significantly associated with alcohol and cannabis use. The associations of own substance use with peer substance consumption were weak to moderate. CONCLUSIONS – Own smoking seems to be the most important single independent risk factor which strongly and significantly predicted alcohol and cannabis use among Albanian school students. Policy makers need to strengthen the rule of law whereas health promotion professionals should firmly address smoking in adolescence through target interventions.

  2. Clinical and socio-demographic characteristics of college students exposed to traumatic experiences: a census of seven college institutions in Northeastern Brazil.

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    Liana R Netto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies show that most of the adult population will be exposed to at least one potentially traumatic event in the course of his/her life; adolescence and early adulthood are the most vulnerable periods of life for exposure to traumatic experiences (70% of their deaths are due to external causes. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder is characterized by the development of dysfunctional symptoms that cause distress or social, academic, or occupational impairment, as result of exposure to a traumatic event. The aim of this multicentric study is to establish the proportion of college students, within seven institutions in Northeastern Brazil, who were exposed to traumatic experience and met PTSD criteria. METHODS/DESIGN: A one-phase census protocol of seven college institutions in three metropolitan regions in Northeastern Brazil was performed (April to July 2011. All students aged 18 years or older, matriculated and attending their first or final semester were eligible. The self-applied protocol consisted of a socio-demographic questionnaire and the following scales adjusted to Brazilian Portuguese standards Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ, PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C, Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11. Data were entered into SPSS 17.0. RESULTS: 2213 (85.5% students consented to participate, and completely filled in the protocols. Of these, 66.1% were woman, mean age 23.9 (SD 6.3, 82.7% were single, and 57.3% attended university outside their native cities. The total PTSD prevalence was 14%, and the median for frequency of trauma exposure was 5 events. CONCLUSION: A high frequency of exposure to violence, as well as a high rate of PTSD, suicide attempts, and high-risk sexual behavior was found in Brazilian college students. This highlights the importance of effective public health actions in relation to the prevention and treatment of PTSD and other dysfunctional behaviors resulting from traumatic exposure in young individuals

  3. Clinical Characteristics of Bowel Obstruction in Southern Iran; Results of a Single Center Experience

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    Majid Akrami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory characteristics as well as outcome of 411 patients with bowel obstruction in Southern Iran. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study being performed in Shahid Faghihi hospital of Shiraz between 2006 and 2012. We reviewed the medical charts of the 411 patients with initial diagnosis of bowel obstruction who were admitted to our center during the study period. The patients’ demographic, clinical and laboratory findings as well as their management and outcome was recorded in data gathering forms. The data were then analyzed according to the outcome and clinical characteristics. Results: Among the 411 patients with initial diagnosis of bowel obstruction, 253 (61.5% were men and 158 (38.5% were women. The mean age of the patients was 48.2±19.7 years. Besides, 73.6% were observed and 26.4% were operated. Those who were operated had those who underwent operation had significantly lower frequency of obstipation (28.1% vs. 71.9%; p=0.045 and abdominal distention (32.3% vs. 67.7%; p=0.007. Intraoperative findings included adhesion band formation in 50 (48.1%, mass 18 (17.3%, and hernia 7 (6.7%. We found that the frequency of malignancy was significantly higher in those who were managed conservatively compared to those undergoing operation (64.3% vs. 35.7%; p=0.042. The mean hospital stay was significantly higher in those who underwent operation (8.1±7.5 vs. 2.6±2.2 days; p=0.035. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrates although some signs and symptoms, such as abdominal pain, vomiting, abdominal tenderness, abdominal distention, and obstipation, were more common among the patients with bowel obstruction, they were not sensitive and specific enough for definite diagnosis. Due to the lack of positive predictive value of clinical signs and symptoms in diagnosis of bowel obstruction, a reasonable and logical modality is needed for bowel obstruction diagnosis with better

  4. Investigating Research Gaps of Pharmaceutical take back Events: An Analysis of take back Program Participants' Socioeconomic, Demographic, and Geographic Characteristics and the Public Health Benefits of take back Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, K. I.; Hodge, V.; Maxey, G.; Tiwari, C.; Cready, C.; Huggett, D. B.

    2017-06-01

    Research continues to show that pharmaceutical environmental contamination causes adverse effects to aquatic life. There are also public health risks associated with pharmaceuticals because in-home reserves of medications provide opportunities for accidental poisoning and intentional medication abuse. Pharmaceutical take back programs have been seen as a potential remedy for these issues; however, a thorough review of past programs indicates limited research has been conducted on take back programs. Furthermore, there are significant gaps in take back program research. To address these gaps and ultimately determine if take back programs could improve public health, research was conducted in conjunction with the take back program Denton drug disposal days held in Denton, Texas. Socioeconomic, demographic, and geographic characteristics of Denton drug disposal days participants were investigated using surveys and Geographic Information Systems. Potential impacts of the Denton drug disposal days program on public health were determined by comparing data from Denton drug disposal days events with data supplied by the North Texas Poison Center. Results suggest that Denton drug disposal days events may have prevented accidental poisonings or intentional abuse, however only qualitative comparisons support this statement and there was insufficient empirical evidence to support the conclusion that Denton drug disposal days events were exclusively responsible for public health improvements. An interesting finding was that there was a definitive travel threshold that influenced participation in Denton drug disposal days events. Overall, this study fills some geographic, socioeconomic, and demographic data gaps of take back programs and proposes methods to analyze and improve participation in future take back programs. These methods could also be applied to improve participation in other local environmentally-focused programs such as household hazardous collection events.

  5. The impact of multi-morbidity on disability among older adults in South Africa: do hypertension and socio-demographic characteristics matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, Philippa; van der Wielen, Nele; Banda, Pamela Chirwa; Channon, Andrew Amos

    2017-04-08

    Alongside the global population ageing phenomenon, there has been a rise in the number of individuals who suffer from multiple chronic conditions. Taking the case of South Africa, this study aims, first, to investigate the association between multi-morbidity and disability among older adults; and second, to examine whether hypertension (both diagnosed and undiagnosed) mediates this relationship. Lastly, we consider whether the impact of the multi-morbidity on disability varies by socio-demographic characteristics. Data were drawn from Wave 1 (2007-08) of the South African Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health. Disability was measured using the 12-item World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) 2.0. Scores were transformed into a binary variable whereby those over the 90(th) percentile were classified as having a severe disability. The measure of multi-morbidity was based on a simple count of self-reported diagnosis of selected chronic conditions. Self-reports of diagnosed hypertension, in addition to blood pressure measurements at the time of interview, were used to create a three category hypertension variable: no hypertension (diagnosed or measured), diagnosed hypertension, hypertension not diagnosed but hypertensive measured blood pressure. Interactions between the number of chronic diseases with sex, ethnicity and wealth were tested. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationships. 25.4% of the final sample had one and 13.2% two or more chronic diseases. Nearly half of the respondents had a hypertensive blood pressure when measured during the interview, but had not been previously diagnosed. A further third self-reported they had been told by a health professional they had hypertension. The logistic regression showed in comparison to those with no chronic conditions, those with one or two or more had significantly higher odds of severe disability. Hypertension was insignificant and did not change the direction or size of the

  6. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in human adipose tissue from northern Tunisia: Current extent of contamination and contributions of socio-demographic characteristics and dietary habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achour, Amani; Derouiche, Abdelkader; Barhoumi, Badreddine; Kort, Badreddine; Cherif, Driss; Bouabdallah, Sondes; Sakly, Mohsen; Rhouma, Khémais Ben; Touil, Soufiane; Driss, Mohamed Ridha; Tebourbi, Olfa

    2017-07-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the current exposure levels of persistent organochlorine compounds (OCs) in adipose tissues intraoperatively collected from 40 patients over 20 years undergoing non-cancer-related surgery residing in Northern region of Tunisia (Bizerte), which constitutes an exemplary case, and examined association between levels of contamination and both socio-demographic characteristics and dietary habits. Concentration of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH and δ-HCH), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane isomers (p,p'-DDT and o,p'-DDT) and metabolites (p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and o,p'-DDD) and 12 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners were measured using capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Overall, residue levels of OCs followed the decreasing order of DDTs > PCBs > HCB > HCHs. DDTs levels ranged from 74.49 to 1834.76ngg(-1) lipid and contributing to more than 90% to the sum of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). p,p'-DDE was the most abundant in all samples and the p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE ratio (range between 1.85% and 58.45%) suggesting recent and ongoing exposure to banned commercial DDT products. PCB concentrations varied from 29.27 to 322.58ngg(-1) lipid and PCB-180, PCB-153 and PCB-138 were the dominant congeners accounting for 70% of total PCBs. We did not find significant correlations between OC exposure levels and sex, parity, habitat areas and smoking habits. In females, the adipose tissue concentrations of DDTs, HCB and PCB-118 were positively correlated with age. There was statistically significant relationship between body mass index (BMI) changes and the adipose tissue levels of HCB and HCHs. No association was found between OCPs levels and dietary factors. However, our study suggests that fish consumption may be an important contributor of PCBs adipose tissue content of PCBs in Tunisian people. The presented work is highly significant, being the

  7. Socio-demographic disparities in the utilisation of general practice services for Australian children - Results from a nationally representative longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Lixin; Chen, Jack; Hillman, Ken

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the pattern of general practice services utilization for Australian children and to examine socio-demographic disparities in general practitioner (GP) visits. We used the linked data from the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) and the Medicare Australia claims data record. We used survey negative binomial and logistic regression to examine the socio-demographic factors associated with the utilisation of general practice services. The average number of annual GP visits gradually declined from 7.0 at 0-1 year old to 2.4 at 5-8 years (pSocio-demographic disparities existed in the utilisation of general practice services and varied at different age periods. Family socio-economic position, private health insurance coverage and region of residence strongly associates with the utilisation disparities over all age period. Further policy interventions are called to minimise the disparities in GP utilisation for children in Australian context.

  8. Association of measured physical performance and demographic and health characteristics with self-reported physical function: implications for the interpretation of self-reported limitations

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    Louie Grant H

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reported limitations in physical function often have only weak associations with measured performance on physical tests, suggesting that factors other than performance commonly influence self-reports. We tested if personal or health characteristics influenced self-reported limitations in three tasks, controlling for measured performance on these tasks. Methods We used cross-sectional data on adults aged ≥ 60 years (N = 5396 from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to examine the association between the repeated chair rise test and self-reported difficulty rising from a chair. We then tested if personal characteristics, health indicators, body composition, and performance on unrelated tasks were associated with self-reported limitations in this task. We used the same approach to examine associations between personal and health characteristics and self-reported difficulty walking between rooms, controlling for timed 8-foot walk, and self-reported difficulty getting out of bed, controlling for repeated chair rise test results. Results In multivariate analyses, participants who performed worse on the repeated chair rise test were more likely to report difficulty with chair rise. However, older age, lower education level, lower serum albumin, comorbidities, knee pain, and being underweight were also significantly associated with self-reported limitations with chair rise. Results were similar for difficulty walking between rooms and getting out of bed. Conclusions Self-reports of limitations in physical function are influenced by personal and health characteristics that reflect frailty, and should not be interpreted solely as measured difficulty performing the task.

  9. Çalışanların İş ve Ücret Tatmini Boyutlarıyla Demografik Özellikler Arasındaki İlişkiler: Bir Alan Çalışması(The Relationships Between Employees’ Job and Pay Satisfaction and Their Demographic Characteristics

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    Mehmet GÜVEN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Human capital is considered to be one of the most important assets of the companies in a global business world. Managers equipped with modern management thoughts believe that employees will be happy and productive only if their needs and expectations are satisfied and they are motivated and happy in their work life. For this reason, it is important for the companies to have satisfied employees from their job. Therefore, companies should try to increase their employees’ job satisfaction level by implementing various managerial activities. In this study, the relationship between two aspects of job satisfaction (satisfaction with the work itself, satisfaction with pay and demographic characteristics was investigated. The data for this study was collected through survey conducted on a textile company operating in the city of Kahramanmaraş. The results indicate that there is statistically significant relationship between job satisfaction level and education level, and between wage satisfaction and two demographic characteristics, which are age and education level.

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Demographic and Academic Characteristics and NCLEX-RN Passing among Urban and Rural Campus Students in a Midwest Associate Degree Nursing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacos-Burds, Kathleen J.

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective study was initiated to determine: (1) the predictive relationship between demographic and academic variables and NCLEX-RN success; and (2) if there were significant differences between urban and rural nursing students that could account for an increased percentage of rural NCLEX-RN failures. A convenience sample was comprised of…

  11. Factors associated with underutilization of antenatal care services in Indonesia: results of Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2002/2003 and 2007

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    Titaley Christiana R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antenatal care aims to prevent maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. In Indonesia, at least four antenatal visits are recommended during pregnancy. However, this service has been underutilized. This study aimed to examine factors associated with underutilization of antenatal care services in Indonesia. Methods We used data from Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS 2002/2003 and 2007. Information of 26,591 singleton live-born infants of the mothers' most recent birth within five years preceding each survey was examined. Twenty-three potential risk factors were identified and categorized into four main groups, external environment, predisposing, enabling, and need factors. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between all potential risk factors and underutilization of antenatal services. The Population Attributable Risk (PAR was calculated for selected significant factors associated with the outcome. Results Factors strongly associated with underutilization of antenatal care services were infants from rural areas and from outer Java-Bali region, infants from low household wealth index and with low maternal education level, and high birth rank infants with short birth interval of less than two years. Other associated factors identified included mothers reporting distance to health facilities as a major problem, mothers less exposed to mass media, and mothers reporting no obstetric complications during pregnancy. The PAR showed that 55% of the total risks for underutilization of antenatal care services were attributable to the combined low household wealth index and low maternal education level. Conclusions Strategies to increase the accessibility and availability of health care services are important particularly for communities in rural areas. Financial support that enables mothers from poor households to use health services will be beneficial. Health promotion programs targeting

  12. The prevalence, diagnostic significance and demographic characteristics of Schneiderian first-rank symptoms in an epidemiological sample of first-episode psychoses.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ihara, Kazushige

    2009-01-01

    The diagnostic significance of first-rank symptoms (FRSs) remains uncertain. Ethnic differences in FRSs may account for high rates of schizophrenia in minority groups. This study aims to examine the prevalence of FRSs in an epidemiological sample of first-episode psychoses stratified by relevant demographic variables. SAMPLING AND METHOD: We identified everyone aged 16-64 presenting with their first psychosis over 2 years in 3 UK centres.

  13. Teacher Dispute Resolution Procedures in Virginia: Demographic Characteristics and Opinions of Neutral Chairpersons, School Division Superintendents, Attorneys, and Teacher Association Leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Bunch, Ardene D. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the opinions of respondents regarding dispute resolution procedures utilized by public school teachers as described in sections 22.1- 312 of the Code of Virginia. In this study, demographic and opinion data were collected from individuals selected to serve as neutral chairpersons of fact-finding panels, school division superintendents or designees, local teacher association presidents, Virginia Education Association UniServ directors, and attorneys....

  14. DEMOGRAPHICAL, VIRO-IMMUNOLOGICAL, CLINICAL AND THERAPEUTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HIV INFECTED PATIENTS IN A “EPIDEMIOLOGICALLY UNEXPLORED” REGION OF ITALY (CALABRIA REGION: THE CALABRHIV COHORT.

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    Maria Concetta Postorino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives   HIV epidemics may differ among epidemiological contexts. We aimed at constructing an HIV clinical cohort whose main epidemiological, clinical and therapeutical characteristics are described (the CalabrHIV cohort, Calabria Region, Southern Italy.   Methods   The CalabrHIV cohort includes all HIV patients on active follow-up in all infectious disease centers in the Calabria Region as at October 2014. All information were recorded in a common electronic database. Not-infectious co-morbidities (such as cardiovascular diseases, bone fractures, diabetes, renal failure and hypertension were also studied.   Results   548 patients (68% males; 63% aged 50 years-old patients than in <50 years-old ones (30% vs. 6%; p<0.0001. Co-morbidity was more frequent in HCV and/or HBV co-infected than in HIV mono-infected patients (46.6% vs. 31.7%: p=0.0006.   Conclusion   This cohort presentation study sheds light, for the first time, on HIV patients’ characteristics in the Calabria Region. Despite a small number of officially reported cases, the size of the cohort was substantial. We showed that HIV infected patients with chronic hepatites, were affected by concomitant not-infectious co-morbidities more than the HIV mono-infected individuals. New HCV treatments are eagerly awaited.

  15. Women who finished a violent relationship: personality, psychopathological, and socio-demographic characteristics [Mujeres que finalizaron una relación maltratante: características de personalidad, psicopatológicas y sociodemográficas

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    Paola Marcela Preciado-Gavidia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the personality, psychopathological, and socio-demographic characteristics of women that concluded a violent partner relationship (n=54, comparing them with women that continued with this type of relationship (n=41. The participants are between 18-60 years (M=37.4. The applied instruments were a socio-demographic survey, the Big Five Questionnaire of Personality (Caprara, Barbaranelli, Borgogni & Perugini, 1995, and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (Sheehan & Lecrubier, 2000. The participants that finished the abusive relationship presented bigger punctuations in the dimensions of Agreeableness, Neuroticism, and Openness, a lower number of children, bigger help-seeking in government institutions after the violence episodes, and a lower prevalence of mayor depressive episode, dysthymia, low suicidal risk, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and generalized anxiety.

  16. Demographic variables in coal miners’ safety attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen-wen; Wu, Xiang; Ci, Hui-Peng; Qin, Shu-Qi; Liu, Jia-Long

    2017-03-01

    To change unsafe behavior through adjusting people’s safety attitudes has become an important measure to prevent accidents. Demographic variables, as influential factors of safety attitude, are fundamental and essential for the research. This research does a questionnaire survey among coal mine industry workers, and makes variance analysis and correlation analysis of the results in light of age, length of working years, educational level and experiences of accidents. The results show that the coal miners’ age, length of working years and accident experiences correlate lowly with safety attitudes, and those older coal miners with longer working years have better safety attitude, as coal miners without experiences of accident do.However, educational level has nothing to do with the safety attitude. Therefore, during the process of safety management, coal miners with different demographic characteristics should be put more attention to.

  17. Effects of socio-demographic characteristics and household water management on Aedes aegypti production in suburban and rural villages in Laos and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannavong, Nanthasane; Seidu, Razak; Stenström, Thor-Axel; Dada, Nsa; Overgaard, Hans J

    2017-04-04

    Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease accounting for 50-100 million annual cases globally. Laos and Thailand are countries in south-east Asia where the disease is endemic in both urban and rural areas. Household water storage containers, which are favourable breeding sites for dengue mosquitoes, are common in these areas, due to intermittent or limited access to water supply. This study assessed the effect of household water management and socio-demographic risk factors on Aedes aegypti infestation of water storage containers. A cross-sectional survey of 239 households in Laos (124 suburban and 115 rural), and 248 households in Thailand (127 suburban and 121 rural) was conducted. Entomological surveys alongside semi-structured interviews and observations were conducted to obtain information on Ae. aegypti infestation, socio-demographic factors and water management. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were used to assess risk factors associated with Ae. aegypti pupal infestation. Household water management rather than socio-demographic factors were more likely to be associated with the infestation of water containers with Ae. aegypti pupae. Factors that was significantly associated with Ae. aegypti infestation were tanks, less frequent cleaning of containers, containers without lids, and containers located outdoors or in toilets/bathrooms. Associations between Ae. aegypti pupae infestation, household water management, and socio-demographic factors were found, with risk factors for Ae. aegypti infestation being specific to each study setting. Most of the containers did not have lids, larvicides, such as temephos was seldom used, and containers were not cleaned regularly; factors are facilitating dengue vector proliferation. It is recommended that, in Lao villages, health messages should promote proper use and maintenance of tightly fitted lids, and temephos in tanks, which were the most infested containers. Recommendations for Thailand are that small

  18. PREVALENCE OF MAJOR NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND ITS SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS IN ADULT POPULATION OF BLOCK HAJIN, BANDIPOORA J & K

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    Showkat Ahmad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-communicable disease is a medical condition or disease which non-infectious, of long duration and generally of slow progression. Major NCDs include cardiovascular diseases, strokes, diabetes mellitus, cancers and chronic respiratory diseases. They account for a significant part of overall mortality, morbidity & disability, result in huge economic losses to nations, are a cause of psychosocial suffering and are therefore recognized as major public health problem. OBJECTIVE: To find out prevalence and socioeconomic characteristics of NCDs in study population of block Hajin. DESIGN: Community based cross-sectional epidemiological study conducted between May to October 2013. RESULTS: Out of the total study population it was seen that the general prevalence of NCDs was 209 (34.83% of which 125 (34.72% were males and 125 (34.72% were females respectively. The most common NCD was Hypertension (66.02% followed by Diabetes (22% and Cancers (11.96% respectively. Age, sex, type of family, SE status were significantly associated with the occurrence of NCDs (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: The rising burden of chronic NCDs affecting older people place a heavy burden on healthcare system as a result of increased demand and access to healthcare services. Concerted effort is needed to develop strategies for the prevention and management of NCDs, especially among economically disadvantaged individuals who need these services the most.

  19. Do changes in socio-demographic characteristics impact up-to-date immunization status between 3 and 24 months of age? A prospective study among an inner-city birth cohort in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Susmita; Huang, Jiayu; Wong, Angie; Baba, Zeinab; Ostapenko, Svetlana; Fiks, Alexander G; Cnaan, Avital

    2017-05-04

    Low-income child populations remain under-vaccinated. Our objective was to determine differences in the relative importance of maternal health literacy and socio-demographic characteristics that often change during early childhood on up-to-date (UTD) immunization status among a low-income population. We performed secondary data analysis of a longitudinal prospective cohort study of 744 Medicaid-eligible mother-infant dyads recruited at the time of the infant's birth from an inner-city hospital in the United States and surveyed every 6 months for 24 months. Our primary outcome was infant UTD status at 24 months abstracted from a citywide registry. We assessed maternal health literacy with the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (short version). We collected socio-demographic information via surveys at birth and every 6 months. We compared predictors of UTD status at 3, 7, and 24 months. The cohort consisted of primarily African-American (81.5%) mothers with adequate health literacy (73.9%). Immunizations were UTD among 56.7% of infants at 24 months of age. Maternal health literacy was not a significant predictor of UTD immunization status. Instead, adjusted results showed that significant predictors of not-UTD status at 24 months were lack of a consistent health care location or "medical home" (OR 0.17, 95%CI 0.18-0.37), inadequate prenatal care (OR 0.48, 95%CI 0.25-0.95), and prior not-UTD status (OR 0.31, 95%CI 0.20-0.47). Notably, all upper confidence limits are less than 1.0 for these variables. Health care location type (e.g., hospital-affiliate, community-based, none) was a significant predictor of vaccine status at age 3 months, 7 months, and 24 months. Investing in efforts to support early establishment of a medical home to obtain comprehensive coordinated preventive care, including providing recommended vaccines on schedule, is a prudent strategy to improve vaccination status at the population level.

  20. Regional Differentiation of The Demographic Potential in Italy and Poland

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    Pastuszka Sławomir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare the demographic potential of given Italian and Polish regions. The analysis shows that the demographic situation in Poland, unlike in Italy, is not directly related to the level of development of some regions and their geographical location. In Italy, the unfavorable demographic situation is typical of most of the less-developed southern regions, whereas in Poland it occurs in voivodships with different economic potential, situated in different parts of the country. This is probably the result of the current polycentric development of Poland, characteristic of a centralized economy, and the polar development in Italy. Certain demographic similarities, but of different levels, related to the dynamics of the population, the level of fertility, and net migration are observable in the macro-regions of Mezzogiorno and Eastern Poland.

  1. Food insecurity and socio-demographic characteristics in two UK ethnic groups: an analysis of women in the Born in Bradford cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Madeleine; Uphoff, Eleonora P; Stewart-Knox, Barbara; Small, Neil; Doherty, Bob; Pickett, Kate E

    2017-03-28

    The use of foodbanks has risen sharply in the UK; however, the epidemiology of UK food insecurity is undeveloped. This study contributes to the field by analysing socio-demographic risk factors for food insecurity in a female, ethnically diverse population. Data from the Born in Bradford (BiB) cohort were matched with data on food insecurity from the nested BiB1000 study (N = 1280). Logistic regression was used to model food insecurity in relation to ethnicity and socio-demographic factors. Food insecurity, reported by 13.98% of the sample, was more likely among White British than Pakistani women (crude Odds Ratio (OR) 1.94, 95% CI: 1.37; 2.74, adjusted OR 2.37, 95% CI: 1.57; 3.59). In fully adjusted analyses, food insecurity was associated with a range of socio-economic measures, particularly the receipt of mean-tested benefits (adjusted OR 2.11, 95% CI: 1.41; 3.15) and perception of financial insecurity (adjusted OR 8.91, 95% CI: 4.14; 19.16 for finding it difficult/very difficult compared to living comfortably). The finding that food insecurity prevalence may be higher than previously thought and that food insecurity is highly associated with socio-economic status, notably benefit receipt, is a cause for concern necessitating an urgent policy response.

  2. Demographic Correlates and Factor Structure of the Family Environment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boake, Corwin; Salmon, Paul G.

    1983-01-01

    Factor analyzed the Family Environment Scale (FES) subscale scores of 204 families and correlated them with family demographic characteristics. The obtained factor structure showed two major factors similar to "control" and "acceptance-rejection" dimensions in previous research. Results support the FES as part of multimethod…

  3. Demographic characteristics and life satisfaction in settlements of Fruška Gora mountain region: Bešenovo case study

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    Đerčan Bojan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbia has been facing an economic crisis for the last two decades, which is one of the causes of poor demographic situation in the country. Along with low or negative rates of population growth and ageing of population, the majority of municipalities in Vojvodina have a negative migration balance. Vojvodina is characterized by long-term trend in the decrease of young population and the increase of old population. These two processes are affected by low birth rate and life expectancy increase. The bad economic situation and the ageing of population are especially apparent in mountainous areas and peripherally located settlements. This situation has not bypassed Bešenovo, mountainous village of Fruška Gora. Field research and conduction of the questionnaire have found out that the population of this village is not satisfied with the basic living standard.

  4. Factors associated with short-term transitions of non-daily smokers: socio-demographic characteristics and other tobacco product use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingning; Sung, Hai-Yen; Yao, Tingting; Lightwood, James; Max, Wendy

    2017-05-01

    To examine the transitions in smoking status among non-daily smokers who transitioned to daily or former smokers or remained as non-daily smokers during a 12-month period. We analyzed factors associated with these transitions, including the use of cigars and smokeless tobacco (SLT). Secondary data analyses using pooled data from the 2003, 2006/07 and 2010/11 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS). United States. Self-respondents aged 18+ who have smoked for more than 5 years and were non-daily smokers 12 months before the interview (n = 13 673, or 14.5% of current smokers). Multinomial logistic regression model to determine the correlates of non-daily to daily, stable non-daily and non-daily to former smoking transitions among non-daily smokers at baseline. The model controlled for socio-demographic factors and the use of cigars and SLT. Of the adults in our sample, 2.6% were non-daily smokers at baseline. Among these, 69.7% remained non-daily smokers (stable non-daily smokers), 18.4% became daily smokers (non-daily to daily smokers) and 11.9% quit smoking (non-daily to former smokers) after 12 months. The non-daily to daily versus stable non-daily smoking transition was less likely among those who were aged 65+ (P = 0.018), male (P socio-demographic factors and current use of cigars and smokeless tobacco. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Demographic characteristics, psychosocial measures, and pain in a sample of patients with persistent pain referred to a new zealand tertiary pain medicine center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipton, Edward; Ponnamperuma, Don; Wells, Elisabeth; Trewin, Bronwyn

    2013-07-01

    Little is known on epidemiology of chronic pain in New Zealand. Its management has been based on data and models in North American/European studies. This project evaluated demographic and psychosocial correlates of pain severity, duration, and disability (PSDD) in chronic pain patients for assessment at a New Zealand tertiary care Pain Medicine Center. This study was a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis on existing clinical assessment data (audit) collected over an 18-month period. Pre-admission data were collected on a consecutive series of 874 patients presenting for assessment. This included demographic (gender, educational attainment, ethnicity) and psychosocial data. Pain severity was measured by numerical rating scale and present pain intensity using McGill Pain Questionnaire. Duration was measured in months. Disability was measured by using Pain Disability Index and depression using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Distress was measured using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and self-efficacy using the Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire. Catastrophizing was measured by Coping Strategies Questionnaire and pain acceptance by the Pain Solutions Questionnaire. No difference was found in mean values of all PSDD between genders and between ethnicities. Years of education did not form an important correlate of PSDD. Catastrophizers experienced more pain and were more disabled. Patients with severe pain experienced greater distress. Depressed patients were more disabled. Patients presenting with a high degree of self-efficacy were likely to have lower pain levels and to be less disabled. Level of acceptance of pain was positively associated with reported duration of pain and negatively associated with total disability. Through this study, more is now known about effects of chronic pain on New Zealanders. The use of validated psychometric testing enables proper assessment and informs clinical management for chronic pain patients

  6. DEMOGRAPHIC PREDICTORS WITHIN LOCAL PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Florina Maria

    2014-12-01

    Design/methodology/approach- Using a quantitative methodological approach, a survey based on SERVQUAL instrument was applied in order to evaluate local public communication. Data from a sample of 380 citizens within Western Romanian were analyzed. Specific demographic predictors that can influence citizens' satisfaction regarding the quality of communication are analyzed. Findings-By analyzing data it was possible to determine citizen satisfaction and to assess its relationship with different demographic characteristics. The results illustrate that gender does not significantly affect satisfaction, instead age, marital status, residence location (urban versus rural, income, education and occupational status of the respondents significantly affect satisfaction regarding local public communication. In addition, the findings confirm a relationship between the citizens' satisfaction and the age, income, education and occupational status of the respondents. Research limitations/implications- Owing to the budget and time limits, only a one-shot survey was conducted, therefore the comparison between “before” and “after” analysis could not be performed. In addition, further research should investigate the local public communication within national contexts. Practical implications -The adapted SERVQUAL scale may be used by institution managers to objectively assess communication performance and local authority service quality. Originality/value- There continues to be a lack of research regarding the communication process within local public administration and the effect of demographic predictors of communication satisfaction. This paper examines both the perceptions and the expectations of citizens regarding public communication. The results offer insights into residence location, age, income, education and occupational status effects on evaluations of communication satisfaction. Finally, the study contributes to studies of perceived service quality by bearing out

  7. Clinical characteristics associated with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato skin culture results in patients with erythema migrans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Strle

    Full Text Available Clinical characteristics associated with isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from skin have not been fully evaluated. To gain insight into predictors for a positive EM skin culture, we compared basic demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical data in 608 culture-proven and 501 culture-negative adult patients with solitary EM. A positive Borrelia spp. skin culture was associated with older age, a time interval of >2 days between tick bite and onset of the skin lesion, EM ≥ 5 cm in diameter, and location of the lesion on the extremities, whereas several other characteristics used as clinical case definition criteria for the diagnosis of EM (such as tick bite at the site of later EM, information on expansion of the skin lesion, central clearing were not. A patient with a 15-cm EM lesion had almost 3-fold greater odds for a positive skin culture than patients with a 5-cm lesion. Patients with a free time interval between the tick bite and onset of EM had the same probability of a positive skin culture as those who did not recall a tick bite (OR=1.02; however, the two groups had >3-fold greater odds for EM positivity than patients who reported a tick bite with no interval between the bite and onset of the lesion. In conclusion, several yet not all clinical characteristics used in EM case definitions were associated with positive Borrelia spp. skin culture. The findings are limited to European patients with solitary EM caused predominantly by B. afzelii but may not be valid for other situations.

  8. 员工建言行为的人口统计特征元分析%A meta-analysis of the relationship between demographic characteristics and employee voice behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段锦云; 张晨; 徐悦

    2016-01-01

    The method of meta-analysis was utilized to analyze the relationship between demographic characteristics and voice behavior.Eighty-one primary empirical studies with a total sample size of 39118 participants were included in this study.Results of the meta-analysis showed that age,education,tenure and position were positively and significantly correlated with voice behavior.Namely,older employees with higher level of education and longer tenure would present more voice behavior.Meanwhile,the relationship between position and voice behavior had significantly variance under different cultural background.The test of moderating effect disclosed that culture played an moderator role in the relationship of position and voice behavior.Namely,due to the influence of Chinese traditional culture,employees in China who in low positions dared not to speak up to their supervisors thus their voice quantity was significantly less than those in high positions.However,this variance was not quite obvious in other culture.What's more,the positive relationship between age and voice behavior was moderated by the evaluation method of voice in such a way that it became stronger when the assessment was conducted by others (i.e.Leaders or peers) than by themselves.The study results provided more accurate estimates for predicting voice behavior by demographic characteristics and also the future research directions of voice behavior.%研究目的在于明确人口统计学特征与员工建言行为的关系.共81篇实证文献被纳入元分析,被试人数为39118人.结果发现,员工年龄、教育程度、组织任期和职位均与建言行为显著正相关,即年龄越大、受教育程度越高、组织任期越长的员工会表现出越多建言行为;同时,在不同的文化背景下,职位高低与建言行为的关系存在显著差异,受中国传统文化影响,高、低职位员工的建言行为数量差异明显,而在非中国情境下,员工职位高低对其建言行

  9. Socio-Demographic Factors Related to Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul Hossain Madani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study was to identify factors related to cancer of oral cavity considering individual socio-demographic characteristics of a hospital based study in Pune. Approach: A case-control study was conducted. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls matched for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Results: Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (pConclusion/Recommendations: Socio-demographic factors such as education, occupation and income do play an important role in development oral cancer.

  10. Anemia, malnutrition and their correlations with socio-demographic characteristics and feeding practices among infants aged 0–18 months in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wenfang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first 18 months of life are the most important for long-term childhood well-being. Anemia and malnutrition occurring in this key period have serious implications for individuals and societies, especially in rural areas in developing country. We conducted a cross-sectional study as the baseline survey to provide data for developing a policy-based approach to controlling infant anemia and malnutrition in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China. Methods We randomly sampled 336 infants aged 0–18 months in 28 rural villages from 2 counties of Shaanxi province. Anthropometric measurements and household interviews were carried out by well-trained researchers. The hemoglobin concentration was measured for 336 infants and serum concentrations of iron, zinc, and retinol (vitamin A were measured for a stratified subsample of 55 infants. Anemia was defined using World Health Organization (WHO standards combined with the Chinese standard for infants Results We found that 35.12% of infants in rural Shaanxi suffered from anemia, and the malnutrition prevalence rates were 32.14% for underweight, 39.58% for stunting, and 11.31% for wasting. Anemia was significantly associated with malnutrition (underweight, OR: 2.42, 95%CI: 1.50-3.88; stunting, OR: 1.65, 95%CI: 1.05-2.61; wasting, OR: 2.89, 95%CI: 1.45-5.76. Low birth weight, more siblings, less maternal education, low family income, crowded living conditions, and inappropriate complementary food introduction significantly increased the risk for infant anemia. Serum concentrations of iron, zinc, and retinol (vitamin A were significantly lower in anemic infants compared with non-anemic infants. Conclusions Specific socio-demographic characteristics and feeding patterns were highly associated with infant anemia in rural areas of Shaanxi province. Health education focusing on feeding practices and nutrition education could be a practical strategy for preventing anemia and

  11. Statistical evaluation of characteristic SDDLV-induced stress resultants to discriminate between undamaged and damaged elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lasse Majgaard; Johansen, Rasmus Johan; Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard

    2015-01-01

    evaluation of the characteristic stress resultants, hence facilitating general discrimination between damaged and undamaged elements. The three detection methods in question enable outlier analysis on the basis of, respectively, Euclidian distance, Hotelling’s statistics, and Mahalanobis distance. The study...

  12. 2005-2009年广西地区群发与散发急性中毒人口学特征%Demographic Characteristics of Epidemic and Sporadic Acute Poisonings in Guangxi, 2005-2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋东方; 刘清华; 陈雪冬

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探讨广西地区群发与散发急性中毒人群特点,为制定针对性的地区防控对策提供依据. [方法]收集广西11个市的36家市级医院、12家县级医院及15家乡镇卫生院在2005-2009年间收治的急性中毒病例,其中群发组641例、散发组5369例,作分类比较分析. [结果]群发组人群,女性、年龄<25岁、小学学历、职业为学生、城镇者构成比最高,分别为56.79%、62.40%、32.63%、34.32%、59.47%.散发组人群,女性、年龄26~岁、中学学历、职业为务农、农村者构成比最高,分别占52.71%、56.79%、45.43%、50.78%、64.37%.两组调查对象性别、年龄、学历、职业及地区构成均不同(P均< 0.05). [结论]广西的群发性与散发性急性中毒在人群构成方面具有明显区别,群发性急性中毒以城镇的低龄在校学生为主,而散发性急性中毒则以农村26~岁的务农者为主.应在此基础上作进一步的中毒过程、中毒环境、中毒原因与毒物的比较研究.%[ Objective ] To study the demographic characteristics of epidemic and sporadic acute poisonings in Guangxi areas, and to provide basis for preventive and control countermeasures in these areas. [ Methods ] Data on patients involved with epidemic (n=641) and sporadic (n=5 369) acute poisonings during 2005-2009 were retrieved from 36 municipal hospitals, 12 county level hospitals, and 15 township health centers across 11 cities of Guangxi for comparative analysis. [ Results ] In the epidemic acute poisoning events, the proportion of female (56.79%), 26 years old (56.79%), middle school education level (45.43%), farmers (50.78%), and rural residents (64.37%) were higher than the other corresponding categories. There were significant differences in gender, age group, education level, occupation, and residential location between the epidemic and the sporadic acute poisoning cases (P<0.05). [ Conclusion ] The differences in demographic

  13. Money attitude of Ukrainian young people: socio-demographic aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANNA SIMKIV

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on social and demographic factors of Ukr health literacy, health culture, young adults, concepts of health and healthy lifestyle, motivations, forms of communication, learning methods ainian youth money attitudes. The aim of the research is to identify dependency between money attitudes of the young people and such social and demographic characteristics as sex, age, education, place of residence, place of employment, employment position and level of income. The research required application of survey and questionnaire methods as well as statistical methods of results processing.

  14. Demographics and presenting clinical features of childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demographics and presenting clinical features of childhood systemic lupus ... and characteristics of children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). ... Rashes were found to be the commonest clinical feature present at the time of diagnosis, ...

  15. Analysis of the individual factors affecting mobile phone use while driving in France: socio-demographic characteristics, car and phone use in professional and private contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusque, Corinne; Alauzet, Aline

    2008-01-01

    In France, as in many other countries, phoning while driving is legally restricted because of its negative impact on driving performance which increases accident risk. Nevertheless, it is still a frequently observed practice and one which has not been analyzed in detail. This study attempts to identify the profiles of those who use mobile phones while at the wheel and determine the forms taken by this use. A representative sample of 1973 French people was interviewed by phone on their driving practices and mobile phone use in everyday life and their mobile phone use while driving. Logistics regressions have been conducted to highlight the explanatory factors of phoning while driving. Strong differences between males and females have been shown. For the male population, age is the main explanatory factor of phoning while driving, followed by phone use for work-related reasons and extensive mobile phone use in everyday life. For females, high mileage and intensive use of mobile phone are the only two explanatory factors. We defined the intensive phone use at the wheel group as drivers who receive or send at least five or more calls per day while driving. There is no socio-demographic variable related to this practice. Car and phone uses in everyday life are the only explanatory factors for this intensive mobile use of the phone at the wheel.

  16. Discretionary food and beverage consumption and its association with demographic characteristics, weight status, and fruit and vegetable intakes in Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Zhixian; Wong, Weng Kei; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Rangan, Anna

    2017-02-01

    Excessive consumption of discretionary foods/beverages in the Australian population has been identified, increasing the risk of obesity and chronic disease. The present study aimed to examine the associations between demographic, anthropometric and dietary factors and the consumption of discretionary foods, discretionary beverages and discretionary foods/beverages combined. Discretionary food/beverage consumption reported in two 24 h recalls was analysed, stratified by gender, age, socio-economic status, country of birth, BMI, waist circumference, and fruit and vegetable intakes. 2011-12 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Australian adults (n 7873) aged 19 years or above. Mean discretionary food and beverage consumption was 631 g (28 % by weight from foods; 72 % from beverages), providing 2721 kJ of energy intake (72 % from foods; 28 % from beverages). Total discretionary food/beverage consumption was higher in younger age groups (Psocio-economic categories (Pfood consumption (β=0·5, P=0·01). Total discretionary food/beverage consumption as well as discretionary foods alone and discretionary beverages alone were associated with BMI in Australian adults. In addition, high intakes were associated with younger age, lower socio-economic status, and lower consumption of fruit and vegetables.

  17. [Socio-demographic and nutritional characteristics of Brazilian children under 2 years of age who were beneficiaries of conditional cash transfer programs in 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Juliana Bergamo; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo; Poblacion, Ana Paula

    2014-03-01

    The conditional cash transfer programs (PTCR) seek to combat poverty and hunger and to ensure food security. Children under the age of two of beneficiary families are more vulnerable to environmental conditions. This study seeks to describe this population according to socio-economic, demographic and nutritional variables. Secondary data from the National Survey on Demography and Health of Women and Children (PNDS-2006) were used. Data were described using mean and standard deviations. Associations were described using the chi-square test with confidence intervals of 95%. Of the 1735 children, 29.4% were PCTR beneficiaries with average family income of R$430.20 and average benefits of R$75. Among those living in the Northeast or in the rural area of the country, one in every three received benefits. Among those experiencing severe food insecurity, 52.3% were PTCR beneficiaries. Children from socio-economic classes D and E and whose mothers had less than four years education were associated with PTCR. Among the nutritional disorders of child beneficiaries, overweight for age prevailed. Of those who ceased exclusive breastfeeding in less than two months, 31.2% were beneficiaries. The need for preventive nutritional education was identified in order to optimize the use of benefits.

  18. Results of a survey to determine demographic and business management factors associated with size and growth rate of rural mixed-animal veterinary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusk, Amy M; White, Brad J; Goehl, Dan R; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C

    2010-12-15

    To determine potential associations between demographic and business management factors and practice size and growth rate in rural mixed-animal veterinary practices. Cross-sectional survey. 54 mixed-animal practitioners. A cross-sectional survey (96 questions) was electronically disseminated. Responses were collected, and outcomes (number of veterinarians [NV], growth in number of veterinarians [NVG], gross practice income [GPI], growth in gross practice income [GPIG], gross practice income per veterinarian [GPIV], and growth in gross practice income per veterinarian [GPIVG]) were calculated. Bivariate analyses were performed and multivariable models created to determine associations between survey responses and outcomes of interest. Survey respondents were from mixed-animal practices, and most (46/54 [85.2%]) practiced in small communities (business manager. Typically, practices had positive mean growth in NVG (4.4%), GPIG (8.5%), and GPIVG (8.1%), but growth rate was highly variable among practices. Factors associated with growth rate included main species interest, frequency for adjusting prices, use of a marketing plan, service fee structure, and sending a client newsletter. Mixed-animal practices had a large range in size and growth rate. Economic indices were impacted by common business management practices.

  19. Effects of Future Mathematics Teachers' Affective, Cognitive and Socio-Demographic Characteristics on Their Knowledge at the End of the Teacher Education in Germany and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschke, Christin

    2013-01-01

    How individual characteristics affect the acquisition of knowledge in teacher education has been widely unexplored thus far. The "Teacher Education and Development Study--Learning to Teach Mathematics (TEDS-M)" provides a database for examining this research question across countries. Based on the Taiwanese and German sample of TEDS-M,…

  20. Influence of demographic and tumour variables on prostate cancer treatment with curative intent in Spain. Results of the 2010 national prostate cancer registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Jabaloyas, J M; Castelló-Porcar, A; González-Baena, A C; Cózar-Olmo, J M; Miñana-López, B; Gómez-Veiga, F; Rodriguez-Antolín, A

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to determine which cancer and demographic criteria influence the indication for surgery (radical prostatectomy) or radiation therapy (external or brachytherapy) in the treatment of prostate cancer. An analysis of the 2714 patients of the 2010 National Prostate Cancer Registry treated with curative intent. The analysed variables were age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume, the number of biopsy cores, the percentage of positive cores, the stage, Gleason score, the type of pathologist, the presence of perineural invasion and the study centre. We analysed the association among these variables and the type of treatment (surgery vs. radiation therapy/brachytherapy), using a univariate analysis (Student's t test and chi-squared) and a binary multiple logistic regression. The 48.12% of the patients (1306/2714) were treated with surgery, and 51.88% (1,408/2,714) underwent radiation therapy/brachytherapy. Differences were observed between the patients treated with prostatectomy and those treated with radiation therapy/brachytherapy (p<.05) in age (63.50±6.5 vs. 69.0±6.7), PSA (8.76±16.97 vs. 13.21±15.88), biopsied cores, percentage of positives cores (30.0±22 vs. 38.7±29), Gleason score (G6: 53.9% vs. 46.1%; G7: 45% vs. 55% G8-10: 26.6%, 73.4%), stage (localised: 50% vs. 50%; locally advanced: 14.6% vs. 85.4%), perineural invasion and hospital centre. In the multivariate analysis, the selected independent variables were age, PSA, percentage of positives cores, stage, Gleason score and hospital centre. According to our study, age, tumour aggressiveness and stage and the centre where the patient will be treated affect the selection of curative treatment for prostate cancer. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Demographical, Viro-Immunological, Clinical and Therapeutical Characteristics of HIV-Infected Patients in an "Epidemiologically Unexplored" Region of Italy (Calabria Region): the CalabrHIV Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postorino, Maria Concetta; Luciani, Filippo; Mangano, Carmelo; Carpentieri, Maria Stella; Scerbo, Paolo; Priamo, Armando; Berardelli, Giuseppina; Marino, Roberto; Vallone, Alfredo; Serrao, Nicola; Pisani, Vincenzo; Costa, Chiara; Terremoto, Albano; Foti, Giuseppe; Cosco, Lucio; Calderazzo, Massimo; Corigliano, Domenico; Scordo, Preziosa; Strazzulla, Alessio; Torti, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    HIV epidemics may differ among epidemiological contexts. We aimed at constructing an HIV clinical cohort whose main epidemiological, clinical and therapeutical characteristics are described (the CalabrHIV cohort, Calabria Region, Southern Italy). The CalabrHIV Cohort includes all HIV patients on active follow-up in all infectious disease centers in the Calabria Region as at October 2014. All information was recorded in a common electronic database. Not-infectious co-morbidities (such as cardiovascular diseases, bone fractures, diabetes, renal failure and hypertension) were also studied. 548 patients (68% males; 59% aged 50 years old patients than in <50 years old ones (30% vs. 6%; p<0.0001). Co-morbidity was more frequent in HCV and/or HBV co-infected than in HIV mono-infected patients (46.6% vs. 31.7%: p=0.0006). This cohort presentation study sheds light, for the first time, on HIV patients' characteristics in the Calabria Region. We showed that HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis were affected by concomitant not-infectious co-morbidities more than the HIV mono-infected individuals. New HCV treatments are therefore to be implemented in the co-infected population.

  2. Demographic characteristics of clients of HIV voluntary counseling and testing clinics in Liuzhou in 2010%2010年柳州市艾滋病自愿咨询检测者的特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金纪; 王小敏; 黎明强; 周楚; 张洪波

    2012-01-01

    Objective To illustrate socio-demographic characteristics of clients of VCT clinics, their HIV positive status and possible routes of HIV transmission in Liuzhou in 2010, so as to make proposals for further improvements. Methods VCT clients' information in 2010 in Liuzhou was collected, and EXCEL and SPSS 13. 0 were used for statistical analysis. Results Male VCT clients doubled of that female; the majority of VCT clients were aged from 25 to 45 years; the top three reasons for seeking VCT were sex history with casual sex partners, HIV positive couple/fixed sex partners and injection drug use; 95 cases of HIV infections were reported from VCT clinics. Conclusion VCT clients had high initiative and willingness to seek VCT service, and VCT clinics play an important role in identifying HIV infections, and contribute to early counseling and intervention.%目的 了解柳州市疾病预防控制中心自愿咨询检测(VCT)门诊求询者的社会人口学特征、求询原因及阳性求询者分布,发现不同人群的求询特点和可能的感染途径,为今后VCT门诊进一步发展提供建议.方法 对2010年VCT门诊求询者个案记录资料,采用EXCEL和SPSS 13.0进行数据统计分析.结果 1103名求询者中,男性多于女性,年龄集中于25~45岁的青壮年.求询原因以非商业非固定性伴性行为、注射吸毒和配偶阳性为主.对VCT门诊求询者进行艾滋病病毒(HIV)初筛,发现95例HIV抗体阳性者.结论 VCT门诊的求询者存在较高的积极性和主动性,利于工作人员及时发现HIV抗体阳性者,能够更早期地进行咨询和干预活动.

  3. 龙岗区城中村居民人口学特征同心理状况的关系及干预策略%Relationship between vi llagers'demographic characteristics and psychological status in Longgang District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蕾

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过调查了解深圳市龙岗区城中村社区居民的心理健康状况,探讨人口学特征对心理状况的影响,为提高人群心理素质和制定心理健康服务政策提供参考。方法采用多阶段抽样方法对龙岗区城中村社区居民进行入户调查,使用一般情况表和凯斯勒心理疾患量表(K10)对居民进行调查。结果660例被调查对象平均 K10值为(14.15±4.93)分;家庭年收入、性别、受教育程度、性格、婚姻状况、每天体育锻炼时间和吸烟、饮酒等不良习惯对城中村居民心理状况具有较大影响。结论增加居民收入、提高教育服务意识、加强体育锻炼引导、纠正不良生活习惯有利于改善居民心理健康水平。%Objective To investigate the mental health status of village community residents of Longgang District in Shenzhen City, and discuss its relationship with their demographic characteristics,so as to provide references for improving people′s psychological quality and formulating mental health service policies.Methods Total 660 village community residents were selected using multi-stage sampling and surveyed using a scale of general conditions and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10).Results The average K10 value of 660 residents was(14.1 5 ± 4.93 ).The annual family income, gender, education level, marital status, the daily physical exercises time,as well as bad habits such as smoking and drinking had a significant effect on the psychological status of the village residents.Conclusions Raising villagers′ income,strengthening their education and physical exercises and getting rid of bad habits can be beneficial to the improvement of their mental health.

  4. Response to climate risks among smallholder farmers in Malawi: A multivariate probit assessment of the role of information, household demographics, and farm characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalmers Mulwa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Why do many smallholder farmers fail to adopt what appear to be relatively simple agronomic or management practices which can help them cope with climate-induced stressors? Using household and plot level data collected in 2011, we implement a multivariate probit model to assess the determinants of farmer adaptation behavior to climatic risks and the relative contribution of information, credit and education on the probability of adopting specific practices in response to adverse changes in weather patterns. We find that plot characteristics, credit constraints and availability of climate-related information explain the adoption of several of these practices. In relative terms, we also find that even when financial limitations are binding, making climate-related information available can still motivate farmers to adapt. Policy implications are that the deepening of extension access with information on the appropriate adaptation strategies is crucial to help farmers make adaptation choices. The need to foster credit markets for easy accessibility and affordability by farmers or otherwise strengthening access to assets is also important.

  5. Demographic and clinical characteristics of red tag patients and their one-week mortality rate from the emergency department of the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Rashidi; Rahmat, Rashdan; Hisamudin, Nik; Rahman, Nik Abdul; Noh, Abu Yazid Mohd; Mohammad, Nasir; Wahab, Sheik Farid Abdul; Zaini, Ida Zarina

    2009-11-01

    Early identification and rapid treatment of red tag patients may decrease morbidity and mortality. We examined the clinical characteristics, etiologies and one week mortality rate of red tag (life threatening and potentially life threatening illness) patients at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysai (HUSM). A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Emergency Department of the HUSM from 1 August 2006 to 31 January 2007; 440 eligible patients were analyzed. The group had a mean age of 47.2 +/- 22 years, with 67.3% of the patients being male. Twenty-three percent were trauma cases with motor vehicle accident being the major mechanism of injury. Fifty-four percent of the cases had cardiac related illnesses. The mean duration of stay in the Emergency Department (ED) was 3.9 +/- 1.5 hours. The survival rate at one week was 76.6%. The non-trauma group comprised 74.0% of death cases. Acute coronary syndrome and road traffic accidents comprised 22.0% of total death cases at one week. Red tag patients constitute a large proportion of ED cases and may remain in the ED for significant periods of time.

  6. Socio-demographic psychosocial and clinical characteristics of participants in e-HealthyStrides©: an interactive ehealth program to improve diabetes self-management skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemu, Priscilla E; Quarshie, Alexander Q; Josiah-Willock, R; Ojutalayo, Folake O; Alema-Mensah, Ernest; Ofili, Elizabeth O

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes self-management (DSM) training helps prevent diabetic complications. eHealth approaches may improve its optimal use. The aims were to determine a) acceptability of e-HealthyStrides© (an interactive, Internet-based, patient-driven, diabetes self-management support and social networking program) among Morehouse Community Physicians' Network diabetics; b) efficacy for DSM behavior change c) success factors for use of e-HealthyStrides©. Baseline characteristics of pilot study participants are reported. Of those approached, 13.8% agreed to participate. Among participants, 96% were Black, 77% female; age 56±9.2 years; education: 44% college or higher and 15% less than 12th grade; 92.5% with home computers. Over half (51%) failed the Diabetes Knowledge Test. Nearly half (47%) were at goal A1C; 24% at goal blood pressure; 3% at goal LDL cholesterol level. Median (SD) Diabetes Empowerment Scale score = 3.93 (0.72) but managing psychosocial aspects = 3.89 (0.89) scored lower than other domains. There was low overall confidence for DSM behaviors. Assistance with healthy eating was the most frequently requested service. Requestors were more obese with worse A1C than others. Chronic care delivery scored average with high scores for counseling and problem solving but low scores for care coordination and follow up.

  7. Tourism Market and Demographic Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Nedelea

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the major demographic trends and their implications for consumer market. It is important to know how will demographic change influence the tourism market in particularly and how can the tourist industry adapt to these. The advancing ageing of society will result in far reaching changes, particularly on the demand side. To profitably seize the opportunities, managers must understand how senior markets evolve and adapt products and service offerings along multiple dimensions to meet the needs of senior consumers.

  8. School Social Work Case Characteristics, Services, and Dispositions: Year One Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Kontak, Dot; Citerman, Barbara; Essma, Angie; Fezzi, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the results from the first year of a longitudinal study of a school social work caseload in a large midwestern school district. The purpose of the investigation was to examine the relationship among case characteristics, types of services provided, and case dispositions. Data were collected using a management information…

  9. Statistical evaluation of characteristic SDDLV-induced stress resultants to discriminate between undamaged and damaged elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, L. M.; Johansen, R. J.; Ulriksen, M. D.; Tcherniak, D.; Damkilde, L.

    2015-07-01

    The stochastic dynamic damage location vector (SDDLV) method utilizes the vectors from the kernel of a damaged-induced transfer function matrix change to localize damages in a structure. The kernel vectors associated with the lowest singular values are converted into static pseudo-loads and applied alternately to an undamaged reference model with known stiffness matrix, hereby, theoretically, yielding characteristic stress resultants approaching zero in the damaged elements. At present, the discrimination between potentially damaged elements and undamaged ones is typically conducted on the basis of modified characteristic stress resultants, which are compared to a pre-defined tolerance value, without any thorough statistical evaluation. In the present paper, it is tested whether three widely-used statistical pattern-recognition-based damage-detection methods can provide an effective statistical evaluation of the characteristic stress resultants, hence facilitating general discrimination between damaged and undamaged elements. The three detection methods in question enable outlier analysis on the basis of, respectively, Euclidian distance, Hotelling's T2 statistics, and Mahalanobis distance. The study of the applicability of these methods is based on experimentally obtained accelerations of a cantilevered residential-sized wind turbine blade subjected to an unmeasured multi-impulse load. The characteristic stress resultants are derived by applying the static pseudo-loads to a representative finite element (FE) model of the actual blade.

  10. 人口统计特征对酒店员工内在动机的影响--基于长沙市高星级酒店调查数据分析%Influence of Demographic Characteristics on Intrinsic Motivation of Hotel Employees---Based on the Analysis of High Stars Hotel Survey in Changsha City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾丽艳; 周美芳; 周应兰

    2015-01-01

    Through 366 questionnaires answered by high star hotel employees in Changsha city,it tries to explore the reliability and validity of intrinsic motivation scale,and discusses the influence of demographic characteristic on intrinsic motivation by optimal scaling regression analysis.The results show that demographic characteristic has an important impact on the intrinsic motivation of hotel employees.Intrinsic motivation is most related to seniority, age and level of education,but gender has no significant influence on the intrinsic motivation.%通过对长沙市部分高星级酒店实施问卷调查获得的366份调查表,进行内在动机量表的信度与效度以及内在动机的最优尺度回归分析,得知人口统计特征变量对内在动机影响的相对重要性,在人口统计特征中,工龄对内在动机的影响最大,其次是年龄和受教育程度,性别对内在动机并无显著影响。

  11. Body Characteristics, Dietary Protein and Body Weight Regulation. Reconciling Conflicting Results from Intervention and Observational Studies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Angquist, Lars; Stocks, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    , and body characteristics. Different subsets of the DCH-participants, comparable with the trial participants, were analyzed for weight maintenance according to the randomization status (high or low protein) of the matched trial participants. RESULTS: Trial participants were generally heavier, had larger...... waist circumference and larger fat mass than the participants in the entire DCH cohort. A better weight maintenance in the high-protein group compared to the low protein group was observed in the subgroups of the DCH cohort matching body characteristics of the trial participants. CONCLUSION......: This modified observational study, minimized the differences between the RCT and observational data with regard to dietary intake, participant characteristics and statistical analysis. Compared with low protein diet the high protein diet was associated with better weight maintenance when individuals...

  12. The relationship between economic characteristics and health-related quality of life in newly diagnosed cancer patients in Southeast Asia: results from an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimman, Merel; Jan, Stephen; Monaghan, Helen; Woodward, Mark

    2015-04-01

    We investigate whether cancer patients' economic characteristics are independent determinants of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in low- and middle-income settings to identify priorities for health policy and research. A cross-sectional survey of 9,513 cancer patients from Southeast Asia provided data on demographics, economic status and HRQoL. HRQoL was measured using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and EQ-5D. Information on cancer site and stage was collected using the patients' medical records. Multiple linear regression analysis estimated the relative impact of economic characteristics (i.e. health insurance, employment status, household income and economic hardship) on HRQoL. All economic characteristics were significant independent determinants of HRQoL, when we controlled for demographic and clinical characteristics. Economic hardship was found to be most important. The adjusted mean differences in HRQoL scores between patients who had experienced economic hardship in the year before diagnosis compared to patients who did not were -5.6, -6.7, -7.3 and -0.06, respectively, for global health, physical function, emotional function and the EQ-5D index (all p values <0.001). Subgroup analyses showed that this significant result for economic hardship as a predictor of poor HRQoL was consistent across all age groups, for males and females, and across all levels of education. Living in poor economic circumstances before a cancer diagnosis is associated with greatly impaired HRQoL after diagnosis. There is wide scope for research on innovative interventions that provide low-cost and targeted support aimed to improve health outcomes of disadvantaged cancer patients in low- and middle-income settings.

  13. Laboratory Demographics Lookup Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This website provides demographic information about laboratories, including CLIA number, facility name and address, where the laboratory testing is performed, the...

  14. A study on social and demographic characteristics among new HIV patients in Pudong New Area of Shanghai%上海市浦东新区新发HIV感染者职业与人口学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱黎丹; 张枭; 朱瑛; 顾春华; 李朋; 肖绍坦; 孙乔

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查上海市浦东新区新发现人类免疫缺陷病毒(human immunodeficiency virus,HIV)感染人群的职业与人口学特征,通过统计描述了解其主要特征分布,为开展相应的艾滋病高危行为干预提供更好的工作思路.方法 采用横断面调查研究的方法,对2011年1月-2012年6月期间所有新发现的HIV感染者进行面对面、一对一的流行病学问卷调查,收集社会人口学、高危行为史及既往疾病史等资料进行相关统计描述与分析.结果 共调查到新发HIV感染者249人,其中男性212人,女性37人,男女比例为5.73∶1;年龄分布主要集中在20~39岁;婚姻以未婚(49.8%)和已、再婚(37.4%)为主;文化程度以初中(32.5%)、高中(28.9%)、大专及以上(29.1%)为主,小学及文盲所占比例较少(10.4%);绝大多数为汉族(94.4%).职业分布范围比较广泛,其中主要以家务及待业(19.7%)、公司员工(18.9%)和商业服务为主(14.9%);户籍地以外省市居多(51.0%),该地户籍占47.8%,外籍占1.2%.结论 浦东新区的HIV感染者主要以男性青年人群尤其是外来的男性青年人群为主,该人群职业分布广泛,文化程度较好,今后应加强对该人群开展具有针对性的艾滋病高危行为干预工作.%[Objective] To investigate the social and demographic information among new HIV patients in Pudong New Area of Shanghai, understand its characteristics and distribution by statistical method, and provide suggestions for improving the intervention of high-risk behaviors related to AIDS. [ Methods] By using the cross-sectional survey, the new HIV patients reported from January 2011 to June 2012 were investigated face to face, and the information about demographic characteristics, history of high-risk behaviors and diseases history were described and analyzed statistically. [ Results] Among 249 new HIV patients, 212 were male while 37 were female, and the male-to-female ratio

  15. The characteristic black hole mass resulting from direct collapse in the early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, M. A.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Schmidt, W.; Niemeyer, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Black holes of a billion solar masses are observed in the infant Universe a few hundred million years after the big bang. The direct collapse of protogalactic gas clouds in primordial haloes with Tvir ≥ 104 K provides the most promising way to assemble massive black holes. In this study, we aim to determine the characteristic mass scale of seed black holes and the time evolution of the accretion rates resulting from the direct collapse model. We explore the formation of supermassive black holes via cosmological large eddy simulations (LES) by employing sink particles and following their evolution for 20 000 yr after the formation of the first sink. As the resulting protostars were shown to have cool atmospheres in the presence of strong accretion, we assume here that UV feedback is negligible during this calculation. We confirm this result in a comparison run without sinks. Our findings show that black hole seeds with characteristic mass of 105 M⊙ are formed in the presence of strong Lyman-Werner flux which leads to an isothermal collapse. The characteristic mass is about two times higher in LES compared to the implicit large eddy simulations. The accretion rates increase with time and reach a maximum value of 10 M⊙ yr-1 after 104 yr. Our results show that the direct collapse model is clearly feasible as it provides the expected mass of the seed black holes.

  16. 基于人口学特征的嵩山少林寺游客重游意愿研究%Research on Tourists' Intention of Revisiting the Songshan Shaolin Temple Based on Demographic Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琪

    2015-01-01

    用SPSS17.0对340个嵩山少林寺游客样本进行数据分析,通过独立样本T检验和方差分析分析人口学特征和重游意愿的关系,其中性别与重游意愿用独立样本T检验的方法,其他人口学变量则用方差检验的方法。研究发现性别、年龄、职业、居住地与重游意愿不相关;学历、收入、家庭结构与重游意愿存在显著相关性,其中低学历者、中等收入者,三代同堂家庭结构的游客对嵩山少林寺的重游意愿最大。%A statistical analysis was made on 340 tourists of the Songshan Shaolin Temple by using SPSS17.0. The relation be-tween demographic characteristics of the intention of revisiting was analyzed through independent sample T test and variance analysis, and independent sample T test was used for genders and the intention of revisiting, and variance analysis was used for oth-er demographic variables. The research found that genders, ages, jobs and residences are uncorrelated with the intention of revisit-ing; academic backgrounds, income and family structures are significantly related with the intention of revisiting, and people with low academic background, medium income, and a family with three generations living under the same roof, have the most keen intention to revisit the Songshan Shaolin Temple.

  17. Mental Health Among Adolescents Exposed to a Tornado: The Influence of Social Support and its Interactions with Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Disaster Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lisa A.; Felton, Julia W.; Adams, Zachary W.; Welsh, Kyleen; Miller, Stephanie; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 25% of youths experience a natural disaster and many experience disaster-related distress, including symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. This study contributes to the literature by examining PTSD and depressive symptoms among 2,000 adolescents (50.9% female, 70.5% White) assessed after exposure to tornadoes in 2011. The authors hypothesized that greater tornado exposure, female sex, and younger age would be associated with distress, and that social support would interact with these associations. Analyses showed that PTSD symptoms were predicted by lower levels of social support (β = −.28, p tornado exposure (β = .14, ptornado exposure, sex, and social support (β = −.06, p = .017). For boys, the influence of tornado exposure on PTSD symptoms increased as social support decreased. Regardless of level of tornado exposure, low social support was related to PTSD symptoms for girls; depressive symptom results were similar. These findings are generally consistent with the literature and provide guidance for intervention development focused on strengthening social support at the individual, family, and community levels. PMID:26031997

  18. Demographic characteristics of the population undergoing cine coronary angiography at the Instituto do Coração of the Medical School of USP from 1986 to 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Caramelli

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To obtain information about the profile and behavior of a population with ischemic heart disease undergoing cine coronary angiography and to determine disease severity. METHODS: Retrospective study assessing patients hospitalized at InCor from 1986 to 1995, in which the variables age, sex, and number of major coronary arteries with obstruction degree > 40% were analyzed. RESULTS: We studied 18,221 patients and observed a significant increase in the number of females (22.8% to 25.2%, P=0.001 and an increase in age (57.1±29.3 to 60.4±10.7 years, P=0.0001. A significant increase in the incidence of multivessel disease was observed, which was more frequent among males (69.2% and 64.5% and among the older patients (59.8±9.8 and 56.8±10.7 years, P=0.0001. A reduction in the incidence of single-vessel disease was also observed (66.2% vs 69.2% and 33.8% vs 30.5%, respectively, P<0.0001. CONCLUSION: A change in the profile of the population studied was observed as follows: patients undergoing cine coronary angiography at InCor were older, had a greater number of impaired major coronary arteries, and the number of females affected increased, leading to indices suggestive of a poorer prognosis.

  19. Demographic and spatio-temporal distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Souf oasis (Eastern South of Algeria): Results of 13 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khezzani, Bachir; Bouchemal, Salah

    2017-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of many dangerous parasitic diseases. It remains a serious public health problem not only in Souf oasis, but also in Algeria and all developing countries. The results of our thirteen-year study shows a recording of 4813 confirmed cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis and the details shows that this disease affects all municipalities and all age groups, from infants to elderly, but the most affected ones are teenagers aging (10-19) years with 1512 cases (31.41%) and infants less than 9 years old with 1237 cases (25.70%). In addition, males are more prone to this disease than females (65% and 35% respectively). Among the 18 municipalities in the Souf, the most affected were El-Oued with 1171 cases (24.33%) followed by Guemar with 997 cases (20.71%). Furthermore, more than 40.03% of all cases (1927 cases), were record just in one year in 2010. A parallel, this study shows that the original factors of the studied area, such as climatological, agricultural and environmental factors, was the reason do not apparition this epidemic for a long time, but the changes in these conditions, resulting from various human activities create new environmental conditions, which help with the emergence and spread of leishmaniasis disease. The effective fight against this disease should be based on the elimination of the vectors and reservoirs populations, by the overall improvement of sanitary conditions and hygiene, extensive research in epidemiology of leishmaniasis could also reduce the incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  20. Whole blood and apheresis donors in Quebec, Canada: Demographic differences and motivations to donate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Johanne; Cloutier, Marie-Soleil; Carrier, Élianne

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to compare demographics and donation motivations among plasma/platelet donors (PPDs) and whole blood donors (WBDs), in a voluntary and non-remunerated context. Motives to donate blood and demographic characteristics were collected through questionnaires completed by 795 WBDs and 473 PPDs. Comparison of WBDs and PPDs under chi-square tests showed that 17 out of 23 motivators were statistically different according to various demographic variables. These results demonstrate the existence of specific donor profiles both for WBDs and PPDs. Agencies should develop new recruitment strategies tailored to these donors, especially if they wish to convince WBDs to convert to apheresis donation.

  1. DEMOGRAPHIC SECURITY: THEORY, METHODOLOGY, EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Karmanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the theoretical aspects of demographic security. Reviewed and analyzed the point of view of various scholars to the definition of demographic security. The main directions of statistical analysis of demographic security.

  2. Expression of a mutant p53 results in an age-related demographic shift in spontaneous lung tumor formation in transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenrui Duan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutations in the P53 gene are among the most common genetic abnormalities in human lung cancer. Codon 273 in the sequence-specific DNA binding domain is one of the most frequently mutated sites. METHODOLOGY: To investigate the role of mutant p53 in lung tumorigenesis, a lung specific p53(273H transgenic mouse model was developed. Rates of lung cancer formation in the transgenic animals and their littermates were evaluated by necropsy studies performed in progressive age cohorts ranging from 4 to 24 months. In order to establish the influence of other common genetic abnormalities in lung tumor formation in the animals, K-Ras gene mutation and p16INK4a (p16 promoter methylation were evaluated in a total of 281 transgenic mice and 189 non-transgenic littermates. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At the age extremes of 4-12 and 22-24 months no differences were observed, with very low prevalence of tumors in animals younger than 12 months, and a relatively high prevalence at age 22 months or older. However, the transgenic mice had a significant higher lung tumor rate than their non-transgenic counterparts during the age of 13-21 months, suggesting an age-related shift in lung tumor formation induced by the lung-specific expression of the human mutant p53. Histopathology suggested a more aggressive nature for the transgenic tumors. Older mice (>13 months had a significantly higher rate of p16 promoter methylation (17% v 82%. In addition, an age related effect was observed for K-Ras codons 12 or 13 mutations, but not for codon 61 mutations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results would suggest that the mutant p53(273H contributes to an acceleration in the development of spontaneous lung tumors in these mice. Combination with other genetic and epigenetic alterations occurring after the age of 13 months is intimately linked to its oncogenic potential.

  3. Analysis correlation between social-demographic characteristics and nurse-patient communication competence of clinical nursing students%临床实习护生社会人口学特征与护患沟通能力的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林陶玉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate and analyze the relationship between social-demographic characteristics and nurse-patient communication competence of clinical nursing students. Methods The questionnaire of social-demo-graphic characteristics and the evaluation of nurse-patient communication competence of nursing students were conducted among 135 nursing students. Results Age, education and family background of nursing students were significantly posi-tively correlated with their ability of nurse-patient communication ( P<0. 05 ) , while gender and nationality were signifi-cantly negatively correlated with their alility of nurse-patient communication ( P<0. 05 ) . Linear regression analysis showed that age, education, family atmosphere, gender and nationality entered the linear regression equation, which indicated the five variables were of significant for prediction ( P<0. 05 ) . Conclusions Social-demographic character-istics of clinical nursing students were closely realted to nurse-patient communication competence. Target nurse-patient communication training should be provided according to different social-demographic characteristics of nursing students, to improve the ability of nurse-patient communication.%目的 调查分析临床实习护生的社会人口学特征与护患沟通能力的关系. 方法 采用护生社会人口学特征调查表和护理专业护生护患沟通能力评价量表,对135名临床实习护生进行问卷调查. 结果 临床实习护生的年龄、学历和家庭氛围与其护患沟通能力呈正相关( P<0. 05 );而性别、民族与其护患沟通能力呈负相关( P<0. 05 ). 线性回归分析显示:年龄、学历、家庭氛围、性别和民族进入护患沟通能力总分的线性回归方程,表明5个变量对护生护患沟通能力有显著的预测作用( P<0. 05 ). 结论 临床实习护生的社会人口学特征与护患沟通能力密切相关,应根据护生的不同社会人口学特征进行针对性护患沟通

  4. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in a representative sample of 11-15 year olds in France: Results from the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godeau Emmanuelle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents is high and overweight is associated with poor health outcomes over short- and long-term. Lifestyle factors can interact to influence overweight. Comprehensive studies linking overweight concomitantly with several demographic and potentially-modifiable lifestyle factors and health-risk behaviours are limited in adolescents - an age-group characterized by changes in lifestyle behaviours and high prevalence of overweight. Thus, the objective of the current study was to examine the association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle variables simultaneously in a representative sample of adolescents. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11-15 year-olds (n = 7154 in France participated as part of the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study. Students reported data on their age, height, weight, socio-demographic variables, lifestyle factors including nutrition practices, physical activity at two levels of intensity (moderate and vigorous, sedentary behaviours, as well as smoking and alcohol consumption patterns using standardized HBSC protocols. Overweight (including obesity was defined using the IOTF reference. The multivariate association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle factors was examined with logistic regression models. Results The adjusted odds ratios for the association with overweight were: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.37-2.36 for low family affluence; 0.73 (0.60-0.88 for eating breakfast daily; 0.69 (0.56-0.84 for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA; and 0.71 (0.59-0.86 for vigorous physical activity (VPA. Significant interactions between age and gender as well as television (TV viewing and gender were noted: for boys, overweight was not associated with age or TV viewing; in contrast, for girls overweight correlated negatively with age and positively with TV viewing. Fruit and vegetable

  5. Demographic Characteristics and Medical Service Use of Failed Back Surgery Syndrome Patients at an Integrated Treatment Hospital Focusing on Complementary and Alternative Medicine: A Retrospective Review of Electronic Medical Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Seung Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To report the patient demographics and nonsurgical complementary and alternative medicine treatment used at a Korean medicine hospital for low back pain (LBP and/or sciatica after surgery. Methods. Medical records of patients who visited a spine-specialized Korean medicine hospital at 2 separate sites for continuous or recurrent LBP or sciatica following back surgery were reviewed. The demographics, MRI and/or CT scans, and treatments were assessed. Results. Of the total 707 patients, 62% were male and the average age was 50.20 years. Ninety percent of patients presented with LBP and 67% with sciatica. Eighty-four percent were diagnosed with herniated nucleus pulposus at time of surgery. Of these patients, 70% had pain recurrence 6 months or later, but 19% experienced no relief or immediate aggravation of pain after surgery. Many patients selected traditional Korean medicine treatment as primary means of postsurgery care (47%. When time to pain recurrence was short or pain persisted after surgery, return of symptoms at the same disc level and side was frequent. Conclusion. An integrative treatment model focusing on Korean medicine and used in conjunction with radiological diagnostics and conventional medicine is currently used as a treatment option for patients with pain after lumbar spine surgery.

  6. Demographic and epidemiological characteristics of HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ogy of HIV and associated infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Keywords: ... African Health Sciences Vol 17 Issue 2, June, 2017. 315 ... adults differ in terms of epidemiological and clinical fea- ... viral load, hepatitis B and C status. .... The multiplier effects of this unfolding age ... lieved to be naturally polygynous in Africa22,23.

  7. Role of Patients' Demographic Characteristics and Spatial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    roots/curvature,[11‑15] controversy exists in the literature about the correlation between patient factors and the actualduration of surgery.[12,14‑16] Different studies have examined the influence of patient ..... Comparative effect of tube drain on.

  8. Demographic and Commercial Environments and Building Control Customer Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope Peter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and cost effective business analytics schema developed in this study provides a basis for observing how demographic and commercial environmental impacts affect building control customer services. In order to overlay environmental impacts onto building control services, schematic mapping of resource distributions and services were plotted according to corporate jurisdiction, corporate virtues and customer type characteristics. Quantitative and qualitative surveys were conducted on corporate staff and material resources, business performance measures and targets, building control service manager observations and demographic and commercial environments. Results from this research provide a single view corporate map of people, material resources, and service performance in relation to customer characteristics, while reaching out to better understand the building control customer experience, general public expectation and market influences. In this regard, this research can provide a foundation for realising corporate virtue aspirations.

  9. Latino Electoral Participation: Variations on Demographics and Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Leighley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the 2012 Latino Immigrant National Election Study, the 2012 American National Election Study, and the 2012 Current Population Survey, we document the demographic factors that influenced Latino (native-born and immigrant voter turnout and participation in the 2012 presidential election. We estimate multivariable models of turnout and participation, including standard demographic characteristics (education, income, age, gender, marital status as explanatory variables. Our findings indicate that the relationships between these characteristics and participation are much less consistent across these datasets than the conventional wisdom would suggest. Understanding these results likely requires survey data—with large sample sizes—including information on the resources (including education and income available to immigrants in their home countries to better understand the lingering influences of immigrants’ experiences in their countries of origin on voter turnout.

  10. Safety Management Mode of Bridge & Tunnel Construction Team Based on Demographic Characteristics%基于人口统计学特征的公路桥隧工程施工班组安全管理模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭东尘; 苏新国; 黄学文; 章卫俊; 吴林松

    2015-01-01

    为了解决公路施工安全管理的源头问题,从一线施工班组安全管理入手,选择专业化程度高的桥隧工程施工班组为研究对象,运用人口统计学特征分析方法,结合公路工程施工班组管理特点,得出影响施工班组安全管理的重要因素;通过对各影响因素与班组安全管理的关联性分析,建立了公路施工班组安全管理建设模式。对55个施工班组、530名桥梁施工人员、375名隧道施工人员开展信息调研及问卷调查,结果显示桥隧工程施工班组人员以男性为主,受教育程度不高,流动性大,施工经验丰富,基本具备安全意识但缺乏安全技能。针对这些问题,提出了当前环境下以班组组织建设、班组制度建设、班组保障建设和班组现场管控为核心的施工班组安全管理模式,以及相关措施和建议。%In order to solve the source problem of highway construction safety management, the safety management of the construction team was commenced. The highway bridge and tunnel construction teams that have high degree specialization were selected. Demographic characteristics analysis method was used to find the important factors that affect the team safety management, combining with the charac⁃teristics of construction team management. Based on correlation analysis of the factors and the team safe ty management, a safety management mode of highway construction team was set up. According to the infor⁃mation collection and questionnaire surveys on 55 construction teams, 530 bridge construction personnel and 375 tunnel construction personnel, some factors of construction personnel were analyzed, including their sex, age, education background and working experience. The result of research shows that the pre⁃dominant are male in the construction team, and construction personnel have low education, large per⁃ sonal mobility, rich experience with poor security technology. In

  11. Analysis on quality of work life of nurses with different demographic characteristics in four hospitals of Zhengzhou%郑州市4所医院护士职业生命质量影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丰成祥; 朱伟; 张菲菲; 孙五美

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析不同人口学特征护士的职业生命质量(QWL)差异,确定重点保护对象.方法:选择郑州市2所3级医院、2所2级医院,随机抽取461名护士,采用QWL量表对其调查分析.结果:女性护士QWL总分及满意度、自豪感、胜任感、主动性得分高于男性护士(t=3.024、4.056、5.534、4.388和4.211,P<0.05);不同年龄护士QWL总分、心理健康、满意度和平衡感得分差异有统计学意义(F=3.999、4.959、3.578和7.895,P<0.05),36~55岁年龄组最高,26~岁年龄组最低;不同婚姻状况护士的胜任感、主动性和平衡感得分差异有统计学意义(F=5.285、3.776和3.542,P<0.05),未婚护士的胜任感和主动性得分较低,但平衡感得分较高;不同月收入护士的胜任感得分差异有统计学意义(F=8.547,P<0.001),随着月收入的增加,护士的胜任感得分逐渐升高;不同学历的护士其QWL状况差异无统计学意义.结论:男性、26~岁年龄段、未婚和低收入的护士QWL较差,是医院管理者关注的重点.%Aim:To study the difference in quality of work of life nurses' with different demographic characteristics. Methods:A total of 461 nurses selected from two tertiary hospitals and two secondary hospitals by randomization were investigated by the QWL7-32. Results:Male nurses' scores were significantly lower than female nurses in quality of work of life and their satisfaction, pride, competence, and initiation ( t = 3. 024 ,4. 056 ,5. 534 ,4. 388 and 4. 211 ,P <0. 05 ). The scores in quality of work of life, psychological heath, satisfaction and sense of balance had significant difference( F = 3.999,4.959,3.578and 7.895.P <0.05 ), among which, the group of 26 ~ years were the lowest, and the group of 36 ~ 55 years were the highest . The nurses unmarried had lower scores in sense of competence and initiation, and those married had higher scores in sense of balance ( F = 5. 285 ,3.776 and 3. 542,P < 0. 05 ). Along with the increase of

  12. Demographic Change and Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Siren, Anu Kristiina; Framke, Elisabeth

    This report is the literature review on demographic changes and transport of Work Package 1 of the EU project CONSOL, “CONcerns and SOLutions – Road Safety in the Ageing Societies” (contract period: 2011-2013). The report is a state-of-the art report that combines current knowledge with new findi...

  13. Body Characteristics, Dietary Protein and Body Weight Regulation. Reconciling Conflicting Results from Intervention and Observational Studies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Angquist, Lars; Stocks, Tanja;

    2014-01-01

    between greater protein intake and weight gain. In both types of studies the results are based on average weight changes, and show considerable diversity in both directions. This study investigates whether the discrepancy in the evidence could be due to recruitment of overweight and obese individuals......: This modified observational study, minimized the differences between the RCT and observational data with regard to dietary intake, participant characteristics and statistical analysis. Compared with low protein diet the high protein diet was associated with better weight maintenance when individuals...

  14. MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MILK FROM DONKEYS FARMED IN CAMPANIA REGION: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sarno

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Interest in donkey’s milk destined to human consumption is increasing owing to its complex composition and unique functional properties. The microbiological profile of donkeys’ raw milk was investigated. Individual donkey milk samples were collected from 8 asses after mechanical milking and filtration in a farm of Campania region. A total of 133 samples were analyzed. Total plate count bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae were enumerated. Other microbiological characteristics were monitored as established by legislation in force on the sale of raw milk. Results showed a low contamination level of the raw milk in accordance with other authors. No correlations were evidenced between milk contamination and lactation stage.

  15. RESULTS OF INVESTIGATIONS ON THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AIR HEATER BUNDLE MADE OF BIMETALLIC FINNED TUBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Kuntysh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a scheme and description of a new aerodynamic stand that has a 300x300 mm cross-section operating channel. The stand is used for studying thermal and aerodynamic characteristics of bundles made of finned tubes of actual dimensions in crossflow. The paper provides results of an exploratory test pertaining to heat transfer and resistance of four row staggered bundle made of tubes with aluminium spiral fins having outside diameter of 26 mm which are used in the systems of ventilation, air-conditioning and heating of buildings and also in transport heat exchangers.

  16. The characteristic black hole mass resulting from direct collapse in the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Latif, M A; Schmidt, W; Niemeyer, J C

    2013-01-01

    Black holes of a billion solar masses are observed in the infant universe a few hundred million years after the Big Bang. The direct collapse of protogalactic gas clouds in primordial halos with $\\rm T_{vir} \\geq 10^{4} K$ provides the most promising way to assemble massive black holes. In this study, we aim to determine the characteristic mass scale of seed black holes and the time evolution of the accretion rates resulting from the direct collapse model. We explore the formation of supermassive black holes via cosmological large eddy simulations (LES) by employing sink particles and following their evolution for twenty thousand years after the formation of the first sink. As the resulting protostars were shown to have cool atmospheres in the presence of strong accretion, we assume here that UV feedback is negligible during this calculation. We confirm this result in a comparison run without sinks. Our findings show that black hole seeds with characteristic mass of $\\rm 10^{5} M_{\\odot}$ are formed in the pr...

  17. Defining Dynamic Characteristics of Multilink Pendulum System with Comparison of the Calculated and Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gribkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the multilink pendulum system consisting of six physical pendulums. A pendulum (carrier has inertia parameters, which significantly exceed the remaining (carried ones placed on the carrier. In addition to the system under analysis, in particular, the paper presents a design scheme for a two-stage liquid fuel rocket using pendulums as the analogues of fluctuating fuel. Pendulum models also find application to solve problems of stabilization of space tether systems. The objective of the study is to determine dynamic characteristics of the said sixmembered pendulum system, as well as to identify specific dynamic properties inherent in objects of this kind. Dynamic characteristics of the system are determined by calculations. A physical model of the pendulum allowed us to compare the calculated and experimental results. To conduct the frequency tests of the pendulum model three pilot units have been created. The first two units turned out to be inappropriate for fulfilling the experimental tasks for various reasons. The third unit enabled us to obtain desirable experimental results. The "calculation–experiment” discrepancy on the natural frequencies of the pendulum model for the majority of frequencies was less than 5%. We analyzed the dynamic features of multilink pendulum systems "carried by the carrier unit links". The analysis results are applicable to the above-noted object classes of rocket and space technology.

  18. Early Period Results and Clinical Characteristics of Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in Sivrihisar State Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Turk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Our aim was to identify the characteristics of the patient that performed upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in a new established endoscopy unit of a state hospital. We want to present the spectrum of gastrointestinal diseases in our hospitals region. Material and Method: We analyzed patients upper endoscopy results according to age, sex, complaints, clinical characteristics, type of anesthesia, and the necessity of biopsy. We reviewed 256 patients data between 2013 December-2014 July. All endoscopies were performed by same surgeon. Results: The highest complaint was epigastric pain (n=112, 43, 8%. Other complaints were followed as dyspepsia (n=84, 32.8%, heartburn (n=42, 16.4%, nausea (n=4, 1.6%, vomiting (n=2, 0.8%, dysphagia (n=6, 2.3%. We determined 218 gastritis (85.2%, 64 hiatal hernia (25%, 120 esophagitis (46.9%, 76 duodenitis (29.7%, 4 gastric ulcer (1.6%, 18 duodenal ulcers (7%, 20 bile reflux (7.8%, 26 Gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD in patients (10.2%. 10 patients reported as normal (3.9%. Biopsy was performed in 186 of the patients. Discussion: Endoscopy can become an early diagnostic examination by increasing the availability of endoscopy. Also alarm symptoms should not be ignored and endoscopy should perform immediately in symptomatic patients. As an early result of upper gastrointestinal endoscopies that performed in this study; gastritis, esophagitis, duodenitis and hiatal hernia are common gastrointestinal diseases in our region.

  19. Caffeinated-beverage consumption and its association with socio-demographic characteristics and self-perceived academic stress in first and second year students at the University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus (UPR-MSC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Josué L; Betancourt, Jesmari; Pagán, Ideliz; Fabián, Carla; Cruz, Sonia Y; González, Anaisa M; González, Michael J; Rivera-Soto, Winna T; Palacios, Cristina

    2013-06-01

    To determine the association between caffeinated-beverage consumption, self-perceived academic load, and self-perceived stress levels in first and second year students at UPR-MSC. A descriptive epidemiological study was performed using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire given to a representative stratified sample of 275 students. Questions included information regarding socio-demographic characteristics, academic load and stress indicators, and caffeinated-beverage consumption. Chi2 was used to assess the associations between these variables. Most participants were women (68%), aged 21-30 years (88%), with low annual household incomes (43%). Most perceived their academic loads as being heavy (68%), and most perceived their academic stress levels as being moderate (37%). Academic load was significantly correlated with stress level (pcoffee, 56% drank hot chocolate, 40% drank tea, and 29% drank energy drinks, all of which were--according to the participants (54%)--used mainly to stay awake. Soft drinks and coffee intake increased in periods of high stress, and many (49%) reported that these beverages were useful for coping with stress. Energy drinks, in particular, were consumed more often by men compared to women (pcoffee being the ones that are the most frequently consumed. No associations were found between the consumption of caffeinated beverages and academic stress or load.

  20. Patient preferences for characteristics of antiretroviral therapies: results from five European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Gazzard

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patient preference to antiretroviral therapy (ART characteristics should be a key consideration in treatment decisions. ART options exist for people living with HIV (PLWH, however concerns remain related to PLWH satisfaction with current ARTs. The current study examines patient preferences and the strength of preferences for treatment characteristics associated with ART. Materials and Methods: Patients’ preferences to ART were explored using a discrete choice experiment (DCE. Seven defined treatment characteristics (each with three categories were identified from a literature review, input from experts, PLWH and physicians. A total of 1582 PLWH from France, Germany, Spain, Italy and the UK were recruited for the study. An adjusted odds ratio <1 signified lower odds of selecting a treatment with this characteristic category, compared to the reference category, independently of other characteristics. Results: The patient preference analyses showed that participants preferred treatments with a rapid reduction in viral load (OR=0.78; 95% CI 0.74–0.81 and CD4 count (OR=0.86; 95% CI=0.82–0.89. Participants had a strong preference for avoiding diarrhoea (Odds ratio, OR=0.36 95% CI=0.33–0.38 and long term health problems (OR=0.30, 95% CI=0.28–0.32. Convenience related issues related to restrictions on taking drugs because of food or drug interactions were important to avoid (OR=0.80, 95% CI=0.76–0.83 and OR=0.72 95% CI=0.69–0.76 respectively. Participants also had a strong preference to avoid drugs which limited the effectiveness of future treatments (OR=0.70, 95% CI=0.67–0.73. Conclusions: Avoidance of diarrhoea and long-term complications were the most important drivers of patient choice. This study, from a large sample of European patients, demonstrates the importance to patients when different aspects of HIV treatment are considered simultaneously.

  1. Examining relationship between burnout level and socio-demographic characteristics of teachers: A case study for Ayaş, Güdül, Beypazarı, Nallıhan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan Başoğlu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to determine the relationship between 533 teachers’ level of burnout; who work in Ayaş, Güdül, Beypazarı and Nallıhan provinces in the northern of Ankara in different positions and their socio-demographic variables. According to obtained data results; number of children, staff position and felt wealth level in desensitisation dimension and gender, education level and staff position in personal success dimension were determined as significant. It was concluded that marital status, duration of experience in job and staff position in management were not statistically significant on emotional exhaustion, desensitisation and personal success.

  2. Stress-strain characteristics of materials at high strain rates. Part II. Experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripperger, E. A. [Texas. Univ., Austin, TX (US). Structural Mechanics Research Lab.

    1958-08-29

    These two reports were issued separately, but are cataloged as a unit. A photoelectric method for measuring displacements during high-velocity impacts is described. The theory of the system is discussed in detail, and a prototype system which was built and tested is described. The performance of the prototype system is evaluated by comparing the results which it gives with results obtained by other methods of measurement. The system was found capable of a resolution of at least 0.01 inches. static and dynamic stress-strain characteristics of seven high polymers, polyethylene, teflon, nylon, tenite M, tenite H, polystyrene, and saran, plus three metals, lead, copper, and aluminum, are described and compared by means of stress-strain curves and photographs. Data are also presented which show qualitatively the effects produced on stress-strain characteristics by specimen configuration, temperature, and impact velocity. It is shown that there is a definite strain-rate effect for all these materials except polystyrene. The effect is one of an apparent stiffening of the material with increasing strain rate, which is similar to the effect produced by lowering the temperature. The stress-strain measurements are examined critically, inconsistencies are pointed out, and possible sources of error suggested. Values of yield stress, modulus of elasticity and energy absorption for all materials (except copper and aluminum), specimen configurations, temperatures, and impact velocities included in the investigation are tabulated.

  3. Socio-demographic characteristics, clinical profile and prevalence of existing mental illness among suicide attempters attending emergency services at two hospitals in Hawassa city, South Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayehu, Moges; Solomon, Tarekegn; Lemma, Kinfe

    2017-01-01

    Suicide is a major public health problem worldwide. It contributes for more than one million deaths each year. Since previous suicidal attempt was considered as the best predictor of future suicide, identifying factors behind suicidal attempt are helpful to design suicide prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to assess socio-demographic characteristics, clinical profile and prevalence of existing mental illness among patients presenting with suicidal attempt to emergency services of general hospitals in South Ethiopia. We conducted a cross-sectional study on patients presenting with complications of suicidal attempt to emergency departments of two general hospitals in Hawassa city from November, 2014 to August, 2015. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaire which contained socio-demographic and clinical variables. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview version 5 (MINI PLUs) was used to assess the prevalence of existing mental illness among study participants. Data was entered and analyzed using IBM SPSS statistics 21 software package. A total of 96 individuals were assessed, of whom 56 (58.3%) were females. The mean age of study participants was 21.5 (8.0) years. The majority, 75 (78.1%), of the study participants were aged below 25 years. Ingesting pesticide poisons and corrosive agent were used by the majority to attempt suicide. Mental illness was found in only three (3.1%) of the study participants. Impulsivity (the time between decision to attempt suicide and the actual attempt of less than 5 min) was reported by 30 (31.2%) of the study participants, of whom 18 (60%) were males. Males were found three times more likely to attempt suicide impulsively than women (COR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.2-7.3). Quarreling with family members, facing financial crisis, and having unplanned and unwanted pregnancy were reported by the majority of study participants as immediate reasons to attempt suicide. The presence of stressful life events and

  4. A Pharmaceutical Bioethics Consultation Service: Six-Year Descriptive Characteristics and Results of a Feedback Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campen, Luann E; Allen, Albert J; Watson, Susan B; Therasse, Donald G

    2015-04-03

    Background: Bioethics consultations are conducted in varied settings, including hospitals, universities, and other research institutions, but there is sparse information about bioethics consultations conducted in corporate settings such as pharmaceutical companies. The purpose of this article is to describe a bioethics consultation service at a pharmaceutical company, to report characteristics of consultations completed by the service over a 6-year period, and to share results of a consultation feedback survey. Methods: Data on the descriptive characteristics of bioethics consultations were collected from 2008 to 2013 and analyzed in Excel 2007. Categorical data were analyzed via the pivot table function, and time-based variables were analyzed via formulas. The feedback survey was administered to consultation requesters from 2009 to 2012 and also analyzed in Excel 2007. Results: Over the 6-year period, 189 bioethics consultations were conducted. The number of consultations increased from five per year in 2008 to approximately one per week in 2013. During this time, the format of the consultation service was changed from a committee-only approach to a tiered approach (tailored to the needs of the case). The five most frequent topics were informed consent, early termination of a clinical trial, benefits and risks, human biological samples, and patient rights. The feedback survey results suggest the consultation service is well regarded overall and viewed as approachable, helpful, and responsive. Conclusions: Pharmaceutical bioethics consultation is a unique category of bioethics consultation that primarily focuses on pharmaceutical research and development but also touches on aspects of clinical ethics, business ethics, and organizational ethics. Results indicate there is a demand for a tiered bioethics consultation service within this pharmaceutical company and that advice was valued. This company's experience indicates that a bioethics consultation service raises

  5. Bias and ignorance in demographic perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, D; Guay, B; Marghetis, T

    2017-08-31

    When it comes to knowledge of demographic facts, misinformation appears to be the norm. Americans massively overestimate the proportions of their fellow citizens who are immigrants, Muslim, LGBTQ, and Latino, but underestimate those who are White or Christian. Previous explanations of these estimation errors have invoked topic-specific mechanisms such as xenophobia or media bias. We reconsidered this pattern of errors in the light of more than 30 years of research on the psychological processes involved in proportion estimation and decision-making under uncertainty. In two publicly available datasets featuring demographic estimates from 14 countries, we found that proportion estimates of national demographics correspond closely to what is found in laboratory studies of quantitative estimates more generally. Biases in demographic estimation, therefore, are part of a very general pattern of human psychology-independent of the particular topic or demographic under consideration-that explains most of the error in estimates of the size of politically salient populations. By situating demographic estimates within a broader understanding of general quantity estimation, these results demand reevaluation of both topic-specific misinformation about demographic facts and topic-specific explanations of demographic ignorance, such as media bias and xenophobia.

  6. Characteristics of Pneumatic Tuners of Torsional Oscillation as a Result of Patent Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homišin Jaroslav

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical systems with combustion engines, compressors, pumps and fans, can be characterized as torsional oscillating mechanical systems (TOMS. It is therefore necessary to control their dangerous torsional vibrations. It was confirmed that dangerous torsional vibration can be reduced to acceptable level by an appropriate adjustment, respectively by tuning the TOMS. According to several authors, the most appropriate way of system tuning is application of suitable flexible element, which is flexible shaft coupling. It turned out that one of the types of shaft couplings, which are particularly suited to meeting this objective are pneumatic flexible shaft couplings, to act as so-called pneumatic tuners of torsional oscillations. The issue of research and development of pneumatic tuners of torsional oscillations, among other things is, long-term in the focus of the author. The existence of tuners creates the opportunity to develop new ways of tuning torsional oscillating mechanical systems. The author of the scientific article will focus on the characteristics of developed pneumatic tuners of torsional oscillation in terms of their design, construction, function, significance advantages and conditions imposed on pneumatic tuners based on the results of his patent activity. Simultaneously provides information about the characteristic properties of pneumatic tuners of torsional oscillations in the general design.

  7. Socio-demographic Correlates of Self-reported Exposure to E-Cigarette Communications and its Association with Public Support for Smoke-Free and Vape-Free Policies: Results From a National Survey of U.S. Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andy SL; Bigman, Cabral A.; Sanders-Jackson, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to e-cigarette communications (e.g., advertisements, news and entertainment media, and interpersonal discussion) may influence support for smoke-free or vape-free policies. This study examined the socio-demographic correlates of self-reported exposure to e-cigarette communications and their relationships with support for restricting vaping and smoking in public venues. Method Online survey data was collected from a representative sample of U.S. adults (n=1,449) between October and December 2013 (mean age=50 years, 51% female, 8% African-American, 10% Hispanic, 6% other races) and weighted to match the U.S. adult population. We fitted multiple regression models, adjusting for demographic variables, to examine associations between support for policies to restrict vaping and smoking in public venues and self-reported frequency of exposure to e-cigarette communications in the preceding month. We fitted separate models to assess associations between policy support and frequency of exposures weighted by whether each category of e-cigarette communications was perceived as positive or negative. Results Higher self-reported exposure to advertising (B=-.022, p=.006), other media (B=-.022, p=.043), and interpersonal discussion (B=-.071, pExposure to e-cigarette communications was associated with lower support for smoking restrictions in bivariate analyses but was not significant after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion Further research is needed to assess whether messages portraying e-cigarettes as a way to circumvent smoking restrictions from advertisements and other media are influencing public support for vape-free policies. These findings provide empirical evidence to inform the policy debate over regulating specific e-cigarette advertising claims. PMID:25015372

  8. [Experiment results of conduction, spectral induced polarization and dielectric characteristics for chrome-contaminated soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nai, Chang-Xin; Liu, Yu-Qiang; Liu, Hao-Rui; Dong, Lu

    2011-03-01

    The resistivity, complex resistivity and complex permittivity of the chrome-contaminated soil were studied. Under the different pollution concentration and water content in the soil samples conditions, the relations between the resistivity, complex resistivity and complex permittivity of the chrome-contaminated soil and water content and the concentration of pollution were analyzed. When adding chrome pollution with different concentrations and water content, the experimental results show that the resistivity and complex resistivity of all the soil samples decreased with the pollution concentration and water content increased; but the phase of complex resistivity, which reflects the soil's capacitance, decreased below the 20 kHz and increase above the 20 kHz frequency. The real part and imaginary part of complex resostivity increased with the increase of pollution concentration and water content. The concentration of chrome pollutions and water content were the two main factor to determine the soil electrical characteristics.

  9. Imitation Combined with a Characteristic Stimulus Duration Results in Robust Collective Decision-making in Sheep

    CERN Document Server

    Toulet, Sylvain; Bon, Richard; Peruani, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    For group-living animals, reaching consensus to stay cohesive is crucial for their fitness, particularly when collective motion starts and stops. Understanding the decision-making at individual and collective levels upon sudden disturbances is central in the study of collective animal behavior, and concerns the broader question of how information is distributed and evaluated in groups. Despite the relevance of the problem, well-controlled experimental studies that quantify the collective response of groups facing disruptive events are lacking. Here we study the behavior of groups of uninformed individuals subject to the departure and stop of a trained conspecific within small-sized groups. We find that the groups reach an effective consensus: either all uninformed individuals follow the trained one (and collective motion occurs) or none does it. Combining experiments and a simple mathematical model we show that the observed phenomena results from the interplay between simple mimetic rules and the characterist...

  10. Influence of Landfill Operation and Tropical Seasonal Variation on Leachate Characteristics: Results from Lysimeter Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam M. Rafizul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the influence of lysimeter operational condition and tropical seasonal variation of leachate characteristics generated from municipal solid waste (MSW deposited in landfill lysimeter at KUET campus, Bangladesh. Three different situations of landfill were considered here as well as both the open dump lysimeter-A having a base liner and sanitary landfill lysimeter-B and C at two different types of cap liner were simulated. The leachate characteristics, leachate generation and climatic influence parameter had been continually monitored, from June 2008 to May 2010. This period covers both dry and rainy season. The leachate generation followed the rainfall pattern and the open dump lysimeter-A without top cover was recorded to have the highest leachate generation. Moreover, the open dump lysimeter-A had lower concentration and load of total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N and dissolved organic carbon (DOC, while chemical oxygen demand (COD and biological oxygen demand (BOD5 concentration were higher compared with sanitary lysimeter-B and C. On the other hand, sanitary lysimeter-B, not only had lowest leachate generation, but also produced reasonably low COD and BOD5 concentration compared with open dump lysimeter-A. Based on evaluated results, it was also concluded that metal concentrations which were comparatively higher in leachate of open dump lysimeter were Ca and K, however, the heavy metal concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn and Mn, and those apparently lower were metals of Na, Mg and Fe as well as heavy metals of Cr, Pb and Ni. However, significant release of heavy metals under open dump lysimeter was observed compared to sanitary lysimeter. Moreover, meaningful correlation between DOC and leaching of Cu and Pb was observed. Result reveals that lysimeter operational mode had direct effect on leachate quality. Finally, it can be concluded that the knowledge of leachate quality will be useful in planning and

  11. Pregnancy intention, demographic differences, and psychosocial health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxson, Pamela; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2011-08-01

    We explore the psychosocial, demographic, and maternal characteristics across wanted, mistimed, and unwanted pregnancies. Data from 1321 women from a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Durham, NC, are analyzed. Psychosocial correlates were obtained through prenatal surveys; electronic medical records were used to ascertain maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. Sixty-two percent of the women indicated an unintended pregnancy, with 44% (578) mistimed and 18% (245) unwanted. Only 38% of the pregnancies were characterized as wanted. Women with unwanted and with mistimed pregnancies were similar demographically, but they differed significantly on psychosocial profiles and maternal characteristics. Women with mistimed and with wanted pregnancies differed in demographics and psychosocial profiles. Wanted pregnancies had the healthiest, mistimed an intermediate, and unwanted the poorest psychosocial profile. Women with unwanted pregnancies had the highest depression, perceived stress, and negative paternal support scores (ppsychosocial profiles had higher odds of being in the unwanted category. Controlling for psychosocial and demographic variables, perceived stress and positive paternal support remained significant predictors of belonging to the unwanted and mistimed groups. Fully characterizing pregnancy intention and its relationship to psychosocial profiles may provide a basis for identifying women with highest risk during pregnancy and early motherhood. Women with unwanted and mistimed pregnancies may appear similar demographically but are different psychosocially. Women with unwanted pregnancies have multiple risk factors and would benefit from targeted interventions.

  12. Ignition and Combustion Characteristics of Pure Bulk Metals: Normal-Gravity Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbud-Madrid, A.; Fiechtner, G. J.; Branch, M. C.; Daily, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    An experimental apparatus has been designed for the study of bulk metal ignition under elevated, normal and reduced gravity environments. The present work describes the technical characteristics of the system, the analytical techniques employed, the results obtained from the ignition of a variety of metals subjected to normal gravity conditions and the first results obtained from experiments under elevated gravity. A 1000 W xenon short-arc lamp is used to irradiate the top surface of a cylindrical metal specimen 4 mm in diameter and 4 mm high in a quiescent pure-oxygen environment at 0.1 MPa. Iron, titanium, zirconium, magnesium, zinc, tin, and copper specimens are investigated. All these metals exhibit ignition and combustion behavior varying in strength and speed. Values of ignition temperatures below, above or in the range of the metal melting point are obtained from the temperature records. The emission spectra from the magnesium-oxygen gas-phase reaction reveals the dynamic evolution of the ignition event. Scanning electron microscope and x-ray spectroscopic analysis provide the sequence of oxide formation on the burning of copper samples. Preliminary results on the effect of higher-than-normal gravity levels on the ignition of titanium specimens is presented.

  13. Changing characteristics of facial fractures treated at a regional, level 1 trauma center, from 2005 to 2010: an assessment of patient demographics, referral patterns, etiology of injury, anatomic location, and clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Katherine S; Tong, Winnie; Surrusco, Matthew; Shockley, William W; Van Aalst, John A; Hultman, Charles S

    2012-05-01

    Despite improvements in automotive safety, motor vehicle collision (MVC)-related facial fractures remain common and represent preventable injuries. This study examines the changing characteristics of facial fractures treated at a regional, level I trauma center, from 2005 to 2010. We identified all patients with facial fractures admitted to our hospital, from 2005 to 2010, by querying the North Carolina Trauma Registry, using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes. Prospectively collected data, sorted by year, were descriptively analyzed for demographics, referral patterns, etiology, anatomic location, and clinical outcomes. Number of patients with facial fractures increased from 201 per year to 263 per year (total n = 1508). Although transport distances remained constant at ∼85 miles, standard deviation increased from 37 to 68 miles. Transport time increased from 87 to 119 minutes. Referrals came from 28 surrounding counties in 2005 and 43 counties in 2010. Regarding etiology, MVCs decreased from 40% to 27%, all-terrain vehicle crashes decreased from 6% to 2%, falls increased from 8% to 19%, and bicycle accidents increased from 3% to 6%. Regarding anatomic location, frontal sinus fractures increased from 8% to 37%, zygomaticomaxillary fractures increased from 9% to 18%, nasoethmoid fractures decreased from 12% to 6%, orbital floor fractures decreased from 6% to 3%, and mandible fractures decreased from 28% to 18%. Single-site fractures increased from 75% to 90%. Length of intensive care unit and hospital stay remained stable at 3 and 7 days, respectively. Despite a decrease in MVC-related facial fractures, the overall increase in facial fractures referred to our trauma center is due to a growing number of patient transfers from rural hospitals, where a paucity of qualified surgeons may exist.

  14. Bariatric surgery results: reporting clinical characteristics and adverse outcomes from an integrated healthcare delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Robert A; Fisher, David P; Dutta, Sanjoy; O'Brien, Rebecca M; Ackerson, Lynn M; Sorel, Michael E; Sidney, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Limited data have been reported on bariatric surgery within a large, high-volume regional multicenter integrated healthcare delivery system. Review clinical characteristics and short- and intermediate-term outcomes and adverse events from a bariatric surgery program within an integrated healthcare delivery system. Single high-volume, multicenter regional integrated healthcare delivery system. Adult patients who underwent primary bariatric surgery during 2010-2011 were reviewed. Clinical characteristics, outcomes, and weight loss results were extracted from the electronic medical record. A total of 2399 patients were identified within the study period. The 30-day rates of clinical outcomes for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB; n = 1313) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG; n = 1018) were 2.9% for readmission, 3.0% for major complications, .8% for reoperation, and 0% for mortality. One-year and 2-year weight loss results were as follows: percent weight loss (%WL) was 31.4 (±SD 8.5) and 34.2±12.0% for SG and 34.1±9.3 and 39.1±11.9 for RYGB; percent excess weight loss (%EBWL) was 64.2±18.0 and 69.8±23.7 for SG and 68.0±19.3 and 77.8±23.7 for RYGB; percent excess body mass index loss (%EBMIL) was 72.9±21.0 and 77.7±22.4 for SG and 76.6±22.1% and 85.6±21.6 for RYGB. Follow-up for each procedure at 1 year was 76% for SG (n = 778) and 80% for RYGB (n = 1052) and at 2 years was 65% for SG (n = 659) and 67% for RYGB (n = 875). A large regional high-volume multicenter bariatric program within an integrated healthcare delivery system can produce excellent short-term results with low rates of short- and intermediate-term adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Demographic correlates of children and adolescents with Autistic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyoub Malek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Comparison of the demographic characteristics of patients provides useful information to their identification. This study aimed to determine the demographic characteristics of children and adolescents with autistic disorder (AD. Methods: In this cross-sectional case-control study, 115 children and adolescents with AD were selected from Autism Society Rehabilitation Center in Tabriz, Iran, and 112 normal children and adolescents from the public schools, in 2014. The participants in both groups were matched regarding age and gender. Diagnosis of AD was performed using diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-4th edition (DSM-IV criteria and clinical diagnostic interviews by two child and adolescent psychiatrists. The demographic information of children and adolescents and their parents were collected from the medical records of children and interviews with their mothers. Results: Most of the children with autism had second or higher birth order and had families with more than three members. Mothers of children with autism had significantly lower levels of education and were mostly housewives. Fathers of autistic children mostly had high school diploma and fewer had university education, and most of them were employed. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the AD group and the control group regarding the average height and weight of children and the residence (urban or rural and age of parents at childbirth.Conclusion: The demographic characteristics of the two groups of children and adolescents with AD and normal controls were different from each other regarding family size, birth order, parent occupation, and parent education variables.

  16. Building demographic literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, K

    1993-01-01

    Students should get in the habit of seeking out the most current projections, estimates, or rates available. Since demographic measures change over time, publications based on the UN's world population projections from 1980 or 1990 may need to be supplemented using the UN's most current, 1992, projections. A 1989 Census Bureau report on the African American Population will not contain data from the 1990 Census or the 1992 Current Population Survey, conducted by the Census Bureau. Some groups collect data with advocacy in mind, as shown by the range of estimates of participants at the 1993 National March on Washington for Lesbian, Gay and Bi Equal Rights and Liberation. The organizers estimated that 1 million people participated; the US Park Police estimated 300,000; and the Washington Blade, a gay newspaper, reported 750,000. A seemingly innocuous choice of phrasing can change the meaning of demographic data. One commonly misreported concept is population doubling time which is not a prediction, but rather a concept designed to accent how fast a population is growing at the present time. At current rates, the population of India would double in size in 34 years, but it is more likely that growth rates will begin to slow down somewhat during that time. Older students may be encouraged to examine the assumptions behind population projections. The UN's long-range projection that world population will grow to 10 billion by 2050 is based on certain assumption about fertility and mortality during the period. With regard to the fastest growing US minority, Hispanics added the largest number of people to the US population during the 1980s, but Asians had the largest percent increase. The time to initiate demographic literacy is in the early grades of school.

  17. EJSCREEN Version 1, Demographic Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays demographic data used in EJSCREEN. All demographic data were derived from American Community Survey 2006-2010 estimates. EJSCREEN is an...

  18. A retrospective research on demographic characteristics of blindness and low vision in Zaozhuang of Shandong Province%山东枣庄地区低视力人群眼病筛查的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    博文; 孙光华; 张美玲; 彭志理; 姜丽; 刘艳珣

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the incidence and demographic characteristics of blindness and low vision, and to set out a specific eye health education in Zaozhuang, Shandong Province. METHODS:The medical records of admission screening in preschoolers, cataract extraction project and medical outreach program in Zaozhuang were retrospective studied.A total of 12 685 people participated in the study, among those 7 962 were males, and 4 723 were females. 2 262 cases were in low age group ( aged 2 .5-15 ) , 4 684 cases were in young age group ( aged 15-50 ) , and 5 739 cases were in elder age group ( aged >50 ) . The examination protocol included visual acuity testing, intraocular pressure, computer optometry, anterior segment examination using slit lamp biomicroscopy, and fundus examination.The family history, ocular trauma, surgery and drug treatment were also recorded. RESULTS:The incidence of blindness and low vision in low age group (423 patients) was 3.33%.The leading causes were amblyopia, ametropia, ocular trauma, and retinopathy of the premature, etc. The incidence of blindness and low vision in young age group ( 239 patients) was 1.88%. The main causes were ocular trauma, high myopia, and retinal detachment, etc.The incidence of blindness and low vision in old age group (597 patients ) was 4.71%. The primary causes were cataract, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration, etc.The incidence of blindness and low vision increased with the age, and it was higher in females. CONCLUSION: The incidence of blindness and low vision in all groups, of which the leading causes are different, is higher than that of China.Early detection and treatment are important for low age patients, which can significantly increase the visual outcome.It's necessary for young patients to receive health education on common ocular diseases and labor protection.For elder patients, early cataract extraction surgery and treatment for ocular fundus disease are critical.%目的:通

  19. Tidal characteristics in the Wenzhou offshore waters and changes resulting from the Wenzhou Shoal Reclamation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Min; Bao, Xianwen; Yu, Huaming; Ding, Yang

    2015-12-01

    The Wenzhou Shoal Reclamation Project is the core part of Wenzhou Peninsula Engineering which is a big comprehensive development project to expand the city space. The dynamics of the surrounding area was proved to suffer little effect in response to the Lingni north dyke since it was built approximately along the current direction. Therefore, this paper focuses firstly on the tidal characteristics in the Wenzhou and Yueqing bays with the Lingni north dyke being built and then on the changes resulting from the implementation of the on-going Wenzhou Shoal Reclamation Project (WSRP) which will reclaim land from the whole Wenzhou Shoal. To simulate the tidal dynamics, a high-resolution coastal ocean model with unstructured triangular grids was set up for the Wenzhou and Yueqing Bays. The model resolved the complicated tidal dynamics with the simulated tidal elevation and current in good agreement with observations. In the study area, M2 is the predominant tidal component, which means the tide is semidiurnal. The new reclamation project hardly affects the Yueqing Bay and the open ocean, but there are concentrated effects on the mouth of the southern branch of the Oujiang River and the southwest of Wenzhou Shoal. This study provides an indicative reference to the local government and helps to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of the project.

  20. Characteristics of wastes from electric and electronic equipment in Greece: results of a field survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannidis, Avraam; Perkoulidis, George; Papadopoulos, Agis; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Tsatsarelis, Thomas

    2005-08-01

    The lifespan of electric and electronic equipment is becoming shorter and the amount of related waste is increasing. This study aimed to contribute to the knowledge about qualitative and quantitative characteristics of such wastes in Greece. Specifically, results are presented from a field survey, which took place in the city of Thessaloniki, Greece, during the year 2002. The survey was conducted with suitable questionnaires in department stores and in households of various municipalities. Household appliances were grouped as follows: (A) large (refrigerator, freezer, washing machine, clothes dryer, electric cooker, microwave oven, electric heater), (B) small (vacuum cleaner, electric iron, hair dryer), (C) information technology and telecommunication equipment (PC, laptop, printer, phone) and (D) consumer equipment (radio, TV, video, DVD, console). The analysis indicated that the lifespan of all new goods is gradually reducing (apart from refrigerators, for which the lifespan was surprisingly found to be increasing) and provided linearized functions for predicting the lifespan, according to the year of manufacture, for certain large appliances.

  1. Experimental results obtained with the simulated cold moderator system. System characteristics and technical issues

    CERN Document Server

    Aso, T; Hino, R; Kaminaga, M; Kinoshita, H; Takahashi, T

    2002-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization have been developing a Mega-Watt scale spallation target system. In the system, neutrons generated in a target are sorted out their energy to the proper values in liquid-hydrogen moderators. Then, the liquid-hydrogen is forced to circulate in order to suppress hydrogen temperature increase. In the operation of moderators, it is very important to establish a safety protection system against emergency shutdown of the accelerator or accidents of the cold moderator system. In order to obtain a technical data for design and safety review of the liquid-hydrogen system, we have fabricated an experimental apparatus simulated the cold moderator system using liquid nitrogen (max. 1.5 MPa, mini. 77 K) instead of liquid hydrogen. The experiments on a controllability of the system were carried out to investigate dynamic characteristics of the system. This report presents the experimental results and technical issues for the co...

  2. Characteristics and Treatment Results of 5 Patients with Fibrous Dysplasia and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilufer Ozdemir Kutbay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Fibrous dysplasia is a rare bone disease caused by missense mutation leading to abnormal fibroblast and osteoblast proliferation and increased bone resorption. FD can present in monostotic or polyostotic forms. About 3% of FD could be in association with McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS. Because FD is a rare disease, there is limited data in the literature about characteristics of disease and response to treatment. Methods. We present our five cases of FD with general properties and their responses to medical treatment. Results. Two of our patients had polyostotic and three had monostotic FD. One of the polyostotic patients had MAS. One of our patients had surgery for femur fractures, facial asymmetry, and findings of compression. Four patients were given pamidronate; one was given zoledronic acid as bisphosphonate treatment. Bone pain was relieved in all patients with medical treatment. Conclusion. There was a decrease in bone turnover markers to some degree with medical treatment but no radiological improvement was observed.

  3. Characteristics of Bone Injuries Resulting from Knife Wounds Incised with Different Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Caitlin; Kumaratilake, Jaliya; Henneberg, Maciej

    2017-02-23

    The aim of this research was to experimentally determine the characteristics of incised bone wounds, which are commonly found in defense injuries. A specially constructed pivoting arm device was used to inflict wounds with controlled forces and direction. Five knives were selected to inflict the wounds on porcine forelimbs. Eight incised wounds were made per knife per force. A larger knife and a greater force caused longer and wider bone wounds. Comparisons of individual knives at the two forces produced varying results in the bone wounds. A correlation was seen between the force and the length (r = 0.69), width (r = 0.63), and depth (r = 0.57) of bone wounds. Serrated-edge and nonserrated knives can be distinguished from the appearance of the wound. The outcomes may be applicable in forensic investigations to ascertain the forces associated with incised wounds and identify the specific knife used. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Experimental results obtained with the simulated cold moderator system. System characteristics and technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aso, Tomokazu; Kaminaga, Masanori; Haga, Katsuhiro; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Takahashi, Toshio; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-12-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization have been developing a Mega-Watt scale spallation target system. In the system, neutrons generated in a target are sorted out their energy to the proper values in liquid-hydrogen moderators. Then, the liquid-hydrogen is forced to circulate in order to suppress hydrogen temperature increase. In the operation of moderators, it is very important to establish a safety protection system against emergency shutdown of the accelerator or accidents of the cold moderator system. In order to obtain a technical data for design and safety review of the liquid-hydrogen system, we have fabricated an experimental apparatus simulated the cold moderator system using liquid nitrogen (max. 1.5 MPa, mini. 77 K) instead of liquid hydrogen. The experiments on a controllability of the system were carried out to investigate dynamic characteristics of the system. This report presents the experimental results and technical issues for the construction of a practical liquid-hydrogen moderator system of the Mega-Watt scale target system. (author)

  5. Evolutionary shaping of demographic schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Kenneth W.; Steinsaltz, David; Evans, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary processes of natural selection may be expected to leave their mark on age patterns of survival and reproduction. Demographic theory includes three main strands—mutation accumulation, stochastic vitality, and optimal life histories. This paper reviews the three strands and, concentrating on mutation accumulation, extends a mathematical result with broad implications concerning the effect of interactions between small age-specific effects of deleterious mutant alleles. Empirical data from genomic sequencing along with prospects for combining strands of theory hold hope for future progress. PMID:25024186

  6. Demographic and affective covariates of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garron, D C; Leavitt, F

    1979-11-01

    Relationships of four demographic variables and five affective variables to eight attributes of low back pain were investigated in 251 patients by stepwise, multivariate analysis. The demographic variables are age, sex, race, and education. The affective variables are state anxiety, trait anxiety anxiety, hostility, and depression. Seven of the pain variables are from the factorially derived Low Back Pain Questionnaire. The eighth pain variable is a self-estimate of intensity. Relationships among demographic and pain variables are small and unsystematic. Hostility has a small, systematically inverse relation to pain variables, supporting theories relating low back pain to inhibition of anger. Anxiety has a small positive relationship, and depression has no relationship to pain variables. In general, the small relationships indicate that the Low Back Pain Questionnaire provides descriptions of pain that are not confounded by social characteristics or current emotional states of patients.

  7. Imitation Combined with a Characteristic Stimulus Duration Results in Robust Collective Decision-Making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Toulet

    Full Text Available For group-living animals, reaching consensus to stay cohesive is crucial for their fitness, particularly when collective motion starts and stops. Understanding the decision-making at individual and collective levels upon sudden disturbances is central in the study of collective animal behavior, and con