Full Text Available Abstract Background Demodex gatoi is unique among demodectic mites. It possesses a distinct stubby appearance, and, instead of residing in the hair follicles, it dwells in the keratin layer of the epidermis, causing a pruritic and contagious skin disease in cats. Little is known of the occurrence of D. gatoi in Europe or control of D. gatoi infestation. Case presentation We describe D. gatoi in 10 cats, including five Cornish Rex, two Burmese, one Exotic, one Persian and one Siamese, living in six multi-cat households in different locations in Finland containing 21 cats in total. Intense pruritus was the main clinical sign. Scaling, broken hairs, alopecia and self-inflicted excoriations were also observed. Diagnosis was based on finding typical short-bodied demodectic mites in skin scrapings, skin biopsies or on tape strips. Other pruritic skin diseases, such as allergies and dermatophytoses, were ruled out. In one household, despite finding several mites on one cat, all six cats of the household remained symptomless. Amitraz used weekly at a concentration of 125-250 ppm for 2-3 months, proved successful in three households, 2% lime sulphur weekly dips applied for six weeks in one household and peroral ivermectin (1 mg every other day for 10 weeks in one household. Previous trials in four households with imidacloprid-moxidectin, selamectin or injected ivermectin given once or twice a month appeared ineffective. Conclusion D. gatoi-associated dermatitis is an emerging contagious skin disease in cats in Finland. Although pruritus is common, some cats may harbour the mites without clinical signs. In addition, due to translucency of the mites and fastidious feline grooming habits, the diagnosis may be challenging. An effective and convenient way to treat D. gatoi infestations has yet to emerge.
Ferreira, Diana; Sastre, Natalia; Ravera, Iván; Altet, Laura; Francino, Olga; Bardagí, Mar; Ferrer, Lluís
Demodex cati and Demodex gatoi are considered the two Demodex species of cats. However, several reports have identified Demodex mites morphologically different from these two species. The differentiation of Demodex mites is usually based on morphology, but within the same species different morphologies can occur. DNA amplification/sequencing has been used effectively to identify and differentiate Demodex mites in humans, dogs and cats. The aim was to develop a PCR technique to identify feline Demodex mites and use this technique to investigate the frequency of Demodex in cats. Demodex cati, D. gatoi and Demodex mites classified morphologically as the third unnamed feline species were obtained. Hair samples were taken from 74 cats. DNA was extracted; a 330 bp fragment of the 16S rDNA was amplified and sequenced. The sequences of D. cati and D. gatoi shared >98% identity with those published on GenBank. The sequence of the third unnamed species showed 98% identity with a recently published feline Demodex sequence and only 75.2 and 70.9% identity with D. gatoi and D. cati sequences, respectively. Demodex DNA was detected in 19 of 74 cats tested; 11 DNA sequences corresponded to Demodex canis, five to Demodex folliculorum, three to D. cati and two to Demodex brevis. Three Demodex species can be found in cats, because the third unnamed Demodex species is likely to be a distinct species. Apart from D. cati and D. gatoi, DNA from D. canis, D. folliculorum and D. brevis was found on feline skin. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.
Megan S Thoemmes
Full Text Available Demodex mites are a group of hair follicle and sebaceous gland-dwelling species. The species of these mites found on humans are arguably the animals with which we have the most intimate interactions. Yet, their prevalence and diversity have been poorly explored. Here we use a new molecular method to assess the occurrence of Demodex mites on humans. In addition, we use the 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA to assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary history of Demodex lineages. Within our samples, 100% of people over 18 years of age appear to host at least one Demodex species, suggesting that Demodex mites may be universal associates of adult humans. A phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA reveals intraspecific structure within one of the two named human-associated Demodex species, D. brevis. The D. brevis clade is geographically structured, suggesting that new lineages are likely to be discovered as humans from additional geographic regions are sampled.
Background: Patients with rosacea demonstrate a higher density of Demodex mites in their skin than controls. A bacterium isolated from a Demodex mite from a patient with papulopustular rosacea (PPR) was previously shown to provoke an immune response in patients with PPR or ocular rosacea thus suggesting a possible role for bacterial proteins in the etiology of this condition. Objectives: To examine the response of neutrophils to proteins derived from a bacterium isolated from a Demodex mite. Methods: Bacterial cells were lysed and proteins were partially purified by AKTA-FPLC. Isolated neutrophils were exposed to bacterial proteins and monitored for alterations in migration, degranulation and cytokine production. Results: Neutrophils exposed to proteins from Bacillus cells demonstrated increased levels of migration and elevated release of MMP-9, an enzyme known to degrade collagen and cathelicidin, an antimicrobial peptide. In addition neutrophils exposed to the bacterial proteins demonstrated elevated rates of Il-8 and TNF-alpha production. Conclusions: Proteins produced by a bacterium isolated from a Demodex mite have the ability to increase the migration, degranulation and cytokine production abilities of neutrophils. These results suggest that bacteria may play a role in the inflammatory erythema associated with rosacea.
Sivajothi, S.; Sudhakara Reddy, B.; Rayulu, V. C.
Two mongrel dogs aged between 7 and 9 months in a same house were presented to the clinics with a history of chronic dermatitis associated with pruritus. Clinical examination revealed presence of primary and secondary skin lesions on the face, around the ears, chin, neck, fore limbs and lateral abdomen. Examination of skin scrapings revealed Demodex cornei (majority) and D. canis (minority) in both the dogs. By using hair pluck examination D. canis were detected and by tape impression smears ...
Sivajothi, S; Sudhakara Reddy, B; Rayulu, V C
Two mongrel dogs aged between 7 and 9 months in a same house were presented to the clinics with a history of chronic dermatitis associated with pruritus. Clinical examination revealed presence of primary and secondary skin lesions on the face, around the ears, chin, neck, fore limbs and lateral abdomen. Examination of skin scrapings revealed Demodex cornei (majority) and D. canis (minority) in both the dogs. By using hair pluck examination D. canis were detected and by tape impression smears examination large number of adult short-tail Demodex mites were found. D. cornei was identified by based on the morphological characters including short opisthosoma with blind and round terminal end. Mean length of total body, opisthosoma of both types of the mites were differed statistically significant (P 0.05). Dogs were treated with daily oral ivermectin @ 500 μg/kg/day, external application of amitraz along with supportive therapy. After completion of 45 days of therapy dogs were recovered completely without any side effects.
Eser, Ayla; Erpolat, Seval; Kaygusuz, Ikbal; Balci, Hatice; Kosus, Aydin
Abstract: Background: Background: Demodex mites are acari that reside in the pilosebaceous unit of the skin and have been associated with skin disorders. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Demodex folliculorum (D. folliculorum) mites in polycystic ovary syndrome patients as well as to examine the relationship between Demodex infestation and the presence of acne and oily or dry skin types in polycystic ovary syndrome patients. Methods: 41 polycystic ...
Nutting, W B; Desch, C E
A brief review of the taxonomy of Demodex canis is followed by a complete redescription. Demodex canis is diagnosed with D. odocoilei of the white-tailed deer. In view of the continued speculation that dogs and man share the same demodicid, simple morphological characters are noted which distinguish D. canis from D. folliculorum and D. brevis in all stages of their life cycles.
Milosevic, Milivoj A; Frank, Linda A; Brahmbhatt, Rupal A; Kania, Stephen A
The identification of Demodex mites from dogs is usually based on morphology and location. Mites with uncharacteristic features or from unusual locations, hosts or disease manifestations could represent new species not previously described; however, this is difficult to determine based on morphology alone. The goal of this study was to identify and confirm Demodex injai in association with otitis externa in a dog using PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. Otic samples were obtained from a beagle in which a long-bodied Demodex mite was identified. For comparison, Demodex mite samples were collected from a swab and scraping of the dorsal skin of a wire-haired fox terrier and an otic sample from a dog with generalized and otic demodicosis. To identify the Demodex mite, DNA was extracted, and 16S rRNA was amplified by PCR, sequenced and compared with Demodex sequences available in public databases and from separate samples morphologically diagnosed as D. injai and Demodex canis. PCR amplification of the long-bodied mite rRNA DNA obtained from otic samples was approximately 330 bp and was identical to that from the mite morphologically identified as D. injai obtained from the dorsal skin of a dog. Furthermore, the examined mite did not have any significant homology to any of the reported genes from Demodex spp. These results confirmed that the demodex mites in this case were D. injai. © 2013 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.
Eser, Ayla; Erpolat, Seval; Kaygusuz, Ikbal; Balci, Hatice; Kosus, Aydin
Background: Demodex mites are acari that reside in the pilosebaceous unit of the skin and have been associated with skin disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Demodex folliculorum (D. folliculorum) mites in polycystic ovary syndrome patients as well as to examine the relationship between Demodex infestation and the presence of acne and oily or dry skin types in polycystic ovary syndrome patients. 41 polycystic ovary syndrome patients and 47 non-polycystic ovary syndrome control subjects were enrolled in the study. polycystic ovary syndrome was diagnosed according to the revised 2003 ESHRE/ASRM polycystic ovary syndrome Consensus Workshop Group diagnostic criteria. Microscopic examination of D. folliculorum mites was carried out by standardized skin surface biopsy. The result was considered positive when there were more than 5 mites per cm2. D. folliculorum was positive in 53.7% of the polycystic ovary syndrome patients and 31.9% of the non-polycystic ovary syndrome group (p=0.052). Demodex positivity was significantly associated with acne (p=0.003) and oily skin (p=0.005) in the polycystic ovary syndrome patients but not in the controls. Our study is limited by the relatively small number of subjects and the observational nature of the study design. Demodex mites might have a role in acne pathogenesis in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Anti-Demodex treatment may increase the response to treatment of acne. Further studies are indicated.
Zhao, Ya-e; Wang, Zheng-hang; Xu, Yang; Xu, Ji-ru; Liu, Wen-yan; Wei, Meng; Wang, Chu-ying
To our knowledge, few reports on Demodex studied at the molecular level are available at present. In this study our group, for the first time, cloned, sequenced and analyzed the chitin synthase (CHS) gene fragments of Demodex folliculorum, Demodex brevis, and Demodex canis (three isolates from each species) from Xi’an China, by designing specific primers based on the only partial sequence of the CHS gene of D. canis from Japan, retrieved from GenBank. Results show that amplification was successful only in three D. canis isolates and one D. brevis isolate out of the nine Demodex isolates. The obtained fragments were sequenced to be 339 bp for D. canis and 338 bp for D. brevis. The CHS gene sequence similarities between the three Xi’an D. canis isolates and one Japanese D. canis isolate ranged from 99.7% to 100.0%, and those between four D. canis isolates and one D. brevis isolate were 99.1%–99.4%. Phylogenetic trees based on maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods shared the same clusters, according with the traditional classification. Two open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in each CHS gene sequenced, and their corresponding amino acid sequences were located at the catalytic domain. The relatively conserved sequences could be deduced to be a CHS class A gene, which is associated with chitin synthesis in the integument of Demodex mites. PMID:23024043
Zhao, Ya-e; Wang, Zheng-hang; Xu, Yang; Xu, Ji-ru; Liu, Wen-yan; Wei, Meng; Wang, Chu-ying
To our knowledge, few reports on Demodex studied at the molecular level are available at present. In this study our group, for the first time, cloned, sequenced and analyzed the chitin synthase (CHS) gene fragments of Demodex folliculorum, Demodex brevis, and Demodex canis (three isolates from each species) from Xi'an China, by designing specific primers based on the only partial sequence of the CHS gene of D. canis from Japan, retrieved from GenBank. Results show that amplification was successful only in three D. canis isolates and one D. brevis isolate out of the nine Demodex isolates. The obtained fragments were sequenced to be 339 bp for D. canis and 338 bp for D. brevis. The CHS gene sequence similarities between the three Xi'an D. canis isolates and one Japanese D. canis isolate ranged from 99.7% to 100.0%, and those between four D. canis isolates and one D. brevis isolate were 99.1%-99.4%. Phylogenetic trees based on maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods shared the same clusters, according with the traditional classification. Two open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in each CHS gene sequenced, and their corresponding amino acid sequences were located at the catalytic domain. The relatively conserved sequences could be deduced to be a CHS class A gene, which is associated with chitin synthesis in the integument of Demodex mites.
Sastre, N; Ravera, I; Ferreira, D; Altet, L; Sánchez, A; Bardagí, M; Francino, O; Ferrer, L
The identification of Demodex injai as a second Demodex species of dog opened new questions and challenges in the understanding on the Demodex-host relationships. In this paper, we describe the development of a conventional PCR technique based on published genome sequences of D. injai from GenBank that specifically detects DNA from D. injai. This technique amplifies a 238-bp fragment corresponding to a region of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA of D. injai. The PCR was positive in DNA samples obtained from mites identified morphologically as D. injai, which served as positive controls, as well as in samples from three cases of demodicosis associated with proliferation of mites identified as D. injai. Furthermore, the PCR was positive in 2 out of 19 healthy dogs. Samples of Demodex canis and Demodex folliculorum were consistently negative. Skin samples from seven dogs with generalized demodicosis caused by D. canis were all negative in the D. injai-specific PCR, demonstrating that in generalized canine demodicosis, mite proliferation is species-specific. This technique can be a useful tool in the diagnosis and in epidemiologic and pathogenic studies.
Lankton, Julia S; Chapman, Alycia; Ramsay, Edward C; Kania, Stephen A; Newkirk, Kimberly M
The presence of preputial Demodex species in four captive, wild-caught big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in eastern Tennessee, USA, examined between 2008 and 2010 is reported. In three of four cases, there was associated folliculitis, dermatitis, or preputial adenitis. There were no clinical signs directly attributable to the mites, although penile prolapse was present in one case. Mites were retrieved from preputial skin samples of other archival big brown bats by potassium hydroxide digestion and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed 99.6% homology to Demodex canis, although morphologic differences distinguish the two species. Mites of this report differ in anatomic location from Demodex spp. previously reported in bats and represent a species unreported to public databases.
Desch, C; Nutting, W B
All life stages of Demodex cati are described and compared with D. canis. Presence of D. cati is reported for the first time from the external auditory meatus. In the two cases examined mites occurred in large numbers with little pathogenic effect.
Lacey, Noreen; Kavanagh, Kevin; Tseng, Scheffer C.G.
Demodex mites, class Arachnida and subclass Acarina, are elongated mites with clear cephalothorax and abdomens, the former with four pairs of legs. There are more than 100 species of Demodex mite, many of which are obligatory commensals of the pilosebaceous unit of mammals including cats, dogs, sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, deer, bats, hamsters, rats and mice. Among them, Demodex canis, which is found ubiquitously in dogs, is the most documented and investigated. In excessive numbers D. canis c...
Zhao, Ya-E; Cheng, Juan; Hu, Li; Ma, Jun-Xian
The DNA barcode has been widely used in species identification and phylogenetic analysis since 2003, but there have been no reports in Demodex. In this study, to obtain an appropriate DNA barcode for Demodex, molecular identification of Demodex caprae based on mitochondrial cox1 was conducted. Firstly, individual adults and eggs of D. caprae were obtained for genomic DNA (gDNA) extraction; Secondly, mitochondrial cox1 fragment was amplified, cloned, and sequenced; Thirdly, cox1 fragments of D. caprae were aligned with those of other Demodex retrieved from GenBank; Finally, the intra- and inter-specific divergences were computed and the phylogenetic trees were reconstructed to analyze phylogenetic relationship in Demodex. Results obtained from seven 429-bp fragments of D. caprae showed that sequence identities were above 99.1% among three adults and four eggs. The intraspecific divergences in D. caprae, Demodex folliculorum, Demodex brevis, and Demodex canis were 0.0-0.9, 0.5-0.9, 0.0-0.2, and 0.0-0.5%, respectively, while the interspecific divergences between D. caprae and D. folliculorum, D. canis, and D. brevis were 20.3-20.9, 21.8-23.0, and 25.0-25.3, respectively. The interspecific divergences were 10 times higher than intraspecific ones, indicating considerable barcoding gap. Furthermore, the phylogenetic trees showed that four Demodex species gathered separately, representing independent species; and Demodex folliculorum gathered with canine Demodex, D. caprae, and D. brevis in sequence. In conclusion, the selected 429-bp mitochondrial cox1 gene is an appropriate DNA barcode for molecular classification, identification, and phylogenetic analysis of Demodex. D. caprae is an independent species and D. folliculorum is closer to D. canis than to D. caprae or D. brevis.
Kaya, Sadik; Selimoglu, Mukadder Ayse; Kaya, Ozlem Aycan; Ozgen, Unsal
Hair follicle mites, Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis, are known to accompany immune-deficiency states, however no study so far has investigated their presence in malnutrition. In this study we aimed to determine the prevalence of those mites in childhood malnutrition, malignancy and risk factors. One hundred children with malnutrition, 31 children with malignancy and 63 children without any chronic disease and infection were included in this study. History, physical examination, anthropometric measurements and routine laboratory findings were recorded. Demodex spp. were investigated by standard superficial skin biopsies. Demodex was found in 25 patients (25%), 10 patients (32.3%), and one patient (1.6%) among malnutrition, malignancy, and control groups, respectively (P = 0.001). By using multilogistic regression binary method, it was found that malnutrition, malignancy and low socioeconomic level increased the risk 17.37 times (P = 0.006), 27.29 times (P = 0.002), and 2.3 times (P = 0.037), respectively. Of 22 children who were evaluated after 6 months, 13 (59.1%) were negative for Demodex. In 11 (84.6%) of those 13, nutritional status was improved. Demodex was detected in approximately in one-quarter and one-third of children with malnutrition and malignancy, respectively. Eliminating the cause of immunosuppression, such as poor nutritional status, seems also to be an effective method for eliminating Demodex. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2012 Japan Pediatric Society.
Mehmet Hanifi Kokacya
Conclusion: Demodex spp. are more common in alcohol-dependent patients due conditions of reduced self-care and immunosuppression. Demodex parasites should be considered in alcohol-dependent patients with skin lesions, especially on the face, and should to be treated if needed. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 259-263
Kumari, P; Nigam, R; Singh, A; Nakade, U P; Sharma, A; Garg, S K; Singh, S K
Demodex canis infestation in dogs remains one of the main challenges in veterinary dermatology. The exact pathogenesis of canine demodicosis is unknown but an aberration in immune status is considered very significant. No studies have underpinned the nexus between induction of demodicosis and neural immunosuppressive pathways so far. We have evaluated the involvement of cholinergic pathways in association with cytokines regulation as an insight into the immuno-pathogenesis of canine demodicosis in the present study. Remarkable elevations in circulatory immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 and cholinesterase activity were observed in dogs with demodicosis. Simultaneously, remarkable reduction in circulatory pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha level was observed in dogs with demodicosis. Findings of the present study evidently suggest that Demodex mites might be affecting the cholinergic pathways to induce immunosuppression in their host and then proliferate incessantly in skin microenvironment to cause demodicosis.
Chesney, C J
A form of Demodex species mite shorter in length than Demodex canis was found in six consecutive cases of canine demodicosis. The mean length of the parasite was 122.6 microns (SD 12.0 microns, 39 mites counted), significantly shorter than either male or female forms of D canis (P < 0.0001). The proportion of short to long mites in each case varied from 0.5 to 22 per 100. In young dogs, skin signs associated with the presence of mites were first noted after about seven months, while in the oldest subject the disease became apparent at 10 years of age. This form of mite has now been found in four countries over three continents, the findings suggesting that it is not uncommon and is acquired in puppyhood, although it may be carried unnoticed for many years.
S. Sivajothi; B. Sudhakara Reddy; K. Nalini Kumari; V.C.Rayulu
In the two years period of research on canine dermatology at College Hospital of College of Veterinary Science Tirupati, 32 dogs with dermatological problems found to have demodicosis. In these cases demodicosis was confirmed by clinical examination, microscopic examination of scrapings and tape impression smears collected from the lesions. In these two different types of Demodex mites were identified based on their habitat and morphology along with micrometry. Micrometry was carried out o...
Lacey, Noreen; Kavanagh, Kevin; Tseng, Scheffer C G
Demodex mites, class Arachnida and subclass Acarina, are elongated mites with clear cephalothorax and abdomens, the former with four pairs of legs. There are more than 100 species of Demodex mite, many of which are obligatory commensals of the pilosebaceous unit of mammals including cats, dogs, sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, deer, bats, hamsters, rats and mice. Among them, Demodex canis, which is found ubiquitously in dogs, is the most documented and investigated. In excessive numbers D. canis causes the inflammatory disease termed demodicosis (demodectic mange, follicular mange or red mange), which is more common in purebred dogs and has a hereditary predisposition in breeding kennels1. Two distinct Demodex species have been confirmed as the most common ectoparasite in man. The larger Demodex folliculorum, about 0.3-0.4 mm long, is primarily found as a cluster in the hair follicle (Figure 1a), while the smaller Demodex brevis, about 0.2-0.3 mm long with a spindle shape and stubby legs, resides solitarily in the sebaceous gland (Figure 1b). These two species are also ubiquitously found in all human races without gender preference. The pathogenic role of Demodex mites in veterinary medicine is not as greatly disputed as in human diseases. In this article, we review the key literature and our joint research experience regarding the pathogenic potential of these two mites in causing inflammatory diseases of human skin and eye. We hope that the evidence summarized herein will invite readers to take a different look at the life of Demodex mites in several common human diseases.
Zhao, Ya-e; Wang, Zheng-hang; Xu, Yang; Xu, Ji-ru; Liu, Wen-yan; Wei, Meng; Wang, Chu-ying
To our knowledge, few reports on Demodex studied at the molecular level are available at present. In this study our group, for the first time, cloned, sequenced and analyzed the chitin synthase (CHS) gene fragments of Demodex folliculorum, Demodex brevis, and Demodex canis (three isolates from each species) from Xi’an China, by designing specific primers based on the only partial sequence of the CHS gene of D. canis from Japan, retrieved from GenBank. Results show that amplification was succe...
Full Text Available Introduction: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA is one of the most common dermatologic disorders with a multifactorial etiology. Inflammatory activators such as Demodex infestation may play a role in the pathogenesis of some cases of androgenetic alopecia that do not respond to common treatments such as minoxidil and finasteride. The goal of this study is to evaluate the relationship between Demodex infestation and AGA. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 41 patients with AGA referred to the Dermatology Clinic of Imam Reza Hospital and 33 healthy individuals were evaluated as control. All of them were between 20 and 40 years old men. In order to identify Demodex infestation they were referred to the Parasitology laboratory. Results: Demodex was detected in 19.5% of patients and 15.2% of controls; therefore, there was no significant relationship between them statistically ( P = 0.0787. Most of patients (85.4% had greasy hair. The most common pattern of baldness was II degree in Hamilton scale. Conclusion: There is no relation between AGA and Demodex.
Martinaud, C; Gaillard, T; Pons, S; Fournier, B; Brisou, P
We present a 73-year-old woman presented to our hospital with a 2 years history of eyes itching. The ophthalmological testing was normal. Physical examination revealed blepharitis and lesions acnea-like on mouth, nose and chest. Biological testing revealed no abnormalities. Histologic study and direct immunofluorescence on a cutaneous biopsy were no contributive. The research of an allergic origine was practised by cutaneous and serological tests and negative. An examination of eyelashes was performed and yielded Demodex. Demodex folliculorum is a mite that is the most common permanent ectoparasite of humans, which is thought to be linked to blepharitis and allergic blepharoconjunctivis with rosacea, although much controversy persists. Recent studies demonstrate a high frequence of chronic blepharitis when Demodex are abundant. Several molecules can be used to treat this infestation. Parasiticide as oral ivermectine may be useful when the infestation is important.
Alvarez, L; Medina, O C; García, M-E; García, H
For the first time in Venezuela, a case of canine demodicosis apparently caused by a simultaneous infection with an unclassified Demodex and Demodex canis has been observed. The most severely affected area of the dog involved, a 3-month-old male Doberman Pinscher, was the head, particularly the peri-orbital skin. Skin samples of the affected areas were taken and evaluated by both light and scanning electron microscopy. The mites of the unclassified Demodex were smaller than those of D. canis and appeared relatively stout. In the skin scrapings, D. canis outnumbered the unclassified Demodex by a ratio of 30:1, making it unclear if the unclassified Demodex is pathogenic to dogs. A combination of superficial and deep skin scrapings, from a suspected case of demodicosis, may help to reveal other infestations of the unclassified Demodex that would otherwise be masked by concurrent infections with D. canis.
Izdebska, J N; Rolbiecki, L
Demodecosis canina is one of the most important dog parasitoses, but its aetiology is still not well known. There are currently two known species of demodecid mite specific to the domestic dog Canis lupus familiaris Linnaeus, 1758 (Carnivora: Canidae). These are Demodex canis Leydig, 1859 (Acariformes: Demodecidae) and Demodex injai Desch & Hillier, 2003. There have also been many reports of the so-called 'short form', considered to be a separate species functioning under the name Demodex cornei nomen nudum, for which, however, no formal valid description has been documented. Taxonomic analysis of short forms of dog demodecid mites, associated with the stratum corneum, was performed, in line with the taxonomic criteria of Demodecidae systematics. This form was found to be a distinct species with features that differ from those of the other known species of this family. The species, including the adult and immature stages, is described. It is likely that different Demodex species parasitizing the domestic dog may be responsible for differentiated symptoms and different courses of demodecosis. However, the basis for clarifying this issue should be the correct, unambiguous identification of the species causing parasitosis. © 2018 The Royal Entomological Society.
de Rojas, Manuel; Riazzo, Cristina; Callejón, Rocío; Guevara, Diego; Cutillas, Cristina
Canine demodicosis is a severe and highly prevalent dermatologic disease in dogs. Pet dogs can be affected by three recognized Demodex species that can produce clinical effects. In this paper, three morphological types of Demodex mites have been isolated from Spanish dogs. A complete morphobiometrical study of each one has been carried out. Morphological and biometrical studies revealed three closely related populations with some distinctive characteristics and could be identified as Demodex canis, Demodex injai, and Demodex sp. "cornei." Furthermore, one population of D. canis from China, different populations of Demodex folliculorum from human skin (Spain and China), D. folliculorum from human eyelashes (Spain), and Demodex brevis from human skin (China) were considered to find out the level of variation between different species and geographical origin. The aim of the present study is to assess the usefulness of mitochondrial DNA molecular markers in establishing phylogenetic relationships and resolve taxonomic questions in Demodex mites. Molecular studies based on the amplification and sequencing of the 16S rDNA and cytochrome oxidase I mitochondrial genes did not show clear differences between the three morphotypes considered. Furthermore, phylogenetic relationships in Demodex mites were analyzed. The resulting phylogenetic trees show that Demodex species from dogs were gathered together, and populations of D. folliculorum from humans appear together in a different branch; however, D. brevis from humans seemed to be more distant. Our results show that cytochrome oxidase I region is a useful tool to solve different taxonomic questions at the species and population level and to infer phylogenetic relationships in Demodex species. However, 16S mitochondrial rDNA seems a good marker for comparisons at an interspecies level, but not at a population level in this group of mites. Furthermore, from genetic distance and divergence data, we would suggest that D. canis
Zhao, Ya-E; Wu, Li-Ping
For a long time, classification of Demodex mites has been mainly based on their hosts and phenotype characteristics. The study was the first to conduct molecular identification and genetic relationship analysis for six isolates of three Demodex species by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker. Totally, 239 DNA fragments were amplified from six Demodex isolates with 10 random primers in RAPD, of which 165 were polymorphic. Using a single primer, at least five fragments and at most 40 in the six isolates were amplified, whereas within a single isolate, a range of 35-49 fragments were amplified. DNA fingerprints of primers CZ 1-9 revealed intra- and interspecies difference in six Demodex isolates, whereas primer CZ 10 only revealed interspecies difference. The genetic distance and dendrogram showed the intraspecific genetic distances were closer than the interspecific genetic distances. The interspecific genetic distances of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex canis (0.7931-0.8140) were shorter than that of Demodex brevis and D. canis (0.8182-0.8987). The RAPD-SCAR marker displayed primer CZ 10 could be applied to identify the three Demodex species. The 479-bp fragment was specific for D. brevis, and the 261-bp fragment was specific for D. canis. The conclusion was that the RAPD-SCAR multi-marker was effective in molecular identification of three Demodex species. The genetic relationship between D. folliculorum and D. canis was nearer than that between D. folliculorum and D. brevis.
B. Sudhakara Reddy
Full Text Available In dogs, dermatitis due to mixed mite infestation is rare. During the five-year period of study, two dogs were identified suffering from dermatitis due to mixed Demodex and Sarcoptes mites. Upon clinical examination dogs had primary and secondary skin lesions on face, around the ears, chin, neck, fore limbs and lateral abdomen. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings revealed Demodex and Sarcoptes mites. Both dogs were treated with daily oral ivermectin at 100 to 400 μg/kg body weight as incremental doses, external application of amitraz and supportive treatments with topical antimicrobial shampoo. After completion of forty-two days of therapy, dogs were recovered from the dermatitis.
Tamura, Y; Kawamura, Y; Inoue, I; Ishino, S
Between 1997 and 1999, the prevalence of Demodex canis mites was determined in 150 dogs. In two dogs, we found two different species of mites; Demodex canis and another, unidentified, Demodex mite. The unidentified Demodex mite species had several different morphological features. First, it had a short opisthosoma and an obtuse end. In addition, the fourth coxisternal plate was rectangular and there was a band-like segmental plate between the fourth coxisternal plate and opisthosoma. Although all of the morphology and the development of male mites could not be investigated in this study, the location of the opisthosoma and the genital pore clearly differed from Demodex canis, suggesting that this unidentified mite is a new species.
Ravera, Iván; Altet, Laura; Francino, Olga; Sánchez, Armand; Roldán, Wendy; Villanueva, Sergio; Bardagí, Mar; Ferrer, Lluís
It is unproven that all dogs harbour Demodex mites in their skin. In fact, several microscopic studies have failed to demonstrate mites in healthy dogs. Demodex canis is a normal inhabitant of the skin of most, if not all, dogs. This hypothesis was tested using a sensitive real-time PCR to detect Demodex DNA in the skin of dogs. One hundred dogs living in a humane society shelter, 20 privately owned and healthy dogs and eight dogs receiving immunosuppressive or antineoplastic therapy. Hair samples (250-300 hairs with their hair bulbs) were taken from five or 20 skin locations. A real-time PCR that amplifies a 166 bp sequence of the D. canis chitin synthase gene was used. The percentage of positive dogs increased with the number of sampling points. When a large canine population was sampled at five cutaneous locations, 18% of dogs were positive for Demodex DNA. When 20 skin locations were sampled, all dogs tested positive for mite DNA. Our study indicates that Demodex colonization of the skin is present in all dogs, independent of age, sex, breed or coat. Nevertheless, the population of mites in a healthy dog appears to be small. Demodex DNA was amplified from all 20 cutaneous points investigated, without statistically significant differences. Using a real-time PCR technique, Demodex mites, albeit in very low numbers, were found to be normal inhabitants of haired areas of the skin of healthy dogs. © 2013 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.
Zhao, Ya-E; Wu, Li-Ping
To confirm phylogenetic relationships in Demodex mites based on mitochondrial 16S rDNA partial sequences, mtDNA 16S partial sequences of ten isolates of three Demodex species from China were amplified, recombined, and sequenced and then analyzed with two Demodex folliculorum isolates from Spain. Lastly, genetic distance was computed, and phylogenetic tree was reconstructed. MEGA 4.0 analysis showed high sequence identity among 16S rDNA partial sequences of three Demodex species, which were 95.85 % in D. folliculorum, 98.53 % in Demodex canis, and 99.71 % in Demodex brevis. The divergence, genetic distance, and transition/transversions of the three Demodex species reached interspecies level, whereas there was no significant difference of the divergence (1.1 %), genetic distance (0.011), and transition/transversions (3/1) of the two geographic D. folliculorum isolates (Spain and China). Phylogenetic trees reveal that the three Demodex species formed three separate branches of one clade, where D. folliculorum and D. canis gathered first, and then gathered with D. brevis. The two Spain and five China D. folliculorum isolates did not form sister clades. In conclusion, 16S mtDNA are suitable for phylogenetic relationship analysis in low taxa (genus or species), but not for intraspecies determination of Demodex. The differentiation among the three Demodex species has reached interspecies level.
Guerra, Yunaisy; Mencho, J.D; Rodríguez Diego, J.G; Marín, E; Olivares, J.L
Con el objetivo de determinar las características morfométricas del género Demodex, en perros con demodicosis, de una región cubana, se muestrearon 571 perros afectados por demodicosis. Se realizó el estudio morfométrico de ejemplares adultos y sus huevos, provenientes de animales naturalmente infestados. Por primera vez se comunica en Cuba, la presencia de una variedad fenotípica de Demodex diferentes a D. canis. In order to determine the morfometric characteristics of the genus Demodex o...
Wolf, R; Ophir, J; Avigad, J; Lengy, J; Krakowski, A
The hair follicle mites Demodex folliculorum and D. brevis are the most common permanent ectoparasites of Man. Ordinarily they are harmless to their human host and appear to be of no medical significance. We present, however, an unusual finding regarding this mite, namely, that in a potassium hydroxide mount of a skin scraping from a mycotic plaque we found numerous Demodex mites containing inside them spores of Microsporum canis. This could mean that the putatively inoffensive Demodex has the potential to ingest various microorganisms that are found in its niche and transport them to other areas of the skin or possibly to other individuals.
LIU, JI-XIN; SUN, YAN-HONG; LI, CHAO-PIN
Demodex is a type of permanent obligatory parasite, which can be found on the human body surface. Currently, drugs targeting Demodex usually result in adverse effects and have a poor therapeutic effect. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the use of Chinese crude medicine volatile oils for targeting and inhibiting Demodex in vitro. The volatile oils of six Chinese crude medicines were investigated, including clove, orange fruit, Manchurian wildginger, cinnamon bark, Rhizome ...
Hillier, Andrew; Desch, Clifford E
Large-bodied Demodex mites were detected in 4 dogs. The mites were readily detected in material obtained via deep skin scrapings and were most commonly found on the trunk. The mites were distinguishable from D. canis, because adult males were approximately 100% longer and adult females were approximately 50% longer than adult male and female D. canis mites, respectively. The large-bodied mites were found in the hair follicles, sebaceous ducts, and sebaceous glands in histologic sections of skin from 2 dogs. All dogs had adult-onset generalized demodicosis. Two dogs had coexistent iatrogenic hypercortisolism, 1 dog had hypothyroidism, and 1 dog did not have coexistent disease. Infestations responded to miticidal therapy, control of the coexistent disease, or both.
Zhao, Ya-E; Hu, Li; Ma, Jun-Xian
Demodex caprae infests the hair follicles and sebaceous glands of goats worldwide, which not only seriously impairs goat farming, but also causes a big economic loss. However, there are few reports on the DNA level of D. caprae. To reveal the taxonomic position of D. caprae within the genus Demodex, the present study conducted phylogenetic analysis of D. caprae based on mt16S rDNA sequence data. D. caprae adults and eggs were obtained from a skin nodule of the goat suffering demodicidosis. The mt16S rDNA sequences of individual mite were amplified using specific primers, and then cloned, sequenced, and aligned. The sequence divergence, genetic distance, and transition/transversion rate were computed, and the phylogenetic trees in Demodex were reconstructed. Results revealed the 339-bp partial sequences of six D. caprae isolates were obtained, and the sequence identity was 100% among isolates. The pairwise divergences between D. caprae and Demodex canis or Demodex folliculorum or Demodex brevis were 22.2-24.0%, 24.0-24.9%, and 22.9-23.2%, respectively. The corresponding average genetic distances were 2.840, 2.926, and 2.665, and the average transition/transversion rates were 0.70, 0.55, and 0.54, respectively. The divergences, genetic distances, and transition/transversion rates of D. caprae versus the other three species all reached interspecies level. The five phylogenetic trees all presented that D. caprae clustered with D. brevis first, and then with D. canis, D. folliculorum, and Demodex injai in sequence. In conclusion, D. caprae is an independent species, and it is closer to D. brevis than to D. canis, D. folliculorum, or D. injai.
Feline demodicosis due to Demodex cati is a rare skin disease often associated with concurrent disease and generalized immunosuppression. Local immunosuppression due to the application of topical immunomodulatory drugs, such as glucocorticoids and tacrolimus, or by tumour cells has been suggested as a potential trigger for development of localized demodicosis in humans and animals. The goal was to describe two cats with asthma that developed localized demodicosis on the muzzle as a result of chronic therapy with a glucocorticoid administered via dispensing inhaler mask. In both cats, the muzzle area exposed to the fluticasone-dispensing chamber exhibited patchy alopecia, mild erythema, crusting and scaling. Deep skin scraping revealed D. cati. Discontinuation or reduction of fluticasone and administration of milbemycin resulted in resolution of clinical signs within 2 months in both cats. A negative skin scrape was obtained after 7 months of milbemycin in one of the cats. Demodicosis should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis in cats with primary alopecia or other skin lesions on the face exposed to inhalant glucocorticoids. Minimization of contact between the inhalant glucocorticoid and the skin can be achieved by wiping residual powder from the face and by keeping the mask tightly pressed to the skin to avoid contact with the surrounding area. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.
Liu, Ji-Xin; Sun, Yan-Hong; Li, Chao-Pin
Demodex is a type of permanent obligatory parasite, which can be found on the human body surface. Currently, drugs targeting Demodex usually result in adverse effects and have a poor therapeutic effect. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the use of Chinese crude medicine volatile oils for targeting and inhibiting Demodex in vitro . The volatile oils of six Chinese crude medicines were investigated, including clove, orange fruit, Manchurian wildginger, cinnamon bark, Rhizome Alpiniae Officinarum and pricklyash peel, which were extracted using a distillation method. The exercise status of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis and the antiparasitic effects of the volatile oils against the two species were observed using microscopy. A skin irritation test was used to examine the irritation intensity of the volatile oils. In addition, an acute toxicity test was utilized to observe the toxicity effects of the volatile oils on the skin. Xin Fumanling ointment was employed as a positive control to identify the therapeutic effects of the volatile oils. The results indicated that all six volatile oils were able to kill Demodex efficiently. In particular, the clove volatile oil was effective in inducing optimized anti- Demodex activity. The lethal times of the volatile oils were significantly decreased compared with the Xin Fumanling ointment (Poil did not trigger any irritation (0.2 and 0.3 points for intact and scratched skin, respectively), and had a safety equal to that of distilled water. There were not any adverse effects observed following application of the clove volatile oil on the intact or scratched skin. In conclusion, the volatile oils of Chinese crude medicines, particularly that of clove, demonstrated an evident anti- Demodex activity and were able to kill Demodex effectively and safely in vivo .
Hu, Li; Yang, YuanJun; Zhao, YaE; Niu, DongLing; Yang, Rui; Wang, RuiLing; Lu, Zhaohui; Li, XiaoQi
There has been no widely accepted DNA barcode for species identification of Demodex. In this study, we attempted to solve this issue. First, mitochondrial cox1-5' and 12S gene fragments of Demodex folloculorum, D. brevis, D. canis, and D. caprae were amplified, cloned, and sequenced for the first time; intra/interspecific divergences were computed and phylogenetic trees were reconstructed. Then, divergence frequency distribution plots of those two gene fragments were drawn together with mtDNA cox1-middle region and 16S obtained in previous studies. Finally, their identification efficiency was evaluated by comparing barcoding gap. Results indicated that 12S had the higher identification efficiency. Specifically, for cox1-5' region of the four Demodex species, intraspecific divergences were less than 2.0%, and interspecific divergences were 21.1-31.0%; for 12S, intraspecific divergences were less than 1.4%, and interspecific divergences were 20.8-26.9%. The phylogenetic trees demonstrated that the four Demodex species clustered separately, and divergence frequency distribution plot showed that the largest intraspecific divergence of 12S (1.4%) was less than cox1-5' region (2.0%), cox1-middle region (3.1%), and 16S (2.8%). The barcoding gap of 12S was 19.4%, larger than cox1-5' region (19.1%), cox1-middle region (11.3%), and 16S (13.0%); the interspecific divergence span of 12S was 6.2%, smaller than cox1-5' region (10.0%), cox1-middle region (14.1%), and 16S (11.4%). Moreover, 12S has a moderate length (517 bp) for sequencing at once. Therefore, we proposed mtDNA 12S was more suitable than cox1 and 16S to be a DNA barcode for classification and identification of Demodex at lower category level.
Sastre, Natalia; Ravera, Ivan; Villanueva, Sergio; Altet, Laura; Bardagí, Mar; Sánchez, Armand; Francino, Olga; Ferrer, Lluís
The historical classification of Demodex mites has been based on their hosts and morphological features. Genome sequencing has proved to be a very effective taxonomic tool in phylogenetic studies and has been applied in the classification of Demodex. Mitochondrial 16S rDNA has been demonstrated to be an especially useful marker to establish phylogenetic relationships. To amplify and sequence a segment of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA from Demodex canis and Demodex injai, as well as from the short-bodied mite called, unofficially, D. cornei and to determine their genetic proximity. Demodex mites were examined microscopically and classified as Demodex folliculorum (one sample), D. canis (four samples), D. injai (two samples) or the short-bodied species D. cornei (three samples). DNA was extracted, and a 338 bp fragment of the 16S rDNA was amplified and sequenced. The sequences of the four D. canis mites were identical and shared 99.6 and 97.3% identity with two D. canis sequences available at GenBank. The sequences of the D. cornei isolates were identical and showed 97.8, 98.2 and 99.6% identity with the D. canis isolates. The sequences of the two D. injai isolates were also identical and showed 76.6% identity with the D. canis sequence. Demodex canis and D. injai are two different species, with a genetic distance of 23.3%. It would seem that the short-bodied Demodex mite D. cornei is a morphological variant of D. canis. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology © 2012 ESVD and ACVD.
Zhao, Ya-E; Xu, Ji-Ru; Hu, Li; Wu, Li-Ping; Wang, Zheng-Hang
The study for the first time attempted to accomplish 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) complete sequence amplification and analysis for three Demodex species (Demodex folliculorum, Demodex brevis and Demodex canis) based on gDNA extraction from individual mites. The mites were treated by DNA Release Additive and Hot Start II DNA Polymerase so as to promote mite disruption and increase PCR specificity. Determination of D. folliculorum gDNA showed that the gDNA yield reached the highest at 1 mite, tending to descend with the increase of mite number. The individual mite gDNA was successfully used for 18S rDNA fragment (about 900 bp) amplification examination. The alignments of 18S rDNA complete sequences of individual mite samples and those of pooled mite samples ( ≥ 1000mites/sample) showed over 97% identities for each species, indicating that the gDNA extracted from a single individual mite was as satisfactory as that from pooled mites for PCR amplification. Further pairwise sequence analyses showed that average divergence, genetic distance, transition/transversion or phylogenetic tree could not effectively identify the three Demodex species, largely due to the differentiation in the D. canis isolates. It can be concluded that the individual Demodex mite gDNA can satisfy the molecular study of Demodex. 18S rDNA complete sequence is suitable for interfamily identification in Cheyletoidea, but whether it is suitable for intrafamily identification cannot be confirmed until the ascertainment of the types of Demodex mites parasitizing in dogs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Caswell, J L; Yager, J A; Barta, J R; Parker, W
A small animal model of canine demodicosis is described. Normal canine skin was engrafted onto scid (severe combined immunodeficient)-beige mice, which lack functional B and T lymphocytes and have reduced natural killer cell activity. The xenografts were later infected with Demodex canis collected from a dog with demodicosis. At 30-112 days following infection, mites were seen histologically in the canine hair follicles of the engrafted skin. Demodex canis adults, nymphs, larvae, and eggs were present in samples macerated in sodium hydroxide. Mite infestations could not be demonstrated in the mouse skin, nor were mites passed from the infected graft to uninfected skin grafts on in-contact mice. This model may be utilized to assess the efficacy of miticidal treatments, to evaluate the importance of specific components of the immune response, and to study the biology of D. canis.
Kumari, P; Nigam, R; Choudhury, S; Singh, S K; Yadav, B; Kumar, D; Garg, S K
Widespread incidence of Demodex mites throughout the mammalian class and occasional serious and fatal outcomes in dogs warrant an insight into the host-parasite interface especially. Therefore, this study was aimed to unravel the interplay between innate immune response and canine demodicosis. The dogs diagnosed to have natural clinical demodicosis were allocated into two groups; dogs with localized demodicosis (LD) and with generalized demodicosis (GD). The expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2, 4 and 6 genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of these dogs was quantified by real-time PCR. Significantly increased TLR2 gene expression, while significantly diminished TLR4 and TLR6 gene expressions were observed in demodicosed dogs (LD and GD) as compared with the healthy ones. Even the expression of TLR2 gene was found to differ significantly between the dogs with LD and GD. Therefore, it can be inferred that clinical demodicosis in dogs is coupled with an up-regulation of TLR2 and down-regulation of TLR4 and TLR6 gene expressions. Overexpression of TLR2 gene might be responsible for Demodex-induced clinical manifestations, while TLR4 and TLR6 gene down-regulations could be the paramount strategy of Demodex mites to elude the host-immune interface. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Turan, Nergiz; Kapıcıoğlu, Yelda; Saraç, Gülbahar
Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disease involving the pilosebaceous unit. Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects the face in particular. This study aimed to determine if skin sebum, pH, and moisture affect the number of Demodex spp. in acne vulgaris and rosacea patients. This study focused on 30 patients each with acne vulgaris and rosacea. As a control group, 60 healthy individuals were included. In acne vulgaris patients, when compared to those with Demodex mite more than 5 /cm2 in each area, less than 5/cm2 were found to be oily, acidic, dry or very dry. However, there was no significant difference in moisture value. In patients with rosacea, the skin was acidic and dry in patients those with more than 5/cm2 Demodex mites when compared to those with demodex mite less than 5 /cm2 in patients in each of the right cheek and nose areas. There was no difference in skin oil level. The oily, acidic, dry, and very dry skin of the acne vulgaris patients and the oily, acidic, and very dry skin of the rosacea patients are factors facilitating the development of Demodex ssp.
Tani, Kenji; Une, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Adachi, Makoto; Kanda, Naoko; Watanabe, Shin-ichi; Nakaichi, Munekazu; Taura, Yasuho
We demonstrated that Demodex canis was transferred to skin xenografts of a dog and a hamster onto severe combined immunodeficiency mice. After the transfer of mites, the number of eggs, larvae, nymphs and adult mites per gram of canine and hamster xenografts increased, whereas no live mites were detected on murine allograft. These results indicate that D. canis proliferates in hair follicles of dog and hamster skins but not in murine allograft. Therefore, D. canis may have host preference but not strict host-specificity.
Palopoli, Michael F.; Fergus, Daniel J.; Minot, Samuel
Microscopic mites of the genus Demodex live within the hair follicles of mammals and are ubiquitous symbionts of humans, but little molecular work has been done to understand their genetic diversity or transmission. Here we sampled mite DNA from 70 human hosts of diverse geographic ancestries...... American ancestry. To a great extent, the ancestral geography of hosts predicted the lineages of mites found on them; 27% of the total molecular variance segregated according to the regional ancestries of hosts. We found that D. folliculorum populations are stable on an individual over the course of years...... system for further understanding the history of human movement....
Full Text Available Demodex mites may be a potential etiological factor in the development of various eye and skin disorders. The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of Demodex in the hair follicles of eyelashes and their potential influence on abandoning soft contact lenses which had been previously well tolerated by their users. A group of 62 users of contact lenses (28 with emerging discomfort and 34 without discomfort were examined. There is a need to check the existence of a relationship between D. folliculorum or/and D. brevis infestation and the emergence of intolerance to the presence of soft contact lenses. The removed lashes were examined under light microscopy, applying standard parasitological methods if demodicosis is suspected. A positive result was assumed if at least one adult stage, larva, protonymph/nymph, or egg of D. folliculorum and/or D. brevis was present. A positive correlation was observed between the presence of Demodex and intolerance to contact lenses by their existing users p<0.05, and Demodex sp. infections were observed in 92.86% of patients with intolerance to contact lenses. Our results provide further evidence for the pathogenic role played by the mites in the development of eye diseases.
Nutting, W.B.; Lukoschus, F.S.; Desch, C. E.
Demodex marsupiali sp. nov. is described from the pilocerumen-gland complex within the external auditory meatus of Didelphis marsupialis Linné, 1758. Pathogenesis is limited to epithelial cell destruction, minor orifice occlusion, and some keratinization. Mites occasionally penetrate into the
Fondati, Alessandra; De Lucia, Michela; Furiani, Nicla; Monaco, Moira; Ordeix, Laura; Scarampella, Fabia
Demodex canis is thought to be present in small numbers in the skin of most healthy dogs; however, available data on the prevalence of normal dogs harbouring D. canis are scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate, using microscopic examination of plucked hairs, the prevalence of healthy dogs harbouring D. canis. Seventy-eight clinically healthy dogs with no history of dermatological problems and clinically normal skin and hair coat were included in the study. Five areas (perioral skin 2-3mm from both labial commissures, periungual skin of the third digit of both anterior paws and chin) were examined in each dog. Fifty to sixty hairs were plucked from each skin site and microscopically examined. No D. canis mites were observed and only one adult form of Demodex injai was found in the labial commissure of one dog. Based on these results, the estimated prevalence of healthy dogs harbouring D. canis in clinically normal skin should not exceed the threshold of 5.4%, with 95% confidence level. Considering our and previous findings, we propose that, although small numbers of D. canis might inhabit the skin of normal dogs, the probability of finding these mites in normal dogs is low. Consequently, in most cases, the presence of a D. canis mite in the skin should not be considered as indicative of normality.
Vahedi, Mithaq; Davis, Gavin; Coleman, Michael James; Garrett, Brian Steven; Eghrari, Allen Omid
The ability of smartphone technology to document static microscopy images has been well documented and is gaining widespread use in ophthalmology, where slit-lamp biomicroscopy is frequently utilized. However, little has been described regarding the use of smartphone technology to relay video of tissue microscopy results to patients, particularly when a tissue sample integrates motility of organisms as a characteristic feature of the disease. Here, we describe the method to use smartphone video to document motility of Demodex folliculorum in human eyelashes, individual results of which can be shown to patients for education and counseling purposes. The use of smartphone video in documenting the motility of organisms may prove to be beneficial in a variety of medical fields; producers of electronic medical records, therefore, may find it helpful to integrate video drop box tools.
Izdebska, Joanna N; Rolbiecki, Leszek
This article describes morphological characteristics and occurrence of Demodex lutrae n. sp., which was found on European otter Lutra lutra (Linnaeus, 1758) in Poland. The new species was found in hairy regions of otter skin, mainly in the head area. With respect to morphological features, D. lutrae is most similar to D. canis (Leydig, 1859) from the domestic dog Canis familiaris Linnaeus, 1758. The new species is a medium-sized demodecid mite (adult stages average 200 μm in length); characteristic features of these mites are hammer-shaped supracoxal spines (setae elc.p) on dorsal side of gnathosoma and palps with 3 conical spines. Demodex lutrae is the first representative of the family Demodecidae described in a host from the subfamily Lutrinae. This paper also contains a checklist of demodecid mites known from carnivores.
Sastre, Natalia; Francino, Olga; Curti, Joseph N; Armenta, Tiffany C; Fraser, Devaughn L; Kelly, Rochelle M; Hunt, Erin; Silbermayr, Katja; Zewe, Christine; Sánchez, Armand; Ferrer, Lluís
This study was conceived to detect skin mites in social mammals through real-time qPCR, and to estimate taxonomic Demodex and further Prostigmata mite relationships in different host species by comparing sequences from two genes: mitochondrial 16S rRNA and nuclear 18S rRNA. We determined the mite prevalence in the hair follicles of marmots (13%) and bats (17%). The high prevalence found in marmots and bats by sampling only one site on the body may indicate that mites are common inhabitants of their skin. Since we found three different mites (Neuchelacheles sp, Myobia sp and Penthaleus sp) in three bat species (Miotis yumanensis, Miotis californicus and Corynorhinus townsendii) and two different mites (both inferred to be members of the Prostigmata order) in one marmot species (Marmota flaviventris), we tentatively concluded that these skin mites 1) cannot be assigned to the same genus based only on a common host, and 2) seem to evolve according to the specific habitat and/or specific hair and sebaceous gland of the mammalian host. Moreover, two M. yumanensis bats harbored identical Neuchelacheles mites, indicating the possibility of interspecific cross-infection within a colony. However, some skin mites species are less restricted by host species than previously thought. Specifically, Demodex canis seems to be more transmissible across species than other skin mites. D. canis have been found mostly in dogs but also in cats and captive bats. In addition, we report the first case of D. canis infestation in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius). All these mammalian hosts are related to human activities, and D. canis evolution may be a consequence of this relationship. The monophyletic Demodex clade showing closely related dog and human Demodex sequences also supports this likely hypothesis.
Full Text Available This study was conceived to detect skin mites in social mammals through real-time qPCR, and to estimate taxonomic Demodex and further Prostigmata mite relationships in different host species by comparing sequences from two genes: mitochondrial 16S rRNA and nuclear 18S rRNA. We determined the mite prevalence in the hair follicles of marmots (13% and bats (17%. The high prevalence found in marmots and bats by sampling only one site on the body may indicate that mites are common inhabitants of their skin. Since we found three different mites (Neuchelacheles sp, Myobia sp and Penthaleus sp in three bat species (Miotis yumanensis, Miotis californicus and Corynorhinus townsendii and two different mites (both inferred to be members of the Prostigmata order in one marmot species (Marmota flaviventris, we tentatively concluded that these skin mites 1 cannot be assigned to the same genus based only on a common host, and 2 seem to evolve according to the specific habitat and/or specific hair and sebaceous gland of the mammalian host. Moreover, two M. yumanensis bats harbored identical Neuchelacheles mites, indicating the possibility of interspecific cross-infection within a colony. However, some skin mites species are less restricted by host species than previously thought. Specifically, Demodex canis seems to be more transmissible across species than other skin mites. D. canis have been found mostly in dogs but also in cats and captive bats. In addition, we report the first case of D. canis infestation in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius. All these mammalian hosts are related to human activities, and D. canis evolution may be a consequence of this relationship. The monophyletic Demodex clade showing closely related dog and human Demodex sequences also supports this likely hypothesis.
Ravera, Ivan; Ferreira, Diana; Gallego, Laia Solano; Bardagí, Mar; Ferrer, Lluís
The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of canine immunoglobulins (Ig) G against Demodex proteins in the sera of healthy dogs and of dogs with juvenile generalized demodicosis (CanJGD) with or without secondary pyoderma. Demodex mites were collected from dogs with CanJGD. Protein concentration was measured and a western blot technique was performed. Pooled sera from healthy dogs reacted mainly with antigen bands ranging from 55 to 72 kDa. Pooled sera from dogs with CanJGD without secondary pyoderma reacted either with 10 kDa antigen band or 55 to 72 kDa bands. Pooled sera from dogs with CanJGD with secondary pyoderma reacted only with a 10 kDa antigen band. The results of this study suggest that both healthy dogs and dogs with CanJGD develop a humoral response against different proteins of Demodex canis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ravera, Ivan; Altet, Laura; Francino, Olga; Bardagí, Mar; Sánchez, Armand; Ferrer, Lluís
The present study reports the development of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Demodex canis DNA on different tissue samples. The technique amplifies a 166 bp of D. canis chitin synthase gene (AB 080667) and it has been successfully tested on hairs extracted with their roots and on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded skin biopsies. The real-time PCR amplified on the hairs of all 14 dogs with a firm diagnosis of demodicosis and consistently failed to amplify on negative controls. Eleven of 12 skin biopsies with a morphologic diagnosis of canine demodicosis were also positive. Sampling hairs on two skin points (lateral face and interdigital skin), D. canis DNA was detected on nine of 51 healthy dogs (17.6%) a much higher percentage than previously reported with microscopic studies. Furthermore, it is foreseen that if the number of samples were increased, the percentage of positive dogs would probably also grow. Moreover, in four of the six dogs with demodicosis, the samples taken from non-lesioned skin were positive. This finding, if confirmed in further studies, suggests that demodicosis is a generalized phenomenon in canine skin, due to proliferation of local mite populations, even though macroscopic lesions only appear in certain areas. The real-time PCR technique to detect D. canis DNA described in this work is a useful tool to advance our understanding of canine demodicosis.
Daneshparvar, Afrooz; Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Mirjalali, Hamed; Hajjaran, Homa; Mobedi, Iraj; Naddaf, Saeed Reza; Shidfar, Mohammadreza; Sadat Makki, Mahsa
Demodicosis is one of the most prevalent skin diseases resulting from infestation by Demodex mites. This parasite usually inhabits in follicular infundibulum or sebaceous duct and transmits through close contact with an infested host. This study was carried from September 2014 to January 2016 at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. DNA extraction and amplification of 16S ribosomal RNA was performed on four isolates, already obtained from four different patients and identified morphologically though clearing with 10% Potassium hydroxide (KOH) and microscopical examination. Amplified fragments from the isolates were compared with GeneBank database and phylogenetic analysis was carried out using MEGA6 software. A 390 bp fragment of 16S rDNA was obtained in all isolates and analysis of generated sequences showed high similarity with those submitted to GenBank, previously. Intra-species similarity and distance also showed 99.983% and 0.017, respectively, for the studied isolates. Multiple alignments of the isolates showed Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in 16S rRNA fragment. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all 4 isolates clustered with other D. folliculorum, recovered from GenBank database. Our accession numbers KF875587 and KF875589 showed more similarity together in comparison with two other studied isolates. Mitochondrial 16S rDNA is one of the most suitable molecular barcodes for identification D. folliculorum and this fragment can use for intra-species characterization of the most human-infected mites.
Full Text Available Background: Demodicosis is one of the most prevalent skin diseases resulting from infestation by Demodex mites. This parasite usually inhabits in follicular infundibulum or sebaceous duct transmitted through close contact with an infested host.Methods: This study was carried from September 2014 to January 2016 at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. DNA extraction and amplification of 16S ribosomal RNA was performed on four isolates, obtained from four patients and identified morphologically through clearing with 10% Potassium hydroxide (KOH and microscopical examination. Amplified fragments from the isolates were compared with GenBank database and phylogenetic analysis was carried out using MEGA6 software.Results: A 390 bp fragment of 16S rDNA was obtained in all isolates and analysis of generated sequences showed high similarity with those submitted to GenBank, previously. Intra-species similarity and distance also showed 99.983% and 0.017, respectively, for the studied isolates. Multiple alignments of the isolates showed Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in 16S rRNA fragment. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all 4 isolates clustered with other D. folliculorum, recovered from GenBank database. Our accession numbers KF875587 and KF875589 showed more similarity together in comparison with two other studied isolates. Conclusion: Mitochondrial 16S rDNA is one of the most suitable molecular barcodes for identification D. folliculorum and this fragment can use for intra-species characterization of the most human-infected mites.
Marco Antonio Rocha
Full Text Available Three hundred and forty dog skin scrapings were examined in the Parasitology Laboratory of the veterinary medicine department at the University, of Londrina Paraná, to study the epidemiology of Demodex canist The specimens were obtained from the University Veterinary Hospital and other private clinics in the region from January 1980 to December 1983. Demodex canis was present in 96 scrapings (28,26% in variable quantities showing clinical relation of the disease. The demodectic mange diagnosis was made on the basis of clinical symptoms and the presence of etiological agent by direct microscopic examination of scrapings in a 10% Potassium hydroxide solution, The following conclusions were made from this study: the dogs between o to 12 months of age were more susceptible; the breed seemed to have an influence on the appearance of demodectic mange; the sex had no influence on the ocurrance of the disease; no variations in the seasonal distribution of the demodectic mange were noticed.Foram estudados 340 exames de raspado de pele de cães, no Laboratório de Parasitologia do Departamento de Medicina Veterinária da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR. Este material, foi colhido de cães com afecções de pele, atendidos no Hospital Veterinário desta Universidade e em clínicas particulares da região, e chegou ao laboratório para pesquisar presença de ectoparasitas, durante o período de janeiro de 1980 a dezembro de 1983. Do total de raspados (340 estudados, 96 (28,24% apresentaram Oemodex canis , em quantidades e formas variáveis, apresentando relação clínica com a doença. O diagnóstico de sarna demodécica foi baseado na sintomatologia clínica e na presença do agente etiológico no raspado de pele, detectado através de microscopia direta em solução de hidróxido de Potássio (KOH a 10%. Nas condições em. que foi realizado o presente estudo e baseado nos seus resultados, pode-se concluir que animais entre zero e doze meses de
Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Lian-Chen; Ju, Yu-Ten; Hong, Chin-Lin; Tsai, Yu-Yang; Li, Yi-Hung; Wu, Ying-Ling
Infection rate, reaction to light, and hair follicle apoptosis are examined in the dogmite, Demodex canis Leydig (Prostigmata: Demodicidae), in dogs from the northern area of Taiwan. An analysis of relevant samples revealed 7.2% (73/1013) prevalence of D. canis infection. Infection during the investigation peaked each winter, with an average prevalence of 12.5% (32/255). The infection rates significantly varied in accordance with month, sex, age, and breed (p canis Bodin (Onygenales: Arthrodermataceae) and Trichophyton mentagrophyte Robin (Blanchard) on the D. canis infected dogs revealed prevalence rates of 4.4% (2/45) and 2.2% (1/45), respectively. Observations demonstrated that D. canis slowly moved from a light area to a dark area. Skin samples were examined for cellular apoptosis by activated caspase3 immunohistochemical staining. Cells that surrounded the infected hair follicles were activated caspase3-positive, revealing cell apoptosis in infected follicles via the activation of caspase3.
Saridomichelakis, M; Koutinas, A; Papadogiannakis, E; Papazachariadou, M; Liapi, M; Trakas, D
Infestation with a short-tailed demodectic mite and Demodex canis was diagnosed in both a six-and-a-half-year-old and a four-year-old dog. The clinical picture was compatible with generalised demodicosis complicated by staphylococcal pyoderma (case 1), or localised demodicosis (case 2). In both cases, the short-tailed demodectic mite outnumbered D canis in superficial skin scrapings. The laboratory findings (lymphopenia, eosinopenia, increased serum alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase activities, diluted urine and proteinuria) and the results of a low dose dexamethasone suppression test were suggestive of underlying hyperadrenocorticism in the first case. Hypothyroidism was considered a possibility in the second case, owing to the sustained bradycardia and the extremely low basal total thyroxine value. Systemic treatment with ivermectin and cephalexin (case 1), or topical application of an amitraz solution in mineral oil, along with sodium levothyroxine replacement therapy (case 2), resulted in a complete resolution of the skin lesions and the disappearance of both types of demodectic mite after two and one and a half months, respectively.
Felix, A O C; Guiot, E G; Stein, M; Felix, S R; Silva, E F; Nobre, M O
The objective of this study was to assess the interleukin 10 (IL-10) concentrations in the sera of dogs suffering from demodicosis. Twenty-six dogs were distributed into three groups: demodicosis groups G1, n=11 (recurring disease) and G2, n=6 (first time occurrence), and a control group, G3, n=9 (healthy dogs). All the animals were subjected to skin scrape tests and blood harvesting for serum extraction. In G1 and G2 only those animals with Demodex canis positive skin tests were included, while healthy dogs were included in G3. To assess IL-10 levels the commercial Quantikine Canine IL-10 Immunoassay(®) (R&D Systems) kit was used. The mean IL-10 level obtained for G1 was 269.4 pg/ml (sd=290.8 pg/ml), for G2 it was 28.5 pg/ml (sd=19.7 pg/ml) while the mean for G3 was 11.9 pg/ml (sd=2.3 pg/ml). There was a significant difference between G1 and the other two groups. According to our results, dogs with reoccurring demodicosis have higher IL-10 levels than healthy dogs and those suffering the disease for the first time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
It, V; Barrientos, L; López Gappa, J; Posik, D; Díaz, S; Golijow, C; Giovambattista, G
Demodectic mange is a well-known parasitic skin disease characterized by the presence of a larger than normal number of Demodex mites (Demodex canis) in the skin of dogs. Recent research has suggested that major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression is higher in the skin of dogs suffering from demodicosis than in normal ones. We have investigated whether canine Dog Leukocyte Antigen (DLA) class II alleles are associated with canine juvenile generalized demodicosis (JGD). In the present study, the analysis of microsatellite markers (FH2202, FH2975 and FH2054) linked to DLA was made in Boxer, Argentinean Mastiff and mixed breed dogs. DNA samples from 56 dogs affected with the disease and 60 breed-matched controls collected in Argentina were analysed. A highly significant association, in some of the analysed markers, in all breeds with the presence of demodicosis was observed with P or =5. The results of this study suggest that an underlying DLA association exists with demodicosis in dogs and that this may represent an important immunological risk factor in the aetiology of this condition. This information could be used in the future to develop diagnostic tests to prevent canine JGD.
Barriga, O O; al-Khalidi, N W; Martin, S; Wyman, M
Three clinically normal beagles, 3 beagles with localized demodectic mange (LDM), and 3 beagles with generalized demodectic mange (GDM) were investigated simultaneously 1-3 and 4-6 weeks from the appearance of the clinical signs. Blood clinical examination and reactivity of peripheral lymphocytes to Con A and PHA were investigated in the first instance, and reactivity to Con A, PHA, and LPS in the second. Eight aliquots were used in each blastogenesis assay for each dog. All dogs were negative for rheumatoid factor. The results of blastogenesis showed that many observations were distributed non-normally, and that not all dogs in each group responded homogeneously. Comparison of blastogenesis results between dogs demands careful statistical analysis. Responses to mitogens were normal in all dogs at 1-3 weeks except for the LDM dogs that showed an increased response to PHA. Only the response to Con A was moderately inhibited in the LDM dogs at 4-6 weeks. All responses were severely depressed in the GDM dogs at 4-6 weeks. This means that immunosuppression follows rather than precedes the clinical manifestations of GDM, and implies that the phenomenon is induced by the parasite or the host's reaction to it.
Desch, Clifford E; Hillier, Andrew
Demondex injai sp. nov. is described from the hair follicles of a domestic dog in Columbus, OH in October 1996. The mites occupy follicles from the orifice down to and into the sebaceous glands. The individual host may harbor both this new species and D. canis. A comparison of these two species is provided for identification purposes.
Full Text Available This study compares the efficacy of skin impression with acetate tape and the deep skin scraping test to find D. canis and S. scabiei in dogs. During six months, 134 samples were collected by both techniques from 115 dogs treated at the dermatology service of the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Santa Maria (HVU-UFSM. Of these patients, 27 had demodicosis and 12 had scabies. The impression with acetate tape test (ITT was shown to be significantly superior to the deep skin scraping test (DSST in finding D. canis and S. scabiei mites (p = 0.007. Based on our results we could conclude that acetate tape impression is a reliable method for diagnosing and monitoring therapy of dermatopathies caused by mites and can be used to replace the traditional deep skin scraping method. In addition, since it is less traumatic for the dog, this method shows more acceptance by the owner.
Immune system becomes suppressed in cancer patients who undergo chemotherapy, and as a result these patients become vulnerable to infestations. In our case, a 45 year-old female has been admitted to oncology clinic for a medical treatment of breast cancer. Her systematic physical examination was normal, except ...
Remove of the staff association office The Staff Association offices are going to be renovated during the coming four months, February to May 2014. The physical move from our current premises 64/R-002 to our temporary office in 510/R-010 will take place on Friday January 31st, so the Secretariat will be closed on that day. Hence, from Monday February 3rd until the end of May 2014 the Staff Association Secretariat will be located in 510/R-010 (entrance just across the CERN Printshop).
... will not share your information. * Required. View archives. Alzheimer's impact is growing Alzheimer's disease is the sixth- ... Last Updated: Our vision is a world without Alzheimer's Formed in 1980, the Alzheimer's Association advances research ...
Jan 3, 2012 ... associated athanogene (BAG) protein family in rice ... Multiple sequence alignment and structural models of O. sativa BAG proteins showed conservation of surface charge (except ..... residues responsible for electrostatic interaction of BAG ..... BAG5 induces conformational changes of the Hsp70 nucleotide-.
Full Text Available We present here a case of 17-year-old boy from Kolkata presenting with obesity, bilateral gynecomastia, mental retardation, and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. The patient weighed 70 kg and was of 153 cm height. Facial asymmetry (unilateral facial palsy, gynecomastia, decreased pubic and axillary hair, small penis, decreased right testicular volume, non-palpable left testis, and right-sided congenital inguinal hernia was present. The patient also had disc coloboma, convergent squint, microcornea, microphthalmia, pseudohypertelorism, low set ears, short neck, and choanalatresia. He had h/o VSD repaired with patch. Laboratory examination revealed haemoglobin 9.9 mg/dl, urea 24 mg/dl, creatinine 0.68 mg/dl. IGF1 77.80 ng/ml (decreased for age, GH <0.05 ng/ml, testosterone 0.25 ng/ml, FSH-0.95 ΅IU/ml, LH 0.60 ΅IU/ml. ACTH, 8:00 A.M cortisol, FT3, FT4, TSH, estradiol, DHEA-S, lipid profile, and LFT was within normal limits. Prolactin was elevated at 38.50 ng/ml. The patient′s karyotype was 46XY. Echocardiography revealed ventricularseptal defect closed with patch, grade 1 aortic regurgitation, and ejection fraction 67%. Ultrasound testis showed small right testis within scrotal sac and undescended left testis within left inguinal canal. CT scan paranasal sinuses revealed choanalatresia and deviation of nasal septum to the right. Sonomammography revealed bilateral proliferation of fibroglandular elements predominantly in subareoalar region of breasts. MRI of brain and pituitary region revealed markedly atrophic pituitary gland parenchyma with preserved infundibulum and hypothalamus and widened suprasellar cistern. The CHARGE association is an increasingly recognized non-random pattern of congenital anomalies comprising of coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear abnormalities, and/or deafness.  These anomalies have a higher probability of occurring together. In this report, we have
Wagner, R; Wendlberger, U
The efficacy of moxidectin 1% injectable for cattle was evaluated in dogs and rabbits with naturally acquired sarcoptic, demodectic or psoroptic mites. Twenty-two dogs with generalised demodicosis were orally treated with 0.4mg/kg moxidectin daily. Forty-one dogs suffering from sarcoptic mange were treated with 0.2-0.25mg/kg moxidectin either orally or subcutaneously every week for three to six times. Seven rabbits were treated orally with 0.2mg/kg moxidectin twice 10 days apart. Of the 22 dogs with demodicosis, 14% were stopped treatment because of side effects, 14% were lost and of the remaining 72% all were cured (mean therapy duration 2.4 months). Thirty-seven of the sarcoptic mange-infected dogs finished treatment and were cured. In 17% of dogs, side effects were noted. All seven rabbits treated for psoroptic mange were cured and did not show any side effect. Our results indicate that moxidectin is effective and a good alternative for the treatment of demodicosis and scabies in dogs and psoroptic mange in rabbits. Side effects seem to occur more frequently if applied subcutaneously, therefore the oral route should be preferred.
A picture can be interpreted in different ways by various persons. There is often a difference between a picture's denotation (literal meaning), connotation (associative meaning), and private associations. Two studies were conducted in order to observe the private associations that pictures awaken in people. One study deals with associations made…
Department of Veterans Affairs — Retrieves and updates a veteranÆs claim status and claim-rating association (claim association for current rating) from the Corporate database for a claim selected...
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... UTI; Health care-associated UTI; Catheter-associated bacteriuria; Hospital acquired-UTI Images Bladder catheterization, female Bladder catheterization, male References Calfee DP. Prevention and control of health care-associated infections. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...
The properties of an associative memory are examined in this paper from the viewpoint of automata theory. A device called an associative memory acceptor is studied under real-time operation. The family "L" of languages accepted by real-time associative memory acceptors is shown to properly contain the family of languages accepted by one-tape,…
Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Shiffrin, R.M.
Describes search of associative memory (SAM), a general theory of retrieval from long-term memory that combines features of associative network models and random search models. It posits cue-dependent probabilistic sampling and recovery from an associative network, but the network is specified as a
In this thesis, we investigate the broad problem of computing entity associations for search. Specifically, we consider three types of entity association: entity-entity, entity-document, and entity-aspect associations. We touch upon various domains, starting with specific domains such as the
Koll, Oliver; von Wallpach, Sylvia
of actual consumer brand associations and management-intended brand associations (brand association match). The article presents results from two large-scale studies (3353 and 1201 respondents) involving one consumer goods and one service brand with multiple operationalizations of consumer response...... (attitudinal and behavioral). The results show that consumers with high brand association match show more positive brand response. However, after accounting for the valence of associations match does not add explanatory power. This outcome challenges a key foundation of brand management. The discussion......Brand managers exhibit considerable effort to define intended brand associations to anchor in consumers' minds. They follow a credo deeply rooted in branding literature: intended brand associations drive consumer response and brand equity. This article investigates the benefits of a strong overlap...
Full Text Available Frequent patterns (itemsets discovery is an important problem in associative classification rule mining. Differents approaches have been proposed such as the Apriori-like, Frequent Pattern (FP-growth, and Transaction Data Location (Tid-list Intersection algorithm. This paper focuses on surveying and comparing the state of the art associative classification techniques with regards to the rule generation phase of associative classification algorithms. This phase includes frequent itemsets discovery and rules mining/extracting methods to generate the set of class association rules (CARs. There are some techniques proposed to improve the rule generation method. A technique by utilizing the concepts of discriminative power of itemsets can reduce the size of frequent itemset. It can prune the useless frequent itemsets. The closed frequent itemset concept can be utilized to compress the rules to be compact rules. This technique may reduce the size of generated rules. Other technique is in determining the support threshold value of the itemset. Specifying not single but multiple support threshold values with regard to the class label frequencies can give more appropriate support threshold value. This technique may generate more accurate rules. Alternative technique to generate rule is utilizing the vertical layout to represent dataset. This method is very effective because it only needs one scan over dataset, compare with other techniques that need multiple scan over dataset. However, one problem with these approaches is that the initial set of tid-lists may be too large to fit into main memory. It requires more sophisticated techniques to compress the tid-lists.
... More October 20, 2017 0 American Thyroid Association: Charles H. Emerson, MD, Will Lead New Board of Directors By ATA | 2017 ... Featured , News Releases | No Comments American Thyroid Association: Charles H. Emerson, MD, Will Lead New Board of Directors October 19,… Read ...
A. Alfons (Andreas); C. Croux (Christophe); P. Filzmoser (Peter)
textabstractThe maximum association between two multivariate variables X and Y is defined as the maximal value that a bivariate association measure between one-dimensional projections αX and αY can attain. Taking the Pearson correlation as projection index results in the first canonical correlation
Wafaa Yousif Abdel Wahed
Conclusion: A substantial proportion of medical students are suffering from depression, stress, and anxiety. Female sex, increasing age, overweight and obesity are significant associated factors. Further studies need to be carried to identify other associated factors related to academic medical education.
Trip, J; van Stuijvenberg, M; Dikkers, FG; Pijnenburg, MWH
A case with a predominantly unilateral CHARGE association is reported. The CHARGE association refers to a combination of congenital malformations. This boy had left-sided anomalies consisting of choanal atresia. coloboma and peripheral facial palsy. The infant had a frontal encephalocele. an anomaly
Medlin, Richard G.
The developmental memory research with children indicates that highly variable rehearsal leads to better overall recall and that the strength of interitem associations may play some role in improving recall. This paper reports on two experiments to investigate the interplay between the number and strength of interitem associations, and how each is…
The Staff Association has been organising for many years a cocktail with delegates of the Member States participating in Finance Committees of March and September. This cocktail is held at the end of the day, after the Finance Committee meeting. This direct and regular communication helps establish an ongoing contact between the Staff Association and CERN Member States and, more recently, the Associate Member States. Ambassadors of the CERN Staff Association, who are Members of the Personnel, have the opportunity to meet their national delegation in an informal and friendly atmosphere. These exchanges, facilitated by the use of the national language, allow the personnel via the Staff Association to express its ideas and positions on current affairs and fundamental issues, and also to hear about those of the delegations in return.
Tang, Shengchang; Habicht, Axel; Wang, Muzhou; Li, Shuaili; Seiffert, Sebastian; Olsen, Bradley
Associating polymers offer important technological solutions to renewable and self-healing materials, conducting electrolytes for energy storage and transport, and vehicles for cell and protein deliveries. The interplay between polymer topologies and association chemistries warrants new interesting physics from associating networks, yet poses significant challenges to study these systems over a wide range of time and length scales. In a series of studies, we explored self-diffusion mechanisms of associating polymers above the percolation threshold, by combining experimental measurements using forced Rayleigh scattering and analytical insights from a two-state model. Despite the differences in molecular structures, a universal super-diffusion phenomenon is observed when diffusion of molecular species is hindered by dissociation kinetics. The molecular dissociation rate can be used to renormalize shear rheology data, which yields an unprecedented time-temperature-concentration superposition. The obtained shear rheology master curves provide experimental evidence of the relaxation hierarchy in associating networks.
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Ruprecht, J.; Palous, J.
All 33 papers presented at the symposium were inputted to INIS. They dealt with open clusters, globular clusters, stellar associations and moving groups, and local kinematics and galactic structures. (E.S.)
are uprooted and enter the mangrove area. The epiphytic algal flora on mangrove trunks, pneumatophores, stilt roots, upper branches and canopies are comparatively poor. With regard to biotic factors there are a number of animals grazing on mangrove associated...
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U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - national data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infection (HAI) measures - provider data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...
... Next Generation Data Sciences Challenges in Health and Biomedicine Fri November 3, 2017 The Medical Library Association ... Next Generation Data Science Challenges in Health and Biomedicine. MLA's comments and recommendations will help formulate strategic ...
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U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - state data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...
Klímová, A; Heissigerová, J; Říhová, E; Holan, P; Brichová, M; Svozílková, P
The clinical case of tattoo-associated uveitis was first described by Lubeck and Epstein in 1952. Uveitis is accompanied by induration and hyperemia of tattoo skin, which can precede, follow or manifest simultaneously with uveitis. The diagnosis is determined on clinical grounds after exclusion of other causes. Uveitis is usually bilateral, chronic and vision impairment is variable. Tattoo-associated uveitis should be remembered in differential diagnosis due to the growing interest in tattoo.Key words: uveitis, tattoo, masquerade syndrome.
The Finnish Bioenergy Association, was founded in November 1991 in the city of Jyvaeskylae. In November 1996, the membership of FINBIO consisted of 17 contributing collective members and 75 individual members. Members of the organization include e.g. the Association of Finnish Peat Industries, Wood Energy Association and Finnish Biogas Centre, all of which represent specific bioenergy fields in Finland. The Finnish Bioenergy Association is a private, non-profit organization the objectives of which are to promote and develop harvesting, transportation and processing of biofuels and other biomass (wood-based biofuels, non-food crops, peat, biowaste); to promote the use of biomass in energy production and in other applications, in accordance with environmentally sound and sustainable development. The objectives of FINBIO is to promote the production and application of all forms of bioenergy in Finland. FINBIO acts as a coordinator for AEBIOM (the European Biomass Association) and its member associations, as well as for other international bioenergy-related organizations
Associations of anomalies, with VACTERL as the prototype, have been the source of much debate, including questions about the validity and definition of this category. Evidence is presented for a teratologic basis for associations involving interactions between disruptive events and specific vulnerabilities. Because the embryo is organized in time and space, differences in the timing, location, and severity of exposures will create variable sequelae for any specific vulnerability, creating associations. The blastogenetic stage of development involves distinct properties that affect the nature of associations arising during this time, including relatively undifferentiated developmental fields and causally nonspecific malformations. With this, single anomalies can be part of the spectrum of findings that comprise a specific association. A specific defect defines a subset of disturbances, biasing frequencies of other defects. Processes are basic, integrated, and general, so disruptions are often lethal, and can have multiple effects, accounting for high incidences of multiple anomalies, and overlaps between associations. Blastogenetic disturbances also do not affect the late "fine tuning" of minor anomalies, although pathogenetic sequences can occur. This model suggests that certain combinations of congenital anomalies can arise from causally nonspecific teratogenetic fields determined by timing, location, and vulnerabilities, rather than polytopic developmental fields. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Crowley, R K
BACKGROUND: Acromegaly secondary to growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) excess is rare. AIMS\\/CASE DESCRIPTION: We report two patients with acromegaly who were diagnosed with sellar gangliocytomas that were immunopositive for GHRH. Tumour tissue persisted after debulking surgery and in the second case this was associated with persistent growth hormone hypersecretion, successfully suppressed by a somatostatin analogue. CONCLUSIONS: The development of functional pituitary adenomas in association with sellar gangliocytomas is poorly understood. We present a brief discussion of the possible aetiology of these unusual pituitary tumours.
Alexander, Damon Timothy; Barraket, Jo; Lewis, Jenny
use a large survey to explore these questions empirically by focusing on the membership patterns and civic engagement practices of 4,001 citizens drawn from eight suburbs across Greater Melbourne, Australia. Our findings indicate that, while associational intensity is positively related to civic...
Committee of Tanzania Dental. Association would like to Thank. [fUfNJfNJU[[j)~ for its magnanimity towards meeting the cost of this Journal ... ceps is token out of the dental kit and the tooth is removed out of its socket. The tooth is dropped into the waste bucket. The fareceps is placed in the water basin. The socket site is ...
Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Robert L. Blinn; Gene. Kritsky
Understanding the habitat requirements of organisms associated with dead wood is important in order to conserve them in managed forests. Unfortunately, many of the less diverse saproxylic taxa, including Hemiptera, remain largely unstudied. An effort to rear insects from dead wood taken from two forest types (an upland pine-dominated and a bottomland mixed hardwood),...
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Full Text Available Many Syrians, even when they have not been individually singled out, meet the refugee criteria on the grounds of being at risk of persecution because of a perceived association, in the broadest sense, with one of the parties to the conflict.
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.
This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of registered nurse (with an associate degree), lists technical competencies and competency builders for 19 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 5 units specific to the occupation of registered nurse. The following…
The present paper gives an introduction to the theory of association schemes, following Bose-Mesner (1959), Biggs (1974), Delsarte (1973), Bannai-Ito (1984) and Brouwer-Cohen-Neumaier (1989). Apart from definitions and many examples, also several proofs and some problems are included. The paragraphs
Full Text Available Chemical burn under pneumatic tourniquet is an iatrogenic preventable injury and is rarely reported in the literature. The two important mechanisms are maceration (friction and wetness underneath the tourniquent. In this report, our experience with two illustrative patients who presented with iatrogenic tourniquet associated burn is described.
Ferrara, S. D.; Ananian, V.; Baccino, E.
The manuscript presents the International Guidelines developed by the Working Group on Personal Injury and Damage under the patronage of the International Academy of Legal Medicine (IALM) regarding the Methods of Ascertainment of any suspected Whiplash-Associated Disorders (WAD). The document...
Full Text Available The land fragmentation is one of the serious problems in Slovakia which is given by the historical development of the land law. In the past, landowners tried to solve this problem by creation of various forms of land associations oriented to the common cultivation of agricultural land and forest land. Nowadays, the Slovak lawmaker decided to regulate the institute of land associations by the law. Land associations in Slovakia are legal entities conducting agricultural business on agricultural land, forest land or in water areas; moreover, they can provide also other business activities according to particular legal regulations. Land associations conduct business on real estate property or, more commonly, properties, which are usually owned by many co-owners, because the individual cultivation of small part of land plots would not be effective. However, the law is a subject of legal amendments more often than necessary in order to ensure the legal certainty. This paper introduces this recondite legal entity, its activities, its internal government and the ownership rights of its members. A pre-emption right that has a special legal regulation different from the general legal regulations of the pre-emption rights in the Civil Code is one of the special issues.
It is the view of the Canadian Nuclear Association that continuing creation of economic wealth is vital to sustainable development. A plentiful supply of cheap energy is essential. Nuclear energy provides the cleanest source of bulk energy generation essential to any path of sustainable development
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Jutte, PC; Rosso, R; de Paolis, M; Errani, C; Pasini, E; Campanacci, L; Bacci, G; Bertoni, F; Mercuri, M
The fourth case in the literature is presented of a patient with the rare association of hyperparathyroidism and osteosarcoma. A 56-year-old woman presented with hyperparathyroidism and a lesion in the tibia. Initial diagnosis was brown tumor. Histology, however, revealed osteosarcoma, and the
Perez-Moreno, Mirna; Fuchs, Elaine
Members of the p120-catenin family associate with cadherins and regulate their stability at the plasma membrane. How p120-catenin limits cadherin endocytosis has long remained a mystery. In this issue, Nanes et al. (2012. J. Cell Biol. doi:10.1083/jcb.201205029) identify a conserved acidic motif ...
The present document reviews the CERN Fellows, Associates and Students Programmes emphasizing the developments since 2000, when the previous review was presented to the Scientific Policy Committee, Finance Committee and Council (CERN/2325), and makes proposals for the coming five years. In summary, it is proposed to â?¢ Simplify the payment scheme for the Paid Scientific Associates Programme, which will no longer depend on candidateâ??s home support and age; â?¢ Broaden the scope of the Fellowship Programme, in order to facilitate the recruitment of young graduates in computing and engineering. Age-related eligibility conditions and payment levels will be replaced with experience-based criteria; â?¢ Modify subsistence rates for the Doctoral and Technical Student Programme in order to harmonize CERNâ??s payment levels with those offered by other research establishments. This document is presented for discussion and recommendation by the Scientific Policy Committee and approval by the Council. Additiona...
Bellani, S; Nesci, M; Celotto, S; Lampati, L; Lucchini, A
Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is a nosocomial lower respiratory tract infection that ensues in critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. The reported incidence of VAP varies between 9% and 68% with a mortality ranging between 33% and 71%. Two key factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of VAP: bacterial colonization of the upper digestive-respiratory tract and aspiration of oral secretions into the trachea. Preventive measurements are advocated to reduce the incidence of VAP, such as selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD), supraglottic aspiration and positioning. Prompt recognition and treatment of established VAP has also been demostrated to affect outcome. Therefore, the knowledge of risk factors associated with the development of VAP and the implementation of strategies to prevent, diagnose and treat VAP are mainstems in the nursing of mechanically ventilated patients.
Bartorelli, A.; Accinni, R.
This invention relates to novel antigens associated with breast carcinoma, anti-sera specific to said antigens, 125 I-labeled forms of said antigens and methods of detecting said antigens in serum or plasma. The invention also relates to a diagnostic kit containing standardised antigens or antisera or marked forms thereof for the detection of said antigens in human blood, serum or plasma. (author)
and Russell, VI.A. Systematic changes in word association norms: 1910-1952. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 19C0, 60, 293-303. lilb Kurez, I...Acsorbento, Cartone, Celluloee, Compiti, Disegno, !)o- cuwe-m~to, Gnibinetto, Gihills, Goinma, Lete, Licer~ .a, l!ateri.Ble, Notp, Penna, Problema ...Ostiflato, flifatto, Ruvido, Seno, Somaro, Studio, Tavolo FACILITA’( 42,31) 36 Difficolth 7 Difficile, Semplicit~. 5 Problema 2 Grande, Impossibile
Full Text Available Introduction: The differential diagnosis of idiopathic and syringomyelia associated scoliosis is important because corrective surgery for scoliosis associated with syringomyelia prior to management of syringomyelia can be dangerous. There are important imaging indicators for diagnosis of syringomyelia associated with scoliosis. A few of these indicators have been assessed in our study. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study including 38 patients with both scoliosis and syringomyelia was performed at the Shafa Yahyaeian center. Standard scoliosis series radiographs and MRI of all patients were studied. The type of scoliosis, location and magnitude of deformity, kyphosis or lordosis in the sagittal plane, location and size of syrinx were assessed. Results: Thoracic kyphosis was present in 94.7% of patients. 37% of patients had scoliosis with convexity to left. Arnold –chiari malformation was present in 36% and cord tethering in 21% of patients. The locations of syrinx were as follows: 47.4%cervical, 44.6 thoracic, 2.7% lumbar and 5.3% were holocord. Conclusion: Kyphosis, abscence of lordosis in sagittal plane, progressive scoliosis and scoliosis with convexity to left are atypical findings and could be indicators of the presence of syringomyelia. If these indicators are present, a diagnosis of idiopathic scoliosis should be made with caution.
Full Text Available Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy is the most frequent extrathyroidal involvement of Graves’ disease but it sometimes occurs in euthyroid or hypothyroid patients. Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy is an autoimmune disorder, but its pathogenesis is not completely understood. Autoimmunity against putative antigens shared by the thyroid and the orbit plays a role in the pathogenesis of disease. There is an increased volume of extraocular muscles, orbital connective and adipose tissues. Clinical findings of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy are soft tissue involvement, eyelid retraction, proptosis, compressive optic neuropathy, and restrictive myopathy. To assess the activity of the ophthalmopathy and response to treatment, clinical activity score, which includes manifestations reflecting inflammatory changes, can be used. Supportive approaches can control symptoms and signs in mild cases. In severe active disease, systemic steroid and/or orbital radiotherapy are the main treatments. In inactive disease with proptosis, orbital decompression can be preferred. Miscellaneous treatments such as immunosuppressive drugs, somatostatin analogs, plasmapheresis, intravenous immunoglobulins and anticytokine therapies have been used in patients who are resistant to conventional treatments. Rehabilitative surgeries are often needed after treatment.
Torres, C. A. O.; Quast, G. R.; Melo, C. H. F.; Sterzik, M. F.
A significant population of stars with ages younger than the Pleiades exists in the solar neighborhood. They are grouped in loose young associations, sharing similar kinematical and physical properties, but, due to their vicinity to the Sun, they are dispersed in the sky, and hard to identify. Their strong stellar coronal activity, causing enhanced X-ray emission, allows them to be identified as counterparts of X-ray sources. The analysis presented here is based mainly on the SACY project, aimed to survey in a systematic way counterparts of ROSAT all-sky X-ray sources in the Southern Hemisphere for which proper motions are known. We give the definition, main properties, and lists of high-probability members of nine confirmed loose young associations that do not belong directly to the well-known Oph-Sco-Cen complex. The youth and vicinity of many members of these new associations make them ideal targets for follow-up studies, specifically geared towards the understanding of planetary system formation. Searches for very low-mass and brown dwarf companions are ongoing, and it will be promising to search for planetary companions with next generation instruments.
Gueretz, Juliano Santos
Orientador: Waldir Hamann Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Ciências Agrárias, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciencias Veterinárias. Defesa: Curitiba, 2005 Inclui bibliografia Área de concentração: Patologia veterinária
Koleva, Hristina K.; Erickson, Mark A.; Vanderlip, Erik R.; Tansey, Janeta; Mac, Joseph; Fiedorowicz, Jess G.
Background Edema associated with quetiapine has been described in only one case report to date and represents a potentially serious adverse reaction. Methods We present a case series of three patients who developed bilateral leg edema following initiation of quetiapine. Results One of these patients had a recurrence of edema with subsequent rechallenge. Another patient developed quetiapine-induced edema following a prior episode of olanzapine-induced edema. All the cases present a compelling temporal relationship between the drug challenge and the adverse event. Conclusions Prompt recognition and intervention with discontinuation of the offending agent is important for this potentially serious, seemingly idiosyncratic, vascular complication. PMID:19439156
Pahlitzsch, M; Draghici, S; Mehrinfar, B M; Merinfhar, B M
Poppers are a common drug belonging to the alkyl nitrite group and in use for several decades. They can be legally purchased for air freshening, but are illegal to buy for inhalation. Abuse is associated with maculopathy and visual loss as a rare side effect. A case series of 27 male, homosexual patients with poppers abuse presenting to a single eye clinic in Berlin, Germany, is described. Four patients with visual impairment and maculopathy associated with the inhalation of poppers were found. Four patients experienced subacute visual loss over 2-6 months, one patient can no longer read without a magnifying glass. The median age is 40.25 years (28-45 years). Three patients are HIV-positive (known since 10-22 years, HAART), a patient is also hepatitis C-positive. No other ocular and systemic diseases are known. Poppers have been inhaled for about 1.5, 12, 15 and 25 years (3-4 ×/week); all patients have a mixed use with the brands Jungle Juice, Rush and Amsterdam. Three patients noticed a simultaneous change in colour and shade. Clinical signs on fundoscopy ranged from normal foveal appearance to yellowish, dull macula. Optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) showed varying degrees of disruption of the presumed inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junction; 3 cases bilaterally symmetrical. Although poppers have been in use for several decades, in 2007 in England, the popper composition was changed by law from isobutyl nitrite to isopropyl nitrite. It is hard to distinguish whether a specific nitrite group triggers the maculopathy or whether it is the dose level, thus suggesting the existence of a cumulative dose-response relationship. We postulate that a major factor of the manifestation of maculopathy is the individual limit of vulnerability. Despite decades of use, the majority of our series does not present any pathology. Limits of our patient population represents the HIV disease: three maculopathies of our series are HIV-associated and controlled by
Jutte, Paul C.; Rosso, Renato; Paolis, Massimiliano de; Errani, Costatino; Pasini, Elisabetta; Campanacci, Laura; Bacci, Gaetano; Bertoni, Franco; Mercuri, Mario
The fourth case in the literature is presented of a patient with the rare association of hyperparathyroidism and osteosarcoma. A 56-year-old woman presented with hyperparathyroidism and a lesion in the tibia. Initial diagnosis was brown tumor. Histology, however, revealed osteosarcoma, and the patient was treated accordingly. The experimental induction of osteosarcoma by parathormone in rodent studies makes this finding alarming, considering the increasing use of parathormone in the treatment of osteoporosis. The mechanism by which osteosarcoma is induced in humans cannot be explained based on current knowledge of mechanisms of action of parathyroid hormone. (orig.)
Fondée par les producteurs du Syndicat Inter-Massifs pour la Production et l’Économie des Simples (S.I.M.P.L.E.S), l’association base son action sur la recherche et le maintien d’une production de qualité (herboristerie et préparations à base de plantes) qui prend en compte le respect de l’environnement et la pérennité des petits producteurs en zone de montagne. Actions de formation Stages de découverte de la flore médicinale sauvage, Stages de culture et transformation des plantes médicinale...
Full Text Available Most of the cases of vaccine associated myocarditis have been following small pox vaccination. Reports have also been there after streptococcal pneumonia vaccine and influenza vaccine. In some cases, autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA used in the vaccine have been implicated. Exclusion of other causes is very important in the diagnostic process, especially that of acute coronary syndrome. Management is similar to that of other etiologies of myocarditis. These rare instances of myocarditis should not preclude one from taking necessary immunization for vaccine preventable diseases.
Poulsen, Marie Louise Mølgaard; Bisgaard, M L
Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) and to a lesser extend Lynch Syndrome, which are caused by germline mutations in the APC and Mismatch Repair (MMR) genes, respectively.Here we review research findings regarding MUTYH interactions, genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of MAP, as well as surveillance......MUTYH Associated Polyposis (MAP), a Polyposis predisposition caused by biallelic mutations in the Base Excision Repair (BER) gene MUTYH, confers a marked risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The MAP phenotype is difficult to distinguish from other hereditary CRC syndromes. Especially from Familial...
Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Michelsen, Michael Locht
Association equations of state like SAFT, CPA and NRHB have been previously applied to many complex mixtures. In this work we focus on two of these models, the CPA and the NRHB equations of state and the emphasis is on the analysis of their predictive capabilities for a wide range of applications....... We use the term predictive in two situations: (i) with no use of binary interaction parameters, and (ii) multicomponent calculations using binary interaction parameters based solely on binary data. It is shown that the CPA equation of state can satisfactorily predict CO2–water–glycols–alkanes VLE...
Murry, T; Rosen, C A
Vocal fold hemorrhage often results in a sudden change in voice quality. Traumatic use of the voice (phonation or singing) is generally thought to be the cause of the vocal fold hemorrhage. The current report reviews three cases in which the traumatic event was crying. In one case, the patient's voice was only used for crying. All three patients were female and all were professional singers. The treatment of these individuals consisted of voice rest and subsequent phonomicrosurgery for lesions associated with the vocal fold hemorrhage. These case studies suggest that crying as a traumatic vocal behavior may result in vocal fold hemorrhage.
Shaw, Michael Jan
This review summarises some of the notable papers on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) from January 2003 to October 2004. Ventilator-associated pneumonia remains an important drain on hospital resources. All population groups are affected, but patients with VAP are more likely to be older, sicker, and male, with invasive medical devices in situ. Early VAP diagnosis is desirable to reduce VAP mortality and to retard emergence of multidrug-resistant microbes. This may be possible using preliminary culture results or intracellular organism in polymorphonuclear cells. In most intensive care units, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii are the commonest organisms isolated in VAP. However, causative organisms vary between and within hospitals. Consequently, individual intensive care units should develop empirical antibiotic policies to target the pathogenic bacteria prevalent in their patient populations. Preventative strategies aimed at reducing aerodigestive tract colonisation by pathogenic organisms, and also their subsequent aspiration, are becoming increasingly important. Educating medical staff about these simple measures is therefore pertinent. To reduce the occurrence of multidrug-resistant organisms, limiting the duration of antibiotic treatment to 8 days and antimicrobial rotation should be contemplated. Empirical therapy with antipseudomonal penicillins plus beta-lactamase inhibitors should be considered. If methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus VAP is a possibility, linezolid may be better than vancomycin. Prevention remains the key to reducing VAP prevalence.
Hawkins, Robert D.; Byrne, John H.
This work reviews research on neural mechanisms of two types of associative learning in the marine mollusk Aplysia, classical conditioning of the gill- and siphon-withdrawal reflex and operant conditioning of feeding behavior. Basic classical conditioning is caused in part by activity-dependent facilitation at sensory neuron–motor neuron (SN–MN) synapses and involves a hybrid combination of activity-dependent presynaptic facilitation and Hebbian potentiation, which are coordinated by trans-synaptic signaling. Classical conditioning also shows several higher-order features, which might be explained by the known circuit connections in Aplysia. Operant conditioning is caused in part by a different type of mechanism, an intrinsic increase in excitability of an identified neuron in the central pattern generator (CPG) for feeding. However, for both classical and operant conditioning, adenylyl cyclase is a molecular site of convergence of the two signals that are associated. Learning in other invertebrate preparations also involves many of the same mechanisms, which may contribute to learning in vertebrates as well. PMID:25877219
Orellana Rios, J; Verdaguer Díaz, J I; Agee, J; Theodore Smith, R
A young woman was referred to our offices with impairment of visual acuity after she received a third tattoo on her arm. Systemic medical and laboratory work-up were performed in order to exclude an infectious agent or inflammatory disease. A yellowish juxtafoveal lesion in left eye along with a plaque-like outer retinal disruption and focal pigmentary defects was assessed using multi-modal diagnostic imaging. Ophthalmologists treating uveitis should consider this uncommon association and question patients regarding tattoos and tattoo inflammation given the rise of subjects undergoing artistic tattooing. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Topiramate is a sulfamate-substituted monosaccharide anticonvulsant used as adjunctive therapy for intractable refractory seizures. It is report a case of topiramate-induced urolithiasis. CASE REPORT: A 35-year-old man presented with acute, right-sided, colicky flank pain. He denied hematuria or dysuria. He was in use of phenytoin, risperidone, phenobarbital, and topiramate. The total daily dose of topiramate was 375 mg. A CT scan showed a 7 x 1 mm curvilinear density at the right ureterovesical junction with proximal hydrouretronephrosis. He was managed with rigid ureteroscopic stone extraction and the calculus metabolic analysis revealed the stone was composed of carbonate apatite (70%, calcium oxalate dihydrate (20%, and calcium oxalate monohydrate (10%. COMMENTS: The present case typifies many features of topiramate-induced urolithiasis. Those who care for patients with urinary stone disease should be aware of this association.
Marasco, Silvana F; Lim, H Kiat
INTRODUCTION Ecstasy, also known as MDMA (3,4, methylenedioxymethamphetamine), is a popular illicit party drug amongst young adults. The drug induces a state of euphoria secondary to its stimulant activity in the central nervous system. PATIENTS AND METHODS A database review at two major inner city hospitals was undertaken to identify patients presenting with pneumomediastinum and their charts reviewed. A Medline review of all reported cases of pneumomediastinum associated with ecstasy abuse was undertaken. RESULTS A total of 56 patients presenting with pneumomediastinum were identified over a 5-year period. Review of the charts revealed a history of ecstasy use in the hours prior to presentation in six of these patients, representing the largest series reported to date. CONCLUSIONS Review of previously reported cases reveals the likely mechanism is due to Valsalva manoeuvre during periods of extreme physical exertion, and not a direct pharmacological effect of the drug. PMID:17535617
Full Text Available Abstract We report a case of a 48-year-old Chinese female with end-stage renal disease and chronic anemia on hemodialysis. Clonazepam was prescribed for myoclonus disorder two weeks prior to her hospitalization. Subsequently, she was hospitalized for neutropenic fever with thrombocytopenia and worsening anemia. Bone marrow examination demonstrated a markedly hypocellular marrow (10-20% total cellularity. Clonazepam was discontinued, with gradual improvement of thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia in 1-2 weeks. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of pancytopenia associated with clonazepam. We recommend patients taking clonazepam to be monitored with regular complete blood count to check for clinically significant pancytopenia or thrombocytopenia.
Nowack, Eva C. M.; Melkonian, Michael
The establishment of an endosymbiotic relationship typically seems to be driven through complementation of the host's limited metabolic capabilities by the biochemical versatility of the endosymbiont. The most significant examples of endosymbiosis are represented by the endosymbiotic acquisition of plastids and mitochondria, introducing photosynthesis and respiration to eukaryotes. However, there are numerous other endosymbioses that evolved more recently and repeatedly across the tree of life. Recent advances in genome sequencing technology have led to a better understanding of the physiological basis of many endosymbiotic associations. This review focuses on endosymbionts in protists (unicellular eukaryotes). Selected examples illustrate the incorporation of various new biochemical functions, such as photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation and recycling, and methanogenesis, into protist hosts by prokaryotic endosymbionts. Furthermore, photosynthetic eukaryotic endosymbionts display a great diversity of modes of integration into different protist hosts. In conclusion, endosymbiosis seems to represent a general evolutionary strategy of protists to acquire novel biochemical functions and is thus an important source of genetic innovation. PMID:20124339
Transplantation-associated infections are caused by an infected transplanted organ or the endogenic or exogenic environment of the recipient in a state of induced immunodeficiency. The best therapy would be to reconstitute the immunodeficiency, but this is usually impossible as it endangers the transplanted organ. Thus, a specific, standardised anti-infectious therapy is needed even in the absence of clearly identified micro-organisms [bacteria (in two thirds gram-positive rods), parasites (in central Europe predominantly Toxoplasma), fungi (especially Candida spp. or Aspergillus spp.) or viruses (such as Parvovirus B19 and Cytomegalovirus)]. Origins of infection (e.g., hygiene), types of infection (e.g., reactivation), typical localisations, diagnostic tools (e.g., blood cultures, antigenic tests, PCR, CT, advantages and disadvantages of antibody assays) and possible therapies are briefly discussed. The take home messages are to avoid economy measures in microbial diagnostics and to use CMV-seronegative donors whenever possible.
Ajlouni, Kamel M; Ahmad, Azmi T; El-Zaheri, Mohamed M; Al-Zahiri, Mohammad M; Ammari, Fawwaz L; Jarrah, Nadim S; AbuJbara, Mousa A; Ajlouni, Heitham K; Daradkeh, Tewfik K
To report several cases of hyperthyroidism in patients presenting with the unusual symptom of sleepwalking and to discuss the possible pathophysiologic basis for this novel association. After encountering and reporting the first case of new-onset somnambulism in a patient presenting with thyrotoxicosis at our institution, we routinely inquired about the sleep history of patients with thyrotoxicosis, questioning both the patients and family members when applicable. Those patients who actually had sleepwalking episodes coinciding with the onset of thyrotoxicosis underwent close follow-up, and the relationship between the sleepwalking and the results of thyroid function tests was analyzed. In addition, we reviewed the literature on psychiatric disorders and sleep problems, and the pathophysiologic rationale for a cause-and-effect relationship is discussed. We collected 8 cases of patients with new-onset sleepwalking episodes that coincided with the start of thyrotoxicosis. The disappearance of the sleepwalking with successful achievement of euthyroidism supports a cause-and-effect relationship. This hypothesis is further supported by the absence of a family history, the adult onset, and the relapse of sleepwalking in 2 of the patients when their thyrotoxicosis became poorly controlled as a result of noncompliance with medications and its subsequent disappearance with reachievement of euthyroidism. Of note, such a presentation was seen only in patients with thyrotoxicosis caused by diffuse toxic goiter or Graves' disease and never in patients with other causes of thyrotoxicosis. New-onset sleepwalking could be caused by thyrotoxicosis or, more specifically, by thyrotoxicosis resulting from diffuse toxic goiter. The mechanism is hypothesized to be related to the combination of prolongation of non-rapid eye movement sleep and the associated fatigue. Specific inquiry about this unusual presentation of thyrotoxicosis is encouraged, and more studies are needed to confirm
G, Amruth; S, Praveen-Kumar; B, Nataraju; Bs, Nagaraja
In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, sensory neuropathies have increased in prevalence. We have documented the frequency and profile of the two most common forms of sensory neuropathies associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and looked into clinicoelectrophysiological correlates to differentiate the two entities. The study population comprised of all consecutive patients detected to be HIV positive and attending the Neurology outpatient department (from March 2011 to March 2012) who were aged ≥ 18 years and were able to give informed consent. The data were collected from the patient records (including CD4 counts and treatment details) and questionnaire based interview with each patient. All patients underwent detailed clinical examination and nerve conduction studies (NCSs). Among the total study population of 50 patients, there were 31 men and 19 women. Thirty two patients were in age range of 21 - 40 years and rest were above 40 years. 25 were on antiretroviral therapy (18 on regimen containing zidovudine; seven on regimen containing stavudine). The mean duration of antiretroviral therapy was 16.6±8.4 months. Low CD4 counts ( 40 years. Subclinical neuropathy was common in those on antiretroviral therapy. Axonal neuropathy was the commonest pattern noted in patients who were receiving antiretroviral therapy and demyelinating neuropathy in patients not on antiretroviral therapy. Surprisingly no significant correlation was found between low CD4 counts and symptomatic neuropathy.
Balsam, Peter D; Drew, Michael R; Gallistel, C R
In a basic associative learning paradigm, learning is said to have occurred when the conditioned stimulus evokes an anticipatory response. This learning is widely believed to depend on the contiguous presentation of conditioned and unconditioned stimulus. However, what it means to be contiguous has not been rigorously defined. Here we examine the empirical bases for these beliefs and suggest an alternative view based on the hypothesis that learning about the temporal relationships between events determines the speed of emergence, vigor and form of conditioned behavior. This temporal learning occurs very rapidly and prior to the appearance of the anticipatory response. The temporal relations are learned even when no anticipatory response is evoked. The speed with which an anticipatory response emerges is proportional to the informativeness of the predictive cue (CS) regarding the rate of occurrence of the predicted event (US). This analysis gives an account of what we mean by "temporal pairing" and is in accord with the data on speed of acquisition and basic findings in the cue competition literature. In this account, learning depends on perceiving and encoding temporal regularities rather than stimulus contiguities.
Full Text Available Sepsis associated encephalopathy (SAE is a common but poorly understood neurological complication of sepsis. It is characterized by diffuse brain dysfunction secondary to infection elsewhere in the body without overt CNS infection. The pathophysiology of SAE is complex and multifactorial including a number of intertwined mechanisms such as vascular damage, endothelial activation, breakdown of the blood brain barrier, altered brain signaling, brain inflammation, and apoptosis. Clinical presentation of SAE may range from mild symptoms such as malaise and concentration deficits to deep coma. The evaluation of cognitive dysfunction is made difficult by the absence of any specific investigations or biomarkers and the common use of sedation in critically ill patients. SAE thus remains diagnosis of exclusion which can only be made after ruling out other causes of altered mentation in a febrile, critically ill patient by appropriate investigations. In spite of high mortality rate, management of SAE is limited to treatment of the underlying infection and symptomatic treatment for delirium and seizures. It is important to be aware of this condition because SAE may present in early stages of sepsis, even before the diagnostic criteria for sepsis can be met. This review discusses the diagnostic approach to patients with SAE along with its epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and differential diagnosis.
Prejbisz, A; Lenders, J W M; Eisenhofer, G; Januszewicz, A
Two major categories of mortality are distinguished in patients with phaeochromocytoma. First, the effects of excessive circulating catecholamines may result in lethal complications if the disease is not diagnosed and/or treated timely. The second category of mortality is related to development of metastatic disease or other neoplasms. Improvements in disease recognition and diagnosis over the past few decades have reduced mortality from undiagnosed tumours. Nevertheless, many tumours remain unrecognised until they cause severe complications. Death resulting from unrecognised or untreated tumour is caused by cardiovascular complications. There are also numerous drugs and diagnostic or therapeutic manipulations that can cause fatal complications in patients with phaeochromocytoma. Previously it has been reported that operative mortality was as high as 50% in unprepared patients with phaeochromocytoma who were operated and in whom the diagnosis was unsuspected. Today mortality during surgery in medically prepared patients with the tumour is minimal. Phaeochromocytomas may be malignant at presentation or metastases may develop later, but both scenarios are associated with a potentially lethal outcome. Patients with phaeochromocytoma run an increased risk to develop other tumours, resulting in an increased mortality risk compared to the general population. Phaeochromocytoma during pregnancy represents a condition with potentially high maternal and foetal mortality. However, today phaeochromocytoma in pregnancy is recognised earlier and in conjunction with improved medical management, maternal mortality has decreased to less than 5%. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Associated Particle Imaging (API) is an active neutron probe technique that provides a 3-D image with elemental composition of the material under interrogation, and so occupies a unique niche in the interrogation of unknown objects. The highly penetrating nature of neutrons enables API to provide detailed information about targets of interest that are hidden from view. Due to the isotropic nature of the induced reactions, radiation detectors can be set on the same side of the object as the neutron source, so that the object can be interrogated from a single side. At the heat of the system is a small generator that produces a continuous, monoenergetic flux of neutrons. By measuring the trajectory of coincident alpha particles that are produced as part of the process, the trajectory of the neutron can be inferred. Interactions between a neutron and the material in its path often produce a gamma ray whose energy is characteristic of that material. When the gamma ray is detected, its energy is measured and combined with the trajectory information to produce a 3-D image of the composition of the object being interrogated. During the course of API development, a number of improvements have been made. A new, more rugged sealed Tube Neutron Generator (STNG) has been designed and fabricated that is less susceptible to radiation damage and better able to withstand the rigors of fielding than earlier designs. A specialized high-voltage power supply for the STNG has also been designed and built. A complete package of software has been written for the tasks of system calibration, diagnostics and data acquisition and analysis. A portable system has been built and field tested, proving that API can be taken out of the lab and into real-world situations, and that its performance in the field is equal to that in the lab
Pereira, A V; Pereira, S A; Gremião, I D F; Campos, M P; Ferreira, A M R
This study compared the sensitivity of acetate tape impression and skin squeezing with that of deep skin scraping for the diagnosis of demodicosis in dogs. Demodex canis was detected in 100% of acetate tape impressions obtained after skin squeezing and in 90% of deep skin scrapings. There was a significant difference (P < 0.001) between the techniques in the total number of mites detected. Acetate tape impression with skin squeezing was found to be more sensitive than deep skin scraping and is an alternative diagnostic method for canine demodicosis. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.
This note suggests that the association between income inequality and economic growth rates might arguably depend on the political ideology of incumbent governments. Estimates indicate that under leftwing governments, inequality is negatively associated with growth while the association is positive...... under rightwing governments. This may provide a qualification to recent studies of inequality....
Associative learning plays a variety of roles in the study of animal cognition from a core theoretical component to a null hypothesis against which the contribution of cognitive processes is assessed. Two developments in contemporary associative learning have enhanced its relevance to animal cognition. The first concerns the role of associatively activated representations, whereas the second is the development of hybrid theories in which learning is determined by prediction errors, both directly and indirectly through associability processes. However, it remains unclear whether these developments allow associative theory to capture the psychological rationality of cognition. I argue that embodying associative processes within specific processing architectures provides mechanisms that can mediate psychological rationality and illustrate such embodiment by discussing the relationship between practical reasoning and the associative-cybernetic model of goal-directed action.
Martín-Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; Ruiz-Rodríguez, María Adilia; Palomar, Francisco J; Cáceres-Redondo, María Teresa; Vargas, Laura; Porcacchia, Paolo; Gómez-Crespo, Mercedes; Huertas-Fernández, Ismael; Carrillo, Fátima; Madruga-Garrido, Marcos; Mir, Pablo
Recent studies have shown altered cortical plasticity in adult patients with Tourette syndrome. However, the clinical significance of this finding remains elusive. Motor cortical plasticity was evaluated in 15 adult patients with severe Tourette syndrome and 16 healthy controls using the paired associative stimulation protocol by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Associations between paired associative stimulation-induced plasticity and relevant clinical variables, including cortical excitability, psychiatric comorbidities, drug treatment and tic severity, were assessed. Motor cortical plasticity was abnormally increased in patients with Tourette syndrome compared with healthy subjects. This abnormal plasticity was independently associated with tic severity. Patients with severe Tourette syndrome display abnormally increased cortical associative plasticity. This aberrant cortical plasticity was associated with tic severity, suggesting an underlying mechanism for tic pathophysiology. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
Ravindra Kumar Garg; Hardeep Singh Malhotra; Amita Jain; Kiran Preet Malhotra
Dengue is associated with many neurological dysfunctions. Up to 4% of dengue patients may develop neuromuscular complications. Muscle involvement can manifest with myalgias, myositis, rhabdomyolysis and hypokalemic paralysis. Diffuse myalgia is the most characteristic neurological symptom of dengue fever. Dengue-associated myositis can be of varying severity ranging from self-limiting muscle involvement to severe dengue myositis. Dengue-associated hypokalemic paralysis often has a rapidly evo...
Morewedge, Carey K.; Kahneman, Daniel
Dual-system models of reasoning attribute errors of judgment to two failures. The automatic operations of a ?System 1? generate a faulty intuition, which the controlled operations of a ?System 2? fail to detect and correct. We identify System 1 with the automatic operations of associative memory and draw on research in the priming paradigm to describe how it operates. We explain how three features of associative memory?associative coherence, attribute substitution, and processing fluency?give...
In this thesis we describe a method of using associative networks for automatic doc- ument grouping. Associative networks are networks of ideas or concepts in which each concept is linked to concepts that are semantically similar to it. By activating concepts in the network based on the text of a
Vammen, Ida Marie; Trans, Lars Ove
Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically on their tr......Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically...
Association between Oral Anticoagulation Knowledge, Anticoagulation Control, and Demographic Characteristics of Patients Attending an Anticoagulation Clinic in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Prospective Evaluation.
Noor, Ahmed; Hussain, Syed Fayyaz
To assess the risk factors associated with development of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). A case control study. Intensive Care Unit (ICU) at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, between January 1999 and June 2000. All patients with assisted mechanical ventilation were assessed for the development of VAP. Risk factors associated with development of VAP were determined. Adult patients who developed pneumonia, 48 hours after ventilation, were called cases while those who did not develop pneumonia were called controls. Seventy (28%) out of 250 mechanically ventilated patients developed VAP (rate of VAP was 26 cases per 1000 ventilator days). Shock during first 48 hours of ventilation (odds ratio (OR), 5.95; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.83-12.52), transport out of ICU during mechanical ventilation (OR, 6.0; 95% CI, 2.92-12.37), re-intubation (OR, 4.23; 95% CI, 2.53-9.85), prior episode of aspiration of gastric content (OR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.35-7.01), and use of antibiotics prior to intubation (OR,2.55; 95% CI, 1.20-5.41) were found to be independently associated with a higher risk of developing VAP. Gram negative organisms and Staphylococcus aureus were responsible for over 90% of cases. Patients with VAP had higher crude mortality rate (57.1%) compared with controls (32.2%). Ventilator associated pneumonia is associated with a high mortality. This study has identified risk factors associated with VAP.
Kovach, N.A.; Rivkin, B.B.; Sadekov, T.D.; Shvajka, O.P.
Association constants in acetonitrile of triphenyl telluronium salts, which are dilute electrolytes, are determined through the conductometry method. Satisfactory correlation dependence of constants of interion association and threshold molar electroconductivity on the Litvinenko-Popov constants for depositing groups is identified. 6 refs
Agha Hosseini F
Full Text Available A case involving the rare occurance of hyperparathyroidism in association with neurofibromatosis"nis reported."nRadiographic findings revealed multiple radiolucency which diagnosed as giant cell lesions. Also, high levels"nof PTH and alkalan phosphatase were found from repeated measurements of the serum."nNeurofibromatosis associated with hyperparathyroidism diagnosed in this case report.
Full Text Available Influenza virus is the most frequently reported viral cause of rhabdomyolysis. A 7-year-old child is presented with rhabdomyolysis associated with parainfluenza type 2 virus. Nine cases of rhabdomyolysis associated with parainfluenza virus have been reported. Complications may include electrolyte disturbances, acute renal failure, and compartment syndrome.
Vaez Barzani, Ahmad
In this thesis we present an overview of bioinformatics-based approaches for genomic association mapping, with emphasis on human quantitative traits and their contribution to complex diseases. We aim to provide a comprehensive walk-through of the classic steps of genomic association mapping
Caplan, Jeremy B.; Boulton, Kathy L.; Gagné, Christina L.
Early verbal-memory researchers assumed participants represent memory of a pair of unrelated items with 2 independent, separately modifiable, directional associations. However, memory for pairs of unrelated words (A-B) exhibits associative symmetry: a near-perfect correlation between accuracy on forward (A??) and backward (??B) cued recall. This…
The overarching objective of this doctoral dissertation is to advance our understanding of the role of associations in creative thought and creativity training. While research in associative abilities and creativity has a long history and lies at the heart of many prevailing theories of creativity...
Syrbe, Steffen; Harms, Frederike L; Parrini, Elena
De novo in-frame deletions and duplications in the SPTAN1 gene, encoding the non-erythrocyte αII spectrin, have been associated with severe West syndrome with hypomyelination and pontocerebellar atrophy. We aimed at comprehensively delineating the phenotypic spectrum associated with SPTAN1 mutati...
Weir, B S
Linkage disequilibrium refers to the association between alleles at different loci. The standard definition applies to two alleles in the same gamete, and it can be regarded as the covariance of indicator variables for the states of those two alleles. The corresponding correlation coefficient rho is the parameter that arises naturally in discussions of tests of association between markers and genetic diseases. A general treatment of association tests makes use of the additive and nonadditive components of variance for the disease gene. In almost all expressions that describe the behavior of association tests, additive variance components are modified by the squared correlation coefficient rho2 and the nonadditive variance components by rho4, suggesting that nonadditive components have less influence than additive components on association tests.
Kupriyanov, V.G., E-mail: email@example.com [CMCC-Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)
Non-commutativity and non-associativity are quite natural in string theory. For open strings it appears due to the presence of non-vanishing background two-form in the world volume of Dirichlet brane, while in closed string theory the flux compactifications with non-vanishing three-form also lead to non-geometric backgrounds. In this paper, working in the framework of deformation quantization, we study the violation of associativity imposing the condition that the associator of three elements should vanish whenever each two of them are equal. The corresponding star products are called alternative and satisfy important for physical applications properties like the Moufang identities, alternative identities, Artin's theorem, etc. The condition of alternativity is invariant under the gauge transformations, just like it happens in the associative case. The price to pay is the restriction on the non-associative algebra which can be represented by the alternative star product, it should satisfy the Malcev identity. The example of nontrivial Malcev algebra is the algebra of imaginary octonions. For this case we construct an explicit expression of the non-associative and alternative star product. We also discuss the quantization of Malcev–Poisson algebras of general form, study its properties and provide the lower order expression for the alternative star product. To conclude we define the integration on the algebra of the alternative star products and show that the integrated associator vanishes.
Non-commutativity and non-associativity are quite natural in string theory. For open strings it appears due to the presence of non-vanishing background two-form in the world volume of Dirichlet brane, while in closed string theory the flux compactifications with non-vanishing three-form also lead to non-geometric backgrounds. In this paper, working in the framework of deformation quantization, we study the violation of associativity imposing the condition that the associator of three elements should vanish whenever each two of them are equal. The corresponding star products are called alternative and satisfy important for physical applications properties like the Moufang identities, alternative identities, Artin's theorem, etc. The condition of alternativity is invariant under the gauge transformations, just like it happens in the associative case. The price to pay is the restriction on the non-associative algebra which can be represented by the alternative star product, it should satisfy the Malcev identity. The example of nontrivial Malcev algebra is the algebra of imaginary octonions. For this case we construct an explicit expression of the non-associative and alternative star product. We also discuss the quantization of Malcev–Poisson algebras of general form, study its properties and provide the lower order expression for the alternative star product. To conclude we define the integration on the algebra of the alternative star products and show that the integrated associator vanishes.
Full Text Available Non-commutativity and non-associativity are quite natural in string theory. For open strings it appears due to the presence of non-vanishing background two-form in the world volume of Dirichlet brane, while in closed string theory the flux compactifications with non-vanishing three-form also lead to non-geometric backgrounds. In this paper, working in the framework of deformation quantization, we study the violation of associativity imposing the condition that the associator of three elements should vanish whenever each two of them are equal. The corresponding star products are called alternative and satisfy important for physical applications properties like the Moufang identities, alternative identities, Artin's theorem, etc. The condition of alternativity is invariant under the gauge transformations, just like it happens in the associative case. The price to pay is the restriction on the non-associative algebra which can be represented by the alternative star product, it should satisfy the Malcev identity. The example of nontrivial Malcev algebra is the algebra of imaginary octonions. For this case we construct an explicit expression of the non-associative and alternative star product. We also discuss the quantization of Malcev–Poisson algebras of general form, study its properties and provide the lower order expression for the alternative star product. To conclude we define the integration on the algebra of the alternative star products and show that the integrated associator vanishes.
Sommer, Tobias; Rose, Michael; Buchel, Christian
The formation of associations between objects and locations is a vital aspect of episodic memory. More specifically, remembering the location where one experienced an object and, vice versa, the object one encountered at a specific location are both important elements for the memory of an event. Whether episodic associations are holistic…
An associative ring is just realized or built using reals or complex; finite or infinite by defining two binary operations on it. But on the contrary when we want to define or study or even introduce a non-associative ring we need two separate algebraic structures say a commutative ring with 1 (or a field) together with a loop or a groupoid or a vector space or a linear algebra. The two non-associative well-known algebras viz. Lie algebras and Jordan algebras are mainly built using a vecto...
Choi, Jong Wook; Moon, Shinje; Jang, Eun Jung; Lee, Chang Hwa; Park, Joon-Sung
Increased glycemic exposure, even below the diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus, is crucial in the pathogenesis of diabetic microvascular complications represented by microalbuminuria. Nonetheless, there is limited evidence regarding which single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with prediabetes and whether genetic predisposition to prediabetes is related to microalbuminuria, especially in the general population. Our objective was to answer these questions. We conducted a genomewide association study (GWAS) separately on two population-based cohorts, Ansung and Ansan, in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES). The initial GWAS was carried out on the Ansung cohort, followed by a replication study on the Ansan cohort. A total of 5682 native Korean participants without a significant medical illness were classified into either control group (n = 3153) or prediabetic group (n = 2529). In the GWAS, we identified two susceptibility loci associated with prediabetes, one at 17p15.3-p15.1 in the GCK gene and another at 7p15.1 in YKT6. When variations in GCK and YKT6 were used as a model of prediabetes, this genetically determined prediabetes increased microalbuminuria. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that fasting glucose concentration in plasma and SNP rs2908289 in GCK were associated with microalbuminuria, and adjustment for age, gender, smoking history, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and serum triglyceride levels did not attenuate this association. Our results suggest that prediabetes and the associated SNPs may predispose to microalbuminuria before the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Further studies are needed to explore the details of the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying this genetic association.
Choi, Jong Wook; Moon, Shinje; Jang, Eun Jung; Lee, Chang Hwa; Park, Joon-Sung
Increased glycemic exposure, even below the diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus, is crucial in the pathogenesis of diabetic microvascular complications represented by microalbuminuria. Nonetheless, there is limited evidence regarding which single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with prediabetes and whether genetic predisposition to prediabetes is related to microalbuminuria, especially in the general population. Our objective was to answer these questions. We conducted a genomewide association study (GWAS) separately on two population-based cohorts, Ansung and Ansan, in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES). The initial GWAS was carried out on the Ansung cohort, followed by a replication study on the Ansan cohort. A total of 5682 native Korean participants without a significant medical illness were classified into either control group (n = 3153) or prediabetic group (n = 2529). In the GWAS, we identified two susceptibility loci associated with prediabetes, one at 17p15.3-p15.1 in the GCK gene and another at 7p15.1 in YKT6. When variations in GCK and YKT6 were used as a model of prediabetes, this genetically determined prediabetes increased microalbuminuria. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that fasting glucose concentration in plasma and SNP rs2908289 in GCK were associated with microalbuminuria, and adjustment for age, gender, smoking history, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and serum triglyceride levels did not attenuate this association. Our results suggest that prediabetes and the associated SNPs may predispose to microalbuminuria before the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Further studies are needed to explore the details of the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying this genetic association. PMID:28158221
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records documenting the business, membership, and meetings of the American Association of State Climatologists, from 1976-92. Material donated in 2008 by the estate...
Murugan, Arvind; Brenner, Michael
Mechanisms such as Miura Ori have proven useful in diverse contexts since they have only one degree of freedom that is easily controlled. We combine the theory of rigid origami and associative memory in frustrated neural networks to create structures that can ``learn'' multiple generic folding mechanisms and yet can be robustly controlled. We show that such rigid origami structures can ``recall'' a specific learned mechanism when induced by a physical impulse that only need resemble the desired mechanism (i.e. robust recall through association). Such associative memory in matter, seen before in self-assembly, arises due to a balance between local promiscuity (i.e., many local degrees of freedom) and global frustration which minimizes interference between different learned behaviors. Origami with associative memory can lead to a new class of deployable structures and kinetic architectures with multiple context-dependent behaviors.
Jul 15, 1989 ... incidence of sexual dysfunction during this phase; loss of libido was the ... association with decreased orgasmic response and diminished sexual satisfaction (Fig. 2). ..... Human Sexual Inadequacy. Boston: Little, Brown,.
Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Holland, Rob W.; Dotsch, Ron; Hugenberg, Kurt; Wigboldus, Daniel H. J.
We investigated whether stereotype associations between specific emotional expressions and social categories underlie stereotypic emotion recognition biases. Across two studies, we replicated previously documented stereotype biases in emotion recognition using both dynamic (Study 1) and static
Griffin, C.J.; Joshi, G.C.
Generalizing previous work, it is shown that structural transitions are a general property of a large class of octonionic maps. They can thus be used as an indicator of non-associativity in an octonionic map. 7 refs., ills
... What CDC Is Doing Related Links Stay Informed Statistics for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home HPV-Associated Cancer Statistics Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ...
The overarching objective of this doctoral dissertation is to advance our understanding of the role of associations in creative thought and creativity training. While research in associative abilities and creativity has a long history and lies at the heart of many prevailing theories of creativity......, Thomas Z. Ramsøy, Hartwig Siebner: Viewing objects activates the creative mind. III: Balder Onarheim & Morten Friis-Olivarius (2013): Applying the neuroscience of creativity to creativity training. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Volume 7, Article 656...
Puttanna, Amar; Cunningham, Alana Rosaleen; Dainty, Philip
Addison's disease is a relatively rare endocrine condition resulting from adrenal insufficiency due to various causes. Weight loss is a common feature; however, patients may be seen by a variety of specialists, even requiring acute admission before the diagnosis is made. Addison's disease is commonly associated with other autoimmune diseases. In some cases such as autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS) types 1 and 2, these associations are more commonly found. We present a case of one such ...
Newsom-Davis, T; Bower, M
HIV-associated anal carcinoma, a non-AIDS-defining cancer, is a human papillomavirus-associated malignancy with a spectrum of preinvasive changes. The standardized incidence ratio for anal cancer in patients with HIV/AIDS is 20-50. Algorithms for anal cancer screening include anal cytology followed by high-resolution anoscopy for those with abnormal findings. Outpatient topical treatments for anal intraepithelial neoplasia include infrared coagulation therapy, trichloroacetic acid, and imiqui...
Lopes, Cátia; Lopes, Daniela; Ferreira, Sofia; Correia, Teresa; Pinto, Isabel C.
Nowadays sleep disorders are very common and affect most of the population, the most common may be insomnia. Insomnia is defined as the difficulty of initiating or maintaining sleep it, may also be reflected in an early wake up and by the presence of a non-restful sleep and it is associated with impairment in social and occupational functioning of the individual. Knowing the prevalence and the associated factors of insomnia. This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study. The pop...
Full Text Available Vitiligo is a disease that results in depigmented areas in the skin. It may develop at any age but the average age at onset is 20 years. Association of vitiligo and melanoma has been commonly reported, but malignancies other than melanoma have been rarely associated with vitiligo. We report a 73-year-old patient with new onset vitiligo who developed esophageal adenocarcinoma in the following years.
Petkovic, D.M.; Maksimovic, Z.B.
The association constants of tri-n-butyl (TBP), tri-n-propyl (TPP) and triethyl phosphate (TEP) with chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and benzene were determined by dielectric constant, proton magnetic resonance and vapor pressure measurements. Correlation of the trialkyl phosphate-chloroform association constants, using the Hammett equation, showed their increase with the number of carbon atoms in the aliphatic radicals. The change of trialkyl phosphate reactivity with temperature was used to determine the thermodynamic quantities. (author)
Thompson, B. J.; Biesecker, D. A.; Gopalswamy, N.
We discuss phenomena associated with "EIT Wave" transients. These phenomena include coronal mass ejections, flares, EUV/SXR dimmings, chromospheric waves, Moreton waves, solar energetic particle events, energetic electron events, and radio signatures. Although the occurrence of many phenomena correlate with the appearance of EIT waves, it is difficult to mfer which associations are causal. The presentation will include a discussion of correlation surveys of these phenomena.
Gianotti, L R; Mohr, C; Pizzagalli, D; Lehmann, D; Brugger, P
In the present study we introduce a novel task for the quantitative assessment of both originality and speed of individual associations. This 'BAG' (Bridge-the-Associative-Gap) task was used to investigate the relationships between creativity and paranormal belief. Twelve strong 'believers' and 12 strong 'skeptics' in paranormal phenomena were selected from a large student population (n > 350). Subjects were asked to produce single-word associations to word pairs. In 40 trials the two stimulus words were semantically indirectly related and in 40 other trials the words were semantically unrelated. Separately for these two stimulus types, response commonalities and association latencies were calculated. The main finding was that for unrelated stimuli, believers produced associations that were more original (had a lower frequency of occurrence in the group as a whole) than those of the skeptics. For the interpretation of the result we propose a model of association behavior that captures both 'positive' psychological aspects (i.e., verbal creativity) and 'negative' aspects (susceptibility to unfounded inferences), and outline its relevance for psychiatry. This model suggests that believers adopt a looser response criterion than skeptics when confronted with 'semantic noise'. Such a signal detection view of the presence/absence of judgments for loose semantic relations may help to elucidate the commonalities between creative thinking, paranormal belief and delusional ideation.
The frontal association cortex is composed of the prefrontal cortex and the motor-related areas except the primary motor cortex (i.e., the so-called higher motor areas), and is well-developed in primates, including humans. The prefrontal cortex receives and integrates large bits of diverse information from the parietal, temporal, and occipital association cortical areas (termed the posterior association cortex), and paralimbic association cortical areas. This information is then transmitted to the primary motor cortex via multiple motor-related areas. Given these facts, it is likely that the prefrontal cortex exerts executive functions for behavioral control. The functional input pathways from the posterior and paralimbic association cortical areas to the prefrontal cortex are classified primarily into six groups. Cognitive signals derived from the prefrontal cortex are conveyed to the rostral motor-related areas to transform them into motor signals, which finally enter the primary motor cortex via the caudal motor-related areas. Furthermore, it has been shown that, similar to the primary motor cortex, areas of the frontal association cortex form individual networks (known as "loop circuits") with the basal ganglia and cerebellum via the thalamus, and hence are extensively involved in the expression and control of behavioral actions.
Khan, I; Bhat, R A; Khan, I; Hameed, I
Immunoglobulin A (Ig A) nephropathy is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis. The association of Ig A nephropathy with Grave's disease has not been reported so far. We report a case of 20-year-old female with Grave's disease who presented with edema, facial puffiness, and decreased urine output. She was found to be hypertensive with renal failure and nephrotic range proteinuria. Renal biopsy revealed features of Ig A nephropathy. The patient was treated with oral corticosteroids (1 mg/kg/day). To our knowledge, this is the first case showing association of Grave's disease with Ig A nephropathy.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and type of ectoparasites and to identify risk factors associated with ectoparasite infestations in small ruminants in and around Sekela, Northwest Ethiopia. Clinical examination and laboratory analysis were made on 304 sheep and 96 goats. The collected raw data were analyzed using χ2-test. Out of the 400 sampled animals, 182 (45.5% were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The prevalent ectoparasites observed were lice, ticks, Ctenocephalides species, Melophagus ovinus, and Demodex species. The infestation rates of ectoparasites with age and sex were significantly varied (P0.05. Body condition score was not significantly associated (P>0.05 with ectoparasites infestation in both sheep and goats. In our attempt, only two cases due to Demodex species were recorded in sheep. In conclusion, the prevalence of ectoparasites in the present study was high and this could affect the wellbeing and productivity of small ruminants. Therefore, to reduce ectoparasites prevalence and impact on the productivity and health status, planning of integrated control measures with sustainable veterinary services aiming at creating awareness about the importance and control of ectoparasites for livestock owners is required.
Seyoum, Zewdu; Tadesse, Tsegaye; Addisu, Agerie
This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and type of ectoparasites and to identify risk factors associated with ectoparasite infestations in small ruminants in and around Sekela, Northwest Ethiopia. Clinical examination and laboratory analysis were made on 304 sheep and 96 goats. The collected raw data were analyzed using χ (2)-test. Out of the 400 sampled animals, 182 (45.5%) were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The prevalent ectoparasites observed were lice, ticks, Ctenocephalides species, Melophagus ovinus, and Demodex species. The infestation rates of ectoparasites with age and sex were significantly varied (P 0.05). Body condition score was not significantly associated (P > 0.05) with ectoparasites infestation in both sheep and goats. In our attempt, only two cases due to Demodex species were recorded in sheep. In conclusion, the prevalence of ectoparasites in the present study was high and this could affect the wellbeing and productivity of small ruminants. Therefore, to reduce ectoparasites prevalence and impact on the productivity and health status, planning of integrated control measures with sustainable veterinary services aiming at creating awareness about the importance and control of ectoparasites for livestock owners is required.
Lizarraga, Karlo J; Nayer, Ali
A mosquito-borne viral illness highly prevalent in the tropics and subtropics, dengue is considered a major global health threat by the World Health Organization. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, PubMed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science have been searched. An RNA virus from the genus Flavivirus, dengue virus is transmitted by Aedes aegypti,the yellow fever mosquito. Dengue is asymptomatic in as many as one half of infected individuals. Dengue fever is an acute febrile illness accompanied by constitutional symptoms. Dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome are the severe forms of dengue infection.Dengue infection has been associated with a variety of renal disorders. Acute renal failure is a potential complication of severe dengue infection and is typically associated with hypotension, rhabdomyolysis, or hemolysis. Acute renal failure complicates severe dengue infection in 2-5% of the cases and carries a high mortality rate. Proteinuria has been detected in as high as 74% of patients with severe dengue infection. Hematuria has been reported in up to 12.5% of patients. Various types of glomerulonephritis have been reported during or shortly after dengue infection in humans and mouse models of dengue infection. Mesangial proliferation and immune complex deposition are the dominant histologic features of dengue-associated glomerulonephritis. On a rare occasion, dengue infection is associated with systemic autoimmune disorders involving the kidneys. In the vast majority of cases, dengue infection and associated renal disorders are self-limited.
Terzieff, V.; Alonso, I.; V ázquez, A.
Eosinophils are phagocytic leukocytes, regulators reactions Mast cell mediated hypersensitivity. toxicity and primarily responsible antiparasitic. Predominate in epithelial tissues near the interface surface (skin, digestive tract) .The cytotoxic reaction exerted by deposit cell surface substances from the granules themselves: peroxidases, neurotoxins, and other cationic proteins. Hypereosinophilia is defined as the increase in eosinophils above 1500 / m m3. The most common causes are parasitic infections and reactions allergic. About 60% of tumors may be associated with an elevation eosinophil discrete but marked eosinophilia in these patients is little frequent. Tumors are most associated lung cancer and tumors hematology. There are few reports of this entity associated with uterine sarcomas. Although the pathophysiologic mechanism is unclear, it is assumed that the base is the increased secretion of cytokines eosinofilopoiétics: interleukins (Il) I L-3, Il-5 and G M-CSFR among other possible. Self-morbidity is primarily maintained hypereosinophilic heart, and is derived from the cytotoxic action, with endomyocardial fibrosis and thrombosis. Treatment should be directed at the control of the underlying disease, as good Tumor response was associated with the account and normalizaciónd eosinófiles. Los corticosteroids prednisone, 60 mg / day po) may be effective because antagonize The stimulatory effect of cytokines. In the vast majority of cases, the disease is associated with hypereosinophilia disseminated and poor overall prognosis We present a case of vaginal sarcoma with pulmonary metastases and hypereosinophilia seniors who responded to treatment with chemotherapy
Desbois, Anne Claire; Cacoub, Patrice
The aim of this study was to describe the different arterial complications reported in cannabis smokers. This study was a literature review. Cannabis use was found to be associated with stroke, myocardial infarction, and lower limb arteritis. Arterial disease involved especially young men. There was a very strong temporal link between arterial complications and cannabis use for stroke and myocardial infarction episodes. Patient outcome was closely correlated with cannabis withdrawal and relapses associated with cannabis rechallenge. Cannabis use was associated with particular characteristics of arterial disease. The increased risk of myocardial infarction onset occurred within 1 hour of smoking marijuana compared with periods of non-use. Strokes occurred mainly in the posterior cerebral circulation. Compared with cohorts of thromboangiitis obliterans patients, those with cannabis-associated limb arteritis were younger, more often male, and had more frequent unilateral involvement of the lower limbs at clinical presentation. Cannabis use is associated with arterial disease such as stroke, myocardial infarction, and limbs arteritis. It appears essential to investigate cannabis use in young patients presenting with such arterial manifestations, as outcome is closely correlated with cannabis withdrawal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Global employer and business associations at the peak level are neglected in research, but this paper argues that it is possible to develop collective action and represent interests in many policy fields through these encompassing entities, and they add to other forms of global business coordinat......Global employer and business associations at the peak level are neglected in research, but this paper argues that it is possible to develop collective action and represent interests in many policy fields through these encompassing entities, and they add to other forms of global business...... coordination. This study analyses all the global peak associations (International Chamber of Commerce, International Organisation of Employers, World Chambers Federation, Business and Industry Advisory Committee to the OECD, B20 Coalition, World Economic Forum and World Business Council for Sustainable...... leadership functions, while global associations meet a variety of demands from their diverse constituencies and assist members in building capacities. These relations take many different forms, but they are important in all global associations, and the analysis of these patterns of collective action have...
Brainerd, C. J.; Wright, Ron
In the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false-memory illusion, forward associative strength (FAS) is unrelated to the strength of the illusion; this is puzzling, because high-FAS lists ought to share more semantic features with critical unpresented words than should low-FAS lists. The authors show that this null result is probably a truncated range…
Association du personnel
The Staff Association, your representative with the Management and the Member States The article VII 1.01 of the Staff Rules and Regulations (SR&R) provides that “the relations between the Director-General and the personnel shall be established either on an individual basis or on a collective basis with the Staff Association as intermediary”. This essential role of the Staff representatives, of being the spokesperson of the entire staff of the Organization vis-à-vis the Director-General and the Members States, is achieved through regular participation in the various joint advisory committees defined in the SR&R. The most important are the Standing Concertation Committee and the TREF, tripartite forum where your representatives meet with the Member States delegates, in the presence of the Management, to explain the position of the staff on the various issues concerning employment conditions. The Finance Committee also gives the opportunity to the Staff Association to ...
Morewedge, Carey K.; Kahneman, Daniel
Dual-system models of reasoning attribute errors of judgment to two failures. The automatic operations of a “System 1” generate a faulty intuition, which the controlled operations of a “System 2” fail to detect and correct. We identify System 1 with the automatic operations of associative memory and draw on research in the priming paradigm to describe how it operates. We explain how three features of associative memory—associative coherence, attribute substitution, and processing fluency—give rise to major biases of intuitive judgment. Our article highlights both the ability of System 1 to create complex and skilled judgments and the role of the system as a source of judgment errors. PMID:20696611
Puttanna, Amar; Cunningham, Alana Rosaleen; Dainty, Philip
Addison's disease is a relatively rare endocrine condition resulting from adrenal insufficiency due to various causes. Weight loss is a common feature; however, patients may be seen by a variety of specialists, even requiring acute admission before the diagnosis is made. Addison's disease is commonly associated with other autoimmune diseases. In some cases such as autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS) types 1 and 2, these associations are more commonly found. We present a case of one such patient who presented to the acute medical team having been referred to the gastrointestinal services in the previous year for persistent vomiting and weight loss. On review of history, the cause of vomiting and weight loss was questioned and combined with subsequent biochemical testing a diagnosis of Addison's disease was made. The patient was also noted to have other associated endocrine and autoimmune conditions.
Gibbs, Benjamin G; Erickson, Lance D; Dufur, Mikaela J; Miles, Aaron
There is consistent evidence that student involvement in extracurricular activities (EAs) is associated with numerous academic benefits, yet understanding how peer associations within EAs might influence this link is not well understood. Using Add Health's comprehensive data on EA participation across 80 schools in the United States, we develop a novel measure of peer associations within EA activities. We find that EA participation with high achieving peers has a nontrivial link to college enrollment, even after considering individual, peer, and school-level factors. This suggests that school policies aimed at encouraging student exposure to high achieving peers in EAs could have an important impact on a student's later educational outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oliveira, Paulo Eduardo
The book concerns the notion of association in probability and statistics. Association and some other positive dependence notions were introduced in 1966 and 1967 but received little attention from the probabilistic and statistics community. The interest in these dependence notions increased in the last 15 to 20 years, and many asymptotic results were proved and improved. Despite this increased interest, characterizations and results remained essentially scattered in the literature published in different journals. The goal of this book is to bring together the bulk of these results, presenting
Dar, N.R.; Raza, N.
Papulonecrotic tuberculids represent an immunological expression of an internal focus of tuberculosis in an individual with a moderate or high degree of immunity. It responds to anti-tuberculosis treatment and is characterized by an eruption of necrotizing papules occurring in symmetrical crops, particularly affecting the elbows, knees, buttocks and face. A case of papulonecrotic tuberculids associated with immune mediated unilateral uveitis is reported in which all investigations were negative for tuberculosis except a strongly positive tuberculin test. There was an excellent response to anti-tuberculosis treatment. The association of immune mediated uveitis with papulonecrotic tuberculids has not been described before. (author)
In January 1990 the National Radiological Protection Board signed an 'Agreement of Association' with the European Atomic Energy Community, represented by the Commission of the European Communities, to carry out research work in fields covered by the Radiation Protection Research Programme. Under the terms of the contract the Board assumed overall responsibility for the coordination of work involving a number of European organisations, 25 in total and covering 9 countries stretching from Greece to Sweden. The contract provided for funding of research work relating to the assessment of human exposure to natural, medical and occupational radiation and the associated risks. (Author)
Telfer, B; Casasent, D
Selected algorithms for adding to and deleting from optical pseudoinverse associative memories are presented and compared. New realizations of pseudoinverse updating methods using vector inner product matrix bordering and reduced-dimensionality Karhunen-Loeve approximations (which have been used for updating optical filters) are described in the context of associative memories. Greville's theorem is reviewed and compared with the Widrow-Hoff algorithm. Kohonen's gradient projection method is expressed in a different form suitable for optical implementation. The data matrix memory is also discussed for comparison purposes. Memory size, speed and ease of updating, and key vector requirements are the comparison criteria used.
An overview of the role of the Ontario Energy Marketers Association (OEMA) and its future orientation was presented. Participants in the OEMA include agents, brokers, marketers, local distribution companies, public interest representatives, associations and government representatives. The role of the OEMA is to encourage open competition for the benefit and protection of all energy consumer and market participants. As well, the OEMA serves as a forum for key industry stakeholders to resolve market issues outside the regulatory arena, set standards and codes of practice, establish customer education programs, and develop industry input into public policy making
Full Text Available Demodicosis is a common parasitic infection of the hair follicles and the pilosebaceous unit by the Demodex mites viz. Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis. Infection by this parasite is common among immunocompromised and elderly. We report a case of facial Demodicosis which presented like atypical rosacea with a gradually progressing swelling and redness on right side of face which was initially diagnosed as a case of Hansen’s disease. Skin biopsy revealed follicular dilatation with presence of Demodex mite along with intense perifollicular lymphomononuclear infiltrate. Patient was treated with oral tab Ivermectin 12 mg stat along with topical gel metronidazole twice daily to which he responded favourably.
Hernández Martínez, P; Rodríguez Del Valle, J M
The treatment of strabismus associated with myopia is often a therapeutic challenge for the ophthalmologist. The strabismus associated with myopia has certain peculiarities and there are even certain types of strabismus that occur exclusively in myopia, such as strabismus fixus, requiring treatments with specific surgical techniques. It is important to make a correct differential diagnosis, because there are many conditions described with this association. A review is presented of strabismus associated with myopia, together with its treatment adjusted to refractive error. Measurements of strabismus may be altered by the prismatic effect of the spectacles. Surgical results may be unpredictable if myopia is not taken into account. Better results were obtained with the techniques of anatomical replacement described by Yokoyama than with traditional retro-insertion-resection. For the diagnosis and appropriate treatment of strabismus, it is important to make a correct measurement of the angle of deviation, and perform image tests prior to surgery in certain cases. The anatomical characteristics of the myopic eye should also be taken into account during surgery. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Dirksen, Karen; Fieten, Hille
Copper-associated hepatitis is recognized with increasing frequency in dogs. The disease is characterized by centrolobular hepatic copper accumulation, leading to hepatitis and eventually cirrhosis. The only way to establish the diagnosis is by histologic assessment of copper distribution and copper
Johansson, Sofie Lock; Roberts, Nassim Bazeghi; Schlosser, Anders
BACKGROUND: Microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) is a matricellular glycoprotein that co-localises with elastic fibres and is highly expressed in the lungs. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that plasma MFAP4 (pMFAP4) reflects clinical outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary...
... Only) 1-800-444-6443 Welcome to the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA) Brain injury is not an event or an outcome. ... misunderstood, under-funded neurological disease. People who sustain brain injuries must have timely access to expert trauma ...
1.4 Target group. All known individuals, institutions and bodies involved in lexicography and ... It was felt that a professional association for Southern African lexicography .... for Lexicography, Lexikos also became the official mouthpiece of AFRILEX. .... language teachers and journalists — those who cannot do their specific.
Pomi, Andrés; Mizraji, Eduardo
Graphs have been increasingly utilized in the characterization of complex networks from diverse origins, including different kinds of semantic networks. Human memories are associative and are known to support complex semantic nets; these nets are represented by graphs. However, it is not known how the brain can sustain these semantic graphs. The vision of cognitive brain activities, shown by modern functional imaging techniques, assigns renewed value to classical distributed associative memory models. Here we show that these neural network models, also known as correlation matrix memories, naturally support a graph representation of the stored semantic structure. We demonstrate that the adjacency matrix of this graph of associations is just the memory coded with the standard basis of the concept vector space, and that the spectrum of the graph is a code invariant of the memory. As long as the assumptions of the model remain valid this result provides a practical method to predict and modify the evolution of the cognitive dynamics. Also, it could provide us with a way to comprehend how individual brains that map the external reality, almost surely with different particular vector representations, are nevertheless able to communicate and share a common knowledge of the world. We finish presenting adaptive association graphs, an extension of the model that makes use of the tensor product, which provides a solution to the known problem of branching in semantic nets.
infancy, the child presented with the skeletal deformities, recurrent urinary tract infections ... features of this syndrome in association with right deviation of anorectal canal, subglottic stenosis and unilateral oblique inguinal hernia. ... syndactyly between index and middle fingers. Both lower limbs showed talipus and club ...
Describes the growth of the all-day Montessori program for children ages 6 weeks to 6 years at Computer Associates' corporate headquarters and multiple sites worldwide. Focuses on placement of AMI Montessori-trained teachers, refurbishing of the child development centers to fit Montessori specifications, and the Nido--the children's community--and…
Least-squares 'Systematic Trial-and-Error Procedure' (STEP) for spectrophotometric evaluation of association constant (equilibrium constant) K and molar absorption coefficient E for a 1:1 molecular complex, A + B = C, with error analysis according to Conrow et al. (1964). An analysis of the Charge...
Association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism and risk of ischemic stroke in North Indian population: A hospital based case–control study. Amit Kumar, Shubham Misra, Anjali Hazarika, Pradeep Kumar, Ram Sagar, Abhishek Pathak, Kamalesh Chakravarty, Kameshwar ...
Full Text Available Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup(3q, dup(11p, inv(11, dup(1q, del(1q, dup(4q, dup(5p, dup(6q, del(9p, dup(15q, dup(17q, Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling.
Duffy, Michael; Duffy, D'Neil
IBHA, the International Big History Association, was organized in 2010 and "promotes the unified, interdisciplinary study and teaching of history of the Cosmos, Earth, Life, and Humanity." This is the vision that Montessori embraced long before the discoveries of modern science fleshed out the story of the evolving universe. "Big…
Thompson, Paul D; Panza, Gregory; Zaleski, Amanda; Taylor, Beth
Hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors or statins are well tolerated, but associated with various statin-associated symptoms (SAS), including statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS), diabetes mellitus (DM), and central nervous system complaints. These are "statin-associated symptoms" because they are rare in clinical trials, making their causative relationship to statins unclear. SAS are, nevertheless, important because they prompt dose reduction or discontinuation of these life-saving mediations. SAMS is the most frequent SAS, and mild myalgia may affect 5% to 10% of statin users. Clinically important muscle symptoms, including rhabdomyolysis and statin-induced necrotizing autoimmune myopathy (SINAM), are rare. Antibodies against HMG-CoA reductase apparently provoke SINAM. Good evidence links statins to DM, but evidence linking statins to other SAS is largely anecdotal. Management of SAS requires making the possible diagnosis, altering or discontinuing the statin treatment, and using alternative lipid-lowering therapy. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mantovani, Giovanna; Elli, Francesca Marta; Corbetta, Sabrina
Hypothyroidism may occur in association with congenital parathyroid disorders determining parathyroid hormone insufficiency, which is characterized by hypocalcemia and concomitant inappropriately low secretion of parathormone (PTH). The association is often due to loss of function of genes common to thyroid and parathyroid glands embryonic development. Hypothyroidism associated with hypoparathyroidism is generally mild and not associated with goiter; moreover, it is usually part of a multisystemic involvement not restricted to endocrine function as occurs in patients with 22q11 microdeletion/DiGeorge syndrome, the most frequent disorders. Hypothyroidism and hypoparathyroidism may also follow endocrine glands' damages due to autoimmunity or chronic iron overload in thalassemic disorders, both genetically determined conditions. Finally, besides PTH deficiency, hypocalcemia can be due to PTH resistance in pseudohypoparathyroidism; when hormone resistance is generalized, patients can suffer from hypothyroidism due to TSH resistance. In evaluating patients with hypothyroidism and hypocalcemia, physical examination and clinical history are essential to drive the diagnostic process, while routine genetic screening is not recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bartels, Julius; de Roeck, A; Graudenz, Dirk; Wüsthoff, M
We compare the BFKL prediction for the associated production of forward jets at HERA with fixed-order matrix element calculations taking into account the kinematical cuts imposed by experimental conditions. Comparison with H1 data of the 1993 run favours the BFKL prediction. As a further signal of BFKL dynamics, we propose to look for the azimuthal dependence of the forward jets.
Rohde, Palle Duun; Demontis, Ditte; Castro Dias Cuyabano, Beatriz
was among the top performers. When extending CVAT to utilize a mixture of SNP effects, we found an increase in power to detect the causal sets. Applying the methods to a Danish schizophrenia case–control data set, we found genomic evidence for association of schizophrenia with vitamin A metabolism......Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with large personal and social costs, and understanding the genetic etiology is important. Such knowledge can be obtained by testing the association between a disease phenotype and individual genetic markers; however, such single-marker methods have limited...... genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP), the covariance association test (CVAT). We compared the performance of CVAT to other commonly used set tests. The comparison was conducted using a simulated study population having the same genetic parameters as for schizophrenia. We found that CVAT...
Rose, M; Verleger, R; Wascher, E
We examined changes of event-related potentials (ERPs) while participants learned stimulus-to-stimulus relations in an S1-S2 task. The design allowed for separating processes of associative learning from nonspecific effects. Participants had to respond to S2 by a left or right key-press dependent on S2 identity (letter W or M). Preparation for S2 could be improved by using the associative information given by S1. The S1 was an arrow pointing to the left or right. In combination with its color, arrow direction was informative about location and identity of S2, but participants were not informed about the relevance of color. Arrows in two of the colors were fully predictive for the S2 whereas the third color gave no valid information. This third stimulus controlled for habituation and procedural learning. Six blocks with 200 trials each and all three S1 colors in random order were presented. Behavioral and ERP differences in each block between "learning" and control trials were used to identify processes of associative learning. Several effects of associative learning were identified indicating the involvement of specific stages of information processing: a continuous increase of P3 amplitude evoked by S1 was accompanied by a decrease of P3 evoked by S2. These changes reflected the modifications of stimulus weights for response selection and the strengthened association between the two stimulus complexes in the time course of learning. The related motor preparation benefited from learning too, expressed in a decrease of CNV amplitude and an increase of LRP amplitude. Finally a decrease of N1 amplitude evoked by S2 indicated the reduced need to allocate spatial attention to the S2 location according to the learned meaning of S1.
Mohaupt Markus G; Karas Richard H; Babiychuk Eduard B; Sanchez-Freire Verónica; Monastyrskaya Katia; Iyer Lakshmanan; Hoppeler Hans; Breil Fabio; Draeger Annette
BACKGROUND Many patients taking statins often complain of muscle pain and weakness. The extent to which muscle pain reflects muscle injury is unknown. METHODS We obtained biopsy samples from the vastus lateralis muscle of 83 patients. Of the 44 patients with clinically diagnosed statin associated myopathy 29 were currently taking a statin and 15 had discontinued statin therapy before the biopsy (minimal duration of discontinuation 3 weeks). We also included 19 patients who were taking stat...
Ueyama, M; Asakura, Takanori; Morimoto, Kozo; Namkoong, Ho; Matsuda, Shuichi; Osawa, Takeshi; Ishii, Makoto; Hasegawa, Naoki; Kurashima, Atsuyuki; Goto, Hajime
Abstract The incidence of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTMPD) is increasing worldwide. Secondary spontaneous pneumothorax occurs as a complication of underlying lung disease and is associated with higher morbidity, mortality, and recurrence than primary spontaneous pneumothorax. We here investigated the clinical features and long-term outcomes of pneumothorax associated with NTMPD. We conducted a retrospective study on consecutive adult patients with pneumothorax associated with NTMPD at Fukujuji Hospital and Keio University Hospital from January 1992 to December 2013. We reviewed the medical records of 69 such patients to obtain clinical characteristics, radiological findings, and long-term outcomes, including pneumothorax recurrence and mortality. The median age of the patients was 68 years; 34 patients were women. The median body mass index was 16.8 kg/m2. Underlying pulmonary diseases mainly included chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary tuberculosis. On computed tomography, nodules and bronchiectasis were observed in 46 (98%) and 45 (96%) patients, respectively. Consolidation, pleural thickening, interlobular septal thickening, and cavities were most common, and observed in 40 (85%), 40 (85%), 37 (79%), and 36 (77%) patients, respectively. Regarding pneumothorax treatment outcomes, complete and incomplete lung expansion were observed in 49 patients (71%) and 15 patients (22%), respectively. The survival rate after pneumothorax was 48% at 5 years. By the end of the follow-up, 33 patients had died, and the median survival was 4.4 years with a median follow-up period of 1.7 years. The rate of absence of recurrence after the first pneumothorax was 59% at 3 years. By the end of the follow-up, 18 patients had experienced pneumothorax recurrence. Furthermore, 12/18 patients (66%) with recurrent pneumothorax died during the study period. Twenty-three patients (70%) died because of NTMPD progression. Low body mass index (BMI) was a
Carlson, J Andrew; Mazza, Jill; Kircher, Kenneth; Tran, Tien Anh
Phymas (swellings, masses, or bulbs) are considered the end-stage of rosacea and mostly affect the nose (rhinophyma), and rarely involve the chin (gnatophyma), the cheek (metophyma), eyelids (blepharophyma), or ears (otophyma). Herein, we report the case of a 57-year-old man who developed unilateral enlargement of his left ear over 2 years. Biopsy revealed changes of rosaceous lymphedema associated with Demodex infestation. Corticosteroid and minocycline therapies resulted in partial reduction of the ear enlargement. Literature review examining for cases of lymphedema (elephantiasis) of the ear revealed that chronic inflammatory disorders (rosacea (most frequent), psoriasis, eczema), bacterial cellulitis (erysipelas), pediculosis, trauma, and primary (congenital) lymphedema can all lead to localized, lymphedematous enlargement of the ear. Depending on the severity, medical treatment directed at the inflammatory condition for mild, diffuse enlargement to surgical debulking for extensive diffuse enlargement or tumor formation can improve the signs and symptoms of otophyma. Decreased immune surveillance secondary to rosaceous lymphedema may explain why Demodex infestation is common in rosacea and support the suspicion that phymatous skin is predisposed to skin cancer development.
..., chartered under section 5 of the Act, or a building and loan, savings and loan, or homestead association, or... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Savings association. 561.43 Section 561.43... AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.43 Savings association. The term savings association means a...
... credit associations, production credit associations, and agricultural credit associations. [55 FR 24888... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Associations. 619.9050 Section 619.9050 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9050 Associations. The...
Dempsey, Mary F.; Condon, Barrie
Most physicians are aware of the absolute contraindications to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, less familiar is the potential for an MRI-induced thermal or electrical burn associated with electrical monitoring devices. Although detailed studies concerning the burn hazard in MRI have not been reported, it is widely believed that direct electromagnetic induction in looped cables associated with the patient is responsible for the excessive heating and it is on this theory that present guidelines are based. Recent reports have however indicated that other mechanisms may cause the heating of metal, either in or on the patient. This document reviews numerous reported burn injuries sustained during MRI and addresses the underlying heating mechanisms possibly causing these events. Dempsey, M.F. and Condon, B. (2001)
Sækmose, Susanne Gjørup; Mössner, Belinda; Christensen, Peer Brehm
associations between plasma MFAP4 (pMFAP4) and transient elastography or chronic hepatitis C virus infection in drug users and in a mixed patient cohort with increased risk of liver disease. Moreover, the study aimed to identify comorbidities that significantly influence pMFAP4. METHODS: pMFAP4 was measured......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A method for assessment of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis without the need for a liver biopsy is desirable. Microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) is a suggested biomarker for identification of high-risk patients with severe fibrosis stages. This study aimed to examine...... patient cohort, pMFAP4 was significantly increased among patients with a previous diagnosis of liver disease or congestive heart failure compared to patients with other diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS: pMFAP4 has the potential to be used as an outreach-screening tool for liver fibrosis in drug users and in mixed...
Recently, there is substantial epidemiological, molecular-pathological and experimental evidence indicating that some of the high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), especially HPV type 16, are etiologically related to a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, in particular, those arising from the oropharynx. Incidence of oropharyngeal cancer is increasing in direct opposition to a decreasing incidence of all other head and neck cancers. The prognosis of patients with HPV associated oropharyngeal cancer is significantly better compare to patients with non associated oropharyngeal cancers. Patients with HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer respond better to radiotherapy, surgery, chemoradiotherapy. Therefore, the presence of HPV in tumor is the most important prognostic factor in patients with oropharyngeal cancers. These findings have prompted the need for change of treatment strategies in these patients. The goal is selective de-intensified treatment stratified for HPV status. (author)
Shanks, David R
Since the very earliest experimental investigations of learning, tension has existed between association-based and cognitive theories. Associationism accounts for the phenomena of both conditioning and "higher" forms of learning via concepts such as excitation, inhibition, and reinforcement, whereas cognitive theories assume that learning depends on hypothesis testing, cognitive models, and propositional reasoning. Cognitive theories have received considerable impetus in regard to both human and animal learning from recent research suggesting that the key illustration of cue selection in learning, blocking, often arises from inferential reasoning. At the same time, a dichotomous view that separates noncognitive, unconscious (implicit) learning from cognitive, conscious (explicit) learning has gained favor. This review selectively describes key findings from this research, evaluates evidence for and against associative and cognitive explanatory constructs, and critically examines both the dichotomous view of learning as well as the claim that learning can occur unconsciously.
Shia, Jinru; Holck, Susanne; Depetris, Giovanni
It was a century ago that Warthin, a pathologist, first described the clinical condition now known as Lynch syndrome. One hundred years later, our understanding of this syndrome has advanced significantly. Much of the progress took place over the last 25 years and was marked by a series...... of interacting developments from the disciplines of clinical oncology, pathology, and molecular genetics, with each development serving to guide or enhance the next. The advancement of our understanding about the pathology of Lynch syndrome associated tumors exemplifies such intimate interplay among disciplines....... Today, accumulative knowledge has enabled surgical pathologists to detect tumors that are likely to be associated with Lynch syndrome, and the pathologist is playing an increasingly more important role in the care of these patients. The pathologist's ability is afforded primarily by information gained...
Full Text Available This article shows incidents associated with the use of gas as an energy carrier. It presents selected incidents which have occurred in Poland and around the world in recent decades. Based on this, consequences of gas and air mixture explosions were analysed as well. The article presents the main causes of gas incidents which have taken place, as per instances which are similar worldwide. Incidents associated with the use of gas are not frequent, but at the same time very tragic as they often lead to illness or even death. In Poland, in the last twenty years, construction area disasters caused by gas explosions account for only 5% of all which have occurred, but the number of fatalities resulting from these cases is approximately 14%. The number of individuals injured reached 39% of all construction disaster victims. Considering all these facts, it is necessary to undertake wide preventive measures in order to increase safety in the use of gaseous fuels.
mutualism through commensalisms and competition, to antagonism, determined ultimately by balancing the cost of the association against the benefits received (Pianka, 1994). A continuum can be envisioned that spans a dynamic bridge from antagonism... when two organisms form a relationship, which provides an advantage for both the partners at least temporarily. In commensalisms only one partner derives benefit and the other does not. Symbiosis The word, ?symbiosis? is derived from the Greek word...
Presents the 2009 American Psychological Association annual report. It highlights a very important year for APA and psychology by summarizing activities within each directorate. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology-and the unique skills of psychologists-to the attention of the public. This report aims to give insight into the contributions psychologists make to our communities and our country. 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
Gregg, Chris D; Dean, Sarah; Schneiders, Anthony G
Retrospective non-experimental study. To investigate variables associated with active spondylolysis. A retrospective study audited clinical data over a two year period from patients with suspected spondylolysis that were referred for a SPECT bone scan. Six exploratory variables were identified and analysed using uni- and multi-variate regression from 82 patient records to determine the association between symptomatic, physical and demographic characteristics, and the presence of an active spondylolysis. Tertiary level multidisciplinary private practice sports medicine clinic. All patients with low back pain that required a SPECT bone scan to confirm suspected spondylolysis. 82 subjects were included in the final sample group. The six exploratory variables included Age, Gender, Injury duration, Injury onset, Sports participation and the result of the Single Leg Hyperextension Test. The dependent outcome variable was the result of the SPECT bone scan (scan-positive or scan-negative). Adolescent males had a higher incidence of spondylolysis detected by SPECT bone scan compared to other patients and a statistically significant association was demonstrated for both age (p=0.01) and gender (p=0.01). Subjects with an active spondylolysis were nearly five times more likely to be male and aged less than 20 years. Furthermore, the likelihood ratio indicated that adolescent males with suspected spondylolysis were three and a half times more likely to have a positive bone scan result. The Single Leg Hyperextension Test did not demonstrate a statistically significant association with spondylolysis (p=0.47). Clinicians assessing for a predisposition to the development of spondylolysis should consider the gender and age of the patient and not rely on the predictive ability of the Single Leg Hyperextension Test.
Lok, Zoe S Y; Goldstein, Jacob; Smith, Julian A
Alkaptonuria is an autosomal recessive disorder of tyrosine metabolism, which results in accumulation of unmetabolized homogentisic acid and its oxidized product in various tissues, including the heart. Cardiovascular involvement is a rare but serious complication of the disease. We present two patients who have undergone successful aortic valve replacement for alkaptonuria-associated aortic stenosis along with a review of the literature. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hsieh, Ming-Han; Chiu, Nan-Ying
Paliperidone-associated motor tics. Case report. We report a 30-year-old man with schizophrenia who developed motor tics (eye blinking) after treatment of paliperidone up to 15 mg daily. Tic-like symptoms, from simple eye blinking to complex Tourette-like syndrome, may occur during paliperidone treatment, especially with high dose. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kleanthous, L.; Cruz, D.; D'Graham, E.; Efthimiou, J.
A patient with Noonan's syndrome and fundal colobomata in both eyes is described. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the association of colobomata with Noonan's syndrome. Although the patient had poor sight since early childhood and dyspnea on exertion as a teenager, the diagnosis of Noonan's syndrome was not made until early adulthood. We hope this report will encourage recognition of this syndrome and its implications at an earlier stage.
Catmur, Caroline; Press, Clare; Heyes, Cecilia
Mirror neurons fire both when executing actions and observing others perform similar actions. Their sensorimotor matching properties have generally been considered a genetic adaptation for social cognition; however, in the present chapter we argue that the evidence in favor of this account is not compelling. Instead we present evidence supporting an alternative account: that mirror neurons’ matching properties arise from associative learning during individual development. Notably, this proces...
The diseases associated with contaminated water remain among the most serious public health problems for much of the world's population living in developing countries. Most of the disease agents that contaminated water and food are biological and come from animal or human faeces. They include bacteria, viruses, protozoa and helminths and multiply in the alimentary tract and are excreted with the faeces. Without proper sanitation they find their way into other water bodies from where they can infect other people. Most of the diseases associated with water are communicable. According to Bradley the diseases associated with water can be classified in four categories: waterborne water-washed, water-based and water related and a fifth category emerging in developed countries could be called water-dispersed. The experiences of these diseases in various in various parts of Pakistan and the role played by National Institute of Health (NIH) in investigation will be discussed: some of them being hepatitis E epidemic in Islamabad (1993,94,95), experience at Nawabshah and some others will be discussed in detail along with their preventive and control measures. (author)
Association du personnel
Becoming a member of the Staff Association (SA) is above all a personal choice, showing that the joining person’s commitment and adherence to values such as solidarity, social cohesion, etc.In September, the SA launches a membership campaign to convince a maximum number to join, to inform, arouse interest and support. Posters, emails and individual contacts are part of the campaign programme, just like this editorial. As far as individual contacts are concerned, we ask you to give time and lend an ear to the delegates of your department in the Staff Council, who will approach you, in order to make an open and constructive discussion possible. Do not hesitate to ask questions and let them know your thoughts about the SA, as (constructive) criticism enables us to progress. The Staff Association and its role of collective representation The Staff Association, via its delegates, represents collectively all staff of the Organization before the Director-General and Member States. To do this, staff rep...
Full Text Available HIV infection is associated with disturbances in brain function referred to as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND. This literature review outlines the recently revised diagnostic criteria for the range of HAND from the earliest to the more advanced stages: (i asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment; (ii mild neurocognitive disorder; and (iii HIV-associated dementia. Relevant literature is also reviewed regarding the differential impact upon component cognitive domains known to be affected in HAND, which in turn should ideally be targeted during clinical and neuropsychological assessments: psychomotor and information processing speed, learning and memory, attention and working memory, speech and language, executive functioning and visuospatial functioning. A discussion outlining the neuropsychological tools used in the diagnostic screening of HAND is also included. The central mechanisms of HAND appear to revolve primarily around psychomotor slowing and cognitive control over mental operations, possibly reflecting the influence of disrupted fronto-striatal circuits on distributed neural networks critical to cognitive functions. The accurate assessment and diagnosis of HAND depends on meeting the need for statistically sound neuropsychological assessment techniques that may be used confidently in assessing South African populations, as well as the development of relevant norms for comparison of test performance data.
López-Carbajal, Mario Joaquín; Manríquez-Moreno, María Esther; Gálvez-Camargo, Daniela; Ramírez-Jiménez, Evelia
preeclampsia constitutes one of the main causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The aim was to identify the risk factors associated to the developmental of preeclampsia mild-moderate and severe, as well as the force of association of these factors in a hospital of second-level medical care. study of cases and controls, a relation 1:1, in women withdrawn of the Service of Gynecology and Obstetrics during 2004 to 2007. Pregnant women with more than 20 weeks gestation were included. In the cases group we included patients with diagnosis of preeclampsia mild-moderate or severe (corroborated clinical and laboratory). In the controls group that had a normal childbirth without pathology during the pregnancy. 42 cases and 42 controls. The average age was of 27 years. The associated risk factors were overweight, obesity, irregular prenatal control, short or long intergenesic period, history of caesarean or preeclampsia in previous pregnancies. the knowledge of the risk factors will allow the accomplishment of preventive measures and decrease the fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality due to preeclampsia.
Suzuki, Masahiro; Konno, Chisato; Furihata, Ryuji; Osaki, Koichi; Uchiyama, Makoto
Most psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, mood disorders, or neurotic disorders are associated with sleep disorders of various kinds, among which insomnia is most prevalent and important in psychiatric practice. Almost all patients suffering from major depression complain of insomnia. Pharmacological treatment of insomnia associated with major depression shortens the duration to achieve remission of depression. Insomnia has been recently reported to be a risk factor for depression. In patients with schizophrenia, insomnia is often an early indicator of the aggravation of psychotic symptoms. Electroencephalographic sleep studies have also revealed sleep abnormalities characteristic to mood disorders, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders. A shortened REM sleep latency has been regarded as a biological marker of depression. Reduced amount of deep non-REM sleep has been reported to be correlated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Recently, REM sleep abnormalities were found in teenagers having post-traumatic stress disorder after a boat accident. Although these facts indicate that insomnia plays an important role in the development of psychiatric disorders, there are few hypotheses explaining the cause and effect of insomnia in these disorders. Here, we reviewed recent articles on insomnia associated with psychiatric disorders together with their clinical managements.
Most associative learning studies describe the salience of stimuli as a fixed learning-rate parameter. Presumptive saliency signals, however, have also been linked to motivational and attentional processes. An interesting possibility, therefore, is that discriminative stimuli could also acquire salience as they become powerful predictors of outcomes. To explore this idea, we first characterized and extracted the learning curves from mice trained with discriminative images offering varying degrees of structural similarity. Next, we fitted a linear model of associative learning coupled to a series of mathematical representations for stimulus salience. We found that the best prediction, from the set of tested models, was one in which the visual salience depended on stimulus similarity and a non-linear function of the associative strength. Therefore, these analytic results support the idea that the net salience of a stimulus depends both on the items' effective salience and the motivational state of the subject that learns about it. Moreover, this dual salience model can explain why learning about a stimulus not only depends on the effective salience during acquisition but also on the specific learning trajectory that was used to reach this state. Our mathematical description could be instrumental for understanding aberrant salience acquisition under stressful situations and in neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and addiction.
Full Text Available Edwardsiella tarda is an unusual human pathogen. Gastroenteritis is the most frequently reported manifestation of E.tarda infection and extraintestinal infection including cholangitis has rarely been reported. The overall mortality rate for E.tarda bacteremia is, however, reported to be up to 50% (Janda and Abbott, 1993. We describe a 80-year-old diabetic woman with cholangitis and E.tarda bacteremia with a biliary obstruction associated with a large juxtapapillary duodenal diverticulum (Lemmel syndrome in the setting of past partial hepatectomy and cholecystectomy. She was successfully treated with endoscopic biliary drainage and antibacterials.
Kallenberg, C. G. M.
Wegener's Granulomatosis (WG) is closely associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA), particularly those directed to proteinase 3 (PR3). ANCA directed to myeloperoxidase (MPO) are associated with microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and the Churg Strauss syndrome. PR3-ANCA associated
Ten Broeke, Sanne W; Elsayed, Fadwa A; Pagan, Lisa; Olderode-Berends, Maran J W; Garcia, Encarna Gomez; Gille, Hans J P; van Hest, Liselot P; Letteboer, Tom G W; van der Kolk, Lizet E; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; van Os, Theo A; Spruijt, Liesbeth; Redeker, Bert J W; Suerink, Manon; Vos, Yvonne J; Wagner, Anja; Wijnen, Juul T; Steyerberg, E W; Tops, Carli M J; van Wezel, Tom; Nielsen, Maartje
Lynch syndrome (LS) patients are at high risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Phenotypic variability might in part be explained by common susceptibility loci identified in Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS). Previous studies focused mostly on MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 carriers, with conflicting results. We aimed to determine the role of GWAS SNPs in PMS2 mutation carriers. A cohort study was performed in 507 PMS2 carriers (124 CRC cases), genotyped for 24 GWAS SNPs, including SNPs at 11q23.1 and 8q23.3. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a weighted Cox regression analysis to correct for ascertainment bias. Discrimination was assessed with a concordance statistic in a bootstrap cross-validation procedure. Individual SNPs only had non-significant associations with CRC occurrence with HRs lower than 2, although male carriers of allele A at rs1321311 (6p21.31) may have increased risk of CRC (HR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.0). A polygenic risk score (PRS) based on 24 HRs had an HR of 2.6 (95% CI 1.5-4.6) for the highest compared to the lowest quartile, but had no discriminative ability (c statistic 0.52). Previously suggested SNPs do not modify CRC risk in PMS2 carriers. Future large studies are needed for improved risk stratification among Lynch syndrome patients.
Romero-Morelos, Pablo; Bandala, Cindy; Jiménez-Tenorio, Julián; Valdespino-Zavala, Mariana; Rodríguez-Esquivel, Miriam; Gama-Ríos, Reyna Anaid; Bandera, Artfy; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Mónica; Taniguchi, Keiko; Marrero-Rodríguez, Daniel; López-Romero, Ricardo; Ramón-Gallegos, Eva; Salcedo, Mauricio
Cervical cancer is an important health problem in our country. It is known that there are several risk factors for this neoplasm, and it has been suggested that cervical microbiome alterations could play a role in the development and progress of cancer. Bacterial vaginosis associated bacteria such as Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis has been suggested as potential risk factor for cervical lesions and cervical cancer. DNA from 177 cervical scraping samples was studied: 104 belonged to women without cytological or colposcopic alterations and 73 samples from precursor lesions with previous human papillomavirus (HPV) infection history. All samples were screened for Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis and HPV by PCR. High HPV prevalence was found in precursor samples, and 30% of samples without lesions were positive for HPV. Virtually all samples contained sequences of both bacteria, and interestingly, there was not HPV association observed; these results could suggest that these microorganisms could be part of the cervical microbiome in Mexican population. The results obtained indicate that the bacteria analysed could be part of normal biome in Mexican women, suggesting a potential reconsideration of the pathogen role of these microorganisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Rohde, Palle Duun; Demontis, Ditte; Cuyabano, Beatriz Castro Dias; Børglum, Anders D; Sørensen, Peter
Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with large personal and social costs, and understanding the genetic etiology is important. Such knowledge can be obtained by testing the association between a disease phenotype and individual genetic markers; however, such single-marker methods have limited power to detect genetic markers with small effects. Instead, aggregating genetic markers based on biological information might increase the power to identify sets of genetic markers of etiological significance. Several set test methods have been proposed: Here we propose a new set test derived from genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP), the covariance association test (CVAT). We compared the performance of CVAT to other commonly used set tests. The comparison was conducted using a simulated study population having the same genetic parameters as for schizophrenia. We found that CVAT was among the top performers. When extending CVAT to utilize a mixture of SNP effects, we found an increase in power to detect the causal sets. Applying the methods to a Danish schizophrenia case-control data set, we found genomic evidence for association of schizophrenia with vitamin A metabolism and immunological responses, which previously have been implicated with schizophrenia based on experimental and observational studies. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.
Kulmala, J; Nykänen, I; Mänty, Minna Regina
dementia with Lewy bodies and 8 persons (1%) had some other type of dementia. Multivariate logistic regression models showed that frail persons were almost 8 times more likely to have cognitive impairment (OR 7.8, 95% CI 4.0-15.0), 8 times more likely to have some kind of dementia (OR 8.0, 95% CI 4.0...... of the participants was assessed using the Cardiovascular Health Study criteria. Cognitive function was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Clinically diagnosed dementia was assessed by specialists using diagnostic criteria. The associations between frailty and cognition were investigated using...
While most patients undergo orthognathic surgery for aesthetic purposes, aesthetic improvements are most often followed by postoperative functional complications. Therefore, patients must carefully decide whether their purpose of undergoing orthognathic surgery lies on the aesthetic side or the functional side. There is a wide variety of complications associated with orthognathic surgery. There should be a clear distinction between malpractice and complications. Complications can be resolved without any serious problems if the cause is detected early and adequate treatment provided. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons must have a full understanding of the types, causes, and treatment of complications, and should deliver this information to patients who develop these complications. PMID:28280704
Depuis plusieurs décennies, les organisations associatives actives dans le secteur social et humanitaire n’ont cessé de multiplier leurs missions et, ce faisant, de développer certaines formes de professionnalisation, en termes de gestion de projets, de formation, de logistique, de statuts des bénévoles ou de politiques de communication. Ces actions de communication dans le domaine non marchand prêtent à discussion : certains observateurs défendent les principes d’une communication centrée su...
Full Text Available Mucosal lesions due to underlying disease or drug toxicity, are important part of oncology practice. Patient with a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was treated with chemoembolisation. She presented with new onset of mucosal hyperpigmented lesion all through her oral cavity. Biopsy was consistent with mucosal melanosis, which was associated with the chemotherapeutics used in the chemoembolisation procedure. Lesion progressively improved without any treatment. Here we present an mucosal melanosis experience after chemoembolisation. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (2: 189-191
Arora, N. S.
The Bayesian approach to Association focuses mainly on quantifying the physics of the domain. In the case of seismic association for instance let X be the set of all significant events (above some threshold) and their attributes, such as location, time, and magnitude, Y1 be the set of detections that are caused by significant events and their attributes such as seismic phase, arrival time, amplitude etc., Y2 be the set of detections that are not caused by significant events, and finally Y be the set of observed detections We would now define the joint distribution P(X, Y1, Y2, Y) = P(X) P(Y1 | X) P(Y2) I(Y = Y1 + Y2) ; where the last term simply states that Y1 and Y2 are a partitioning of Y. Given the above joint distribution the inference problem is simply to find the X, Y1, and Y2 that maximizes posterior probability P(X, Y1, Y2| Y) which reduces to maximizing P(X) P(Y1 | X) P(Y2) I(Y = Y1 + Y2). In this expression P(X) captures our prior belief about event locations. P(Y1 | X) captures notions of travel time, residual error distributions as well as detection and mis-detection probabilities. While P(Y2) captures the false detection rate of our seismic network. The elegance of this approach is that all of the assumptions are stated clearly in the model for P(X), P(Y1|X) and P(Y2). The implementation of the inference is merely a by-product of this model. In contrast some of the other methods such as GA hide a number of assumptions in the implementation details of the inference - such as the so called "driver cells." The other important aspect of this approach is that all seismic knowledge including knowledge from other domains such as infrasound and hydroacoustic can be included in the same model. So, we don't need to separately account for misdetections or merge seismic and infrasound events as a separate step. Finally, it should be noted that the objective of automatic association is to simplify the job of humans who are publishing seismic bulletins based on this
APL provides convenient associative data manipulation functions in a high level language. Six statements were added to PL/1 via a preprocessor: CREATE, INSERT, FIND, FOR EACH, REMOVE, and DELETE. They allow complete control of all data base operations. During execution, data base management programs perform the functions required to support the APL language. VAAM is the data base management system designed to support the APL language. APL/VAAM is used by CADANCE, an interactive graphic computer system. VAAM is designed to support heavily referenced files. Virtual memory files, which utilize the paging mechanism of the operating system, are used. VAAM supports a full network data structure. The two basic blocks in a VAAM file are entities and sets. Entities are the basic information element and correspond to PL/1 based structures defined by the user. Sets contain the relationship information and are implemented as arrays.
Full Text Available Khushnum Pastakia, Saravana KumarInternational Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia Date of preparation: 27th January 2011Conflict of interest: None declaredBackground: Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD is the term given for the collection of symptoms affecting the neck that are triggered by an accident with an acceleration–deceleration mechanism such as a motor vehicle accident. The incidence of whiplash injury varies greatly between different parts of the world with significant monetary burden on the individual as well as the wider community.Objective: Which treatments are best for reducing pain and disability experience in acute WADs?Level of evidence: Clinical practice guidelines, systematic reviews, meta-analysis, randomized controlled trials.Search sources: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, EMBASE, AUST health, AMED.Outcomes: From the patient perspective the main outcomes considered are pain and disability.Consumer summary: Whiplash-associated disorders include a range of symptoms related to the neck and head. They commonly occur after motor vehicle accidents or diving mishaps. There is good evidence to suggest that active exercise, acting as usual and combination therapy are the most effective treatment choices in an acute presentation.Keywords: whiplash, neckpain, pain levels, multimodel therapy
Gavura, S R; Nusinowitz, S
To report a possible case of leukocytoclastic vasculitis associated with clarithromycin therapy. An 83-year-old white woman was prescribed clarithromycin for pneumonia. Six days after her initial presentation, she developed lesions on her palms. Clarithromycin was discontinued at that time. The following day she developed purpuric eccymotic nonblanching lesions that primarily appeared on the lower extremities, buttocks, and abdomen. Colonoscopy revealed generalized erythema and edema of the bowel mucosa. Gastroscopy revealed duodenitis and gastritis, but no bleeding or ulceration. Skin biopsy of the lesions was compatible with leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Renal function was not affected, although hematuria was noted. All symptoms resolved after drug withdrawal and a short course of corticosteroids. Searches were performed on MEDLINE, Embase, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and major adverse drug reaction databases to identify reports and articles discussing clarithromycin- and macrolide-induced leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Leukocytoclastic vasculitis is one category of drug hypersensitivity reactions characterized by distinctive patterns of perivascular inflammation. The case described here is consistent with the diagnosis of leukocytoclastic vasculitis, and is similar to the other single published case report associated with clarithromycin. Leukocytoclastic vasculitis induced by clarithromycin is a rare but serious potential adverse effect.
Tun-Abraham, Mauro Enrique; Obregón-Guerrero, Gabriela; Romero-Espinoza, Larry; Valencia-Jiménez, Javier
Hypercalcaemia due to primary hyperparathyroidism is a rare cause of acute pancreatitis, with a reported prevalence of 1.5 to 8%. There is no clear pathophysiological basis, but elevated parathyroid hormone and high serum calcium levels could be responsible for calcium deposit in the pancreatic ducts and activation of pancreatic enzymes, which may be the main risk factor for developing acute pancreatitis. The aim of this report is to describe four cases. Four cases are reported of severe pancreatitis associated with hypercalcaemia secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism; three of them with complications (two pseudocysts and one pancreatic necrosis). Cervical ultrasound, computed tomography, and scintigraphy using 99mTc-Sestambi, studies showed the parathyroid adenoma. Surgical resection was the definitive treatment in all four cases. None of the patients had recurrent acute pancreatitis events during follow-up. Acute pancreatitis secondary to hypercalcaemia of primary hyperparathyroidism is rare; however, when it occurs it is associated with severe pancreatitis. It is suspected in patients with elevated serum calcium and high parathyroid hormone levels. Imaging techniques such as cervical ultrasound, computed tomography, and scintigraphy using 99mTc-Sestambi, should be performed, to confirm clinical suspicion. Surgical resection is the definitive treatment with excellent results. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.21 Savings association. The term savings association means a Federal savings and loan association or a Federal savings bank chartered under section 5 of the Home Owners' Loan Act, a building and loan, savings and loan or homestead association or a cooperative...
... recognition by the Commissioner are: (1) The members of the association must be grazing permittees and.... (d) The Commissioner may withdraw his recognition of the association whenever: (1) The majority of... constitution and bylaws. All of the association's livestock will be run under an association brand properly...
Botelho, Luciane Francisca Fernandes; Michalany, Nilceo Schwery; Enokihara, Milvia Maria Simões e Silva; Hirata, Sergio Henrique
Seborrheic keratosis is a common skin lesion which may coincidentally be associated melanocytic nevi. The authors describe a case of dysplastic nevus associated with seborrheic keratosis and discuss the clinical, dermoscopic, and histological findings of this association. They also discuss the association between seborrheic keratosis and other benign and malignant tumours. PMID:24626665
Sandilands, E A; Bateman, D N
Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most common agents deliberately ingested in self-poisoning episodes and a leading cause of acute liver failure in the western world. Acetylcysteine is widely acknowledged as the antidote of choice for paracetamol poisoning, but its use is not without risk. Adverse reactions, often leading to treatment delay, are frequently associated with both intravenous and oral acetylcysteine and are a common source of concern among treating physicians. A systematic literature review investigating the incidence, clinical features, and mechanisms of adverse effects associated with acetylcysteine. A variety of adverse reactions to acetylcysteine have been described ranging from nausea to death, most of the latter due to incorrect dosing. The pattern of reactions differs with oral and intravenous dosing, but reported frequency is at least as high with oral as intravenous. The reactions to the intravenous preparation result in similar clinical features to true anaphylaxis, including rash, pruritus, angioedema, bronchospasm, and rarely hypotension, but are caused by nonimmunological mechanisms. The precise nature of this reaction remains unclear. Histamine now seems to be an important mediator of the response, and there is evidence of variability in patient susceptibility, with females, and those with a history of asthma or atopy are particularly susceptible. Quantity of paracetamol ingestion, measured through serum paracetamol concentration, is also important as higher paracetamol concentrations protect patients against anaphylactoid effects. Most anaphylactoid reactions occur at the start of acetylcysteine treatment when concentrations are highest. Acetylcysteine also affects clotting factor activity, and this affects the interpretation of minor disturbances in the International Normalized Ratio in the context of paracetamol overdose. This review discusses the incidence, clinical features, underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, and
Full Text Available ANCA associated vasculitis (AAV comprises three syndromes with systemic vasculitis (Wegener’s granulomatosis (WG, Churg Strauss syndrome (CSS and icroscopic polyangiitis (MPA, which all involve small and medium sized vessels and are associated with antibodies against cytoplasmatic antibodies in neutrophils (ANCA. Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN is included in this review as it also affects medium sized vessels, and has many clinical findings in common with the AAV.Since the recognition of ANCA, increasing data have become available on the epidemiology of these vasculitidis. WG constitutes half of the AAV and its prevalence has increased from 30/million in the late 1980’s in the USA to 160/million in this century in northern Europe. The prevalence for the whole group of primary systemic vasculitides is now 300/million in Sweden. The annual incidence of WG increased from 6.0/million to 14/million during the 1990’s in Tromsø, but it is unknown if this is a true increase or the result of an increased awareness of the diagnosis. For the whole group of AAV, the annual incidence in most more recent studies is relatively constant over time and by geographical location, ranging from 13 to 21/million. Nonetheless there are interesting differences in the prevalence of specific vasculitis between different geographical areas, as well as for sub specificities of ANCA.There seems to be a South-North gradient for WG and PR3-ANCA with high figures reported from northern Europe and southern New Zealand. In European studies WG is 90% PR3-ANCA positive. MPA which is predominantly MPO-ANCA associated are more frequent in the Mediterranean countries and also has an increasing gradient towards east-Asia, as almost all AAV in China and Japan are diagnosed as MPA, predominantly MPO-ANCA positive.There are also some ethnic and gender differences. WG is most prevalent among Caucasians in the USA and in people with European ancestors in Paris and in New Zealand, less
Thermodynamics plays an important role in many applications in the petroleum industry, both upstream and downstream, ranging from flow assurance, (enhanced) oil recovery and control of chemicals to meet production and environmental regulations. There are many different applications in the oil & gas...... industry, thus thermodynamic data (phase behaviour, densities, speed of sound, etc) are needed to study a very diverse range of compounds in addition to the petroleum ones (CO2, H2S, water, alcohols, glycols, mercaptans, mercury, asphaltenes, waxes, polymers, electrolytes, biofuels, etc) within a very....... Such association models have been, especially over the last 20 years, proved to be very successful in predicting many thermodynamic properties in the oil & gas industry. They have not so far replaced cubic equations of state, but the results obtained by using these models are very impressive in many cases, e...
Jensen, Anders; Stausbøl-Grøn, Birgitte; Riber-Hansen, Rikke
in the management of other indolent lymphomas. Just recently, based on impressive clinical trial results in heavily pretreated WM patients, a new Bruton Tyrosine Kinase-inhibitor, Ibrutinib, has been approved for the treatment of this disorder. As the use of Ibrutinib in WM outside clinical trials is still limited......, only few clinical reports illustrating treatment side effects are currently available. Here we review the current literature specific on Ibrutinib-associated rash in hematologic patients, and report on an elderly patient with WM, who developed a red maculopapular non-pruritic rash 12 weeks after...... starting Ibrutinib therapy. Without modifications of the ongoing Ibrutinib schedule, the rash regressed within two weeks of treatment with topical steroid-containing dermatological compounds....
Cheema, F.A.; Qayyum, K.; Ahmad, N.; Makhdoomi, A.; Safdar, A.; Asif, A.; Chaudhry, H.R.
Objective: To study the characteristics of the epileptics and the risk factors contributing to the development of epilepsy. Results: Majority of the subjects were single (77.84%), 1st born among their siblings (25.95%), belonged to low social class (50.63%), and unemployed(25.31%). The major risk factors were family history of illness (23.52%) and positive medical problem around birth (12.66%). The presence of family history of illness, positive medical problem around birth and advanced maternal age at birth were associated with early onset of epilepsy. Vulnerability for the epilepsy also increases among hospital deliveries. Conclusion: Although the present study has identified various risk factors, yet the results need to be further confirmed through case-control studies. (author)
Ammar M. Al Mahmood
Full Text Available We report a rare case of bilateral keratoconus in association with achondroplasia. A 26-year-old male, with a known case of achondroplasia, complained of bilateral gradual deterioration in vision for the past few years. Slit lamp biomicroscopy showed bilateral central corneal protrusion and stromal thinning at the apex consistent with keratoconus. a trial of hard contact lens fitting failed to improve VA in the left eye (LE. Right eye (RE improved to 20/25. The patient underwent penetrating keratoplasty (PKP in his LE. Twenty-seven months postoperatively, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA was 20/30. Ophthalmologists should be aware that patients with achondroplasia who complain of poor vision should be suspected of having keratoconus once other more common conditions are ruled out.
Bitzan, Martin; Zieg, Jakub
Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) refers to phenotypically similar disorders, including hemolytic uremic syndromes (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). This review explores the role of the influenza virus as trigger of HUS or TTP. We conducted a literature survey in PubMed and Google Scholar using HUS, TTP, TMA, and influenza as keywords, and extracted and analyzed reported epidemiological and clinical data. We identified 25 cases of influenza-associated TMA. Five additional cases were linked to influenza vaccination and analyzed separately. Influenza A was found in 83%, 10 out of 25 during the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic. Two patients had bona fide TTP with ADAMTS13 activity rational treatment approaches.
Pendergrass, J. Cara; Harrison, John E.
This brief review explores the areas of cognitive impairment that have been observed in cancer patients and survivors, the cognitive assessment tools used, and the management of the observed cognitive changes. Cognitive changes and impairment observed in patients with cancer and those in remission can be related to the direct effects of cancer itself, nonspecific factors or comorbid conditions that are independent of the actual disease, and/or the treatments or combination of treatments administered. Attention, memory, and executive functioning are the most frequently identified cognitive domains impacted by cancer. However, the prevalence and extent of impairment remains largely unknown due to marked differences in methodology, definitions of cognitive impairment, and the assessment measures used. Assessment of cognitive functioning is an important and necessary part of a comprehensive oncological care plan. Research is needed to establish a better understanding of cognitive changes and impairments associated with cancer so that optimal patient outcomes can be achieved. PMID:29497579
Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Rafiqul Gani
of this review is two-fold: first to illustrate some of the significant capabilities of these association theories and why indeed they have already been extensively used and are expected to find even more applications in the future. The second and most important aspect of this review is to outline many...... applications. While specialized models can handle different cases, even complex ones, with the advent of powerful theories and computers there is the hope that a single or a few models could be suitable for a general modeling of complex thermodynamics. After more than 100 years with active use of thermodynamic...... models, we have now come to the understanding that simple one-fluid theories like the cubic equations of state or the various forms of local composition models will never be able to model a wide range of complex systems with sufficient accuracy. While various modern approaches have appeared, one very...
Elliott, E S; Marken, P A; Ruehter, V L
To report a case of extrapyramidal reaction associated with a dosage increase of clozapine. A 44-year-old white man with a 20-year history of chronic paranoid schizophrenia was admitted to an inpatient psychiatric facility. His prior medications restarted on admission were clozapine 650 mg at bedtime, haloperidol 10 mg at bedtime, clonazepam 2 mg/d, and aspirin 325 mg/d. Two days after admission (hospital day 3), clozapine and clonazepam were discontinued, and he was prescribed haloperidol 5 mg every morning and 10 mg every evening. Stabilization occurred over the following 24 days, with progressively lower dosages of haloperidol and increasing dosages of clozapine. Haloperidol was discontinued on day 24. On day 47, the patient was agitated and making bizarre statements; thus, the morning dose of clozapine was increased by 50 mg (total 450 mg/d). On day 48 at 2200, a dystonic reaction was diagnosed; he received intramuscular diphenhydramine 50 mg, which caused the reaction to subside. At the time of the adverse reaction, he was prescribed clozapine 450 mg/d, vitamin E 400 IU three times daily, aspirin 325 mg/d, and acetaminophen, milk of magnesia, and Maalox as needed. Although the risk of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) is significantly lower with clozapine than with conventional agents, elevated clozapine blood concentrations have been reported to cause EPS; other reports have cited severe dystonias and dyskinesias on abrupt clozapine withdrawal. Considering the medications prescribed at the time and the discontinuation of haloperidol 24 days before the event, clozapine was the most likely cause of the extrapyramidal reaction. Regardless of anticipated safety associated with novel antipsychotics such as clozapine, reports of dystonic reactions must be taken into account and patients monitored appropriately.
Mohaupt, Markus G; Karas, Richard H; Babiychuk, Eduard B; Sanchez-Freire, Verónica; Monastyrskaya, Katia; Iyer, Lakshmanan; Hoppeler, Hans; Breil, Fabio; Draeger, Annette
Many patients taking statins often complain of muscle pain and weakness. The extent to which muscle pain reflects muscle injury is unknown. We obtained biopsy samples from the vastus lateralis muscle of 83 patients. Of the 44 patients with clinically diagnosed statin-associated myopathy, 29 were currently taking a statin, and 15 had discontinued statin therapy before the biopsy (minimal duration of discontinuation 3 weeks). We also included 19 patients who were taking statins and had no myopathy, and 20 patients who had never taken statins and had no myopathy. We classified the muscles as injured if 2% or more of the muscle fibres in a biopsy sample showed damage. Using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, we evaluated the expression levels of candidate genes potentially related to myocyte injury. Muscle injury was observed in 25 (of 44) patients with myopathy and in 1 patient without myopathy. Only 1 patient with structural injury had a circulating level of creatine phosphokinase that was elevated more than 1950 U/L (10x the upper limit of normal). Expression of ryanodine receptor 3 was significantly upregulated in patients with biopsy evidence of structural damage (1.7, standard error of the mean 0.3). Persistent myopathy in patients taking statins reflects structural muscle damage. A lack of elevated levels of circulating creatine phosphokinase does not rule out structural muscle injury. Upregulation of the expression of ryanodine receptor 3 is suggestive of an intracellular calcium leak.
Tourn, J.; Rocha, A.; Jubany, L.; Figueroa, S.; Sasso, D.; Dalto, L.; Ferreiro, A.; Fernandez, P.; Kuster, F.
Full text: Background: Infective endocarditis (I E) associated with intracardiac devices (DIC) (pacemakers and CDAI) is a serious condition associated with high mortality (10-20%). Its incidence is variable according different studies but round 1.9 / 1000 devices year. The Eco and blood cultures are the pillars diagnosis of this disease. Early treatment reduces morbidity and mortality and is the extraction of entire system accompanied prolonged antibiotic therapy. Objective: To analyze the epidemiological, clinical, pathological and disease progression in patients EI carriers with DIC. Method: 3,110 DIC placed in the institution between April 2000 and February 2012 were identified by analysis of medical records EI 26 patients with DIC carriers. For diagnosis they were included EI definite cases according to the criteria Duke. They were classified into early EI (<12 months) or late (> 12 months) from the date of the last implant. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Result: The incidence was 8.3 / 1,000 DIC (n = 26). The mean age was 70 ± 10 years, 19 men, 9 diabetic and 16 patients had implemented a Ddd device. In 17 patients underwent more than one replacement device; 10 patients required temporary pacemaker (MPT) prior to placement permanent pacemaker. The average time since the last implant DIC at diagnosis was 710 days. The DIC extraction was early in 8 patients and late in 18. Topography of vegetation: 10 cases over the cable, six tricuspid valve, valve and four over six patient cable and vegetation not found. 15 patients blood cultures were positive; the most frequently found germ was staphylococcus aureus (S A) in nine, being this methicillin-resistant in five of them. The fever accompanied impact elements General was present in 24 cases. The most frequent medical complications were anemia in eight patients and acute renal failure in four patients. Two patients died during hospitalization (7.6%; 95% CI: 0-17.5%). The extraction system was
Genetic association studies explore the association between genetic polymorphisms and a certain trait, disease or predisposition to disease. It has long been acknowledged that many genetic association studies fail to replicate their initial positive findings. This raises concern about the methodological quality of these reports. Case-control genetic association studies often suffer from various methodological flaws in study design and data analysis, and are often reported poorly. Flawed methodology and poor reporting leads to distorted results and incorrect conclusions. Many journals have adopted guidelines for reporting genetic association studies. In this review, some major methodological determinants of genetic association studies will be discussed.
Chen, Chung-Hsien; Lee, Ming-Huei; Chen, Yi-Chang; Lin, Ming-Fong
Ketamine hydrochloride, commonly used as a pediatric anesthetic agent, is an N-methyl-D-aspartic (NMDA) acid receptor antagonist with rapid onset and short duration of action. It produces a cataleptic-like state where the patient is dissociated from the surrounding environment by direct action on the cortex and limbic system. It has emerged as an increasingly popular choice among young drug users, especially within dance club venues. Cases of bladder dysfunction among recreational ketamine users were reported since Shahani et al first reported nine cases of ketamine-associated ulcerative cystitis in 2007. We report on four patients who had history of ketamine abuse, presenting with dysuria, fluctuating lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), lower abdominal or perineal pain, and impaired functional bladder capacities. Urinalysis showed pyuria and microhematuria. Urine culture was sterile. Bladder ulceration with severe diffuse hemorrhage and low bladder capacity were noted under anesthetized cystoscopic examination. Transurethral bladder mucosa biopsy was consistent with chronic cystitis. Cessation of ketamine abuse was the milestone of treatment, followed by the administration of mucosal protective agents, such as pentosan polysulphate or hyaluronic acid. Suprapubic pain was improved in three patients during follow-up. However, the outcome of treatment depends on the severity of the disease process, similar to that of interstitial cystitis (IC). Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Umemura, Takeru; Ohta, Hirotsugu; Yokota, Akira; Yarimizu, Shiroh; Nishizawa, Shigeru
Patients often exhibit urinary retention following a stroke. Various neuropathological and animal studies have implicated the medulla oblongata, pons, limbic system, frontal lobe as areas responsible for micturition control, although the exact area responsible for urinary retention after stroke is not clear. The purpose of this study was to identify the stroke area responsible for urinary retention by localizing the areas where strokes occur. We assessed 110 patients with cerebral infarction and 27 patients with cerebral hemorrhage (78 men, 59 women; mean age, 73.0 years) who had been admitted to our hospital between October, 2012 and September, 2013. We used computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate the stroke location, and evaluated whether post-stroke urinary retention occurred. Twelve (8.8%) of the 137 patients (7 men, 5 women; mean age, 78.8 years) exhibited urinary retention after a stroke. Stroke occurred in the right/left dominant hemisphere in 7 patients; nondominant hemisphere in 1; cerebellum in 3; and brainstem in 1. Strokes in the dominant hemisphere were associated with urinary retention (P = 0.0314), particularly in the area of the insula (P < 0.01). We concluded that stroke affecting the insula of the dominant hemisphere tends to cause urinary retention.
Full Text Available Nelarabine (ara-G; Arranon; compound 506U78 is an antineoplastic purine analog used for the treatment of refractory or relapsed T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL. The drug was granted accelerated approval in October 2005 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA given the efficacy (induction of complete responses noted in 2 single-arm trials (one in pediatric setting and one in adult patient population. The main spectra of toxicities that have been reported in these clinical trials and subsequent studies are hematological and neurological. Nelarabine induced rhabdomyolysis and increased creatinine phosphokinase (CK; CPK levels apparently have been reported and this side effect has been added as an adverse reaction in the product monograph from the drug company during postmarketing surveillance. However, the true extent and incidence of the myotoxicity from the drug are unclear. In this paper we report a grade IV CK elevation and rhabdomyolysis in a patient with T-ALL treated with nelarabine. Given the reported finding, we examined the literature further for myotoxicity, increased CK, and/or rhabdomyolysis associated with the use of the nelarabine and report our findings.
This article examines the contemporary knowledge and uncertainties about the burden of pregnancy-associated severe sepsis (PASS), and its manifestations, management, and outcomes. There are relatively sparse data on PASS, related in part to infrequent reports and varying use of terminology and case definitions. PASS remains rare, although its incidence appears to be rapidly rising in some high-resource countries, affecting especially women with limited resources, minorities, and those with chronic illness. High level of clinician vigilance and rapid initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy, coupled with effective systemic support for organ dysfunction and correction of occult and overt hypoperfusion are the keys to limit adverse outcomes. However, timely diagnosis and provision of effective care remain a challenge, with reported prevalent delay in recognition and delivery of time-sensitive care interventions among maternal decedents. The mortality rate of PASS has been rising and its case fatality, although relatively low, has remained unchanged, in contrast to the outcome gains in the general population. The long-term sequelae of PASS remain unknown. The relatively limited contemporary data on PASS suggest a rising public health hazard in the obstetric population in high-resource countries, with ongoing challenges in assuring consistent provision of time-sensitive care.
Hoernschemeyer, Daniel G; Atanda, Alfred; Dean-Davis, Ellen; Gupta, Sumit K
Achondroplasia is the most common skeletal dysplasia. This form of dwarfism is caused by a point mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene, leading to inhibition of endochondral ossification for these patients. This results in a normal trunk height but shortened limbs. The discoid meniscus may be an important associated finding to better understand the common complaints of leg pain for these patients. Although the incidence for a discoid meniscus is between 3% and 5% for the general population, it is unknown with achondroplasia. This case series includes 4 patients, with ages ranging from adolescence to early adulthood, with symptoms of knee pain that were not attributable to some of the more common findings seen in this patient population. Typically, patients with achondroplasia who experience knee pain are evaluated for more common and well-known etiologies such as genu varum, ligamentous instability, and neurogenic claudication. However, the authors propose that symptomatic discoid lateral meniscus should be added to the differential diagnosis for lower-extremity pain in the achondroplasia population. A thorough history and physical examination, in combination with magnetic resonance imaging, can aid in making the diagnosis. Treatment with arthroscopic debridement, saucerization of the meniscus, and repair for unstable injuries has yielded good outcomes for this patient population. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e498-e503.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Travis, Lois B.
As survival after a diagnosis of cancer improves, characterization of the late sequelae of treatment becomes critical. The development of second malignant neoplasms represents one of the most serious side effects of treatment with radiation and chemotherapy. Although secondary leukemia was the first reported carcinogenic effect resulting from cancer treatment, solid tumors now comprise the largest second tumor burden in some populations of survivors. It should be recognized, however, that solid cancers do not necessarily represent an adverse effect of therapy, but may also reflect the operation of shared etiologic factors, host determinants, gene-environment interactions, and other influences. Quantification of second cancer risk is important in terms of patient management, enabling clinicians to make informed decisions with regard to optimal treatment of the initial cancer, balancing efficacy against acute and chronic sequelae. This article focuses on selected highlights and recent developments in treatment-associated solid malignancies, with emphasis on radiotherapy and chemotherapy in adults, and summarizes areas for future research. Although cancer therapy represents a double-edged sword, it should always be recognized that it is advances in treatment that are largely responsible for the tremendous improvement in patient survival. Thus, the benefit derived from many cancer therapies far outweighs any risk of developing a second cancer
Samson Sai-Yin Wong
Full Text Available Although exact statistics are lacking, body modifications for cosmetic purposes are performed in many countries. The commonest forms include tattooing, body piercing, and breast and facial augmentation using implants or injectable fillers. Liposuction and, to a lesser extent, mesotherapy are also practiced in many countries. Infective complications of these procedures include local infections, transmission of bloodborne pathogens (viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus, and distant infections such as infective endocarditis. Presence of foreign bodies, long healing time of piercing wounds, and poor compliance with infection control practices of some practitioners all predispose the recipients to infections. Apart from the endogenous microbial flora of the skin and mucosae, atypical mycobacteria, especially the rapid growers, have emerged as some of the most important pathogens in such settings. Outbreaks of infection are commonly reported. We hereby review the current knowledge of the topic with specific focus on infections associated with tattooing, body piercing, breast augmentation, mesotherapy, liposuction, and tissue filler injections. Greater awareness among consumers and health-care professionals, as well as more stringent regulations by the health authorities, is essential to minimize the health risks arising from these procedures.
The Fusion Power Associates symposium, 'The Search for Attractive Fusion Concepts', was held January 31 - February 1 1985 in La Jolla, California. The purpose of this meeting was to bring together industry, university and government managers of the US fusion program to discuss the state of fusion development and the direction in which the program should be heading, given the cutbacks in the US fusion budget. There was a strong, minority opinion that until the best concept could be identified, the program should be broadly based. But there was also widespread criticism, aimed mainly at the largest segment of the magnetic fusion program, the tokamak. It was felt by many that the tokamak would not develop into a reactor that would be attractive to a utility and therefore should be phased out of the program. If the tokamak will indeed not lead to a commercial product then this meeting shows the US fusion program to be in a healthy state, despite the declining budgets
Lichti, Derek D.; Weng, Qihao
As of the end of December 2017, Professors Eberhard Gülch, Olaf Hellwich, Minho Kim, and Lalit Kumar have retired as Associate Editors of the ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Our Journal's readership has benefited greatly from their longstanding commitment to their editorial duties. Both Profs. Gülch and Hellwich began their service to the Journal in 2007, while Profs. Kumar and Kim began in 2012 and 2014, respectively. In their many years as editors, they have witnessed the incredible growth of the Journal in terms of the number of papers submitted and published as well as the impact factor. Thanks to their high standards for paper quality and rigorous peer review, these professors have been important contributors to the Journal's current high standing. They were very versatile in terms of the scope of papers they could handle. Eberhard handled papers in photogrammetry, terrain modelling and geographic information systems (GIS) while Olaf handled papers in radar, computer vision and GIS. Both Lalit and Minho handled papers in optical remote sensing. On behalf of the Journal and the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, we thank them for many years of dedicated service to the Journal.
Thirteen patients exhibited a communicating hydrocephalus following subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to ruptured intracranial aneurysms and were treated with shunt procedures. The interval between subarachnoid hemorrhage and surgery averaged 9 weeks. Seven of the patients showed improvement. The prognostic value for surgical management was evaluated on the basis of three different diagnostic examinations (computed tomography (CT), cisternography and constant infusion test). A correct diagnosis was obtained in 78 per cent in cisternography, and 63 per cent in infusion test and CT. All patients responding to surgery showed a typical pattern in cisternography, consisting of ventricular retention of radiopharmaceutical tracer for 48 h or longer in association with no radioactivity over the cerebral hemispheres. The constant infusion test correlated well with typical cisternographic patterns. CT is useful in demonstrating pathophysiological changes in hydrocephalus. Periventricular hypodensity was visible in patients with normal or slightly elevated intracranial pressure, accompanied by fairly rapid deterioration. All of them responded well to shunting. In most cases which benefited from the shunt, the postoperative CT showed not only normal-sized ventricles but also marked regression of the hypodensity over a short period. (author)
Full Text Available Microscopic entities, microorganisms that drastically affect human health need to be thoroughly investigated. A biofilm is an architectural colony of microorganisms, within a matrix of extracellular polymeric substance that they produce. Biofilm contains microbial cells adherent to one-another and to a static surface (living or non-living. Bacterial biofilms are usually pathogenic in nature and can cause nosocomial infections. The National Institutes of Health (NIH revealed that among all microbial and chronic infections, 65% and 80%, respectively, are associated with biofilm formation. The process of biofilm formation consists of many steps, starting with attachment to a living or non-living surface that will lead to formation of micro-colony, giving rise to three-dimensional structures and ending up, after maturation, with detachment. During formation of biofilm several species of bacteria communicate with one another, employing quorum sensing. In general, bacterial biofilms show resistance against human immune system, as well as against antibiotics. Health related concerns speak loud due to the biofilm potential to cause diseases, utilizing both device-related and non-device-related infections. In summary, the understanding of bacterial biofilm is important to manage and/or to eradicate biofilm-related diseases. The current review is, therefore, an effort to encompass the current concepts in biofilm formation and its implications in human health and disease.
Bryant, Sean M; Cumpston, Kirk; Lipsky, Martin S; Patel, Nirali; Leikin, Jerrold B
We present an 84-year-old man with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, glaucoma, and bladder cancer who presented to the emergency department after the police found him disoriented and confused. Metformin therapy began 3 days before, and he denied any overdose or suicidal ideation. Other daily medications included glipizide, fluticasone, prednisone, aspirin, furosemide, insulin, and potassium supplements. In the emergency department, his vital signs were significant for hypertension (168/90), tachycardia (120 bpm), and Kussmaul respirations at 24 breaths per minute. Oxygen saturation was 99% on room air, and a fingerstick glucose was 307 mg/dL. He was disoriented to time and answered questions slowly. Metformin was discontinued, and by day 3, the patient's vital signs and laboratory test results normalized. He has been asymptomatic at subsequent follow-up visits. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis is a well-known phenomenon. Respiratory alkalosis may be an early adverse event induced by metformin prior to the development of lactic acidosis.
King, Brett; Knopp, Eleanor; Galan, Anjela; Nuovo, Gerard; Tigelaar, Robert; McNiff, Jennifer
Palifermin is a recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor that is used to reduce the duration and severity of oral mucositis in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after myelotoxic therapy. Cutaneous adverse reactions associated with keratinocyte growth factor are reported to be rash, pruritus, and erythema. After receiving palifermin following autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and treatment with melphalan, a patient developed erythema and lichenoid papules that were distributed primarily in intertriginous areas. A biopsy specimen of the papules showed a striking resemblance to verrucae, but in situ hybridization studies were negative for human papillomavirus. Immunohistochemical staining with antibodies to Ki-67 and cytokeratin 5/6 showed increased keratinocyte proliferation in lesional skin. After treatment with palifermin, a papular eruption clinically resembling lichen planus or plane warts, with histologic features of verruca plana, and intertriginous erythema may occur. In this case, neither eruption required treatment, and spontaneous resolution was observed over days to weeks. Histopathologic staining patterns of Ki-67 and cytokeratin 5/6 may be useful in identifying adverse reactions to palifermin therapy.
The Australian Uranium Association was formed in September last year in the midst of a very exciting period of change for the industry. What forged this new grouping was the industry's belief that it needed a strong representative organisation to play an advocacy role for uranium exploration and mining, at a very important moment of opportunity for the industry. That 'moment of opportunity' was the result of some critical trends and events, First, the very rapid increase in the price of uranium was driving renewed exploration and investment across Australia and the world. In the previous twelve months, the spot price of uranium had risen more than 90%. Second, the Federal Government had established the Uranium Industry Framework as a means by which government and industry could discuss a better regulatory framework. This led to some very fruitful interchanges between industry players. While the UIF talks were continuing, the Federal Government announced a parallel inquiry into whether Australia ought to move further into the nuclear power cycle. Third, the new interest in Australia in climate change and greenhouse gas emissions had led to a steep increase in public interest in the nuclear power option, with many former opponents now willing to listen to the argument
Full Text Available Thyroid hemiagenesis (TH, very rare congenital anomaly, is generally asymptomatic. We report two cases of TH with hyperthyroidism. Case One. The patient presented with signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis. Physical examination revealed asymmetric nodular goitre at right lobe. Biochemical analysis revealed the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. Ultrasound showed multinodular hypertrophy in the right lobe and absence of the left lobe. Nuclear scan, confirming absence of the left lobe, showed hot nodules in the right one. The diagnosis was toxic multinodular goitre. Case Two. The thyroid was not palpable in this patient presented with signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis. Biochemical analysis revealed the diagnosis of autoimmune thyrotoxicosis. Ultrasound showed mild diffuse hyperplasia of the right lobe and agenesis of the left lobe. Nuclear scan, confirming absence of the left lobe, showed increasing diffuse uptake of radiotracer in the right one. The diagnosis was Graves’ disease in this patient. After antithyroid medication, the patients were surgically treated with total excision of the thyroid tissue. TH is sometimes associated with disorders of the thyroid. Hyperthyroidism makes TH cases symptomatic. During evaluation of patients, ultrasound and nuclear scan usually report agenesis of one lobe and establish the diagnosis of TH. The surgical treatment is total removal of hyperactive tissue and total excision of the remaining lobe.
Bihari, Chhagan; Rastogi, Archana; Saxena, Priyanka; Rangegowda, Devraj; Chowdhury, Ashok; Gupta, Nalini; Sarin, Shiv Kumar
Parvovirus B19 infection can present with myriads of clinical diseases and syndromes; liver manifestations and hepatitis are examples of them. Parvovirus B19 hepatitis associated aplastic anemia and its coinfection with other hepatotropic viruses are relatively underrecognized, and there is sufficient evidence in the literature suggesting that B19 infections can cause a spectrum of liver diseases from elevation of transaminases to acute hepatitis to fulminant liver failure and even chronic hepatitis. It can also cause fatal macrophage activation syndrome and fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis. Parvovirus B19 is an erythrovirus that can only be replicate in pronormoblasts and hepatocytes, and other cells which have globosides and glycosphingolipids in their membrane can also be affected by direct virus injury due to nonstructural protein 1 persistence and indirectly by immune mediated injury. The virus infection is suspected in bone marrow aspiration in cases with sudden drop of hemoglobin and onset of transient aplastic anemia in immunosuppressed or immunocompetent patients and is confirmed either by IgM and IgG positive serology, PCR analysis, and in situ hybridization in biopsy specimens or by application of both. There is no specific treatment for parvovirus B19 related liver diseases, but triple therapy regimen may be effective consisting of immunoglobulin, dehydrohydrocortisone, and cyclosporine. PMID:24232179
Antibodies against various neural surface antigens induce cognitive impairments. Anti-VGKC (voltage gated potassium channel) complex antibodies are well known as one of the causative autoantibodies. An anti-VGKC antibody was identified as the autoantibody in acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome), which causes muscle cramps and difficulty in opening the palm of the hands. However, this antibody also tests positive in autoimmune limbic encephalitis, which has a subacute progress and causes poor memory or epilepsy attacks. Typical cases have a distinctive adult-onset, frequent, brief dystonic seizure semiology that predominantly affects the arms and ipsilateral face. It has now been termed faciobrachial dystonic seizures. In recent years, the true target antigens of the anti-VGKC antibody of this VGKC limbic encephalitis have been recognized as leucine rich glioma inactivated protein (LGI)-1 and others. These antibodies to amnesia-related LGI-1 in limbic encephalitis neutralize the LGI-1-ADAM22 (an anchor protein) interaction and reduce synaptic AMPA receptors. There have been reports of limbic encephalitis associated with anti-VGKC complex antibodies mimicking Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Less than 2% of the patients with sporadic CJD (sCJD) develop serum anti-VGKC complex antibodies and, when positive, only at low titres. Low titres of these antibodies occur only rarely in suspected patients with sCJD, and when present, should be interpreted with caution.
Carbonari, Costanza; Colombini, Marco; Solari, Luca
The presence of mixed sediment always characterizes gravel bed rivers. Sorting processes take place during bed load transport of heterogeneous sediment mixtures. The two main elements necessary to the occurrence of sorting are the heterogeneous character of sediments and the presence of an active sediment transport. When these two key ingredients are simultaneously present, the segregation of bed material is consistently detected both in the field  and in laboratory  observations. In heterogeneous sediment transport, bed altimetric variations and sorting always coexist and both mechanisms are independently capable of driving the formation of morphological patterns. Indeed, consistent patterns of longitudinal and transverse sorting are identified almost ubiquitously. In some cases, such as bar formation  and channel bends , sorting acts as a stabilizing effect and therefore the dominant mechanism driving pattern formation is associated with bed altimetric variations. In other cases, such as longitudinal streaks, sorting enhances system instability and can therefore be considered the prevailing mechanism. Bedload sheets, first observed by Khunle and Southard , represent another classic example of a morphological pattern essentially triggered by sorting, as theoretical  and experimental  results suggested. These sorting waves cause strong spatial and temporal fluctuations of bedload transport rate typical observed in gravel bed rivers. The problem of bed load transport of a sediment mixture is formulated in the framework of a 1D linear stability analysis. The base state consists of a uniform flow in an infinitely wide channel with active bed load transport. The behaviour of the eigenvalues associated with fluid motion, bed evolution and sorting processes in the space of the significant flow and sediment parameters is analysed. A comparison is attempted with the results of the theoretical analysis of Seminara Colombini and Parker  and Stecca
Sónia Melo Gomes
Full Text Available Objective: In the last few years there has been an increase in case reports of hypernatraemic dehydration in breastfed newborns. Insufficient intake has an important role in the pathophysiology of this condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate exclusively breastfed neonates admitted for hypernatraemic dehydration. Methods: Retrospective study of breastfed neonates diagnosed with hypernatraemic dehydration, between March 2002 and March 2008, in a level 1 maternity. Rresults: Nineteen cases were identified (0.44% of neonatal intermediate care hospitalizations, 53% of them were male. The annual distribution revealed a higher number of cases in 2008: 26.3% in only three months. Median birth weight was 3,000 g and the median gestational age was 38 weeks. Vaginal delivery was the most frequent form of birth (42%, and 79% of mothers were primiparas. Admissions were made through the emergency department in 68.4%. The main reasons for seeking medical attention were: poor oral intake (32%, weight loss (26%, and jaundice (26%. The median age at admission was four days. Percentage of weight loss: 6.7 to 40%, median was 11%. Dehydration signs were absent in 42% of the patients. Median Na+ values were 152 mEq/l. Jaundice was the most frequent comorbidity found (74%. Intravenous fluids were administered in 89% and acute neurological complications were found in 21%, there were no deaths. Cconclusions: Breastfeeding-associated hypernatraemic dehydration seems to be a consequence of breastfeeding difficulties in inexperienced mothers. Since many cases are paucisymptomatic, there should be a high level of suspicion, especially in those patients with jaundice.
Komori, Tetsuo; Nagashima, Toshiko; Hirose, Kazuhiko; Tanabe, Hitoshi; Tsubaki, Tadao
Two cases of adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) in a family and the results of their MRI study are reported. Case 1, a 24-year-old male proband, was admitted to our hospital because of gait disturbance for three years. Bilateral cataracts were pointed out at birth, which required left side lenticotomy at age four. Neurological examinations on admission revealed a marked spastic paraparesis with pathological reflexes and a mild hypesthesia in the distal part of the left leg. No abnormal findings were detected in X-ray studies on the spine and spinal cord, electromyography and nerve conduction test. Serum very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) levels were apparently elevated, and the serum cortisol response to ACTH was low. Case 2, a 53-year-old woman, is the mother of Case 1 having a complaint of gait disturbance since age 51. She presented a mild spastic paraparesis with localized hypesthesia in the distal part of the both legs. She also had bilateral congenital cataracts. Her serum VLCFAs analysis indicated the intermediate levels between that of AMN and the normal control. Adrenal functions were normal. Cranial MRI (TR 2,000 msec/TE 80 msec) study disclosed high signal intensity areas in bilateral internal capsules in Case 1. These findings, suggesting the pathological change of dysmyelination, seemed to be well compatible with the clinical pictures. With these clinical findings and the laboratory data, these two cases were diagnosed as AMN. In addition, association of congenital cataract with AMN in both cases was characteristic in this family, which hasn't been reported in the literature. On regarding the genetic background of these two disorders, AMN and congenital cataract, it was speculated that each gene could be closely located on the same or very adjacent locus, possibly on Xq. (author)
Gunes, Gursel; Malkan, Umit Yavuz; Yasar, Hatime Arzu; Eliacik, Eylem; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celalettin; Demiroglu, Haluk; Sayinalp, Nilgun; Aksu, Salih; Etgul, Sezgin; Aslan, Tuncay; Goker, Hakan; Ozcebe, Osman Ilhami; Buyukasik, Yahya
Acquired erythroblastopenia (AE) is a rare clinical situation. It is characterized by the reduction of erythroid precursors in the bone marrow together with the low reticulocyte counts in the peripheral blood. Main secondary causes of AE are drugs, Parvovirus B19 and other infectious reasons, lymphoid and myeloid neoplasia, autoimmune diseases, thymoma and pregnancy. The aim of this study is to assess the frequencies and clinical associations of AE via analyzing 12340 bone marrow samples in a retrospective manner. Bone marrow aspirations which were obtained from patients who applied to Hacettepe University Hematology Clinic between 2002 and 2013, were analyzed retrospectively. Thirty four erythroblastopenia cases were found. Patients ranged in age from 16 to 80 years with a median of 38 years. Fifteen patients were men (44%) and nineteen were women (56%). In these patients, detected causes of erythroblastopenia were MDS, idiopathic pure red cell aplasia (PRCA), parvovirus infection, post chemotherapy aplasia, plasma proliferative diseases, copper deficiency due to secondary amyloidosis, fever of unknown origin, hemophagocytic syndrome, enteric fever and legionella pneumonia. We found that between those reasons the most common causes of erythroblastopenia are MDS (17.7%) and idiopathic PRCA (17.7%). As a result, erythroblastopenia in the bone marrow may be an early sign of MDS. In those AE cases possibility of being MDS must be kept in mind as it can be mistaken for PRCA. To conclude, in adults MDS without excess blast is one of the most common causes of erythroblastopenia in clinical practice and in case of erythroblastopenia the presence of MDS should be investigated.
Association of African Universities : Education and Research Networking Unit. The Association of African Universities (AAU), headquartered in Accra, Ghana, is an international nongovernmental organization (NGO) that promotes cooperation between African universities and with the international community.
Cardiovascular disease has been identified as a condition that may be associated with environmental factors. Air pollution in particular has been demonstrated to be associated with cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis, which can increase the likelihood of cardiovascular eve...
A patient in whom primary Sjogren's syndrome and inappropriate antiduretic hormone secretion were associated is reported. This is the first report of such an association. The possible pathophysiological mechanisms are discussed and vasculitis proposed as the underlying pathogenetic mechanism.
increases the economic burden on health care systems because of its associated morbidity .... Depression in schizophrenia has been associated with higher rates of relapse ... The researchers approached the psychiatric nursing staff of mental.
... Workplace Health & Safety Journal Awards & Recognition Occupational Health Nurses Week Member Discounts Monthly Newsletter Foundation About the ... 1, 2018. The American Association of Occupational Health Nurses, Inc. is the primary association for the largest ...
Kjaergard, Lise L; Als-Nielsen, Bodil
To assess the association between competing interests and authors' conclusions in randomised clinical trials.......To assess the association between competing interests and authors' conclusions in randomised clinical trials....
Minocherhomji, Sheroy; Madon, Prochi F; Parikh, Firuza R
with higher order organisation of chromatin in genes associated with infertility and pericentromeric regions of chromosomes, particularly 9 and Y, could further identify causes of idiopathic infertility. Determining the association between DNA methylation, chromatin state, and noncoding RNAs...
Pushkashu, D. I.
In this paper we study properties of left (right) division (cancellative) groupoids with associative-like identities, namely, with cyclic associative identity (x (y z) = (z x) y) and Tarki (x (z y) = (x y) z) identities.
Matthews, Stephen G.; Gongora, Mario A.; Hopgood, Adrian A.
A novel framework for mining temporal association rules by discovering itemsets with a genetic algorithm is introduced. Metaheuristics have been applied to association rule mining, we show the efficacy of extending this to another variant - temporal association rule mining. Our framework is an enhancement to existing temporal association rule mining methods as it employs a genetic algorithm to simultaneously search the rule space and temporal space. A methodology for validating the ability of...
Chen, Chia-Wei; Yang, Hsin-Chou
Combining statistical significances (P-values) from a set of single-locus association tests in genome-wide association studies is a proof-of-principle method for identifying disease-associated genomic segments, functional genes and biological pathways. We review P-value combinations for genome-wide association studies and introduce an integrated analysis tool, Omnibus P-value Association Tests (OPATs), which provides popular analysis methods of P-value combinations. The software OPATs programmed in R and R graphical user interface features a user-friendly interface. In addition to analysis modules for data quality control and single-locus association tests, OPATs provides three types of set-based association test: window-, gene- and biopathway-based association tests. P-value combinations with or without threshold and rank truncation are provided. The significance of a set-based association test is evaluated by using resampling procedures. Performance of the set-based association tests in OPATs has been evaluated by simulation studies and real data analyses. These set-based association tests help boost the statistical power, alleviate the multiple-testing problem, reduce the impact of genetic heterogeneity, increase the replication efficiency of association tests and facilitate the interpretation of association signals by streamlining the testing procedures and integrating the genetic effects of multiple variants in genomic regions of biological relevance. In summary, P-value combinations facilitate the identification of marker sets associated with disease susceptibility and uncover missing heritability in association studies, thereby establishing a foundation for the genetic dissection of complex diseases and traits. OPATs provides an easy-to-use and statistically powerful analysis tool for P-value combinations. OPATs, examples, and user guide can be downloaded from http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/hsinchou/genetics/association/OPATs.htm. © The Author 2017
Khawaja, Anthony P; Springelkamp, Henriët; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine
years. We found no significant association between standardized IOP and study location latitude (P = 0.76). Novel findings of our study include the association of lower IOP in taller people and an inverted-U shaped association of IOP with age. We found no evidence of significant variation in IOP across...
Vikal Chandra Shakya; C S Agrawal; N R Shrestha; K Dhungel; S Adhikary
Omphalocele is frequently associated with many other congenital malformations. In cardiac anomalies, association of omphalocele with dextrocardia has been rarely noticed before. We present here a child with dextrocardia and omphalocele alongwith a brief review of the literature on this rare association. Key Words: congenital malformations, dextrocardia, omphalocele
Considering a Poisson algebra as a non associative algebra satisfying the Markl-Remm identity, we study deformations of Poisson algebras as deformations of this non associative algebra. This gives a natural interpretation of deformations which preserves the underlying associative structure and we study deformations which preserve the underlying Lie algebra.
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Association investments. 615.5142 Section 615... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5142 Association investments. An association may hold eligible investments listed in § 615.5140, with the approval of its funding...
O. A. Antelava
Full Text Available Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM are a heterogeneous group of acquired systemic diseases mainly involving skeletal muscles. The main representatives of IIM are polymyositis (PM and dermatomyositis (DM. Epidemiological surveys demonstrate that there is a relationship between PM/DM and malignant neoplasms (MNs, the detection risk of which is higher than that in the population of respective age groups. The rate of MNs in PM/DM ranges from 9 to 50%. The relationship to MNs is described in each subtype of IIM; however, these are most common in DM. The patients suffering from PM/DM associated with MNs have a worse prognosis than those without MNs. The early detection of MNs could improve the prognosis in these patients. The investigations published identify demographic, clinical, and laboratory factors increasing MN detection risks in patients with PM/DM. Just the same, they all cover small patient groups; the findings are heterogeneous and not well convincing, which calls for a further larger-scale study of this problem.Objective: to reveal and identify the specific features of paraneoplastic myositis (PnM.Subjects and methods. The investigation included 320 patients with a valid diagnosis of IIM, who had been followed up in the period of 1996 to 2016. The patients underwent laboratory tests, manual proximal muscle strength testing using a 10-point scale and electromyographic examination with needle electrodes.Results and discussion. PnM was detected in 32 (10% of the 320 patients with IIM. Among the patients with PnM, there were 6 (19% men and 26 (81% women. The mean age at the onset of PnM was 55.4 years. PnM manifested with characteristic musculocutaneous syndrome in 19 (59% patients; 18 (41% of them were found to have MNs within the first year after disease onset. The manifestation of MNs was preliminary to the picture of PM/DM in 13 (41% patients. The most commonly detected conditions were ovarian cancer (37.5%, MNs of the lung and breast
Andreae, John H
The explanation of brain functioning in terms of the association of ideas has been popular since the 17th century. Recently, however, the process of association has been dismissed as computationally inadequate by prominent cognitive scientists. In this book, a sharper definition of the term "association" is used to revive the process by showing that associative learning can indeed be computationally powerful. Within an appropriate organization, associative learning can be embodied in a robot to realize a human-like intelligence, which sets its own goals, exhibits unique unformalizable behaviou
Most mycorrhizas are 'balanced' mutualistic associations in which the fungus and plant exchange commodities required for their growth and survival. Myco-heterotrophic plants have 'exploitative' mycorrhizas where transfer processes apparently benefit only plants. Exploitative associations are symbiotic (in the broad sense), but are not mutualistic. A new definition of mycorrhizas that encompasses all types of these associations while excluding other plant-fungus interactions is provided. This definition recognises the importance of nutrient transfer at an interface resulting from synchronised plant-fungus development. The diversity of interactions between mycorrhizal fungi and plants is considered. Mycorrhizal fungi also function as endophytes, necrotrophs and antagonists of host or non-host plants, with roles that vary during the lifespan of their associations. It is recommended that mycorrhizal associations are defined and classified primarily by anatomical criteria regulated by the host plant. A revised classification scheme for types and categories of mycorrhizal associations defined by these criteria is proposed. The main categories of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal associations (VAM) are 'linear' or 'coiling', and of ectomycorrhizal associations (ECM) are 'epidermal' or 'cortical'. Subcategories of coiling VAM and epidermal ECM occur in certain host plants. Fungus-controlled features result in 'morphotypes' within categories of VAM and ECM. Arbutoid and monotropoid associations should be considered subcategories of epidermal ECM and ectendomycorrhizas should be relegated to an ECM morphotype. Both arbuscules and vesicles define mycorrhizas formed by glomeromycotan fungi. A new classification scheme for categories, subcategories and morphotypes of mycorrhizal associations is provided.
Gong, Mengyuan; Li, Sheng
Statistical regularities in the natural environment play a central role in adaptive behavior. Among other regularities, reward association is potentially the most prominent factor that influences our daily life. Recent studies have suggested that pre-established reward association yields strong influence on the spatial allocation of attention. Here we show that reward association can also improve visual working memory (VWM) performance when the reward-associated feature is task-irrelevant. We established the reward association during a visual search training session, and investigated the representation of reward-associated features in VWM by the application of a change detection task before and after the training. The results showed that the improvement in VWM was significantly greater for items in the color associated with high reward than for those in low reward-associated or nonrewarded colors. In particular, the results from control experiments demonstrate that the observed reward effect in VWM could not be sufficiently accounted for by attentional capture toward the high reward-associated item. This was further confirmed when the effect of attentional capture was minimized by presenting the items in the sample and test displays of the change detection task with the same color. The results showed significantly larger improvement in VWM performance when the items in a display were in the high reward-associated color than those in the low reward-associated or nonrewarded colors. Our findings suggest that, apart from inducing space-based attentional capture, the learned reward association could also facilitate the perceptual representation of high reward-associated items through feature-based attentional modulation.
... credit association investment in farmers' notes given to cooperatives and dealers. 615.5172 Section 615....5172 Production credit association and agricultural credit association investment in farmers' notes... farmers and ranchers eligible to borrow from such associations. (b) Such notes and other obligations...
Zeelenberg, R; Shiffrin, R M; Raaijmakers, J G
Two experiments investigated priming in free association, a conceptual implicit memory task. The stimuli consisted of bidirectionally associated word pairs (e.g., BEACH-SAND) and unidirectionally associated word pairs that have no association from the target response back to the stimulus cue (e.g., BONE-DOG). In the study phase, target words (e.g., SAND, DOG) were presented in an incidental learning task. In the test phase, participants generated an associate to the stimulus cues (e.g., BEACH, BONE). In both experiments, priming was obtained for targets (e.g., SAND) that had an association back to the cue, but not for targets (e.g., DOG) for which such a backward association was absent. These results are problematic for theoretical accounts that attribute priming in free association to the strengthening of target responses. It is argued that priming in free association depends on the strengthening of cue-target associations.
Hahsler, Michael; Hornik, Kurt
Mining association rules is an important technique for discovering meaningful patterns in transaction databases. Many different measures of interestingness have been proposed for association rules. However, these measures fail to take the probabilistic properties of the mined data into account. In this paper, we start with presenting a simple probabilistic framework for transaction data which can be used to simulate transaction data when no associations are present. We use such data and a rea...
修春波; 刘向东; 张宇河
A novel learning method for multi-valued associative memory network is introduced, which is based on Hebb rule, but utilizes more information. According to the current probe vector, the connection weights matrix could be chosen dynamically. Double-valued and multi-valued associative memory are all realized in our simulation experiment. The experimental results show that the method could enhance the associative success rate.
Woodward, D L; Khakhria, R; Johnson, W M
During the period from 1994 to 1996, an increase in the number of laboratory-confirmed cases of human salmonellosis associated with exposure to exotic pets including iguanas, pet turtles, sugar gliders, and hedgehogs was observed in Canada. Pet turtle-associated salmonellosis was recognized as a serious public health problem in the 1960s and 1970s, and in February 1975 legislation banning the importation of turtles into Canada was enacted by Agriculture Canada. Reptile-associated salmonellosi...
Lie conformal algebras appear in the theory of vertex algebras. Their relation is similar to that of Lie algebras and their universal enveloping algebras. Associative conformal algebras play a role in conformal representation theory. We introduce the notions of conformal identity and unital associative conformal algebras and classify finitely generated simple unital associative conformal algebras of linear growth. These are precisely the complete algebras of conformal endomorphisms of finite ...
Avlund, Ane Søgaard; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Chapman, Walter G.
A general theory for modelling intramolecular association within the SAFT framework is proposed. Sear and Jackson [Phys. Rev. E. 50 (1), 386 (1994)] and Ghonasgi and Chapman [J. Chem. Phys. 102 (6), 2585 (1995)] have previously extended SAFT to include intramolecular association for chains with two...... the contribution to the Helmholtz free energy from association (inter- as well as intramolecularly) at equilibrium. Sear and Jackson rederived the contribution to the Helmholtz free energy from association from the theory by Wertheim [J. Stat. Phys. 42 (3–4), 459 (1986)] with inclusion of intramolecular...
Macroinvertebrates associated with two submerged macrophytes, Lagarosiphon ilicifolius and Vallisneria aethiopica , in the Sanyati Basin, Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe: effect of plant morphological complexity.
Francfort, Gilles A.
We quickly review two main non-associated plasticity models, the Armstrong-Frederick model of nonlinear kinematic hardening and the Drucker-Prager cap model. Non-associativity is commonly thought to preclude any kind of variational formulation, be it in a Hencky-type (static) setting, or when considering a quasi-static evolution because non-associativity destroys convexity. We demonstrate that such an opinion is misguided: associativity (and convexity) can be restored at the expense of the introduction of state variable-dependent dissipation potentials.
Read, D J; Ducket, J G; Francis, R; Ligron, R; Russell, A
An analysis of the current state of knowledge of symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' plants is provided. Three fungal phyla, the Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, are involved in forming these associations, each producing a distinctive suite of structural features in well-defined groups of 'lower' plants. Among the 'lower' plants only mosses and Equisetum appear to lack one or other of these types of association. The salient features of the symbioses produced by each fungal group are described and the relationships between these associations and those formed by the same or related fungi in 'higher' plants are discussed. Particular consideration is given to the question of the extent to which root fungus associations in 'lower' plants are analogous to 'mycorrhizas' of 'higher' plants and the need for analysis of the functional attributes of these symbioses is stressed. Zygomycetous fungi colonize a wide range of extant lower land plants (hornworts, many hepatics, lycopods, Ophioglossales, Psilotales and Gleicheniaceae), where they often produce structures analogous to those seen in the vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizas of higher plants, which are formed by members of the order Glomales. A preponderance of associations of this kind is in accordance with palaeohbotanical and molecular evidence indicating that glomalean fungi produced the archetypal symbioses with the first plants to emerge on to land. It is shown, probably for the first time, that glomalean fungi forming typical VA mycorrhiza with a higher plant (Plantago lanceolata) can colonize a thalloid liverwort (Pellia epiphylla), producing arbuscules and vesicles in the hepatic. The extent to which these associations, which are structurally analogous to mycorrhizas, have similar functions remains to be evaluated. Ascomycetous associations are found in a relatively small number of families of leafy liverworts. The structural features of the fungal colonization of rhizoids and underground axes of
Many medical procedures breach or suppress patients’ natural defences, leaving them vulnerable to infections which would not occur in healthy humans: “healthcare-associated infections”. Healthcare-associated infections caused by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) are probably the most
Jones, Thomas W.; Dunne, Michele T.
CHARGE association is described as a diagnostic label for a group of congenital malformations, including coloboma, heart defects, atresia choanae, retarded postnatal growth/central nervous system defects, genital hypoplasia, and ear deformities. Etiology and characteristics of the CHARGE association are discussed, along with implications for…
Rapp, Carolin; Freitag, Markus
, a closer look is taken at how associational diversity relates to the formation of tolerance and the importance of associations as schools of tolerance are evaluated. The main theoretical argument follows contact theory, wherein regular and enduring contact in diverse settings reduces prejudice and thereby...
Full Text Available A Prune Belly syndrome with VATER/VACTERL association is an extremely rare. They are either stillborn or die within few days of life, only few such cases have been reported in literature. We are presenting here a male neonate of Prune Belly syndrome associated with incomplete VACTERL with brief review of literature.
Ali, Zarqa; Suppli Ulrik, Charlotte; Agner, Tove
Obesity has been associated with atopic dermatitis (AD), however the results have been conflicting. Our aim was to provide an update on current knowledge from observational studies addressing the possible association between obesity and AD. Systematic literature review was performed by identifying...
... administrative personnel of the corporate members of its member associations. (h) Communications other than... Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL CORPORATE AND LABOR ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY § 114.8 Trade... authorization specifically allowing a trade association to solicit its corporate member's stockholders, and...
Roefs, Anne; Huijding, Jorg; Smulders, Fren T. Y.; MacLeod, Colin M.; de Jong, Peter J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Jansen, Anita T. M.
Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis 1 psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b)
Roefs, Anne; Huijding, Jorg; Smulders, Fren T. Y.; MacLeod, Colin M.; de Jong, Peter J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Jansen, Anita T. M.
Validity;Measures (Individuals);Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis I psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b) experimental…
Roefs, A.; Huijding, J.; Smulders, F.T.Y.; MacLeod, C.M.; de Jong, P.J.; Wiers, R.W.; Jansen, A.T.M.
Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis I psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b)
Information on social-clinical characteristics, cancer type and associated factors as well as haemoglobin level before and after radiation were obtained. The prevalence of anaemia was determined as a proportion and linear regression was used to determine factors associated with haemoglobin change. Results: A total of ...
The present experiment examined whether or not the type of associations (close (e.g. apple-pear) and distant (e.g. apple-fish) word associations) and memory instruction (paying attention to the ideas of others) had effects on the idea generation performances in the brainwriting paradigm in which all participants shared their ideas by using paper…
Health care-associated infections cause approximately 75,000 deaths annually, in addition to increasing morbidity and costs. Over the past decade, a downward trend in health care-associated infections has occurred nationwide. Basic prevention measures include administrative support, educating health care personnel, and hand hygiene and isolation precautions. Prevention of central line- or catheter-associated infections begins with avoidance of unnecessary insertion, adherence to aseptic technique when inserting, and device removal when no longer necessary. Specific recommendations for preventing central line-associated bloodstream infections include use of chlorhexidine for skin preparation, as a component of dressings, and for daily bathing of patients in intensive care units. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections are the most common device-related health care-associated infection. Maintaining a closed drainage system below the patient reduces the risk of infection. To prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia, which is associated with high mortality, mechanically ventilated patients should be placed in the semirecumbent position and receive antiseptic oral care. Prevention of surgical site infections includes hair removal using clippers, glucose control, and preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. Reducing transmission of Clostridium difficile and multidrug-resistant organisms in the hospital setting begins with hand hygiene and contact precautions. Institutional efforts to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing are also strongly recommended. Reducing rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection can be achieved through active surveillance cultures and decolonization therapy with mupirocin.
Roos, de A.L.; Walstra, P.; Geurts, T.J.
The association of hen eggs’ lysozyme with caseins was studied by using three casein substrates: (I) solutions of the various caseins, (II) artificially made casein micelles of various compositions and (III) caseins adsorbed onto soya-oil emulsion droplets. In solution, lysozyme associated most
Drought stress is a major abiotic stress that limits crop production. Molecular association mapping techniques through linkage disequilibrium (LD) can be effectively used to tag genomic regions involved in drought stress tolerance. With the association mapping approach, 90 genotypes of cotton Gossypium hirsutum, from ...
in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangipettai-608 502, Tamil Nadu, India. Keywords: Neopetrosia exigua, sponge, associated-fauna, species richness,. Mauritius, Indian Ocean. Abstract — The macrofaunal community associated with the sponge Neopetrosia exigua (Kirkpatrick, 1900) was studied across a ...
Levitan, C.A.; Ren, J.; Boesveldt, S.; Chan, J.; McKenzie, K.J.; Levin, J.A.; Leong, C.X.; Bosch, van den J.F.
Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons
Olsen, Tine Gadegaard; Frederiksen, Jette
The association between multiple sclerosis (MS) and uveitis has been questioned. Nerve tissue and eye tissue develop from the same embryonic cells; thus, MS and uveitis could be etiologically associated. In published studies, the prevalence of MS in patients with uveitis differe from 0.7% to 30...
Scholl, Joep; Van Grootheest, Kees; Van Puijenbroek, Eugene
Background: The Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb received six reports of hearing impairment in association with oral terbinafine use. This study describes these cases and provides support for this association from the Lareb database of spontaneous ADR reporting and from Vigibase, the
The journal was established in 2012 at the congress of African Association of Physiological Sciences held in Egypt. The journal will consider for publication, Full-length original research articles, short communications as well as review articles. Other websites associated with this journal: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The Association of African Universities (AAU), headquartered in Accra, Ghana, is an ... The Association operates a number of programs and services for its members. ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management ... Eleven world-class research teams set to improve livestock vaccine ...
Blackstone, Elaine Grant
This study was designed to ascertain current trends in associate degree nursing programs and to discover innovative ideas and techniques which could be applied to the existing program at Miami-Dade Community College (Florida). Data was compiled from interviews with representatives of ten associate degree nursing programs in six states. Information…
Bloom, Niels; Theune, Mariet; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Klement, E.P.; Borutzky, W.; Fahringer, T.; Hamza, M.H.; Uskov, V.
Associative networks are a connectionist language model with the ability to handle dynamic data. We used two associative networks to categorize random sets of related Wikipedia articles with only their raw text as input. We then compared the resulting categorization to a gold standard: the manual
Peguero, Anthony A.
The following reflection essay is about my experiences as a Latino Associate Professor who focuses on criminology, youth violence, juvenile justice, and the associated disparities with race, ethnicity, and immigration. I reflect about the "race and justice" job market, pursuing and establishing a Latina/o Criminology working group, often…
Friedgut, Orly; Alpert, Nir; Stram, Yehuda; Lahav, Dan; Tiomkin, Doron; Avramson, Miriam; Grinberg, Kalia; Bernstein, Michael
An outbreak of bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis associated with Porphyromonas levii, an emerging animal and human pathogen, affected 32 cows on a dairy farm in the northeast of Israel. Five animals had to be culled. This report appears to be the first that associates P. levii with bovine necrotic vulvovagnitis. PMID:15109423
Berks, Durk; Duvekot, Johannes J; Basalan, Hillal; De Maat, Moniek P M; Steegers, Eric A P; Visser, Willy
Preeclampsia complicates 2-8% of all pregnancies. Studies on the association of preeclampsia with thrombophilia are conflicting. Clinical heterogeneity of the disease may be one of the explanations. The present study addresses the question whether different phenotypes of preeclampsia are associated with thrombophilia factors. Study design We planned a retrospective cohort study. From 1985 until 2010 women with preeclampsia were offered postpartum screening for the following thrombophilia factors: anti-phospholipid antibodies, APC-resistance, protein C deficiency and protein S deficiency, hyperhomocysteineamia, factor V Leiden and Prothrombin gene mutation. Hospital records were used to obtain information on phenotypes of the preeclampsia and placental histology. We identified 844 women with singleton pregnancies who were screened for thrombophilia factors. HELLP complicated 49% of pregnancies; Fetal growth restriction complicated 61% of pregnancies. Early delivery (preeclampsia was associated with protein S deficiency (p=0.01). Fetal growth restriction was associated with anti-phospholipid antibodies (ppreeclampsia was associated with anti-phospholipid antibodies (p=0.01). Extensive placental infarction (>10%) was associated with anti-phospholipid antibodies (ppreeclampsia, especially if complicated by fetal growth restriction, are associated with anti-phospholipid antibodies. Other phenotypes of preeclampsia, especially HELLP syndrome, were not associated with thrombophilia. We advise only to test for anti-phospholipid antibodies after early onset preeclampsia, especially if complicated by fetal growth restriction. We suggest enough evidence is presented to justify no further studies are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vidal, N.; Valdivia, S.; Santos, C.; Morales, R.; Cano, R.; Salomon, M.; Cabrera, N.
Algodistrophy is a well defined clinical entity in which usually it is possible to identify an association with trauma or other diseases. In the present article we describe three patients with breast carcinoma who developed algodistrophy an association no previously reported in literature, and analyzed the possible interrelation between both diseases. (Author). 46 refs., 2 tab., 5 fig
Thyagarajan, Bharat; Wojczynski, Mary; Minster, Ryan L
with exceptional longevity have not been identified. METHOD: We conducted a genome wide association study (GWAS) to identify novel genetic variants associated with lung function in the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) (n = 3,899). Replication was performed using data from the CHARGE/SpiroMeta consortia...
The researcher sought to examine gender associations across three decades to determine if changes in the sex stereotyping of musical instruments has occurred. First, the study examined the paired comparison gender-instrument rankings of 180 college students. The results confirmed a reduction of instrument gender associations reported in the 1990s.…
Jan 1, 2018 ... Incidentally Diagnosed Prostatic Carcinoma… Daniel G.. et al. .... bladder cancer, 25-40% of them were found to have associated prostatic carcinoma (8,9). .... Table 2: Factors associated with incidentally diagnosed prostatic carcinoma among 152 participants who underwent TURP for presumed BPH.
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee associations. 10.22 Section 10.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Commercial Bribery § 10.22 Employee associations. Gifts...
Conclusion: Current study confirmed the sensitivity of local dynamic stability measure in load carrying situation. It was concluded that load carrying tasks were associated with declined local dynamic stability, which may result in increased risk of fall accident. This finding has implications in preventing fall accidents associated with occupational load carrying.
van de Ven, Vincent; Kochs, Sarah; Smulders, Fren; De Weerd, Peter
The extent to which time is represented in memory remains underinvestigated. We designed a time paired associate task (TPAT) in which participants implicitly learned cue-time-target associations between cue-target pairs and specific cue-target intervals. During subsequent memory testing, participants showed increased accuracy of identifying…
Chen, Yincong; Xie, Haibiao; Gao, Qunjun; Zhan, Hengji; Xiao, Huizhong; Zou, Yifan; Zhang, Fuyou; Liu, Yuchen; Li, Jianfa
Long non-coding RNAs serve as important regulators in complicated cellular activities, including cell differentiation, proliferation and death. Dysregulation of long non-coding RNAs occurs in the formation and progression of cancers. The family of colon cancer associated transcripts, long non-coding RNAs colon cancer associated transcript-1 and colon cancer associated transcript-2 are known as oncogenes involved in various cancers. Colon cancer associated transcript-1 is a novel lncRNA located in 8q24.2, and colon cancer associated transcript-2 maps to the 8q24.21 region encompassing rs6983267. Colon cancer associated transcripts have close associations with clinical characteristics, such as lymph node metastasis, high TNM stage and short overall survival. Knockdown of them can reverse the malignant phenotypes of cancer cells, including proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis. Moreover, they can increase the expression level of c-MYC and oncogenic microRNAs via activating a series of complex mechanisms. In brief, the family of colon cancer associated transcripts may serve as potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets for human cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Leeuwenburgh, Marjolein M. N.; Jensch, Sebastiaan; Gratama, Jan W. C.; Spilt, Aart; Wiarda, Bart M.; van Es, H. Wouter; Cobben, Lodewijk P. J.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Boermeester, Marja A.; Stoker, Jaap; Bouma, Wim H.; Houdijk, Alexander P. J.; Richir, Milan C.; Stockmann, Hein B. A. C.; Wiezer, Marinus J.; Verhagen, Thijs
To identify MRI features associated with appendicitis. Features expected to be associated with appendicitis were recorded in consensus by two expert radiologists on 223 abdominal MRIs in patients with suspected appendicitis. Nine MRI features were studied: appendix diameter >7 mm, appendicolith,
Kwak, Ji Eun; Chang, Sun Hee; Kim, Hanseong; Chi, Je G.; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Yang, Jeon Ho; Lee, June Sung; Moon, Young-Soo; Kim, Kyoung-Mee
The aims of this study were to evaluate the clinicopathologic features of Helicobacter heilmannii-associated gastritis and to compare H. heilmannii-associated gastritis with H. pylori-associated gastritis. We reviewed 5,985 consecutive gastric biopsy specimens. All cases of chronic gastritis with Helicobacter infection were evaluated with the Updated Sydney System, and the grades of all gastritis variables were compared between H. heilmannii-associated gastritis and H. pylori-associated gastritis groups. There were 10 cases of H. heilmannii-associated gastritis (0.17%) and 3,285 cases of H. pylori-associated gastritis (54.9%). The organisms were superficially located within the mucous layer without adhesion to epithelial cells. Interestingly, in one case many intracytoplasmic H. heilmannii organisms were observed in parietal cells with cell damage. A case of low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma concomitant with H. heilmannii infection was detected. Compared to H. pylori-associated gastritis, H. heilmannii-associated gastritis showed less severe neutrophilic activity (pgastritis devoid of erosion or ulcer (p=0.0309). In conclusion, we present the detailed clinicopathologic findings of H. heilmannii-associated gastritis compared to H. pylori-associated gastritis. H. heilmannii-associated gastritis is uncommon and milder than H. pylori-associated gastritis, however it may be noteworthy with respect to the development of MALT lymphoma. PMID:17297253
The statutory role of the CERN Staff Association is defined in Chapter VII of the Staff Rules and Regulations. The means of the Association to realize its aims are described in Article I.1.3 of the Statutes of the CERN Staff Association. Generally speaking, its aims are “To serve and defend the economic, social, professional and moral interests of its members and all CERN staff“. Usually we deal with professional and social issues (employment conditions, defence of collective or individual rights, promotion of basic research...). But the Association also plays a role of integration (clubs promoting cultural, humanitarian, and sport or offering entertainment, organizing exhibitions and conferences) and it can promote actions to provide its members with material or social advantages (Interfon, commercial offers). Advantageous commercial offers In recent years the Association was able to negotiate with business or cultural partners benefits for its members. A full list can be found on our...
Becker, P.J.; Bolle, H.; Keller, A.; Kistner, W.; Riecke, W.D.; Wagner, U.
The objective of this work was the implementation of a holographic memory with associative readout for a document retrieval system. Taking advantage of the favourable properties of holography - associative readout of the memory, parallel processing in the response store - may give shorter response times than sequentially organized data memories. Such a system may also operate in the interactive mode including chain associations. In order to avoid technological difficulties, the experimental setup made use of commercially available components only. As a result an improved holographic structure is proposed which uses volume holograms in photorefractive crystals as storage device. In two chapters of appendix we give a review of the state of the art of electrooptic devices for coherent optical data processing and of competing technologies (semiconductor associative memories and associative program systems). (orig.) [de
Asha, T.; Natarajan, S.; Murthy, K. N. B.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It usually spreads through the air and attacks low immune bodies such as patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). This work focuses on finding close association rules, a promising technique in Data Mining, within TB data. The proposed method first normalizes of raw data from medical records which includes categorical, nominal and continuous attributes and then determines Association Rules from the normalized data with different support and confidence. Association rules are applied on a real data set containing medical records of patients with TB obtained from a state hospital. The rules determined describes close association between one symptom to another; as an example, likelihood that an occurrence of sputum is closely associated with blood cough and HIV.
Stefansson, H.; Rujescu, D.; Cichon, S.
Reduced fecundity, associated with severe mental disorders, places negative selection pressure on risk alleles and may explain, in part, why common variants have not been found that confer risk of disorders such as autism, schizophrenia and mental retardation. Thus, rare variants may account...... and autism. In a genome-wide search for CNVs associating with schizophrenia, we used a population-based sample to identify de novo CNVs by analysing 9,878 transmissions from parents to offspring. The 66 de novo CNVs identified were tested for association in a sample of 1,433 schizophrenia cases and 33......,250 controls. Three deletions at 1q21.1, 15q11.2 and 15q13.3 showing nominal association with schizophrenia in the first sample (phase I) were followed up in a second sample of 3,285 cases and 7,951 controls (phase II). All three deletions significantly associate with schizophrenia and related psychoses...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxytocin is known to be related to social behaviors, including trust. However, few studies have investigated the association between oxytocin levels and social capital. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that endogenous oxytocin levels are positively associated with social capital. We also considered whether the association differed across gender because previous studies have shown differential effects of OT on social behaviors depending on gender. METHODS: We recruited a convenience sample of 50 women and 31 men in Japan via community sampling from whom we obtained urine sample with which to measure oxytocin levels. Individual-level cognitive social capital (social trust and mutual aid and structural social capital (community participation were assessed using a questionnaire. We used multivariate regression, adjusted for covariates (age, number of children, self-rated health, and education, and stratified by gender to consider associations between oxytocin and social capital. RESULTS: Among women, oxytocin was inversely associated with social trust and mutual aid (p<0.05. However, women participating in only 1 organization in the community showed higher oxytocin than women who participated in either no organizations (p<0.05 or 2 or more organization (i.e. inverse-U shape association. Among men, no association was observed between oxytocin and either form of cognitive and structural social capital. CONCLUSION: Women who perceived low cognitive social capital showed higher oxytocin levels, while structural social capital showed inverse-U shape association with oxytocin. No association between oxytocin and social capital was found among men. Further study is needed to elucidate why oxytocin was inversely associated with cognitive social capital only among women.
The Staff Association will celebrate its 60th birthday in the spring of 2015. We are collecting all information about the sixty years of the Staff Association. In particular, we are looking at publications of the Staff Association, which started with the “Staff Association Journal”, in 1955, which later became “Le Proton déchainé”, then, more simply, “Proton” in 1982 (the figure on the left shows the different mutations of our magazine). In our collection we are missing a few issues, in particular № 1 (dated mid-1955). Dear reader, if have any old issues of this magazine, or of Graviton (figure on the right), another magazine edited by the Staff Association, or any other material or information that might help us document the history of the Staff Association, we would very much like to have a copy of the material or your contribution (written or oral). Please contact the Staff Association Sec...
Mariusz K. Jaglarz
Full Text Available Translationally Controlled Tumour Protein (TCTP associates with microtubules (MT, however, the details of this association are unknown. Here we analyze the relationship of TCTP with MTs and centrosomes in Xenopus laevis and mammalian cells using immunofluorescence, tagged TCTP expression and immunoelectron microscopy. We show that TCTP associates both with MTs and centrosomes at spindle poles when detected by species-specific antibodies and by Myc-XlTCTP expression in Xenopus and mammalian cells. However, when the antibodies against XlTCTP were used in mammalian cells, TCTP was detected exclusively in the centrosomes. These results suggest that a distinct pool of TCTP may be specific for, and associate with, the centrosomes. Double labelling for TCTP and γ-tubulin with immuno-gold electron microscopy in Xenopus laevis oogonia shows localization of TCTP at the periphery of the γ-tubulin-containing pericentriolar material (PCM enveloping the centriole. TCTP localizes in the close vicinity of, but not directly on the MTs in Xenopus ovary suggesting that this association requires unidentified linker proteins. Thus, we show for the first time: (1 the association of TCTP with centrosomes, (2 peripheral localization of TCTP in relation to the centriole and the γ-tubulin-containing PCM within the centrosome, and (3 the indirect association of TCTP with MTs.
Schweitzer, Richard; Trapp, Sabrina; Bar, Moshe
Our sense of time is prone to various biases. For instance, one factor that can dilate an event's perceived duration is the violation of predictions; when a series of repeated stimuli is interrupted by an unpredictable oddball. On the other hand, when the probability of a repetition itself is manipulated, predictable conditions can also increase estimated duration. This suggests that manipulations of expectations have different or even opposing effects on time perception. In previous studies, expectations were generated because stimuli were repeated or because the likelihood of a sequence or a repetition was varied. In the natural environment, however, expectations are often built via associative processes, for example, the context of a kitchen promotes the expectation of plates, appliances, and other associated objects. Here, we manipulated such association-based expectations by using oddballs that were either contextually associated or nonassociated with the standard items. We find that duration was more strongly overestimated for contextually associated oddballs. We reason that top-down attention is biased toward associated information, and thereby dilates subjective duration for associated oddballs. Based on this finding, we propose an interplay between top-down attention and predictive processing in the perception of time.
Puig, M. Victoria; Antzoulatos, Evan G.; Miller, Earl K.
Learning to associate specific objects or actions with rewards and remembering the associations are everyday tasks crucial for our flexible adaptation to the environment. These higher-order cognitive processes depend on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and frontostriatal circuits that connect areas in the frontal lobe with the striatum in the basal ganglia. Both structures are densely innervated by dopamine (DA) afferents that originate in the midbrain. Although the activity of DA neurons is thought to be important for learning, the exact role of DA transmission in frontostriatal circuits during learning-related tasks is still unresolved. Moreover, the neural substrates of this modulation are poorly understood. Here, we review our recent work in monkeys utilizing local pharmacology of DA agents in the PFC to investigate the cellular mechanisms of DA modulation of associative learning and memory. We show that blocking both D1 and D2 receptors in the lateral PFC impairs learning of new stimulus-response associations and cognitive flexibility, but not the memory of highly familiar associations. In addition, D2 receptors may also contribute to motivation. The learning deficits correlated with reductions of neural information about the associations in PFC neurons, alterations in global excitability and spike synchronization, and exaggerated alpha and beta neural oscillations. Our findings provide new insights into how DA transmission modulate associative learning and memory processes in frontostriatal systems. PMID:25241063
Gozli, Davood G; Moskowitz, Joshua B; Pratt, Jay
Expecting a particular stimulus can facilitate processing of that stimulus over others, but what is the fate of other stimuli that are known to co-occur with the expected stimulus? This study examined the impact of learned association on feature-based attention. The findings show that the effectiveness of an uninformative color transient in orienting attention can change by learned associations between colors and the expected target shape. In an initial acquisition phase, participants learned two distinct sequences of stimulus-response-outcome, where stimuli were defined by shape ('S' vs. 'H'), responses were localized key-presses (left vs. right), and outcomes were colors (red vs. green). Next, in a test phase, while expecting a target shape (80% probable), participants showed reliable attentional orienting to the color transient associated with the target shape, and showed no attentional orienting with the color associated with the alternative target shape. This bias seemed to be driven by learned association between shapes and colors, and not modulated by the response. In addition, the bias seemed to depend on observing target-color conjunctions, since encountering the two features disjunctively (without spatiotemporal overlap) did not replicate the findings. We conclude that associative learning - likely mediated by mechanisms underlying visual object representation - can extend the impact of goal-driven attention to features associated with a target stimulus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Casasent, David; Telfer, Brian
We consider various associative processor modifications required to allow these systems to be used for visual perception, scene analysis, and object recognition. For these applications, decisions on the class of the objects present in the input image are required and thus heteroassociative memories are necessary (rather than the autoassociative memories that have been given most attention). We analyze the performance of both associative processors and note that there is considerable difference between heteroassociative and autoassociative memories. We describe associative processors suitable for realizing functions such as: distortion invariance (using linear discriminant function memory synthesis techniques), noise and image processing performance (using autoassociative memories in cascade with with a heteroassociative processor and with a finite number of autoassociative memory iterations employed), shift invariance (achieved through the use of associative processors operating on feature space data), and the analysis of multiple objects in high noise (which is achieved using associative processing of the output from symbolic correlators). We detail and provide initial demonstrations of the use of associative processors operating on iconic, feature space and symbolic data, as well as adaptive associative processors.
Leeuwenburgh, Marjolein M.N. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology (G1-223.1), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jensch, Sebastiaan [Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gratama, Jan W.C. [Gelre Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Spilt, Aart [Kennemer Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Haarlem (Netherlands); Wiarda, Bart M. [Alkmaar Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Alkmaar (Netherlands); Es, H.W. van [Sint Antonius Hospital, Department of Radiology, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Cobben, Lodewijk P.J. [Haaglanden Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leidschendam (Netherlands); Bossuyt, Patrick M.M. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boermeester, Marja A. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Stoker, Jaap [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Collaboration: on behalf of the OPTIMAP study group
To identify MRI features associated with appendicitis. Features expected to be associated with appendicitis were recorded in consensus by two expert radiologists on 223 abdominal MRIs in patients with suspected appendicitis. Nine MRI features were studied: appendix diameter >7 mm, appendicolith, peri-appendiceal fat infiltration, peri-appendiceal fluid, absence of gas in the appendix, appendiceal wall destruction, restricted diffusion of the appendiceal wall, lumen or focal fluid collections. Appendicitis was assigned as the final diagnosis in 117/223 patients. Associations between imaging features and appendicitis were evaluated with logistic regression analysis. All investigated features were significantly associated with appendicitis in univariate analysis. Combinations of two and three features were associated with a probability of appendicitis of 88 % and 92 %, respectively. In patients without any of the nine features, appendicitis was present in 2 % of cases. After multivariate analysis, only an appendix diameter >7 mm, peri-appendiceal fat infiltration and restricted diffusion of the appendiceal wall were significantly associated with appendicitis. The probability of appendicitis was 96 % in their presence and 2 % in their absence. An appendix diameter >7 mm, peri-appendiceal fat infiltration and restricted diffusion of the appendiceal wall have the strongest association with appendicitis on MRI. (orig.)
Leeuwenburgh, Marjolein M.N.; Jensch, Sebastiaan; Gratama, Jan W.C.; Spilt, Aart; Wiarda, Bart M.; Es, H.W. van; Cobben, Lodewijk P.J.; Bossuyt, Patrick M.M.; Boermeester, Marja A.; Stoker, Jaap
To identify MRI features associated with appendicitis. Features expected to be associated with appendicitis were recorded in consensus by two expert radiologists on 223 abdominal MRIs in patients with suspected appendicitis. Nine MRI features were studied: appendix diameter >7 mm, appendicolith, peri-appendiceal fat infiltration, peri-appendiceal fluid, absence of gas in the appendix, appendiceal wall destruction, restricted diffusion of the appendiceal wall, lumen or focal fluid collections. Appendicitis was assigned as the final diagnosis in 117/223 patients. Associations between imaging features and appendicitis were evaluated with logistic regression analysis. All investigated features were significantly associated with appendicitis in univariate analysis. Combinations of two and three features were associated with a probability of appendicitis of 88 % and 92 %, respectively. In patients without any of the nine features, appendicitis was present in 2 % of cases. After multivariate analysis, only an appendix diameter >7 mm, peri-appendiceal fat infiltration and restricted diffusion of the appendiceal wall were significantly associated with appendicitis. The probability of appendicitis was 96 % in their presence and 2 % in their absence. An appendix diameter >7 mm, peri-appendiceal fat infiltration and restricted diffusion of the appendiceal wall have the strongest association with appendicitis on MRI. (orig.)
Puig, M V; Antzoulatos, E G; Miller, E K
Learning to associate specific objects or actions with rewards and remembering the associations are everyday tasks crucial for our flexible adaptation to the environment. These higher-order cognitive processes depend on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and frontostriatal circuits that connect areas in the frontal lobe with the striatum in the basal ganglia. Both structures are densely innervated by dopamine (DA) afferents that originate in the midbrain. Although the activity of DA neurons is thought to be important for learning, the exact role of DA transmission in frontostriatal circuits during learning-related tasks is still unresolved. Moreover, the neural substrates of this modulation are poorly understood. Here, we review our recent work in monkeys utilizing local pharmacology of DA agents in the PFC to investigate the cellular mechanisms of DA modulation of associative learning and memory. We show that blocking both D1 and D2 receptors in the lateral PFC impairs learning of new stimulus-response associations and cognitive flexibility, but not the memory of highly familiar associations. In addition, D2 receptors may also contribute to motivation. The learning deficits correlated with reductions of neural information about the associations in PFC neurons, alterations in global excitability and spike synchronization, and exaggerated alpha and beta neural oscillations. Our findings provide new insights into how DA transmission modulates associative learning and memory processes in frontostriatal systems. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brummelen, van E.H.
The necessity to associate two geometrically distinct meshes arises in many engineering applications. Current mesh-association algorithms have generally been developed for piecewise-linear geometry approximations, and their extension to the high-order geometry representations corresponding to
Full Text Available The association of multisystem pathologic conditions and epidermal nevi, known as the epidermal nevus syndrome, includes disorders of bone, central nervous system, eye, kidney, vasculature and skin. Rarely, congenital nevomelanocytic nevus also known as hairy nevus has also been reported in association with hypophosphatemic rickets. Studies suggest that phosphaturia, caused by circulating factors, called "phosphatonins" may be secreted by an epidermal or hairy nevus. We report here, a rare case of hypophosphatemic rickets associated with a giant hairy nevus in a 10-year-old boy.
Horstman, A.J.; Nawrot, J.R.; Woolf, A.
Surveys for interior wetland birds at mine-associated emergent wetlands on coal surface mines in southern Illinois detected one state threatened and two state endangered species. Breeding by least bittern (Ixobrychus exilis) and common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) was confirmed. Regional assessment of potential wetland bird habitat south of Illinois Interstate 64 identified a total of 8,109 ha of emergent stable water wetlands; 10% were associated with mining. Mine-associated wetlands with persistent hydrology and large expanses of emergent vegetation provide habitat that could potentially compensate for loss of natural wetlands in Illinois
Mackay Ian J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping, initially developed in human disease genetics, is now being applied to plant species. The model species Arabidopsis provided some of the first examples of association mapping in plants, identifying previously cloned flowering time genes, despite high population sub-structure. More recently, association genetics has been applied to barley, where breeding activity has resulted in a high degree of population sub-structure. A major genotypic division within barley is that between winter- and spring-sown varieties, which differ in their requirement for vernalization to promote subsequent flowering. To date, all attempts to validate association genetics in barley by identifying major flowering time loci that control vernalization requirement (VRN-H1 and VRN-H2 have failed. Here, we validate the use of association genetics in barley by identifying VRN-H1 and VRN-H2, despite their prominent role in determining population sub-structure. Results By taking barley as a typical inbreeding crop, and seasonal growth habit as a major partitioning phenotype, we develop an association mapping approach which successfully identifies VRN-H1 and VRN-H2, the underlying loci largely responsible for this agronomic division. We find a combination of Structured Association followed by Genomic Control to correct for population structure and inflation of the test statistic, resolved significant associations only with VRN-H1 and the VRN-H2 candidate genes, as well as two genes closely linked to VRN-H1 (HvCSFs1 and HvPHYC. Conclusion We show that, after employing appropriate statistical methods to correct for population sub-structure, the genome-wide partitioning effect of allelic status at VRN-H1 and VRN-H2 does not result in the high levels of spurious association expected to occur in highly structured samples. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both VRN-H1 and the candidate VRN-H2 genes can be identified using association mapping
This contents has two parts. The first part describes the present and post of Korea radioisotope association which are about the foundation of the association, organization, main projects and vision of the association. The second part is about the use and the prospect of radiation and radioisotope in Korea, which shows the plan of expansion of use of radiation and radioisotope, the prospect and present condition in fields such as medical, industry and farming, product and distribution, research and development of human resources, system and management of safety of radiation.
Valladares, Macarena; Corsini, Gino; Romero, Carmen
Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. Epidemiological evidences associate ovarian cancer with obesity. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most common type of ovarian cancer and accounts for a high rate of mortality. The association between ovarian cancer and obesity could be explained by molecular factors secreted by adipose tissue such as leptin. In EOC, leptin increases cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis. Additionally, adipose tissue synthesizes endogenous estrogens, which increase cell proliferation of epithelial ovarian cells. Also, obesity associated hyperinsulinism could increase ovarian estrogen secretion.
Cronin, Edmond M
Autoimmune hepatitis is a rare, chronic inflammatory disorder which has been associated with a number of other auto-immune conditions. However, there are no reports in the medical literature of an association with microscopic (lymphocytic) colitis. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman with several autoimmune conditions, including lymphocytic colitis, who presented with an acute hepatitis. On the basis of the clinical features, serology, and histopathology, we diagnosed autoimmune hepatitis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of autoimmune hepatitis in association with lymphocytic colitis, and lends support to the theory of an autoimmune etiology for lymphocytic colitis.
Rchachi, Meryem; Larwanou, Maazou Mahamane; El Ouahabi, Hanan; Ajdi, Farida
Williams syndrome is a developmental disorder including dysmorphia, cardiovascular malformations and a specific neuropsychological profile together with other associated disorders. We report the case of a 17-year old girl, born of a non-inbred marriage, with Williams syndrome discovered during an assessment of degree of failure to thrive. Its association with primary adrenal insufficiency makes it unique. Diagnosis is confirmed by cytogenetic and molecular analysis. Its management consists of the implementation of treatment for adrenal insufficiency associated with a clinico-biological monitoring.
Bazerbachi, Fateh; Leise, Michael D.; Watt, Kymberly D.; Murad, M. Hassan; Prokop, Larry J.; Haffar, Samir
Abstract Background and aim: Mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) has been associated with several viral infections, and chronic hepatitis C is recognized as a major cause. MC associated with hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been described and little is known about this rare association. The aim of this study is to perform a systematic review of MC associated with HEV, and examine the presence of a causal relationship. Methods: An experienced librarian conducted a search of databases from each database?s i...
Van Brummelen, E.H.
The necessity to associate two geometrically distinct meshes arises in many engineering applications. Current mesh-association algorithms are generally unsuitable for the high-order geometry representations associated with high-order finite-element discretizations. In the present work we therefore
Ames, S.L.; Grenard, J.L.; Stacy, A.W.; Xiao, L.; He, Q.; Wong, S.W; Xue, G.; Wiers, R.W.; Bechara, A.
This research evaluated the neural correlates of implicit associative memory processes (habit-based processes) through the imaging (fMRI) of a marijuana Implicit Association Test. Drug-related associative memory effects have been shown to consistently predict level of drug use. To observe
This is the first integrated biannual report of the Swiss-Euratom Association, one of the twelve Associations of the European programme for controlled nuclear fusion research. Up until now, each Swiss group presented its activities within the framework of the institution to which it belonged. The report of the CRPP, whose research is almost entirely dedicated to fusion, gave a good picture of the Swiss programme in physics but the important technological activities of the PSI were described separately in the PSI report, out of its natural context and buried amongst a multitude of other projects. We hope that this report will contribute to a better knowledge of the Association and appreciation of its work. It is also the answer to an old Euratom desire to have each Association publish such an integrated report of its activities. (author) figs., tabs., refs
Chan Edmond CH
Full Text Available Abstract Background Kocuria, previously classified into the genus of Micrococcus, is commonly found on human skin. Two species, K. rosea and K. kristinae, are etiologically associated with catheter-related bacteremia. Case presentation We describe the first case of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis. The microorganism was isolated from the bile of a 56-year old Chinese man who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. He developed post-operative fever that resolved readily after levofloxacin treatment. Conclusion Our report of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis expands the clinical spectrum of infections caused by this group of bacteria. With increasing number of recent reports describing the association between Kocuria spp. and infectious diseases, the significance of their isolation from clinical specimens cannot be underestimated. A complete picture of infections related to Kocuria spp. will have to await the documentation of more clinical cases.
Lee, W. W.; Hudson, S. R.; Ma, C. H.
A proposed scheme for the calculations of gyrokinetic MHD and its associated equilibrium is discussed related a recent paper on the subject. The scheme is based on the time-dependent gyrokinetic vorticity equation and parallel Ohm's law, as well as the associated gyrokinetic Ampere's law. This set of equations, in terms of the electrostatic potential, ϕ, and the vector potential, ϕ , supports both spatially varying perpendicular and parallel pressure gradients and their associated currents. The MHD equilibrium can be reached when ϕ -> 0 and A becomes constant in time, which, in turn, gives ∇ . (J|| +J⊥) = 0 and the associated magnetic islands. Examples in simple cylindrical geometry will be given. The present work is partially supported by US DoE Grant DE-AC02-09CH11466.
Storebø, Ole Jakob; Rasmussen, Pernille Darling; Simonsen, Erik
OBJECTIVE: Psychological theories have postulated an association between insecure attachment and ADHD. The objective of this study is to investigate possible association between insecure attachment and ADHD in children and adults. METHOD: Review of literature was performed using the Psyc......INFO, Medline, and EMBASE databases. RESULTS: Twenty-nine studies were included in the review. Overall, the studies showed that parental attachment problems and environmental mediating factors were significantly associated with childhood ADHD. Adults with ADHD had a much higher incidence of insecure attachment...... styles than reported in the general population. CONCLUSION: There seems to be a clear association between ADHD and insecure attachment. It is likely that early intervention in the form of parent training and pharmacological treatment may prevent development of attachment problems. But such studies have...
2323. ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic) ... Revised accepted: 5 November 2015. Abstract. Purpose: To determine the association of ..... Brenner D, Labreuche J, Touboul PJ, Schmidt-Petersen. K, Poirier O, Perret C, Schonfelder J, ...
in Africa: a systematic review of the evidenc~ Lancer 2002; 359: 1635-1643. 3. .... As the mortality rate associated with a lactate level ... The following three cases illustrate the spectrum of ... specificity, 100% negative predictive value and 50%.
Five principles developed by American Evaluation Associ intended to guide professional practice of evaluators & to inform evaluation clients and the general public about principles they can expect to be upheld by professional evaluators.
A concept was developed for an optical based associative memory system that accepts a query request from a user, searches the disk for the location of the information and ensures maximum efficiency in data recovery...
Farida El-Baz Mohamed
Mar 10, 2016 ... Blood Pressure Education Program . (2). Auxological ..... factorial management plans involving nutrition, environ- mental control .... Association of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels with · insulin resistance in obese ...
Children with Hb lower than 11.5 g/dL were considered anemic. Information ... Anemia is commonly associated with nutritional deficiencies, especially iron ... children aged five to six years, given that public access to preschool education is not.
... website of the Association of Regulatory Boards of Optometry (ARBO). ARBO's web site is designed to provide resources to regulatory boards of optometry throughout the world. State/Provincial/Territorial Boards of ...
Bursley, James K; Nestor, Adrian; Tarr, Michael J; Creswell, J David
Offline processing has been shown to strengthen memory traces and enhance learning in the absence of conscious rehearsal or awareness. Here we evaluate whether a brief, two-minute offline processing period can boost associative learning and test a memory reactivation account for these offline processing effects. After encoding paired associates, subjects either completed a distractor task for two minutes or were immediately tested for memory of the pairs in a counterbalanced, within-subjects functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Results showed that brief, awake, offline processing improves memory for associate pairs. Moreover, multi-voxel pattern analysis of the neuroimaging data suggested reactivation of encoded memory representations in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during offline processing. These results signify the first demonstration of awake, active, offline enhancement of associative memory and suggest that such enhancement is accompanied by the offline reactivation of encoded memory representations.
Padula, Rosimeire Simprini; Chiavegato, Luciana Dias; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes; Almeid, Talita; Ortiz, Thais; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz
The occupational stress is associated with dissatisfaction, excessive demand at work and personal factors. Those factors can reduce work performance and can predispose workers to various diseases. Workers' health may be protected if there is encouragement to face challenges, which may lessen the impact on psychological and somatic stress and thus have greater personal and professional satisfaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between occupational stress and work engagement. Participated in this study 457 male and female workers of a metallurgical industry. Subjects answered personal data, and the Job Stress Scale and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale were applied. Results showed an association between occupational stress and work engagement (P=0,001). The way the individual deals with his frustrations, or rather the work engagement, is associated with the occupational stress.
Moshkov, Mikhail; Piliszczuk, Marcin; Zielosko, Beata Marta
This paper is devoted to the study of approximate algorithms for minimization of partial association rule length. It is shown that under some natural assumptions on the class NP, a greedy algorithm is close to the best polynomial approximate
cedures, and poor management of AI bulls associated with poor motivations and skills of ..... edition. Mississippi State University. Pearson, Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River, ... In: proceedings of the 13th annual conference of the Ethio-.
Aljenedil, Sumayah; Hegele, Robert A; Genest, Jacques; Awan, Zuhier
Estrogen, whether therapeutic or physiologic, can cause hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia-induced pancreatitis is a rare complication. We report 2 women who developed estrogen-associated severe hypertriglyceridemia with pancreatitis. The first patient developed pancreatitis secondary to hypertriglyceridemia associated with in vitro fertilization cycles. Marked reduction in her triglyceride was achieved with dietary restrictions and fibrate. The second patient developed pancreatitis secondary to hypertriglyceridemia during her pregnancies. She was noncompliant with the treatment; therefore, her triglyceride remained high after delivery. In both patients, no hypertriglyceridemia-associated genes mutations were identified, although the second patient had strong polygenic susceptibility to hypertriglyceridemia. Estrogen-induced severe hypertriglyceridemia with pancreatitis can be a life-threatening condition. Screening in high-risk patients is crucial to prevent subsequent complications. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ma, Edmond S K; Wong, Chris L P; Lai, Kristi T W; Chan, Edmond C H; Yam, W C; Chan, Angus C W
Kocuria, previously classified into the genus of Micrococcus, is commonly found on human skin. Two species, K. rosea and K. kristinae, are etiologically associated with catheter-related bacteremia. We describe the first case of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis. The microorganism was isolated from the bile of a 56-year old Chinese man who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. He developed post-operative fever that resolved readily after levofloxacin treatment. Our report of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis expands the clinical spectrum of infections caused by this group of bacteria. With increasing number of recent reports describing the association between Kocuria spp. and infectious diseases, the significance of their isolation from clinical specimens cannot be underestimated. A complete picture of infections related to Kocuria spp. will have to await the documentation of more clinical cases.
following radiotherapy in individuals with cancers at the Ocean Road Cancer ..... Glaspy, J. & Cavill, I. (1999) Role of iron in optimizing responses of anemic ... hemoglobin change associates with overall survival of multiple malignancies -.
... all ethnic groups can be affected. What are CAPS? Cryopyrin-associated autoinflammatory syndromes (CAPS) consist of three ... ears by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). How is CAPS treated? Medications that target interleukin-1 are very ...
James K Bursley
Full Text Available Offline processing has been shown to strengthen memory traces and enhance learning in the absence of conscious rehearsal or awareness. Here we evaluate whether a brief, two-minute offline processing period can boost associative learning and test a memory reactivation account for these offline processing effects. After encoding paired associates, subjects either completed a distractor task for two minutes or were immediately tested for memory of the pairs in a counterbalanced, within-subjects functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Results showed that brief, awake, offline processing improves memory for associate pairs. Moreover, multi-voxel pattern analysis of the neuroimaging data suggested reactivation of encoded memory representations in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during offline processing. These results signify the first demonstration of awake, active, offline enhancement of associative memory and suggest that such enhancement is accompanied by the offline reactivation of encoded memory representations.
Jamieson, Randall K; Crump, Matthew J C; Hannah, Samuel D
We present and test an instance model of associative learning. The model, Minerva-AL, treats associative learning as cued recall. Memory preserves the events of individual trials in separate traces. A probe presented to memory contacts all traces in parallel and retrieves a weighted sum of the traces, a structure called the echo. Learning of a cue-outcome relationship is measured by the cue's ability to retrieve a target outcome. The theory predicts a number of associative learning phenomena, including acquisition, extinction, reacquisition, conditioned inhibition, external inhibition, latent inhibition, discrimination, generalization, blocking, overshadowing, overexpectation, superconditioning, recovery from blocking, recovery from overshadowing, recovery from overexpectation, backward blocking, backward conditioned inhibition, and second-order retrospective revaluation. We argue that associative learning is consistent with an instance-based approach to learning and memory.
Wu, Xuefang; Yeoh, Han T
Approximately 25% to 27% of women sustain a fall during pregnancy, and falls are associated with serious injuries and can affect pregnancy outcomes. The objective of the current study was to identify intrinsic factors associated with pregnancy that may contribute to women's increased risk of falls. A literature search (Medline and Pubmed) identified articles published between January 1980 and June 2013 that measured associations between pregnancy and fall risks, using an existing fall accident investigation framework. The results indicated that physiological, biomechanical, and psychological changes associated with pregnancy may influence the initiation, detection, and recovery phases of falls and increase the risk of falls in this population. Considering the logistic difficulties and ethnic concerns in recruiting pregnant women to participate in this investigation of fall risk factors, identification of these factors could establish effective fall prevention and intervention programs for pregnant women and improve birth outcomes. [Workplace Health Saf 2014;62(10):403-408.]. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Kamble Jayaprakash Harsha
Full Text Available Turner syndrome (TS is a rare genetic disease due to the absence of one X chromosome. Patients with TS have more subtle neurological/neuropsychiatric problems, while headache is an uncommon clinical presentation which needs attention. We report a 12-year-old child presenting with typical cough headache. Her magnetic resonance imaging revealed Chiari I malformation associated with TS. To the best of our knowledge, Chiari I malformation associated with TS is not described in literature. We report the first case of TS associated with Chiari I malformation. Interestingly, Chiari I malformation is also associated with Noonan's syndrome, which is a close morphological mimicker of TS, raising the possibility of sharing similar pathogenesis in both conditions.
Investigation of urinary neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) for early diagnosis of acute kidney ... African Journal of Urology ... Demographic and clinical data including surgical procedure were recorded in Excel and analyzed by ...
Hussein Al-Moghazy Sultan
Dec 28, 2012 ... pelvic floor electrophysiological abnormalities associated with. FI were illustrated in ... detection of a localized anal sphincter defect clinically and ..... Woods R, Voyvodic F, Schloithe A, Sage M, Wattchow D. Anal sphincter ...
Carlsen, B.C.; Menne, T.; Johansen, J.D.
Background: Identification of patients at risk of developing polysensitization is not possible at present. An association between weak sensitizers and polysensitization has been hypothesized. Objectives: To examine associations of 21 allergens in the European baseline series to polysensitization....... Patients/Methods: From a database-based study with 14 998 patients patch tested with the European baseline series between 1985 and 2005, a group of 759 (5.1%) patients were polysensitized. Odds ratios were calculated to determine the relative contribution of each allergen to polysensitization. Results...... denominator for the association between the allergens and the polysensitization was apparent, and any association, whether positive or negative, was relatively low. Based on these results, sensitization to specific baseline allergens cannot be used as risk indicators for polysensitization Udgivelsesdato: 2008...
Carlsen, Berit Christina; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus
BACKGROUND: Identification of patients at risk of developing polysensitization is not possible at present. An association between weak sensitizers and polysensitization has been hypothesized. OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of 21 allergens in the European baseline series to polysensitization....... PATIENTS/METHODS: From a database-based study with 14 998 patients patch tested with the European baseline series between 1985 and 2005, a group of 759 (5.1%) patients were polysensitized. Odds ratios were calculated to determine the relative contribution of each allergen to polysensitization. RESULTS...... denominator for the association between the allergens and the polysensitization was apparent, and any association, whether positive or negative, was relatively low. Based on these results, sensitization to specific baseline allergens cannot be used as risk indicators for polysensitization....
National Association of Area Agencies on Aging Search Member Login Forgot Password? Menu ABOUT n4a Mission, Vision & Work AAAs & Title VI Aging Programs Membership Board of Directors Staff Contact ...
Objective: From the management perspective, productivity is defined as the successful ... are one of the several ways for increasing the productivity of human resources. ... The study also showed a positive and significant association between ...
Dzhaparidze, G.Sh.; Kiselev, A.V.; Petrov, V.A.
The associative hadron multiplicities in deep inelastic and Drell--Yan processes are studied. In particular the mean multiplicities in different hard processes in QCD are found to be determined by the mean multiplicity in parton jet [ru
African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies ... factors associated with substance use and psychiatric morbidity among patients with HIV infection at ... This cross sectional study was conducted among patients who had been diagnosed with HIV ...
Avlund, Ane Søgaard
Summary of “Extension of association models to complex chemicals”. Ph.D. thesis by Ane Søgaard Avlund The subject of this thesis is application of SAFT type equations of state (EoS). Accurate and predictive thermodynamic models are important in many industries including the petroleum industry......; CPA and sPC-SAFT. Phase equilibrium and monomer fraction calculations with sPC-SAFT for methanol are used in the thesis to illustrate the importance of parameter estimation when using SAFT. Different parameter sets give similar pure component vapor pressure and liquid density results, whereas very...... association is presented in the thesis, and compared to the corresponding lattice theory. The theory for intramolecular association is then applied in connection with sPC-SAFT for mixtures containing glycol ethers. Calculations with sPC-SAFT (without intramolecular association) are presented for comparison...
Glick, S.N.; Teplick, S.K.; Ross, W.M.
The authors prospectively evaluated 62 patients over 40 years old in whom lymphoid follicles were demonstrated on double-contrast enema examinations. Eighteen patients (29%) had no current radiographic evidence of, or history of, colonic neoplasms. Forty-four patients (71%) had an associated neoplasm. Fourteen patients had associated colonic carcinoma, and ten patients had a history of a previously resected colon cancer. One patient had previously undergone resection for ''polyps.'' Twenty-two patients had an associated ''polyp.'' There were no clinical or radiographic features that could reliably distinguish the neoplastic from the nonneoplastic groups. However, lymphoid follicles in the left colon or diffusely involving the colon were more likely to be associated with a colonic neoplasm. Lymphoid follicles were almost always identified near a malignant lesion
Sep 28, 2011 ... factors which include alcohol metabolizing genes and ... Association research proves that c2 allele is a risk factor for ..... polymorphism in alcohol liver cirrhosis and alcohol chronic pancreatitis among Polish individuals.S cand ...
Raja, Raheel Altaf; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Frandsen, Thomas Leth
l-asparaginase has been an element in the treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma since the late 1960s and remains an essential component of their combination chemotherapy. Among the major toxicities associated with l-asparaginase therapy are pancreatitis, allergic reactions, thrombotic events, hepatotoxicity and hyperlipidaemia. Acute pancreatitis is one of the most common reasons for stopping treatment with l-asparaginase. Short-term complications of asparaginase-associated pancreatitis include development of pseudocysts and pancreatic necrosis. Long-term complications include chronic pancreatitis and diabetes. The pathophysiology of asparaginase-associated pancreatitis remains to be uncovered. Individual clinical and genetic risk factors have been identified, but they are only weak predictors of pancreatitis. This review explores the definition, possible risk factors, treatment and complications of asparaginase-associated pancreatitis. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Oct 12, 2010 ... Weavers' Association easing poverty in Ecuador ... frenzy among the 54 members of Ecuador's Chordeleg Agricultural Craft Centre (CACH). ... Investing in Internet access boosts incomes, concludes Latin American study.
Adriaanse, M C; Dekker, J M; Nijpels, G
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The association between depression and insulin resistance has been investigated in only a few studies, with contradictory results reported. The aim of this study was to determine whether the association between symptoms of depression and insulin resistance varies across glucose...... established type 2 diabetes mellitus. Main outcome measures were insulin resistance defined by the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and symptoms of depression using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). RESULTS: In the total sample, we found a weak.......942). The association between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance was similar for men and women. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We found only weak associations between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance, which did not differ among different glucose metabolism subgroups or between men and women....
... Chapter 2 - Safety & Security Chapter 2 - Environmental Hazards Animal-Associated Hazards Heather Bair-Brake, Ryan M. Wallace, G. Gale Galland, Nina Marano HUMAN INTERACTION WITH ANIMALS: A RISK FACTOR FOR INJURY AND ILLNESS Animals, ...
Sood, N K; Mekkib, Berhanu; Singla, L D; Gupta, K
Out of 44 cases of dermatitis in dogs, 11 cases of parasitic origin were analyzed by cytopathology. Histopathologic examination of punch biopsies was also done for correlation with cytologic findings. Sarcoptic dermatitis was recorded in six cases, wherein, besides sarcoptic mites, neutrophils, macrophages, and plasma cells and keratinizing epithelial cells were also seen. Hematology revealed a relative neutrophilia and mild eosinophilia. Four cases of severe and generalized demodicosis complicated with bacteria and/or Malassezia sp. infection were also recorded. Histopathologically numerous Demodex sp. mites in varying stage of maturation were found damaging the hair follicles along with associated pathological changes and foreign body granulomas in one case. In addition, flea allergy dermatitis was also observed in one dog. In nutshell, cytology was found to be unequivocally effective in diagnosing parasitic dermatitis.
Haugaard, Steen B
(HAART) may encounter the HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS), which attenuates patient compliance to this treatment. HALS is characterised by impaired glucose and lipid metabolism and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This review depicts the metabolic abnormalities associated...... with HAART by describing the key cell and organ systems that are involved, emphasising the role of insulin resistance. An opinion on the remedies available to treat the metabolic abnormalities and phenotype of HALS is provided....
Verzilli, Claudio J.; Stallard, Nigel; Whittaker, John C.
As the extent of human genetic variation becomes more fully characterized, the research community is faced with the challenging task of using this information to dissect the heritable components of complex traits. Genomewide association studies offer great promise in this respect, but their analysis poses formidable difficulties. In this article, we describe a computationally efficient approach to mining genotype-phenotype associations that scales to the size of the data sets currently being ...
Hibar, Derrek P.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Jahanshad, Neda; Chauhan, Ganesh; Stein, Jason L.; Hofer, Edith; Renteria, Miguel E.; Bis, Joshua C.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Ikram, M. Kamran; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Vernooij, Meike W.; Abramovic, Lucija; Alhusaini, Saud; Amin, Najaf
International audience; The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal ...
Cunningham, Bridget K.; Khromykh, Alina; Martinez, Ariel F.; Carney, Tyler; Hadley, Donald W.; Solomon, Benjamin D.
VACTERL association refers to a combination of congenital anomalies that can include: Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Cardiac malformations, Tracheo-Esophageal fistula with esophageal atresia, Renal anomalies (typically structural renal anomalies), and Limb anomalies. We conducted a description of a case series to characterize renal findings in a cohort of patients with VACTERL association. Out of the overall cohort, 48 patients (with at least 3 component features of VACTERL and who had ab...
Clarke, Sarah; Sen, Ethan; Ramanan, Athimalaipet
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease of childhood, with JIA-associated uveitis its most common extra-articular manifestation. JIA-associated uveitis is a potentially sight-threatening condition and thus carries a considerable risk of morbidity. The aetiology of the condition is autoimmune in nature with the predominant involvement of CD4(+) T cells. However, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms remain unclear, particularly regarding interplay between geneti...
Radiation hazards in uranium mining arise from the presence of radon-222, a gas which can escape from exposed rock surfaces into the air. Radon daughter products have been associated with an increased incidence of respiratory lung cancer. Other hazards include the tailings which arise from the extraction of uranium ores. The tailings still contain most of the original radium and emit gamma rays and radon gas. The hazards associated with uranium enrichment and fuel manufacture are also discussed. (R.L.)
McCutcheon, Jessica L.; McClain, Colt M.; Puzanov, Igor; Smith, Terrence A.
Ipilimumab is a monoclonal antibody against cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated molecule-4 and is thought to promote anti-tumor activity by enhancing cell mediated immunity. It is one of the few therapies shown to improve overall survival in metastatic melanoma. Given its mechanism of action, the drug is associated with significant immune-related adverse events with the gastrointestinal system being commonly involved. Our patient is a 22-year-old female with stage IVA melanoma on ipilimumab the...
Wong, CLP; Yam, WC; Ma, ESK; Chan, ACW; Chan, ECH; Lai, KTW
Abstract Background Kocuria, previously classified into the genus of Micrococcus, is commonly found on human skin. Two species, K. rosea and K. kristinae, are etiologically associated with catheter-related bacteremia. Case presentation We describe the first case of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis. The microorganism was isolated from the bile of a 56-year old Chinese man who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. He developed post-operative fever that resolved readi...
Gazarian, M; Laxer, R M; Kooh, S W; Silverman, E D
We describe a 15-year-old girl with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who presented with hypocalcemia and a generalized seizure in the setting of an intercurrent illness and active central nervous system lupus. She was subsequently found to have idiopathic hypoparathyroidism. The association of SLE with hypoparathyroidism is extremely rare and this case represents the first pediatric report of this rare association. We suggest there may be a common underlying pathophysiological process linking these diseases.
Kripke, Daniel F; Kline, Lawrence E; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Murray, Sarah S; Shadan, Farhad F; Dawson, Arthur; Poceta, J Steven; Cronin, John; Jamil, Shazia M; Tranah, Gregory J; Loving, Richard T; Grizas, Alexandra P; Hahn, Elizabeth K
The diagnostic boundaries of sleep disorders are under considerable debate. The main sleep disorders are partly heritable; therefore, defining heritable pathophysiologic mechanisms could delineate diagnoses and suggest treatment. We collected clinical data and DNA from consenting patients scheduled to undergo clinical polysomnograms, to expand our understanding of the polymorphisms associated with the phenotypes of particular sleep disorders. Patients at least 21 years of age were recruited to contribute research questionnaires, and to provide access to their medical records, saliva for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and polysomnographic data. From these complex data, 38 partly overlapping phenotypes were derived indicating complaints, subjective and objective sleep timing, and polysomnographic disturbances. A custom chip was used to genotype 768 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Additional assays derived ancestry-informative markers (eg, 751 participants of European ancestry). Linear regressions controlling for age, gender, and ancestry were used to assess the associations of each phenotype with each of the SNPs, highlighting those with Bonferroni-corrected significance. In peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 beta (PPARGC1B), rs6888451 was associated with several markers of obstructive sleep apnea. In aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like (ARNTL), rs10766071 was associated with decreased polysomnographic sleep duration. The association of rs3923809 in BTBD9 with periodic limb movements in sleep was confirmed. SNPs in casein kinase 1 delta (CSNK1D rs11552085), cryptochrome 1 (CRY1 rs4964515), and retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor A (RORA rs11071547) were less persuasively associated with sleep latency and time of falling asleep. SNPs associated with several sleep phenotypes were suggested, but due to risks of false discovery, independent replications are needed before the importance of these associations
Nair, Niketh S [ORNL; Bochove, Erik J. [United States Air Force Research Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base; Braiman, Yehuda [ORNL
We studied pattern formation in a network of coupled Hindmarsh-Rose model neurons and introduced a new model for associative memory retrieval using networks of Kuramoto oscillators. Hindmarsh-Rose Neural Networks can exhibit a rich set of collective dynamics that can be controlled by their connectivity. Specifically, we showed an instance of Hebb's rule where spiking was correlated with network topology. Based on this, we presented a simple model of associative memory in coupled phase oscillators.
Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; Lutsey, Pamela L; Kleber, Marcus E; Nielson, Carrie M; Mitchell, Braxton D; Bis, Joshua C; Eny, Karen M; Portas, Laura; Eriksson, Joel; Lorentzon, Mattias; Koller, Daniel L; Milaneschi, Yuri; Teumer, Alexander; Pilz, Stefan; Nethander, Maria; Selvin, Elizabeth; Tang, Weihong; Weng, Lu-Chen; Wong, Hoi Suen; Lai, Dongbing; Peacock, Munro; Hannemann, Anke; Völker, Uwe; Homuth, Georg; Nauk, Matthias; Murgia, Federico; Pattee, Jack W; Orwoll, Eric; Zmuda, Joseph M; Riancho, Jose Antonio; Wolf, Myles; Williams, Frances; Penninx, Brenda; Econs, Michael J; Ryan, Kathleen A; Ohlsson, Claes; Paterson, Andrew D; Psaty, Bruce M; Siscovick, David S; Rotter, Jerome I; Pirastu, Mario; Streeten, Elizabeth; März, Winfried; Fox, Caroline; Coresh, Josef; Wallaschofski, Henri; Pankow, James S; de Boer, Ian H; Kestenbaum, Bryan
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a primary calcium regulatory hormone. Elevated serum PTH concentrations in primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism have been associated with bone disease, hypertension, and in some studies, cardiovascular mortality. Genetic causes of variation in circulating PTH concentrations are incompletely understood. We performed a genome-wide association study of serum PTH concentrations among 29,155 participants of European ancestry from 13 cohort studies ( n =22,653 and n =6502 in discovery and replication analyses, respectively). We evaluated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with natural log-transformed PTH concentration adjusted for age, sex, season, study site, and principal components of ancestry. We discovered associations of SNPs from five independent regions with serum PTH concentration, including the strongest association with rs6127099 upstream of CYP24A1 ( P =4.2 × 10 -53 ), a gene that encodes the primary catabolic enzyme for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and 25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Each additional copy of the minor allele at this SNP associated with 7% higher serum PTH concentration. The other SNPs associated with serum PTH concentration included rs4074995 within RGS14 ( P =6.6 × 10 -17 ), rs219779 adjacent to CLDN14 ( P =3.5 × 10 -16 ), rs4443100 near RTDR1 ( P =8.7 × 10 -9 ), and rs73186030 near CASR ( P =4.8 × 10 -8 ). Of these five SNPs, rs6127099, rs4074995, and rs219779 replicated. Thus, common genetic variants located near genes involved in vitamin D metabolism and calcium and renal phosphate transport associated with differences in circulating PTH concentrations. Future studies could identify the causal variants at these loci, and the clinical and functional relevance of these variants should be pursued. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Jeffrey R Schriber
Full Text Available The first documented case of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP associated with pneumococcal septicemia is reported. This association has been previously demonstrated with hemolytic uremic syndrome. The patient presented with recurrent seizures, oliguric renal failure, fever, thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia; coagulation studies were normal. Blood and sputum cultures were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae. The patient responded to therapy with plasmapheresis and antiplatelet agents as well as antibiotics. Coincident infection should be searched for in all cases of TTP.
Parthasarathy, Sairam; Vasquez, Monica M; Halonen, Marilyn; Bootzin, Richard; Quan, Stuart F; Martinez, Fernando D; Guerra, Stefano
Insomnia has been associated with mortality risk, but whether this association is different in subjects with persistent vs intermittent insomnia is unclear. Additionally, the role of systemic inflammation in such an association is unknown. We used data from a community-based cohort to determine whether persistent or intermittent insomnia, defined based on persistence of symptoms over a 6-year period, was associated with death during the following 20 years of follow-up. We also determined whether changes in serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels measured over 2 decades between study initiation and insomnia determination were different for the persistent, intermittent, and never insomnia groups. The results were adjusted for confounders such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, alcohol, and sedatives. Of the 1409 adult participants, 249 (18%) had intermittent and 128 (9%) had persistent insomnia. During a 20-year follow-up period, 318 participants died (118 due to cardiopulmonary disease). In adjusted Cox proportional-hazards models, participants with persistent insomnia (adjusted hazards ratio [HR] 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-2.45) but not intermittent insomnia (HR 1.22; 95% CI, 0.86-1.74) were more likely to die than participants without insomnia. Serum CRP levels were higher and increased at a steeper rate in subjects with persistent insomnia as compared with intermittent (P = .04) or never (P = .004) insomnia. Although CRP levels were themselves associated with increased mortality (adjusted HR 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.82; P = .04), adjustment for CRP levels did not notably change the association between persistent insomnia and mortality. In a population-based cohort, persistent, and not intermittent, insomnia was associated with increased risk for all-cause and cardiopulmonary mortality and was associated with a steeper increase in inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bransfield, Robert C
The aim of this paper is to investigate the association between suicide and Lyme and associated diseases (LAD). No journal article has previously performed a comprehensive assessment of this subject. Multiple case reports and other references demonstrate a causal association between suicidal risk and LAD. Suicide risk is greater in outdoor workers and veterans, both with greater LAD exposure. Multiple studies demonstrate many infections and the associated proinflammatory cytokines, inflammatory-mediated metabolic changes, and quinolinic acid and glutamate changes alter neural circuits which increase suicidality. A similar pathophysiology occurs in LAD. A retrospective chart review and epidemiological calculations were performed. LAD contributed to suicidality, and sometimes homicidality, in individuals who were not suicidal before infection. A higher level of risk to self and others is associated with multiple symptoms developing after acquiring LAD, in particular, explosive anger, intrusive images, sudden mood swings, paranoia, dissociative episodes, hallucinations, disinhibition, panic disorder, rapid cycling bipolar, depersonalization, social anxiety disorder, substance abuse, hypervigilance, generalized anxiety disorder, genital-urinary symptoms, chronic pain, anhedonia, depression, low frustration tolerance, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Negative attitudes about LAD from family, friends, doctors, and the health care system may also contribute to suicide risk. By indirect calculations, it is estimated there are possibly over 1,200 LAD suicides in the US per year. Suicidality seen in LAD contributes to causing a significant number of previously unexplained suicides and is associated with immune-mediated and metabolic changes resulting in psychiatric and other symptoms which are possibly intensified by negative attitudes about LAD from others. Some LAD suicides are associated with being overwhelmed by multiple debilitating symptoms, and others are impulsive
Gvaramadze, V. V.
We propose a new approach for studying the neutron star/supernova remnant associations, based on the idea that the (diffuse) supernova remnants (SNRs) can be products of an off-centred supernova (SN) explosion in a preexisting bubble created by the wind of a moving massive star. A cavity SN explosion of a moving star results in a considerable offset of the neutron star (NS) birth-place from the geometrical centre of the SNR. Therefore: a) the high transverse velocities inferred for a number of NSs (e.g. PSR B 1610-50, PSR B 1757-24, SGR 0525-66) through their association with SNRs can be reduced; b) the proper motion vector of a NS should not necessarily point away from the geometrical centre of the associated SNR. Taking into account of these two facts allow us to enlarge the circle of possible NS/SNR associations, and could significantly affect the results of previous studies of NS/SNR associations. The possibilities of our approach are illustrated with the example of the association between PSR B 1706-44 and SNR G 343.1-2.3. We show that this association could be real if both objects are the remnants of a SN exploded within a mushroom-like cavity (created by the SN progenitor wind breaking out of the parent molecular cloud and expanding into an intercloud medium of a much less density). We also show that the SN explosion sites in some middle-aged (shell-like) SNRs could be marked by (compact) nebulae of thermal X-ray emission. The possible detection of such nebulae within middle-aged SNRs could be used for the re-estimation of implied transverse velocities of known NSs or for the search of new stellar remnants possibly associated with these SNRs.
Levitan, Carmel A.; Ren, Jiana; Woods, Andy T.; Boesveldt, Sanne; Chan, Jason S.; McKenzie, Kirsten J.; Dodson, Michael; Levin, Jai A.; Leong, Christine X. R.; van den Bosch, Jasper J. F.
Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e., an inherent mapping between color and odor), statistical reasons (i.e., covariance in experience), and/or semantically-mediated reasons (i.e., stemming from language). The present study probed th...
Levitan, C.A.; Ren, J.; Boesveldt, S.; Chan, J.; McKenzie, K.J.; Levin, J.A.; Leong, C.X.; Bosch, van den, J.F.
Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e., an inherent mapping between color and odor), statistical reasons (i.e., covariance in experience), and/or semantically-mediated reasons (i.e., stemming from language). The present study probed th...
Umamaheswara Reddy V.
Full Text Available Terminal myelocystocele (TMC results from failure of embryonic CSF to drain outside the neural tube creating CSF reservoir within a dorsal meningocele. Association of Chiari II malformation with diastematomyelia and myelocystocele is extremely rare. Myelocystoceles do not have neural tissue so they have good prognosis after treatment, however when associated with hydromelia and Chiari malformation they present with neurological deficits. We present details of a 2 year old female who presented to us with this rare anomaly.
Liu, Hua-Kuang; Awwal, Abdul Ahad S.; Karim, Mohammad A.
Trinary associative memory combines merits and overcomes major deficiencies of unipolar and bipolar logics by combining them in three-valued logic that reverts to unipolar or bipolar binary selectively, as needed to perform specific tasks. Advantage of associative memory: one obtains access to all parts of it simultaneously on basis of content, rather than address, of data. Consequently, used to exploit fully parallelism and speed of optical computing.
Kumar, A C V; Alekya, V; Krishna, M S V V; Alekya, K; Aruna, M; Reddy, M H K; Sangeetha, B; Ram, R; Kumar, V S
Bartter's syndrome is an autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder characterized by hypokalemia, hypochloremia, metabolic alkalosis, and hyperreninemia with normal blood pressure. Bartter's syndrome is associated with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a group of hereditary disorders that affect dental enamel. AI could be part of several syndromes. The enamel renal syndrome is the association of AI and nephrocalcinosis. We report two patients of AI with Bartter's syndrome.
A. C. V. Kumar
Full Text Available Bartter's syndrome is an autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder characterized by hypokalemia, hypochloremia, metabolic alkalosis, and hyperreninemia with normal blood pressure. Bartter's syndrome is associated with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI is a group of hereditary disorders that affect dental enamel. AI could be part of several syndromes. The enamel renal syndrome is the association of AI and nephrocalcinosis. We report two patients of AI with Bartter's syndrome.
Iida, H; Mizumura, Y; Uraoka, T; Takata, M; Sugimoto, T; Miwa, A; Yamagishi, T
An autopsy case of membranous glomerulonephritis associated with enterococcal endocarditis was reported. Although enterococcal antigen was not identified in glomerular deposits, the eluate from the patient's renal tissue was shown to specifically recombine with cells of the enterococcus isolated from his own ante mortem blood. Hypocomplementemia, circulating immune complexes and antienterococcal antibodies were also observed. These findings suggest that enterococcus-related immune complexes played a role in the pathogenesis of glomerulonephritis associated with enterococcal endocarditis in this patient.
Shankarling D. Kuchabal
Full Text Available Alopecia areata is a common cause of noncicatricial alopecia that occurs in a patchy, confluent or diffuse pattern. It may occur as a single, self-limiting episode or may recur at varying intervals over many years. The association of alopecia areata with localized vitiligo has not been reported. The association of alopecia areata with localized vitiligo in the same patient is documented here; it is the first of its kind.
Shoughy, Samir S; Kozak, Igor; Tabbara, Khalid F
To determine the associations of systemic diseases with intermediate uveitis. The medical records of 50 consecutive cases with intermediate uveitis referred to The Eye Center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were reviewed. Age- and sex-matched patients without uveitis served as controls. Patients had complete ophthalmic and medical examinations. There were 27 male and 23 female patients. Mean age was 29 years with a range of 5-62 years. Overall, 21 cases (42%) had systemic disorders associated with intermediate uveitis and 29 cases (58%) had no associated systemic disease. A total of 11 patients (22%) had asthma, 4 (8%) had multiple sclerosis, 3 (6%) had presumed ocular tuberculosis, 1 (2%) had inflammatory bowel disease, 1 (2%) had non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 1 (2%) had sarcoidosis. Evidence of systemic disease was found in 50 (5%) of the 1,000 control subjects. Bronchial asthma was found in 37 patients (3.7 %), multiple sclerosis in 9 patients (0.9%), inflammatory bowel disease in 3 patients (0.3%), and tuberculosis in 1 patient (0.1%). None of the control patients had sarcoidosis or lymphoma. There were statistically significant associations between intermediate uveitis and bronchial asthma (p = 0.0001), multiple sclerosis (p = 0.003) and tuberculosis (p = 0.0005). Bronchial asthma and multiple sclerosis were the most frequently encountered systemic diseases associated with intermediate uveitis in our patient population. Patients with intermediate uveitis should undergo careful history-taking and investigations to rule out associated systemic illness.
Clarke, Sarah L N; Sen, Ethan S; Ramanan, Athimalaipet V
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease of childhood, with JIA-associated uveitis its most common extra-articular manifestation. JIA-associated uveitis is a potentially sight-threatening condition and thus carries a considerable risk of morbidity. The aetiology of the condition is autoimmune in nature with the predominant involvement of CD4(+) T cells. However, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms remain unclear, particularly regarding interplay between genetic and environmental factors. JIA-associated uveitis comes in several forms, but the most common presentation is of the chronic anterior uveitis type. This condition is usually asymptomatic and thus screening for JIA-associated uveitis in at-risk patients is paramount. Early detection and treatment aims to stop inflammation and prevent the development of complications leading to visual loss, which can occur due to both active disease and burden of disease treatment. Visually disabling complications of JIA-associated uveitis include cataracts, glaucoma, band keratopathy and macular oedema. There is a growing body of evidence for the early introduction of systemic immunosuppressive therapies in order to reduce topical and systemic glucocorticoid use. This includes more traditional treatments, such as methotrexate, as well as newer biological therapies. This review highlights the epidemiology of JIA-associated uveitis, the underlying pathogenesis and how affected patients may present. The current guidelines and criteria for screening, diagnosis and monitoring are discussed along with approaches to management.
B vitamins may correlate with Parkinson's disease (PD) through regulating homocysteine level. However, there is no comprehensive assessment on the associations between PD and B vitamins. The present study was designed to perform a meta-analytic assessment of the associations between folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 and PD, including the status of B vitamins in PD patients compared with controls, and associations of dietary intakes of B vitamins and risk of PD. A literature search using Medline database obtained 10 eligible studies included in the meta-analyses. Stata 12.0 statistical software was used to perform the meta-analysis. Pooled data revealed that there was no obvious difference in folate level between PD patients and healthy controls, and PD patients had lower level of vitamin B12 than controls. Available data suggested that higher dietary intake of vitamin B6 was associated with a decreased risk of PD (odds ratio (OR) = 0.65, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = (0.30, 1.01)), while no significant association was observed for dietary intake of folate and vitamin B12 and risk of PD. PD patients had lower level of vitamin B12 and similar level of folate compared with controls. Dietary intake of vitamin B6 exhibited preventive effect of developing PD based on the available data. As the number of included studies is limited, more studies are needed to confirm the findings and elucidate the underpinning underlying these associations.
Ward, Ryan D.; Gallistel, C. R.; Jensen, Greg; Richards, Vanessa L.; Fairhurst, Stephen; Balsam, Peter D
In a conditioning protocol, the onset of the conditioned stimulus (CS) provides information about when to expect reinforcement (the US). There are two sources of information from the CS in a delay conditioning paradigm in which the CS-US interval is fixed. The first depends on the informativeness, the degree to which CS onset reduces the average expected time to onset of the next US. The second depends only on how precisely a subject can represent a fixed-duration interval (the temporal Weber fraction). In three experiments with mice, we tested the differential impact of these two sources of information on rate of acquisition of conditioned responding (CS-US associability). In Experiment 1, we show that associability (the inverse of trials to acquisition) increases in proportion to informativeness. In Experiment 2, we show that fixing the duration of the US-US interval or the CS-US interval or both has no effect on associability. In Experiment 3, we equated the increase in information produced by varying the C̅/T̅ ratio with the increase produced by fixing the duration of the CS-US interval. Associability increased with increased informativeness, but, as in Experiment 2, fixing the CS-US duration had no effect on associability. These results are consistent with the view that CS-US associability depends on the increased rate of reward signaled by CS onset. The results also provide further evidence that conditioned responding is temporally controlled when it emerges. PMID:22468633
Zhou, Yuling; Hambly, Brett D; McLachlan, Craig S
This review examines the biology of the Fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO), and the implications of genetic association of FTO SNPs with obesity and genetic aging. Notably, we focus on the role of FTO in the regulation of methylation status as possible regulators of weight gain and genetic aging. We present a theoretical review of the FTO gene with a particular emphasis on associations with UCP2, AMPK, RBL2, IRX3, CUX1, mTORC1 and hormones involved in hunger regulation. These associations are important for dietary behavior regulation and cellular nutrient sensing via amino acids. We suggest that these pathways may also influence telomere regulation. Telomere length (TL) attrition may be influenced by obesity-related inflammation and oxidative stress, and FTO gene-involved pathways. There is additional emerging evidence to suggest that telomere length and obesity are bi-directionally associated. However, the role of obesity risk-related genotypes and associations with TL are not well understood. The FTO gene may influence pathways implicated in regulation of TL, which could help to explain some of the non-consistent relationship between weight phenotype and telomere length that is observed in population studies investigating obesity.
Wu Shun Felix Wong
Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Endometriosis is a common gynecological problem associated with chronic pelvic pain. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of current hormonal treatments of endometriosis associated pain.Materials and Methods: Randomized Controlled studies identified from databases of Medline and Cochrane Systemic Review groups were pooled. 7 RCTs were recruited for evaluation in this review. Data from these studies were pooled and meta-analysis was performed in three comparison groups: 1 Progestogen versus GnRHa; 2 Implanon versus Progestogen (injection; 3 Combined oral contraceptive pills versus placebo and progestogen. Response to treatment was measured as a reduction in pain score. Pain improvement was defined as improvement ≥1 at the end of treatment. Results: There was no significant difference between treatment groups of progestogen and GnRHa (RR: 0.036; CI:-0.030-0.102 for relieving endometriosis associated pelvic pain. Long acting progestogen (Implanon and Mirena are not inferior to GnRHa and depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA (RR: 0.006; CI:-0.142-0.162. Combined oral contraceptive pills demonstrated effective treatment of relieving endometriosis associated pelvic pain when compared with placebo groups (RR:0.321CI-0.066-0.707. Progestogen was more effective than combined oral contraceptive pills in controlling dysmenorrhea (RR:-0.160; CI:-0.386-0.066, however, progestogen is associated with more side effects like spotting and bloating than the combined contraceptive pills. Conclusion: Combined oral contraceptive pills (COCP, GnRHa and progestogens are equally effective in relieving endometriosis associated pelvic pain. COCP and progestogens are relatively cheap and more suitable for long-term use as compared to GnRHa. Long-term RCT of medicated contraceptive devices like Mirena and Implanon are required to evaluate their long-term effects on relieving the endometriosis associated pelvic pain
Diarra, M; Konate, A; Traore, C B; Drabo, M; Soukho, A espouse Diarra; Kalle, A; Dembele, M; Traore, H A; Maiga, M Y
Our main objective was to study gastritis associated to duodeno-gastric reflux. It is about a longitudinal study case/witness, paired according to the sex and the age. It was unrolled from February 2005 to January 2006 in the digestive diseases department of the hospital Gabriél Touré, and endoscopic centers of Promenade des Angevins, and clinique Farako. The patients profited from an upper digestive endoscopy to appreciate endoscopic aspect of gastritis associated to bile in the stomach mucus lake. The gastric biopsies were systematic. This study included 50 patients having gastritis associated to bile in gastric mucus lake compared to 50 patients having gastritis associated to clearly gastric mucus lake. The sex-ratio was 1.26 in favour of men. The average age of the patients was of 41.30 +/- 15.43 years. On the symptomatic hand, fetid breath was significantly met in duodeno-gastric reflux (p = 0.013). Potash consumption in the "tô" (millet cake) was significantly reported in gastritis associated to bile in gastric mucus lake (p = 0.042). The endoscopic aspects were comparable. Histological aspects of nonatrophic chronic gastritis were significantly mint in witnesses as well into the antrum as into the fundus (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.00023). The reactional gastritis aspect was the prerogative of duodenogastric reflux (p ranging between 10(-6) and 3.10 (-6). Helicobacter pylori infection was found comparable in the two groups (p = 0.297). Dysplasia although rare was found only in gastritis associated to duodeno-gastric reflux. Gastritis associated to bile in gastric mucus does not se,nm to have specific clinical, endoscopic and histological presentation. However the presence of dysplasia must have an attentive monitoring.
Aminoff, Elissa M.; Tarr, Michael J.
How are complex visual entities such as scenes represented in the human brain? More concretely, along what visual and semantic dimensions are scenes encoded in memory? One hypothesis is that global spatial properties provide a basis for categorizing the neural response patterns arising from scenes. In contrast, non-spatial properties, such as single objects, also account for variance in neural responses. The list of critical scene dimensions has continued to grow—sometimes in a contradictory manner—coming to encompass properties such as geometric layout, big/small, crowded/sparse, and three-dimensionality. We demonstrate that these dimensions may be better understood within the more general framework of associative properties. That is, across both the perceptual and semantic domains, features of scene representations are related to one another through learned associations. Critically, the components of such associations are consistent with the dimensions that are typically invoked to account for scene understanding and its neural bases. Using fMRI, we show that non-scene stimuli displaying novel associations across identities or locations recruit putatively scene-selective regions of the human brain (the parahippocampal/lingual region, the retrosplenial complex, and the transverse occipital sulcus/occipital place area). Moreover, we find that the voxel-wise neural patterns arising from these associations are significantly correlated with the neural patterns arising from everyday scenes providing critical evidence whether the same encoding principals underlie both types of processing. These neuroimaging results provide evidence for the hypothesis that the neural representation of scenes is better understood within the broader theoretical framework of associative processing. In addition, the results demonstrate a division of labor that arises across scene-selective regions when processing associations and scenes providing better understanding of the functional
Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical symptoms of affective disorders, their response to light treatment, and sensitivity to other circadian interventions indicate that the circadian system has a role in mood disorders. Possibly the mechanisms involve circadian seasonal and photoperiodic mechanisms. Since genetic susceptibilities contribute a strong component to affective disorders, we explored whether circadian gene polymorphisms were associated with affective disorders in four complementary studies. Methods Four groups of subjects were recruited from several sources: 1 bipolar proband-parent trios or sib-pair-parent nuclear families, 2 unrelated bipolar participants who had completed the BALM morningness-eveningness questionnaire, 3 sib pairs from the GenRed Project having at least one sib with early-onset recurrent unipolar depression, and 4 a sleep clinic patient group who frequently suffered from depression. Working mainly with the SNPlex assay system, from 2 to 198 polymorphisms in genes related to circadian function were genotyped in the participant groups. Associations with affective disorders were examined with TDT statistics for within-family comparisons. Quantitative trait associations were examined within the unrelated samples. Results In NR1D1, rs2314339 was associated with bipolar disorder (P = 0.0005. Among the unrelated bipolar participants, 3 SNPs in PER3 and CSNK1E were associated with the BALM score. A PPARGC1B coding SNP, rs7732671, was associated with affective disorder with nominal significance in bipolar family groups and independently in unipolar sib pairs. In TEF, rs738499 was associated with unipolar depression; in a replication study, rs738499 was also associated with the QIDS-SR depression scale in the sleep clinic patient sample. Conclusion Along with anti-manic effects of lithium and the antidepressant effects of bright light, these findings suggest that perturbations of the circadian gene network at several levels may
Levitan, Carmel A.; Ren, Jiana; Woods, Andy T.; Boesveldt, Sanne; Chan, Jason S.; McKenzie, Kirsten J.; Dodson, Michael; Levin, Jai A.; Leong, Christine X. R.; van den Bosch, Jasper J. F.
Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e., an inherent mapping between color and odor), statistical reasons (i.e., covariance in experience), and/or semantically-mediated reasons (i.e., stemming from language). The present study probed this question by testing color-odor correspondences in 6 different cultural groups (Dutch, Netherlands-residing-Chinese, German, Malay, Malaysian-Chinese, and US residents), using the same set of 14 odors and asking participants to make congruent and incongruent color choices for each odor. We found consistent patterns in color choices for each odor within each culture, showing that participants were making non-random color-odor matches. We used representational dissimilarity analysis to probe for variations in the patterns of color-odor associations across cultures; we found that US and German participants had the most similar patterns of associations, followed by German and Malay participants. The largest group differences were between Malay and Netherlands-resident Chinese participants and between Dutch and Malaysian-Chinese participants. We conclude that culture plays a role in color-odor crossmodal associations, which likely arise, at least in part, through experience. PMID:25007343
Vizenor, Lowell T.; Bodenreider, Olivier; McCray, Alexa T.
Objectives This paper proposes a novel semantic method for auditing associative relations in biomedical terminologies. We tested our methodology on two Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) knowledge sources. Methods We use the UMLS semantic groups as high-level representations of the domain and range of relationships in the Metathesaurus and in the Semantic Network. A mapping created between Metathesaurus relationships and Semantic Network relationships forms the basis for comparing the signatures of a given Metathesaurus relationship to the signatures of the semantic relationship to which it is mapped. The consistency of Metathesaurus relations is studied for each relationship. Results Of the 177 associative relationships in the Metathesaurus, 84 (48%) exhibit a high degree of consistency with the corresponding Semantic Network relationships. Overall, 63% of the 1.8M associative relations in the Metathesaurus are consistent with relations in the Semantic Network. Conclusion The semantics of associative relationships in biomedical terminologies should be defined explicitly by their developers. The Semantic Network would benefit from being extended with new relationships and with new relations for some existing relationships. The UMLS editing environment could take advantage of the correspondence established between relationships in the Metathesaurus and the Semantic Network. Finally, the auditing method also yielded useful information for refining the mapping of associative relationships between the two sources. PMID:19475724
Hassan, Waseem; Noreen, Hamsa; Castro-Gomes, Vitor; Mohammadzai, Imdadullah; da Rocha, Joao Batista Teixeira; Landeira-Fernandez, J
When concentrations of both reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species exceed the antioxidative capability of an organism, the cells undergo oxidative impairment. Impairments in membrane integrity and lipid and protein oxidation, protein mutilation, DNA damage, and neuronal dysfunction are some of the fundamental consequences of oxidative stress. The purpose of this work was to review the associations between oxidative stress and psychological disorders. The search terms were the following: "oxidative stress and affective disorders," "free radicals and neurodegenerative disorders," "oxidative stress and psychological disorders," "oxidative stress, free radicals, and psychiatric disorders," and "association of oxidative stress." These search terms were used in conjunction with each of the diagnostic categories of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and World Health Organization's International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. Genetic, pharmacological, biochemical, and preclinical therapeutic studies, case reports, and clinical trials were selected to explore the molecular aspects of psychological disorders that are associated with oxidative stress. We identified a broad spectrum of 83 degenerative syndromes and psychiatric disorders that were associated with oxidative stress. The multi-dimensional information identified herein supports the role of oxidative stress in various psychiatric disorders. We discuss the results from the perspective of developing novel therapeutic interventions.
Maria Caterina Grassi
Full Text Available The literature documents that personality characteristics are associated with healthy lifestyles, including smoking. Among positive traits, Positivity (POS, defined as a general disposition conducive to facing experience under a positive outlook has shown robust associations with psychological health. Thus, the present study investigated the extent to which POS is able to predict (i relapse after quitting smoking and (ii the desire to smoke again. All participants (481 had previously attended a Group Counselling Program (GCP for Smoking Cessation (from 2005 through 2010. They were contacted through telephone interview. Among participants, 244 were ex-smokers (age: years 56.3±10.08, 52% female and 237 were still-smokers (age: years 55.0±9.63; 63.5% female. The association of POS with “craving to smoke” levels was assessed with multivariate linear regression analysis while controlling also for important differences in personality such as conscientiousness and general self-efficacy, as well as for gender and age. Results showed that POS was significantly and negatively associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Among covariates (i.e., conscientiousness, generalized self-efficacy, gender was associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Altogether these findings corroborate the idea that POS plays a significant role in sustaining individuals' efforts to quit smoking.
Cox, Alistair; Dixon, Padraic; Smith, Sionagh
Equine periodontal disease (EPD) is a common and painful condition, the aetiology and pathology of which are poorly understood. To characterise the histopathological lesions associated with EPD, the skulls of 22 horses were assessed grossly for the presence of periodontal disease, and a standard set of interdental tissues taken from each for histopathological examination. Histological features of EPD included ulceration and neutrophilic inflammation of the gingival epithelium. Mononuclear and eosinophilic inflammation of the gingival lamina propria and submucosa was commonly present irrespective of the presence or degree of periodontal disease. Gingival hyperplasia was present to some degree in all horses, and was only weakly associated with the degree of periodontal disease. In all horses dental plaque was present at the majority of sites examined and was often associated with histological evidence of peripheral cemental erosion. Bacteria (including spirochaetes in four horses) were identified in gingival samples by Gram and silver impregnation techniques and were significantly associated with the presence of periodontal disease. This is the first study to describe histological features of EPD, and the first to identify associated spirochaetes in some cases. Histological features were variable, and there was considerable overlap of some features between the normal and diseased gingiva. Further investigation into the potential role of bacteria in the pathogenesis and progression of EPD is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gopinath, Krishnasamy; Jayakumararaj, Ramaraj; Karthikeyan, Muthusamy
Recent advancements in genomics and proteomics provide a solid foundation for understanding the pathogenesis of diabetes. Proteomics of diabetes associated pathways help to identify the most potent target for the management of diabetes. The relevant datasets are scattered in various prominent sources which takes much time to select the therapeutic target for the clinical management of diabetes. However, additional information about target proteins is needed for validation. This lacuna may be resolved by linking diabetes associated genes, pathways and proteins and it will provide a strong base for the treatment and planning management strategies of diabetes. Thus, a web source "Diabetes Associated Proteins Database (DAPD)" has been developed to link the diabetes associated genes, pathways and proteins using PHP, MySQL. The current version of DAPD has been built with proteins associated with different types of diabetes. In addition, DAPD has been linked to external sources to gain the access to more participatory proteins and their pathway network. DAPD will reduce the time and it is expected to pave the way for the discovery of novel anti-diabetic leads using computational drug designing for diabetes management. DAPD is open accessed via following url www.mkarthikeyan.bioinfoau.org/dapd.
Pavlovic, Jelena M; Vieira, Julio R; Lipton, Richard B; Bond, Dale S
Migraine is a common and highly disabling condition that is particularly prevalent among women and especially women of reproductive age. The tremendous rise in adiposity in the Western world has led to an epidemic of obesity in women. The particular effects of obesity on women with migraine of various ages are the focus of this review. Conflicting findings from various studies with different approaches and populations have made challenging definitive conclusions about associations between migraine and obesity. While the association between obesity and migraine frequency has been consistently demonstrated and obesity is considered a risk factor for progression from episodic to chronic migraine, the association between obesity and migraine prevalence is still somewhat debated and appears to be dependent on gender and age, with the most consistent effects observed in women younger than 55 years of age. Association between migraine and obesity is most commonly observed in women of reproductive age. The multimodal changes associated with age and hormonal change in women likely play a role in this relationship, as obesity does not appear to be related to migraine in women over 55 years of age. Future studies focusing on the migraine-obesity relationship in women should examine the effects of age, endogenous hormonal state, and exogenous hormones on migraine and obesity.
Carmel A Levitan
Full Text Available Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e., an inherent mapping between color and odor, statistical reasons (i.e., covariance in experience, and/or semantically-mediated reasons (i.e., stemming from language. The present study probed this question by testing color-odor correspondences in 6 different cultural groups (Dutch, Netherlands-residing-Chinese, German, Malay, Malaysian-Chinese, and US residents, using the same set of 14 odors and asking participants to make congruent and incongruent color choices for each odor. We found consistent patterns in color choices for each odor within each culture, showing that participants were making non-random color-odor matches. We used representational dissimilarity analysis to probe for variations in the patterns of color-odor associations across cultures; we found that US and German participants had the most similar patterns of associations, followed by German and Malay participants. The largest group differences were between Malay and Netherlands-resident Chinese participants and between Dutch and Malaysian-Chinese participants. We conclude that culture plays a role in color-odor crossmodal associations, which likely arise, at least in part, through experience.
von Seehausen, Mariana Pujól; Oliveira, Maria Inês Couto de; Boccolini, Cristiano Siqueira
This article aims to estimate the prevalence and analyze the factors associated with cross-nursing. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 with interviews with a representative sample of mothers of infants less than one-year-old (n' = 695) attended in nine primary health units in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sociodemographic characteristics were studied; pregnancy, childbirth and primary care assistance; maternal habits and baby features. Adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) were obtained by Poisson Regression, retaining variables associated with the outcome in the final model (p ≤ 0.05). Cross-nursing was practiced by 29.4% of the mothers. Most practitioner mothers were relatives or friends. The following variables were directly associated with cross-nursing: being an adolescent mother (PR' = 1.595), smoking (PR' = 1.396), alcohol consumption (PR' = 1.613), inappropriate baby feeding habits (PR' = 1.371) and infant's age in months (PR' = 1.066). Maternal formal employment was inversely associated with the practice (PR' = 0.579). Cross-nursing has a relevant prevalence among mothers assisted by primary health care units in Rio de Janeiro City. This issue should be addressed, especially among the most vulnerable groups, due to the association with adolescence and with unhealthy habits.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective We evaluated factors associated with protein consumption by the elderly. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study in a sample of 295 elderly consumers of health facilities in São Caetano do Sul, São Paulo, Brazil. Protein consumption data (g and g/kg were obtained through 24-hour dietary recalls, which was reapplied in a 30% sub-sample to estimate habitual consumption, with an interval of two weeks. The association between protein consumption and sociodemographic, economic, health, and dietary variables was tested using multiple linear regression. Results There was a positive association between protein consumption (g and g/kg and better Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised, between protein consumption (g and male sex, and a negative association between protein consumption (g/kg and greater calf circumference. Higher average protein consumption (g or g/kg was observed among married elderly, individuals with higher income and schooling, who were economically active, eutrophic, without dyslipidemia and symptoms of dysphagia, who consumed three main meals and an intermediate snack. Conclusion The results showed that protein consumption was associated with diet quality, sex, and calf circumference. The identification of elderly groups prone to protein inadequacy may direct individual and collective interventions to prevent muscle mass reduction and its implications, such as sarcopenia and other adverse outcomes.
Lewis Cathryn M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS of common diseases have had a tremendous impact on genetic research over the last five years; the field is now moving from microarray-based technology towards next-generation sequencing. To evaluate the potential of association studies for complex diseases based on exome sequencing we analysed the distribution of association signal with respect to protein-coding genes based on GWAS data for seven diseases from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. Results We find significant concentration of association signal in exons and genes for Crohn's Disease, Type 1 Diabetes and Bipolar Disorder, but also observe enrichment from up to 40 kilobases upstream to 40 kilobases downstream of protein-coding genes for Crohn's Disease and Type 1 Diabetes; the exact extent of the distribution is disease dependent. Conclusions Our work suggests that exome sequencing may be a feasible approach to find genetic variation associated with complex disease. Extending the exome sequencing to include flanking regions therefore promises further improvement of covering disease-relevant variants.
Siennick, Sonja E.; Stewart, Eric A.; Staff, Jeremy
Recent studies have suggested that incarceration dramatically increases the odds of divorce, but we know little about the mechanisms that explain the association. This study uses prospective longitudinal data from a subset of married young adults in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 1,919) to examine whether incarceration is associated with divorce indirectly via low marital love, economic strain, relationship violence, and extramarital sex. The findings confirmed that incarcerations occurring during, but not before, a marriage were associated with an increased hazard of divorce. Incarcerations occurring during marriage also were associated with less marital love, more relationship violence, more economic strain, and greater odds of extramarital sex. Above-average levels of economic strain were visible among respondents observed preincarceration, but only respondents observed postincarceration showed less marital love, more relationship violence, and higher odds of extramarital sex than did respondents who were not incarcerated during marriage. These relationship problems explained approximately 40 percent of the association between incarceration and marital dissolution. These findings are consistent with theoretical predictions that a spouse’s incarceration alters the rewards and costs of the marriage and the relative attractiveness of alternative partners. PMID:25598544
Haslam, Nick; Rothschild, Louis; Ernst, Donald
Gordon Allport (1954) proposed that belief in group essences is one aspect of the prejudiced personality, alongside a rigid, dichotomous and ambiguity-intolerant cognitive style. We examined whether essentialist beliefs-beliefs that a social category has a fixed, inherent, identity-defining nature-are indeed associated in this fashion with prejudice towards black people, women and gay men. Allport's claim, which is mirrored by many contemporary social theorists, received partial support but had to be qualified in important respects. Essence-related beliefs were associated strongly with anti-gay attitudes but only weakly with sexism and racism, and they did not reflect a cognitive style that was consistent across stigmatized categories. When associations with prejudice were obtained, only a few specific beliefs were involved, and some anti-essentialist beliefs were associated with anti-gay attitudes. Nevertheless, the powerful association that essence-related beliefs had with anti-gay attitudes was independent of established prejudice-related traits, indicating that they have a significant role to play in the psychology of prejudice.
McCormack, Catherine; Leemaqz, Shalem; Furness, Denise; Dekker, Gustaaf; Roberts, Claire
Some studies have suggested that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of first trimester miscarriages, others have suggested that it is associated with an increased risk of hyperinsulinism/insulin resistance and the development of gestational diabetes. Hyperinsulinism is also thought to increase miscarriages. We investigated the association between vitamin D levels and hyperinsulinism in a cohort of recurrent miscarriage patients. Patients undergoing miscarriage investigations had insulin and vitamin D levels tested. Vitamin D levels were classified as: sufficient (≥75 nmol/L), insufficient (50-74.9 nmol/L) or deficient (D deficient group, 38.7% of the insufficient group, and 33.3% of the sufficient group (chi-square p = .034). There were no significant associations between BMI and vitamin D levels, or BMI and hyperinsulinism. Caucasians comprised 82% of the clinic, and 67% of these women had vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency. Noncaucasians comprised 18% of the clinic but 89% of these patients had vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency. We found that insufficient or deficient vitamin D levels were significantly associated with hyperinsulinism in these patients. Vitamin D deficiency is also thought to contribute to an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes including preeclampsia, preterm birth, small-for-gestational-age gestational diabetes mellitus, and miscarriages. Larger level one trials are needed to establish if increasing serum vitamin D levels prior to conception or in early pregnancy improves adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Alldredge, A.W.; Whicker, F.W.; Hanson, W.C.
Project Rio Blanco, an experiment involving deep underground detonation of three 30-kton nuclear explosives designed to stimulate natural gas flow in geologic formations of low permeability, was conducted in western Colorado on 17 May 1973. Environmental impacts associated with this experiment were divided into three categories: radiation, ground motion, and conventional physical activities. Radiation and ground motion are unique to this type experiment while conventional activities would be associated with any type of resource development. The objective of observations made at Rio Blanco was to qualitatively and, where possible, quantitatively ascertain environmental impacts associated with the project. Observations indicated that ground motion and conventional activities appeared to cause the greatest impacts. Ground motion impacts were most severe within 2.4 km of the emplacement well (EW) and were predominantly associated with steep ravine and stream banks and rocky cliffs. Following the detonation, flow and turbidity had increased in a small stream adjacent to the EW. Animals receiving deleterious impacts were those associated with stream banks, cliffs and burrows. No mortality or injury was observed in any large animals. (U.S.)
Harrison-Woolrych, Mira; Clark, David W J; Hill, Geraldine R; Rees, Mark I; Skinner, Jonathan R
Aims To investigate a possible association of sibutramine with QT interval prolongation. Methods Post-marketing surveillance using prescription event monitoring in the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme (IMMP) identified a case of QT prolongation and associated cardiac arrest in a patient taking sibutramine for 25 days. This patient was further investigated, including genotyping for long QT syndrome. Other IMMP case reports suggesting arrhythmias associated with sibutramine were assessed and further reports were obtained from the World Health Organisation (WHO) adverse drug reactions database. Results The index case displayed a novel mutation in a cardiac potassium channel subunit gene, KCNQ1, which is likely to prolong cardiac membrane depolarization and increase susceptibility to long QT intervals. Assessment of further IMMP reports identified five additional patients who experienced palpitations associated with syncope or presyncopal symptoms, one of whom had a QTc at the upper limit of normal. Assessment of reports from the WHO database identified three reports of QT prolongation and one fatal case of torsade de pointes in a patient also taking cisapride. Conclusions This case series suggests that sibutramine may be associated with QT prolongation and related dysrhythmias. Further studies are required, but in the meantime we would recommend that sibutramine should be avoided in patients with long QT syndrome and in patients taking other medicines that may prolong the QT interval. PMID:16542208
Full Text Available The prevalence and characteristics of small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs have not been well characterized for Bacillus subtilis, an important model system for Gram-positive bacteria. However, B. subtilis was recently found to synthesize many candidate sRNAs during stationary phase. In the current study, we performed deep sequencing on Hfq-associated RNAs and found that a small subset of sRNAs associates with Hfq, an enigmatic RNA-binding protein that stabilizes sRNAs in Gram-negatives, but whose role is largely unknown in Gram-positive bacteria. We also found that Hfq associated with antisense RNAs, antitoxin transcripts, and many mRNA leaders. Several new candidate sRNAs and mRNA leader regions were also discovered by this analysis. Additionally, mRNA fragments overlapping with start or stop codons associated with Hfq, while, in contrast, relatively few full-length mRNAs were recovered. Deletion of hfq reduced the intracellular abundance of several representative sRNAs, suggesting that B. subtilis Hfq-sRNA interactions may be functionally significant in vivo. In general, we anticipate this catalog of Hfq-associated RNAs to serve as a resource in the functional characterization of Hfq in B. subtilis.
Woodward, D L; Khakhria, R; Johnson, W M
During the period from 1994 to 1996, an increase in the number of laboratory-confirmed cases of human salmonellosis associated with exposure to exotic pets including iguanas, pet turtles, sugar gliders, and hedgehogs was observed in Canada. Pet turtle-associated salmonellosis was recognized as a serious public health problem in the 1960s and 1970s, and in February 1975 legislation banning the importation of turtles into Canada was enacted by Agriculture Canada. Reptile-associated salmonellosis is once again being recognized as a resurgent disease. From 1993 to 1995, there were more than 20,000 laboratory-confirmed human cases of salmonellosis in Canada. The major source of Salmonella infection is food; however, an estimated 3 to 5% of all cases of salmonellosis in humans are associated with exposure to exotic pets. Among the isolates from these patients with salmonellosis, a variety of Salmonella serotypes were also associated with exotic pets and included the following: S. java, S. stanley, S. poona, S. jangwani, S. tilene, S. litchfield, S. manhattan, S. pomona, S. miami, S. rubislaw, S. marina subsp. IV, and S. wassenaar subsp. IV.
Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A new term has been coined by the CDC, ventilator-associated events (VAEs (1. In 2011, the CDC convened a working group composed of members of several stakeholder organizations to address the limitations of the definition of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP definition (2. The organizations represented in the Working Group include: the Critical Care Societies Collaborative (the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses, the American College of Chest Physicians, the American Thoracic Society, and the Society for Critical Care Medicine; the American Association for Respiratory Care; the Association of Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology; the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists; the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee’s Surveillance Working Group; the Infectious Diseases Society of America; and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. VAEs are defined by an increase oxygen (>0.2 in FiO2 or positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP (≥3 cm H2O, after a previous stable baseline of at least 2 …
Cozzani, E; Gasparini, G; Papini, M; Burlando, M; Drago, F; Parodi, A
Vasculitis in connective tissue disease (CTD) is quite rare, it is reported in approximately 10% of patients with CTD; systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) shows the highest association rate. Vessels of any size may be involved, but mainly small vessels vasculitis is reported. At present the classification of these vasculitis is unsatisfactory. According to the 2012 revised International Chapel Hill Consensus Conference, vasculitides secondary to CTD are a well identified entity and are classified under the category of "vasculitis associated with systemic disease". However only lupus vasculitis and rheumatoid vasculitis are explicitly listed, while the remaining are generically included under the heading "others". Petechiae, purpura, gangrene and ulcers are the most frequent cutaneous manifestations that should investigated in order to rule out potentially dangerous systemic involvement, especially if cryoglobulinemic or necrotizing vasculitis are suspected. This review will focus on the cutaneous involvement in CTD associated vasculitis.
Lee, W. W.; Hudson, S. R.; Ma, C. H.
The gyrokinetic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, related to the recent paper by W. W. Lee ["Magnetohydrodynamics for collisionless plasmas from the gyrokinetic perspective," Phys. Plasmas 23, 070705 (2016)], and their associated equilibria properties are discussed. This set of equations consists of the time-dependent gyrokinetic vorticity equation, the gyrokinetic parallel Ohm's law, and the gyrokinetic Ampere's law as well as the equations of state, which are expressed in terms of the electrostatic potential, ϕ, and the vector potential, A , and support both spatially varying perpendicular and parallel pressure gradients and the associated currents. The corresponding gyrokinetic MHD equilibria can be reached when ϕ→0 and A becomes constant in time, which, in turn, gives ∇.(J∥+J⊥)=0 and the associated magnetic islands, if they exist. Examples of simple cylindrical geometry are given. These gyrokinetic MHD equations look quite different from the conventional MHD equations, and their comparisons will be an interesting topic in the future.
Shannon-Lowe, Claire; Rickinson, Alan B; Bell, Andrew I
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), originally discovered through its association with Burkitt lymphoma, is now aetiologically linked to a remarkably wide range of lymphoproliferative lesions and malignant lymphomas of B-, T- and NK-cell origin. Some occur as rare accidents of virus persistence in the B lymphoid system, while others arise as a result of viral entry into unnatural target cells. The early finding that EBV is a potent B-cell growth transforming agent hinted at a simple oncogenic mechanism by which this virus could promote lymphomagenesis. In reality, the pathogenesis of EBV-associated lymphomas involves a complex interplay between different patterns of viral gene expression and cellular genetic changes. Here we review recent developments in our understanding of EBV-associated lymphomagenesis in both the immunocompetent and immunocompromised host.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human oncogenic viruses'. © 2017 The Authors.
Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Kessing, Lars Vedel
to those who never used hormonal contraception, the RR estimates for users of combined oral contraceptives increased to 1.7 (95% CI, 1.66-1.71). Conclusions and Relevance: Use of hormonal contraception, especially among adolescents, was associated with subsequent use of antidepressants and a first......Importance: Millions of women worldwide use hormonal contraception. Despite the clinical evidence of an influence of hormonal contraception on some women's mood, associations between the use of hormonal contraception and mood disturbances remain inadequately addressed. Objective: To investigate...... whether the use of hormonal contraception is positively associated with subsequent use of antidepressants and a diagnosis of depression at a psychiatric hospital. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide prospective cohort study combined data from the National Prescription Register...
Bok, H.W. den; Visschers, J.L.; Borgers, A.J.; Lourens, W.
Using Programmable Gate Arrays (PGAs), a prototype for a fast Associative Pattern Memory module has been realized. The associative memory performs the recognition of tracks within the hadron detector data acquisition system at NIKHEF-K. The memory matches the detector state with a set of 24 predefined tracks to identify the particle tracks that occur during an event. This information enables the trigger hardware to classify and select or discriminate the event. Mounted on a standard size (6U) VME board, several PGAs together form an associative memory. The internal logic architecture of the Gate Array is used in such a way as to minimize signal propagation delay. The memory cells, containing a binary representation of the particle tracks, are dynamically loadable through a VME bus interface, providing a high level of flexibility. The hadron detector and its readout system are briefly described and our track representation method is presented. Results from measurements under experimental conditions are discussed. (orig.)
shown that mycorrhizal helper bacteria presenting in mycorrhizal fungi could stimulate fungal growth, promote establishment of root-fungus symbiosis and enhance plant production. But it is unknown if the comparable relationship exist between the non-mycorrhizal fungus P. bilaii and its hyphae associated...... bacteria. In the current PhD thesis, we assumed that hyphae-associated microbiome of P. bilaii might harbor helper bacteria with ability to improve fungal growth and P solubilization performance. Therefore, we aimed to isolate bacteria associated with the P. bilaii hyphae and identify the fungal growth...... stimulating bacteria with the perspective of promoting efficiency of Jumpstart in soil – plant system. For this purpose, most of the work within the current project was carried out by development of suitable model systems by mimicking the natural soil habitat to reach to the reliable performance in soil...
Le, Han; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Skytthe, Axel
or studying. The risk was increased for men compared to women in subjects with heavy physical exercise, intake of alcohol, and body mass index >25. Migraine was associated with several lifestyle and socioeconomic factors. Most associations such as low education and employment status were probably due......To investigate whether sex-specific associations exist between migraine, lifestyle or socioeconomic factors. We distinguished between the subtypes migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO). In 2002, a questionnaire containing validated questions to diagnose migraine and questions...... on lifestyle and socioeconomic factors was sent to 46,418 twin individuals residing in Denmark. 31,865 twin individuals aged 20-71 were included. The twins are representative of the Danish population with regard to migraine and other somatic diseases and were used as such in the present study. An increased...
Ramírez-Estrada, Sergio; Borgatta, Bárbara; Rello, Jordi
Ventilator-associated pneumonia is the most common infection in intensive care unit patients associated with high morbidity rates and elevated economic costs; Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most frequent bacteria linked with this entity, with a high attributable mortality despite adequate treatment that is increased in the presence of multiresistant strains, a situation that is becoming more common in intensive care units. In this manuscript, we review the current management of ventilator-associated pneumonia due to P. aeruginosa, the most recent antipseudomonal agents, and new adjunctive therapies that are shifting the way we treat these infections. We support early initiation of broad-spectrum antipseudomonal antibiotics in present, followed by culture-guided monotherapy de-escalation when susceptibilities are available. Future management should be directed at blocking virulence; the role of alternative strategies such as new antibiotics, nebulized treatments, and vaccines is promising. PMID:26855594
6. SUMMERY 6.1 Summery in English Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and psoriasis are the two most prevalent skin diseases in the western world. ACD is the clinical manifestation of contact allergy. Contact allergy and psoriasis are both due to inflammatory mechanisms involving the innate...... and adaptive immune system. Psoriasis is conceived to be an autoimmune disease. Recent studies have suggested an inverse relation between contact allergy and autoimmune diseases. The association between contact allergy and psoriasis could reveal mechanistic insights into both inflammatory processes....... The overall aim of this PhD study was to investigate the association between contact allergy and autoimmune disease, with focus on psoriasis. The work was done in three study parts. Part I Epidemiological studies. Part II Sensitization study and Part III Experimental studies. In part I the association between...
Polymers exhibit a variety of condensed phases when some of their segments are capable of forming weak bonds which can be created and destroyed by thermal motion. Transition from one phase to another caused by such 'segment association' is reversible by the change of the temperature and the concentration, so that it is called 'reversible phase transition'. What types of reversible phase formation are possible for a given associative interaction? What is the most fundamental laws which govern the competition between molecular association and phase separation? This paper surveys, as typical examples of reversible phases, macroscopic phase separation, microphase formation, solvation, gelation, etc. from the unified point of view, and explores the possibility of new condensed phases caused by their mutual interference. (author)
Kitada, Yuki; Izawa, Kazutaka; Imoto, Kazuhiko; Yonenobu, Kazuo
To identity factors associated with Pott's disease, 49 spinal tuberculosis patients were classified into a group of 22 patients with a neurological deficit and a group of 27 patients with no neurological deficits, and their clinical findings (gender, age, pulmonary tuberculosis, antituberculous chemotherapy, C reactive protein (CRP), nutritional status, and duration of disease) and radiographic findings (degree of canal encroachment, pathology and level of dural compression, number of affected vertebral bodies, range of paravertebral abscesses, signals in the spinal cord on MRI, kyphotic angle, and spinal instability) were compared. The results showed that malnutrition, severe canal encroachment, and abnormal signal within the spinal cord on MRI were associated with neurological complications. Factors associated with the degree of neurological deficit were unclear because the study population was too small. (author)
Rakhimov, Isamiddin S.
The concept of central extensions plays an important in constructing extensions of algebras. This technique has been successfully used in the classification problem of certain classes of algebras. In 1978 Skjelbred and Sund reduced the classification of nilpotent Lie algebras in a given dimension to the study of orbits under the action of automorphism group on the space of second degree cohomology of a smaller Lie algebra with coefficients in a trivial module. Then W. de Graaf applied the Skjelbred and Sund method to the classification problem of low-dimensional nilpotent Lie and associative algebras over some fields. The main purpose of this note is to establish elementary properties of central extensions of associative dialgebras and apply the above mentioned method to the classification of low dimensional nilpotent associative dialgebras.
Full Text Available Compelling data demonstrate that inflammation-associated anorexia directly results from the action of pro-inflammatory factors, primarily cytokines and prostaglandins E2, on the nervous system. For instance, the aforementioned pro-inflammatory factors can stimulate the activity of peripheral sensory neurons, and induce their own de novo synthesis and release into the brain parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid. Ultimately, it results in the mobilization of a specific neural circuit that shuts down appetite. The present article describes the different cell groups and neurotransmitters involved in inflammation-associated anorexia and examines how they interact with neural systems regulating feeding such as the melanocortin system. A better understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying inflammation-associated anorexia will help to develop appetite stimulants for cancer and AIDS patients.
Full Text Available Eventration of the diaphragm is a rare anomaly of unknown origin characterized by a permanent high position of one or rarely both the leaflets of the diaphragm, providing a potential space for the displacement of abdominal viscera on the affected side(s. The etiology, diagnosis, and management of this condition remains a controversial subject. We report a rare case of infiltrating squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus in a patient with eventration of the diaphragm and gastric volvulus who presented to us with retrosternal discomfort. To the best of our knowledge, this rare association has not been reported in the literature, although one case of esophageal adenocarcinoma arising from Barrett′s esophagus in association with eventration of the diaphragm has been reported previously. This case again emphasis the varied associations of an eventration of the diaphragm.
Full Text Available Schwannomas are typically solitary benign neural tumors; however, multiple lesions associated with the rare genetic disorder neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2 have been reported in some cases. We present the case of a tongue schwannomas in a 36-year-old woman previously diagnosed with NF2 with bilateral vestibular schwannomas. To alleviate difficulties with swallowing, tongue nodular masses were surgically removed, and schwannoma was histologically diagnosed. Our patient represents the first case of histologically confirmed tongue schwannoma associated with NF2. This indicates that in patient with NF2, schwannoma may be detected in the oral cavity as well as in other parts of the body. Thus, careful clinical and histological examinations are warranted to identify schwannomas associated with NF2 even in the oral cavity. Keywords: Schwannoma, Tongue, Oral manifestation, Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2
Full Text Available The european law prohibit direct and indirect discrimination and harrasment on grounds of sex, racial or ethnic, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation. The question is what is the situation when someone is discriminated on can claim to be the victim of unlawful discrimination because he or she is associated with another person who has the protected characteristic. The the Court of Justice of the European Union’s judgment in Coleman v Attridge Law and Steve Law confirms, for the first time in European law, the existence of the concept of discrimination by association. In this article I examine the implications of this case on all conceps of discrimination concepts of discrimination in European law (direct discrimination, indirect discrimination and harassment. I also examine the application of discrimination by association to grounds other than disability.
Lo, Titus K. Y.; Leung, Henry; Chan, Keith C. C.
An associative memory, unlike an addressed memory used in conventional computers, is content addressable. That is, storing and retrieving information are not based on the location of the memory cell but on the content of the information. There are a number of approaches to implement an associative memory, one of which is to use a neural dynamical system where objects being memorized or recognized correspond to its basic attractors. The work presented in this paper is the investigation of applying a particular type of neural dynamical associative memory, namely the projection network, to pattern recognition and data fusion. Three types of attractors, which are fixed-point, limit- cycle, and chaotic, have been studied, evaluated and compared.
Richards, Jason; Howard, James F
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is generally caused by antibodies directed against the neuromuscular junction, including antibodies against the postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR). Pathologic abnormalities of the thymus gland, including thymoma, are associated with MG. We report a 56-year-old woman who presented with double vision. Single fiber EMG confirmed myasthenia gravis. AChR, striational muscle and MuSK antibodies were absent in the serum. Chest CT demonstrated a malignant thymoma. We report the first case of seronegative myasthenia gravis associated with malignant thymoma. The case challenges the conventional wisdom that all patients with thymoma associated MG test positive for antibodies against AChR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.