Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the political and legal debate of the declaration of unconstitutionality of the referendum that sought the re-election presidential second term in 2010. On the other hand, it exposes the debate between those who spoke of bias and political argument in the court ruling related to the idea of “democratic security”; while others speak of the persistence of “democratic legality” consisting of autonomy guaranteed legal reasoning from deliberative processes. Finally, it is noted that the degree of institutionalization of discourse of the Court is an important factor that speaks in favor of it’s independence.
... Determination for the Lao People's Democratic Republic Under Section 2(b)(2) of the Export-Import Bank Act of... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Presidential Determination for the Lao People's Democratic Republic Under Section 2(b)(2) of the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, as amended Presidential...
Full Text Available This qualitative research was conducted to examine the types of argument structure by Hillary Clinton in part one of the CNN Democratic Presidential Debate since Hillary, who had a great deal of experiences in political parties, was supposed to be able to construct convincing arguments that had good argument structures. The theories used to analyze were Bierman and Assali’s (1996, King’s (n.d. and Stanlick’s (2003. The findings showed that there were five types of argument structure used: serial, linked, convergent, divergent, and hybrid argument structures. The linked argument structure was the argument structure used the most frequently in Hillary’s utterances in the debate, while the divergent was the least one. Thus, it could be concluded that Hillary’s speech in the Presidential Debate was quite interesting since she could combine all the five types of argument structure, though the frequency of using them was not the same and it seems that linked argument structure was the most effective strategy for her in arguing about the politic, economy, and social issues.
Full Text Available Certain provisions of Presidential Regulation No. 36 of 2010 concerning Negative Investment List are not clearly stipulated. In relation to the restrictions of foreign investment in certain business sectors asspecified in the Negative Investment List Article 33 para. (1 and (2 of the 2007 Investment Law expressly prohibits investors from entering into any nominee shareholding documentation. Notwithstanding, manynominee shareholding practices are still employed in Indonesia, aiming to circumvent such restrictions.This paper addresses certain issues on Presidential Regulation No. 36 of 2010 and nominee shareholding practices in Indonesia. Beberapa ketentuan dalam peraturan Presiden No. 36 Tahun 2010 yang mengandung ketentuan Daftar Negatif Investasi tidak dirumuskan secara jelas. Sehubungan dengan pembatasan kepemilikan modal asing di beberapa sektor usaha, Pasal 33 ayat (1 dan (2 Undang-Undang Penanaman Modal No. 25 Tahun 2007 secara tegas melarang penanam modal membuat dokumen-dokumen yang terkait dengankepemilikan saham secara nominee. Namun demikian, praktik kepemilikan saham secara nominee masih sering dilakukan di Indonesia untuk menghindari pembatasan tersebut. Tulisan ini akan membahasbeberapa permasalahan yang berhubungan dengan Peraturan Presiden No. 36 Tahun 2010 dan praktek kepemilikan saham secara nominee di Indonesia.
Full Text Available The paper describes the main characteristics of the 2006 Brazilian Presidential elections. It explores two defining traits of this elections: the interplay between how retrospective economic voting and views towards corruption affected vote volatility and the final result of the election. The paper concludes by pointing out implications of the current elections to the strengthening of democracy in Brazil.
WIRED Magazine has anounced the nominees for its fourth annual WIRED Rave Awards, celebrating innovation and the individuals transforming commerce and culture. Jeffrey Hangst of the University of Aarhus has been nominated in the science category, for his work on the ATHENA Experiment, CERN (1/2 page).
Hale, F. Dennis
To measure the editorial advocacy of influential newspapers concerning the membership of the Supreme Court, a study analyzed editorials from such newspapers concerning the last five Supreme Court nominees of President Ronald Reagan (William Rehnquist, Antonin Scalia, Robert Bork, Douglas Ginsburg, and Anthony Kennedy). A telephone survey of 100…
National Archives and Records Administration — PRESNET is used by the Ford Presidential Library to automate a series of life-cycle functions ranging from tracking the solicitation of donations of papers to...
I Wayan Werasmana Sancaya
Full Text Available Nominee Agreement or trustee is an agreement that use authority which is used the name of Indonesian residents name and the Indonesian residents give power of attorney to the foreigner to make them do an legal act towards their land. Nominee agreement often called with representation or borrowed name,depend on the letter of statement or power of attorney that made by both of the side, foreigner borrow names from Indonesian to be written as the land’s owner on the certificate, but then the Indonesian depend on the deed of declaration they have made ignore that the real owner of the land and its authorization do or represented to that foreigner. The validity and power of binding the nominee agreement is can’t be separated from clause 1320 and clause 1338 KUHPerdata. If the nominee agreement already notice ang fulfill the legitimate reguirement of the agreement based on clause 132 KUHPerdata and based on 1338 KUHPerdata, so that nominee agreement already have the binding power to every sides. Based on the principle of Pacta Sund Servanda, the agreement that is made by every sides, include nominee agreement has a binding power such as law for them who have made it.
... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounts held by an agent, nominee, guardian..., nominee, guardian, custodian or conservator. (a) Agency or nominee accounts. Funds owned by a principal or... coverage shall be governed by the provisions of § 330.13. (b) Guardian, custodian or conservator accounts...
... (including nominee partnerships). An assignment of a security registered in the name of or assigned to a... appropriate for winding up partnership affairs. In those cases where assignments by or in behalf of all... dissolution. Upon voluntary dissolution, for any jurisdiction where a general partner may not act in winding...
Norman K. Denzin
Full Text Available Written on the eve of the 2004 American presidential election, this political narrative offers a critical reading of two models of democracy: Instant-Mix imperial democracy (bring to a boil, add oil, then bomb, criticized by Arundhati Roy, and Garrison Keillor’s Homegrown Democrat. Keillor’s pastoral view of democracy is anchored in LakeWobegon, his imaginary utopian community. His homegrown democracy is narrow, provincial, and White. The author concludes that he must look elsewhere for his alternative view of democracy.
Susan B. Hansen
Racial resentment has been shown to have a significant impact on voting by whites in recent presidential elections, and a much larger impact than the traditional gender-gap measure based on the male-female dichotomy. This analysis will use data from the American National Election Studies [ANES] to compare broader indicators of race and gender applicable to the Democratic and Republican parties as well as to respondents’ opinions of appropriate roles for women. Since the 1980s the parties have...
National Archives and Records Administration — PERL (Presidential Electronic Records Library) used to ingest and provide internal access to the Presidential electronic Records of the Reagan, Bush, and Clinton...
Susan B. Hansen
Full Text Available Racial resentment has been shown to have a significant impact on voting by whites in recent presidential elections, and a much larger impact than the traditional gender-gap measure based on the male-female dichotomy. This analysis will use data from the American National Election Studies [ANES] to compare broader indicators of race and gender applicable to the Democratic and Republican parties as well as to respondents’ opinions of appropriate roles for women. Since the 1980s the parties have diverged considerably on abortion and women’s issues, and voters now view the Democrats as more supportive than Republicans of equality for women and reproductive rights. Perceptions of party differences on women’s issues strongly influenced vote choice, 1988–2008, and in 2008 had greater impact on whites’ votes than opinions on aid to blacks, abortion, gay marriage, or the economy. Although racial resentment was a strong predictor of the white vote in 2012 as in previous years, presidential voting was also significantly influenced by respondent sex as well as opinions on gender roles. Voters regarded the Democratic Party as “better for the interests of women,” and this proved to be a highly effective wedge issue for the Democrats in 2012.
Democracy is the most venerated of American ideas, the one for which wars are fought and people die. So most people would probably agree that leaders should be able to lead well in a democratic society. Yet, genuinely democratic leadership is a relative rarity. Leading democratically means viewing leadership as a function or process, rather than…
Gilbert, Robert E; Bucy, Erik P
This introduction to the special issue on presidential disability and succession focuses on the distinctly positive contributions that invocations of the Twenty-Fifth Amendment have made to American political life since the Amendment's ratification in 1967. It also underlines the importance for Presidents, their family members and aides to understand the necessity for putting the welfare of the country first, above all else-even at times above the wishes of a disabled Chief Executive. As the articles in this special issue make clear, the Twenty-Fifth Amendment provides an effective constitutional mechanism by which the country's well-being can be maintained while simultaneously showing compassion and respect for a disabled leader. The idea for this issue emerged from a conference organized by Professor Robert E. Gilbert focusing on presidential disability and succession held on the campus of Northeastern University in April 2014. Papers from the conference assembled here clarify and add to the historical record about presidential inability while illuminating the many political, legal, and constitutional contingencies that future presidential administrators may face. Contributors to this issue have varied disciplinary and professional backgrounds, including expertise in American politics, constitutional law, the presidency and vice presidency, presidential impairment, and, of course, the Twenty-Fifth Amendment to the Constitution.
Rural community college presidential job advertisements that focus on geography, politics, and culture can improve the likelihood of a good fit between the senior leader and the institution. (Contains 2 figures.)
City and County of Durham, North Carolina — Voting totals for the 2016 Presidential Election by voting method and precinct. Voting Method Definitions: PROV = Provisional IN-PERSON = In PersonABS-1STOP =...
Lima Junior Olavo Brasil de
Full Text Available The author argues that the conjugation of certain democratic, socioeconomic and political factors has led to the "nationalization" of presidential elections in Brazil since 1960. The expansion of the electoral market resulting from urbanization and the growth of the electorate, together with the progressive removal of the obstacles to voting - due to income, gender, age, and education - has democratized the electoral process by diversifying the social structure of the electorate. Since then, the president's election has ceased to depend solely upon rural political forces and now involves multiple combinations of rural and urban political forces. Candidates can no longer count on specific social groups in order to guarantee their election, and need to widen their appeal. Based on the results of the direct presidential elections of 1960, 1989, 1994 and 1998, the author contends that the "nationalization" of the vote is part of the political integration of Brazilian society and that this, together with the social complexity of the electorate, means that the candidate's appeal and political stance need to be more wide-ranging in order to prevent potential conflicts from arising during the election campaign.
... DR2PS0000.PX8000 134D0102R2] Notice of Request for Nominees for the U.S. Extractive Industries Transparency... Industries Transparency Initiative (USEITI) Advisory Committee. This notice solicits nominees who can... Industries Transparency Initiative (USEITI) Advisory Committee (Committee) on July 26, 2012. The Committee...
... DR2PS0000.PX8000 134D0102R2] Notice of Request for Nominees for the U.S. Extractive Industries Transparency... Industries Transparency Initiative (USEITI) Advisory Committee. This notice solicits nominees from: (1) the... Transparency Initiative (USEITI) Advisory Committee (Committee) on July 26, 2012. The Committee serves as the...
award the nominee the Silver Star. We determined Secretary McHugh acted within his authority when he decided to award the SS. We found no evidence...why the Honorable John M. McHugh , Secretary of the Army, downgraded the nominee’s MOH award recommendation to the Silver Star (SS).1 In a memorandum...valorous actions as documented in the MOH award 1 The Honorable John M. McHugh left his position as Secretary of the Army on November 1, 2015. 2 We did
The paper uses historical trajectory to demonstrate how patronage, ethnicity, electoral authoritarianism and extension of presidential term limit erodes democratic gains in Africa. The paper concludes that in order for democracy to flourish in Africa, the structural factors need to be addressed. Key Words: Democracy, Term ...
Doyle, Denis P.
In the 2000 presidential campaigns, both Vice-President Al Gore and Texas Governor George W. Bush want to enlarge the federal role in education. In separate essays, Bush and Gore explain their plans to invest more federal dollars in improving poor children's educational progress and opportunities. (MLH)
Apple, Michael W., Ed.; Beane, James A., Ed.
This book illustrates how educators in four U.S. communities committed themselves to preparing students for the democratic way of life. In four narratives, educators directly involved in four different school-reform efforts describe how they initiated demographic practices in their educational settings. The four schools serve as reminders that…
Full Text Available This article is a synthesis of political PR strategies used in the U.S. presidential campaign of November 6, 2012. Also, we elucidated electoral profiles of the two candidates-Republican and Democrat - campaign themes impact on American voting decision. Article contains U.S. electoral marketing trend analysis, design principles of electoral spots, negative advertising in campaign.
This article is a synthesis of political PR strategies used in the U.S. presidential campaign of November 6, 2012. Also, we elucidated electoral profiles of the two candidates-Republican and Democrat - campaign themes impact on American voting decision. Article contains U.S. electoral marketing trend analysis, design principles of electoral spots, negative advertising in campaign.
FRN professional affiliations of recent nominees by the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation for service on the FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel established under section 25(d) of the FIFRA
Robert E. Goodin
Full Text Available The 'democracy unbound' project aspires to extend democracy in two dimensions: range and scope. The former would give a wider range of people the vote. The latter would give people a wider scope of things to vote on. In practice, no doubt there is room to do much more of both. But whereas it would be democratically justifiable in an ideal world for democracy to be completely unbounded as regards range, even in an ideal world democracy ought be subject to some limits internal to the logic of democracy itself as regards its scope. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1837428
Full Text Available General Election 2014 in Indonesia principally was a gate to more democratic Indonesia. People were given rights to directly vote their preferred legislative representatives and president and vice president for the next five-year period. New political learning process was introduced as all presidential candidates must show their capabilities in all aspects to attract constituents. The role of mass media became important as each candidate worked hard to gain sympathy from people. This paper examines how Indonesian online news media critically reported the presidential candidates. Further, this paper analysed how the issue were represented in the online media and why it was represented in such ways.
Full Text Available As the leader of the largest economy, President of the United States has substantive influence on addressing climate change problems. However, a presidential election is often dominated by issues other than energy problems. This paper focuses on the 2016 presidential election, and examines the energy plans proposed by the leading Democrat and Republican candidates. Our data from the Iowa caucus survey in January 2016 suggests that voters were more concerned about terrorism and economic issues than environmental issues. We then compare the Democratic and Republican candidate’s view of America’s energy future, and evaluate their proposed renewable energy targets. We find that the view on renewable energy is polarized between Democratic and Republican candidates, while candidates from both parties agree on the need for energy efficiency. Results from our ordinal least squares regression models suggests that Democratic candidates have moderate to ambitious goals for developing solar and other renewables. The Republican candidates favor fossil fuels and they choose not to provide any specific target for developing renewable energy. In addition, this trend of party polarization has grown more significant when compared with the past three presidential elections. Our observation suggests that energy policies need to be discussed more often regarding the diversification and decarbonization of the nation’s energy system.
Rhodebeck, Laurie A
Drawing from the theory of policy voting, this study examines the impact of opinions about gay rights on voting for presidential candidates. Qualitative analysis of the major party platforms and candidate campaign rhetoric from the six presidential elections held between 1988 and 2008 indicates that Democratic and Republican presidential candidates began openly expressing opposing positions on gay rights issues in 1992. Quantitative analysis of public opinion shows that, starting in 1992 and continuing through 2008, gay rights issues became more salient to the public, and opinions about gay rights began to exert a significant effect on vote choice. The study concludes with a discussion of the partisan forces that shaped the electoral significance of gay rights issues during the period from 1988 to 2008 and speculation about the role of gay rights issues in shaping future partisan electoral strategy.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Presidential review. 294.51 Section 294.51... REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS Cancellation of Registration and Presidential Review § 294.51 Presidential review. A Department order under § 294.50 (e), (g) or (i) shall be subject to stay or disapproval...
Rosas, Guillermo; Manzetti, Luigi
This is a guest post by Guillermo Rosas and Luigi Manzetti. It summarizes their recent paper, ‘Reassessing the trade-off hypothesis: How misery drives the corruption effect on presidential approval’ that was published in Electoral Studies, Volume 39, September 2015, pp. 26–38.......This is a guest post by Guillermo Rosas and Luigi Manzetti. It summarizes their recent paper, ‘Reassessing the trade-off hypothesis: How misery drives the corruption effect on presidential approval’ that was published in Electoral Studies, Volume 39, September 2015, pp. 26–38....
Dubravka Sinčić Ćorić
Full Text Available This paper examines the ways in which presidential candidates utilise social media as a tool in their election campaigns in order to democratise politics and political representation. The study is based on a content analysis of statements published on the official Facebook and Twitter pages of candidates in the 2014/2015 Croatian presidential elections. The results show that candidates did not use social media to reach, engage and form stronger bonds with potential voters. By failing to do so, they have missed an opportunity to bring disenchanted voters back into the political arena and potentially increase the legitimacy of the democratic processes.
Rand, David G; Pfeiffer, Thomas; Dreber, Anna; Sheketoff, Rachel W; Wernerfelt, Nils C; Benkler, Yochai
People often favor members of their own group, while discriminating against members of other groups. Such in-group favoritism has been shown to play an important role in human cooperation. However, in the face of changing conflicts and shifting alliances, it is essential for group identities to be flexible. Using the dictator game from behavioral economics, we demonstrate the remodeling of group identities among supporters of Democratic presidential candidates Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton. After Clinton's concession in June 2008, Democrats were more generous toward supporters of their own preferred candidate than to supporters of the other Democratic candidate. The bias observed in June persisted into August, and disappeared only in early September after the Democratic National Convention. We also observe a strong gender effect, with bias both appearing and subsiding among men only. This experimental study illustrates a dynamic change in bias, tracking the realignment of real world conflict lines and public efforts to reconstitute group identity. The change in salient group identity we describe here likely contributed to the victory of Barack Obama in the 2008 presidential election.
Woods, Philip A.
In this book Philip Woods turns his attention to issues of democracy and leadership. He has provided an eloquent, intellectually compelling and sophisticated account of a new leadership label--democratic leadership. He argues that the purpose of "democratic" leadership is to create and help sustain an environment that enables everyone…
Objectives. To assess whether voting patterns in the 2016 US presidential election were correlated with long-run trends in county life expectancy. Methods. I examined county-level voting data from the 2008 and 2016 presidential elections and assessed Donald Trump’s share of the 2016 vote, change in the Republican vote share between 2008 and 2016, and changes in absolute numbers of Democratic and Republican votes. County-level estimates of life expectancy at birth were obtained for 1980 and 2014 from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Results. Changes in county life expectancy from 1980 to 2014 were strongly negatively associated with Trump’s vote share, with less support for Trump in counties experiencing greater survival gains. Counties in which life expectancy stagnated or declined saw a 10-percentage-point increase in the Republican vote share between 2008 and 2016. Conclusions. Residents of counties left out from broader life expectancy gains abandoned the Democratic Party in the 2016 presidential election. Since coming to power, the Trump administration has proposed cuts to health insurance for the poor, social programs, health research, and environmental and worker protections, which are key determinants of population health. Health gaps likely will continue to widen without significant public investment in population health. PMID:28817322
To assess whether voting patterns in the 2016 US presidential election were correlated with long-run trends in county life expectancy. I examined county-level voting data from the 2008 and 2016 presidential elections and assessed Donald Trump's share of the 2016 vote, change in the Republican vote share between 2008 and 2016, and changes in absolute numbers of Democratic and Republican votes. County-level estimates of life expectancy at birth were obtained for 1980 and 2014 from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Changes in county life expectancy from 1980 to 2014 were strongly negatively associated with Trump's vote share, with less support for Trump in counties experiencing greater survival gains. Counties in which life expectancy stagnated or declined saw a 10-percentage-point increase in the Republican vote share between 2008 and 2016. Residents of counties left out from broader life expectancy gains abandoned the Democratic Party in the 2016 presidential election. Since coming to power, the Trump administration has proposed cuts to health insurance for the poor, social programs, health research, and environmental and worker protections, which are key determinants of population health. Health gaps likely will continue to widen without significant public investment in population health.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2009 award winner, Professor Krzysztof Matyjaszewski, developed Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization to make polymers with copper catalysts and environmentally friendly reducing agents.
We review a model of sociophysics which deals with democratic voting in bottom up hierarchical systems. The connection to the original physical model and technics are outlined underlining both the similarities and the differences. Emphasis is put on the numerous novel and counterintuitive results obtained with respect to the associated social and political framework. Using this model a real political event was successfully predicted with the victory of the French extreme right party in the 2000 first round of French presidential elections. The perspectives and the challenges to make sociophysics a predictive solid field of science are discussed.
Lehane, Christopher S.
The 2008 presidential election stands as a "change" election. The public's anxiety over the challenges globalization poses to the future of the American Dream is driving a desire for the country to change direction. The American people understand that what will give the nation a competitive advantage in a global marketplace are the…
Vontz, Thomas S.; Nixon, William A.
Although elections are an annual theme in many social studies classrooms, presidential election years prompt increased interest among students in the electoral process and offer an opportunity to teach about a national election as it happens. This ERIC Digest describes the legal requirements and traditions of U.S. presidential elections, processes…
... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Presidential determination. 206.38 Section 206.38 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY....38 Presidential determination. (a) The Governor's request for a major disaster declaration may result...
Ehn, Pelle; Brandt, Eva; Halse, Joachim
Designers and design researchers are increasingly exploring societal challenges through engagements with issues that call forward new publics and new modes of democratic citizenship. Whatever this is called design activism, social design, adversarial design, participatory design or something else...
... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Presidential Election Campaign Fund. 701.9006-1...) INTERNAL REVENUE PRACTICE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND § 701.9006-1 Presidential Election Campaign Fund. (a) Transfer of amounts to the Presidential Election Campaign Fund. The Secretary shall determine...
Full Text Available Author uses example of the last presidential elections in Montenegro trying to analyze several factors of transition at the Balkans. The overview of the elections' process shows that international community is the key factor in preventing democratic changes in this small state. The main reason for this attitude is geopolitical rearrangement of the Balkans intended toward oppression and cleaning of Serbian factor in former Yugoslav republics. Finally, author shows that crucial factor of this chain in making of new constellation is business and Serbian political elite, whose behavior displays absolute lack of national consciousness, responsibility and solidarity.
Full Text Available People have tended to load their different conceptions of democracy with their own political ideals; in this paper it is argued that normative and definitional questions should rather be separated, so that political philosophers and political scientists may adopt the same concept of democracy, even if they disagree normatively or politically. Moreover, it is argued that we should replace an absolute notion of democracy by a relativized notion, which allows for different degrees of democraticity. This facilitates the separation of normative and conceptual issues and it is convenient in contexts in which “democratic deficits” are discussed – as e.g. when democracy is to be implemented on a supranational level. Moreover, it has the consequence that democratic deficits are not necessarily bad. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1837342
María PUIG GUTIÉRREZ
Full Text Available Let’s sense beforehand in this article a tour concerning the educational European policies that favors the development of a democratic citizenship. The aim that we chase is to understand the way in which nowadays it is being interpreted and stimulated the Citizenship education from European Union. for it we offer a conceptual delimiting of «Citizenship education» and later, we show an analysis of the principal documents and materials elaborated principally by the Council of Europe that mark the way followed by European Union as for education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC.
National Archives and Records Administration — MCMD serves as a descriptive catalog for the Presidential Libraries museum collections, and also supports a full range of museum collections management processes...
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1999 award winner, Professor Terry Collins, developed a series of TAML oxidant activators that work with hydrogen peroxide to replace chlorine bleaches for paper making and laundry.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1997 award winner, Professor Joseph M. DeSimone, developed surfactants that allow carbon dioxide to be a solvent for chemical manufacturing, replacing hazardous chemical solvents.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2007 award winner, Professor Michael J. Krische, developed selective C-C bond-forming hydrogenation without organometallic reagents, eliminating hazardous reagents and hazardous waste.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2011 award winner, Professor Bruce H. Lipshutz, designed a novel, second-generation surfactant called TPGS-750-M. It is a designer surfactant composed of safe, inexpensive ingredients.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2006 award winner, Professor Galen J. Suppes, developed a process to convert waste glycerin from biodiesel production into propylene glycol to replace ethylene glycol in antifreeze.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2004 award winners, Professors Charles A. Eckert and Charles L. Liotta, use supercritical CO2 as a solvent to combine reactions and separations, improve efficiency, and reduce waste.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2005 award winner, Professor Robin D. Rogers, used ionic liquids to dissolve and process cellulose from wood, cloth, or paper to make new biorenewable or biocompatible materials.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1996 award winner, Professor Mark Holtzapple, developed methods to convert waste biomass (e.g., sewage sludge, agricultural wastes), into animal feed, industrial chemicals, or fuels.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2008 award winners, Professors Robert E. Maleczka, Jr. and Milton R. Smith, III, developed halogen-free, catalytic C-H activation/borylation to make aryl and heteroaryl boronic esters.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2016 award winner, Professor Chirik, discovered a class of catalysts used to produce silicones for consumer goods without using hard-to-mine platinum (less mining, reduces costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and waste).
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2003 award winner, Professor Richard A. Gross, developed a transesterification to make polyol-containing polyesters using lipase, replacing heavy metal catalysts and hazardous solvents.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2001 award winner, Professor Chao-Jun Li, uses metal catalysts in water to carry out chemical reactions that used to need both an oxygen-free atmosphere and hazardous organic solvents.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2000 award winner, Professor Chi-Huey Wong, developed reactions with enzymes and safer solvents that can replace traditional reactions done with toxic metals and hazardous solvents.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2013 award winner, Prof Richard P. Wool of the University of Delaware, created high-performance materials using vegetable oils, feathers, and flax. Can be used as adhesives, composites, foams, and circuit boards.
Alates 1. oktoobrist 2009 hakkab president Toomas Hendrik Ilvest infotehnoloogia-, innovatsiooni- ja laiemalt ettevõtluse küsimustes nõustama Skype Eesti juht Sten Tamkivi. Ilmunud ka: Äripäev 2. okt. 2009, lk. 3, pealk.: Tamkivist saab presidendi nõunik; Eesti Elu 2. okt. 2009, lk. 2, pealk.: Skype Eesti juht hakkab presidenti nõustama; Meie Kodu 7. okt. 2009, lk. 3, pealk.: Presidenti hakkab nõustama Skype Eesti juht Sten Tamkivi; Vaba Eesti Sõna 1. okt. 2009, lk. 5, pealk.: Skype Eesti juht hakkab presidenti nõustama; Arvutimaailm 2009, nr. 10, lk. 56, pealk.: Skype'i juht hakkab presidenti nõustama
Early, Gerald L.
In this article, the author shares his thoughts when he saw the controversial "New Yorker" cover of July 21, 2008 showing the Democratic presidential nominee, Barack Obama, as a Muslim jihadist and his wife, Michelle, as a gun-toting, Afro-wearing black militant. The cover told the story of a rite of African-American passage that occurred at a…
McCormick, Paul R.
The purpose of this study is to examine the experiences of a democratic school leader and understand how his conception of leadership is congruent or incongruent with notions of democracy and democratic leadership. This small, participant-observer case study follows a democratic school leader and his staff for a year and examines those challenges…
This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will
Outlines a model process of developing knowledge from within different groups and cultures to allow more equitable participation of all world societies in the definition of global governance. Reviews concepts relevant to education's contributions toward learning and creating democratic global governance. Discusses the educational utility of…
Emmanuel, Nikolas G.
a political conditionality approach. Few countries have felt the weight of conditionality as much as Malawi did in the 1990s. Here, donors were able to use aid sanctions to successfully encourage democratization, while strengthening the demands of domestic opposition forces. This paper argues that three...
Lebuda, Izabela; Karwowski, Maciej
This study examined the relationship between facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR), an established marker of testosterone level and dominance, and eminent writers' achievement. The fWHR of laureates (N = 39) and nominees (N = 247) of the Nobel Prize in Literature 1901-1950 was measured together with historiometric data. It was demonstrated that…
... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Advisory Committee on Presidential Libraries Meeting... Records Administration (NARA) announces a meeting of the Advisory Committee on Presidential Libraries. The meeting will be held to discuss the Presidential Library program and topics related to the public-private...
Sillesen, Henrik Hegaard
The presidential address describes briefly the history of the World Federation for Vascular Societies (WFVS) and its objectives. Vascular Surgery today includes interventional procedures (open surgical and endovascular) in addition to risk factor reduction and medical treatment. It is equally imp...... throughout the world. In addition, for introduction of new treatments, training issues and dissemination of science a global organisation like the WFVS is needed.......The presidential address describes briefly the history of the World Federation for Vascular Societies (WFVS) and its objectives. Vascular Surgery today includes interventional procedures (open surgical and endovascular) in addition to risk factor reduction and medical treatment. It is equally...
paved the way either to the strengthening or resurgence of the hegemony, both in policy and discourse, of: [a] “global war on terrorism” over historically sensitive conflict resolution mechanisms; [b] “authoritarian liberalism” over democratization; and [c] neo-liberalism over developmental statism....... Each of these phenomena is inherently unstable and conflict-ridden. Hence, the securitization of social life in the region is not resulting in the reproduction of security-development agenda patterned after the US, but in the reproduction of social antagonisms that spring from the very contradictions...
Lucaites, John Louis
Explores the negative popular reaction to the 1988 Presidential Debates. Examines how these events function as ritualistic enactments of the , thus providing a rhetorical legitimacy for the electoral process in a system dedicated to . Suggests how the 1988 debates failed to satisfy that function. (MM)
Hogan, J. Michael
Discusses the function of media nihilism--the rhetoric of "crisis and failure"--in the 1988 Presidential Debates. Examines journalists' debate questions, noting that they painted an almost wholly negative portrait of America. Suggests that the candidate who effectively "skewers" the media on its own hypocrisy should be declared…
Binstock, Robert H.
Examines what is known about one element of the politics of aging--the voting behavior of older persons in recent presidential elections--and suggests areas of research on the 1992 election that may tell something about how far, and how soon, proponents of generational equity will be able to move toward dismantling policies that benefit older…
Benoit, William L.
Presidential debates come in all shapes and sizes. The presence and length of opening statements and closing remarks, the opportunity and length of rebuttal, the nature of the questioner, and other factors have created a bewildering variety of formats. However, most scholars agree that these confrontations are not "really" debates but merely…
... e-mail address is [email protected] (j) Ronald Reagan Library is located at 40 Presidential... is 805-577-4074. The e-mail address is reagan[email protected] (k) George Bush Library is located at...
Fisher, Walter R.
This practical criticism is written for communication scholars who seek further understanding of significant communication events. Believing that a romantic strain exists in American history/politics, this essay suggests characteristics of presidential heroes, relates Ronald Reagan's rhetoric to the romantic tradition, and compares his rhetoric…
Nuclear information (Nl) interests people for many reasons, with energy supply, safety, and security being at the top of the list. Democratizing nuclear information has its roots in the growth of a knowledge-based economy, the knowledge worker as a user of nuclear information, developments in information and communication technologies (ICT), and the impact of internet growth. Results of democratization are apparent in the process of information creation, in how nuclear information is distributed and accessed, and in the conditions for using the information found. The International Nuclear Information System (INIS) both reflects and contributes to these trends. Nuclear information falls under the overall umbrella of scientific and technical information (STI). It is highly specialized, but it follows general principles and trends of STI. The world of STI has its own culture and its own long-established rules of use and existence. These have brought us many inventions and improvements, introduced important technological changes, and made our lives and work much easier and more pleasurable. However, the world is constantly changing, and the traditional closed STI environment, including the world of nuclear information, is not keeping up with today’s changes. (author)
Nejabati, Reza; Peng, Shuping; Simeonidou, Dimitra
The current Internet infrastructure is not able to support independent evolution and innovation at physical and network layer functionalities, protocols and services, while at same time supporting the increasing bandwidth demands of evolving and heterogeneous applications. This paper addresses this problem by proposing a completely democratized optical network infrastructure. It introduces the novel concepts of the optical white box and bare metal optical switch as key technology enablers for democratizing optical networks. These are programmable optical switches whose hardware is loosely connected internally and is completely separated from their control software. To alleviate their complexity, a multi-dimensional abstraction mechanism using software-defined network technology is proposed. It creates a universal model of the proposed switches without exposing their technological details. It also enables a conventional network programmer to develop network applications for control of the optical network without specific technical knowledge of the physical layer. Furthermore, a novel optical network virtualization mechanism is proposed, enabling the composition and operation of multiple coexisting and application-specific virtual optical networks sharing the same physical infrastructure. Finally, the optical white box and the abstraction mechanism are experimentally evaluated, while the virtualization mechanism is evaluated with simulation. © 2016 The Author(s).
Brian R Spisak
Full Text Available As nation-state leaders age they increasingly engage in inter-state militarized disputes yet in industrialized societies a steady decrease in testosterone associated with aging is observed--which suggests a decrease in dominance behavior. The current paper points out that from modern societies to Old World monkeys increasing both in age and social status encourages dominant strategies to maintain acquired rank. Moreover, it is argued this consistency has shaped an implicit prototype causing followers to associate older age with dominance leadership. It is shown that (i faces of older leaders are preferred during intergroup conflict and (ii morphing U.S. Presidential candidates to appear older or younger has an overriding effect on actual election outcomes. This indicates that democratic voting can be systematically adjusted by activating innate biases. These findings appear to create a new line of research regarding the biology of leadership and contextual cues of age.
Spisak, Brian R
As nation-state leaders age they increasingly engage in inter-state militarized disputes yet in industrialized societies a steady decrease in testosterone associated with aging is observed--which suggests a decrease in dominance behavior. The current paper points out that from modern societies to Old World monkeys increasing both in age and social status encourages dominant strategies to maintain acquired rank. Moreover, it is argued this consistency has shaped an implicit prototype causing followers to associate older age with dominance leadership. It is shown that (i) faces of older leaders are preferred during intergroup conflict and (ii) morphing U.S. Presidential candidates to appear older or younger has an overriding effect on actual election outcomes. This indicates that democratic voting can be systematically adjusted by activating innate biases. These findings appear to create a new line of research regarding the biology of leadership and contextual cues of age.
Balliet, Daniel; Tybur, Joshua M; Wu, Junhui; Antonellis, Christian; Van Lange, Paul A M
Theories suggest that political ideology relates to cooperation, with conservatives being more likely to pursue selfish outcomes, and liberals more likely to pursue egalitarian outcomes. In study 1, we examine how political ideology and political party affiliation (Republican vs. Democrat) predict cooperation with a partner who self-identifies as Republican or Democrat in two samples before ( n = 362) and after ( n = 366) the 2012 US presidential election. Liberals show slightly more concern for their partners' outcomes compared to conservatives (study 1), and in study 2 this relation is supported by a meta-analysis ( r = .15). However, in study 1, political ideology did not relate to cooperation in general. Both Republicans and Democrats extend more cooperation to their in-group relative to the out-group, and this is explained by expectations of cooperation from in-group versus out-group members. We discuss the relation between political ideology and cooperation within and between groups.
The forms that are adopted to give practical meaning to democracy are assessed to identify what their implications are for the production of public policies in general and cultural policies in particular. A comparison of direct, representative, democratic elitist and deliberative versions of democracy identifies clear differences between them in terms of policy form and democratic practice. Further elaboration of these differences and their consequences are identified as areas for further res...
This paper investigates the democratic role orientation in news media and the perception and preference in the population towards the democratic practice of these news media.......This paper investigates the democratic role orientation in news media and the perception and preference in the population towards the democratic practice of these news media....
Oryan, Shlomit; Gastil, John
Some prominent parent education theories in the United States and other Western countries base their educational viewpoint explicitly on democratic values, such as mutual respect, equality and personal freedom. These democratic parenting theories advocate sharing power with children and including them in family decision making. This study presents a textual analysis of two such theories, the Adlerian model of parent education and the Parent Effectiveness Training (PET) model, as they are embodied in two original bestselling textbooks. Through content and argumentation analysis of these influential texts, this study examines the paradoxes inherent in these two theories when they articulate how to implement fully democratic principles within the parent-child relationship. We discover that in spite of their democratic rationale, both books offer communication practices that guide the child to modify misbehaviour, enforce parental power, and manipulate the child to make decisions that follow parental judgment, and thus do not endorse the use of a truly democratic parenting style. We suggest, as an alternative to the democratic parenting style, that parents be introduced to a guardianship management style, in which they do not share authority with children, but seek opportunities for enabling children to make more autonomous decisions and participate in more family decision making.
astrologer waiting for loaves of bread at a bakery in Qalat, know that the new Afghan Constitution allows them full personal rights. But he still says he must...of nearly all development indices, has no extended tradition of uni- versal franchise , and has experienced almost a quarter century of continual
... for Teaching of American History and Civics (Presidential Academies) that offer workshops for both... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Presidential Academies for Teaching of American History and Civics; Office of Innovation and Improvement; Overview Information; Presidential Academies for Teaching of American...
Nanda Anggarani Putri
Full Text Available This study investigates the use of person deixis in presidential campaign speeches. This study is important because the use of person deixis in political speeches has been proved by many studies to give significant effects to the audience. The study largely employs a descriptive qualitative method. However, it also employs a simple quantitative method in calculating the number of personal pronouns used in the speeches and their percentages. The data for the study were collected from the transcriptions of six presidential campaign speeches of Barack Obama and Mitt Romney during the campaign rally in various places across the United States of America in July, September, and November 2012. The results of this study show that the presidential candidates make the best use of pronouns as a way to promote themselves and to attack their opponents. The results also suggest that the use of pronouns in the speeches enables the candidates to construct positive identity and reality, which are favorable to them and make them appear more eligible for the position.
Full Text Available This study focuses on the degree of political dominance exercised on cabinets by the executive chief in presidential systems. According to a debate that began in the 1990s, presidential systems are characterized by a non-collegial decision-making process, led by and personified in the figure of the president, in contrast to parliamentary systems where a joint decision-making process is prevalent. The key argument of this research note is that, although the majority of presidents have the constitutional power to remove cabinet ministers, the executive decision-making process in presidential systems is not necessarily vertical or based on a non-collegial process. By building a new index, we reveal a significant variation in the executive power exerted by presidents over their cabinets. To classify the degree of political dominance of presidents over their cabinets, we analyzed the rules of cabinet decision-making processes as defined in 18 Latin American constitutions.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2005 award winner, Metabolix, used biotechnology to develop microorganisms that produce polyhydroxyalkanoates: natural, biodegradable plastics with a range of environmental benefits.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2004 award winner, Buckman Laboratories International, developed Optimyze technology, which uses an esterase enzyme to remove sticky contaminants from paper products prior to recycling.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2001 award winner, EDEN Bioscience, discovered and commercialized harpins: nontoxic, naturally occurring, biodegradable proteins that activate a plant's defense and growth mechanisms.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2007 award winner, Headwaters Technology Innovation, developed a metal nanocatalyst to synthesize hydrogen peroxide directly from hydrogen and oxygen, eliminating hazardous chemicals.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2014 award winner, The Solberg Company, replaced fluorinated surfactants in its firefighting foam concentrates with a blend of non-fluorinated surfactants and sugars.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2005 award winner, Archer Daniels Midland, developed Archer RC, a nonvolatile, biobased, reactive coalescent that replaces volatile organic coalescents in architectural latex paints.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2010 award winner, Clarke, developed Natular, a plaster matrix that encapsulates the pesticide spinosad, slowly releasing it into water and effectively controlling mosquito larvae.
14. juulil 2008 Haagis alanud Rahvusvahelise Kriminaalkohtu protsessil süüdistatakse Sudaani presidenti Omar Hassan al-Bashiri inimsusevastaste kuritegude toimepanekus Sudaani konfliktipiirkonnas Darfuris
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2014 award winner, Solazyme, engineered microalgae to produce oils tailored to customers’ needs that can mimic or enhance properties of traditional vegetable oils.
Over recent years there has been a tendency to present John Locke as an equalitarian democrat (Ashcraft) and being close to the political views of the levellers (Waldron). This is not a completely new interpretation (Kendall, 1941), but contrasts with the prevalent view presented in textbooks (......, criteria for a democratic process, and the institutions of polyarchy. The conclusion has implications for the relationship between political liberalism and constitutionalism on the one hand and democracy on the other....
Cornell, Agnes; Lapuente, Victor
, in democracies with meritocratic administrations, incumbents are credibly constrained from undertaking partial policies because their hands are tied in terms of managing the staff policy of the state apparatus. Consequently, countries with meritocratic bureaucracies have greater prospects for democratic...... stability. Empirically, we illustrate the mechanisms with two well-documented cases of democratic transitions that enshrined a politicized administration – Spain (1876–1936) and Venezuela (1958–1998) – and one transition that kept a meritocratic bureaucracy, Spain (1975–)....
Banai, Benjamin; Laustsen, Lasse; Banai, Irena Pavela; Bovan, Kosta
Previous studies have shown that voters rely on sexually dimorphic traits that signal masculinity and dominance when they choose political leaders. For example, voters exert strong preferences for candidates with lower pitched voices because these candidates are perceived as stronger and more competent. Moreover, experimental studies demonstrate that conservative voters, more than liberals, prefer political candidates with traits that signal dominance, probably because conservatives are more likely to perceive the world as a threatening place and to be more attentive to dangerous and threatening contexts. In light of these findings, this study investigates whether country-level ideology influences the relationship between candidate voice pitch and electoral outcomes of real elections. Specifically, we collected voice pitch data for presidential and prime minister candidates, aggregate national ideology for the countries in which the candidates were nominated, and measures of electoral outcomes for 69 elections held across the world. In line with previous studies, we found that candidates with lower pitched voices received more votes and had greater likelihood of winning the elections. Furthermore, regression analysis revealed an interaction between candidate voice pitch, national ideology, and election type (presidential or parliamentary). That is, having a lower pitched voice was a particularly valuable asset for presidential candidates in conservative and right-leaning countries (in comparison to presidential candidates in liberal and left-leaning countries and parliamentary elections). We discuss the practical implications of these findings, and how they relate to existing research on candidates' voices, voting preferences, and democratic elections in general.
... Presidential Permit No. PP-22, as amended, to BC Hydro. The application requested that the Department of Energy... the transmission of electric energy between the United States and a foreign country is prohibited in... law pursuant to British Columbia's Clean Energy Act. Since restructuring of the electric power...
As a presidential search consultant, Preston Pulliams has had the opportunity to observe and participate in many presidential search interviews and the meetings where hiring decisions are made. He has observed how some interview candidates simply knocked themselves out of contention by employing one or more of five poor interview strategies. In…
Benoit, William L.; Hansen, Glenn J.
This study employs NES (National Election Survey) data from several presidential elections to investigate the effects of presidential debate watching on voters' issue knowledge, character evaluation, and vote choice. Debates can instill issue knowledge; however, voters are less likely to learn about incumbent presidents seeking re-election after a…
Gore, Deborah, Ed.
This issue features articles and activities that concern the history of the presidential election process in the United States, with a special focus on Iowa's role in that process. The following features are included: "Lights, Camera, Action!"; "Presidential Whoopla"; "From Tree Stumps to Living Rooms"; "Wild…
Ricardo R. Gómez Vilchis
Full Text Available How important are citizen perceptions of an increase in crime rate when they evaluate the President? This article uses Mexico as a case study to examine the relationship between perception of crime and citizen grading of the President. The research uses 11 national surveys from 1994 to 2006 to analyze the effects of perception of crime on citizen grading of the President before and after the 2000 presidential election. The main proposition is that, after the 2000 political transition, perception of crime, together with other economic variables, becomes more relevant and has stronger effects when citizens evaluate the President due to an increase of their expectations of the Executive's competence.
Feerick, John D
This article focuses on potential gaps caused by the absence from the Twenty-Fifth Amendment of provisions to deal with the disability of a Vice President and the omission from the statutory line of succession law of provisions comparable to Sections 3 and 4 of the Twenty-Fifth Amendment for when there is an able Vice President. The analysis offers a critical review of the latent ambiguities in the succession provision to the United States Constitution, noting problems that have arisen from the time of the Constitutional Convention, to John Tyler's accession to office, to numerous disability crises that presented themselves throughout the twentieth century, to the present day. As the world becomes more complex and threats to the presidency more common, continued examination of our succession structure and its adequacy for establishing clear and effective presidential succession provisions under a broad range of circumstances is of paramount concern. This article embraces this robust discussion by offering some suggestions for improving the system in a way that does not require a constitutional amendment. The first part of the analysis traces the events that have driven the development of the nation's succession procedures. The second part examines the inadequacies, or "gaps," that remain in the area of presidential inability, and the third part sets forth recommendations for resolving these gaps.
what actually constitute the fundamental challenges of the Nigerian democratic ... Democratic governance has inherent checks and balance principles that ..... billion on less than $2 a day globally (WDI, 2012), with Africa accounting for a large.
Lees, Kimberly A.
Examines how the concepts advanced by critical theorists exemplify democratic leadership. The concept of democratic leadership is explored as a moral imperative of human issues, and the implications of leadership behavior that emulate the principles of democracy are discussed. (SLD)
processes of democratic pedagogy are often antithetical to the processes of contemporary schooling. Based on a case study of an attempt at democratic pedagogy in an Australian primary school, this paper explores some of the factors that may ... individual citizens for participation in and commit- ment to democratic ...
Silvana Aparecida de Souza
Full Text Available It is a conceptual and theoretical research on school organization and its democratization, focusing on one aspect of an objective nature: its architecture. The study was based on the academic literature on democratization and theoretical contribution of Michel Foucault, with regard to the analysis of space as a resourcecontrol, surveillance and training, going through a historical review of the modelconstruction of school buildings in Brazil. It is therefore a sociological analysis of the school environment, in relation to the democratization process of basic education, understood as ensuring that the conditions of access and permanence to a universalquality education, and conceived and gestated from collective interests of its users.We conclude that the architecture of public schools in Brazil do not provides democratic management, either by format controller of buildings constructed in the republican period, either by the current economic priority for the construction of public school buildings, which includes little or no space for collective activities. The character of the buildings remains controller, no more for its architecture, but made possible by technological development, which allows monitoring by video cameras, which is made with the permission and support of community.
Hreinsdottir, Anna Magnea; Davidsdottir, Sigurlina
In this study, the merit of using deliberative democratic evaluations is studied in light of ten questions asked by House and Howe, which defined the approach and raise issues of interests, representation, and choice of stakeholders, power balances and procedures for controlling them, participation, reflection and deliberation. Suggestions by…
Alleman, Janet; Brophy, Jere
Researchers have been studying children's knowledge, thinking, and attitudes about government for several decades. However, the studies focusing on elementary students, and especially primary students, have little or nothing to say about children's ideas about democracy or democratic government. That is because children at these ages have not yet…
The report presents, in brief, the findings from the study of research literature on Adult Education for Democratic Citizenship, which was carried out in the nine EU member states represented by the project: Austria, Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, Spain and United Kingdom...
Full Text Available The article explores whether the interstate dynamics of the BRICS can activate those processes of convergence of politicalregimes and practices known as “democratic contagion.” As this contagion was experienced during the “third wave” ofdemocratization, mainly because of homogeneity among states and structural conditions for democratic attraction, theBRICS are not likely to repeat these dynamics. On the contrary, the only real constitutional homogeneity among the BRICScountries is the standard of non-interference in the internal affairs of each member. Non-interference also means abstainingfrom any initiative to condition the transformation of political regimes in consideration of the same interstate cooperation. Thedynamics of the BRICS shows that different political regimes can promote institutionalized forms of interstate cooperationwithout any mutual contamination at the constitutional level. The theories of “transition” and “democratic contagion” areinsufficient to understand these dynamics in the context of the BRICS; for this reason, the theory of democratic transitioncannot provide an adequate analysis of BRICS. With its members “split in unity,” as an institution the BRICS suggests anevolution toward a model of “not eurocentric dependence” that can overcome the “peripheral realism” of the role of eachstate in its own foreign policy.
Full Text Available Constitutional provisions regarding presidential re-election have been modified in several Latin American countries in recent years. In some countries, these changes put the existence of democracy at risk. This article uses the principal-agent approach to analyze the role of the constitutional judge in presidential re-election as an accountability mechanism. It finds that immediate reelection in democracies of strong presidentialism can be a perverse mechanism that sharpens the concentration of power and deteriorates the welfare of the citizens instead of making politicians accountable.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2013 award winner, Faraday Technology, Inc., process high-performance chrome coatings to be made from the less toxic, trivalent chromium. Reduce millions of pounds hexavalent chromium without comprising performance.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2006 award winners, Arkon Consultants and NuPro Technologies, developed a safer processing system for flexographic printing that includes washout solvents and reclamation/recycling.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2003 award winner, Shaw Industries, developed EcoWorx carpet tiles with a backing that uses less toxic materials. The carpet tile fiber and backing are readily separated for recycling.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2011 award winner, Sherwin-Williams, developed water-based acrylic alkyd paints with VOCs that can be made from recycled soda bottle (PET), acrylics, and soybean oil.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2008 award winner, Battelle, developed a biobased soy toner for laser printers and copiers. The technology saves energy and improves de-inking, allowing more paper fiber to be recycled.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2005 award winner, BASF, invented a one-component, urethane acrylate oligomer primer system for automobile refinishing that is UV-curable, has VOCs, and is free of diisocyanates.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1999 award winner, Nalco Chemical Co., developed homogeneous dispersion polymerization with water as the solvent to make polymers to treat water in industrial and municipal operations.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1998 award winner, Argonne National Laboratory, developed an efficient, membrane-based process to synthesize lactate esters from sugars. These esters can replace toxic solvents.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2000 award winners, Bayer and Bayer AG, Covestro, developed high-performance, water-based, two-component polyurethane (PU) coatings that eliminate most or all VOCs and HAPs in other PU coatings.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1996 award winner, Dow Chemical Company, developed a process to manufacture polystyrene foam sheet packaging that uses carbon dioxide (CO2) as a blowing agent, eliminating CFC-12 and HCFC-22.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2006 award winner, S.C. Johnson & Son, developed Greenlist, a rating system for environmental and health effects of ingredients. SC Johnson uses it to reformulate many of its products.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2010 award winners, Merck & Co. and Codexis, developed an enzymatic synthesis for sitagliptin (Januvia) that reduces waste, improves yield and safety, and eliminates a metal catalyst.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1998 award winner, Flexsys America, developed nucleophilic aromatic substitution for hydrogen to eliminate waste from a common reaction and to produce 4-ADPA, a high-volume chemical.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2008 award winner, Dow AgroSciences, used an artificial neural network to discover spinetoram, an improved spinosad biopesticide to replace organophosphates for key pests of fruit trees.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2001 award winners, Bayer Corporation and Bayer AG, developed a waste-free manufacturing process for sodium iminodisuccinate (Baypure CX), a biodegradable, nontoxic chelating agent.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2010 award winners, Dow and BASF, jointly developed a route to make propylene oxide from hydrogen peroxide that eliminates almost all waste and greatly reduces water and energy use.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1998 award winner Professor Barry M. Trost, developed the concept of atom economy: chemical reactions that do not waste atoms. This is a fundamental cornerstone of green chemistry.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1997 award winner, Legacy Systems, developed the Coldstrip process, which uses only water and oxygen to remove photoresist from silicon semiconductors. It replaces corrosive acids.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1997 award winner, BHC Company, developed a highly atom-efficient method to make ibuprofen, a common painkiller, using three catalytic steps instead of six stoichiometric ones.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2002 award winner, SC Fluids, with Los Alamos National Laboratory, developed supercritical CO2 resist remover technology to clean residues from semiconductor wafers during manufacture.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2012 award winner, Elevance Renewable Sciences, used Nobel-prize-winning metathesis catalysis to produce high-value difunctional chemicals from renewable feedstocks including natural oils.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2007 award winners, Professor Kaichang Li, Columbia Forest Products, and Hercules, developed an adhesive for wood composites based on soy flour instead of resins with formaldehyde.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1999 award winner, Lilly Research Laboratories, developed a low-waste drug synthesis using yeast for a stereospecific reduction, reducing solvent amounts, and replacing chromium oxide.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2016 award winner, Verdezyne, developed a yeast to produce USDA Certified Biobased dodecanedioic acid (DDDA) used to make high performance nylon 6,12. Lower greenhouse gas emissions, no high temperature or nitric acid
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2011 award winner, BioAmber, developed an integrated technology to produce large, commercial quantities of succinic acid by bacterial fermentation, replacing petroleum-based feedstocks.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2009 award winner, Eastman Chemical Co., makes esters for emollients and emulsifiers in cosmetics with immobilized enzymes, saving energy and avoiding strong acids and organic solvents.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2008 award winner, SiGNa Chemistry, stabilized highly reactive sodium and lithium by encapsulating them in porous, sand-like powder, maintaining their usefulness in synthetic reactions.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2013 award winner, Life Technologies, developed a one-pot synthesis for polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is a much more efficient process that prevents about 1.5 million pounds of hazardous waste a year.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2002 award winner, Pfizer, improved its synthesis of sertraline, the active ingredient in its drug, Zoloft, to double the yield and reduce the use of raw materials, energy, and water.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1996 award winner, Donlar, developed thermal polyaspartate, a nontoxic, biodegradable, biobased polymer made in a highly efficient process for use in agriculture, water treatment, etc.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1996 award winner, Monsanto Company, developed a safer synthesis for DSIDA, a key building block for the herbicide RoundUp. The synthesis uses no ammonia, cyanide, or formaldehyde.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2012 award winners, Professor Robert M. Waymouth and Dr. James L. Hedrick, developed a broad class of highly active, environmentally benign, metal-free catalysts for synthesizing plastics.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2003 winner, Sud-Chemie, developed a synthesis for solid oxide catalysts used to make hydrogen and clean fuels. The process creates little wastewater, no nitrates, and no or little NOx.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2007 award winner, NovaSterilis, invented a way to sterilize delicate biological materials such as graft tissue without harming them, using supercritical carbon dioxide and a peroxide.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2004 award winner, Bristol-Myers Squibb, manufactures paclitaxel, the active ingredient in the anticancer drug, Taxol, using plant cell fermentation and extraction to replace synthesis.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2011 award winner, Kraton Performance Polymers, developed halogen-free, high-flow NEXAR polymer membranes using less solvent that save energy during reverse osmosis to desalinate water.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2000 award winner, RevTech, developed a process to print top-quality labels directly on glass. Their Envirogluv inks have no heavy metals, have little to no VOCs, and are biodegradable.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2000 award winner, Roche Colorado, developed a greener synthesis for gancyclovir (Cytovene, a potent antiviral drug) that uses a second-generation Guanine Triester (GTE) process.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2006 award winner, Codexis, directed the evolution of three designer enzymes to produce the key chiral building block for atorvastatin, the active ingredient in the drug Lipitor.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2016 award winner, Dow Agrosciences LLC, developed Instinct®, a technology that reduces fertilizer nitrate leaching to ground and surface waters and atmospheric nitrous oxide emissions. More corn and reduces CO2.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2013 award winner, Cargill, Inc., developed a vegetable-oil-based transformer fluid that is much less flammable, provides superior performance, is less toxic, and has a substantially lower carbon footprint.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2016 award winners, Albemarle and CB&I, developed a safer technology to produce alkylate, a clean gasoline component by replacing liquid acid catalysts with a lower environmental impact catalyst
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2015 award winner, LanzaTech Inc. developed a method to utilize gas streams with a range of CO and H2 compositions to produce fuels such as ethanol and chemicals at high selectivities and yields
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1997 award winner, Albright & Wilson Americas, discovered that tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate, THPS, is an effective, safer biocide for use in industrial water systems.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1999 award winner, Dow AgroSciences, developed spinosad, a highly selective, low-toxicity, nonpersistant insecticide made by a soil microorganism. It controls many chewing insect pests.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2001 award winner, Novozymes North America, developed BioPreparation, an enzyme technology to separate natural waxes, oils, and contaminants from cotton before it is made into fabric.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2002 award winner, Chemical Specialties, developed an alkaline copper quaternary wood preservative to replace chromated copper arsenate preservative phased out due to risk to children.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2009 award winner, CEM Corporation, developed a fast, automated analytical process using less toxic reagents and less energy to distinguish protein from the food adulterant, melamine.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1996 award winner, Rohm and Haas, developed Sea-Nine, a marine antifoulant to control plants and animals on ship hulls. Sea-Nine replaces persistent, toxic organotin antifoulants.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2008 award winner, Nalco Company, developed 3D TRASAR technology to monitor the condition of cooling water continuously and add chemicals only when needed, saving water and energy.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2002 award winner, Cargill Dow, developed the NatureWorks process to make biobased, compostable, and recyclable polylactic acid polymers for fibers and plastic packaging.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1997 award winner, Imation, developed DryView Imaging Systems, which use a special photographic film for medical imaging that replaces hazardous developer chemicals and water with heat.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2012 award winner, Cytec Industries, developed the MAX HT sodalite scale inhibitor for heat exchangers and pipes in the Bayer process, which converts bauxite into alumina.
Features information about Presidential Memorandum on Energy Conservation, Energy Policy Act 2005 Special Section, ESET FEMP Deploys Teams in Response to Natural Gas Concerns, Natural Gas Tips for Facility Managers, and more for federal agencies.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2014 award winner, Amyris, engineered yeast to make a chemical called farnesene, which is a building block hydrocarbon that can be converted into a renewable, drop-in replacement for petroleum diesel.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2003 award winner, DuPont, developed a genetically engineered microorganism jointly with Genencor International to manufacture 1,3-propanediol, a building block for Sorona polyester.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2012 award winner, Codexis and Professor Yi Tang, developed a synthesis for the high cholesterol drug, simvastatin, using an engineered acyltransferase enzyme and a low-cost acyl donor as a feedstock.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2010 award winner, LS9, engineered microorganisms to convert fermentable sugars selectively to alkanes, olefins, fatty alcohols, or fatty esters, each in a single-unit biorefinery.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1998 award winners, Dr. Karen M. Draths and Professor John W. Frost, used benign, genetically engineered microbes and sugars (instead of benzene) to synthesize adipic acid and catechol.
Loredana Pătruţiu Balteș
The French presidential elections of 2012 brought a new political approach concerning the candidates speech, because Europe became one of the main electoral themes within a national election. In full European economic crisis, the French people seem more than ever interested about the future of European construction, and in this context, the presidential candidates had to tackle this topic of interest in their election campaign. Analyzing the speeches of the first three candidates among the Fr...
DeJonckheere, Melissa; Fisher, Andre; Chang, Tammy
The 2016 presidential election season and subsequent political events have had physical and emotional impacts on youth. We collected qualitative insights from 14 to 24 year olds across the US related to these events over time. Open-ended probes were sent via text message at three time points before and after the 2016 presidential election. The majority of youth reported emotional stress during all three time points, and female participants were significantly more likely to experience emotiona...
Juergen Huber; Michael Kirchler
In the U.S. campaign contributions by companies play a major role in financing election campaigns. We analyze contributions by companies before an election and stock market performance after the election for the presidential elections from 1992 until 2004. We find that (i) the percentage of contributions given to the winner in a presidential election and (ii) the total contribution (divided by market capitalization) have a significant positive impact on a company's stock market performance af...
Full Text Available The outcome of the 2016 U.S. Presidential election was a big surprise to many, as the majority of polls had predicted the opposite outcome. In this two-stage cross-sectional study, we focus on how Democrats and Republicans reacted to this electoral surprise and how these reactions might have influenced the way they allocated resources to each other in small groups. We find that, before the election, Republicans showed greater in-group favoritism than Democrats, who treated others equally, regardless of their political affiliation. We then show that Democrats experienced the election outcome as an ego shock and, in the week following the election, reported significantly higher levels of negative emotions and lower levels of self-esteem than Republicans. These reactions then predicted how individuals' decided to allocate resources to others: after the election, Republicans no longer showed in-group favoritism, while Democrats showed out-group derogation. We find these decisions when the tables were turned can be partially explained by differences in participants' state self-esteem.
Full Text Available A democracy is a society in which everyone has equal rights and is able to participate in decision-making processes. Consequently, in a democratic society, democratic behavior is essential. This work investigates the question: In what ways and to what extent can alternative models of education support the development of democratic skills in children? To explore this question, the author analyzes and compares two different approaches to democratic education: The Sudbury approach and the democratic free school approach. The study is based on qualitative research participant observation and open-ended interviews conducted at different Sudbury and democratic free schools in the US.
Andersen, Torben Juul; Hallin, Carina Antonia
insights that can be used strategically if management at headquarters is cognizant about its existence and able to collect this information. We introduce the notion of democratizing the strategic engagement of managers and employees at all levels and locations of the multinational corporation (MNC......) as an essential leadership paradigm. The implied interaction between slow central analytical reasoning at headquarters and updated insights from fast decentralized initiatives in local subsidiaries constitutes an effective dynamic responsive mechanism. This dynamic interaction implies that critical strategic...
Arun Kumar Tripathi
Technology is a form of culture. Technology is shaping the theoretical framework of our social existence. The technological form of life is part and parcel of culture, just as culture in the human sense inescapably implies technologies. There are unfathomable effects of technology on human culture and society. This paper presents the background and the editorial introduction to the special issue: symposium on Education, Technology, & Democracy: Democratization of Technologies.
Fesseha Mulu Gebremariam
Full Text Available The ruling Ethiopia People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF in its notable second reform appraisal held in the aftermath of the 2005 national election concluded that the utmost priority of the government should be realizing fastest and sustainable economic growth that fairly benefits its citizens’ unless the very existence of the country wouldn’t be guaranteed. Given the history of poverty reduction in developing countries, particularly in Africa, EPRDF realized that it is unthinkable to eradicate poverty from Ethiopia adopting neo-liberalism. Above all, the miraculous economic transformation of the South East Asian countries like South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Hong Kong has proved that there is another way to development, not just neo-liberalism. Accordingly, EPRDF, after examining South Korea’s and Taiwan’s history of economic development in particular where both countries have had a large section of rural population unlike Hong Kong and Singapore where both are urban, found ‘developmental state’ relevant to Ethiopia. However, unlike these countries which were originally under non-democratic regimes where their leaders fear the rural peasant and external aggression from their communist rivals, EPRDF has had a great support of rural and urban population with no imminent foreign threat(s, and decided to execute the ideology rather under the umbrella of democracy. Therefore, employing secondary sources, this desk study aims to analyze whether Ethiopia is a ‘democratic developmental state?’ And, concludes that given the practices of the government vis-a-vis the principles of democracy and developmental state, Ethiopia couldn’t be taken as best model for democratic developmental state, rather emerging developmental state.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the relation between democratic values and emotions. The author argues that democratic values and emotional judgments are inter-reducible: political agents use emotional judgments to reflexively evaluate normative paradigms of political life. In the first part of the paper, the author describes the state of emotions in contemporary political philosophy and identifies Charles Stevenson’s ethical conception of emotivism as the first comprehensive attempt to neutrally conceptualize emotions in moral and political thinking. The second part of the paper explores the shortcomings of emotivism and finds an adequate alternative in Martha Nussbaum’s concept of emotional judgment as the one that contains beliefs and values about social objects. In the final part of the paper, the author identifies that moral and political disagreements emerge in democracies from ranking of the importance of political objects. The evaluation criteria for this type of ranking is derived from democratic values which are reducible to agents’ emotional judgments. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179076
van de Pas, R; van Schaik, L G
A progressive erosion of the democratic space appears as one of the emerging challenges in global health today. Such delimitation of the political interplay has a particularly evident impact on the unique public interest function of the World Health Organization (WHO). This paper aims to identify some obstacles for a truly democratic functioning of the UN specialized agency for health. The development of civil society's engagement with the WHO, including in the current reform proposals, is described. The paper also analyses how today's financing of the WHO--primarily through multi-bi financing mechanisms--risks to choke the agency's role in global health. Democratizing the public debate on global health, and therefore the role of the WHO, requires a debate on its future role and engagement at the country level. This desirable process can only be linked to national debates on public health, and the re-definition of health as a primary political and societal concern. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Since 2011 youth movements have staged large protests in African countries for presidential term limits. These have been discussed as struggles against de-democratization. Looking at the movements Y'en a marre in Senegal and Balai citoyen in Burkina Faso we argue that these protests were just as much triggered by socio-economic grievances linked to a corrupt patronage system. Indeed, corruption has been a major issue for both campaigns. We ask how the movement leaders linked the fight against corruption with their struggle against third term amendments in a way that sparked mass mobilization. We use the framing approach as our theoretical framework and show that a framing based on the concept of citizenship enabled both movements to link the issue of corruption to the issue of presidential term amendments and at the same time create a sense of agency in the constituency. This explains at least partly why both Y'en a marre and Balai Citoyen succeeded in their mobilizing efforts.
Bilal, Usama; Knapp, Emily A; Cooper, Richard S
Understanding the effects of widespread disruption of the social fabric on public health outcomes can provide insight into the forces that drive major political realignment. Our objective was to estimate the association between increases in mortality in middle-aged non-Hispanic white adults from 1999 to 2005 to 2009-2015, health inequalities in life expectancy by income, and the surge in support for the Republican Party in pivotal US counties in the 2016 presidential election. We conducted a longitudinal ecological study in 2764 US counties from 1999 to 2016. Increases in mortality were measured using age-specific (45-54 years of age) all-cause mortality from 1999 to 2005 to 2009-2015 at the county level. Support for the Republican Party was measured as the party's vote share in the presidential election in 2016 adjusted for results in 2008 and 2012. We found a significant up-turn in mortality from 1999 to 2005 to 2009-2015 in counties where the Democratic Party won twice (2008 and 2012) but where the Republican Party won in 2016 (+10.7/100,000), as compared to those in which the Democratic Party won in 2016 (-15.7/100,000). An increase in mortality of 15.2/100,000 was associated with a significant (p general population can inform social policy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A democracy is a society in which everyone has equal rights and is able to participate in decision-making processes. Consequently, in a democratic society, democratic behavior is essential. This work investigates the question: In what ways and to what extent can alternative models of education support the development of democratic skills in children? To explore this question, the author analyzes and compares two different approaches to democratic education: The Sudbury approach and the democr...
Romero, Daniel M; Swaab, Roderick I; Uzzi, Brian; Galinsky, Adam D
The current research used the contexts of U.S. presidential debates and negotiations to examine whether matching the linguistic style of an opponent in a two-party exchange affects the reactions of third-party observers. Building off communication accommodation theory (CAT), interaction alignment theory (IAT), and processing fluency, we propose that language style matching (LSM) will improve subsequent third-party evaluations because matching an opponent's linguistic style reflects greater perspective taking and will make one's arguments easier to process. In contrast, research on status inferences predicts that LSM will negatively impact third-party evaluations because LSM implies followership. We conduct two studies to test these competing hypotheses. Study 1 analyzed transcripts of U.S. presidential debates between 1976 and 2012 and found that candidates who matched their opponent's linguistic style increased their standing in the polls. Study 2 demonstrated a causal relationship between LSM and third-party observer evaluations using negotiation transcripts. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
P. S. Kanevskiy
Full Text Available Current article is dedicated to analysis of social cleavages in the American elections and the ways they influenced on presidential election in 2016. Originally developed by S. Rokkan and S.M. Lipset, social cleavages became a classic theme for contemporary political sociology. However, despite the fact that the theory has been developing primarily by Americans, it has been rarely used to analyze electoral system in the USA. Traditionally it’s been aimed at European and developing countries where electoral fragmentation is seen more clearly. But recent changes in the American society and the political system demonstrate the emergence of social cleavages that had not been inherent before. The article shows how American electoral space transformed since the 1980s and how it became more fragmented under the influence of social, economic and ideological factors. Elections in 2016 became a watershed for social cleavages that accumulated through time and aggravated even more considering internal crises in the Democratic and more so in the Republican parties. Donald Trump’s victory is an impersonation of the American party system crisis and of the mainstream politicians’ inability to find proper explanation of the changing electorate. Author shows that American society today is polarized even more than many European countries while group identification determines vectors of political change.
de Aguiar, Marcus A. M.
Social influence plays an important role in human behavior and decisions. Sources of influence can be divided as external, which are independent of social context, or as originating from peers, such as family and friends. An important question is how to disentangle the social contagion by peers from external influences. While a variety of experimental and observational studies provided insight into this problem, identifying the extent of contagion based on large-scale observational data with an unknown network structure remains largely unexplored. By bridging the gap between the large-scale complex systems perspective of collective human dynamics and the detailed approach of social sciences, we present a parsimonious model of social influence, and apply it to a central topic in political science—elections and voting behavior. We provide an analytical expression of the county vote-share distribution, which is in excellent agreement with almost a century of observed U.S. presidential election data. Analyzing the social influence topography over this period reveals an abrupt phase transition from low to high levels of social contagion, and robust differences among regions. These results suggest that social contagion effects are becoming more instrumental in shaping large-scale collective political behavior, with implications on democratic electoral processes and policies. PMID:28542409
Dzakula, Aleksandar; Polasek, Ozren; Sosic, Zvonko; Voncina, Luka; Pavleković, Gordana; Brborović, Ognjen
Health and health care provision are among the most important and politically sensitive public service areas. Politicians carefully incorporate health care program changes in their political agendas to gain votes. However, knowing health care priorities of the electoral body is not useful only to politicians, but also to health policy makers, as it enables them to target the most problematic areas in health care. We conducted a telephone survey of representative sample of voters (n=643) immediately before the presidential elections in Croatia in 2005, to determine the possible differences in health care priorities between left-wing and right-wing voters, and found a high level of homogeneity in their opinions. Health care organization, corruption, and financing issues were identified as the top priorities by both left- and right-wing voters. This agreement in voters' expectations, probably caused by a similar frame of mind of Croatian citizens inherited from pre-democratic times of self-government, could be used by health policy makers to rationally invest the means and efforts in dealing with the most problematic health care issues.
Stewart, Patrick A
Political humor has long been used by candidates to mobilize supporters by enhancing status or denigrating the opposition. Research concerning laughter provides insight into the building of social bonds; however, little research has focused on the nonverbal cues displayed by the individual making humorous comments. This study first investigates whether there is a relationship between facial display behavior and the presence and strength of laughter. Next, the analysis explores whether specific candidate displays during a humorous comment depend on the target of the comment. This paper analyzes the use of humor by Republican and Democratic candidates during ten 2008 presidential primary debates. Data analyzed here employs laughter as an indicator of a successful humorous comment and documents candidate display behavior in the seconds immediately preceding and during each laughter event. Findings suggest specific facial displays play an important communication role. Different types of smiles, whether felt, false, or fear-based, are related to who laughs as well as how intensely the audience is judged to laugh.
Maria Aldina Marques
Full Text Available In a context of increasing presidentialization of legislative election campaigns, I aim to study mitigation as a feature of the Portuguese electoral political debate, a genre of political discourse marked by the intersection with the television media discourse. It is a discursive genre of confrontation between participants-adversaries, seeking for the adhesion of voters by the proposals that they present and also, if not mainly, by the discredit of the political opponent. However, confrontation is not absolute, as the interlocutors must guarantee basic dimensions of political communication, ensuring by the construction, negotiation and co-management of the interpersonal relationship the preservation of a positive individual image in relation to the electorate. I hypothesize that, in this process, linguistic mitigation constitutes a nuclear strategy, carried out in each moment of the debate according to different linguistic-discursive mechanisms. The electoral debate here analysed was held in May 2011 in RTP between Pedro Passos Coelho, leader of the Social Democratic Party, and future prime minister, and José Sócrates, of the Socialist Party, prime minister in office, at the time.
Bragaw, Donald, Ed.
When the Berlin Wall (East Germany) came down, it symbolically foretold the end of the Soviet Union domination of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. This resource guide examines the process toward democratization occurring in those regions. The guide updates the available classroom material on the democratic process. It is divided into three…
This is an introduction to a Special Issue that first considers representative and deliberative conceptions of democratic legitimacy in the EU, and then presents empirical research on how the institutions of the EU are attempting to increase the democratic legitimacy of the multi-level political
of others’” and therefore could be viewed as a legitimate function of the state. 32 Noam Chomsky , Necessary Illusions: Thought Control in Democratic...Social Movements.” Canadian Journal of Sociology 24, no. 1 (Winter 1999): 1–34. Chomsky , Noam. Necessary Illusions: Thought Control in Democratic
Torfing, Jacob; Skelcher, Chris
the democratic governance of regulatory policies in Europe, and highlight the way in which civic participation and democratic ownership is given equal weight to economic competitiveness. We then discuss the potential for institutionalized participatory governance to develop and its prospects for improving...
Perry, Laura B.
Although theorists and policy makers agree that schooling should be democratic, what this exactly means often varies. This article establishes a conceptual model for analyzing education policy in democratic societies, based on the key concepts of equality, diversity, participation, choice, and cohesion. The model facilitates the design,…
Pedersen, Søren Hviid
The main purpose of this paper is to justify two propositions. One, that Schmitt’s political vision is indeed democratic and second, that Schmitt’s democratic vision, plebiscitary or leadership democracy, is better adapted to our modern political condition and the challenges confronting modern...
Peace and Development : Democratization, Poverty Reduction and Risk Mitigation in Fragile and Post Conflict States. Both the social science literature and policymakers tend to take for granted that poverty reduction, risk mitigation and democratization are mutually reinforcing. This basic assumption was first challenged ...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS... Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS that will be held on Thursday, May 26, 2011, and Friday, May 27, 2011..., Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS; Phone: (202) 690-5560. More detailed information about PACHA can be...
... and design standards for Presidential libraries? 1281.4 Section 1281.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.4 What are the architectural and design standards for Presidential libraries? The Archivist is...
... while visiting the Presidential libraries? 1280.90 Section 1280.90 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... Apply for Use of Facilities in Presidential Libraries? § 1280.90 What are the rules of conduct while visiting the Presidential libraries? In addition to the rules in Subpart A, when visiting the museums of...
... Presidential Library-Foundation Partnerships. In accordance with Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular... Committee members provide on issues affecting the functioning of existing Presidential libraries and library... recommendations in its implementation of strategies for the efficient operation of the Presidential libraries...
... Presidential Library-Foundation Partnerships. In accordance with Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular... Committee members provide on issues affecting the functioning of existing Presidential libraries and library... recommendations in its implementation of strategies for the efficient operation of the Presidential libraries. FOR...
... required for a Presidential library? 1281.14 Section 1281.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.14 What type of endowment is required for a Presidential library? (a) Endowment requirement—new libraries. The foundation or...
Full Text Available Current accounts – and particularly the critique – of canon formation are primarily based on some form of identity politics. In the 20th century a representational model of social identities replaced cultivation as the primary means to democratize the canons of the fine arts. In a parallel development, the discourse on canons has shifted its focus from processes of inclusion to those of exclusion. This shift corresponds, on the one hand, to the construction of so-called alternative canons or counter-canons, and, on the other hand, to attempts to restore the authority of canons considered to be in a state of crisis or decaying. Regardless of the democratic stance of these efforts, the construction of alternatives or the reestablishment of decaying canons does not seem to achieve their aims, since they break with the explicit and implicit rules of canon formation. Politically motivated attempts to revise or restore a specific canon make the workings of canon formation too visible, transparent and calculated, thereby breaking the spell of its imaginary character. Retracing the history of the canonization of the fine arts reveals that it was originally tied to the disembedding of artists and artworks from social and worldly affairs, whereas debates about canons of the fine arts since the end of the 20th century are heavily dependent on their social, cultural and historical reembedding. The latter has the character of disenchantment, but has also fettered the canon debate in notions of “our” versus “their” culture. However, by emphasizing the dedifferentiation of contemporary processes of culturalization, the advancing canonization of popular culture seems to be able to break with identity politics that foster notions of “our” culture in the present thinking on canons, and push it in a more transgressive, syncretic or hybrid direction.
This thesis presents an empirical analysis and normative theoretical evaluation of Reddit, a social news website, focusing on its coverage of the 2012 US presidential election campaign. It explores the site's structural features and organization, and evaluates its coverage by standards derived from...
Idrovo, Alvaro J
Changing the presidential regime for a parliamentarian one is currently be-ing discussed in Colombia. This preliminary study explores the potential effects on health of both presidential and parliamentary regimes by using world-wide data. An ecological study was undertaken using countries from which comparable information concerning life-expectancy at birth, political regime, economic development, inequality in income, social capital (as measured by general-ised trust or Corruption Perceptions Index), political rights, civil freedom and cultural diversity could be obtained. Life-expectancy at birth and macro-determinants were compared between both political regimes. The co-relationship between these macro-determinants was estimated and the relationship between political regimen and life-expectancy at birth was estimated using robust regression. Crude analysis revealed that parliamentary countries have greater life-expectancy at birth than countries having a presidential regime. Significant co-relationships between all macro-determinants were observed. No differential effects were observed between both political regimes regarding life-expectancy at birth in multiple robust regressions. There is no evidence that presidential or parliamentary regimes provide greater levels of health for the population. It is suggested that public health policies be focused on other macro-determinants having more known effects on health, such as income inequality.
This article presents the text of Keith Gilyard's presidential address, delivered at the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) Annual Convention in Las Vegas, Nevada, on November 18, 2012. In his address he proposes several core elements that he believes will instrumentally improve the education system in the United States: a rich…
Lamb, John H.
This article outlines a linear regression activity that engages learners, uses technology, and fosters cooperation. Students generated least-squares linear regression equations using TI-83 Plus[TM] graphing calculators, Microsoft[C] Excel, and paper-and-pencil calculations using derived normal equations to predict the 2004 presidential election.…
Thompson, Matthew D.
The purpose of this qualitative case study was to understand the experiences of two community college interim presidents, their characteristics, and how they led institutions following an abrupt presidential departure. There were two fundamental questions framing this research study, 1. How do two interim community college presidents lead…
... appointee who was appointed by the President to a civil service position outside the SES without a break in service, and who left the Presidential appointment for reasons other than misconduct, neglect of duty, or... break in service between the two appointments, the individual continues to be entitled to be reinstated...
Full Text Available The primary aim of this study was to determine the democratic attitudes of the classroomteachers. This study is a descriptive research. In this research, democratic attitude scala which was developed by“published for the attitude research labaratory” and adapted to Turkish educational system by Gözütok (1995 wasused. Research group consisted fifty teachers from four private primary schools in Ankara. The data were analyzed byone way ANOVA. According of the results of the research, democratic attitudes of teachers have been discriminated onteachers’ sexuality, seniority and graduate level
The Aalborg PBL Model [Kjersdam & Enemark, 1997; Kolmos et al., 2004] is an example of a democratic learning system [Qvist, 2008]. Writing one project each semester in teams is an important element in the model. Medicine with Industrial Specialisation - a study at the Faculties of Engineering......, Science and Medicine at Aalborg University - has combined the Aalborg Model with solving cases as used by other models. A questionnaire survey related to democratic learning indicates that the democratic learning has been enhanced. This paper presents the results....
.... In both the presidential and legislative election campaigns, Chen emphasized gaining a separate international identity for Taiwan -- an emphasis to which Beijing strenuously objected as dangerously...
Fotel, Trine; Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob
There has been a growing debate about the democratic problems and potentials of governance networks among political scientists and public managers. While some claim that governance networks tend to undermine democracy, others argue that they have the potential to improve and strengthen democracy....... This debate is found wanting in two respects. First of all, there has been far too little discussion about what democracy means in relation to pluricentric governance networks. Second, the current debate builds on the assumption that it is possible to give a clear-cut answer to the question of the democratic...... problems and merits of governance networks. This assumption is highly questionable, and prevents a more nuanced assessment of the democratic performance of governance networks. As such, it diverts the focus of attention away from the fact that governance networks may be democratic in some respects...
At a time when there is growing disillusionment with the institutions of advanced industrial democracies, there is also increasing interest in new ways of involving citizens in the democratic process...
Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob
impact of governance networks. It claims that the initial celebration of the pluralization of public governance and the subsequent call for a democratic anchorage of governance networks should give way to a new concern for how governance networks can strengthen and democratize political leadership. Tying......Initially, governance networks were intended as tools for making public governance more effective. Yet, scholars have argued that governance networks also have the potential to democratize public governance. This article provides an overview of theoretical arguments pertaining to the democratizing...... political leadership to networked processes of collaborative governance fosters ‘interactive political leadership’. The article presents theoretical arguments in support of interactive political leadership, and provides an illustrative case study of a recent attempt to strengthen political leadership...
This paper summarizes research and development activities in the field of computerized operator support systems, self-powered detectors, boiling diagnostic and loose part detection systems in the German Democratic Republic
Hartman, Catherine L.
The research cited and the inservice experiences with teachers described suggest that attitude screening criteria and a training program show promise for producing administrators and teachers with democratic leadership abilities. (Author/IRT)
Strengthening Democratic Governance through ICTs : Post Election ... has had several consequences, culminating in the disputed general elections of December 2007. ... Linking research to urban planning at the ICLEI World Congress 2018.
Billingsley, Joseph; Lieberman, Debra; Tybur, Joshua M
Why is disgust sensitivity associated with socially conservative political views? Is it because socially conservative ideologies mitigate the risks of infectious disease, whether by promoting out-group avoidance or by reinforcing norms that sustain antipathogenic practices? Or might it be because socially conservative ideologies promote moral standards that advance a long-term, as opposed to a short-term, sexual strategy? Recent attempts to test these two explanations have yielded differing results and conflicting interpretations. Here, we contribute to the literature by examining the relationship between disgust sensitivity and political orientation, political party affiliation, and an often overlooked outcome-actual voter behavior. We focus on voter behavior and affiliation for the 2016 U.S. presidential election to determine whether pathogen or sexual disgust better predicts socially conservative ideology. Although many prominent aspects of Donald Trump's campaign-particularly his anti-foreign message-align with the pathogen-avoidance model of conservatism, we found that pathogen-related disgust sensitivity exerted no influence on political ideology, political party affiliation, or voter behavior, after controlling for sexual disgust sensitivity. In contrast, sexual disgust sensitivity was associated with increased odds of voting for Donald Trump versus each other major presidential candidate, as well as with increased odds of affiliating with the Republican versus the Democratic or Libertarian parties. In fact, for every unit increase in sexual disgust sensitivity, the odds of a participant voting for Trump versus Clinton increased by approximately 30%. It seems, then, that sexual disgust trumps pathogen disgust in predicting socially conservative voting behavior.
Mary, Olivier; Signoret, Stephane
A first article proposes a discussed overview of proposals made by various think tanks, professional bodies or non governmental organisations regarding energy savings, energy transition, climate policies, and mobility. It outlines how contrasted these opinions can be. A second article publishes answers made by the five main candidates (F. Fillon, M. Le Pen, E. Macron, J.-L. Melenchon, and B. Hamon) to the French presidential election on different themes: climate policy, reduction of energy consumption, development of renewable energies, energy transition and social dynamics. A set of more precise questions (with a choice between three simple answers) has also been proposed to the candidates. These questions related to the precautionary principle, means awarded to public bodies and agencies, energy tariff regulation, the climate-energy contribution, the issue of air quality, the promotion of gas-powered vehicles, the decrease of speed limit on roads and motorways, policy of dwelling thermal renewal, the energy saving certificate, the development of heat and cold networks, the mandatory energy audit, the acceptability of renewable energy projects, how to develop biomass energy, the interest of farm methanization, the development of shale gas in France, the shutting down of Fessenheim, the nuclear plant lifetime, perspectives for electricity and heat storage, and the emergence of electricity self-consumption
Full Text Available El artículo analiza los distintos tipos de sistemas mayoritarios de doble vuelta adoptados en América Latina para definir la elección presidencial. Luego de clasificar los distintos tipos de sistemas y de pasar revista a las principales contribuciones de los especialistas en la materia, se examinan los efectos que éstos generan sobre la fragmentación partidaria, la polarización ideológica y la estabilidad de la democracia. El artículo concluye con la idea de que los sistemas de elección presidencial por mayoría absoluta combinados con sistemas de partidos incipientes, representan opciones poco favorables para el mantenimiento de la estabilidad democrática. La segunda conclusión refiere a que los sistemas de mayoría especial (inferior a150% son institutos eficientes para la configuración de escenarios con baja fragmentación y escasa polarización ideológica.The article analyses the types of majoritariam second ballot systems adopted in Latin America for presidential elections. After classifying the diverse range of run-off ballot system, and rewing the principal contributions made by specialist studies on the topic, the article attempts the effects of this systems over the fragmentation, the polarization and the democracy stability. The article concludes that the electoral formula with absolute majority combined with in coactive party systems is a difficult option for the democratic stability. The second conclusion refers that the systems of special majority (less than 50% are efficient institutes for the configuration of boards with low fragmentation and low ideological polarization.
Virginia García Beaudoux
Full Text Available In this paper, in the first place, we present perspectivas elaborated by various authors highlighting the efectiveness of presidents as public communicators as a relevant variable related to the prediction of presidential performance. Second, indicators for the empirical meassurment of the variable are proposed. Third, we discuss the results obtained by means of an empirical exploration that involved the application of the above mentioned indicators to the discourses of four argentinean presidents: Raúl Alfonsín (1983-1989, Carlos Menem (1989-1995 y 1995-1999, Fernando de la Rúa (1999-2001 and Néstor Kirchner (2003-2007. In the last part, we discuss the utility of the variable for evaluating and predicting presidential performance.
DeJonckheere, Melissa; Fisher, Andre; Chang, Tammy
The 2016 presidential election season and subsequent political events have had physical and emotional impacts on youth. We collected qualitative insights from 14 to 24 year olds across the US related to these events over time. Open-ended probes were sent via text message at three time points before and after the 2016 presidential election. The majority of youth reported emotional stress during all three time points, and female participants were significantly more likely to experience emotional responses. White participants were more likely to report negative symptoms than their peers both pre-election and at 4-months post-election. While preliminary, the results indicate that feelings of stress, anxiety, and fear have persisted in the months following the election, particularly for young women. Additional research is needed to examine the long-term effects of political events on the emotional and physical health of youth.
Sang Jun Eun
Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the factors influencing South Korean voters' attitudes towards increasing public expenditure on health and to identify whether the issue of healthcare expenditure influenced candidate choice in the 2012 Korean presidential election. The study used the data from a survey conducted by the Institute of Korean Politics at Seoul National University immediately following the 2012 presidential election. The survey was completed by a nationwide sample of 1,200 people aged 19 or over using a face-to-face interview method and proportional quota sampling based on sex, age, and region. About 44.3% of respondents had a positive attitude toward increasing public health expenditure. There was no significant difference by the candidate they supported (conservative Park Geun-hye or liberal Moon Jae-in. In particular, even 44.9% of conservative supporters agreed with more spending. Politically neutral respondents (OR = 1.76, 90% CI 1.22-2.54 and strong conservative party supporters (OR = 1.53, 90% CI 1.05-2.25 were more likely to support public health expenditure increase compared to strong liberal party supporters. Also, respondents who believed that the economic gap in the country was widening were 1.91 times more likely to support an increase in public health expenditures. However, the issue of health expenditure had no influence on voters' choice of presidential candidates, and in particular no negative effect of choice of the ruling (conservative party's candidate. Our results should be interpreted with care; one possible reason for this lack of effect might be that constituents voted along partisan lines regardless of their attitude to the welfare issue; another possible explanation might be the success of the "left click strategy" of the conservative party. That is, the conservatives did not reject economic democratization or social welfare expansion. Further research should be done to explain why attitudes to health spending
Eun, Sang Jun; Lee, Jin Yong; Jung, Hye-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok
This study aimed to identify the factors influencing South Korean voters' attitudes towards increasing public expenditure on health and to identify whether the issue of healthcare expenditure influenced candidate choice in the 2012 Korean presidential election. The study used the data from a survey conducted by the Institute of Korean Politics at Seoul National University immediately following the 2012 presidential election. The survey was completed by a nationwide sample of 1,200 people aged 19 or over using a face-to-face interview method and proportional quota sampling based on sex, age, and region. About 44.3% of respondents had a positive attitude toward increasing public health expenditure. There was no significant difference by the candidate they supported (conservative Park Geun-hye or liberal Moon Jae-in). In particular, even 44.9% of conservative supporters agreed with more spending. Politically neutral respondents (OR = 1.76, 90% CI 1.22-2.54) and strong conservative party supporters (OR = 1.53, 90% CI 1.05-2.25) were more likely to support public health expenditure increase compared to strong liberal party supporters. Also, respondents who believed that the economic gap in the country was widening were 1.91 times more likely to support an increase in public health expenditures. However, the issue of health expenditure had no influence on voters' choice of presidential candidates, and in particular no negative effect of choice of the ruling (conservative) party's candidate. Our results should be interpreted with care; one possible reason for this lack of effect might be that constituents voted along partisan lines regardless of their attitude to the welfare issue; another possible explanation might be the success of the "left click strategy" of the conservative party. That is, the conservatives did not reject economic democratization or social welfare expansion. Further research should be done to explain why attitudes to health spending did not directly
Judge, Colleen P; Wolgemuth, Tierney E; Hamm, Megan E; Borrero, Sonya
Following the 2016US presidential election, social media posts and news stories amplified concerns about the potential for reduced access to contraception under the incoming administration and urged women to seek long-acting reversible contraception. We aimed to describe women's concerns about future access to contraception, in their own words. A social-media-based, anonymous online survey assessing thoughts and concerns about future access to contraception was distributed to reproductive-aged US women for 1 week in mid-January 2017. Participants who were concerned about future access to contraception could share their thoughts and feelings in an open-ended comments box. We qualitatively analyzed 449 written responses for content and themes, with the goal of characterizing key concerns. Women who provided written comments had a mean age of 28years; 85% were white, 88% had at least a college degree, and 93% identified as Democratic or Democratic-leaning. Women were highly concerned about future affordability of contraceptive methods due to potential loss of insurance, reduced insurance coverage for contraceptive methods and reduced access to low-cost care at Planned Parenthood. Many also worried about increased restrictions on abortion. Participants' concerns regarding access to contraception and abortion centered around themes of reproductive and bodily autonomy, which women described as fundamental rights. Women in this study expressed considerable fear and uncertainty regarding their future access to contraception and abortion following the 2016US presidential election. The potential for restricted access to affordable contraception and abortion was viewed as an unacceptable limitation on bodily autonomy. As the future of US health care policy is debated, many women are concerned about the impact of policy changes on their ability to access affordable contraception and abortion, which many view as essential to the preservation of bodily and reproductive autonomy
Full Text Available The article analyses the process which led to the nominalization of Klaus Iohannis as candidate in the presidential election campaign representing the Christian Liberal Alliance. The adhesion of the National Liberal Party to the European popular party, the retreat of PNL’s president Crin Antonescu from the presidential race and the ascent of the mayor of Sibiu on the political stage, represent the analytical aim of this study, trough statements and media articles. The causes and the stakes of the change of the political affiliation of the Liberal National Party and the reasons of the adhesion to PPE which led locally to the fusion with the Liberal Democrat Party, will be shown by analyzing the statements of the political actors involved in the negotiation and in the political compromise that named Iohannis as the candidate of the right wing, who was already convinced since fall 2014 of winning the elections. The political actors, the PPE members trough their statements and actions, they sustained their candidate during the campaign and through congratulation letters after winning the elections.
William L. Benoit; Mark Glant; Leslie Rill
The Internet is becoming an increasingly important component of political campaigns. This study employed content analysis to apply Functional Theory and Issue Ownership Theory to Obama’s and McCain’s presidential candidate webpages in the 2008 campaign. Acclaims (92%) were more common than attacks (98%); defenses did not occur in this sample. Policy (82%) was addressed more than character (18%). When discussing policy, these candidates addressed future plans most frequently, followed by gener...
Loode-Venemaale Tveri oblastisse suvelaagrisse kogunenud noorteliikumise Naši liikmed kutsuvad seal elavat siga Toomas Hendrik Ilveseks. Info pärineb Matt Siegeli pikemast artiklist "Nashi Summer Camp Tries a New Message", mis ilmus ajalehes The Moscow Times 21. juulil 2008. Ilmunud ka: Virumaa Teataja 22. juuli 2008, lk. 4, pealk.: Eesti presidenti mõnitati Naši suvelaagris; Eesti Elu 25. juuli 2008, lk. 3
provide safe, reliable, and timely transportation for the President, Vice President, Foreign Heads of State, and other official parties as directed by...the Director of the White House Military Office. Presidential helicopter transportation requirements are executed by Marine Helicopter Squadron One...Review Jul 2016 Jul 2016 Jan 2017 Jul 2016 Milestone C Jan 2019 Jan 2019 Jul 2019 Jan 2019 IOT &E Complete Mar 2020 Mar 2020 Sep 2020 Mar 2020 IOC Jul
Office of Personnel Management — Application and Assessment system for Presidential Management Fellows (PMF) and PMF Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) programs. This sytem is access...
... NARA's budget and its strategic planning process as it relates to Presidential Libraries. The meeting... available. Tentative Agenda Opening remarks Approval of minutes Budget and strategic planning Adjournment...
A democratic learning system can be defined as a system where decisions, processes and behaviour related to learning are established through argumentation (discussion) or negotiation (dialog), voting or consensus (alone or in combination) between those affected by the decision simultaneously...... reaching the learning outcomes, the technical and professional knowledge and insight. In principle the participants must be equal with equal rights and feel committed to the values of rationality and impartiality. The Aalborg Model is an example of a democratic learning system although not 100% democratic......, processes and behaviour related to learning can be established through argumentation (discussion) or negotiation (dialog), voting or consensus (alone or in combination) within the group simultaneously reaching the learning outcomes, the technical and professional knowledge and insight. This article...
Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle
In this article democratic learning is conceptualised with inspiration from two academic traditions, one being the conceptions of citizenship, political identities and deliberative democracy in political sociology; the other theories and research on social and lifelong learning. The first part......'s empowerment and inclusion in the Danish democratic model. On the background of these two analyses the authors finally discuss some current democratic problems with integrating the diversity represented by ethnic minority groups. The discussion emphasizes the learning theory perspective on the initiative...... of the article outlines the authors' understanding of the core concepts involved. In the second part these conceptual discussions are related to two themes: the question of public adaptation of historical experiences in connection with the German reunification and the learning perspectives related to women...
Full Text Available Public policies are the most practical part of the triad polity-politics-policy. Public policies are related to the practical areas of planning, implementation and evaluation of the governmental activities. From this perspective, to talk about a perfect public policy (or which aspires to perfection means to speak about an efficient institutional system of a state as a sign of its degree of democratization. This article aims to explore “the cuisine” of democratic systems taking into account the applied perspective of public policy functionality, a type of functionality which is determined by a particular decision, by a kind of rationality or motivation of the actors involved or by a type of an organizational culture. Thus, the study of democracies involves an analytical approach developed at a micro level (the types of parties, institutional designs, election systems, public policies becoming indices of democratization for every state system.
Binder, Thomas; Brandt, Eva; Ehn, Pelle
For more than four decades participatory design has provided exemplars and concepts for understanding the democratic potential of design participation. Despite important impacts on design methodology participatory design has however been stuck in a marginal position as it has wrestled with what has...... been performed and accomplished in participatory practices. In this article we discuss how participatory design may be reinvigorated as a design research programme for democratic design experiments in the light of the de-centring of human-centredness and the foregrounding of collaborative...
Hansen, Louise Ejgod
approach to a target-oriented approach to audience development in which the content of the performance should be matched with certain audience segments. And fourth, the article points to an outcome of the experience related to the challenging of one own view point and thus expanding ones horizon....... of democratization of culture and the democracy theory by James S. Fishkin. The analysis is based on the empirical material of 31 theatre talks carried through as a part of an audience development project and is focused on four different aspects of the democratic potential of theatre: First, how the theatre talks...
In 2001 a new emphasis on learning for democratic citizenship has been championed by the European Commission's Communication on Making a European area of lifelong learning a reality. The communication recognizes active citizenship as one of the four "broad and mutually supporting objectives....... The article introduces the core principles of a European study aiming at investigating, from a comparative perspective, ways in which adults can achieve competencies relevant for democratic citizenship. Furthermore it presents and discusses selected findings. The findings suggest that, in spite of the shift...
Newberry, David A
Since 1988, democracy in Taiwan has evolved and developed a great deal. Experts argue whether this growth constitutes "democratic consolidation" but there is no contention of the idea that the ROC is more democratic now versus pre-1988...
Do democratic institutions and foreign direct investment affect economic growth? Evidence from ... International Journal of Development and Management Review ... The importance of sound democratic institutional structures and foreign direct investment for enhancing economic growth is well documentedin literature.
Roč. 3, č. 1 (2013), s. 15-28 ISSN 1805-8396 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : democratic consensus * fundamental democratic principle * legitimacy of state power Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences
Full Text Available This paper explains why large-scale reform of a civil-law prosecution system will be abandoned, fail, or succeed in exceptional cases, focusing on the strategic interaction between an incumbent president and prosecutors, through a comparative analysis of the South Korea and Russia cases. A civil-law prosecution system could hardly be reformed, although there were several attempts to correct the politicization of the prosecution service, in new presidential democracies. An incumbent president sometimes considers major reform against the prosecutors, but he or she tends to abandon it and seek to form alliance with them, expecting short-term political benefits under intense political competition. Moreover, although a president strongly pushes for large-scale prosecution service reform, he or she also cannot easily achieve this goal, since the prosecutors' willful initiation of criminal proceedings will cause his or her momentum to decline. Indeed, only Putin exceptionally succeeded in major reform of the prosecution system under weak political competition, among South Korean and Russian Presidents after democratization.
Glanzer, Perry L.
We need homeschooling to save education in a liberal democracy from taking a religious form--what I call Democratic Education. Democratic Education emerges when the democratic identity and narrative become elevated to the highest priority when thinking about educating human beings. This elevation becomes particularly dangerous when other…
Khan, Muhammad Saqib; Khan, Irfanullah; Khan, Ahmad Ali; Jan, Farooq; Ahmad, Riaz; Rauf, Hamid
This study is conducted to measure the influence of social media over the democratic behavior of the students. Social media is the main component of political participation in democratic societies and the study of democratic behavior is a highly specialized sub-field in political and social science. The study was concerned with the reasons that to…
Agger, Annika; Löfgren, Karl
: How can we assess the democratic effects of formal network mobilisation? The article will present a tentative framework deriving criteria from both traditional democratic theory, as well as new theories on democratic governance and collaborative planning, which can be deployed for empirical studies......There has, since the end of the 1980s, been a growing interest in western democracies for formally involving citizens in various local planning activities through network governance. The overarching goal has been to increase efficiency in local planning. Equally, it has also been accompanied...... by an underlying idea of enhancing public participation and mobilising the citizens, thereby strengthening local democracy. Even though much is written about these initiatives, the actual democratic effects of these activities have been notably overlooked in the literature. Both among scholars, as well...
Controlul exercitat de serviciile secrete din România asupra politicii și presei – metatemă a alegerilor prezidențiale din 2014 (The Control of the Secret Services Over Politics and Media – Metatheme of the Presidential Election in 2014
Full Text Available The last Romanian presidential elections have been marked – more than in any other post-communist electoral races – by the public debate regarding the control of the secret services over politics and media. This research is focused on the presidential elections in 2014 and aims to analyze the subsequent items of this theme, its media impact, and its effect on the confidence that Romanians have in intelligence organizations, politics and media. This research is not aimed at discerning truth from fiction in the debates that have taken place with regards to the chosen theme. The results of the study validate the hypothesis that public interventions with regards to the theme have a medium and long term potential to shift the balance of power in Romania, by slicing antinomies on legal, institutional and ethical operation of intelligence into a democratic society.
Keith, Novella Zett
How can we support campus-based practitioners of civic and community engagement in moving from normalized engagement toward practices that engage others democratically and respectfully across borders created by social race, class, gender, status, and other markers of difference? The article presents a framework derived from practice theory, a…
... to the prevalence of a monstrous anti-democratic vice such as corruption. Rocked by a decline in morality and national consciousness in both public and private life, the practice of democracy in Africa and Nigeria in particular since ... a cardinal moral theory in Immanuel Kant.s ethical philosophy presented in his work ...
Jonsson, Olafur Pall
Liberal democratic education, as advocated in recent accounts of citizenship education or civic education, is often seen as incompatible with moral education or character education rooted in specific views regarding the virtues. This contrast relies on well established philosophical differences between liberal views of justice and democracy, on…
Aterido, Reyes; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Merotto, Dino; Petracco, Carly; Sanchez-Reaza, Javier
The economy of the Democratic Republic of Congo is not creating sufficient jobs for its young and rapidly growing workforce. Although the Congolese economy has experienced fast growth and poverty has declined, further reducing poverty will require more dynamic job creation and continued reductions in fertility rates. The current youth bulge and potential demographic dividend will open a un...
The purpose of this critical ethnography was to investigate how music educators can approach the development of students' music listening abilities democratically in order to deepen students' musical understandings and, by teaching through music, create pathways for student-teacher transactions that are inclusive, educative, ethical and…
Despite the growing body of literature and general interest in the intersection between the capabilities approach (CA) and education, little work has been done so far to theorize democratic education from a CA perspective. This essay attempts to do so by, first, getting clear about the theory of democracy that has emerged from Amartya Sen's…
San Antonio, Diosdado M.
This paper examines the impact of implementing democratic school leadership via advisory school councils in Philippine public secondary schools. Through an experiment with empirical surveys and interviews, this study reveals that the experimental group had higher levels of commitment, empowerment and trust compared with the control group after one…
Jenlink, Patrick M.
Determining the priorities for leadership education in a democratic society is a complex, challenging responsibility, not a task to be taken lightly. It is complex on one level in that to be a leader in schools "today is to understand a profoundly human as well as a professional responsibility." It is challenging on another level in that preparing…
Page, William Tyler
Is there still an effort to include democratic ideals in public education? Some claim that it is no longer a priority, the result of a lack of common definition or perceived benefits. In today's policy driven climate, school leaders must transition to new and more effective approaches to enhancing learning and teaching. Aspiring principals/leaders…
DiMartino, Catherine; Scott, Janelle
Public officials are increasingly contracting with the private sector for a range of educational services. With much of the focus on private sector accountability on cost-effectiveness and student performance, less attention has been given to shifts in democratic accountability. Drawing on data from the state of New York, one of the most active…
D'Souza, Mario Osbert
This paper examines the mediating role that education plays between religion and democratic community. The paper is situated in the Canadian context and examines this mediation through two questions: First, what is the relationship between religion and education and what is the contribution of this relationship to and within a pluralist society?…
Mullen, Carol A.
This essay builds on a review of studies in education. Journal editorship is explored from the mentoring, democratic, and international perspectives. Trends are examined within the publishing culture around these three editorial functions. Theoretical groundwork is provided for exploring contemporary journal editorship and its challenges and…
This article describes one secondary social studies teacher's attempts to build a pedagogically democratic classroom. The teacher designs curriculum around large essential questions, connects content to the present lives of students, and creates space for students to make their own decisions and choices. The teacher is convinced that she has…
The 1990s was the era of human rights awareness, democratic transitions, and growing involvement of international organizations and the nongovernmental sector in human rights education (HRE). The UN Decade for HRE from 1995–2004 was not only born out of the initiatives and pressures of
.... For half a century, authoritarianism was dominant in Indonesia, but like all dictatorships, Indonesia subsequently had to return to democracy. Pressures from within the authoritarian government and Indonesian society dictated the democratization process. However, the long term prospects for unstable democracy remain unclear.
Taking into account all available data on the mass sector, we obtain unitary rotation matrices that diagonalize the quark matrices by using a specific parametrization of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix. In this way, we find mass matrices for the up- and down-quark sectors of a specific, symmetric form, with traces of a democratic texture.
Bolleyer, Nicole; von Nostitz, Felix-Christopher; Little, Conor
This article theorises and empirically assesses some important intra-organisational implications of maximising democratic equality in political parties both between followers and members and between members and elites. They include weak member commitment, passivity of the rank-and-file membership...
Devlin, Barbara Seeley
Democratic leadership is not always desirable and should be employed only in certain situations. A 1977 study of 315 teachers suggests that when teachers perceive the subject matter under consideration to be important to them, participatory decision making is significantly related to favorable job attitudes. (Author/JM)
A case study of a New Zealand primary school coprincipalship describes the impact of some intergroup misunderstandings and struggles over power. Concludes that building a democratic school community requires a set of considerations and practices different from those promoted within a market-managerial approach. (Contains 7 notes and 51…
Molina, Ricardo; Klinker, JoAnn Franklin
Democratic leadership rests on sacred values, awareness, judgement, motivation and courage. Four turning points in a 38-year school administrator's career revealed decision-making in problematic moments stemmed from values in a personal and professional code of ethics. Reflection on practice and theory added vocabulary and understanding to make…
Draws on a range of country contexts to shed light on the ways in which the practice of leadership is shaped by national aspirations. Examines whether there is a set of ideas, arrangements, and activities that appear to sustain new forms of leadership that support democracy, or whether democratic leadership of schools is a chimera. (Contains 29…
Educational theorists frequently invoke rights claims to express their views about educational justice and authority. But the unyielding nature of rights claims presents a significant quandary in democratic contexts, given the tension between rights claims and majoritarian democracy. Educational theorists have given limited attention to this…
The aim of this paper is threefold. The first section shows how the political uses of language engendered by both western-style liberalism on the one hand and various forms of nationalism on the other lead to the negation of democratic ideals. Because of the current international situation, political aspects of language are receiving more and more…
there was general consensus that the “democratic experiment” had taken root in Africa ... African Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governance is of particular importance in this context. The .... of governmental work through results in the interests of citizens. ... declarations impact on the reality of political rule in Africa?
Dean SPGS NAU
governing requires an ability to balance the differing needs and expectations of both local .... subsequently tables place-shaping as solution – using powers and influence ... democratic ideals and local government practices work at cross- purposes. .... values, it must be part of everyday life in localities and their communities.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS... on HIV/AIDS (PACHA) will hold a meeting. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES: The meeting... CONTACT: Ms. Caroline Talev, Public Health Assistant, Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS... on HIV/AIDS (PACHA) will hold a meeting. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES: The meeting... Manager, Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS, Department of Health and Human Services, 200...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS... on HIV/AIDS (PACHA) will hold a meeting to discuss the Ryan White Program. The meeting will be open..., Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS, Department of Health and Human Services, 200 Independence Avenue SW...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS... on HIV/AIDS (PACHA) will hold a meeting to discuss implementation of the Patient Protection and... CONTACT: Ms. Caroline Talev, Public Health Assistant, Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS... on HIV/AIDS (PACHA) will hold a meeting. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES: The meeting..., Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS, Department of Health and Human Services, 200 Independence Avenue, SW...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS... Secretary for Health, Office of HIV/ AIDS Policy. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: As stipulated by the Federal... the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS (PACHA) will hold a meeting. The meeting will be open to...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS... on HIV/AIDS (PACHA) will hold a conference call. The call will be open to the public. DATES: The call...: Ms. Caroline Talev, Public Health Assistant, Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS, Department of...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS... on HIV/AIDS (PACHA) will hold a meeting. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES: The meeting... Assistant, Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS, Department of Health and Human Services, 200...
In this article, I reflect on the pedagogical decisions I made when I taught a course on gendered literacies during the 2008/2009 presidential campaign. I specifically focus on what I term the "Hillary" phenomenon, the media's often negative and unflattering portrayal of presidential candidate Hillary Clinton. I start with a brief…
... the Export Import Bank of the United States to extend a loan in the amount of approximately $125,870...-10 of June 25, 2012--Presidential Determination on a U.S. Export-Import Bank Transaction With Vietnam... Determination No. 2012-10 of June 25, 2012 Presidential Determination on a U.S. Export Import Bank Transaction...
Benoit, William L.; Currie, Heather
Compares data from a content analysis of the 1996 and 2000 presidential debates with news coverage of those debates. Concludes that the average newspaper story in 2000 only reported 7% of what the candidates said in a debate. Suggests that voters cannot expect to obtain an accurate or complete representation of presidential debates from media…
Using the 2008 Presidential Election as a case of curricular controversy, the author describes how six high school government teachers responded to the racial, gender, and religious diversity included on the presidential tickets of the two major political parties. Teachers had to decide whether the issue of Americans challenging the tradition of…
... Facilities for Transmission of Electric Energy at International Boundaries § 205.329 Environmental... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental requirements for Presidential Permits... such Presidential Permits: (1) ERA will determine whether an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or an...
Rack Mount System Mechanical Drawing Package by Steven P Callaway Approved for public release; distribution unlimited...Laboratory White House Communications Agency (WHCA) Presidential Voice Communications Rack Mount System Mechanical Drawing Package by Steven P...Note 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 04/2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE White House Communications Agency (WHCA) Presidential Voice Communications Rack
Fatima Iyabo Abubakre
Full Text Available This study focuses on the role of media ownership on the press coverage of the 2015 presidential election campaign in Nigeria. Using content analysis, the aim of the study was to identify the themes and examine the direction of the coverage of election campaign news items between the two main political parties in the country-Peoples’ Democratic Party (PDP and the All Progressives Congress (APC published in The Nation on one hand and the Nigerian Tribune on the other hand, between January 2015 and March 2015. Findings from the study indicate coverage replete with biases, although with some remarkable incidents of objectivity and balancing, and show that the two newspapers analysed in this study merely reflected the political leanings of their respective publishers. Este estudo se centra no papel da propriedade da mídia na cobertura jornalística das eleições presidenciais de 2015 na Nigéria. Por meio de análise de conteúdo, seu objetivo é identificar os temas e examinar os direcionamentos dos itens noticiosos relacionados à cobertura da campanha ente os dois principais partidos do país – Peoples’ Democratic Party (PDP e o All Progressives Congress (APC – e que foram publicados entre janeiro e março de 2015 nos jornais The Natione Nigerian Tribune. Os resultados do estudo apontam para uma cobertura repleta de vieses, apesar de alguns incidentes relevantes de objetividade e de equilíbrio, e mostram que os dois jornais analisados simplesmente refletem os direcionamentos políticos de seus respectivos proprietários. Este estudio se centra en el papel de la propiedad de los medios en la cobertura de prensa de las campañas electorales presidenciales de 2015 en Nigeria. Utilizando análisis de contenido, el objetivo del estudio fue identificar los temas y examinar el direccionamiento de la cobertura y de las noticias sobre la campaña electoral entre los dos principales partidos políticos del país: el Peoples’ Democratic Party
Constitutional Rights Foundation, Los Angeles, CA.
All evening on election night 2000, candidates George W. Bush and Al Gore were deadlocked in the tightest-ever race for the office of President of the United States. As the numbers were reported from each state, the battle for votes in the electoral college swung back and forth from Republicans to Democrats. The next morning, the issue was still…
Full Text Available We studied the behavior of campaign hashtags on Twitter in the second round of Ecuador 2017 presidential elections. The study analyzed 10 trending hashtags attacking opponents. The data was captured and analyzed with NodeXL, an application used to analyze social network. The analysis verifies the central role of automated accounts or botnets in the creation of hashtags. The campaign against the opposing binomial, which combined real accounts of government party activists with botnets, was more effective versus the less coordinated opposition campaign against candidate Lenin Moreno. It also verifies the use of localized botnets, mainly in Argentina and Venezuela.
Full Text Available The election campaign has lately become a real challenge where all the political actors display their skills, the communication ones, but also those related to the electoral marketing and public relations which play a vital role in creating the image of a particular candidate. The interest that the public manifest towards the presidential debates, as well as towards all the means of political communication used by the actors involved represents a reference point in the construction of an election campaign. Our paper aims to achieve a quantitative analysis of the communicational messages sent during the 2014 presidential campaign in the online media. In this respect, we are going to conduct a media monitoring on two central newspapers, namely “Evenimentul Zilei” (“Daily Event” and “Jurnalul Național” (“National Journal”, to track the online media visibility of the political communication starting from several indicators predefined in order to measure the efficiency of the political communication. Thus, our approach considers the influence of political communication in the election campaign as it appears in the online press in Romania.
Building on the energy and excitement of Washington DC in a presidential election year, AAPM will host its own Presidential Debate to better understand the views of the AAPM membership! Past presidents of the AAPM, Drs. Bayouth, Hazle, Herman, and Seibert, will debate hot topics in medical physics including issues facing education, professional practice, and the advancement of science. The moderators, Drs. Brock and Stern, will also draw in topics from Point-Counterpoint articles from the Medical Physics Journals. Wrapping up the debate, the audience will have the opportunity to question the candidates in a town hall format. At the conclusion of this lively debate, the winner will be decided by the audience, so bring your Audience Response Units! Be part of Medical Physics - Decision 2016! Learning Objectives: Understand AAPM members’ views and opinions on issues facing medical physics education Learn AAPM members’ views and opinions on issues facing professional practice Identify AAPM members’ view and opinions on issues facing the advancement of science in medical physics J. Bayouth, Funding support from NCI;Scientific Advisory Board member - ViewRay
Skelcher, Chris; Klijn, Erik-Hans; Kübler, Daniel
Advances in understanding the democratic anchorage of governance networks require carefully designed and contextually grounded empirical analysis that take into account contextual factors. The article uses a conjectural framework to study the impact of the national democratic milieu...... on the relationship between network governance and representative institutions in four European countries: the United Kingdom, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Denmark. The article shows that the distinction between majoritarian and consensus democracy as well as the varying strength of voluntary associations...... are important contextual factors that help explain cross-national differences in the relationship between governance networks and representative institutions. We conclude that a context of weak associationalism in majoritarian democracies facilitates the instrumentalization of networks by government actors...
Full Text Available Earlier in the last century, learning in science, as was learning in other disciplines, was developed according to the philosophy of behaviorism. This did not serve the purposes of learning in science properly, as the students were forced to absorb information transferred from the main and the only source of learning, the teacher. Towards the end of the century a significant shift from behaviorism to constructivism philosophy took place. The shift promoted the development of more democratic models of learning in science which provided greater opportunities to the students to act as real scientist, chattering for the building of knowledge and scientific skills. Considering the characteristics of science and the characteristics of the students as active learners, the shift towards democratic models of learning is unavoidable and is merely a matter of time
Abner Barrera Rivas
Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between the freedom of the press, conceived and practiced by the big media, and the human right to an independent and truthful information, as understood and proposed by some international treaties, agreement, conventions and declarations concerning freedom of opinion and freedom of expression as human rights. For this reason are taken into account the controversies aroused by media and some progressive governments in South America in the past fifteen years. The article presents and analyzes arguments advanced with respect to human rights that civil society demands when receiving the information, and the rights big media’s owners hold. Given that private media companies’ priority is profit, the information becomes, then, just another consumer product. It is concluded that this situation is a real problem for the education and configuration of a democratic society, and the proposal is to democratize media to protect the human rights of all.
Gundlach, Erich; Paldam, Martin
Long-run development (in income) causes a large fall in the share of agriculture commonly known as the agricultural transition. We confirm that this conventional wisdom is strongly supported by the data. Long-run development (in income) also causes a large increase in democracy known...... as the democratic transition. Elsewhere we have shown that it is almost as strong as the agricultural transition. Recently, a method has been presented to weed out spuriousness. It makes the democratic transition go away by turning income insignificant, when it is supplemented by a set of formal controls. We show...... that the same method makes the agricultural transition go away as well. Hence, it seems to be a method that kills far too much, as suggested by the subtitle. This suggestion leads to a discussion of the very meaning of long-run causality....
Maria Paula NASCIMENTO ARAUJO
Full Text Available Brazil experienced a long process of political transition featured by an intense game of political and social forces, in which different actors with different democratization projects clashed. Despite the leadership of the transition process have been in the hands of conservative elites linked to the military dictatorship, broad sectors of the oposition and of the lefts, as well as representants of social movements, disputed the transitional space and expanded the initial design of the regime. This long transition —marked by negotiations, frustrations and resilience— reflected on the transitional justice model adopted by the country. Almost 30 years after the end of military dictatorship, the Truth Commission established by President Dilma Rousseff in 2012, drew attention to issues related to memory, justice and reparation and showed that the democratization process, in some respects, is still incloncluded. This article aims to restore this historical process highlighting some of its characteristics and specificities.
Full Text Available Abstract : In contemporary political philosophy, the focus of the most important controversies is on the deliberative model of democracy. These controversies concern not only the theoretical problem of providing the best justification for a deliberative model of democratic legitimacy, but also the practical problem of designing the best deliberative procedure that will secure the implementation of deliberative democracy. In this paper I will present and analyze some of the most important deliberative designs: deliberative polls, citizens’ juries, consensus conferences and planning cells. I argue that these deliberative events can have a significant impact on the political behavior of a democratic community. However, I explain that all of them have only a limited influence on the policy-making activities in local and central governing structures. This is the reason why I believe we could only supplement and never fully replace the traditional aggregative procedures of democracy (voting and bargaining with a deliberative design.
The concept of consensus is often appealed to in discussions of biomedical ethics and applied ethics, and it plays an important role in many influential ethical theories. Consensus is an especially influential notion among theorists who reject ethical realism and who frame ethics as a practice of discourse rather than a body of objective knowledge. It is also a practically important notion when moral decision making is subject to bureaucratic organization and oversight, as is increasingly becoming the case in medicine. Two models of consensus are examined and criticized: pluralistic consensus and overlapping consensus. As an alternative to these models, the paper argues that consensus refers to the dialogic aspects of a broader normative conception of democratic moral agency. When the preconditions for that dialogic democratic practice are met, consensus has a justificatory role in ethics; when they are not, consensus, as distinct from mere agreement, does not emerge and can have no moral authority.
In this paper, we analyse the wage setting of a democratic labour union. The union members differ with respect to their employment probabilities. The union wage only changes if the parameters of the median member change. An exogenous shock to revenue may increase the wage, even if labour demand...... is iso-elastic and unemployment benefits may have only a small effect on wages if the median member differs from the average. These findings are in accordance with empirical results....
Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (House of the Representatives) augmented by delegates from the regional territories and the groups in accordance with...unlimited THE THIRD WAVE OF DEMOCRATIZATION IN INDONESIA Azizan bin Md Delin Lieutenant Colonel, Malaysian Army LL B. (Hons), UiTM, Malaysia , 1996...Article 2(1) of the 1945 Constitution reads: "The Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat (People’s Consultative Assembly) shall consist of members of the
Each leader has a leadership style that is different tobe adapted to the work environment so as to avoidinternal conflicts between superiors and subordinates.No leadership style that has been attached since theman was still in the womb, but some are derived fromexperience and knowledge about leadership.In an era of democratization takes leaders who have ademocratic leadership style that promotes democraticvalues that exist so that the subordinate was given theopportunity to cooperate and coor...
Hay, Colin; Stoker, Gerry; Barr, Matthew
A major programme of research on cognition has been built around the idea that human beings are frequently intuitive thinkers and that human intuition is imperfect. The modern marketing of politics and the time-poor position of many citizens suggests that ‘fast’, intuitive, thinking in many contemporary democracies is ubiquitous. This article explores the consequences that such fast thinking might have for the democratic practice of contemporary politics. Using focus groups with a range of de...
Ahmed Hasani Yaseen
Full Text Available This paper describes an analysis of the three U.S. 2016 presidential debates published in The New York Times using Benoit’s (2007a functional theory. The three presidential debates in the U.S., which occur every four years, remain as the most sensitive political rhetoric that lead to the election of the next U.S. President. These debates include discussion of different issues between the two presidential candidates. One of these issues is immigration. The U.S. presidential debates have been researched by many on various aspects but there has not been a study that focus primarily on the issue of immigration in the three 2016 U.S. presidential debates. All statements regarding this issue between the two presidential candidates, Trump and Clinton, were extracted from these debates and analyzed using Benoit's (2007a functional theory. Findings revealed that attack statements occurred more than acclaims, and defences were less used than acclaims. The statements included in these debates pertained to policy (30% and character (70%. As expected, general goals were employed more often using acclaim function rather than attack and defend. However, ideals were employed more often using defence than to acclaim and attack. Due to different contexts, situations, and participants, Benoit's (2007a functional theory may not be generalized for all debates. This study reveals certain inconsistencies regarding some of the hypotheses of Benoit's (2007a functional theory in relation to our knowledge of the presidential debates, specifically the issue of immigration.
Rose Joy E. Smith
Full Text Available Liberal democracy has become the predominant political regime in the 21st century even in countries that have little or no history of ‘democratic structures and practices’. However, it seems as though setting up a functional, stable, and viable democratic state is harder than overthrowing autocratic rulers. This rhetorical criticism explores gridlocks that hamper the development of universal liberal democratic values by emphasizing the Western hegemonic status of defining what liberal democracy is. It is pertinent to look into this dominant role considering that it is through these values that actions, policies, and other values are to be construed and judged. This paper aims to (1 highlight the role of moral cosmopolitanism as the initial step of Western hegemony, (2 identify the paradox of defining liberal democracy as universal but treating it as a particular, and (3 discuss the ironies of democratic imperialism and its hindrance to self-determination. This paper hopes to shed some light in the importance of various interpretations, definitions, and adaptations of liberal democratic values depending on the context of the society incorporating, its culture, its values, and its identity, in order to find a more comprehensive definition of democracy.
Yacoubian, Hagop A.
Scientifically literate citizens must be able to engage in making decisions on science-based social issues. In this paper, I start by showing examples of science curricula and policy documents that capitalise the importance of engaging future citizens in decision-making processes whether at the personal or at the societal levels. I elucidate the ideological underpinnings behind a number of the statements within those documents that have defined the trajectory of scientific literacy and have shaped what ought to be considered as personal and societal benefits. I argue that science curricula and policy documents can truly endorse scientific literacy when they embed principles of democratic education at their core. The latter entails fostering learning experiences where some of the underlying assumptions and political ideologies are brought to the conscious level and future citizens encouraged to reflect upon them critically and explicitly. Such a proposal empowers the future citizens to engage in critical deliberation on science-based social issues without taking the underlying status quo for granted. I end up the paper by situating the preparation of scientifically literate citizens within a framework of democratic education, discuss conditions through which a curriculum for scientific literacy can serve democratic decision-making processes, and provide modest recommendations.
Full Text Available According to recent conceptual proposals, institutional corruption should be understood within the boundaries of the institution and its purpose. Political corruption in democracies, prominent scholars suggest, is characterized by the violation of institutional ideals or behaviors that tend to harm democratic processes and institutions. This paper rejects the idea that compromises, preferences, political agreements, or consent can be the baseline of conceptualization of political corruption. In order to improve the identification of abuse of power, the concept of political corruption should not be related directly to democratic institutions and processes; rather, it should be related to ideals whose content is independent of citizens’ preferences, institutions and processes. More specifically, I articulate the relations between political corruption and the notion of subjection, and include powerful citizens in the category of political corruption. Yet, I also suggest redefining under what conditions agents are culpable for their motivations in promoting private gain. By doing this, we better realize how democratic institutions can be the source of corruption and not just its victims. Such a redefinition, I propose finally, is the basis for the distinction between individual and institutional corruption.
Full Text Available A powerful positivist and neoliberal ideology in education masquerades more or less unharmed as the meritocratic myth promised under the cloak of democracy. Yet some students and teachers are beginning to interrogate the success-only orientations of neoliberalism in the face of crumbling school systems where many students fail. These students and teachers are not oblivious to the stark realities that characterize their daily existence, as they live under a dark cloud of mass unemployment and inequality where many struggle to “succeed”. Additionally, trained consciousness reveals the pockmarked version of democracy that admits only a few and is attendant with an authoritarian, disciplinary practice that breeds resistance towards education rather than the envisioned freedom it is purported to usher in. These inconsistent positions as an experience of education, by especially marginal students, is intensifying within a neoliberal discourse and invites the intense consideration of the place of critical democratic pedagogy as a more appropriate approach toward democratic teaching and learning practices. Within this context, I explore the theoretical and practical dimensions of critical pedagogy to provide an expanded view of teaching and learning in post-democratic South African education.
Full Text Available The main issue dealt with in this theoretical paper is the explanation of the starting scientific and democratic revolution both in the educative field and in the educative research. In addition, evidence-based arguments are included to provide validity of some affirmations. The first section argues that the social sciences are the daughters and an essential part of democracy. A few historical arguments about the way in which the dominant classes have slowed down the scientific progress and the development of people that make it possible. In the second section, it is analyzed the opposition of feudal universities to this unstoppable beginning of what could be called the scientific and democratic revolution. At the same time, we deal with its ambivalent character requiring to be supported and to be criticized so that it can be improved. In the third section, we expound the way in which this progress has provide some conditions that makes it possible to overcome the strong gender-based violence happening in our institutions of higher education and makes it also possible that women who were persecuted are now transforming our universities. Influences and criticism to our university feudalism, made by social movements such as the named 'Spanish Revolution', appear in the fourth section. In the fifth and last section, we offer a proposal to promote the scientific, democratic, and revolutionary approach of the university.
la violencia , in which liberals and conservatives kill each other in order to seize control of the government. Of course, there have been efforts to...Colombia for some 40 years. I have been in the Colombian Senate for 8 years. I’ve traveled all over Colombia. I’ve been familiar with Colombia’s...country because of la violencia in the early Fifties. Colombia, since the end of that unfortunate turn, has enjoyed a robust democratic system under which
William L. Benoit
Full Text Available The Internet is becoming an increasingly important component of political campaigns. This study employed content analysis to apply Functional Theory and Issue Ownership Theory to Obama’s and McCain’s presidential candidate webpages in the 2008 campaign. Acclaims (92% were more common than attacks (98%; defenses did not occur in this sample. Policy (82% was addressed more than character (18%. When discussing policy, these candidates addressed future plans most frequently, followed by general goals and then past deeds; on character, candidates discussed ideals, then personal qualities, and then leadership ability. This study shows that as candidates use the Internet to reach voters, their webpages conform to theoretical expectations.
Blakeley, C. [University of Salford (United Kingdom); Manchester Royal Infirmary (CMFT) (United Kingdom)], E-mail: email@example.com; Hogg, P. [University of Salford (United Kingdom)
This article is based partly upon the Presidential Address of the Manchester Medical Society (Imaging Section) in 2008. It reviews the development of radiology services in the Manchester (UK) area from their inception in 1896 to the installation of the first EMI body CT scanner in Europe. It considers some of the innovative people in the Manchester area and some milestone events that occurred in that area to help establish the role and value of X-ray in diagnostic imaging. In this article the first recorded case of when X-ray imaging was used in a forensic domiciliary case is also outlined; this occurred approximately 35 miles north of Manchester on 23rd April 1896. The article also explains some interesting background information on the development of the first EMI CT scanner, drawing particularly on the revenue stream generated by the music section of EMI through the success of The Beatles - a band which emanated 35 miles from Manchester in Liverpool.
Rafael Silveira e Silva
Full Text Available Even though they possess several power resources, Brazilian Presidents also elaborate their legislative proposals based upon bills already being processed in Congress through a phenomenon called Appropriation of the legislative agenda. In this paper I examine the conditions under which this phenomenon occurs by means of a typology and a qualitative comparative analysis (QCA. I conclude that Appropriation provides the President with the expansion of the formal support base by controlling the agenda of allied and opposition parties as well as obtaining the "paternity" of several policies already in motion in Congress, thus enabling a public association of the President's actions and his or her party with the possibility of social benefits. Be it in the pursuit of promising agendas or for the maintenance of their own dominance, Appropriation shows that Brazilian Presidents must go beyond coalition presidentialism.
Full Text Available The present paper illustrates the use of the brand and its components in the most important campaign debate of the presidential elections in Romania in 2009.The research method we have selected is the case study. The research technique consisted of the content analysis of the two speeches. The conducted analysis has included all the three types of the content analysis: conceptual, relational and qualitative analysis. The content analysis has been conducted by using the Nvivo software. The identification of the candidate’s brand in a single debate particularly entails its presence throughout the electoral campaign. We can outline the main component of the brand notion the two candidates have resorted to in this debate: Băsescu resorted to positioning, while Antonescu opted for differentiation and positioning.
Full Text Available This article analyzes the incentives generated by presidential electoral systems in Bolivia. The system that was in place until 2005 led to the formation of coalition governments that aimed at giving the Executive the majority in Congress. However, these coalitions gradually lost the electorate confidence, and citizens sought alternative political options to major parties from the early nineties on, giving rise to a social dissatisfaction with democracy. This, in turn, led to the resignation of Sánchez de Lozada and, later, to the triumph of Evo Morales. The new electoral system for electing the president, included in the 2009 Constitution, increases the likelihood that the elected government does not have a majority in Congress. Similar situations in the past led to political crisis and anticipation of elections. In a more favorable context characterized by greater satisfaction with democracy and their parties, the challenge is to take decisions inclusively, something unprecedented in Bolivian politics.
Krizan, Zlatan; Miller, Jeffrey C; Johar, Omesh
In elections, political preferences are strongly linked to the expectations of the electoral winner-people usually expect their favorite candidate to win. This link could be driven by wishful thinking (a biasing influence of preferences), driven by a biasing influence of expectations on one's wishes, or produced spuriously. To examine these competing possibilities in the 2008 U.S. presidential election, a longitudinal study assessed uncommitted young voters' electoral expectations and preferences over four time points during the month before the election. The findings indicated clear support for wishful thinking: Over time, people's preferences shaped their expectations, but the reverse was not the case. Moreover, these relations were larger among those more strongly identified with their political party and held even when perceptions of general candidate popularity were taken into account. Finally, changes in electoral expectations were consequential, as they shaped disappointment in the electoral results even after taking candidate preferences into account.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the communication strategies of presidential candidates during the elections held in 2006 and 2010. The focus is on the strategic component of electoral inserts and the methodology consists of investigating how candidates choose to distribute these inserts in the programming of television networks. The results indicate that the candidates pursue different strategies influenced basically by three variables: electoral legislation, their standing in polls and the difference of resources available. In parallel, the article debates the role of the regulation of electoral advertising and how this set of rules influences the level of information of campaigns, the occurrence of attacks, and party strategies. Overall, 2,993 electoral inserts were examined.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to take a radiograph of Romania presidential elections of 2014, starting from a general framework in which these elections were held, continuing with issues and debates that characterized this context and ending with international reactions regarding the new elected-president in the foreign press and from the officials. This radiograph brings a series of questions: was the final result of these elections an accident? Was it an express of confidence for the successful candidate or the result of discontent with the current political system, a vote of hope? In this regard, I consider absolutely necessary to understand how the president was elected, the reasons behind this choice and especially if the hopes of voters will be reflected in the work of Klaus Iohannis during his term.
Blakeley, C.; Hogg, P.
This article is based partly upon the Presidential Address of the Manchester Medical Society (Imaging Section) in 2008. It reviews the development of radiology services in the Manchester (UK) area from their inception in 1896 to the installation of the first EMI body CT scanner in Europe. It considers some of the innovative people in the Manchester area and some milestone events that occurred in that area to help establish the role and value of X-ray in diagnostic imaging. In this article the first recorded case of when X-ray imaging was used in a forensic domiciliary case is also outlined; this occurred approximately 35 miles north of Manchester on 23rd April 1896. The article also explains some interesting background information on the development of the first EMI CT scanner, drawing particularly on the revenue stream generated by the music section of EMI through the success of The Beatles - a band which emanated 35 miles from Manchester in Liverpool.
.... A review of the existing democratization literature, coupled with quantitative analysis of the societal impact of computer networking technologies, suggests that the level of Internet connectivity...
... April 8, 2013 Presidential Determination on Eligibility of the Federal Republic of Somalia To Receive... find that the furnishing of defense articles and defense services to the Federal Republic of Somalia...
... support programs to study and combat the spread of infectious diseases and to advance sustainable natural... Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, September 30, 2011 [FR Doc. 2011-26333 Filed 10...
... who: (1) Are engaged in historical research projects, or (2) Previously have occupied policy-making... former presidential appointee that his notes can be reviewed by OSTP for a determination that no...
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2015 award winner, Algenol, blue-green algae to produce ethanol and other fuels, uses CO2 from air or industrial emitters, reduces the carbon footprint, costs and water usage, no reliance on food crops
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2016 award winner, Newlight Technologies, developed a net carbon negative plastic made from methane-based GHG. It is cheaper than petroleum-based plastic; used to make cell phone cases, furniture, and other products.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2005 award winner, Merck, designed an atom-economical, energy- and water-saving, convergent synthesis for aprepitant, the active ingredient in Emend, a drug for nausea and vomiting.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2010 award winner, Dr. James C. Liao, genetically engineered microorganisms to make higher alcohols (with 3 to 8 carbon atoms) from glucose or directly from carbon dioxide (CO2).
Full Text Available The article proposes a reflection on the idea of monumentality in political and religious power, and its reconversion of a democratic society. There are 3+1 types of cultural exhibition space that are analyzed: the traditional palace or the church, which contain great works of classical art, inside of the historic centers; the art galleries associated with market economy, tend to stimulate the city centre area, and the autonomy of the architectural object in the vicinity of the traditional city. Lastly it is referred the case study - Silo Cultural Space - inside the Norteshopping, but arranged in a peripheral form, which is distinguished by an apparent proximity to multiple public.
Full Text Available The transition requirement for post communism countries, especially the part that is about military forces is to establish those civil-military relation that will have prepared projects for awareness evolving of society and military about necessity of democratic control over military sector of country through development of many different communication forms and shapes. Before everything, it means the entire freedom and independence of media at access to military forces as the topic and subject of its interests and also the organization of public military communication system as integral part of information-communication system in society
Well-stated modern political or democratic theory is rights-based. Meaningful democracy rests as a precondition on the equal rights of citizens. This idea stems from Rousseau’s distinction between a general will*one which is impersonal and tends toward equality, that is, the equal basic rights of citizens*and a transitory will of all. For instance, absent equal basic rights, one might imagine a possible world in which what I have called a self-undermining series of wills of all, or the ...
O papel da questão democrática na análise da revolução burguesa na obra de Florestan Fernandes é reconstruído a partir da ênfase no caráter radical que ela assume numa obra que se recusa a separar o problema substantivo da democracia do problema da revolução social.The role played by the democratic question in the analysis of the bourgeois revolution in Brazil by Florestan Fernandes is reconstructed on the basis of the emphasis on the radical character it takes in a work in which no distincti...
term, but would do so in the long run. He estimated life -cycle savings for the three cancelled programs at $20.2 billion.23 Retaining strategic bombers...possible if the country was to be modern, democratic, and fiscally stable. Yeltsin announced an end to production of the Backfire and Blackjack bombers...Initiatives of 1991–1992 keeping with the interests of our country and other states of the world. If it is possible to imple- ment it, our life will not only
Unitarity implies that the evaporation of microscopic quasi-classical black holes cannot be universal in different particle species. This creates a puzzle, since it conflicts with the thermal nature of quasi-classical black holes, according to which all the species should see the same horizon and be produced with the same Hawking temperatures. We resolve this puzzle by showing that for the microscopic black holes, on top the usual quantum evaporation time, there is a new time-scale which characterizes a purely classical process during which the black hole looses the ability to differentiate among the species, and becomes democratic. We demonstrate this phenomenon in a well-understood framework of large extra dimensions, with a number of parallel branes. An initially non-democratic black hole is the one localized on one of the branes, with its high-dimensional Schwarzschild radius being much shorter than the interbrane distance. Such a black hole seemingly cannot evaporate into the species localized on the oth...
Dvali, Gia; Pujolas, Oriol
Unitarity implies that the evaporation of microscopic quasiclassical black holes cannot be universal in different particle species. This creates a puzzle, since it conflicts with the thermal nature of quasiclassical black holes, according to which all of the species should see the same horizon and be produced with the same Hawking temperatures. We resolve this puzzle by showing that for the microscopic black holes, on top of the usual quantum evaporation time, there is a new time scale which characterizes a purely classical process during which the black hole loses the ability to differentiate among the species and becomes democratic. We demonstrate this phenomenon in a well-understood framework of large extra dimensions, with a number of parallel branes. An initially nondemocratic black hole is the one localized on one of the branes, with its high-dimensional Schwarzschild radius being much shorter than the interbrane distance. Such a black hole seemingly cannot evaporate into the species localized on the other branes that are beyond its reach. We demonstrate that in reality the system evolves classically in time, in such a way that the black hole accretes the neighboring branes. The end result is a completely democratic static configuration, in which all of the branes share the same black hole and all of the species are produced with the same Hawking temperature. Thus, just like their macroscopic counterparts, the microscopic black holes are universal bridges to the hidden sector physics.
Andersen, Michael P [UC Berkeley; Kolb, John [UC Berkeley; Chen, Kaifei [UC Berkeley; Culler, David [UC Berkeley; Katz, Randy [UC Berkeley
Operating systems and applications in the built environment have relied upon central authorization and management mechanisms which restrict their scalability, especially with respect to administrative overhead. We propose a new set of primitives encompassing syndication, security, and service execution that unifies the management of applications and services across the built environment, while enabling participants to individually delegate privilege across multiple administrative domains with no loss of security or manageability. We show how to leverage a decentralized authorization syndication platform to extend the design of building operating systems beyond the single administrative domain of a building. The authorization system leveraged is based on blockchain smart contracts to permit decentralized and democratized delegation of authorization without central trust. Upon this, a publish/subscribe syndication tier and a containerized service execution environment are constructed. Combined, these mechanisms solve problems of delegation, federation, device protection and service execution that arise throughout the built environment. We leverage a high-fidelity city-scale emulation to verify the scalability of the authorization tier, and briefly describe a prototypical democratized operating system for the built environment using this foundation.
This article explores the meaning of an education based on democratic values and the implications for school leadership in practice. Based on findings from a case study in a Norwegian upper secondary school, the study describes democratic school leadership in practice, with particular attention to the distribution of power and leadership in the…
Hess, Michael; Johnson, Jerry; Reynolds, Sharon
The Developmental Democratic Planning (DDP) model frames educational planning as a process that extends beyond the immediate focus of a particular planning effort to acknowledge and cultivate the potential of all members of the organization to fulfill their roles as active participants in the democratic life of the organization. The DDP model…
Transparency and accountability are essential pillars of democratic government the world over. These virtues are significant in measuring the success or otherwise of any democratic system. Apart from the activities of anti-graft agencies in combating corruption in the society, the mass media are often looked upon as ...
A democratic life is a form of associated living that requires people to participate in a pluralistic dialogue in different spheres of the civic society: government, community, and work. Higher education classes have a leading role in preparing students for participation in a democratic society; however, more could be done, in particular focusing…
Teacher praise can undermine the development of fundamental democratic values. This article presents styles of teacher talk in line with the principles and goals of democratic leadership and interactive teaching. Advocated discourse patterns encourage self-evaluation and self-reflection, enabling students to develop standards for judging their own…
Internet Backbone in the Democratic Republic of Congo : Feasibility Study and Advocacy. During 7-10 February 2005, representatives of five francophone African countries (Cameroon, Morocco, Niger, Sénégal, and the Democratic Republic of Congo - DRC) met to consider ways and means of galvanizing the appropriation ...
Burroughs, Susie; Brocato, Kay; Hopper, Peggy F.; Sanders, Angela
Educators from Europe, Latin America, and the United States convened to explore issues inherent in democratic citizenship. Media literacy, a central component of democratic citizenship, was studied in depth. Data from the camp were examined for evidence of the participants' understandings of media literacy and how it might be taught. Results…
With the trends in the use of social software and social media, a more informal and democratic online culture is developing, especially in younger generations. This culture is increasingly conflicting with traditional teaching styles. One of these trends involves the introduction of more democratic
This article critiques guidance approaches to discipline, that are employed in early childhood environments with an aim to create democratic environments for children, and as part of "good" practices. Advocates of guidance claim that this is a more humane or democratic approach to discipline that empowers children, and therefore, power…
Full Text Available The 2004 electoral campaign marks the beginning of internet use in the political communication in Romania. It has also been the first campaign that resorts to negative communication via online tools. The main actors of this negative campaign, motivated and involved in it by the strategic planners and PR specialists, were the sympathizers of the DA Alliance2. Its communication consultants launched an online platform on their candidate’s website on which the party members and sympathizers could upload electoral materials. The funnier and more depreciative the electoral materials regarding the Social Democratic Party (SDP counter-candidate were, the more visible they were online, being sent through email, through visited blogs or viewed on video-sharing websites. As a space dedicated to the freedom of expression, situated beyond any official (state censorship, the online environment became the space where the DA Alliance sympathizers got actively involved in its campaign. One of the fundamental reasons was that the prime minister in 2004 (a SDP member was easy to be mocked at and treated on internet as if he were a peer of the DA Alliance voters. This pseudo-democratization transformed the DA Alliance candidate and its communication strategic planners into winners.
Hyslop-Margison, Emery James; Ramirez, Andres
In "Challenging Freedom: Neoliberalism and the Erosion of Democratic Education," the author suggests that the presumed decline of democratic learning in public schooling follows from two primary forces: (a) the metaphysical implications of Cartesian psychophysical dualism that support an ontological understanding of the self as distinct…
Abadi Sembiring, Surya; Hutauruk, Julia
The objective of research is to build an econometric model based on Presidential Instruction rice policy. The data was monthly time series from March 2005 to September 2009. Rice policy model specification using simultaneous equation, consisting of 14 structural equations and four identity equation, which was estimated using Two Stages Least Squares (2SLS) method. The results show that: (1) an increase of government purchasing price of dried harvest paddy has a positive impact on to increase in total rice production and community rice stock, (2) an increase community rice stock lead to decrease the rice imports, (3) an increase of the realization of the distribution of subsidized ZA fertilizers and the realization of the distribution of subsidized NPK fertilizers has a positive impact on to increase in total rice production and community rice stock and to reduce rice imports, (4) the price of the dried harvest paddy is highly responsive to the water content of dried harvest paddy both the short run and long run, (5) the quantity of rice imported is highly responsive to the imported rice price, both short run and long run.
Full Text Available This paper examines the ways in which the seldom performed collaborative play, Edward III, was re-contextualised by Barbara Gaines, Artistic Director of the Shakespeare Theater of Chicago, in order to create a specifically presentist piece of theatre making a forceful political statement during the 2016 US presidential election. Edward III formed the opening section of a trilogy entitled Tug of War: Foreign Fire, which continued with Henry V, and Henry VI Part I. The second trilogy, Tug of War: Civil Strife, comprised the remaining two parts of Henry VI and Richard III. The paper will address the rationale behind the selection of these specific plays, and why it was felt unnecessary to fill the historical lacuna created by the exclusion of Richard II and Henry IV Parts I and II. In addition, it will also examine the limitations inherent in the available archival material when researching an ephemeral theatrical event, particularly one which has been edited and directed in order to address issues of immediate political concern. Selected extracts from my own review of the first of these two trilogies will seek to offer a more detailed response than is possible for journalistic reviewers and to provide sufficient background to prove of benefit for future researchers.
Mutz, Diana C
This study evaluates evidence pertaining to popular narratives explaining the American public's support for Donald J. Trump in the 2016 presidential election. First, using unique representative probability samples of the American public, tracking the same individuals from 2012 to 2016, I examine the "left behind" thesis (that is, the theory that those who lost jobs or experienced stagnant wages due to the loss of manufacturing jobs punished the incumbent party for their economic misfortunes). Second, I consider the possibility that status threat felt by the dwindling proportion of traditionally high-status Americans (i.e., whites, Christians, and men) as well as by those who perceive America's global dominance as threatened combined to increase support for the candidate who emphasized reestablishing status hierarchies of the past. Results do not support an interpretation of the election based on pocketbook economic concerns. Instead, the shorter relative distance of people's own views from the Republican candidate on trade and China corresponded to greater mass support for Trump in 2016 relative to Mitt Romney in 2012. Candidate preferences in 2016 reflected increasing anxiety among high-status groups rather than complaints about past treatment among low-status groups. Both growing domestic racial diversity and globalization contributed to a sense that white Americans are under siege by these engines of change. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.
In preparation for the 1995 World Conference on Women, women of the Latin American Information Agency prepared a statement for the UN about the importance of communications and information in the contemporary world and the role of women in the media. The statement includes the following specific suggestions: 1) that the UN promote the democratization of communications with a gender focus, 2) that women be assured access to new communications technologies that empower their communicational capacity, 3) that steps be taken to ensure that media content projects a positive and nondiscriminatory image of women, and 4) that guidelines be drawn up to promote labor equality between the genders and a greater presence of women in decision-making positions in the media.
Full Text Available In this paper I will present the way in which Lefort interprets modern democracy as a new form of society in regard to the sources of law and legitimacy. Lefort is a thinker who is difficult to place within the context of contemporary political theory: he not only defends democracy against Marxism but also thinks that this form of society cannot be circumscribed within the limits of the modern state, nor be understood through the categories that the tradition of political philosophy has developed to distinguish between political regimes. Lefort combines the defense of democracy with a radical critique of the established order. He identifies the democratic invention with the institution of a dynamic that makes, by right, the radical questioning of law the source of political legitimacy.
Stassinopoulos, D.; Bak, P.
We introduce a simple ''toy'' brain model. The model consists of a set of randomly connected, or layered integrate-and-fire neurons. Inputs to and outputs from the environment are connected randomly to subsets of neurons. The connections between firing neurons are strengthened or weakened according to whether the action was successful or not. Unlike previous reinforcement learning algorithms, the feedback from the environment is democratic: it affects all neurons in the same way, irrespective of their position in the network and independent of the output signal. Thus no unrealistic back propagation or other external computation is needed. This is accomplished by a global threshold regulation which allows the system to self-organize into a highly susceptible, possibly ''critical'' state with low activity and sparse connections between firing neurons. The low activity permits memory in quiescent areas to be conserved since only firing neurons are modified when new information is being taught
Full Text Available Civil Society envisages the growth of civilization in a way that the society is in “civilized form.” It has been prominent in Social science since time immemorial. Till 18th century, it was synonymous with the state or political society. It was more or less direct translation of Cicero’s Societas’ Civilis and Aristotle’s Koinonia politike. According to Karl Marx, “Civil Society embraces the whole material intercourse of individuals within a definite stage of development of productive forces.” Civil Society is an arena where modern man legitimately gratifies his self-interest and develops his individuality, but also learns the value of group action, social solidarity which educates him for citizenship and equips him to participate in the political sphere of the state. It provides “networks of civic engagement” within which reciprocity is learned and enforced, trust is generated. An active and diverse civil society plays a valuable role in advancement of democracy. It seeks to ensure that citizen’s interests are taken seriously. The social work intervention may not be democratically envisaged until it is promulgated by civic engagement through Civil Society. Methodology: This is a descriptive study which consists of secondary source of data collection based on reports, books, periodic journals, web-based articles. There have been utilized three case studies for reaching the findings of study. This article will highlight on role of civil society in providing democratic space and assisting social workers to ensure inclusive growth through conglomeration of state and individuals.
Full Text Available The establishment of new political systems in Central and Eastern Europe after the collapse of communist regimes implied a decision on a new system of government instead of the earlier proclaimed assembly system. The position of the framers of the Constitution on the need for a strong institution of state presidency during the transition process, and the correlation of forces between diff erent actors in the political arena, have resulted in the establishment of the semi-presidential system in many of these countries. In Russia and Poland, with the fi rst modifi cations of their Constitutions, some elements of semi-presidentialism were adopted, and then the whole concept of semi-presidentialism has been accepted. The constitutional models in the two countries are compatible with the criteria of semi-presidential systems – they have a dual structure of the executive branch of government and a fi xed term of the state president elected on the general elections and politically unaccountable to the parliament. The political practice in these countries during the last fi fteen years has shown diff erent eff ects of the established system. In Russia, the state president dominated so much over the political system that the system was virtually presidential, while in Poland the constitutional changes in 1990, 1992 and 1997 have resulted in the change of the correlation of forces within the dual structure of the executive branch of government.
Full Text Available The 2015 presidential election in CÃ´te dâ€™Ivoire was seen as an important test for the country given the 2010 post-election crisis. Although the 2015 polls were peaceful, they were affected by problems not new to CÃ´te dâ€™Ivoire: lack of competition due to non-participation of major political actors, low voter turnout, mistrust in electoral institutions. The unpreparedness of the Commission Electorale IndÃ©pendante (CEI was also problematic, especially with respect to the revision of the voter list. Due to the boycott of partisans of former president Laurent Gbagbo and because of the support of the Rassemblement des HouphouÃ«tistes pour la DÃ©mocratie et la Paix (RHDP, President Alassane Ouattaraâ€™s re-election was essentially a given from the start. With the ruling coalition firmly in control, CÃ´te dâ€™Ivoire appears stable. However, the countryâ€™s democratic deficit might lead to renewed violence once the RHDP has to pick Ouattaraâ€™s successor.
Methods for analysis of network dynamics have seen great progress in the past decade. This article shows how Dynamic Network Logistic Regression techniques (a special case of the Temporal Exponential Random Graph Models) can be used to implement decision theoretic models for network dynamics in a panel data context. We also provide practical heuristics for model building and assessment. We illustrate the power of these techniques by applying them to a dynamic blog network sampled during the 2004 US presidential election cycle. This is a particularly interesting case because it marks the debut of Internet-based media such as blogs and social networking web sites as institutionally recognized features of the American political landscape. Using a longitudinal sample of all Democratic National Convention/Republican National Convention–designated blog citation networks, we are able to test the influence of various strategic, institutional, and balance-theoretic mechanisms as well as exogenous factors such as seasonality and political events on the propensity of blogs to cite one another over time. Using a combination of deviance-based model selection criteria and simulation-based model adequacy tests, we identify the combination of processes that best characterizes the choice behavior of the contending blogs. PMID:24143060
This article questions the very foundation of the doctrine of a so-called “democratic deficit” in the EU. Yet in order to argue beyond nationalist myths, clear-cut concepts are necessary. Speaking about democracy in the EU, the article exposes four dimensions that constitute a “democratic surplus...... nation-state, the EU, secondly, is not build by nobles and monarchs, nor by war. Third, a separation of powers is obvious. And fourth, this article demonstrates how the EU rescued the democratic nation-state....
Máximo Augusto Campos Masson
Full Text Available The article discusses the management of education from the debate on the democratic management of social institutions, in particular, the school. It reflects on the changes that have occurred in the school due to the presence of new students belonging to the subaltern classes and the possibility of the democratic management of teaching being an important instrument for overcoming school failure. It discusses aspects of Brazilian legislation on the theme and the possibilities arising from the growth of political conservatism oppose initiatives to democratic management of education.
... of State (DOS) has received from NOVA Chemicals Inc. (``NOVA Inc.'') notice that by way of corporate... Presidential Permit issued to Polysar. NOVA Inc. requests a new Presidential Permit be issued under its name.... anticipates no change in the operations of Lines 16, 18 and 19 relative to those that were authorized by the...
Camelia Florentina STOICA
Full Text Available The doctrinal debates on the legal regime of presidential decrees and the recent case-law of the Constitutional Court have determined the present approach for analysis of some aspects pertaining to the issues arising in relation to these acts, especially their legal features and nature and, from this perspective, the differentiations with regard to the challenging of presidential decrees – we refer, in this context, to the extension of the control carried out by courts. The conclusions of the study reveal the importance of addressing and establishing the relations between public authorities, inclusively with regard to the substantiation, issuance and implementation of presidential decrees, in relation to the principle of constitutional loyalty.
Full Text Available Women and sexual minorities in the United States continue to experience subordinate status, and the policy gains they have made in areas such as reproductive rights and marriage equality continue to be challenged in political discourse. We conducted a critical discourse analysis of texts from the 2012 Democratic and Republican national conventions in order to examine the extent to which ideological representations of the family were employed to legitimize public policy positions related to gender (e.g., abortion and sexuality (e.g., same-sex marriage. We analyzed two forms of text (official party platform document, transcripts of speeches with distinct intended audiences (i.e., party members, general audience. Findings revealed that an ideological representation of the traditional family ideal—featuring a heterosexual couple, their children, and asymmetric gender relations—was present within speeches given by both parties, particularly by the spouses of the presidential candidates (Michelle Obama and Ann Romney. Although this ideological representation was subsequently used within the Republican Party platform to legitimize positions against same-sex marriage and abortion, the Democratic Party platform challenged this representation of the family to instead advocate for policy positions in favor of same-sex marriage and women’s reproductive rights. We discuss this ambivalence within Democratic texts in light of the different audiences that party convention texts seek. Implications for gender- and sexuality-based policies are discussed, as well as the importance of examining political discourse across diverse forms and settings.
Johnson, Anthony J
.... The United States' current National Security Strategy (NSS) prepossess to counter the growth of radical Islam through the promotion of human rights and freedom by the process of democratization throughout the world...
Full Text Available Why do democracies survive or break down? In this paper, it returns to this classic question with an empirical focus on Latin America from 1945 to 2005. The argument deviates from the quantitative literature and a good part of the qualitative literature on democratic survival and breakdown. It is argued that structural variables such as the level of development and inequalities have not shaped prospects for democratic survival in Latin America. Nor, contrary to findings in some of the literature, has economic performance affected the survival of competitive regimes. Instead, it is focused on the regional political environment and on actors’ normative preferences about democracy and dictatorship and their policy radicalism or moderation. It is argued that 1 a higher level of development did not increase the likelihood of democratic survival in Latin America over this long time; 2 if actors have a normative preference for democracy, it is more likely to survive; and 3 policy moderation facilitates democratic survival.
Young, Dennis O
.... This project looks at several of those obstacles to democracy in Afghanistan, to include the absence of a democratic history and tradition, an endemic culture of corruption, a pervasive narcotics...
Anthony Ufearoh. Abstract. This write-up intends to locate democratic ideals the traditional Igbo .... quintessential leader in the communalist leadership system of the traditional .... style is 'inclusionary' rather than 'exclusionary'. Representation.
The transportation operations plan for the 2004 Democratic National Convention (DNC) in Boston, Massachusetts, was not a typical transportation plan driven by goals such as mobility and air quality. The DNC was the first national political convention...
There are several DDSG approaches that can be employed in creating elements for stakeholder empowerment and in driving deliberative democratic school governance forward. These include inclusion, motivational communication, consensus, deliberation/ dialogue, collaboration, and conflict resolution. Some school ...
substantive (or emancipatory) democracy in the long run”. Democratic .... the paradigm focused exclusively on short-term macro-economic stabilization, with little ..... Paper presented at the Guy Mhone Memorial Conference on Public Sector.
FPCI) in Nigeria in the current democratic dispensation with a view to finding out whether the inflows have recorded significant increase since the institution of Democracy in the country. Relevant theories and empirical data were reviewed.
ÇOLAK, Çağrı D.; ŞENER, Bülent; BİLGİLİ, Muhammed Yunus
There are many debates on the “Turkish presidential government model (TPGM)” that propose radical changes in the Turkish administration system. Such discussions take its source from the dichotomies of the “unity of power-separation of powers” and the “presidential system-parliamentary system”. Until the constitutional amendment proposal of December 10, 2016 in Turkey the debate on the government system in Turkey has been publicized by the name of “presidential” or “Turkish type presidential” ...
Hay, Simon I.; McHugh, Gerri M.
Presidents have been required to give an inaugural address on commencing office at the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (RSTMH) since its foundation in 1907. All presidential addresses were identified, sourced and assembled into an annotated bibliography. The majority of presidential addresses have been published in Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Unpublished and in some cases ‘lost’ contributions have now been sourced where possible and archived at the RSTMH. This unique, rich and rewarding archive provides a vista into the development of the RSTMH and the discipline of tropical medicine. The archive is freely available to all. PMID:24026462
Full Text Available The robustness of the EU’s constitutional framework – and its ability to accommodate democratic politics – is challenged as never before. The growing disconnect between formally democratic procedures and substantive choice is well illustrated by the Greek crisis. Since its first bailout in May 2010, Greece has held four general elections and a referendum. Yet, the anti-austerity preferences of the Greek electorate have not been effectively translated into policy.
Zoltan J. Acs; Sameeksha Desai
Democratic capitalism has become the popular paradigm in the modern world, and it is spreading further through globalization. It is a model based on growth, expansion and constant innovation. However, it is accompanied by social problems which may worsen despite overall gains in wealth. In this paper, we suggest that democratic capitalist societies may benefit from the application of what has been a primarily American institution: Philanthropy. We present the Entrepreneurship-Philanthropy Cyc...
Leo J. FAHEY
Full Text Available Children are natural learners each with distinct interests, abilities and rates of cognitive, emotional and social growth. Democratic Education institutionalizes five key concepts to free these natural instincts and individual differences to drive community self-governance and individual self-directed learning within a formal schooling environment. This paper summarizes the five concepts fundamental to Democratic Education and suggests how they can be applied within a school setting.
Parker, Kevin J
This thesis argues that the Internet is likely to he a strong, positive facilitating factor for the transition to and consolidation of democracy for states in Southeast Asia. U.S. policy makers intent on promoting democracy in Southeast Asia should consider the Internet's potential as a tool for promoting democratization. A review of the existing democratization literature, coupled with quantitative analysis of the societal impact of computer networking technologies, suggests that the level o...
Nicholas O Rule
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals' faces communicate a great deal of information about them. Although some of this information tends to be perceptually obvious (such as race and sex, much of it is perceptually ambiguous, without clear or obvious visual cues. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we found that individuals' political affiliations could be accurately discerned from their faces. In Study 1, perceivers were able to accurately distinguish whether U.S. Senate candidates were either Democrats or Republicans based on photos of their faces. Study 2 showed that these effects extended to Democrat and Republican college students, based on their senior yearbook photos. Study 3 then showed that these judgments were related to differences in perceived traits among the Democrat and Republican faces. Republicans were perceived as more powerful than Democrats. Moreover, as individual targets were perceived to be more powerful, they were more likely to be perceived as Republicans by others. Similarly, as individual targets were perceived to be warmer, they were more likely to be perceived as Democrats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that perceivers' beliefs about who is a Democrat and Republican may be based on perceptions of traits stereotypically associated with the two political parties and that, indeed, the guidance of these stereotypes may lead to categorizations of others' political affiliations at rates significantly more accurate than chance guessing.
Full Text Available As democracy can develop better in a society of democratic people, democracy education can also get its intended goals better in a democratic school environment. As the most influential people in a school environment were teachers, this study, too, aimed to determine their levels of democratic attitudes. In the present study, 60 primary school teachers working in the schools attached to the Bursa Metropolitan Municipality were surveyed. The relationships between their attitudes and some variables were studied. These variables included school they work, age, gender, marital status, number of children they have, education level, teaching experience and number of broth-ers or sisters. The questionnaire used for this study was validated by Aydogan & Kukul (2003 based on previous studies made by Gomleksiz (1988, Yildirim (1994 and Atasoy (1997. For the validity of the questionnaire, Cronbach Alpha coefficient (0.829 was calculated. The results suggest that teachers show very positive attitude with a score of 103. When the items were examined individually, some significant relationships were found with the variables. Teachers should have positive democratic attitudes in order to give lessons of democracy to their students. An appropriate and encouraging environment should be prepared in order for students to gain desired democratic outcomes. In a democratic environment, teachers’ positive attitudes will help their students to gain critical thinking skills, effective discussion skills, capability for fighting against inequity, cooperation and collaboration skills, and showing empathy and respect for diversity.
Peer Møller Christensen
Full Text Available The new economic importance of the Chinese economy has created Chinese expectations that the country will be able to regain a political and cultural position in the world in accordance with this economic status. But for China to become a respected member of world society, one of the most severe obstacles is its, from a western perspective, undemocratic political system. The article describes the lively debate going on among Chinese intellectuals of diverse political-ideological convictions about what kind of democracy should be the model for China’s future political system. The liberally oriented intellectuals want a political system very much like American liberal constitutional democracy, while intellectuals on the left side of the political spectrum want a democracy with a clear socialist basis. Although Chinese intellectuals form a minority in society, these intellectual debates are sure to have influence on both public opinion and opinions and attitudes among political decision makers inside the Chinese Communist Party. Further investigations will have to establish to what degree the perceptions of China's political future and democratization are reflected in the political attitudes among the Chinese in general, and how they are perceived inside the confines of political decision making in the Chinese Communist Party. Only then will it be possible to answer the questions: "What kind of democracy do the Chinese want?" and "What kind of democracy are the Chinese going to get?"
A national opinion poll designed to test public support for a position paper on energy policy for the Clinton Administration and the new Congress, was released February 9 at a Capitol Hill press conference sponsored by the Environmental and Energy Study Institute. The poll, conducted by the Democratic polling firm Greenberg/Lake and Republican pollster Lance Tarrance, found voters want energy efficiency, conservation, and renewable energy as top priorities for the nation's energy policy. It also found voters are willing to seek these policies with tough regulation, tax incentives, and their own behavior. Also, voters appear to support taxes on pollution and energy use, whether the income is used to decrease taxes on personal income, or to reduce the deficit. However, voters oppose gas taxes and are divided on taxes for fossil fuels. Support for energy taxes increases if revenues generated by them are dedicated to deficit reduction. The poll also revealed: the public's desire for less emphasis on polluting sources of energy such as oil and coal; low levels of support for nuclear power; support for government initiatives to increase the fuel efficiency of consumer goods such as appliances and automobiles; opposition to a substantial increase in the gasoline tax; and support for green taxes on polluting sources of energy use at the same time policy makers remove federal tax subsidies on fuels that pollute
Today, the benefits of liberal democracy have increasingly been cast into doubt. The debate over alternative energy policies illustrates the problems associated with liberal democracy. For many, it is the realization that energy choices and the selection of social and political values amount to much the same thing. Simply put, energy policy decisions, and the concomitant energy technologies, carry implications of an ethical, social and political nature. The argument of the social and political effects of energy technology flows from the more general thesis that all forms of technological practice condition social and political relations. That is, technological systems, beyond performing the specific functions for which they were designed, act upon and influence social and political arrangements. Seen in this light, energy technologies are as important to the promotion and preservation of this country's political values as are its institutions and laws. Further, there is evidence to suggest that this country's cherished democratic value of freedom is slowly being eclipsed by the values attendant to corporate capitalism and its singular pursuit of growth. It is this dominance of economic values over political values which provides the environment within which the technological debate is waged. Ultimately, tracing the historic linkage between property and liberty, it is concluded that the preservation of our freedom require new thinking regarding the present configuration of ownership patterns. The questions surrounding energy policy serve to illuminate these concerns.
Van Horn, John Darrell; Fierro, Lily; Kamdar, Jeana; Gordon, Jonathan; Stewart, Crystal; Bhattrai, Avnish; Abe, Sumiko; Lei, Xiaoxiao; O'Driscoll, Caroline; Sinha, Aakanchha; Jain, Priyambada; Burns, Gully; Lerman, Kristina; Ambite, José Luis
The biomedical sciences have experienced an explosion of data which promises to overwhelm many current practitioners. Without easy access to data science training resources, biomedical researchers may find themselves unable to wrangle their own datasets. In 2014, to address the challenges posed such a data onslaught, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) launched the Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) initiative. To this end, the BD2K Training Coordinating Center (TCC; bigdatau.org) was funded to facilitate both in-person and online learning, and open up the concepts of data science to the widest possible audience. Here, we describe the activities of the BD2K TCC and its focus on the construction of the Educational Resource Discovery Index (ERuDIte), which identifies, collects, describes, and organizes online data science materials from BD2K awardees, open online courses, and videos from scientific lectures and tutorials. ERuDIte now indexes over 9,500 resources. Given the richness of online training materials and the constant evolution of biomedical data science, computational methods applying information retrieval, natural language processing, and machine learning techniques are required - in effect, using data science to inform training in data science. In so doing, the TCC seeks to democratize novel insights and discoveries brought forth via large-scale data science training.
Full Text Available This paper sets out to discuss the enigma of revolutionary new political beginnings of constitutional orders. The problem is that when a political community is constituted, the act of constituting per definition is unconstitutional or extra-legal. For this reason the question of new beginnings is a political and not a legal question. The question of what the authority of the constituent act is presents an important question since the constitution is the fundamental law from which the legitimacy or authority of all other laws is derived. The problem for this paper is whether and in what way it is possible to think new beginnings that are not merely institutionalizations of factual relations of domination or arbitrary acts of violence. This problem is discussed on basis of two revolutionary theories in the tradition of constituent power—Emmanuel Sieyès and Hannah Arendt—that both understand power to emanate from below and not from above whereby they both, though in different way, present arguments against the understanding that new beginnings merely are institutionalizations of relations of domination and arbitrary acts of violence. The question of whether and to what extent they are successful and whether their theories are democratic will finally be discussed.
Elovitz, Paul H
A comparison of the family backgrounds, childhoods, personal lives, personalities, and political views of the Republican and Democratic nominees in the 2016 presidential election. The author is a presidential psychobiographer who has been presenting and publishing on candidates and presidents since 1976. He uses his training in child development and psychoanalysis to demonstrate some of the influences of early development on the candidates’ subsequent lives and careers. The strengths and weaknesses of Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump are discussed. Included in the analysis are family background, childhood, character, coping mechanisms, temperament, role models, foreign policy, health, interpersonal relations, marriage, parenting, and religious views, as well as the appeal and obstacles to election faced by each candidate.
Ghanem, Omar M; Heitmiller, Richard F
We reviewed the first 100 years of presidential addresses delivered at the fall congress of the American College of Surgeons (ACS). Our hypothesis was that these addresses would be an excellent indicator of the College's position on surgical policy, ethics, methods, and education. All ACS presidential addresses from 1913 to 2013 were identified through the ACS archives website. This included the presenter, title, year, and citation if published in a peer reviewed journal. The text of each address was obtained from the ACS archives, or from the listed citations. Addresses were then classified into 1 of 6 subgroups based on content-surgical credo, medical innovation, medical education, surgical history, business and legal, and personal tribute. The 100-year period was divided into 5 interval each of 20-year and the frequency of each category was graphed over time. There were 111 ACS presidential addresses delivered in the study period. Distribution by category was surgical credo (57%), surgical history (14%), medical innovation (10%), medical education (8%), business and legal (6%), and personal tributes (5%). The frequency of surgical credo has remained stable over time. Business and legal emerged as a new category in 1975. The other topics had low, but stable frequency. ACS presidential addresses do reflect the College's position on surgical policy and practice. The college has remained consistent in serving its members, maintaining, and defining the role of its organization, the qualifications for membership, and the expectations for the professional conduct of its members. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS... on HIV/AIDS (PACHA) will hold a meeting. The meeting will be conducted as a telephone conference call... Council on HIV/AIDS, Department of Health and Human Services, 200 Independence Avenue, SW., Room 443H...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS... on HIV/AIDS (PACHA) will hold a meeting. The meeting will be conducted as a telephone conference call... Council on HIV/AIDS, Department of Health and Human Services, 200 Independence Avenue SW., Room 443H...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS... on HIV/AIDS (PACHA) will hold a meeting. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES: The meeting... Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS, Department of Health and Human Services, 200 Independence Avenue, Room 443H...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS... on HIV/AIDS (PACHA) will hold a meeting. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES: The meeting... Council on HIV/AIDS, Department of Health and Human Services, 200 Independence Avenue SW., Room 443H...
... on HIV/ AIDS AGENCY: Office of HIV/AIDS and Infectious Disease Policy, Office of the Assistant... Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/ AIDS (PACHA; the Council) has been renewed. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... accessing the Council's Web site, www.aids.gov/pacha . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: PACHA is a non...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS... HIV/AIDS (PACHA) will hold a meeting. The meeting will be conducted as a telephone conference call... Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS, Department of Health and Human Services, 200 Independence Avenue, SW., Room...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS... HIV/AIDS (PACHA) will hold a meeting. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES: The meeting will.../AIDS, Department of Health and Human Services, 200 Independence Avenue, SW., Room 443H, Hubert H...
Covell, Dan; Barr, Carol A.
Provides a chronology of college presidential efforts to deal with conflicts related to reconciliation of academic mission and athletic success through development of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) initial eligibility academic legislation. Analyzes these efforts in terms of maintaining congruence within the constituency-based…
McNeely, Stanton Francis, III
Leaders of many institutions of higher education are not equipped to manage a major crisis or disaster, and presidential leadership during a disaster is essential, as university presidents are ultimately accountable for the well-being of their institutions. Hurricane Katrina devastated New Orleans in 2005, flooding 80% of the city for many weeks…
Smith, Laura K.
In the year 2000, news and entertainment programs dedicated a great deal of comedic attention to the presidential election. Taking a Uses and Gratifications approach, this paper examines the role of comedy among the young electorate (undergraduate students at a Texas university). It concludes comedic programs, while popular, are among many sources…
Bradberry, Leigh A
Thanks to the work of politics and religion scholars, we now know a lot about the relationship between religion and voting in American presidential general elections. However, we know less about the influence of religion on individual vote choice in presidential primaries. This article fills that gap by exploring the relationship between religion and candidate preference in the 2008 and 2012 Republican primaries. Using pre-Super Tuesday surveys conducted by the Pew Research Center, I find that the Republican candidate who most explicitly appealed to religious voters (Mike Huckabee in 2008 and Rick Santorum in 2012) was the preferred candidate of Republican respondents who attended religious services at the highest levels, and that as attendance increased, so did the likelihood of preferring that candidate. I also find that identification as a born again Christian mattered to candidate preference. Specifically, born again Christians were more likely than non-born again Christians to prefer Huckabee to Mitt Romney, John McCain and Ron Paul in 2008, and Santorum to Romney in 2012. Although ideology was not the primary subject of this article, I find that ideology was also a statistically significant predictor of Republican candidate preference in both 2008 and 2012. This robust finding reinforces scholars' prior work on the importance of ideology in explaining presidential primary vote choice. The overall findings of the paper provide evidence that religion variables can add to our understanding of why voters prefer one candidate over another in presidential primaries.
Discusses how prior to the 1932 presidential campaign, Governor Roosevelt sought to dispel suspicion that he was physically unfit to become President; and though he never hid his disability, he minimized his appearance as a disabled person. Describes how Roosevelt arranged for the publication of a medical examination as proof that he was…
Donald Trump’s victory in the 2016 presidential election has been attributed to disaffection among the American populace and its disengagement with the US political system, leading to a seismic shift towards populism. However, in common with Brexit, dominant discourses in Trump’s campaign centred on issues around belonging and identity with clearly marked boundaries of inclusion and exclusion.
Joyce, Helen M.
Given the low turnout among younger voters, it is important to seek innovative ways of engaging students in the electoral process, and a presidential year like this one offers exciting opportunities for doing so. In this article, the author describes her experiences with a schoolwide project designed by herself and colleagues that simulates the…
Kraeussl, R.G.W.; Lucas, A.; Rijsbergen, D.R.; van der Sluis, P.J.; Vrugt, E.B.
We show that the annual excess return of the S&P 500 is almost 10 percent higher during the last two years of the presidential cycle than during the first two years. This pattern cannot be explained by business-cycle variables capturing time-varying risk premia, differences in risk levels, or by
... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. PP-387] Application for Presidential Permit; Soule River Hydroelectric Project: Correction AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application; correction. SUMMARY: The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Electricity Delivery...
Sanders, Luther W.; And Others
A study analyzed the quality of reporting of public opinion polls in six selected newspapers during the final 65 days of the 1988 presidential campaign. The eight disclosure standards used were based upon the latest version of the American Association for Public Opinion Research (AAPOR) code of Professional Ethics and Practices. The newspapers…
... determination of an immigration emergency. 65.82 Section 65.82 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY FEDERAL LAW ENFORCEMENT ASSISTANCE Immigration Emergency Fund § 65.82 Procedure for requesting a Presidential determination of an immigration emergency. (a) The President may make a...
Benoit, William L.; McKinney, Mitchell S.; Holbert, R. Lance
Uses a pretest/posttest design to assess more subtle effects of watching a 2000 presidential debate on attitudes and vote intention among undergraduate students. Notes that leadership and overall policy stance became more important factors in vote choice after watching the debate. Demonstrates a variety of potentially important effects of watching…
Benoit, William L.; Brazeal, LeAnn M.
Applies the Functional Theory of Political Campaign Discourse to the 1988 presidential debates between George Bush and Michael Dukakis. Challenges the notion that this campaign was mostly negative. Concludes that despite the belief that modern campaigns are devoid of substance, these debates stressed policy about twice as much as character. (SG)
Benoit, William L.; McKinney, Mitchell S.; Stephenson, Michael T.
Reports the results of two studies measuring the effects on undergraduate communication students of watching U.S. presidential primary debates. Concludes that primary debates are capable of influencing both policy and character impressions of the candidates, as well as changing voting intentions and increasing voter confidence. (SG)
Benoit, William L.; Webber, David J.; Berman, Julie
Compares respondents who watched the first 1996 presidential debate with respondents who did not. Finds (1) those who watched the debate could more accurately recognize issue positions of Clinton and Dole than nonwatchers; (2) differences in the groups' assessment of character traits of the leading candidates; and (3) more respondents gave policy…
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Historical researchers and former Presidential appointees. 2008.17 Section 2008.17 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12065...
This article describes the instructional methods of four high school government teachers during their coverage of the 2008 presidential election. By analyzing the ways in which these teachers attempted to generate interest in the election and further their students' conceptualization of politics, the author seeks to better understand political…
This essay considers the absence, presence, and shifting treatment of the topic of research on teaching and teacher education in AERA presidential addresses. To capture the arc of this topic, the essay is structured chronologically according to three time periods beginning with AERA's birth in 1916 and continuing to the current years. At a general…
Baptiste, H. Prentice; Townsend, Katie
The primary focus of research that the authors have undertaken at New Mexico State University for the past several years can be summed up with the question--are Presidential Libraries educational institutions or are they simply political monuments and messages? The authors have conducted extensive investigations involving visitations to ten…
... Facilities for Transmission of Electric Energy at International Boundaries § 205.328 Environmental... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental requirements for Presidential Permits... responsible for the costs of preparing any necessary environmental document, including an Environmental Impact...
Stevens, M.M.J.; Lenstra, A.K.; Weger, de B.M.M.
We have used a Sony Playstation 3 to correctly predict the outcome of the 2008 US presidential elections. In order not to influence the voters we keep our prediction secret, but commit to it by publishing its cryptographic hash on this website. The document with the correct prediction and matching
... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [Notice-MK-2013-05; Docket No. 2013-0002; Sequence 20] The Presidential Commission on Election Administration (PCEA); Upcoming Public Advisory Meeting AGENCY: Office of Government-wide Policy, U.S. General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: M eeting notice. SUMMARY: The...
... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [Notice-MK-2013-06; Docket No. 2013-0002; Sequence 22] The Presidential Commission on Election Administration (PCEA); Upcoming Public Advisory Meeting AGENCY: Office of Government-wide Policy, U.S. General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: The...
... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [Notice--MK-2013-05; Docket No. 2013-0002; Sequence 20] The Presidential Commission on Election Administration (PCEA); Upcoming Public Advisory Meeting; Correction AGENCY: Office of Government-wide Policy, U.S. General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Meeting notice...
... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [Notice-MK-2013-07; Docket No. 2013-0002; Sequence 24] The Presidential Commission on Election Administration (PCEA); Upcoming Public Advisory Meeting AGENCY: Office of Government-wide Policy, U.S. General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: The...
... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [Notice-MK-2013-11; Docket No. 2013-0002; Sequence No. 36] The Presidential Commission on Election Administration (PCEA); Upcoming Public Advisory Meeting AGENCY: Office of Government-Wide Policy, U.S. General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: The...
... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [Notice-MK-2013-08; Docket No. 2013-0002; Sequence 27] The Presidential Commission on Election Administration (PCEA); Upcoming Public Advisory Meetings AGENCY: Office of Government-wide Policy, U.S. General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: The...
... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [Notice-MK-2013-10; Docket No. 2013-0002; Sequence 32] The Presidential Commission on Election Administration (PCEA); Upcoming Public Advisory Meeting AGENCY: Office of Government-Wide Policy, U.S. General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: The...
Powers, Elia; Moeller, Susan; Yuan, Yacong
This exploratory, mixed-methods study uses data gathered during the previous U.S. presidential election in 2012 to evaluate student political engagement and digital culture. Survey results and media diary entries revealed that college students enrolled in a media literacy course during Super Tuesday or Election Day gravitated toward low-barrier…
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... bioethical, legal, and social issues related to potential scientific and technological advances; examine... of public policy with regard to this advancing science. The Commission also will hear more from the... Science, The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues. ACTION: Notice of meeting...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the... the Assistant Secretary for Health, Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice of Meeting..., ethics, religion, law, and engineering. The Bioethics Commission advises the President on bioethical...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant... leaders in medicine, science, ethics, religion, law, and engineering. The Commission advises [[Page 61609...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant..., religion, law, and engineering. The Commission advises the President on bioethical issues arising from...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the... the Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The... Bioethics Commission is an advisory panel of the nation's leaders in medicine, science, ethics, religion...
... Utilities, 107 Selden Street, Berlin, CT 06037 AND Mary Anne Sullivan, Hogan Lovells, LLP, 555 13th St., NW., Washington, DC 20004. Before a Presidential permit may be issued or amended, DOE must determine that the... impacts of the proposed project pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, determines the...
Heinemann, Robert L.
Over the course of the 20th century, American Presidential campaign rhetoric has undergone various metamorphoses. Most of these changes can be traced to developments in technology and media. Furthermore, many of these changes have had the unfortunate effect of undermining a rational choice of the electorate, and thus threaten our democracy. Like…
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... ethical issues associated with the development of medical countermeasures for children as well as access... ethical issues associated with the development of medical countermeasures for children, and second, to... Study of Bioethical Issues AGENCY: Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, Office of...
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Goedschalk, Linford; Treur, J.; Verwolf, Roos; De la Prieta, F
In this paper a network-oriented computational model is presented for voting intentions over time specifically for the race between Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton in the 2016 US presidential election. The focus was on the role of social and mass communication media and the statements made by
Hardeman, Keith T.; Jefferson, Kurt W.
The closeness of the 2000 presidential election clearly demonstrated that the country was divided philosophically and politically. The authors of this paper, a speech communication professor and a political science professor at Westminster College in Missouri, capitalized on that division based upon their diametrically opposed political views by…
Full Text Available This article examines political dynamics in Malaysia and assesses the prospects for change in the direction of greater political liberalization. It focuses on the 12th General Election of 2008 and its implications for opportunities and challenges for liberal democratic change in Malaysia. It discusses the role of the internet-based new media in shaping an emerging public sphere, and some factors affecting the changing role of non-Malay voters in the political process. This article argues that democratization in Malaysia is already occurring, albeit at a gradual pace; it is being pushed by the new political forces of civil society actors, newly empowered opposition parties, and the internet-based media. The boundaries of this emerging democratic space is simultaneously being shaped and contested by the political competition between status-quo and reformist forces in this society. Some institutional changes have expanded the parameters of democratic space, although the entrenched dominant institutions of the ruling regime continue to wield sufficient amounts of institutional capacity to subvert any consolidation of these democratic changes for now.
... programs to aid Venezuela's democratic institutions and continued support for bilateral programs in Bolivia... leadership of President Karzai and key governors in the provinces, has demonstrated its ongoing commitment to...
Torres, Carlos Alberto
Two conditions are crucial in preparing radical democratic leaders for a democratic society. In this article, the author argues against instrumental rationality and for radical democratic leaders with a critical perspective in education and schools.
The authoritarian standpoint in medicine has been under challenge by various groups and researchers since the 1980s. The challenges have been ethical, political and medical, with patient movements at the forefront. Over the past decade, however, a deep challenge has been posed by evidence......-based medicine (EBM), which has challenged the entire strategy of medical treatment from the point of view of a self-critical, anti-authoritarian and hereby also (it has been claimed) a more democratic medical practice. Previously, the challenges arose out of the patient rights perspective. EBM, by contrast......, was taken to challenge the way doctors consider their medical practice as a whole. The present paper puts this claim of democratization into a historical context. Two dimensions of the democratization hypothesis are discussed and it is argued that they are insufficient to capture the substantial changes...
beyond it to the school and the community” (Marris, 2003:274) then implementing democratic learning systems as The Aalborg Model are important for supporting and promote democratic bildung of students in higher education. This article defines at a – start - what should be understood by a democratic......, run processes and decide behaviour. It is what a pilot investigation referred in this article indicate. The meaning of this seems to be far behind the study itself and qualifications of the students to the labour marked. If it is true that ”the building of community begins in the classroom but extends...... learning system. It contrasts it to an authoritarian or elitist systems. Then it brings the results from an investigation of 9 process analyses’ written at the end of the second semester 2005 by project groups from The Technical Natural Scientific Basic Year at Aalborg University and concludes...
This article presents the findings from the study of research literature on Adult Education for Democratic Citizenship, carried out in nine EU memner states. The literature review was designed as the building block for a European Stocktaking study on lifelong learning for democratic citizenship...... through adult education. This article begins by describing the context of the study, and introducing the study aims and core principles. This is done in section 1 and 2. In section 3, the article introduces and discusses substantive features which emerged from scholarly investigation at national level....... Implications for further research are discussed in the concluding section, which presents the main argument of this paper. Despite countries unique characterizations, there is a general concern on citizens´conduct in democratic societeies in Europe, but relative limited attention on the specific contribution...
... principle place of business at 333 Clay Street, Suite 1600, Houston Texas, 77002. Plains LPG is a subsidiary... with regard to whether issuing a new Presidential Permit reflecting the corporate succession and...
... business at 333 Clay Street, Suite 1600, Houston Texas, 77002. Plains LPG is a subsidiary of Plains All... whether issuing a new Presidential Permit reflecting the corporate succession and authorizing Plains LPG...
Chryssoula Kapartziani; Katerini Papathanasiou
The institutional European Union is facing two types of crisis. On the one hand, it needs to manage the current refugee’s influx efficiently and on the other hand it needs to deal with the democratic deficit that emerged by Europe’s incapacity to make the required decisions and gain the justification of its actions from its own people. This article aims firstly to highlight the legal framework (rule of law) that governs the asylum and migration procedures as well as the democratic gap that th...
accessed from http://www.american.edu/15pointplan/WhatIsABestPractice.html on 17 Feb 2006. Argenti , Paul A., Corporate Communication . 3rd ed. Boston...Army, Presidential, and Corporate Strategic Transitions: The Importance of Transition Teams and the Application of Lessons Learned A Monograph...SUBTITLE Army, Presidential, and Corporate Strategic Transitions: The Importance of Transition Teams and the Application of Lessons Learned 5c
In the paper, it is argued that democratization in Central and Eastern Europe involves important forms of differentiation of democracy, rather than merely convergence to a singular – liberal-democratic, constitutional - model. One way of taking up democratic differentiation in post-communist societies is by analysing the constitutional documents of the new democratic orders, and the constitutional politics leading to the foundational documents. In a first step, the paper analyses constitution...
political leadership , interparty alliances, and legislatures by which society constitutes itself politically to select and monitor democratic government... democratically elected civilian leadership .” Matei, “New Conceptualization,” 31. Young posits expertise, essential duties, responsibility, and corporateness as...CONFLICT RECONSTRUCTION: IMPLICATION FOR DEMOCRATIZATION IN SRI LANKA by Don Kapila Sarath Kumara Dolage December 2016 Thesis Advisor: Anshu
Stephens, Mary; Forest, Robert
Instrumental to successful democratic leadership is the use of committees to solve management problems. In democratic leadership, a leader encourages participation and uses a guidance approach to direct a group toward consensus. This document offers leaders guidelines in effective democratic management of meetings. The authors first discuss the…
de Groot, Isolde; Veugelers, Wiel
Since the beginning of the 21st century, academics in various disciplines have stressed the need to address democratic deficits in Europe as well as lacunae in the citizenship development of European youth. In this article we explore the value of various types of democratic engagement for strengthening the democratic character of local and…
Hur, Eun Hye; Glassman, Michael; Kim, Yunhwan
This paper developed a Democratic Classroom Survey to measure students' perceived democratic environment of the classroom. Perceived democratic environment is one of the most important variables for understanding classroom activity and indeed any type of group activity, but actually measuring perceptions in an objective manner has been…
Full Text Available People’s electoral behavior is understood as political predispositions and attitudes in specific institutional contexts. Recent scholarly work has included personality as a key explanatory factor in individual-level models of political participation. In this paper we build upon these recent efforts. We utilize the Big Five approach to assess the effects of different personality traits on people’s likelihood of political engagement during the 2012 presidential election in Mexico. We focus on the effects of personality on voting in the election and on individual views about the integrity of the electoral process. We use post election survey data collected for the Comparative National Elections Project in the 2012 Mexican presidential election. Our findings show that extraversion is a critical individual-level factor accounting for the propensity to turnout in this election as well as to encourage political discussion with family members, friends, neighbors, and co-workers.
Ashu M. G. Solo
Full Text Available During a presidential forum in the 2008 US presidential campaign, the moderator, Pastor Rick Warren, wanted Senator John McCain and then-Senator Barack Obama to define rich with a specific number. Warren wanted to know at what specific income level a person goes from being not rich to rich. The problem with this question is that there is no specific income at which a person makes the leap from being not rich to being rich. This is because rich is a fuzzy set, not a crisp set, with different incomes having different degrees of membership in the rich fuzzy set. Fuzzy logic is needed to properly ask and answer Warren's question about quantitatively defining rich. An imprecise natural language word like rich should be considered to have qualitative definitions, crisp quantitative definitions, and fuzzy quantitative definitions.
Full Text Available This study represents a synthesis of the electoral behaviour exhibited by the population of Harghita, Covasna and Mureş counties, at the 2009 presidential elections, held on 22nd November (first tour and 6th December (second tour, and at the presidential elections of 2014 (first tour, 2nd November, and second tour, 16th November. In terms of candidates, the following occured: in 2009, first tour, with 12 candidates, from which only Traian Băsescu and Mircea Geoană proceeded to the second round, and 14 candidates in the first round of the 2014 elections (10 of them from political parties and alliances. The second round was defined by the first two candidates with the highest number of votes, which were Victor-Viorel Ponta and Klaus-Werner Iohannis.
Morrison, Christopher N; Ukert, Benjamin; Palumbo, Aimee; Dong, Beidi; Jacoby, Sara F; Wiebe, Douglas J
This study investigates whether assault frequency increased on days and in cities where candidates Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton held campaign rallies prior to the 2016 US Presidential election. We calculated city-level counts of police-reported assaults for 31 rallies for Donald Trump and 38 rallies for Hillary Clinton. Negative binomial models estimated the assault incidence on rally days (day 0) relative to that on eight control days for the same city (days -28, -21, -14, -7, +7, +14, +21, and +28). Cities experienced an increase in assaults (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.03-1.22) on the days of Donald Trump's rallies, and no change in assaults on the days of Hillary Clinton's rallies (IRR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.94-1.06). Assaults increased on days when cities hosted Donald Trump's rallies during the 2016 Presidential election campaign.
Nigeria as a democratic nation-state is ailing. One of the consequences of this ailment is the cascading standard of social justice in the country. Instead of correcting the trend, the leaders continue to rationalize every action taken by government and describe Nigeria's democracy as being unique to the cultural environment, ...
Youth, Poverty, and Use of ICTs: Constructing New Democratic Public Spheres. Violence toward youth in Brazil is among the highest in the world. However, youth in poor and violent neighbourhoods of Rio de Janeiro are using new technologies to make their voices heard. Brazil has achieved remarkable economic success ...
The current era of standards and accountability in U.S. public schooling narrows recognition and assessment to an almost exclusive focus on the production of test scores as legitimate markers of student achievement. This climate prevents rather than encourages democratic forms of exchange within and across social worlds. Via a case study of one…
Gundara, Jagdish S.
This paper explores the implications that ancient Athens had for modern representative democracies and the links that can be made to the philosophical principles that form the essence of intercultural education. Such an exploration shows that modern democratic societies have ignored many key aspects of the important legacy left to us by these…
This book presents more than 200 photographs along with a chronological record from the "Ming Pao News," covering the events in People's Republic of China from the death of Hu Yaobang on April 15, 1989, which precipitated the Chinese student democratic movement, to the crushing of the movement at Tiananmen Square by the Chinese army on…
Serious re-examination of participatory traditions of democracy is long overdue. Iconically central to such traditions of democratic education is the practice of whole School Meetings. More usually associated with radical work within the private sector, School Meetings are here explored in detail through two examples from publicly funded…
Rhoads, Robert A.
Discusses how service learning can promote the development of a "caring self" in college students by drawing on the ideas of John Dewey, George Herbert Mead, and contemporary critical theorists. Links this caring self to democratic citizenship and uses students' narratives to illustrate how it develops through service learning contexts.…
Vaughan, Geoffrey M.
The political educator takes the perspective that, in Thomas Hobbes's phrase, "man is not born fit for society." To make him so fit, contemporary political educators seek to develop individual autonomy and democratic affect, which would have the added task of reforming all of society in the future. The current consensus holds that the…
Martinez Aleman, Ana M.
In an era of heightened teacher and school accountability, what are the implications of standards-based reform for individual Latino children and their democratic self-realization? The educational demography of the fastest-growing and largest ethnic group in the United States suggests that the future of Latino self-realization is in jeopardy.…
Communities emerging from violent conflict confront complex challenges that are specifi c from one context to another. The 2002 Peace Accord for the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) signed in Pretoria, South Africa, marked a post-confl ict chapter for the country and inaugurated a range of actors and strategies to ...
Perrin, Andrew J.
At the core of democratic citizenship is deliberation: citizens' tendency and capacity for debating issues of common importance. This study considers civic organizations--often found to be political mobilizers--as political microcultures: environments for political discourse that structure participants' understanding of the practice of…
Gerstl-Pepin, Cynthia; Aiken, Judith A.
The purpose of this article is to learn from active educational leaders engaged in the practice of democratic, ethical leadership. In this article, we share findings of a qualitative study that used narrative inquiry to examine the stories of eight educational leaders. We discuss three themes arising from the participants' narratives that define…
Jwan, Julius; Anderson, Lesley; Bennett, Nigel
In this article we discuss students', teachers' and school principals' perceptions of democratic school leadership reforms in Kenya. The article is based on a study that was conducted in two phases. In phase one (conducted between September and December 2007), interviews were undertaken with 12 school principals in which understandings of…
Full Text Available I focus on the role of learners in the governance of secondary schools. I seek to promote a voice for learner expression as guaranteed in the national Department of Education's guidelines for Representative Council of Learners as part of promoting democratic governance. The potential, limitations, constraints, consequences, and challenges facing learners in the school governance structure need to be revealed and debated. The views of school principals were solicited by means of unstructured open-ended questionnaires. Six problem areas emerged from the data. The irony is that although the democratisation of school governance has given all stakeholders a powerful voice in school affairs, learners' voices are, seemingly, being silenced. In attempting to resolve the problem, a new model of democratic school governance to be known as 'deliberative democratic school governance' (DDSG is suggested. There are several DDSG approaches that can be employed in creating elements for stakeholder empowerment and in driving deliberative democratic school governance forward. These include inclusion, motivational communication, consensus, deliberation/ dialogue, collaboration, and conflict resolution. Some school governance stakeholders and schools may use only one or a few of these strategies to create spaces for learner voices in their respective schools.
Dahlgren, P.; Hermes, J.; Witcomb, A.; Message, K.
Change is sweeping through the world of museums, technologically, financially, and ideologically, impacting on the sociocultural evolution of their roles and status. We seek to contribute to ongoing reflections by offering a conceptual framework that links museums with democratic theory, to
Aliyu Mukhtar Katsina
Full Text Available Their nature and functions make political parties central to democratic governance especially in the new democracies of Africa that face the challenge of building strong and enduring democratic institutions. It is accepted that the existing trend in most of these democracies of one big party dominating the political space weakens democracy and undermines its prospects for consolidation. Big parties—usually the ruling ones—exhibit tendencies such as absence of internal democracy that are antithetical to democratic governance. While observations such as these are incontestable, there is little understanding into the nature, character, ideology, and internal structure of big parties generally. In this article, I attempt to address this concern. Specifically, I examine the nature, structure, and ideology of the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP, Nigeria’s ruling party at the federal level with considerable strength at local level between 1999 and 2015. Relying on data obtained from multiple sources, I investigate the process of its formation, the nature of its ideology, internal organization, its electoral strength, and how absence of internal democracy contributed significantly to its defeat in 2015 general elections.
Almost two decades ago, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) was confronted with a vicious cycle of internationalised armed conflicts in which between six and ten million people are estimated to have been killed. Those conflicts were resolved through peace agreements between the leaders of the warring parties ...
Harrison, Gale A.
The elite model of education postulates that only a select few have the intellectual capacity, moral values, and personal commitment to make "good" decisions for society. A democratically based classroom, where students are respected for their intellectual abilities, personal integrity, and commitment to achievement, fosters successful…
Dumas, Wayne; Dumas, Alesia
Investigates civic education curricular reform in the former German Democratic Republic (GDR). Discusses the problems inherent in reforming an entire educational system, from textbooks to teachers, originally designed for Marxist-Leninist purposes. Examines the German state educational structure and the role that the main political parties play in…
Costera Meijer, I.
Media scholars and journalists expect local media to function as vital institutions for the creation and maintenance of a democratic political and public arena and a general sense of social cohesion and public connection (Aldridge, 2007; Couldry et al., 2007; Franklin, 2006; Rosenstiel et al.,
After a decade of implementing liberal conceptions of democratic citizenship education in public schools in South Africa, questions need to be asked about its credibility and success. We commence this article by analysing the Department of Basic Education's (DoBE, 2011) recently produced Building a culture of ...
Introduction: Despite accelerated measles control efforts, a massive measles resurgence occurred in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) starting in mid-2010, prompting an investigation into likely causes. Methods: We conducted a descriptive epidemiological analysis using measles immunization and surveillance ...
With reference to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), religious groups wield enormous influence in the public space as providers of social services in a polity that has been characterised by years of misrule, declining state capacity and protracted conflict. The conflict in the DRC has deepened the imperative for ...
Hachem, Ali H.
The American university is in transition, witnessing major changes to its institutional structures and processes. While the 1960s and 1970s were decades of progressive democratization in American higher education, today's university is more aligned with the economic theory of neoliberalism. Existing at the intersection of two dominant but…
Democratic participation in education suggests that communities will be served best when decision-making is decentralized and when people--teachers, parents, and students alike--are encouraged to participate directly in making decisions that affect them. In contrast, the notion of administrative leadership implies hierarchical elevation of chief…
Chan, Eugene Y
Some prior research has suggested that exposure to the American flag tilts Americans towards Republicanism, while others have proffered that it brings outs a common 'together' perspective instead. We explore a third possibility - that it may actually polarize Americans' political ideology. It is generally accepted that exposure to an environmental cue can shift attitudes and behaviours, at least partly or temporarily, in a manner that is consistent with that cue. Yet, the same cue can mean different things to different people. In the same vein, given how national identity and political ideology are intertwined in the United States, we hypothesize that the American flag should heighten different political beliefs depending on individuals' political ideology. To Democrats, being American is to support Democratic values, but to Republicans, being American is to support Republican values. The American flag thus should heighten Democrats of their Democratic identity, and it should heighten Republicans of their Republican one. The results of an experiment with 752 American respondents who were representative of the US population supported this polarizing effect of the American flag. The theoretical and policy implications of the findings are offered. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
This paper brings concepts and ideas from around the world about the need for and ways of achieving more responsive and accountable new public management within the framework of democratic governance. The paper adopts a content analysis method through the use of secondary data. The findings of the paper ...
Despite the potential for media and technology to act as a democratizing force and the challenges to democracy posed by partisanship and the explosion of political media spending, media education and the preparation of active citizens in schools is virtually nonexistent. This essay presents the case for revitalizing media education for the age of…
Access to improved sanitation is a major concern in the Lao People s Democratic Republic. Only 63 percent of the population of the country had access to improved sanitation facilities in 2010. Sanitation conditions are worse in rural areas. This study aims to generate evidence on the costs and benefits of sanitation improvements Lao PDR.
Recent moves towards greater pupil participation in school decision-making have in part been based on instrumental rationales, such as increases in test scores and improvements in behaviour. This article assesses a different approach--that of the "prefigurative"--through which the school embodies the democratic society it aims to create.…
School governance reform in post-apartheid South Africa aimed to democratize schooling while accommodating diverse school histories of underdevelopment or self-management. Analysis of relevant legislation shows the reform was structured to allow representative democracy and partnerships. But two recent studies suggest that governance reforms have…
P H Stoker
democratic control of military and security institutions is strategic to democratisation for two main reasons: firstly because these institutions have a peculiar intimate relationship to political power and secondly because their security functions, including the management of insecurities that may be generated by democratisation ...
Klinker, JoAnn Franklin; Hoover, J. Duane; Valle, Fernando; Hardin, Fred
Experience in problem-based learning, authentic experiences, on-the-job decision making, and critical reflection on decisions made formed the conceptual framework of an internship to develop democratic leadership as a professional ethic in interns. Interns in an on-the-job guided internship examined decisions over a 13-week period as they…
Oliver, Esther; Tellado, Itxaso; Yuste, Montserrat; Larena-Fernández, Rosa
Background/Context: Traditional adult education in Spain treated the learner as a mere object that could be shaped by the educator. Although current practices of the democratic adult education movement in Spain reveals a completely opposite standpoint on adult education, there has been little analysis of the several influences converging and…
Harris, Michael H.
We are now witnessing what I prefer to call the decline of the democratic dogma in this country; the people seem to be losing their unmitigated faith in the basic and most cherished of American beliefs; their faith in the value of universal public enlightenment. (Author)
"Democratic life skills" are social-emotional capacities that children need to be productive citizens and healthy individuals in a modern, diverse society. The construct for these skills comes from many sources. One helpful source is Maslow's concept of two coexisting sets of motivational needs in each individual: one set for security, belonging,…
Mihaila, Ramona; Popescu, Gheorghe H.; Nica, Elvira
The purpose of this article was to gain a deeper understanding of Arendt's educational philosophy, her perspective of political involvement as a kind of political education, and natality as the fundamental nature of education. The current study has extended past research by elucidating Arendt's view of participatory democratic politics, her…
Kimber, Megan; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine
Purpose: The paper seeks to apply the theory of the democratic deficit to school-based management with an emphasis on Australia. This theory was developed to examine managerial restructuring of the Australian Public Service in the 1990s. Given similarities between the use of managerial practices in the public service and government schools, the…
Webb, L. Dean; McCarthy, Martha M.
Ella Flagg Young was the first woman superintendent of a large-city school system (Chicago, 1909-15) and the first woman president of the National Education Association (1910). A colleague of Dewey, Young pioneered democratic administrative practices in a scientific management era and organized school councils to give teachers a greater voice in…
However, wives often reported conflicts with their in-laws, were overwhelmed by family responsibilities, had difficulties raising children and feared that their husbands might acquire HIV from other women or marry at their place of destination. Key words: male migration, gender roles, role conflict, Democratic Republic of ...