WorldWideScience

Sample records for demethylation blood test

  1. Blood sugar test - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood glucose level ( hypoglycemia ) may be due to: Hypopituitarism (a pituitary gland disorder) Underactive thyroid gland or ... tonic-clonic seizure Glucagon blood test Glucagonoma Hyperthyroidism Hypopituitarism Hypothyroidism Insulinoma Low blood sugar Multiple endocrine neoplasia ( ...

  2. Catecholamine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norepinephrine -- blood; Epinephrine -- blood; Adrenalin -- blood; Dopamine -- blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... the test. This is especially true if both blood and urine catecholamines are to be measured. You ...

  3. Blood Count Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your blood contains red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in your blood. This helps doctors check on your overall health. ...

  4. Myoglobin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin blood test; Myositis - myoglobin blood test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin blood test ... too high, it can damage the kidneys. This test is ordered when your health care provider suspects ...

  5. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - home glucose testing; Diabetes - home blood sugar testing ... Usual times to test your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your provider may ask you to check your blood sugar 2 hours after a meal or ...

  6. Glucagon blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type I - glucagon test; Hypoglycemia - glucagon test; Low blood sugar - glucagon test ... A blood sample is needed . ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel ... Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This ...

  7. Coordinated activation of candidate proto-oncogenes and cancer testes antigens via promoter demethylation in head and neck cancer and lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epigenetic alterations have been implicated in the pathogenesis of solid tumors, however, proto-oncogenes activated by promoter demethylation have been sporadically reported. We used an integrative method to analyze expression in primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC and pharmacologically demethylated cell lines to identify aberrantly demethylated and expressed candidate proto-oncogenes and cancer testes antigens in HNSCC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We noted coordinated promoter demethylation and simultaneous transcriptional upregulation of proto-oncogene candidates with promoter homology, and phylogenetic footprinting of these promoters demonstrated potential recognition sites for the transcription factor BORIS. Aberrant BORIS expression correlated with upregulation of candidate proto-oncogenes in multiple human malignancies including primary non-small cell lung cancers and HNSCC, induced coordinated proto-oncogene specific promoter demethylation and expression in non-tumorigenic cells, and transformed NIH3T3 cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Coordinated, epigenetic unmasking of multiple genes with growth promoting activity occurs in aerodigestive cancers, and BORIS is implicated in the coordinated promoter demethylation and reactivation of epigenetically silenced genes in human cancers.

  8. Ketones blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight ... there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  9. CEA blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcinoembryonic antigen blood test ... A blood sample is needed . ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. ...

  10. Blood Gases Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known as: Arterial Blood Gases; ABGs Formal name: Arterial Blood Gas Analysis Related tests: Electrolytes , Bicarbonate , BUN , Creatinine , Emergency and ... lives higher than sea level. Results from an arterial blood gas analysis are not diagnostic; they should be used in ...

  11. Chloride test - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Antidiuretic hormone blood test Gastric suction Heart failure - overview Hyperventilation Ions Metabolic acidosis Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II Proximal renal tubular acidosis Respiratory acidosis Sodium blood test Review Date 5/3/2015 Updated by: Laura J. ...

  12. Ethylene glycol blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003564.htm Ethylene glycol blood test To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the level of ethylene glycol in the blood. Ethylene glycol is a type ...

  13. BUN - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood urea nitrogen ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health ... if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this ...

  14. Rh Factor Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests and Procedures Rh factor blood test By Mayo Clinic Staff Rhesus (Rh) factor is an inherited protein found on the surface of ... If your blood has the protein, you're Rh positive. If your blood lacks the protein, you' ...

  15. Porphyrins - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Porphyrins, quantitative - blood. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory ... Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare ...

  16. Blood Test: Bilirubin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood Test: Bilirubin KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Bilirubin A A A What's in this article? What ... Análisis de sangre: bilirrubina What It Is A bilirubin test measures the level of bilirubin (a byproduct ...

  17. Vitamin A blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003570.htm Vitamin A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The vitamin A test measures the level of vitamin A ...

  18. CO2 blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this test. DO ...

  19. ALP - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003470.htm ALP - blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a protein found in all body tissues. ...

  20. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  1. Antibody Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What do I do if I have a negative blood test (or panel) but I’m still having symptoms? While it is rare, it is possible for patients to have a negative antibody test results and still have celiac disease. ...

  2. Flushable reagent stool blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stool occult blood test - flushable home test; Fecal occult blood test - flushable home test ... This test is performed at home with disposable pads. You can buy the pads at the drug store without ...

  3. Blood Pressure Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an online personal health record or blood pressure tracker, for example. This gives you the option of ... lower your blood pressure. Exercise regularly. Regular physical activity can help lower your blood pressure and keep ...

  4. Magnesium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight pain. Others feel a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  5. Ferritin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum ferritin level; Iron deficiency anemia - ferritin ... The amount of ferritin in the blood (serum ferritin level) is directly related to the amount of iron stored in your body. Iron is needed to make healthy red blood cells. These ...

  6. Prolactin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test; Amenorrhea - prolactin test; Breast leakage - prolactin test; Prolactinoma - prolactin test; Pituitary tumor - prolactin test ... hypothyroidism ) Kidney disease Pituitary tumor that makes prolactin (prolactinoma) Other pituitary tumors and diseases in the area ...

  7. Cord blood testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is born. The umbilical cord is the cord connecting the baby to the mother's womb. Cord blood ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  8. Nitroblue tetrazolium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemical called nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) into a deep blue color. ... Normally, the white blood cells turn blue when NBT is added. This means that the cells should be able to kill bacteria and protect the person ...

  9. Blood Urea Nitrogen Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities ...

  10. Blood Culture Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities ...

  11. Automated extraction of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and N-demethyl-LSD from blood, serum, plasma, and urine samples using the Zymark RapidTrace with LC/MS/MS confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kanel, J; Vickery, W E; Waldner, B; Monahan, R M; Diamond, F X

    1998-05-01

    A forensic procedure for the quantitative confirmation of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and the qualitative confirmation of its metabolite, N-demethyl-LSD, in blood, serum, plasma, and urine samples is presented. The Zymark RapidTrace was used to perform fully automated solid-phase extractions of all specimen types. After extract evaporation, confirmations were performed using liquid chromatography (LC) followed by positive electrospray ionization (ESI+) mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS) without derivatization. Quantitation of LSD was accomplished using LSD-d3 as an internal standard. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) for LSD was 0.05 ng/mL. The limit of detection (LOD) for both LSD and N-demethyl-LSD was 0.025 ng/mL. The recovery of LSD was greater than 95% at levels of 0.1 ng/mL and 2.0 ng/mL. For LSD at 1.0 ng/mL, the within-run and between-run (different day) relative standard deviation (RSD) was 2.2% and 4.4%, respectively.

  12. Blood serum mercury test report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberge, J; Moodie, A S; Keller, R E

    1977-06-01

    A clinical blood serum mercury test of 111 dentists and auxiliaries revelaed that more than 50% had above normal serum mercury levels. This study showed that there may be a mercury health hazard in some dental environments. Acute mercury poisoning may be corrected simply by removing the cause, but long-term chronic effects are not known. Frequent screening of offices and personnel is advised. Experience reported here indicates that large amounts of mercury vapor are emitted when an amalgam carrier is heated over a flame ot dislodge particles, and also, that water-covered amalgam scrap relesases mercury vapor.

  13. Home Use Tests: Fecal Occult Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Home Use Tests Fecal Occult Blood Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... test kit to measure the presence of hidden (occult) blood in your stool (feces). What is fecal ...

  14. Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 previous 1 • 2 • 3 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Diabetes Control: Why It's Important Monitoring Blood Sugar Helping Kids Deal With Injections and Blood Tests Blood Test: Hemoglobin ... Center Word! Glycosylated Hemoglobin Test (Hemoglobin A1c) Medical ...

  15. Demethylation of Quinine Using Anhydrous Aluminium Trichloride

    OpenAIRE

    Aiyi Asnawi; As’ari Nawawi; Rahmana Emran Kartasasmita; Slamet Ibrahim3)

    2011-01-01

    Quinine is a natural alkaloid having a methoxy group bound to quinoline ring and an allyl group bound to quinuclidine ring. Demethylation of quinine applying strong acid such as HBr or HI at high temperature was unsuccessful. The aim of this research was to obtain demethylated quinine by means of mild and selective demethylation procedure to prevent the addition reaction of allyl group. Selective demethylation of quinine has been carried out using anhydrous aluminium trichloride as reagent. T...

  16. Process for demethylating dimethylsulfonium compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, Theo; van der Maarel, Marc

    1998-01-01

    PCT No. PCT/EP94/01640 Sec. 371 Date Nov. 14, 1995 Sec. 102(e) Date Nov. 14, 1995 PCT Filed May 16, 1994 PCT Pub. No. WO94/26918 PCT Pub. Date Nov. 24, 1994Process for preparing S-methylmercapto and mercapto compounds comprising the step of demethylating a dimethylsulfonium compound of formula I to

  17. Processing, testing and selecting blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alister; Heyes, Jennifer

    Transfusion of blood components can be an essential and lifesaving treatment for many patients. However, components must comply with a number of national requirements to ensure they are safe and fit for use. Transfusion of incorrect blood components can lead to mortality and morbidity in patients, which is why patient testing and blood selection are important. This second article in our five-part series on blood transfusion outlines the requirements for different blood components, the importance of the ABO and RhD blood group systems and the processes that ensure the correct blood component is issued to each patient.

  18. Fecal Occult Blood Test and Fecal Immunochemical Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visit Global Sites Search Help? Fecal Occult Blood Test and Fecal Immunochemical Test Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Test Common Questions Ask Us Related Pages The Test How is it used? When is it ordered? ...

  19. Blood Test: Immunoglobulin A (IgA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 2-Year-Old Blood Test: Immunoglobulin A (IgA) KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Immunoglobulin A (IgA) Print A A A What's in this article? ... Questions en español Análisis de sangre: inmunoglobulina A (IgA) What It Is An IgA test measures the ...

  20. Beta-carotene blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotene test ... anything for up to 8 hours before the test. You may also be asked not to eat ... vitamin A (carotene) for 48 hours before the test. Your provider may also tell you to temporarily ...

  1. Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003691.htm Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test To use the ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH-RP) test measures the ...

  2. Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty and Perioperative Blood Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Cook

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is standard practice in many institutions to routinely perform preoperative and postoperative haemoglobin level testing in association with hip joint arthroplasty procedures. It is our observation, however, that blood transfusion after uncomplicated primary hip arthroplasty in healthy patients is uncommon and that the decision to proceed with blood transfusion is typically made on clinical grounds. We therefore question the necessity and clinical value of routine perioperative blood testing about the time of hip resurfacing arthroplasty. We present analysis of perioperative blood tests and transfusion rates in 107 patients undertaking unilateral hybrid hip resurfacing arthroplasty by the senior author at a single institution over a three-year period. We conclude that routine perioperative testing of haemoglobin levels for hip resurfacing arthroplasty procedures does not assist in clinical management. We recommend that postoperative blood testing only be considered should the patient demonstrate clinical signs of symptomatic anaemia or if particular clinical circumstances necessitate.

  3. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... excess calcium supplements or certain antacids, that contain calcium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) Parathyroid glands do ... More 25-hydroxy vitamin D test Bone tumor Calcium ... level Malabsorption Milk-alkali syndrome Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) I Multiple ...

  4. 21 CFR 640.53 - Testing the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.53 Section 640.53 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Cryoprecipitate § 640.53 Testing the blood. (a) Blood... sample of blood collected at the time of collecting the source blood, and such sample container shall...

  5. Acknowledging the results of blood tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdottir á; Hertzum, Morten

    At the studied hospital, physicians from the Medical and Surgical Departments work some of their shifts in the Emergency Department (ED). Though icons showing the blood-test process were introduced on electronic whiteboards in the ED, these icons did not lead to increased attention to test...

  6. 21 CFR 864.6550 - Occult blood test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Occult blood test. 864.6550 Section 864.6550 Food... DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6550 Occult blood test. (a) Identification. An occult blood test is a device used to detect occult blood in urine or feces. (Occult blood...

  7. 21 CFR 640.14 - Testing the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.14 Section 640.14 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.14 Testing the blood. Blood from which Red Blood Cells are prepared shall be tested as prescribed in § 610.40 of this chapter...

  8. Blood Group ABO Genotyping in Paternity Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugert, Peter; Rink, Gabriele; Kemp, Katharina; Klüter, Harald

    2012-06-01

    BACKGROUND: The ABO blood groups result from DNA sequence variations, predominantly single nucleotide and insertion/deletion polymorphisms (SNPs and indels), in the ABO gene encoding a glycosyltransferase. The ABO blood groups A(1), A(2), B and O predominantly result from the wild type allele A1 and the major gene variants that are characterized by four diallelic markers (261G>del, 802G>A, 803G>C, 1061C>del). Here, we were interested to evaluate the impact of ABO genotyping compared to ABO phenotyping in paternity testing. METHODS: The major ABO alleles were determined by PCR amplification with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) in a representative sample of 1,335 blood donors. The genotypes were compared to the ABO blood groups registered in the blood donor files. Then, the ABO phenotypes and genotypes were determined in 95 paternity trio cases that have been investigated by 12 short tandem repeat (STR) markers before. We compared statistical parameters (PL, paternity likelihood; PE, power of exclusion) of both blood grouping approaches. RESULTS: The prevalence of the major ABO alleles and genotypes corresponded to the expected occurrence of ABO blood groups in a Caucasian population. The low resolution genotyping of 4 diallelic markers revealed a correct genotype-phenotype correlation in 1,331 of 1,335 samples (99.7%). In 60 paternity trios with confirmed paternity of the alleged father based on STR analysis both PL and PE of the ABO genotype was significantly higher than of the ABO phenotype. In 12 of 35 exclusion cases (34.3%) the ABO genotype also excluded the alleged father, whereas the ABO phenotype excluded the alleged father only in 7 cases (20%). CONCLUSION: In paternity testing ABO genotyping is superior to ABO phenotyping with regard to PL and PE, however, ABO genotyping is not sufficient for valid paternity testing. Due to the much lower mutation rate compared to STR markers, blood group SNPs in addition to anonymous SNPs could be considered for

  9. Blood Group ABO Genotyping in Paternity Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugert, Peter; Rink, Gabriele; Kemp, Katharina; Klüter, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Background The ABO blood groups result from DNA sequence variations, predominantly single nucleotide and insertion/deletion polymorphisms (SNPs and indels), in the ABO gene encoding a glycosyltransferase. The ABO blood groups A1, A2, B and O predominantly result from the wild type allele A1 and the major gene variants that are characterized by four diallelic markers (261G>del, 802G>A, 803G>C, 1061C>del). Here, we were interested to evaluate the impact of ABO genotyping compared to ABO phenotyping in paternity testing. Methods The major ABO alleles were determined by PCR amplification with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) in a representative sample of 1,335 blood donors. The genotypes were compared to the ABO blood groups registered in the blood donor files. Then, the ABO phenotypes and genotypes were determined in 95 paternity trio cases that have been investigated by 12 short tandem repeat (STR) markers before. We compared statistical parameters (PL, paternity likelihood; PE, power of exclusion) of both blood grouping approaches. Results The prevalence of the major ABO alleles and genotypes corresponded to the expected occurrence of ABO blood groups in a Caucasian population. The low resolution genotyping of 4 diallelic markers revealed a correct genotype-phenotype correlation in 1,331 of 1,335 samples (99.7%). In 60 paternity trios with confirmed paternity of the alleged father based on STR analysis both PL and PE of the ABO genotype was significantly higher than of the ABO phenotype. In 12 of 35 exclusion cases (34.3%) the ABO genotype also excluded the alleged father, whereas the ABO phenotype excluded the alleged father only in 7 cases (20%). Conclusion In paternity testing ABO genotyping is superior to ABO phenotyping with regard to PL and PE, however, ABO genotyping is not sufficient for valid paternity testing. Due to the much lower mutation rate compared to STR markers, blood group SNPs in addition to anonymous SNPs could be considered for future

  10. FDA Recommends All Blood Donations Be Tested for Zika

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FDA Recommends All Blood Donations Be Tested for Zika Updated guidance provides further protection for U.S. blood ... entire blood supply be routinely screened for the Zika virus. In February, the FDA recommended testing of ...

  11. 21 CFR 640.33 - Testing the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.33 Section 640.33 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.33 Testing the blood. (a) Blood...

  12. 21 CFR 640.5 - Testing the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.5 Section 640.5 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.5 Testing the blood. All laboratory tests shall be made on a specimen of blood taken from the donor at the time of collecting the unit...

  13. Genome-Wide Demethylation Promotes Triplet Repeat Instability Independently of Homologous Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Vincent; Lin, Yunfu; Price, Brandee A.; Fyffe, Sharyl L.; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Wilson, John H.

    2008-01-01

    Trinucleotide repeat instability is intrinsic to a family of human neurodegenerative diseases. The mechanism leading to repeat length variation is unclear. We previously showed that treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) dramatically increases triplet repeat instability in mammalian cells. Based on previous reports that demethylation increases homologous recombination (HR), and our own observations that HR destabilizes triplet repeats, we hypothesized that demethylation alters repeat stability by stimulating HR. Here, we test that hypothesis at the Aprt (adenosine phosphoribosyl transferase) locus in CHO cells, where CpG demethylation and HR have both been shown to increase CAG repeat instability. We find that the rate of HR at the Aprt locus is not altered by demethylation. The spectrum of recombinants, however, was shifted from the usual 6:1 ratio of conversions to crossovers to more equal proportions in 5-aza-CdR-treated cells. The subtle influences of demethylation on HR at the Aprt locus are not sufficient to account for its dramatic effects on repeat instability. We conclude that 5-aza-CdR promotes triplet repeat instability independently of HR. PMID:18083071

  14. 21 CFR 640.23 - Testing the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.23 Section 640.23 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Platelets § 640.23 Testing the blood. (a) Blood from... this chapter and § 640.5 (a), (b), and (c). (b) The tests shall be performed on a sample of...

  15. Tuberculosis in Children: New diagnostic Blood Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Kakkar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The interferon-gamma-release assays were developed to overcome the pitfalls and logistic difficulties of the tuberculin skin test (TST for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI. These blood tests measure the in vitro production of interferon-gamma by sensitized lymphocytes in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens. Two interferon-gamma-release assays are registered for use in Canada: the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assay (Cellestis Inc, Australia and the T.SPOT–TB test (Oxford Immunotec, United Kingdom. Evaluation of these tests has been hampered by the lack of a gold standard for LTBI, and limited paediatric data on their use. It appears that they are more specific than the TST, and may be useful for evaluating TST-positive patients at low risk of true LTBI. Moreover, they may add sensitivity if used in addition to the TST in immunocompromised patients, very young children and close contacts of infectious adults. A summary of these tests, their limitations and their application to clinical paediatric practice are described.

  16. Active DNA demethylation by oxidation and repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhizhong Gong; Jian-Kang Zhu

    2011-01-01

    DNA methylation and demethylation are increasingly recognized as important epigenetic factors in both plants and animals.DNA methylation,which is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs),is a relatively stable and heritable modification that controls gene expression,cellular differentiation,genomic imprinting,paramutation,transposon movement,X-inactivation,and embryogenesis [1].The methylation of cytosine to 5-methylcytosine (5mC) is an important example of DNA modification in animals and plants.This highlight concerns DNA demethylation mechanisms in mammals and whether they are similar to that in plants.

  17. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    A critical component of the DNA Medicine Institute's Reusable Handheld Electrolyte and Lab Technology for Humans (rHEALTH) sensor are nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, that enable multiplexed blood analysis. Nanostrips are conceptually similar to the standard urinalysis test strip, but the strips are shrunk down a billionfold to the microscale. Each nanostrip can have several sensor pads that fluoresce in response to different targets in a sample. The strips carry identification tags that permit differentiation of a specific panel from hundreds of other nanostrip panels during a single measurement session. In Phase I of the project, the company fabricated, tested, and demonstrated functional parathyroid hormone and vitamin D nanostrips for bone metabolism, and thrombin aptamer and immunoglobulin G antibody nanostrips. In Phase II, numerous nanostrips were developed to address key space flight-based medical needs: assessment of bone metabolism, immune response, cardiac status, liver metabolism, and lipid profiles. This unique approach holds genuine promise for space-based portable biodiagnostics and for point-of-care (POC) health monitoring and diagnostics here on Earth.

  18. Structure and function of dioxygenases in histone demethylation and DNA/RNA demethylation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dong, Cheng; Zhang, Heng; Xu, Chao; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Min, Jinrong

    2014-01-01

    Iron(II) and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent dioxygenases involved in histone and DNA/RNA demethylation convert the cosubstrate 2OG and oxygen to succinate and carbon dioxide, resulting in hydroxylation of the methyl group...

  19. Demethylating Agents in the Treatment of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Howell, Jr.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Gene silencing resulting from aberrant DNA methylation can lead to tumorigenesis. Therefore, drugs that inhibit or interfere with DNA methylation have been used to reactivate and induce silenced gene re-expression in malignancies. Two demethylating agents, azacitidine and decitabine, are approved for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA, and are now considered the standard of care in MDS. In this review, we discuss clinical data, including clinical benefits and toxicities, which led to the approval of azacitidine and decitabine. We also summarize findings from clinical trials that used these two demethylating agents in the treatment of solid tumors. Lastly, we discuss some limitations in the use of azacitidine and decitabine in cancer therapy.

  20. Anti-glomerular basement membrane blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used to diagnose certain kidney diseases, such as Goodpasture syndrome and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease. ... the blood may mean any of the following: Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease Goodpasture syndrome

  1. Structure and function of dioxygenases in histone demethylation and DNA/RNA demethylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Dong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron(II and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG-dependent dioxygenases involved in histone and DNA/RNA demethylation convert the cosubstrate 2OG and oxygen to succinate and carbon dioxide, resulting in hydroxylation of the methyl group of the substrates and subsequent demethylation. Recent evidence has shown that these 2OG dioxygenases play vital roles in a variety of biological processes, including transcriptional regulation and gene expression. In this review, the structure and function of these dioxygenases in histone and nucleic acid demethylation will be discussed. Given the important roles of these 2OG dioxygenases, detailed analysis and comparison of the 2OG dioxygenases will guide the design of target-specific small-molecule chemical probes and inhibitors.

  2. An optical approach for non-invasive blood clot testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Brill, Alexander; Fine, Ilya; Harmelin, Alon

    2007-02-01

    Physiological blood coagulation is an essential biological process. Current tests for plasma coagulation (clotting) need to be performed ex vivo and require fresh blood sampling for every test. A recently published work describes a new, noninvasive, in vivo approach to assess blood coagulation status during mechanical occlusion1. For this purpose, we have tested this approach and applied a controlled laser beam to blood micro-vessels of the mouse ear during mechanical occlusion. Standard setup for intravital transillumination videomicroscopy and laser based imaging techniques were used for monitoring the blood clotting process. Temporal mechanical occlusion of blood vessels in the observed area was applied to ensure blood flow cessation. Subsequently, laser irradiation was used to induce vascular micro-injury. Changes in the vessel wall, as well as in the pattern of blood flow, predispose the area to vascular thrombosis, according to the paradigm of Virchow's triad. In our experiments, two elements of Virchow's triad were used to induce the process of clotting in vivo, and to assess it optically. We identified several parameters that can serve as markers of the blood clotting process in vivo. These include changes in light absorption in the area of illumination, as well as changes in the pattern of the red blood cells' micro-movement in the vessels where blood flow is completely arrested. Thus, our results indicate that blood coagulation status can be characterized by non-invasive, in vivo methodologies.

  3. Random blood glucose testing in dental practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barasch, Andrei; Safford, Monika M; Qvist, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasing. Instances of patients' not having received a diagnosis have been reported widely, as have instances of poor control of DM or prediabetes among patient's who have the disease. These facts indicate that blood glucose screening is needed....

  4. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate-specific antigen; Prostate cancer screening test; PSA ... special steps are needed to prepare for this test. ... Reasons for a PSA test: This test may be done to screen for prostate cancer. It is also used to follow people after prostate cancer ...

  5. Demethylation of methylarsonic acid by a microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Cai, Yong; Rosen, Barry P

    2011-05-01

    Arsenic is one of the most widespread environmental carcinogens and has created devastating human health problems worldwide, yet little is known about mechanisms of biotransformation in contaminated regions. Methylarsonic acid [MAs(V)], extensively utilized as an herbicide, is largely demethylated to more toxic inorganic arsenite, which causes environmental problems. To understand the process of demethylation of methylarsenicals, soil samples commonly used on Florida golf courses were studied. Several soil extracts were found to demethylate MAs(V) to inorganic arsenite [As(III)]. From these extracts, a bacterial isolate was capable of reducing MAs(V) to MAs(III) but not of demethylating to As(III). A second bacterial isolate was capable of demethylating MAs(III) to As(III) but not of reducing MAs(V). A mixed culture could carry out the complete process of reduction and demethylation, demonstrating that demethylation of MAs(V) to As(III) is a two-step process. Analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA sequences of the two organisms identified the MAs(V)-reducing and the MAs(III)-demethylating isolates as belong to Burkholderia and Streptomyces species respectively. This is the first report of a novel pathway of degradation of a methylarsenical herbicide by sequential reduction and demethylation in a microbial soil community, which we propose plays a significant role in the arsenic biogeocycle.

  6. Evaluation of VDRL test in Sudanese blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, E F; El Sheikh, F S; Khalil, I A

    1982-04-01

    2201 blood donors and 199 patients with sexually transmitted diseases (STD) were tested with the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) and the fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (FTA-ABS) tests. The VDRL test was found positive in 30 (1.36%) of the blood donors and 11 (5.5%) of the patients. Syphilis was confirmed by FTA-ABS test in one patient (0.5%) but not in blood donors. The biological false positive (BFP) reactions were 1.36% in blood donors and 5.0% in control patients. The place of VDRL test as a screening test for syphilis and the low rate of its seroreactivity among blood donors was discussed. The BFP reactions were reviewed to assist in the interpretation of the VDRL test which was evaluated on the basis of the control specimens. It was concluded that syphilis should be excluded before blood is transfused and the VDRL test should remain the screening test of choice in the blood transfusion service.

  7. Influence of Blood Collection Systems on Coagulation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Yavaş

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Coagulation tests are influenced by pre-analytic conditions such as blood collection systems. Change of glass collection tubes with plastic ones will cause alteration of the test results. The aim of this study was to compare three plastic blood collection tubes with a standard glass blood collection tube and each plastic collection tube with the other two for possible additional tube-to- tube differences. METHODS: A total of 284 blood samples were obtained from 42 patients receiving warfarin during their routine controls, besides 29 healthy volunteers. Subgroup analyses were done according to health status. RESULTS: Our study demonstrated that different blood collection tubes have a statistically significant influence on coagulation tests. The magnitude of the effect depends on the tube used. However most of the tests performed on samples obtained from any tube correlated significantly with results obtained from other tube samples. CONCLUSION: Although blood collection tubes with different brands or properties will have distinct effects on coagulation tests, the influence of these blood collection tubes may be relatively small to interfere with decision-making on dose prescription, therefore lack clinical importance. Correlations between the results showed that, one of these plastic blood collection tubes tested in our study, can be used interchangably for a wide variety of coagulation assays.

  8. Automated nucleic acid amplification testing in blood banks: An additional layer of blood safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragati Chigurupati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: A total of 30 million blood components are transfused each year in India. Blood safety thus becomes a top priority, especially with a population of around 1.23 billion and a high prevalence rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV in general population. Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT in blood donor screening has been implemented in many developed countries to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections (TTIs. NAT takes care of the dynamics of window period of viruses and offers the safest blood pack for donation. Aims: The aim of this study is to show the value of NAT in blood screening. Settings and Design: Dhanavantari Blood Bank, Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, India. Subjects and Methods: Over a period of 1 year from January 2012 to December 2012, a total number of 15,000 blood donor samples were subjected to tests for HIV, HBV, and HCV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method and 8000 ELISA nonreactive samples were subjected for NAT using multiplex polymerase chain reaction technology. Results: Of the 15,000 donors tested, 525 were seroreactive. In 8000 ELISA negative blood samples subjected to NAT, 4 donor samples were reactive for HBV. The NAT yield was 1 in 2000. Conclusions: NAT could detect HIV, HBV, and HCV cases in blood donor samples those were undetected by serological tests. NAT could interdict 2500 infectious donations among our approximate 5 million annual blood donations.

  9. Galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galactosemia screen; GALT; Gal-1-PUT ... This is a screening test for galactosemia. In normal diets, most galactose comes from the breakdown ( metabolism ) of lactose, which is found in milk and dairy products. One out ...

  10. Ebola Blood Test May Help Predict Survival Chances

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163165.html Ebola Blood Test May Help Predict Survival Chances Findings ... help determine a person's chance of surviving an Ebola infection, researchers say. "It is not just defining ...

  11. Blood Test Might Someday Distinguish Early Depression, Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Blood Test Might Someday Distinguish Early Depression, Schizophrenia A screen is still in development stages but ... doctors to tell the difference between depression and schizophrenia, especially early on. Now, researchers say they're ...

  12. Is It Parkinson's or Something Else? Blood Test Might Tell

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163484.html Is It Parkinson's or Something Else? Blood Test Might Tell ... for prime time," Parkinson's disease experts said. But, it marks progress in the quest for an objective ...

  13. Blood: Tests Used to Assess the Physiological and Immunological Properties of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J. G.; Tansey, E. A.; Johnson, C. D.; Roe, S. M.; Montgomery, L. E. A.

    2016-01-01

    The properties of blood and the relative ease of access to which it can be retrieved make it an ideal source to gauge different aspects of homeostasis within an individual, form an accurate diagnosis, and formulate an appropriate treatment regime. Tests used to determine blood parameters such as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, hemoglobin…

  14. Evaluation of Verigene Blood Culture Test Systems for Rapid Identification of Positive Blood Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Seok; Kang, Go-Eun; Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, Hyun Soo; Song, Wonkeun; Lee, Kyu Man

    2016-01-01

    The performance of molecular tests using the Verigene Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Blood Culture nucleic acid tests (BC-GP and BC-GN, resp.; Naosphere, Northbrook, IL, USA) was evaluated for the identification of microorganisms detected from blood cultures. Ninety-nine blood cultures containing Gram-positive bacteria and 150 containing Gram-negative bacteria were analyzed using the BC-GP and BC-GN assays, respectively. Blood cultures were performed using the Bactec blood culture system (BD Diagnostic Systems, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) and conventional identification and antibiotic-susceptibility tests were performed using a MicroScan system (Siemens, West Sacramento, CA, USA). When a single strain of bacteria was isolated from the blood culture, Verigene assays correctly identified 97.9% (94/96) of Gram-positive bacteria and 93.8% (137/146) of Gram-negative bacteria. Resistance genes mecA and vanA were correctly detected by the BC-GP assay, while the extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M and the carbapenemase OXA resistance gene were detected from 30 cases cultures by the BC-GN assay. The BC-GP and BC-GN assays showed high agreement with conventional identification and susceptibility tests. These tests are useful for rapid identification of microorganisms and the detection of clinically important resistance genes from positive Bactec blood cultures.

  15. Donor Infectious Disease Testing Multinational assessment of blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Donor Infectious Disease Testing Multinational assessment of blood-borne virus testing and transfusion safety on the African continent... ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... for poor quality, to define a consensus strategy based on appropriate assays; and

  16. 21 CFR 862.1130 - Blood volume test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood volume test system. 862.1130 Section 862.1130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  17. DNA methylation profiling for a confirmatory test for blood, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid and menstrual blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwan Young; Jung, Sang-Eun; Lee, Eun Hee; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2016-09-01

    The ability to predict the type of tissues or cells from molecular profiles of crime scene samples has important practical implications in forensics. A previously reported multiplex assay using DNA methylation markers could only discriminate between 4 types of body fluids: blood, saliva, semen, and the body fluid which originates from female reproductive organ. In the present study, we selected 15 menstrual blood-specific CpG marker candidates based on analysis of 12 genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of vaginal fluid and menstrual blood. The menstrual blood-specificity of the candidate markers was confirmed by comparison with HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array data obtained for 58 samples including 12 blood, 12 saliva, 12 semen, 3 vaginal fluid, and 19 skin epidermis samples. Among 15CpG marker candidates, 3 were located in the promoter region of the SLC26A10 gene, and 2 of them (cg09696411 and cg18069290) showed high menstrual blood specificity. DNA methylation at the 2CpG markers was further tested by targeted bisulfite sequencing of 461 additional samples including 49 blood, 52 saliva, 34 semen, 125 vaginal fluid, and 201 menstrual blood. Because the 2 markers showed menstrual blood-specific methylation patterns, we modified our previous multiplex methylation SNaPshot reaction to include these 2 markers. In addition, a blood marker cg01543184 with cross reactivity to semen was replaced with cg08792630, and a semen-specific unmethylation marker cg17621389 was removed. The resultant multiplex methylation SNaPshot allowed positive identification of blood, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid and menstrual blood using the 9CpG markers which show a methylation signal only in the target body fluids. Because of the complexity in cell composition, menstrual bloods produced DNA methylation profiles that vary with menstrual cycle and sample collection methods, which are expected to provide more insight into forensic menstrual blood test. Moreover, because the developed

  18. Developmental validation of a novel lateral flow strip test for rapid identification of human blood (Rapid Stain Identification--Blood).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweers, Brett A; Old, Jennifer; Boonlayangoor, P W; Reich, Karl A

    2008-06-01

    Human blood is the body fluid most commonly encountered at crime scenes, and blood detection may aid investigators in reconstructing what occurred during a crime. In addition, blood detection can help determine which items of evidence should be processed for DNA-STR testing. Unfortunately, many common substances can cause red-brown stains that resemble blood. Furthermore, many current human blood detection methods are presumptive and prone to false positive results. Here, the developmental validation of a new blood identification test, Rapid Stain Identification--Blood (RSID--Blood), is described. RSID--Blood utilizes two anti-glycophorin A (red blood cell membrane specific protein) monoclonal antibodies in a lateral flow strip test format to detect human blood. We present evidence demonstrating that this test is accurate, reproducible, easy to use, and highly specific for human blood. Importantly, RSID--Blood does not cross-react with ferret, skunk, or primate blood and exhibits no high-dose hook effect. Also, we describe studies on the sensitivity, body fluid specificity, and species specificity of RSID--Blood. In addition, we show that the test can detect blood from a variety of forensic exhibits prior to processing for DNA-STR analysis. In conclusion, we suggest that RSID--Blood is effective and useful for the detection of human blood on forensic exhibits, and offers improved blood detection when compared to other currently used methods.

  19. [Cardiopulmonary exercise testing before and after blood donation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellweg, D; Siemon, K; Mahler, F; Appelhans, P; Klauke, M; Köhler, D

    2008-06-01

    The link between haemoglobin and physical performance was established a long time ago and is the underlying principle of blood doping. Blood loss on the other hand decreases physical capacity. The aim of this study is to evaluate physical performance loss and underlying mechanisms following voluntary blood donation. Eleven voluntary subjects (four female) completed a symptom-limiting cardio-pulmonary exercise test before and after blood donation (500 mL blood). The haemoglobin value decreased by 1.2 mg/dL (9%, p blood donation, respectively (p = 0.001). Subjects who practise recreational endurance sports appear to be more effected by endurance loss. The haemoglobin value was the only significant predictor of maximal oxygen uptake in regression analysis (p blood donation. Haemoglobin decline accounts for the decreased oxygen uptake. As a consequence thereof the anaerobic transition occurs earlier. Subjects not engaged in regular sports activity did not experience a decline in their capacity. Inclusion of the haemoglobin value into equations predicting maximal oxygen uptake could improve prediction precision.

  20. The VDRL test in a blood transfusion service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, R W; Merry, D J

    1975-11-01

    A survey has been made of the results of 12 months' VDRL screening in a blood transfusion service. Positive VDRL tests were found on 318 of the 73 350 blood donations collected during 1974. Thirty-four tests confirming specific treponemal infection were found in 24 donors. A battery of confirmatory tests showed the remaining 284 positive VDRL reactions from 235 donors to be biological false positive (BFP) results, and, of these, one-third were considered entirely negative by the reference laboratory. BFP reactions were commoner in female donors than in males, and a higher incidence than expected was observed in younger female donors and older male donors. A marked seasonal incidence was noted, 65% of all BFP tests from the transfusion service being found in the four colder months of May to August. Although some differences exist between the group as a whole and the 36 donors (15.3%) found to have BFP results on more than one occasion during the year, there is little evidence from these studies to suggest that regular blood donation per se is a contributing factor to the finding of a BFP result in VDRL screening. It is probable that the population tested regularly by the blood transfusion service reflects a small but representative sample of the community as a whole.

  1. Changing the Price of Marriage: Evidence from Blood Test Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Kasey; Guldi, Melanie; Price, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    We use state repeals of blood test requirements (BTRs) for a marriage license that occurred between 1980 and 2008 to examine the impact of changes in the price of marriage on the marriage decision. Using a within-group estimator that holds constant state and year effects and exploits variation in the repeal dates of BTRs across states, we find…

  2. Advances in Fecal Occult Blood Tests: The FIT Revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.P. Young; E.L. Symonds (Erin L.); J.E. Allison (James E.); S.R. Cole (Stephen R.); C.G. Fraser (Callum G.); S. Halloran (S.); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); H.E. Seaman (Helen E.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThere is a wide choice of fecal occult blood tests (FOBTs) for colorectal cancer screening. Goal: To highlight the issues applicable when choosing a FOBT, in particular which FOBT is best suited to the range of screening scenarios. Four scenarios characterize the constraints and expectat

  3. Simulated vibrational spectra of aflatoxins and their demethylated products and the estimation of the energies of the demethylation reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billes, Ferenc; Móricz, Ágnes M.; Tyihák, Ernő; Mikosch, Hans

    2006-06-01

    The structure of four natural mycotoxins, the aflatoxin B 1, B 2, G 1 and G 2 and their demethylated products were optimized with quantum chemical method. The energies and the thermodynamic functions of the molecules were calculated and applied to calculation of the reaction energies of the demethylations. Further results of the calculations are the vibrational force constants, the infrared spectra of the molecules and the assignments of the spectral bands.

  4. Real time blood testing using quantitative phase imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoa V Pham

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a real-time blood testing system that can provide remote diagnosis with minimal human intervention in economically challenged areas. Our instrument combines novel advances in label-free optical imaging with parallel computing. Specifically, we use quantitative phase imaging for extracting red blood cell morphology with nanoscale sensitivity and NVIDIA's CUDA programming language to perform real time cellular-level analysis. While the blood smear is translated through focus, our system is able to segment and analyze all the cells in the one megapixel field of view, at a rate of 40 frames/s. The variety of diagnostic parameters measured from each cell (e.g., surface area, sphericity, and minimum cylindrical diameter are currently not available with current state of the art clinical instruments. In addition, we show that our instrument correctly recovers the red blood cell volume distribution, as evidenced by the excellent agreement with the cell counter results obtained on normal patients and those with microcytic and macrocytic anemia. The final data outputted by our instrument represent arrays of numbers associated with these morphological parameters and not images. Thus, the memory necessary to store these data is of the order of kilobytes, which allows for their remote transmission via, for example, the cellular network. We envision that such a system will dramatically increase access for blood testing and furthermore, may pave the way to digital hematology.

  5. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  6. Principles of dielectric blood coagulometry as a comprehensive coagulation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yoshihito; Brun, Marc-Aurèle; Machida, Kenzo; Nagasawa, Masayuki

    2015-10-06

    Dielectric blood coagulometry (DBCM) is intended to support hemostasis management by providing comprehensive information on blood coagulation from automated, time-dependent measurements of whole blood dielectric spectra. We discuss the relationship between the series of blood coagulation reactions, especially the aggregation and deformation of erythrocytes, and the dielectric response with the help of clot structure electron microscope observations. Dielectric response to the spontaneous coagulation after recalcification presented three distinct phases that correspond to (P1) rouleau formation before the onset of clotting, (P2) erythrocyte aggregation and reconstitution of aggregates accompanying early fibrin formation, and (P3) erythrocyte shape transformation and/or structure changes within aggregates after the stable fibrin network is formed and platelet contraction occurs. Disappearance of the second phase was observed upon addition of tissue factor and ellagic acid for activation of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, respectively, which is attributable to accelerated thrombin generation. A series of control experiments revealed that the amplitude and/or quickness of dielectric response reflect platelet function, fibrin polymerization, fibrinolysis activity, and heparin activity. Therefore, DBCM sensitively measures blood coagulation via erythrocytes aggregation and shape changes and their impact on the dielectric permittivity, making possible the development of the battery of assays needed for comprehensive coagulation testing.

  7. Bruises, blood coagulation tests and the battered child syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A C

    2008-06-01

    Cutaneous bruises are a common symptom and a sign of injury and blood coagulation disorders in childhood. A carefully-taken history, coupled with a thorough physical examination, would lead to the diagnosis, or guide the clinician to the necessary laboratory investigations. Most children suffering from non-accidental injury can have their diagnosis established on clinical grounds alone and do not require laboratory investigation. An initial screening with full blood counts, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time will be adequate in most cases if laboratory investigation is indicated, but the clinician must be aware of the limitations of these tests. The finding of an abnormal coagulation test does not exclude child abuse as it can be a consequence of maltreatment, or the two conditions may coexist. Whenever necessary, the opinion of a haematologist should be sought in order to obtain an accurate diagnosis, which is essential for subsequent management and the prevention of further injury in the case of child abuse.

  8. Implementation of immunochemical faecal occult blood test in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jakob Søgaard; Bro, Flemming; Hornung, Nete

    2016-01-01

    anvendelsen af immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) i almen praksis. iFOBT detekterer humant globin i fæces og indikerer gastrointestinal blødning. Studiet udgør en del af et ph.d.-studie, der bidrager med ny viden til at optimere udredningen af patienter med tarmkræft. Der er et stort behov...

  9. Urine Test Strips to Exclude Cerebral Spinal Fluid Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall, Robin A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Determining the presence or absence of red blood cells (RBC or their breakdown products in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is essential for the evaluation of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH in headache patients. Current methodology for finding blood in the CSF is either spectrophotometric detection of pigment, which is time consuming and labor intensive, or visual assesment of samples for color change (xanthochromia, which is inaccurate. Bayer Multistix® urine test strips are designed to test urine for RBC by detecting the presence of hemoglobin. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the perfomance of urine reagent test strips for ruling out the presence of RBC in CSF.Methods: We compared color changes on Multistix® urine test strips to the standard of spectrophotometric absorbtion at 415nm and initial RBC counts in 138 visually clear CSF samples.Results: We performed Pearson Chi-Square and likelihood ratios on the results and found a correlation between a negative result on the urine test strip and less than 5 RBC per high power field and a spectrophotometric absorbance of less than 0.02% at 415nm in a CSF sample.Conclusion: These results warrant further investigation in the form of a prospective clinical validation as it may alter the emergency department evaluation for SAH. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:63-66.

  10. Biochemistry and occurrence of O-demethylation in plant metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian Hagel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Demethylases play a pivitol role in numerous biological processes from covalent histone modification and DNA repair to specialized metabolism in plants and microorganisms. Enzymes that catalyze O- and N-demethylation include 2-oxoglutarate (2OG/Fe(II-dependent dioxygenases, cytochromes P450, Rieske-domain proteins and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD-dependent oxidases. Proposed mechanisms for demethylation by 2OG/Fe(II-dependent enzymes involve hydroxylation at the O- or N-linked methyl group followed by formaldehyde elimination. Members of this enzyme family catalyze a wide variety of reactions in diverse plant metabolic pathways. Recently, we showed that 2OG/Fe(II-dependent dioxygenases catalyze the unique O-demethylation steps of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy, which provides a rational basis for the widespread occurrence of demethylases in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism.

  11. Non-small-cell lung cancer-induced immunosuppression by increased human regulatory T cells via Foxp3 promoter demethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Xing; Zhang, Shuping; Xu, Jian; Liu, Genyan; Zhang, Lixia; Xie, Erfu; Gao, Li; Li, Daqian; Sun, Ruihong; Wang, Fang; Pan, Shiyang

    2016-05-01

    Patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have immune defects that are poorly understood. Forkhead box protein P3 (Foxp3) is crucial for immunosuppression by CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). It is not well known how NSCLC induces Foxp3 expression and causes immunosuppression in tumor-bearing patients. Our study found a higher percentage of CD4(+) Tregs in the peripheral blood of NSCLC compared with healthy donors. NSCLC patients showed demethylation of eight CpG sites within the Foxp3 promoter with methylation ratios negatively correlated with CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T levels. Foxp3 expression in CD4(+) Tregs was directly regulated by Foxp3 promoter demethylation and was involved in immunosuppression by NSCLC. To verify the effect of tumor cells on the phenotype and function of CD4(+) Tregs, we established a coculture system using NSCLC cell line and healthy CD4(+) T cells and showed that SPC-A1 induced IL-10 and TGF-β1 secretion by affecting the function of CD4(+) Tregs. The activity of DNA methyltransferases from CD4(+) T was decreased during this process. Furthermore, eight CpG sites within the Foxp3 promoter also appeared to have undergone demethylation. Foxp3 is highly expressed in CD4(+) T cells, and this may be caused by gene promoter demethylation. These induced Tregs are highly immunosuppressive and dramatically inhibit the proliferative activity of naïve CD4(+) T cells. Our study provides one possible mechanism describing Foxp3 promoter demethylation changes by which NSCLC down-regulates immune responses and contributes to tumor progression. Foxp3 represents an important target for NSCLC anti-tumor immunotherapy.

  12. [Simplified preparation of test-red blood cells for ABO blood grouping in a laboratory in Madagascar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasamiravaka, T; Andrianarivelo, A M; Ramarison, G; Rakoto-Alson, A O; Rasamindrakotroka, A

    2011-10-01

    To ensure self-sufficiency and lower costs associated with reagent red blood cells, some medical laboratories produce their own test-red blood cells for plasma ABO blood grouping. However, given the vital importance of blood goup testing, it is essential to verify the reliability of these cells. The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of laboratory-made ABO test-red blood cells. This study comparing house made and commercially available test-red blood cells was carried out at the Medical Biology Training and Research Laboratory in Madagascar. This laboratory is attended by people wishing to obtain their blood group card. In this population, no discrepancy was found between the red cell and plasma tests. Comparison of test-red blood cells with commercially available reagent red blood cells showed no difference in reactivity in the first four days of conservation. However a decrease in the reactivity of house made cells appeared on the 5th day. House made red blood cells are costless than commercially available reagent red blood cells mainly due to the simplified method of preparation. However, since laboratory-made cells progressivley lose antigenic reactivity quicly, production must be repeated regularly and good internal quality control is necessary to ensure reliability.

  13. Enantioselective accumulation of (--)-pinoresinol through O-demethylation of (+/-)-eudesmin by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, H; Miyazawa, M; Kameoka, H

    1997-04-01

    Microbial transformation of (+/-)-eudesmin by Aspergillus niger was investigated. Enantioselective accumulation of (--)-pinoresinol was shown through O-demethylation of (+/-)-eudesmin. This fungus O- demethylated both enantiomers of eudesmin, but the conversion rates for each enantiomer were clearly different.

  14. Identification of Three New N-Demethylated and O-Demethyled Bisbenzylisoquinoline Alkaloid Metabolites of Isoliensinine from Dog Hepatic Microsomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Zeng

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Isoliensinine, a natural phenolic bisbenzyltetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid, has received considerable attention for its potential biological effects such as antioxidant and anti-HIV activities. From the dog hepatic microsomes of isoliensinine, three new N-demethylated and O-demethylated metabolites, 2-N-desmethyl-isoliensinine (M1, 2'-N-desmethylisoliensinine (M2, and 2'-N-6-O-didesmethylisoliensinine (M3, were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography and data-dependent electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Possible metabolic pathways for isoliensinine have been proposed. The result should prove very helpful for evaluation of the drug-like properties of isoliensinine and other bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids.

  15. Evaluation of automated blood pressure measurements during exercise testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, K F; Gross, B W; Ritterman, J B; Kusumi, F; Bruce, R A

    1982-11-01

    Measurements of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure were made at rest and during symptom-limited exercise with an automated blood pressure measuring device (EBPM). Comparisons were made between the EBPM readings and those made with mercury manometer. Correlations were high (SBP r = 0.92, DBP r = 0.80) when readings were made in the same arm, but were less satisfactory when the cuffs were on different arms (SBP r = 0.80, DBP r = 0.46). The correlation between two mercury manometer readings was SBP r = 0.90, and DBP r = 0.75. Comparison between EBPM and intra-arterial measurements were similar (SBP r = 0.74, DBP r = 0.79) to comparison between mercury manometer and intra-arterial measurements (SBP r = 0.81, DBP r = 0.61). The EBPM detected SBP at consistently higher levels than did physicians, which may be an advantage in the noisy environment of an exercise test. There was a definite tendency for physicians to record blood pressure to the nearest 10 mm Hg, whereas the frequency distribution curve for EBPM measurements was smoother. The EBPM operated satisfactorily at rest and during maximal exercise and gave as reliable measurements as a physician using a mercury manometer and, in the small number of available cases, detected exertional hypotension more often than the physician.

  16. Molecular neuropsychology: creation of test-specific blood biomarker algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryant, Sid E; Xiao, Guanghua; Barber, Robert; Cullum, C Munro; Weiner, Myron; Hall, James; Edwards, Melissa; Grammas, Paula; Wilhelmsen, Kirk; Doody, Rachelle; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Prior work on the link between blood-based biomarkers and cognitive status has largely been based on dichotomous classifications rather than detailed neuropsychological functioning. The current project was designed to create serum-based biomarker algorithms that predict neuropsychological test performance. A battery of neuropsychological measures was administered. Random forest analyses were utilized to create neuropsychological test-specific biomarker risk scores in a training set that were entered into linear regression models predicting the respective test scores in the test set. Serum multiplex biomarker data were analyzed on 108 proteins from 395 participants (197 Alzheimer patients and 198 controls) from the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium. The biomarker risk scores were significant predictors (p neuropsychological tests. With the exception of premorbid intellectual status (6.6%), the biomarker risk scores alone accounted for a minimum of 12.9% of the variance in neuropsychological scores. Biomarker algorithms (biomarker risk scores and demographics) accounted for substantially more variance in scores. Review of the variable importance plots indicated differential patterns of biomarker significance for each test, suggesting the possibility of domain-specific biomarker algorithms. Our findings provide proof of concept for a novel area of scientific discovery, which we term 'molecular neuropsychology'. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. A promoter DNA demethylation landscape of human hematopoietic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvanese, Vincenzo; Fernández, Agustín F; Urdinguio, Rocío G; Suárez-Alvarez, Beatriz; Mangas, Cristina; Pérez-García, Vicente; Bueno, Clara; Montes, Rosa; Ramos-Mejía, Verónica; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Ferrero, Cecilia; Assenov, Yassen; Bock, Christoph; Menendez, Pablo; Carrera, Ana Clara; Lopez-Larrea, Carlos; Fraga, Mario F

    2012-01-01

    Global mechanisms defining the gene expression programs specific for hematopoiesis are still not fully understood. Here, we show that promoter DNA demethylation is associated with the activation of hematopoietic-specific genes. Using genome-wide promoter methylation arrays, we identified 694 hematopoietic-specific genes repressed by promoter DNA methylation in human embryonic stem cells and whose loss of methylation in hematopoietic can be associated with gene expression. The association between promoter methylation and gene expression was studied for many hematopoietic-specific genes including CD45, CD34, CD28, CD19, the T cell receptor (TCR), the MHC class II gene HLA-DR, perforin 1 and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and results indicated that DNA demethylation was not always sufficient for gene activation. Promoter demethylation occurred either early during embryonic development or later on during hematopoietic differentiation. Analysis of the genome-wide promoter methylation status of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generated from somatic CD34(+) HSPCs and differentiated derivatives from CD34(+) HSPCs confirmed the role of DNA methylation in regulating the expression of genes of the hemato-immune system, and indicated that promoter methylation of these genes may be associated to stemness. Together, these data suggest that promoter DNA demethylation might play a role in the tissue/cell-specific genome-wide gene regulation within the hematopoietic compartment.

  18. Anaerobic Mercury Methylation and Demethylation by Geobacter bemidjiensis Bem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xia; Liu, Yurong; Johs, Alexander; Zhao, Linduo; Wang, Tieshan; Yang, Ziming; Lin, Hui; Elias, Dwayne A; Pierce, Eric M; Liang, Liyuan; Barkay, Tamar; Gu, Baohua

    2016-04-19

    Microbial methylation and demethylation are two competing processes controlling the net production and bioaccumulation of neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) in natural ecosystems. Although mercury (Hg) methylation by anaerobic microorganisms and demethylation by aerobic Hg-resistant bacteria have both been extensively studied, little attention has been given to MeHg degradation by anaerobic bacteria, particularly the iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter bemidjiensis Bem. Here we report, for the first time, that the strain G. bemidjiensis Bem can mediate a suite of Hg transformations, including Hg(II) reduction, Hg(0) oxidation, MeHg production and degradation under anoxic conditions. Results suggest that G. bemidjiensis utilizes a reductive demethylation pathway to degrade MeHg, with elemental Hg(0) as the major reaction product, possibly due to the presence of genes encoding homologues of an organomercurial lyase (MerB) and a mercuric reductase (MerA). In addition, the cells can strongly sorb Hg(II) and MeHg, reduce or oxidize Hg, resulting in both time and concentration-dependent Hg species transformations. Moderate concentrations (10-500 μM) of Hg-binding ligands such as cysteine enhance Hg(II) methylation but inhibit MeHg degradation. These findings indicate a cycle of Hg methylation and demethylation among anaerobic bacteria, thereby influencing net MeHg production in anoxic water and sediments.

  19. Process for demethylating S-methyl-mercapto compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, Theo; Jansen, Michael; van der Maarel, Marc

    1998-01-01

    PCT No. PCT/EP95/02883 Sec. 371 Date Jan. 8, 1997 Sec. 102(e) Date Jan. 8, 1997 PCT Filed Jul. 19, 1995 PCT Pub. No. WO96/03518 PCT Pub. Date Feb. 8, 1996The invention concerns a process for preparing mercapto compounds comprising the step of demethylating an S-methyl-mercapto compound of Formula I

  20. Process for demethylating S-methyl-mercapto compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, Theo; Jansen, Michael; van der Maarel, Marc

    1998-01-01

    PCT No. PCT/EP95/02883 Sec. 371 Date Jan. 8, 1997 Sec. 102(e) Date Jan. 8, 1997 PCT Filed Jul. 19, 1995 PCT Pub. No. WO96/03518 PCT Pub. Date Feb. 8, 1996The invention concerns a process for preparing mercapto compounds comprising the step of demethylating an S-methyl-mercapto compound of Formula I

  1. A phase I study of hydralazine to demethylate and reactivate the expression of tumor suppressor genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trejo-Becerril Catalina

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The antihypertensive compound hydralazine is a known demethylating agent. This phase I study evaluated the tolerability and its effects upon DNA methylation and gene reactivation in patients with untreated cervical cancer. Methods Hydralazine was administered to cohorts of 4 patients at the following dose levels: I 50 mg/day, II 75 mg/day, III 100 mg/day and IV 150 mg/day. Tumor biopsies and peripheral blood samples were taken the day before and after treatment. The genes APC, MGMT; ER, GSTP1, DAPK, RARβ, FHIT and p16 were evaluated pre and post-treatment for DNA promoter methylation and gene expression by MSP (Methylation-Specific PCR and RT-PCR respectively in each of the tumor samples. Methylation of the imprinted H19 gene and the "normally methylated" sequence clone 1.2 was also analyzed. Global DNA methylation was analyzed by capillary electrophoresis and cytosine extension assay. Toxicity was evaluated using the NCI Common Toxicity Criteria. Results Hydralazine was well tolerated. Toxicities were mild being the most common nausea, dizziness, fatigue, headache and palpitations. Overall, 70% of the pretreatment samples and all the patients had at least one methylated gene. Rates of demethylation at the different dose levels were as follows: 50 mg/day, 40%; 75 mg/day, 52%, 100 mg/day, 43%, and 150 mg/day, 32%. Gene expression analysis showed only 12 informative cases, of these 9 (75% re-expressed the gene. There was neither change in the methylation status of H19 and clone 1.2 nor changes in global DNA methylation. Conclusion Hydralazine at doses between 50 and 150 mg/day is well tolerated and effective to demethylate and reactivate the expression of tumor suppressor genes without affecting global DNA methylation

  2. Blood-Mimicking Fluid for Testing Ultrasonic Diagnostic Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kouhei; Yoshida, Tomoji; Sato, Kazuishi; Kondo, Toshio; Yasukawa, Kazuhiro; Miyamoto, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Masahiko

    2012-07-01

    We present a blood-mimicking fluid (BMF) for the Doppler test object of medical diagnostic instruments. Accurate measurement in a flow Doppler test requires a BMF that has the acoustic velocity and density defined in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard, and furthermore, they must be stable over time. To formulate a fluid with the desired density and acoustic velocity, we have developed a new fluid made of glycerine and water-soluble silicone oil. The new BMF includes dispersed polystyrene particles as scatterers. The density of the liquid can be adjusted to maintain it at the same value as that of the polystyrene particles, thus ensuring neutral buoyancy of the particles. The MBF was stable over a period of 2 weeks, during which the density and acoustic velocity did not change.

  3. Blood glucose rise after lactose tolerance testing in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, D M; Mellits, E D; Chiu, F Y; Davis, L; Bayless, T M; Cordano, A

    1978-02-01

    Lactose tolerance tests are used clinically to screen children and infants. It is assumed that absorption of a lactose challenge in infants would occur in a predictable pattern prior to weaning. Twenty-one infants from 3 to 12 months of age were studied. The maximum blood glucose rise over fasting levels ranged from 11.0 to 62.0 mg/100 ml; the mean was 32.6 mg/100 ml. Six infants had a maximum rise of less than 20 mg/100 ml. Eleven infants (52%) had a maximum rise of greater than 30 mg/100 ml. Signs of intolerance were not noted in any subject. Weight and length were normally disturbed. Results indicate the variance in glucose rise existing within a population of infants growing normally and consuming milk. Gastric emptying, digestion, and absorption may influence the blood glucose rise after a lactose test. Established glucose levels used as an index to lactose absorption in older children and adults may not accurately reflect lactase activity in infants.

  4. 78 FR 13069 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Recommendations for Screening, Testing, and, Management of Blood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Recommendations for Screening, Testing, and Management of Blood Donors and Blood and Blood Components Based on Screening Tests for Syphilis,'' dated March 2013. The draft guidance document provides revised recommendations for screening and testing of donors and management......

  5. Demethylation effect of the antineoplaston AS2-1 on genes in colon cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    USHIJIMA, MASATAKA; OGATA, YUTAKA; TSUDA, HIDEAKI; AKAGI, YOSHITO; MATONO, KEIKO; SHIROUZU, KAZUO

    2014-01-01

    Antineoplastons are naturally occurring peptides and amino acid derivatives found in human blood and urine. Antineoplastons have been shown to control neoplastic growth. In the present study, we investigated demethylation effect of the antineoplaston AS2-1 (a mixture of phenylacetylglutamine and phenylacetate in the ratio of 1:4) on various genes in colon cancer cells. An HpaII-MspI methylation microarray was used to investigate the methylation status of 51 genes at the promoter region in HCT116 and KM12SM human colon cancer cells before and after treatment of AS2-1. The expression of protein and mRNA of the demethylated genes by AS2-1 in HCT116 cells was evaluated. In 19 of the 34 methylated genes in HCT116 and in 7 of the 8 methylated genes in KM12SM, the methylation status was downregulated after treatment with 2 mg/ml of AS2-1 for 24 h. AS2-1 dramatically downregulated the methylation status of p15 and ESR1 in HCT116 cells and of MTHFR and MUC2 in KM12SM cells. Both mRNA and protein expression of p15 increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner after treatment with AS2-1. The antineoplaston AS2-1 may normalize the hypermethylation status at the promoter region in various genes including tumor suppressor genes, resulting in activation of the transcription and translation in colon cancer. PMID:24213840

  6. Increasing the specificity of the forensic luminol test for blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quickenden, T I; Cooper, P D

    2001-01-01

    It is shown that the presumptive luminol chemiluminescence test for the presence of traces of blood can be made more determinative by measuring the peak emission wavelength of the luminol chemiluminescence. When sprayed onto a surface containing traces of human haemoglobin, a 1 g/L solution of aqueous luminol containing 7 g/L sodium perborate gives an emission peak at 455 +/- 2 nm, whereas the same mixture gives an emission peak at 430 +/- 3 nm when sprayed onto a surface containing traces of sodium hypochlorite (household bleach). This spectral difference can readily be determined using spectroscopic equipment that either scans the spectrum before significant luminescence decay occurs or corrects the spectrum for the effects of any decay. It was found that bovine haemoglobin and human haemoglobin showed no significant spectral differences.

  7. Oncogenic Myc Induces Expression of Glutamine Synthetase through Promoter Demethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Alex J; Peng, I-Chen; Fan, Yongjun; Faubert, Brandon; Zhao, Lu; Li, Jinyu; Neidler, Sarah; Sun, Yu; Jaber, Nadia; Krokowski, Dawid; Lu, Wenyun; Pan, Ji-An; Powers, Scott; Rabinowitz, Joshua; Hatzoglou, Maria; Murphy, Daniel J; Jones, Russell; Wu, Song; Girnun, Geoffrey; Zong, Wei-Xing

    2015-12-01

    c-Myc is known to promote glutamine usage by upregulating glutaminase (GLS), which converts glutamine to glutamate that is catabolized in the TCA cycle. Here we report that in a number of human and murine cells and cancers, Myc induces elevated expression of glutamate-ammonia ligase (GLUL), also termed glutamine synthetase (GS), which catalyzes the de novo synthesis of glutamine from glutamate and ammonia. This is through upregulation of a Myc transcriptional target thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG), which promotes active demethylation of the GS promoter and its increased expression. Elevated expression of GS promotes cell survival under glutamine limitation, while silencing of GS decreases cell proliferation and xenograft tumor growth. Upon GS overexpression, increased glutamine enhances nucleotide synthesis and amino acid transport. These results demonstrate an unexpected role of Myc in inducing glutamine synthesis and suggest a molecular connection between DNA demethylation and glutamine metabolism in Myc-driven cancers.

  8. Comparisons of home blood glucose testing and glycated protein measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P D; Sherman, L D; O'Day, M R; Rognerud, C L; Ou, C N

    1992-04-01

    We examined the relationships between 4 glycated protein assays and home blood glucose monitoring (HBGM) in 26 children with poorly-controlled insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) during a period of improved management. At 2 week intervals for 6 visits (12 weeks in total), HBGM records were collected and a blood sample was obtained for measurement of glycated proteins and glucose. Assays included glycated hemoglobin (GHb) and glycated serum proteins (GP) by boronate affinity chromatography, hemoglobin A1C by PolyCAT A high performance liquid chromatography (HAC) and fructosamine (FA). All 4 glycated protein levels declined significantly over the 12 week period. Significant correlations between the glycated proteins and HBGM were observed over 2 week intervals. None of the 4 assays were affected by the glucose level in the sample. Changes in mean HBGM readings over 2 week intervals were correlated with both FA and GP with wide prediction intervals. Over cumulative 2 week intervals, which may more accurately reflect longitudinal trends, all 4 glycated proteins were correlated with mean HBGM readings. At each cumulative interval, GHb and GP showed the largest variation with MBG, while FA showed the least variation with MBG. Our data indicate that of the 4 assays tested, FA has limited clinical values as compared to other glycated protein assays, whereas assays based on boronate affinity chromatography (GHb and GP) provide the most useful clinical indicators of short-term changes in glycemic control. The clinical utility of a new HPLC method for determination of glycated hemoglobins is also demonstrated.

  9. Collection, processing and testing of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood and haematopoietic stem cells by European Blood Alliance members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Närhi, M; Natri, O; Desbois, I;

    2013-01-01

    A questionnaire study was carried out in collaboration with the European Blood Alliance (EBA) Tissues and Cells (T&C) working group. The aim was to assess the level of involvement and commonality of processes on the procurement, testing and storage of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood (UCB...

  10. Forensic Identification of Human Blood: comparison of two one-step presumptive tests for blood screening of crime scene samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Belchior Andrade

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood is the most common body fluid found at crime scenes. One-step presumptive tests have been designed as a rapid immunological test for the qualitative detection of human hemoglobin in stool samples (faecal occult blood their usefulness for forensic purposes has been demonstrated before. In this study we compare Hexagon OBTI kit and FOB One-step Bioeasy kit sensitivity in the analysis of diluted blood samples. With Hexagon OBTI, positive test results are achieved in whole blood dilutions up to 1:1.000. Sensitivity decreased with aged samples, if samples were not stored under low temperatures regardless of which presumptive test is used. Whole blood tests must take into consideration that “hook” effect may interfere. Comparing both tests, OBTI Hexagon Kit is more sensible to detect diluted blood, showing a wider detection window in all conditions. This is interesting when analyzing forensic samples as forensic analysts usually do not know about the history of the analyzed sample before its collection.

  11. DNA demethylation upregulated Nrf2 expression in Alzheimer's disease cellular model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huimin eCao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 is an important transcription factor in the defense against oxidative stress. Cumulative evidence has shown that oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Previous animal and clinical studies had observed decreased expression of Nrf2 in AD. However, the underlying regulation mechanisms of Nrf2 in AD remain unclear. Here, we used the DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-Aza to test whether Nrf2 expression was regulated by methylation in N2a cells characterizing by expressing human Swedish mutant amyloid precursor protein (N2a/APPswe. We found 5-Aza treatment increased Nrf2 at both mRNA and protein levels via down-regulating the expression of Dnmts and DNA demethylation. In addition, 5-Aza mediated upregulation of Nrf2 expression was concomitant with increased nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and higher expression of Nrf2 downstream target gene NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductas (NQO1. Our study showed that DNA demethylation promoted the Nrf2 cell signaling pathway, which may enhance the antioxidant system against AD development.

  12. A modified isometric test to evaluate blood pressure control with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be measured during effort to evaluate hypertension ... achieved by a variety of medications. However, appro- ... aspirin, and 5 were non-insulin-dependent diabetics. Isometric ... Blood pressure was then measured at baseline (no treat- ment) ...

  13. Redistribution of demethylated RNA helicase A during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection: Role of Jumonji C-domain containing protein 6 in RHA demethylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, Paul; Conderino, Joseph S.; Rieder, Elizabeth, E-mail: elizabeth.rieder@ars.usda.gov

    2014-03-15

    Previously, RNA helicase A (RHA) re-localization from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infected cells was shown to coincide with loss of RHA methylated arginine residues at its C-terminus. The potential interaction between RHA and Jumonji C-domain (JmjC) protein 6 (JMJD6) arginine demethylase in infected cells was investigated. Treatment with N-oxalylglycine (NOG) inhibitor of JmjC demethylases prevented FMDV-induced RHA demethylation and re-localization, and also decreased viral protein synthesis and virus titers. Physical interaction between JMJD6 and RHA was demonstrated via reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation, where RHA preferentially bound JMJD6 monomers. Nuclear efflux of demethylated RHA (DM-RHA) coincided with nuclear influx of JMJD6, which was not observed using another picornavirus. A modified biochemical assay demonstrated JMJD6 induced dose-dependent demethylation of RHA and two RHA-derived isoforms, which could be inhibited by NOG. We propose a role for JMJD6 in RHA demethylation stimulated by FMDV, that appears to facilitate virus replication. - Highlights: • We examined the role of JMJD6 in FMDV-induced RHA demethylation process. • Using an arginine demethylation assay showed that JMJD6 is involved in RHA demethylation. • A demethylases inhibitor reduced cytoplasmic accumulation of RHA and FMDV titers.

  14. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine-mediated DNA demethylation in stem cells and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjia; Guan, Minxin; Li, Xuekun

    2014-05-01

    The pursuit of DNA demethylation has a colorful history, but it was not until 2009 that the stars of this story, the Ten-eleven-translocation (Tet) family of proteins, were really identified. Tet proteins convert 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), which can be further oxidized to 5-formylcytosine and 5-cyboxycytosine by Tet proteins to achieve DNA demethylation. Recent studies have revealed that 5hmC-mediated DNA demethylation can play essential roles in diverse biological processes, including development and diseases. Here, we review recent discoveries in 5hmC-mediated DNA demethylation in the context of stem cells and development.

  15. RNA-directed DNA methylation and demethylation in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHINNUSAMY; Viswanathan

    2009-01-01

    RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is a nuclear process in which small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) direct the cytosine methylation of DNA sequences that are complementary to the siRNAs. In plants, double stranded-RNAs (dsRNAs) generated by RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 (RDR2) serve as precursors for Dicer-like 3 dependent biogenesis of 24-nt siRNAs. Plant specific RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV) is presumed to generate the initial RNA transcripts that are substrates for RDR2. siRNAs are loaded onto an argonaute4-containing RISC (RNA-induced silencing complex) that targets the de novo DNA methyltransferase DRM2 to RdDM target loci. Nascent RNA transcripts from the target loci are generated by another plant-specific RNA polymerase, Pol V, and these transcripts help recruit com- plementary siRNAs and the associated RdDM effector complex to the target loci in a transcrip- tion-coupled DNA methylation process. Small RNA binding proteins such as ROS3 may direct tar- get-specific DNA demethylation by the ROS1 family of DNA demethylases. Chromatin remodeling en- zymes and histone modifying enzymes also participate in DNA methylation and possibly demethylation. One of the well studied functions of RdDM is transposon silencing and genome stability. In addition, RdDM is important for paramutation, imprinting, gene regulation, and plant development. Lo- cus-specific DNA methylation and demethylation, and transposon activation under abiotic stresses suggest that RdDM is also important in stress responses of plants. Further studies will help illuminate the functions of RdDM in the dynamic control of epigenomes during development and environmental stress responses.

  16. Dynamic and selective HERV RNA expression in neuroblastoma cells subjected to variation in oxygen tension and demethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lijuan; Uzhameckis, Dmitrijs; Hedborg, Fredrik; Blomberg, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    We studied HERV expression in cell lines after hypoxia, mitogenic stimulation, and demethylation, to better understand if hypoxia may play a role in ERV activation also within the nervous system, as represented by neuroblastoma cell lines. The level of RNA of four human ERV groups (HERVs) (HERVE, I/T, H, and W), and three housekeeping genes, of different cell lines including A549, COS-1, Namalwa, RD-L and Vero-E6, as well as human neuroblastoma cell lines SH-SY5Y, SK-N-DZ, and SK-N-AS were studied using reverse transcription and real-time quantitative PCR (QPCR). During the course of recovery from hypoxia a pronounced and selective activation of RNA expression of HERVW-like sequences, but not of HERVE, I/T, H, and three housekeeping genes, was found in the neuroblastoma cell lines, most pronounced in SK-N-DZ. In the SK-N-DZ cell line, we also tested the expression of HERVs after chemical treatments. HERVW-like sequences were selectively upregulated by 5-azacytidine, a demethylating agent. Some HERVW loci seem especially responsive to hypoxia and demethylation. HERV expression in neuroblastoma cells is selectively and profoundly influenced by some physiological and chemical stimuli.

  17. Cerebral Blood Flow, Heart Rate, and Blood Pressure Patterns during the Tilt Test in Common Orthostatic Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Novak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The head-up tilt test is widely used for evaluation of orthostatic intolerance. Although orthostatic symptoms usually reflect cerebral hypoperfusion, the cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv profile in orthostatic syndromes is not well described. This study evaluated CBFv and cardiovascular patterns associated with the tilt test in common orthostatic syndromes. Methods. This retrospective study analyzed the tilt test of patients with history of orthostatic intolerance. The following signals were recorded: ECG, blood pressure, CBFv using transcranial Doppler, respiratory signals, and end tidal CO2. Results. Data from 744 patients were analyzed. Characteristic pattern associated with a particular orthostatic syndrome can be grouped into abnormalities predominantly affecting blood pressure (orthostatic hypotension, orthostatic hypertension syndrome, vasomotor oscillations, and neurally mediated syncope—cardioinhibitory, vasodepressor, and mixed, cerebral blood flow (orthostatic hypoperfusion syndrome, primary cerebral autoregulatory failure, and heart rate (tachycardia syndromes: postural tachycardia syndrome, paroxysmal sinus tachycardia, and inappropriate sinus tachycardia. Psychogenic pseudosyncope is associated with stable CBFv. Conclusions. The tilt test is useful add-on in diagnosis of several orthostatic syndromes. However diagnostic criteria for several syndromes had to be modified to allow unambiguous pattern classification. CBFv monitoring in addition to blood pressure and heart rate may increase diagnostic yield of the tilt test.

  18. Cerebral Blood Flow, Heart Rate, and Blood Pressure Patterns during the Tilt Test in Common Orthostatic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The head-up tilt test is widely used for evaluation of orthostatic intolerance. Although orthostatic symptoms usually reflect cerebral hypoperfusion, the cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) profile in orthostatic syndromes is not well described. This study evaluated CBFv and cardiovascular patterns associated with the tilt test in common orthostatic syndromes. Methods. This retrospective study analyzed the tilt test of patients with history of orthostatic intolerance. The following signals were recorded: ECG, blood pressure, CBFv using transcranial Doppler, respiratory signals, and end tidal CO2. Results. Data from 744 patients were analyzed. Characteristic pattern associated with a particular orthostatic syndrome can be grouped into abnormalities predominantly affecting blood pressure (orthostatic hypotension, orthostatic hypertension syndrome, vasomotor oscillations, and neurally mediated syncope—cardioinhibitory, vasodepressor, and mixed), cerebral blood flow (orthostatic hypoperfusion syndrome, primary cerebral autoregulatory failure), and heart rate (tachycardia syndromes: postural tachycardia syndrome, paroxysmal sinus tachycardia, and inappropriate sinus tachycardia). Psychogenic pseudosyncope is associated with stable CBFv. Conclusions. The tilt test is useful add-on in diagnosis of several orthostatic syndromes. However diagnostic criteria for several syndromes had to be modified to allow unambiguous pattern classification. CBFv monitoring in addition to blood pressure and heart rate may increase diagnostic yield of the tilt test. PMID:27525257

  19. Can latent heat safely warm blood? – in vitro testing of a portable prototype blood warmer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEwen Mark P

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma/retrieval patients are often in shock and hypothermic. Treatment of such patients usually involves restoring their blood volume with transfusion of blood (stored at 2°C – 6°C and/or crystalloids or colloids (stored at ambient temperature. Rapid infusion of these cold fluids can worsen or even induce hypothermia in these patients. Warming of intravenous fluids at accident sites has traditionally been difficult due to a lack of suitable portable fluid warmers that are not dependent on mains electrical or battery power. If latent heat, the heat released when a liquid solidifies (an inherently temperature limiting process can warm intravenous fluids, portable devices without a reliance on electrical energy could be used to reduce the incidence of hypothermia in trauma patients. Methods Rapid infusion of red cells into patients was timed to sample typical clinical flow rates. An approved dry heat blood warmer was compared with a prototype blood warmer using a supercooled liquid latent heat storage material, to warm red cells whilst monitoring inlet and outlet temperatures. To determine the effect of warming on red cell integrity compared to the normal storage lesion of blood, extracellular concentrations of potassium, lactate dehydrogenase and haemoglobin were measured in blood which had been warmed after storage at 2°C – 6°C for 1 to 42 days. Results A prototype latent heat fluid warmer consistently warmed red cells from approximately 4°C to approximately 35°C at typical clinical flow rates. Warming of stored blood with latent heat did not affect red cell integrity more than the approved dry heat blood warmer. Conclusion Using latent heat as an energy source can satisfactorily warm cold blood or other intravenous fluids to near body temperature, without any adverse affects.

  20. Effects of post-sampling analysis time, type of blood samples and collection tubes on values of blood gas testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smajić, Jasmina; Kadić, Damira; Hasić, Sabaheta; Serdarević, Nafija

    2015-08-01

    To investigate effects of post-sampling analysis time, a type of blood samples and collection tubes on blood gas testing. This study included 100 patients at the Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases, Clinical Centre Sarajevo. The partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) and carbon dioxide (pCO2), and the oxygen saturation level of hemoglobin (sO2) were analyzed in the arterial blood samples (ABS) and capillary blood samples (CBS) by a potentiometric method using a blood gas analyzer ABL 555 (Radiometer, Copenhagen, Denmark). Paired measurements of ABS were performed within 15 minutes and after 60 minutes from sampling and compared. The results of CBS obtained within 15 minutes were compared with matching ABS results, as well as the results obtained from CBS within 15 minutes taken into glass and plastic tubes. pO2 and sO2 values were significantly lower after 60 minutes compared to those within 15 minutes in ABS (9.20±1.89 vs. 9.51±1.95 and 91.25±5.03 vs. 92.40±4.5; pblood values were not influenced significantly (p>0.05). The length of post-sampling analysis time, a type of blood samples and collection tubes have significant impact on blood oxygen parameters. Analysis within 15 minutes after blood sampling is considered as appropriate. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  1. Whiteboard Icons to Support the Blood-Test Process in an Emergency Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdottir á; Hertzum, Morten; From, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    The competent treatment of emergency department (ED) patients requires an effective and efficient process for handling laboratory tests such as blood tests. This study investigates how ED clinicians go about the process, from ordering blood tests to acknowledging their results and, specifically......, assesses the use of whiteboard icons to support this process. On the basis of observation and interviews we find that the blood-test process is intertwined with multiple other temporal patterns in ED work. The whiteboard icons, which indicate four temporally distinct steps in the blood-test process......, support the nurses in maintaining the flow of patients through the ED and the physicians in assessing test results at timeouts. The main results of this study are, however, that the blood-test process is temporally and collaboratively complex, that the whiteboard icons pass by most of this complexity...

  2. The determination of phenazone in blood plasma for obtained sistem suitable test of monitoring drug level

    OpenAIRE

    Mochamad Lazuardi

    2007-01-01

    The determining of Phenazone to human blood plasma from healthy man after separated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and spectroscopic measurements has been investigated. The objective of that research was to obtain system suitable test for determine the Phenazone level in biological fluids (human blood plasma), for new performed dosage regimented in clinical dentistry. The method can be divided into the following four steps. 1. Centrifugation the blood sample, 2. Extraction from blood plasma ...

  3. Considerations of red blood cell molecular testing in transfusion medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Annika M; Delaney, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    The field of transfusion medicine is on the threshold of a paradigm shift, as the technology for genotyping of red blood cell antigens, including US FDA-approved arrays, is now moving into standard practice. Access to cost-efficient, high-resolution genotyping has the potential to increase the quality of care by decreasing the risk for alloimmunization and incompatible transfusions in individuals on long-term blood transfusion protocols, including patient groups with hemoglobinopathies and other chronic diseases. Current and future applications of molecular methods in transfusion medicine and blood banking are discussed, with emphasis on indications for genotyping in various clinical scenarios. Furthermore, limitations of the current gold standard methodology and serology, as well as of contemporary molecular methodology, are examined.

  4. A native whole blood test for the evaluation of blood-surface interaction: determination of thromboxane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, E; Marconi, W; Cebo, B; Togna, A R; Togna, G; Caprino, L

    1984-05-01

    The method developed to evaluate the hemocompatibility of artificial materials involves the determination of thromboxane production during the clotting of rabbit blood, in test tubes of different materials. The concentration of serum TXB2 obtained after incubation of whole blood in glass test tubes, for 40 min at 37 degrees C, averaged 416.8 +/- 23.3 ng/ml (mean +/- SE). Polymethylpentene, recognised as having a relatively poor blood compatibility, elicited 309.5 +/- 17.2 ng/ml of serum TXB2, while silicone and Avcothane, considered of better hemocompatibility, showed thromboxane levels of 276.2 +/- 28.2 and 222.9 +/- 31.5 ng/ml, respectively. These values validate the usefulness of the proposed method as a preliminary in vitro screening test of artificial materials intended for biomedical application.

  5. Targeting protein lysine methylation and demethylation in cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunlong He; Ilia Korboukh; Jian Jin; Jing Huang

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade,we saw an explosion of studies investigating the role of lysine methylation/demethylation of histones and non-histone proteins,such as p53,NF-kappaB,and E2F1.These ‘Ying-Yang' post-translational modifications are important to fine-tuning the activity of these proteins. Lysine methylation and demethylation are catalyzed by protein lysine methyltransferases (PKMTs) and protein lysine demethylases (PKDMs).PKMTs,PKDMs,and their substrates have been shown to play important roles in cancers.Although the underlying mechanisms of tumorigenesis are still largely unknown,growing evidence is starting to link aberrant regulation of methylation to tumorigenesis.This review focuses on summarizing the recent progress in understanding of the function of protein lysine methylation,and in the discovery of small molecule inhibitors for PKMTs and PKDMs.We also discuss the potential and the caveats of targeting protein lysine methylation for the treatment of cancer.

  6. Post-test probability for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia based on umbilical cord blood bilirubin, direct antiglobulin test, and ABO compatibility results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Bart; Geerts, Inge; Van Mullem, Mia; Micalessi, Isabel; Saegeman, Veroniek; Moerman, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Many hospitals opt for early postnatal discharge of newborns with a potential risk of readmission for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Assays/algorithms with the possibility to improve prediction of significant neonatal hyperbilirubinemia are needed to optimize screening protocols and safe discharge of neonates. This study investigated the predictive value of umbilical cord blood (UCB) testing for significant hyperbilirubinemia. Neonatal UCB bilirubin, UCB direct antiglobulin test (DAT), and blood group were determined, as well as the maternal blood group and the red blood cell antibody status. Moreover, in newborns with clinically apparent jaundice after visual assessment, plasma total bilirubin (TB) was measured. Clinical factors positively associated with UCB bilirubin were ABO incompatibility, positive DAT, presence of maternal red cell antibodies, alarming visual assessment and significant hyperbilirubinemia in the first 6 days of life. UCB bilirubin performed clinically well with an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.82 (95 % CI 0.80-0.84). The combined UCB bilirubin, DAT, and blood group analysis outperformed results of these parameters considered separately to detect significant hyperbilirubinemia and correlated exponentially with hyperbilirubinemia post-test probability. Post-test probabilities for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia can be calculated using exponential functions defined by UCB bilirubin, DAT, and ABO compatibility results. • The diagnostic value of the triad umbilical cord blood bilirubin measurement, direct antiglobulin testing and blood group analysis for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia remains unclear in literature. • Currently no guideline recommends screening for hyperbilirubinemia using umbilical cord blood. What is New: • Post-test probability for hyperbilirubinemia correlated exponentially with umbilical cord blood bilirubin in different risk groups defined by direct antiglobulin test and ABO blood group

  7. Blood Lactate Response to the CF (Canadian Forces) EXPRES Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    control hypertension. Beta blockers cause a moderate decrease in blood pressure, a pronounced reduc- tion in heart rate, and no change in stroke volume...45-57. 23. Van Baak, M.A., Bohm, R.O.B., Arends, B.G., Van Hooff, M.E.J., Rahn, K.H. (1987). Long-term antihypertensive therapy with beta - blockers : submaximal

  8. Blood test could predict risk of heart attack and subsequent death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-18

    A high-sensitivity blood test, known as a troponin test, could predict the risk of heart attack and death and patients' response to statins, say researchers from the Universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow.

  9. Toward an Inexpensive Test for Vitamin D Levels in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Various synthetic redox mediators were tried and cobalt sepulchrate trichloride (Co(sep)3+/2+) was found to...25(OH)D (circulating form of vitamin D in blood) levels. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Cytochrome P450, mediated electrochemistry, direct electron chemistry...activity of the enzyme using non-natural redox mediators . This work provides a path forward for developing this enzyme into a biosensor for Vitamin D

  10. Sensitivity of Mycosphaerella graminicola isolates to demethylation-inhibiting (DMI) fungicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronis, Antanas; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Semaskiene, Roma

    2014-01-01

    Mycosphaerella graminicola (Fuckel) J. Schröt. (anamorph Zymoseptoria tritici (Desm.) Quaedvlieg & Crous) causes Septoria leaf blotch disease of wheat. The disease can be responsible for yield losses of 30–50% and, when severe, requires management with a fungicide. Single picnidia isolates...... collected from different locations of Lithuania were tested in vitro for sensitivity to demethylation-inhibiting (DMI) fungicides epoxiconazole, cyproconazole and prothioconazole. Fungicide concentrations were chosen from the proposed Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC) methods. Microtitre plates...... that fungicides epoxiconazole and prothioconazole significantly reduced the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) values of Septoria leaf blotch compared with untreated plots in winter wheat. In most cases, a single fungicide application significantly increased grain yield and a thousand grain weight...

  11. Prognostic and diagnostic value of moderate intensity stress test with blood pressure control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Marchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of age and blood pressure values at rest,hypertensive response to moderate intensity stress testingis characterized by increasing ofprobable beginning of cardiac infarction, stroke or coronary disease in 1.36 times. The hypertensive response to stress test in people with normal blood pressure values at rest (independent of other risk factors is characterized by increasing risk of future hypertension more than in 2 times. Antihypertensive drugs affect blood pressure values differently during the stress testing. The prognosis of blood pressure values during daily physical activity is necessary for antihypertensive treatment. Low availability of convenient instruments and methodological tools for continuous measurement of blood pressure (similar to Spiroarteriocardiorhythmograph, Finapres duringthe dosed physical loads constrain wide use of stress tests with controlled blood pressure in medical practice.

  12. Whole-blood hemagglutination inhibition test for venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M P; Baughn, R E

    2000-09-01

    Nontreponemal antibody tests such as the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test are carried out on serum and widely used as screening tests for syphilis. The aim of the present study was to develop a screening test for syphilis making use of whole blood and VDRL liposomes. Antibody to human red blood cells was conjugated to VDRL liposomes and reacted with a diluted sample of patient whole blood. A total of 951 samples were tested by the new test and the VDRL tube test. All 49 VDRL samples positive by the VDRL test showed inhibition of hemagglutination in the whole-blood test (sensitivity, 100%). Of 902 samples with negative results by the VDRL test, 901 caused hemagglutination when tested with the liposomes (specificity, 99.9%). The hemagglutination inhibition method tests for syphilis in a simple one-step procedure in which whole blood is added to a tube containing liposomes. The new test has potential for point-of-care testing in developing countries.

  13. Comparative study of Treponemal and non-Treponemal test for screening of blood donated at a blood center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinder Kaur Naidu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-Treponemal tests such as Rapid Plasma Reagin test (RPR or the Venereal Disease Reference Laboratory test are the most commonly used test for screening of syphilis in the blood centers in India. Now, with the availability of Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and Immunochromatographic assays in the market, we decided to evaluate these assays in comparison with Treponema pallidum Haemagglutination Assay (TPHA which was considered as a gold standard for this study. A total of 8 685 samples of voluntary blood donors were tested on Trepolisa 3.0 and then the initially reactive samples were retested in duplicate on the same assay as well as on Omega Pathozyme, RPR, RAPHA (Rapid Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay, and TPHA. Of the 158 initially reactive samples, 104 were repeatedly reactive on the same assay, 85 were reactive with RPR, 77 were reactive with RAPHA, 60 were reactive on Omega, and 53 were confirmed reactive on TPHA. 48 (56.4% of the results on RPR were biological false positive, while 21.9% of results were false negative on RPR. We evaluated that Omega Pathozyme was quite in agreement with TPHA as compared with Trepolisa 3.0, RAPHA, and RPR. We concluded that Omega Pathozyme (ELISA can be considered as a suitable test for screening of syphilis in a blood center.

  14. Non-Growth-Associated Demethylation of Dimethylsulfoniopropionate by (Homo)acetogenic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Michael; Hansen, Theo A.

    2001-01-01

    The demethylation of the algal osmolyte dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) to methylthiopropionate (MTPA) by (homo)acetogenic bacteria was studied. Five Eubacterium limosum strains (including the type strain), Sporomusa ovata DSM 2662T, Sporomusa sphaeroides DSM 2875T, and Acetobacterium woodii DSM 1030T were shown to demethylate DMSP stoichiometrically to MTPA. The (homo)acetogenic fermentation based on this demethylation did not result in any significant increase in biomass. The analogous demethylation of glycine betaine to dimethylglycine does support growth of acetogens. In batch cultures of E. limosum PM31 DMSP and glycine betaine were demethylated simultaneously. In mixed substrates experiments with fructose-DMSP or methanol-DMSP, DMSP was used rapidly but only after exhaustion of the fructose or the methanol. In steady-state fructose-limited chemostat cultures (at a dilution rate of 0.03 h−1) with DMSP as a second reservoir substrate, DMSP was biotransformed to MTPA but this did not result in higher biomass values than in cultures without DMSP; cells from such cultures demethylated DMSP at rates of approximately 50 nmol min−1 mg of protein−1, both after growth in the presence of DMSP and after growth in its absence. In cell extracts of glycine betaine-grown strain PM31, DMSP demethylation activities of 21 to 24 nmol min−1 mg of protein−1 were detected with tetrahydrofolate as a methyl acceptor; the activities seen with glycine betaine were approximately 10-fold lower. A speculative explanation for the demethylation of DMSP without an obvious benefit for the organism is that the DMSP-demethylating activity is catalyzed by the glycine betaine-demethylating enzyme and that a transport-related factor, in particular a higher energy demand for DMSP transport across the cytoplasmic membrane than for glycine betaine transport, may reduce the overall ATP yield of the fermentation to virtually zero. PMID:11133459

  15. Inhibition of CYP2D6-mediated tramadol O-demethylation in methadone but not buprenorphine maintenance patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coller, Janet K; Michalakas, Jennifer R; James, Heather M; Farquharson, Aaron L; Colvill, Joel; White, Jason M; Somogyi, Andrew A

    2012-01-01

    AIMS To compare the O- (CYP2D6 mediated) and N- (CYP3A4 mediated) demethylation metabolism of tramadol between methadone and buprenorphine maintained CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer subjects. METHODS Nine methadone and seven buprenorphine maintained subjects received a single 100 mg dose of tramadol hydrochloride. Blood was collected at 4 h and assayed for tramadol, methadone, buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine (where appropriate) and all urine over 4 h was assayed for tramadol and its M1 and M2 metabolites. RESULTS The urinary metabolic ratio [median (range)] for O-demethylation (M1) was significantly lower (P= 0.0002, probability score 1.0) in the subjects taking methadone [0.071 (0.012–0.103)] compared with those taking buprenorphine [0.192 (0.108–0.392)], but there was no significant difference (P= 0.21, probability score 0.69) in N-demethylation (M2). The percentage of dose [median (range)] recovered as M1 was significantly lower in subjects taking methadone compared with buprenorphine (0.069 (0.044–0.093) and 0.126 (0.069–0.187), respectively, P= 0.04, probability score 0.19), M2 was significantly higher in subjects taking methadone compared with buprenorphine (0.048 (0.033–0.085) and 0.033 (0.014–0.049), respectively, P= 0.04, probability score 0.81). Tramadol was similar (0.901 (0.635–1.30) and 0.685 (0.347–1.04), respectively, P= 0.35, probability score 0.65). CONCLUSIONS Methadone inhibited the CYP2D6-mediated metabolism of tramadol to M1. Hence, as the degree of opioid analgesia is largely dependent on M1 formation, methadone maintenance patients may not receive adequate analgesia from oral tramadol. PMID:22369095

  16. RNA-directed DNA methylation and demethylation in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHINNUSAMY Viswanathan; ZHU Jian-Kang

    2009-01-01

    A-dlrected DNA methylation (RdDM) Is a nuclear process in which small Interfering RNAs (siRNAs)direct the cytosine methylation of DNA sequences that are complementary to the siRNAs. In plants,double stranded-RNAs (dsRNAs) generated by RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 (RDR2) serve as precursors for Dicer-like 3 dependent biogenesis of 24-nt siRNAs. Plant specific RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV) is presumed to generate the initial RNA transcripts that are substrates for RDR2. siRNAs are loaded onto an argonaute4-containlng RlSC (RNA-induced silencing complex) that targets the de novo DNA methyltransferase DRM2 to RdDM target locl. Nascent RNA transcripts from the target loci are generated by another plant-specific RNA polymerase, Pol V, and these transcripts help recruit com-plementary siRNAs and the associated RdDM effector complex to the target loci in a transcrip-tion-coupled DNA methylation process. Small RNA binding proteins such as ROS3 may direct tar-get-specific DNA demethyiation by the ROS1 family of DNA demethylases. Chromatin remodeling en-zymes and histone modifying enzymes also participate in DNA methylation and possibly demethylation.One of the well studied functions of RdOM is transposon silencing and genome stability. In addition,RdDM is important for paramutation, imprinting, gene regulation, and plant development. Locus-specific DNA methylation and demethylation, and transposon activation under abiotic stresses suggest that RdDM is also important in stress responses of plants. Further studies will help illuminate the functions of RdDM in the dynamic control of epigenomes during development and environmental stress responses.

  17. Potential Impact of Rapid Blood Culture Testing for Gram-Positive Bacteremia in Japan with the Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Mari; Iguchi, Shigekazu; Mizutani, Tomonori; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Tega-Ishii, Michiru; Sansaka, Kaori; Negishi, Kenta; Shimada, Kimie; Umemura, Jun; Notake, Shigeyuki; Yanagisawa, Hideji; Yabusaki, Reiko; Araoka, Hideki; Yoneyama, Akiko

    2017-01-01

    Background. Early detection of Gram-positive bacteremia and timely appropriate antimicrobial therapy are required for decreasing patient mortality. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the performance of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture assay (BC-GP) in two special healthcare settings and determine the potential impact of rapid blood culture testing for Gram-positive bacteremia within the Japanese healthcare delivery system. Furthermore, the study included simulated blood cultures, which included a library of well-characterized methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) isolates reflecting different geographical regions in Japan. Methods. A total 347 BC-GP assays were performed on clinical and simulated blood cultures. BC-GP results were compared to results obtained by reference methods for genus/species identification and detection of resistance genes using molecular and MALDI-TOF MS methodologies. Results. For identification and detection of resistance genes at two clinical sites and simulated blood cultures, overall concordance of BC-GP with reference methods was 327/347 (94%). The time for identification and antimicrobial resistance detection by BC-GP was significantly shorter compared to routine testing especially at the cardiology hospital, which does not offer clinical microbiology services on weekends and holidays. Conclusion. BC-GP generated accurate identification and detection of resistance markers compared with routine laboratory methods for Gram-positive organisms in specialized clinical settings providing more rapid results than current routine testing.

  18. Potential Impact of Rapid Blood Culture Testing for Gram-Positive Bacteremia in Japan with the Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Kikuchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Early detection of Gram-positive bacteremia and timely appropriate antimicrobial therapy are required for decreasing patient mortality. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the performance of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture assay (BC-GP in two special healthcare settings and determine the potential impact of rapid blood culture testing for Gram-positive bacteremia within the Japanese healthcare delivery system. Furthermore, the study included simulated blood cultures, which included a library of well-characterized methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE isolates reflecting different geographical regions in Japan. Methods. A total 347 BC-GP assays were performed on clinical and simulated blood cultures. BC-GP results were compared to results obtained by reference methods for genus/species identification and detection of resistance genes using molecular and MALDI-TOF MS methodologies. Results. For identification and detection of resistance genes at two clinical sites and simulated blood cultures, overall concordance of BC-GP with reference methods was 327/347 (94%. The time for identification and antimicrobial resistance detection by BC-GP was significantly shorter compared to routine testing especially at the cardiology hospital, which does not offer clinical microbiology services on weekends and holidays. Conclusion. BC-GP generated accurate identification and detection of resistance markers compared with routine laboratory methods for Gram-positive organisms in specialized clinical settings providing more rapid results than current routine testing.

  19. The appropriateness of preoperative blood testing: A retrospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Canadian or European population groups. The SA population has lower ... of the attending doctor's assessment of the clinical condition of the ... Birmingham and Lambeth liver evaluation testing strategies (BALLETS):. A prospective cohort ...

  20. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of our nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, is to provide rapid, low-cost, powerful multiplexed analyses in a diminutive form so that whole body health...

  1. 21 CFR 864.7140 - Activated whole blood clotting time tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Activated whole blood clotting time tests. 864.7140 Section 864.7140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... pulmonary embolism by measuring the coagulation time of whole blood. (b) Classification. Class II...

  2. Rapid prototyping of centrifugal microfluidic modules for point of care blood testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Madzivhandila, Phophi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present modular centrifugal microfluidic devices that enable a series of blood tests to be performed towards a full blood count. The modular approach allows for rapid prototyping of device components in a generic format to complete different...

  3. Blood tests: One too many? Evaluating blood requesting guidance developed for acute patients admitted to trauma and orthopaedic units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Alastair; Reidy, Mike; Scicluna, Gabrielle; Love, Gavin J; Joss, Judith

    2016-03-01

    In a recently published report from the Academy of Medical Royal Colleges, around 20% of clinical practice which encompasses blood science investigations is considered wasteful. Blood tests including liver function tests (LFTs), C-reactive protein (CRP), coagulation screens, and international normalising ratios (INR) are frequently requested for patients who undergo emergency hospital admission. The paucity of guidance available for blood requesting in acute trauma and orthopaedic admissions can lead to inappropriate requesting practices and over investigation. Acute admissions over a period of one month were audited retrospectively for the frequency and clinical indications of requests for LFTs, coagulation screens/INR, and CRP. The total number of blood tests requested for the duration of the patient's admission was recorded. Initial auditing of 216 admissions in January 2014 demonstrated a striking amount of over-investigation. Clinical guidelines were developed with multidisciplinary expert input and implemented within the department. Re-audit of 233 admissions was carried out in September 2014. Total no. of LFTs requested: January 895, September 336 (-62.5%); coagulation screens/INR requested: January 307, September 210 (-31.6%); CRPs requested: January 894, September 317 (-64.5%). No. of blood requests per patient: January (M=4.81, SD 4.75), September (M=3.60, SD=4.70). Approximate combined total cost of LFT, coagulation/INR, CRP in January £2674.14 and September £1236.19 (-£1437.95, -53.77%). A large decrease was observed in admission requesting and subsequent monitoring (p<0.01) following the implementation. This both significantly reduced cost and venepuncture rates.

  4. RUNX1 induces DNA replication independent of active DNA demethylation at SPI1 regulatory regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Shubham; Suzuki, Takahiro; Li, Jing-Ru; Maeda, Shiori; Kishima, Mami; Nishimura, Hajime; Shimizu, Yuri; Suzuki, Harukazu

    2017-04-04

    SPI1 is an essential transcription factor (TF) for the hematopoietic lineage, in which its expression is tightly controlled through a -17-kb upstream regulatory region and a promoter region. Both regulatory regions are demethylated during hematopoietic development, although how the change of DNA methylation status is performed is still unknown. We found that the ectopic overexpression of RUNX1 (another key TF in hematopoiesis) in HEK-293T cells induces almost complete DNA demethylation at the -17-kb upstream regulatory region and partial but significant DNA demethylation at the proximal promoter region. This DNA demethylation occurred in mitomycin-C-treated nonproliferating cells at both regulatory regions, suggesting active DNA demethylation. Furthermore, ectopic RUNX1 expression induced significant endogenous SPI1 expression, although its expression level was much lower than that of natively SPI1-expressing monocyte cells. These results suggest the novel role of RUNX1 as an inducer of DNA demethylation at the SPI1 regulatory regions, although the mechanism of RUNX1-induced DNA demethylation remains to be explored.

  5. Gender Differences in Global but Not Targeted Demethylation in iPSC Reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Milagre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global DNA demethylation is an integral part of reprogramming processes in vivo and in vitro, but whether it occurs in the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs is not known. Here, we show that iPSC reprogramming involves both global and targeted demethylation, which are separable mechanistically and by their biological outcomes. Cells at intermediate-late stages of reprogramming undergo transient genome-wide demethylation, which is more pronounced in female cells. Global demethylation requires activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID-mediated downregulation of UHRF1 protein, and abolishing demethylation leaves thousands of hypermethylated regions in the iPSC genome. Independently of AID and global demethylation, regulatory regions, particularly ESC enhancers and super-enhancers, are specifically targeted for hypomethylation in association with transcription of the pluripotency network. Our results show that global and targeted DNA demethylation are conserved and distinct reprogramming processes, presumably because of their respective roles in epigenetic memory erasure and in the establishment of cell identity.

  6. Non-invasive prenatal paternity testing from maternal blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jasenka; Dzijan, Snjezana; Marjanović, Damir; Lauc, Gordan

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal paternity analysis can be performed only after invasive sampling of chorionic villi or amnionic fluid. Aiming to enable noninvasive paternity testing, we attempted to amplify fetal alleles from maternal plasma. Cell-free DNA was isolated from plasma of 20 pregnant women and amplified with ampFLSTR Identifiler and ampFLSTR Yfiler kits. Unfortunately, autosomal fetal alleles were heavily suppressed by maternal DNA, and the only locus that was reliably amplified with AmpFLSTR Identifiler kit was amelogenin, which revealed only fetal gender. Much better success was obtained with AmpFLSTR Yfiler kit, which, in the case of male fetuses, successfully amplified between six and 16 fetal loci. All amplified fetal alleles matched the alleles of their putative fathers, confirming the tested paternity. To the best of our knowledge, this is a first report of noninvasive prenatal paternity testing.

  7. Impact of a confirmatory RhD test on the correct serologic typing of blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cayres Schmidt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The RHD gene is highly polymorphic, which results in a large number of RhD variant phenotypes. Discrepancies in RhD typing are still a problem in blood banks and increase the risk of alloimmunization. In this study, the RhD typing strategy at a blood bank in Brazil was evaluated.METHODS: One-hundred and fifty-two samples typed as RhD negative and C or E positive by routine tests (automated system and indirect antiglobulin test using the tube technique were reevaluated for RhD status by three methods. The method with the best performance was implemented and evaluated for a period of one year (n = 4897 samples. Samples that were D positive exclusively in the confirmatory test were submitted to molecular analysis.RESULTS: The gel test for indirect antiglobulin testing with anti-D immunoglobulin G (clone ESD1 presented the best results. Seventy samples (1.43% previously typed as RhD negative showed reactivity in the gel test for indirect antiglobulin testing and were reclassified as D positive. D variants that may cause alloimmunization, such as weak D type 2 and partial DVI, were detected.CONCLUSION: The confirmatory RhD test using the gel test for indirect antiglobulin testing represents a breakthrough in transfusion safety in this blood center. Our results emphasize the importance of assessing the blood group typing strategy in blood banks.

  8. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  9. Viscoelastic behaviour of human blood and polyacrylamide model fluids for heart valve testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerche, Dietmar; Vlastos, Georgios; Koch, Brigitte; Pohl, Manfred; Affeld, Klaus

    1993-06-01

    New heart valves and other cardiovascular assist systems have to be tested for hydrodynamic performance. In place of human blood simple model fluids like glycerol solutions are employed often due to ethical and practical reasons. But blood exhibits complex non-Newtonian and viscoelastic behaviour. Rheological blood properties are reviewed based on literature and own experimental results. Furthermore we studied polymer solutions with respect to blood-like flow behaviour. Rheology was assessed by means of the low shear rotational viscometer (LS 40, Mettler-Toledo, Switzerland) under stationary and dynamic shear conditions (variation of frequency and angular displacement).

  10. Screening for Saponins Using the Blood Hemolysis Test. An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotheeswaran, Subramaniam

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experiment for undergraduate chemistry laboratories involving a chemical found in plants and some sea animals. Discusses collection and identification of material, a hemolysis test, preparation of blood-coated agar plates, and application of samples. (CW)

  11. Value of routine blood tests for prediction of mortality risk in hip fracture patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosfeldt, Mathias; Pedersen, Ole B; Riis, Troels

    2012-01-01

    There is a 5- to 8-fold increased risk of mortality during the first 3 months after a hip fracture. Several risk factors are known. We studied the predictive value (for mortality) of routine blood tests taken on admission.......There is a 5- to 8-fold increased risk of mortality during the first 3 months after a hip fracture. Several risk factors are known. We studied the predictive value (for mortality) of routine blood tests taken on admission....

  12. The ethics of blood testing as an element of doping control in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, A; Lachance, V; Pipe, A

    1999-04-01

    Sport authorities continue to confront a variety of perplexing issues as they attempt to address effectively and efficiently the problems posed by doping. The emergence of the phenomena of blood doping and the administration of erythropoietin have added to the challenges faced by doping control authorities. Some sport organizations have introduced blood tests in an attempt to deal with these issues despite the absence of any effective test for the detection of the administration of homologous blood products or eythropoietin. A number of ethical issues are raised by such developments. Even in the presence of an effective test it is suggested that the decision to implement a specific testing approach can be reached by considering the wishes of a hypothetical "Fair Competitor" and an analysis of the costs involved. In this respect the Fair Competitor assumes in the sport community the role that the "reasonable person" occupies in law, permitting an analysis of a proposed course of action. In making any decision regarding the implementation of any test, a Fair Competitor would be guided by considerations of the postulated advantage and incidence of a doping technique, the likelihood of false positive and negative results, the risk of unwanted consequences of a testing process, and a concern that a specific test not accelerate the likelihood of the use of other doping methods. This approach is applied to a consideration of the appropriateness of blood testing in sport. It is concluded, using such an analysis, that in their present state of development, blood tests should not be implemented. It is recognized that certain sport authorities currently use blood tests to exclude competitors whose blood values exceed certain predetermined levels on the grounds of concerns regarding health and safety. Screening of this kind is beyond the purview of this discussion.

  13. Evaluation and Improved Use of Fecal Occult Blood Test in the Constipated Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilway, Denise M

    2016-01-01

    This quality improvement project examined the use of fecal occult blood test in the constipated child in a pediatric gastroenterology outpatient clinic. A retrospective chart review was completed on 100 children seen for an initial visit with the gastroenterology provider. The number of fecal occult blood tests performed and the child's coinciding symptoms were tallied and compared with the North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition recommendations. An educational intervention was held with the pediatric gastroenterology providers consisting of a PowerPoint presentation summarizing aims of the quality improvement project and reviewing recommendations for use of fecal occult blood test in the constipated child. Pre- and post-intervention chart review data sets were compared. Results showed a 19.6% decrease in the use of fecal occult blood tests performed during the post-intervention timeframe. However, when used in conjunction with North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition recommendations, the appropriateness of fecal occult blood test use increased by 71.4% in the post-intervention patients. Reviewing the recommendations with gastroenterology providers assisted in optimizing the meaningful use of fecal occult blood test, improving quality and safety of care for children seen in the pediatric gastroenterology outpatient clinic.

  14. Application of quantitative ethanol detector (QED) test kit to measure ethanol concentration in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biwasaka, H; Tokuta, T; Sasaki, Y; Niitsu, H; Kumagai, R; Aoki, Y

    2001-12-27

    In this paper, the applicability of the quantitative ethanol detector (QED) test kit for screening of ethanol concentrations in blood samples was investigated. The pretreatment of blood using the sulfosalicylic acid solution and the three-way stopcock followed by membrane filtration gave satisfactory results. The ethanol concentrations in whole blood samples (n=61) determined by QED correlated well with those determined by gas chromatography; the correlation coefficient indicated 0.990. Because a high correlation coefficient (0.928) was also confirmed in trial by investigators, QED test should be highly considered for ethanol screening in forensic praxis.

  15. Comparison of PCR, Wright agglutination test and blood culture for diagnosis of brucellosis in suspected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmatimoghaddam, Seyedhosssein; Sadeh, Maryam; Khalili, Mohammad Bagher; Mollaabedin, Mansour; Sazmand, Alireza

    2013-11-15

    Brucellosis has long been prevalent in Iran, with considerable medical and economic importance. Timely diagnosis is needed for early management and effective prevention of its consequences in human beings and animals. Current diagnostic methods impose peculiar challenges in terms of analytical method performance. This study compares diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, predictive Value of Positive (PVP) and Predictive Value of Negative (PVN) for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Wright agglutination test and blood culture used for patients suspected of brucellosis. In 120 patients clinically suspected of brucellosis and referred by physicians to the Yazd central Medical Laboratory, some relevant demographic, occupational, nutritional and clinical data were collected. Also, venous blood samples were drawn for diagnosis of brucellosis using PCR, Wright agglutination test and blood culture techniques. The most frequent symptom of patients was arthralgia (82 cases, 68.3%). PCR was positive in 25 cases (20.8%), wright test in 21 patients (17.5%) and blood culture in 6 cases (5%). In 20 out of 21 wright-positive cases, PCR was positive and all of the culture-positive patients had positive PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, PVP and PVN of blood culture compared to PCR (as the gold standard test) were 24, 100, 100 and 86%, respectively, but the above parameters when PCR is compared with blood culture (as gold standard) were 100, 83, 24 and 95%, respectively. PCR has better analytical performances than blood culture for diagnosis of brucellosis and is suitable for confirmation of Wright-positive cases.

  16. Comparison of Result Times Between Urine and Whole Blood Point-of-care Pregnancy Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Michael; Wnek, Kristopher; Moskoff, Jordan; Christian, Errick; Bailitz, John

    2016-07-01

    Point-of-care (POC) pregnancy testing is commonly performed in the emergency department (ED). One prior study demonstrated equivalent accuracy between urine and whole blood for one common brand of POC pregnancy testing. Our study sought to determine the difference in result times when comparing whole blood versus urine for the same brand of POC pregnancy testing. We conducted a prospective, observational study at an urban, academic, tertiary care hospital comparing the turnaround time between order and result for urine and whole blood pregnancy tests collected according to standard protocol without intervention from the investigators. After the blood was collected, the nurse would place three drops onto a Beckman Coulter ICON 25 Rapid HCG bedside pregnancy test and set a timer for 10 minutes. At the end of the 10 minutes, the result and time were recorded on an encoded data sheet and not used clinically. The same make and model analyzer was also used for urine tests in the lab located within the ED. The primary outcome was the difference in mean turnaround time between whole blood in the ED and urine testing in the adjacent lab results. Concordance between samples was assessed as a secondary outcome. 265 total patients were included in the study. The use of whole blood resulted in a mean time savings of 21 minutes (95% CI 16-25 minutes) when compared with urine (presults, with one false negative urine specimen with a quantitative HCG level of 81 mIU/L. Our results suggest that the use of whole blood in place of urine for bedside pregnancy testing may reduce the total result turnaround time without significant changes in accuracy in this single-center study.

  17. Epigenetic choreography of stem cells: the DNA demethylation episode of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Swayamsiddha; Parbin, Sabnam; Deb, Moonmoon; Shilpi, Arunima; Sengupta, Dipta; Rath, Sandip Kumar; Rakshit, Madhumita; Patra, Aditi; Patra, Samir Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Reversible DNA methylation is a fundamental epigenetic manipulator of the genomic information in eukaryotes. DNA demethylation plays a very significant role during embryonic development and stands out for its contribution in molecular reconfiguration during cellular differentiation for determining stem cell fate. DNA demethylation arbitrated extensive make-over of the genome via reprogramming in the early embryo results in stem cell plasticity followed by commitment to the principal cell lineages. This article attempts to highlight the sequential phases and hierarchical mode of DNA demethylation events during enactment of the molecular strategy for developmental transition. A comprehensive knowledge regarding the pattern of DNA demethylation during embryogenesis and organogenesis and study of the related lacunae will offer exciting avenues for future biomedical research and stem cell-based regenerative therapy.

  18. Validation of four Helicobacter pylori rapid blood tests in a multi-ethnic Asian population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lee-Guan Lim; Khay-Guan Yeoh; Bow Ho; Seng-Gee Lim

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To validate the accuracy of four rapid blood tests in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori.METHODS: Consecutive dyspeptic patients scheduled for endoscopy at the National University Hospital,Singapore, were interviewed and had blood drawn for serology. The first 109 patients were tested with BM-test (BM), Pyloriset Screen (PS) and QuickVue (QV), and the next 99 subjects were tested with PS and Unigold (UG).Endoscopies were performed blinded to rapid blood test results and biopsies were taken for culture and rapid urease test. Urea breath tests were performed after endoscopies. The rapid blood test results were compared with four reference tests (rapid urease test, culture,serology, and breath test).RESULTS: The study population composed of 208patients (mean age 43.1 years; range 18-73 years; 119males; 174 Chinese). The number of evaluable patientsfor BM, QV, UG and PS were 102, 102, 95, and 197,respectively. The sensitivity and specificity, respectively were: PS 80.2%, 95.8%; UG 55.9%, 100%; QV 43.3%,100%; BM 67.2%, 97.1%.CONCLUSION: The rapid blood test kits showed high specificity and positive predictive value (97-100%), while sensitivity and negative predictive value ranged widely (43%-80% and 47%-73%, respectively). Among test kits, PS showed the best sensitivity (80%), best negative predictive value (73%) and best negative likelihood ratio (0.207). PS had a specificity of 96%, positive predictive value of 97% and positive likelihood ratio of 19.1.

  19. Fabrication and testing of novel blood separation devices based on microchannel bend structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattert, C.; Jurischka, R.; Schoth, A.; Kerth, P.; Menz, W.

    2005-02-01

    Most clinical chemistry tests are performed on cell-free serum or plasma. Therefore micro assay devices for blood tests require integrated on-chip microfluidics for separation of plasma or serum from blood. Polymers are ideally suited for these applications due to their material properties and their applicability for high volume production. These requirements are achieved by a new on-chip blood separation technique based on microchannel bend structures and a rapid processing technology for micro assay devices using injection molding or hot embossing. Different prototype polymer chips with channel dimensions down to 20 μm and aspect ratios of 4 have been fabricated by injection molding and hot embossing. The inserts for the molding tools were fabricated by an UV-LIGA technology. The separation efficiency of these chips has been tested with human blood samples. The results show different separation efficiencies up to 100 % for blood cells and plasma depending on microchannel geometry as well as cell concentration. As compared to present microfluidic devices for the separation of blood cells like filters, membranes or filtration by diffusion the microchannel bend is an integrated on-chip blood separation method. It combines the advantages of rapid separation times and a simple geometry that leads to cost-effective high volume production using injection molding.

  20. Characterization of different commercial soybean peroxidase preparations and the use of the enzyme for the N-demethylation of methyl-N-methylanthranilate to produce the food flavour methylanthranilate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haandel, van M.J.H.; Saraber, F.C.E.; Boersma, M.G.; Laane, C.; Fleming, Y.; Weenen, H.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2000-01-01

    The potential of different peroxidase preparations for the N-demethylation of methyl N-methylanthranilate to produce the food flavor methylanthranilate (MA) was investigated. All tested peroxidase preparations were able to catalyze the N-dealkylation. The tested soybean preparations vary widely with

  1. Arsenic Demethylation by a C·As Lyase in Cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu; Ye, Jun; Xue, Xi-Mei; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-12-15

    Arsenic, a ubiquitous toxic substance, exists mainly as inorganic forms in the environment. It is perceived that organoarsenicals can be demethylated and degraded into inorganic arsenic by microorganisms. Few studies have focused on the mechanism of arsenic demethylation in bacteria. Here, we investigated arsenic demethylation in a typical freshwater cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120. This bacterium was able to demethylate monomethylarsenite [MAs(III)] rapidly to arsenite [As(III)] and also had the ability to demethylate monomethylarsenate [MAs(V)] to As(III). The NsarsI encoding a C·As lyase responsible for MAs(III) demethylation was cloned from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 and heterologously expressed in an As-hypersensitive strain Escherichia coli AW3110 (ΔarsRBC). Expression of NsarsI was shown to confer MAs(III) resistance through arsenic demethylation. The purified NsArsI was further identified and functionally characterized in vitro. NsArsI existed mainly as the trimeric state, and the kinetic data were well-fit to the Hill equation with K0.5 = 7.55 ± 0.33 μM for MAs(III), Vmax = 0.79 ± 0.02 μM min(-1), and h = 2.7. Both of the NsArsI truncated derivatives lacking the C-terminal 10 residues (ArsI10) or 23 residues (ArsI23) had a reduced ability of MAs(III) demethylation. These results provide new insights for understanding the important role of cyanobacteria in arsenic biogeochemical cycling in the environment.

  2. [Results of Training for Personnel Involved in Blood-Transfusion Testing Outside of Regular Work Hours at Saga University Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Marie; Yamada, Naotomo; Higashitani, Takanori; Ohta, Shoichiro; Sueoka, Eisaburo

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory testing prior to blood transfusion outside of regular hours in many hospitals and clinics is frequently conducted by technicians without sufficient experience in such testing work. To obtain consistent test results regardless of the degree of laboratory experience with blood transfusion testing, the number of facilities introducing automated equipment for testing prior to blood transfusion is increasing. Our hospital's blood transfusion department introduced fully automated test equipment in October of 2010 for use when blood transfusions are conducted outside of regular hours. However, excessive dependence on automated testing can lead to an inability to do manual blood typing or cross-match testing when necessitated by breakdowns in the automated test equipment, in the case of abnormal specimen reactions, or other such case. In addition, even outside of normal working hours there are more than a few instances in which transfusion must take place based on urgent communications from clinical staff, with the need for prompt and flexible timing of blood transfusion test and delivery of blood products. To address this situation, in 2010 we began training after-hours laboratory personnel in blood transfusion testing to provide practice using test tubes manually and to achieve greater understanding of blood transfusion test work (especially in cases of critical blood loss). Results of the training and difficulties in its implementation for such after-hours laboratory personnel at our hospital are presented and discussed in this paper. [Original

  3. The status of failure and reliability testing of artificial blood pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sonna M; Throckmorton, Amy L; Untaroiu, Alexandrina; Allaire, Paul E; Wood, Houston G; Olsen, Don B

    2005-01-01

    Artificial blood pumps are today's most promising bridge-to-transplant, bridge-to-recovery, and destination therapy solutions for patients with congestive heart failure. There is a critical need for increased reliability and safety as the next generation of artificial blood pumps approach final development for long-term destination therapy. To date, extensive failure and reliability studies of these devices are considered intellectual property and thus remain unpublished. Presently, the Novacor N100PC, Thoratec VAD, and HeartMate LVAS (IP and XVE) comprise the only four artificial blood pumps commercially available for the treatment of congestive heart failure in the United States. The CardioWest TAH recently received premarket approval from the US Food and Drug Administration. With investigational device exemptions, the AB-180, AbioCor, LionHeart, DeBakey, and Flowmaker are approved for clinical testing. Other blood pumps, such as the American BioMed-Baylor TAH, CorAide, Cleveland Clinic-Nimbus TAH, HeartMate III, Hemadyne, and MagScrew TAH are currently in various stages of mock loop and animal testing, as indicated in published literature. This article extensively reviews in vitro testing, in vivo testing, and the early clinical testing of artificial blood pumps in the United States, as it relates to failure and reliability. This detailed literature review has not been published before and provides a thorough documentation of available data and testing procedures regarding failure and reliability of these various pumps.

  4. A comparison of the presumptive luminol test for blood with four non-chemiluminescent forensic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Joanne L; Creamer, Jonathan I; Quickenden, Terence I

    2006-01-01

    Presumptive blood detection tests are used by forensic investigators to detect trace amounts of blood or to investigate suspicious stains. Through the years, a number of articles have been published on the popular techniques of the day. However, there is no single paper that critiques and compares the five most common presumptive blood detection tests currently in use: luminol, phenolphthalein (Kastle-Meyer), leucomalachite green, Hemastix and the forensic light source. The present authors aimed to compare the above techniques with regard to their sensitivity, ease of use and safety. The luminol test was determined to be the most sensitive of the techniques, while Hemastix is a suitable alternative when the luminol test is not appropriate.

  5. A sample-to-result system for blood coagulation tests on a microfluidic disk analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hui; Liu, Cheng-Yuan; Shih, Chih-Hsin; Lu, Chien-Hsing

    2014-09-01

    In this report, we describe in detail a microfluidic analyzer, which is able to conduct blood coagulation tests using whole blood samples. Sample preparation steps, such as whole blood aliquoting and metering, plasma separation, decanting, and mixing with reagents were performed in sequence through microfluidic functions integrated on a disk. Both prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were carried out on the same platform and the test results can be reported in 5 min. Fifty clinical samples were tested for both PT and aPTT utilizing the microfluidic disk analyzer and the instrument used in hospitals. The test results showed good correlation and agreement between the two instruments.

  6. Noninvasive cerebral blood oxygenation monitoring: clinical test of multiwavelength optoacoustic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Y. Y.; Prough, D. S.; Petrova, I.; Patrikeev, I. A.; Cicenaite, I.; Esenaliev, R. O.

    2007-02-01

    Continuous monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation is critically important for treatment of patients with life-threatening conditions like severe brain injury or during cardiac surgery. We designed and built a novel multiwavelength optoacoustic system for noninvasive, continuous, and accurate monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation. We use an Optical Parametric Oscillator as a light source. We successfully tested the system in vitro as well as in vivo in large animals (sheep) through thick tissues overlying blood vessels which drain venous blood out of the brain (e.g., superior sagittal sinus or jugular vein). Here we present the results of clinical tests of the system for continuous noninvasive cerebral blood oxygenation monitoring in the internal jugular vein of healthy volunteers. We applied our custom-built optoacoustic probe (which incorporated a wide-band acoustic transducer and an optical fiber) to the neck area overlying the internal jugular vein. We performed measurements with volunteers at 18 wavelengths in the near-infrared spectral range. Despite a thick layer of overlying connective tissue and low energy used in the experiments, we recorded signals with high signal-to-noise ratios for all volunteers. We found that the temporal (independent of signal amplitude) parameters of recorded profiles for different levels of blood oxygenation correlated well with the spectrum of effective attenuation coefficients of blood.

  7. Blood splash in lambs-a preliminary study using the one-stage prothrombin time test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restall, D J

    1981-02-01

    Lambs from a flock in which a high incidence of blood splash had been detected were examined using the one-stage prothrombin test. For comparison lambs from a commercial slaughter line were also examined. All the affected lambs and 35·4% from the slaughter line had extended prothrombin times, and a relationship between extended prothrombin times and the occurrence of blood splash was established. Investigation of the pastures grazed by the affected flock showed the presence of coumarin producing plants and grasses. Some coumarin drugs prolong one-stage prothrombin times, and more importantly, induce capillary fragility, thus predisposing animals to blood splash.

  8. Application of Nexfin noninvasive beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure monitoring in autonomic function testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipkens, Laura M; Treskes, Kaij; Ariese-Beldman, Karin; Veerman, Derk P; Boer, Christa

    2011-10-01

    Evaluation of autonomic function responses is increasingly important for risk prediction and hemodynamic evaluation in the ambulant and perioperative setting, but requires a noninvasive arterial blood pressure measurement device. This study describes whether a novel noninvasive beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure measurement device (Nexfin HD) is able to reproducibly reflect autonomic function responses in healthy volunteers. Noninvasive beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure measurements (Nexfin HD) were performed in 20 healthy men of 22 ± 3 years. Measurements were performed during supine steady state, controlled breathing (0.125 Hz), passive leg raising, a controlled Valsalva maneuver, and a quick stand test. Finally, relative changes in pulse pressure during autonomic function testing and the test-retest reproducibility were determined. Autonomic function tests induced beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure changes that were accurately monitored by the Nexfin device. The intraclass correlation coefficients for systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure measurements during supine steady state were agreeable [0.91 (0.82-0.96) and 0.84 (0.69-0.93), respectively]. The reproducibility of blood pressure changes during controlled breathing, passive leg raising, and Valsalva maneuver averaged 0.92 (0.82-0.96), 0.76 (0.50-0.90), and 0.94 (0.89-0.97), respectively. The reproducibility of the pulse pressure variation (PPV) as calculated from controlled breathing-induced changes in the arterial blood pressure (13 ± 5%) was high [0.96 (0.93-0.98)]. This study shows that noninvasive beat-to-beat Nexfin HD arterial blood pressure measurements reproducibly reflect autonomic function responses in healthy volunteers.

  9. An assessment of various blood collection and transfer methods used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baik Fred

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four blood collection and transfer devices commonly used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs were assessed for their consistency, accuracy and ease of use in the hands of laboratory technicians and village health workers. Methods Laboratory technicians and village health workers collected blood from a finger prick using each device in random order, and deposited the blood either on filter paper or into a suitable casette-type RDT. Consistency and accuracy of volume delivered was determined by comparing the measurements of the resulting blood spots/heights with the measurements of laboratory-prepared pipetted standard volumes. The effect of varying blood volumes on RDT sensitivity and ease of use was also observed. Results There was high variability in blood volume collected by the devices, with the straw and the loop, the most preferred devices, usually transferring volumes greater than intended, while the glass capillary tube and the plastic pipette transferring less volume than intended or none at all. Varying the blood volume delivered to RDTs indicated that this variation is critical to RDT sensitivity only when the transferred volume is very low. Conclusion None of the blood transfer devices assessed performed consistently well. Adequate training on their use is clearly necessary, with more development efforts for improved designs to be used by remote health workers, in mind.

  10. In vitro blood flow model with physiological wall shear stress for hemocompatibility testing-An example of coronary stent testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Gerwin Erik; Blok, Sjoerd Leendert Johannes; van Oeveren, Willem

    2016-09-18

    Hemocompatibility of blood contacting medical devices has to be evaluated before their intended application. To assess hemocompatibility, blood flow models are often used and can either consist of in vivo animal models or in vitro blood flow models. Given the disadvantages of animal models, in vitro blood flow models are an attractive alternative. The in vitro blood flow models available nowadays mostly focus on generating continuous flow instead of generating a pulsatile flow with certain wall shear stress, which has shown to be more relevant in maintaining hemostasis. To address this issue, the authors introduce a blood flow model that is able to generate a pulsatile flow and wall shear stress resembling the physiological situation, which the authors have coined the "Haemobile." The authors have validated the model by performing Doppler flow measurements to calculate velocity profiles and (wall) shear stress profiles. As an example, the authors evaluated the thrombogenicity of two drug eluting stents, one that was already on the market and one that was still under development. After identifying proper conditions resembling the wall shear stress in coronary arteries, the authors compared the stents with each other and often used reference materials. These experiments resulted in high contrast between hemocompatible and incompatible materials, showing the exceptional testing capabilities of the Haemobile. In conclusion, the authors have developed an in vitro blood flow model which is capable of mimicking physiological conditions of blood flow as close as possible. The model is convenient in use and is able to clearly discriminate between hemocompatible and incompatible materials, making it suitable for evaluating the hemocompatible properties of medical devices.

  11. Effects of Recovery Type after a Kickboxing Match on Blood Lactate and Performance in Anaerobic Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Ouergui, Ibrahim; Hammouda, Omar; Chtourou, Hamdi; Gmada, Nabil; Franchini, Emerson

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To verify whether active recovery (AR) applied after a kickboxing match resulted in better performance in anaerobic tests when compared to passive recovery (PR). Methods Eighteen kickboxers volunteered to participate on a Kickboxing match preceded and followed by anaerobic tests: squat jump (SJ), the counter movement jump (CMJ) and the upper-body Wingate test. Blood lactate (BL), heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were analyzed before and after rounds. The recovery s...

  12. Multicenter evaluation of the Verigene Gram-negative blood culture nucleic acid test for rapid detection of bacteria and resistance determinants in positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Naoki; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Yamakawa, Hiromi; Yamada, Maiko; Yaguchi, Yuji; Notake, Shigeyuki; Tamai, Kiyoko; Yanagisawa, Hideji; Misawa, Shigeki; Yanagihara, Katsunori

    2015-12-01

    The Verigene Gram-Negative Blood Culture Nucleic Acid Test (BC-GN) is a microarray-based assay that enables rapid detection of 9 common Gram-negative bacteria and 6 resistance determinants directly from positive blood cultures. We compared the performance of BC-GN with currently used automated systems, testing 141 clinical blood cultures and 205 spiked blood cultures. For identification of BC-GN target organisms in clinical and spiked blood cultures, the BC-GN assay showed 98.5% (130/132) and 98.9% (182/184) concordance, respectively. Of 140 resistance genes positively detected in clinical and spiked blood cultures with the BC-GN test, 139 (99.3%) were confirmed by PCR, and the detection results were consistent with the resistance phenotypes observed. The BC-GN assay, thus, can potentially improve care for sepsis patients by enabling timely detection and targeted antimicrobial therapy.

  13. Red cell antigen prevalence predicted by molecular testing in ethnic groups of South Texas blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Lorena I; Smith, Linda A; Jones, Scott; Beddard, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is seen in patients receiving chronic blood transfusion. Knowing the prevalence of blood group antigens of the different ethnicities of South Texas donors can provide better management of rare blood inventory for patients in this geographical area. A total of 4369 blood donors were tested and analyzed for various antigens in the following blood group systems: ABO, Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, Lutheran, Dombrock, Landsteiner-Wiener, Diego, Colton, and Scianna. Donors tested to be group 0 or A were serologically tested for the Rh (C, E, c, e) antigens. Those that tested as presumably R1R1, R2R2, or Ror were then genotyped. Donors constituted three major ethnicities: black (18.3%), Hispanic (36.3%), and Caucasian (41.1%); ethnicities comprised of Asian, American Indian, multiracial, and other accounted for the remaining donors (4.3%). The most likely common Rh phenotype for each ethnicity is as follows: black -Ror (44.4%), Hispanic -R1R1 (59.0%), and Caucasian -R1R1 (38.9%). The prevalence of Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group system antigens in black and Caucasian donors is comparable with published reports for the entire U.S. The black South Texas donor population had an 8.8 percent increase in prevalence of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype as compared with these published reports; the Hispanic South Texas donor population had a prevalence of 36.1 percent of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype. Regarding the Diego blood group system, the Hispanic donor population in South Texas had a prevalence of 93.5 percent for the Di(a-b+) phenotype as compared with published reports for the entire U.S. (>99.9%). The Hispanic population had a prevalence of 7.9 percent of donors testing as M-N+S-s+ as compared with 20.2 percent and 15.6 percent for black and Caucasian donors, respectively. This study helped us determine the prevalence of each of the blood group antigens in the South Texas donor population to establish and maintain adequate rare inventory of

  14. Prediction of Acute Mountain Sickness using a Blood-Based Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    1 Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0034 TITLE: Prediction of Acute Mountain Sickness using a Blood-Based Test PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Robert Roach...Acute Mountain Sickness using a Blood-Based Test 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER: 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0034 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...from a sample taken at sea level could be used to successfully predict in 9 out of 10 individuals who went on to develop acute mountain sickness or

  15. Liver fibrosis diagnosis by blood test and elastography in chronic hepatitis C: agreement or combination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calès, P; Boursier, J; Lebigot, J; de Ledinghen, V; Aubé, C; Hubert, I; Oberti, F

    2017-04-01

    In chronic hepatitis C, the European Association for the Study of the Liver and the Asociacion Latinoamericana para el Estudio del Higado recommend performing transient elastography plus a blood test to diagnose significant fibrosis; test concordance confirms the diagnosis. To validate this rule and improve it by combining a blood test, FibroMeter (virus second generation, Echosens, Paris, France) and transient elastography (constitutive tests) into a single combined test, as suggested by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. A total of 1199 patients were included in an exploratory set (HCV, n = 679) or in two validation sets (HCV ± HIV, HBV, n = 520). Accuracy was mainly evaluated by correct diagnosis rate for severe fibrosis (pathological Metavir F ≥ 3, primary outcome) by classical test scores or a fibrosis classification, reflecting Metavir staging, as a function of test concordance. Score accuracy: there were no significant differences between the blood test (75.7%), elastography (79.1%) and the combined test (79.4%) (P = 0.066); the score accuracy of each test was significantly (P < 0.001) decreased in discordant vs. concordant tests. Classification accuracy: combined test accuracy (91.7%) was significantly (P < 0.001) increased vs. the blood test (84.1%) and elastography (88.2%); accuracy of each constitutive test was significantly (P < 0.001) decreased in discordant vs. concordant tests but not with combined test: 89.0 vs. 92.7% (P = 0.118). Multivariate analysis for accuracy showed an interaction between concordance and fibrosis level: in the 1% of patients with full classification discordance and severe fibrosis, non-invasive tests were unreliable. The advantage of combined test classification was confirmed in the validation sets. The concordance recommendation is validated. A combined test, expressed in classification instead of score, improves this rule and validates the

  16. The N-demethylation of imipramine correlates with the oxidation of S-mephenytoin (S/R-ratio). A population study.

    OpenAIRE

    Skjelbo, E; Gram, L F; Brøsen, K

    1993-01-01

    The metabolism of imipramine was investigated in 106 healthy volunteers, all having a sparteine metabolic ratio (MR) of 0.2-0.5 and hence classified as extensive metabolisers. Each subject was given a single oral dose of 25 mg imipramine hydrochloride and blood for assays of imipramine and metabolites was collected 3 h thereafter. The desipramine/imipramine ratio and the 2-OH-desipramine/2-OH-imipramine ratio in plasma, reflecting the demethylation of imipramine and 2-OH-imipramine, respectiv...

  17. Cross reaction and forensic comparison of blood testing done by private and public sector laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Stadler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood evidence consists of one of the most important forensic pieces. However, it is not always easy to identify a stain as blood. The best and fastest way of doing so, is by using rapid screening derived from immunochromatographic tests to spot hemoglobin. However, cross reaction between species might be an issue since hemoglobin of other animals could be present, especially considering crimes against fauna, outdoor crime scenes with an easy access for animals, and human and domestic animal trauma cases. According to the particular structure in each country there are private and/or public laboratories working in this field. Methods and resources from private and public sectors are different, and procedures also differ from country to country. The main objective of our work was to validate the presence of human blood using interspecific samples and the criteria defined by each lab using rapid blood detection test kits from the public sector related to forensic analysis in Brazil and from the private sector in Germany. As a secondary goal, we have evaluated sensibility, the Hook Effect and pH effect in some commercially available kits. Our results showed that the tests carried out are suitable for the detection of human blood in forensic samples using methods commonly employed in the public and private sectors.

  18. Incentivizing Blood Donation: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis to Test Titmuss’ Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Titmuss hypothesized that paying blood donors would reduce the quality of the blood donated and would be economically inefficient. We report here the first systematic review to test these hypotheses, reporting on both financial and nonfinancial incentives. Method: Studies deemed eligible for inclusion were peer-reviewed, experimental studies that presented data on the quantity (as a proxy for efficiency) and quality of blood donated in at least two groups: those donating blood when offered an incentive, and those donating blood with no offer of an incentive. The following were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO using OVID SP, CINAHL via EBSCO and CENTRAL, the Cochrane Library, Econlit via EBSCO, JSTOR Health and General Science Collection, and Google. Results: The initial search yielded 1100 abstracts, which resulted in 89 full papers being assessed for eligibility, of which seven studies, reported in six papers, met the inclusion criteria. The included studies involved 93,328 participants. Incentives had no impact on the likelihood of donation (OR = 1.22 CI 95% 0.91–1.63; p = .19). There was no difference between financial and nonfinancial incentives in the quantity of blood donated. Of the two studies that assessed quality of blood, one found no effect and the other found an adverse effect from the offer of a free cholesterol test (β = 0.011 p < .05). Conclusion: The limited evidence suggests that Titmuss’ hypothesis of the economic inefficiency of incentives is correct. There is insufficient evidence to assess their likely impact on the quality of the blood provided. PMID:24001244

  19. Incentivizing blood donation: systematic review and meta-analysis to test Titmuss' hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niza, Claudia; Tung, Burcu; Marteau, Theresa M

    2013-09-01

    Titmuss hypothesized that paying blood donors would reduce the quality of the blood donated and would be economically inefficient. We report here the first systematic review to test these hypotheses, reporting on both financial and nonfinancial incentives. Studies deemed eligible for inclusion were peer-reviewed, experimental studies that presented data on the quantity (as a proxy for efficiency) and quality of blood donated in at least two groups: those donating blood when offered an incentive, and those donating blood with no offer of an incentive. The following were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO using OVID SP, CINAHL via EBSCO and CENTRAL, the Cochrane Library, Econlit via EBSCO, JSTOR Health and General Science Collection, and Google. The initial search yielded 1100 abstracts, which resulted in 89 full papers being assessed for eligibility, of which seven studies, reported in six papers, met the inclusion criteria. The included studies involved 93,328 participants. Incentives had no impact on the likelihood of donation (OR = 1.22 CI 95% 0.91-1.63; p = .19). There was no difference between financial and nonfinancial incentives in the quantity of blood donated. Of the two studies that assessed quality of blood, one found no effect and the other found an adverse effect from the offer of a free cholesterol test (β = 0.011 p < .05). The limited evidence suggests that Titmuss' hypothesis of the economic inefficiency of incentives is correct. There is insufficient evidence to assess their likely impact on the quality of the blood provided. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Influence of Decitabine on Demethylation of P15INK4B Gene and the Growth and Apoptosis of Burkitt Lymphoma Raji Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Qiao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the methylation status of P15INK4B gene and the biochemical influence of decitabine on the demethylation of P15INK4B gene and the growth and apoptosis of Burkitt lymphoma Raji cells. Methods: Trypan blue was used to test the effects of different concentrations of decitabine on cell growth curve of Burkitt lymphoma Rajj cells. Cell apoptostic rate was detected by flow cytometry (FCM. The expression of P15INK4B gene was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and the degree of methylation of P15INK4B gene by methylation-specific PCR (MSP. Results: Different concentrations of decitabine had an inhibiting effect on the proliferation of Raji cells, and promote the apoptosis of Raji cells. After 48-h treatment of decitabine, the mRNA expression of P15INK4B gene of Raji cells was up-regulated in a dose-dependent manner by inducing the demethylation of P15INK4B gene. . Conclusion: There exists hypermethylated P15INK4B gene in Burkitt lymphoma Raji cells which makes P15INK4B gene down-regulated. However, decitabine can up-regulate the mRNA expression of P15INK4B gene through inducing the demethylation of P15INK4B gene, thus inhibiting the proliferation of lymphoma Raji cells.

  1. The Emerging Nexus of Active DNA Demethylation and Mitochondrial Oxidative Metabolism in Post-Mitotic Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Meng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The variable patterns of DNA methylation in mammals have been linked to a number of physiological processes, including normal embryonic development and disease pathogenesis. Active removal of DNA methylation, which potentially regulates neuronal gene expression both globally and gene specifically, has been recently implicated in neuronal plasticity, learning and memory processes. Model pathways of active DNA demethylation involve ten-eleven translocation (TET methylcytosine dioxygenases that are dependent on oxidative metabolites. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidizing agents generate oxidative modifications of DNA bases that can be removed by base excision repair proteins. These potentially link the two processes of active DNA demethylation and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in post-mitotic neurons. We review the current biochemical understanding of the DNA demethylation process and discuss its potential interaction with oxidative metabolism. We then summarise the emerging roles of both processes and their interaction in neural plasticity and memory formation and the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration. Finally, possible therapeutic approaches for neurodegenerative diseases are proposed, including reprogramming therapy by global DNA demethylation and mitohormesis therapy for locus-specific DNA demethylation in post-mitotic neurons.

  2. False negative fecal occult blood tests due to delayed sample return in colorectal cancer screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, L.G.M. van; Rijn, A.F. van; Oijen, M.G.H. van; Fockens, P.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Dekker, E.

    2009-01-01

    Delayed return of immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT) samples to a laboratory might cause false negatives because of hemoglobin degradation. Quantitative iFOBT's became increasingly more accepted in colorectal cancer screening. Therefore, we studied the effects of delay between sampling a

  3. Endoscopic Follow-Up of Positive Fecal Occult Blood Testing in the Ontario FOBT Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Paszat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Ontario FOBT Project is a pilot study of fecal occult blood testing (FOBT for colorectal cancer screening conducted among age-eligible volunteers (50 to 75 years in 12 of 37 public health regions in Ontario.

  4. Validation of a new blood-mimicking fluid for use in Doppler flow test objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramnarine, KV; Nassiri, DK; Hoskins, PR; Lubbers, J

    1998-01-01

    A blood-mimicking fluid (BMF) suitable for use in Doppler flow test objects is described and characterised, The BMF consists of 5 mu m diameter nylon scattering particles suspended in a fluid base of water, glycerol, dextran and surfactant, The acoustical properties of various BMF preparations were

  5. Non-invasive prediction of blood lactate response to constant power outputs from incremental exercise tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, C S; Casaburi, R; Storer, T W; Wasserman, K

    1995-01-01

    We determined the ability of gas exchange analyses during incremental exercise tests (IXT) to predict blood lactate levels associated with a range of constant power output cycle ergometer tests. Twenty-seven healthy young men performed duplicate IXT and four 15-min constant power output tests at intensities ranging from moderate to very severe, before and after a training program. End-exercise blood lactate levels were approximated from superficial venous samples obtained 60 s after each constant power output test. From IXT, the power outputs corresponding to peak oxygen uptake (Wmax) and lactic acidosis threshold (WLAT), were determined. We examined the ability of four measures of exercise intensity to predict blood lactate levels for power outputs above the LAT: (1) power output (W), (2) power difference (W-WLAT), (3) power fraction (W/Wmax) and (4) power difference to delta ratio [(W-WLAT)/(Wmax-WLAT)]. Correlation coefficients were r = 0.38, 0.69, 0.75, and 0.81, respectively. The best linear regression prediction equation was: lactate (mmol.l-1) = 12.2[(W-WLAT)/(Wmax-WLAT)] + 0.7 mmol.l-1. This relationship was not significantly affected by training, despite increased values of LAT and peak oxygen uptake. Normalizing exercise intensity to the range of power outputs between WLAT and Wmax provided an estimate of blood lactate response to constant power outputs with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 mmol.l-1.

  6. Umbilical Cord Blood Use for Admission Blood Tests of VLBW (Very Low Birth Weight) Preterm Neonates: A Multi-center Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-12

    collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. Umbilical Cord Blood Use for Admission Blood Tests of VLBW Preterm...to help decrease the risk of anemia and the need for transfusion. These include delayed cord clamping , cord stripping, erythropoiesis stimulating...transcutaneous measurements[3, 6]. Another approach used to decrease the risk of anemia and need for transfusion is the use of umbilical cord blood

  7. Usefullness of routine use of fecal occult blood test in a hospital setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ravnik

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fecal occult blood test, hematest, is a well excepted non-invasive method used for detecting different diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. It was proven in different randomized studies that usage of this simple method may facilitate further diagnostic and therapeutic treatment.Patients and methods: The retrospective analysis includes patients, which were admitted to the gastroenterological and endoscopy department of the General hospital Maribor in the last quarter of the year 2005. In all patients fecal occult blood test was performed.Results: We examined 200 patients, 104 women and 96 men, average age 63.9 years, SD±16.9, ranging from 21 to 97 years. Positive hematest was discovered in 76 patients (38 %. The source of hemorrhage from the upper digestive tract was confirmed in 37 patients (48.6 % of all positive tests and from the lower digestive tract in 34 patients (46 % of all positive tests. The most frequent causes of hemorrhage from the lower digestive tract were chronic inflammatory bowel disease (13.1 % of all positive tests, colorectal cancer (10.5 % and polyps (6.6 %. The source of hemorrhage was not located in five patients (6.6 % of all positive tests despite the accurate diagnostic procedure.Conclusions: By performing a fecal occult blood screening in non-symptomatic patients, we can make an essential step towards discovering different gastrointestinal diseases, even colorectal cancer in its early, limited form, when the effect of treatment is greatest.

  8. Hepatitis B core antibody testing in Indian blood donors: A double-edged sword!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R N Makroo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Until lately, anti-HBc antibodies were considered an effective marker for occult Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and have served their role in improving blood safety. But, with the development of advanced tests for HBV DNA detection, the role of anti-HBc in this regard stands uncertain. Materials and Methods: Anti-HBc and HBsAg ELISA and ID-NAT tests were run in parallel on donor blood samples between April 1, 2006 and December 31, 2010 at the Department of Transfusion Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, New Delhi. A positive ID-NAT was followed by Discriminatory NAT assay. Results: A total of 94 247 samples were tested with a total core positivity rate of 10.22%. We identified nearly 9.17% of donors who were reactive for anti-HBc and negative for HBsAg and HBV DNA. These are the donors who are potentially non-infectious and may be returned to the donor pool. Conclusion: Although anti HBc testing has a definite role in improving blood safety, centers that have incorporated NAT testing may not derive any additional benefit by performing anti-HBc testing, especially in resource-limited countries like ours.

  9. Heat stress attenuates the increase in arterial blood pressure during the cold pressor test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jian; Shibasaki, Manabu; Low, David A; Keller, David M; Davis, Scott L; Crandall, Craig G

    2010-11-01

    The mechanisms by which heat stress impairs the control of blood pressure leading to compromised orthostatic tolerance are not thoroughly understood. A possible mechanism may be an attenuated blood pressure response to a given increase in sympathetic activity. This study tested the hypothesis that whole body heating attenuates the blood pressure response to a non-baroreflex-mediated sympathoexcitatory stimulus. Ten healthy subjects were instrumented for the measurement of integrated muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate, sweat rate, and forearm skin blood flow. Subjects were exposed to a cold pressor test (CPT) by immersing a hand in an ice water slurry for 3 min while otherwise normothermic and while heat stressed (i.e., increase core temperature ~0.7°C via water-perfused suit). Mean responses from the final minute of the CPT were evaluated. In both thermal conditions CPT induced significant increases in MSNA and MAP without altering heart rate. Although the increase in MSNA to the CPT was similar between thermal conditions (normothermia: Δ14.0 ± 2.6; heat stress: Δ19.1 ± 2.6 bursts/min; P = 0.09), the accompanying increase in MAP was attenuated when subjects were heat stressed (normothermia: Δ25.6 ± 2.3, heat stress: Δ13.4 ± 3.0 mmHg; P < 0.001). The results demonstrate that heat stress can attenuate the pressor response to a sympathoexcitatory stimulus.

  10. The relationships between exercise intensity, heart rate, and blood pressure during an incremental isometric exercise test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Jonathan D; Allum, Simon R; Coleman, Damian A; Swaine, Ian L

    2008-01-15

    Currently, it is not possible to prescribe isometric exercise at an intensity that corresponds to given heart rates or systolic blood pressures. This might be useful in optimizing the effects of isometric exercise training. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the relationships between isometric exercise intensity and both heart rate and systolic blood pressure during repeated incremental isometric exercise tests. Fifteen participants performed seated isometric double-leg knee extension, during which maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) was assessed, using an isokinetic dynamometer. From this, a corresponding peak electromyographic activity (EMG(peak)) was determined. Subsequently, participants performed two incremental isometric exercise tests (at least 48 h apart) at 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30% EMG(peak), during which steady-state heart rate and systolic blood pressure were recorded. In all participants, there were linear relationships between %EMG(peak) and heart rate (r at least 0.91; P blood pressure (r at least 0.92; P 0.50) or elevations (P > 0.10) for either of the relationships. Therefore, these linear relationships could be used to identify isometric exercise training intensities that correspond to precise heart rates or systolic blood pressures. Training performed in this way might provide greater insight into the underlying mechanisms for the cardiovascular adaptations that are known to occur as a result.

  11. Advantages and Challenges of Dried Blood Spot Analysis by Mass Spectrometry Across the Total Testing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Rosita; Allen, Katrina J.; Koplin, Jennifer J.; Roche, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Through the introduction of advanced analytical techniques and improved throughput, the scope of dried blood spot testing utilising mass spectrometric methods, has broadly expanded. Clinicians and researchers have become very enthusiastic about the potential applications of dried blood spot based mass spectrometric applications. Analysts on the other hand face challenges of sensitivity, reproducibility and overall accuracy of dried blood spot quantification. In this review, we aim to bring together these two facets to discuss the advantages and current challenges of non-newborn screening applications of dried blood spot quantification by mass spectrometry. Methods To address these aims we performed a key word search of the PubMed and MEDLINE online databases in conjunction with individual manual searches to gather information. Keywords for the initial search included; “blood spot” and “mass spectrometry”; while excluding “newborn”; and “neonate”. In addition, databases were restricted to English language and human specific. There was no time period limit applied. Results As a result of these selection criteria, 194 references were identified for review. For presentation, this information is divided into: 1) clinical applications; and 2) analytical considerations across the total testing process; being pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical considerations. Conclusions DBS analysis using MS applications is now broadly applied, with drug monitoring for both therapeutic and toxicological analysis being the most extensively reported. Several parameters can affect the accuracy of DBS measurement and further bridge experiments are required to develop adjustment rules for comparability between dried blood spot measures and the equivalent serum/plasma values. Likewise, the establishment of independent reference intervals for dried blood spot sample matrix is required. PMID:28149263

  12. Comparison of local Salmonella pullorum antigen with imported product in whole blood agglutination test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyani Medewewa

    Full Text Available Background: Salmonellosis is considered as one of the most important diseases in poultry as it causes devastating losses in chicken industry. Proper identification of the infected and carrier birds is required to control the disease among chickens. In field situation whole blood agglutination test is performed in order to identify carriers of Pullorum and Fowl typhoid particularly, in breeder operations. In this test, serum antibodies are detected by using a specially made antigen for this purpose. In Sri Lanka, three antigen products are used commonly in whole blood agglutination test. Objectives: This study was carried out to compare these two locally available S. Pullorum antigen products and to determine any difference in the efficacy. Methods:“Shaver Brown” commercial layer birds (70 in number were used in the experiment. Birds were inoculated orally with 1.8X109cfu/ml of S. Pullorum at 16 weeks age. After Three weeks post inoculation, blood was collected from each bird and Whole blood agglutination test was performed using both antigen products. Fifteen (15 inoculated hens were selected randomly and cloacal swabs were cultured on cultured Agar on same day of serum collected. Results: In this study, there was no significant difference observed between two antigens to detect carrier birds by whole blood agglutination test. Salmonella was not isolated from cloacal swabs since no observed excretion of Salmonella Pullorum through faces. All cloacal swabs gave negative results, when cultured on artificial Agar. Conclusion: Both antigen can be used effectively to detect carrier birds under the control program in country. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 546-548

  13. EFFECT OF PRANAYAMA ON BLOOD PRESSURE AND HEART RATE IN HYPERREACTOR TO COLD PRESSOR TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan Bihari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Stress is a dangerous and significant problem of World, which affects physical, mental, behavioral, and emotional health. Yoga has been reported to control stress, to be beneficial in treating stress related disorders, improving autonomic functions, lower blood pressure, increase strength and flexibility of muscles, improve the sense of well-being, slow ageing process, control breathing, reducing signs of oxidative stress and improving spiritual growth. AIMS: The aim of present study was to investigate whether regular practice of Yoga for three months can reduce the cardiovascular hyper-reactivity induced by cold pressor test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group comprised 62 healthy male subjects of 17-27 years age group. Initially there were 30 hyper reactors to cold pressor test. The hyper-reactivity of 23 volunteers converted to hypo-reactivity after the yoga therapy of three months (76.66%. Other parameters like basal blood pressure, rise in blood pressure, pulse rate and rate of respiration were also statistically significantly reduced (by using student ‘t’ test. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: 2 tail student‘t’ test was done by using the standard formulas. RESULTS: Regular practice of yoga significantly reduces the cardiovascular hyper-reactivity in basal blood pressure, rise in blood pressure after one minute of cold stress, heart rate, and rate of respiration, after three month of yoga practice. CONCLUSION: Regular practice of yoga for three months reduced the cardiovascular hyper-reactivity to cold pressor test in subjects, who were hyper reactive to cold stress, possibly by inducing parasympathetic predominance and cortico-hypothalamomedullary inhibition.

  14. Nucleic acid testing: Is it the only answer for safe Blood in India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N K Naidu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the implementation of NAT in countries around the world, there is a growing pressure on the transfusion services in India to adopt NAT testing. India has about 2545 licensed Blood Centres. The Transfusion Services in India are fragmented, poorly regulated and the quality standards are poorly implemented. Blood Centres are still dependent on replacement/family donors and in most places laboratory testing for Transfusion transmitted infections is not quality assured, laboratory equipment are not calibrated and maintained, and validation of results is not carried out. Against the current scenario introducing NAT for screening of blood donors in India would pose a challenge. Aim: To study the prudence of universal NAT testing in India. Materials and Methods : A retrospective study of 5 years from 2008-2012 was undertaken to study the true reactivity of donors using WHO strategy II and III and therefore the true seroprevalence of TTI infections in the donor populations. Results : The true reactivity of the donors was much less as compared to the initially reactive donors due to the use of a well designed testing algorithm. In addition having a total voluntary blood collection along with good pre-donation counseling program also reduces the transmission of infections. Conclusions : What India essentially needs to do is religiously implement the strategies outlined in the WHO Aide-memoire. The blood should be collected only from voluntary non remunerative and repeat donors , there should be stringent donor selection with pre-donation counseling instituted. Strict implementation of quality management system, development of well defined testing startegies and strong haemovigilance system could take us a step in the right direction.

  15. Demethylation of Circulating Estrogen Receptor Alpha Gene in Cerebral Ischemic Stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Fen Lin

    Full Text Available Estrogen is involved in neuron plasticity and can promote neuronal survival in stroke. Its actions are mostly exerted via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα. Previous animal studies have shown that ERα is upregulated by DNA demethylation following ischemic injury. This study investigated the methylation levels in the ERα promoter in the peripheral blood of ischemic stroke patients.The study included 201 ischemic stroke patients, and 217 age- and sex-comparable healthy controls. The quantitative methylation level in the 14 CpG sites of the ERα promoter was measured by pyrosequencing in each participant. Multivariate regression model was used to adjust for stroke traditional risk factors. Stroke subtypes and sex-specific analysis were also conducted.The results demonstrated that the stroke cases had a lower ERα methylation level than controls in all 14 CpG sites, and site 13 and site 14 had significant adjusted p-values of 0.035 and 0.026, respectively. Stroke subtypes analysis showed that large-artery atherosclerosis and cardio-embolic subtypes had significantly lower methylation levels than the healthy controls at CpG site 5, site 9, site 12, site 13 and site 14 with adjusted p = 0.039, 0.009, 0.025, 0.046 and 0.027 respectively. However, the methylation level for the patients with small vessel subtype was not significant. We combined the methylation data from the above five sites for further sex-specific analysis. The results showed that the significant association only existed in women (adjusted p = 0.011, but not in men (adjusted p = 0.300.Female stroke cases have lower ERα methylation levels than those in the controls, especially in large-artery and cardio-embolic stroke subtypes. The study implies that women suffering from ischemic stroke of specific subtype may undergo different protective mechanisms to reduce the brain injury.

  16. It's More Than a Blood Test: Patients' Perspectives on Noninvasive Prenatal Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Ruth M; Mercer, Mary Beth; Agatisa, Patricia K; Smith, Marissa B; Philipson, Elliot

    2014-06-19

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) offers pregnant women a new risk assessment tool for fetal aneuploidy that is superior to conventional screening tests. We conducted focus groups with women who were currently pregnant or had recently delivered in the past year to characterize their perspectives about NIPT and to explore factors they would consider during decision making about its use. Women identified accuracy, early timing, testing ease, and determination of fetal sex as advantages of NIPT over other screens, and the noninvasive method of NIPT as an advantage over diagnostic tests. False positive and false negative results, anxiety, cost and insurance coverage were seen as disadvantages of NIPT. Women who do not want fetal aneuploidy information most likely will not undergo NIPT, despite its advantages over other screening tests. However, given its advantages, the decision to have NIPT is straightforward for women who want genetic information about the fetus. Women emphasized the need to make autonomous, private, and informed choices about NIPT, as they would with any prenatal genetic testing option. These perspectives may guide clinicians to conduct effective and clinically relevant counseling with pregnant women who consider utilizing this new genetic technology.

  17. It’s More Than a Blood Test: Patients’ Perspectives on Noninvasive Prenatal Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M. Farrell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT offers pregnant women a new risk assessment tool for fetal aneuploidy that is superior to conventional screening tests. We conducted focus groups with women who were currently pregnant or had recently delivered in the past year to characterize their perspectives about NIPT and to explore factors they would consider during decision making about its use. Women identified accuracy, early timing, testing ease, and determination of fetal sex as advantages of NIPT over other screens, and the noninvasive method of NIPT as an advantage over diagnostic tests. False positive and false negative results, anxiety, cost and insurance coverage were seen as disadvantages of NIPT. Women who do not want fetal aneuploidy information most likely will not undergo NIPT, despite its advantages over other screening tests. However, given its advantages, the decision to have NIPT is straightforward for women who want genetic information about the fetus. Women emphasized the need to make autonomous, private, and informed choices about NIPT, as they would with any prenatal genetic testing option. These perspectives may guide clinicians to conduct effective and clinically relevant counseling with pregnant women who consider utilizing this new genetic technology.

  18. Effect of rivaroxaban on blood coagulation using the viscoelastic coagulation test ROTEM™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casutt, M; Konrad, C; Schuepfer, G

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the influence of the oral direct inhibitor of factor Xa rivaroxaban on blood coagulation measured by rotation thrombelastometry ROTEM™. Blood was obtained from 11 healthy male volunteers before and 2.5 h after oral administration of 10 mg rivaroxaban. In addition to standard coagulation tests clot formation was measured by ROTEM™ analyzing extrinsic (Extem) and intrinsic thrombelastometry (Intem). Significant differences to the baseline values were found in the Extem clotting time (Extem-CT, 58 ± 9 s and 87 ± 17 s, p coagulation by rivaroxaban.

  19. Ligand binding affinities of arctigenin and its demethylated metabolites to estrogen receptor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jong-Sik; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Hattori, Masao

    2013-01-16

    Phytoestrogens are defined as plant-derived compounds with estrogen-like activities according to their chemical structures and activities. Plant lignans are generally categorized as phytoestrogens. It was reported that (-)-arctigenin, the aglycone of arctiin, was demethylated to (-)-dihydroxyenterolactone (DHENL) by Eubacterium (E.) sp. ARC-2. Through stepwise demethylation, E. sp. ARC-2 produced six intermediates, three mono-desmethylarctigenins and three di-desmethylarctigenins. In the present study, ligand binding affinities of (-)-arctigenin and its seven metabolites, including DHENL, were investigated for an estrogen receptor alpha, and found that demethylated metabolites had stronger binding affinities than (-)-arctigenin using a ligand binding screen assay method. The IC(50) value of (2R,3R)-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-3-(3,4-dihydroxybenzyl)-butyrolactone was 7.9 × 10⁻⁴ M.

  20. Ligand Binding Affinities of Arctigenin and Its Demethylated Metabolites to Estrogen Receptor Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Hattori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoestrogens are defined as plant-derived compounds with estrogen-like activities according to their chemical structures and activities. Plant lignans are generally categorized as phytoestrogens. It was reported that (−-arctigenin, the aglycone of arctiin, was demethylated to (−-dihydroxyenterolactone (DHENL by Eubacterium (E. sp. ARC-2. Through stepwise demethylation, E. sp. ARC-2 produced six intermediates, three mono-desmethylarctigenins and three di-desmethylarctigenins. In the present study, ligand binding affinities of (−-arctigenin and its seven metabolites, including DHENL, were investigated for an estrogen receptor alpha, and found that demethylated metabolites had stronger binding affinities than (−-arctigenin using a ligand binding screen assay method. The IC50 value of (2R,3R-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl-3-(3,4-dihydroxybenzyl-butyrolactone was 7.9 × 10−4 M.

  1. [Effects of phospholipids on oxidative demethylation of dimethylcyclohexylamine by cumene hydroperoxide involving methemoglobin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiseleva, S N; Khatyleva, S Iu; Kisel', M A; Kiselev, P A; Akhrem, A A

    1981-12-01

    The reaction of oxidative demethylation of N-dimethylcyclohexylamine by cumene hydroperoxide involving methemoglobin was studied. Data from differential spectroscopy and kinetic analysis revealed the formation of a methemoglobin--N-dimethylcyclohexylamine--cumene hydroperoxide complex. The inhibiting analysis revealed the radical stages in the process of demethylation. An addition to the reaction mixture of phosphatidyl serine, phosphatidyl inositol and lysophosphatidyl choline at a ratio of 50 divided by 500 molecules per 1 molecule of protein increased the rate of the reaction product accumulation 2--3-fold. Phosphatidyl choline and the ionic detergent sodium cholate did not practically affect the reaction rate under the given experimental conditions. The nature of the activating effect of some phospholipids on oxidative demethylation is discussed.

  2. Validation studies of an immunochromatographic 1-step test for the forensic identification of human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochmeister, M N; Budowle, B; Sparkes, R; Rudin, O; Gehrig, C; Thali, M; Schmidt, L; Cordier, A; Dirnhofer, R

    1999-05-01

    An immunochromatographic 1-step test for the detection of fecal occult blood was evaluated for applicability for the forensic identification of human blood in stained material. The following experiments were conducted: 1) determination of the sensitivity and specificity of the assay; 2) evaluation of different extraction media for bloodstains (sterile water, Tris buffer pH 7.5 provided in the test kit, 5% ammonia); 3) analysis of biological samples subjected to a variety of environmental insults; and 4) evaluation of casework samples. This immunochromatographic 1-step occult blood test is specific for human (primate) hemoglobin and is at least an order of magnitude more sensitive than previous methods for detecting human hemoglobin in bloodstains. The antigen is insensitive to a variety of environmental insults, except for exposure to certain detergents and household bleaches and prolonged exposure to certain preparations of luminol. The entire assay can be conducted in field testing conditions within minutes. When in the laboratory the supernatant from a DNA extraction is used for the assay, there is essentially no consumption of DNA for determining the presence of human hemoglobin in a forensic sample. The data demonstrate that this test is robust and suitable for forensic analyses.

  3. Cell free fetal DNA testing in maternal blood of Romanian pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica E Radoi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The discovery of circulating fetal DNA in maternal blood led to the discovery of new strategies to perform noninvasive testing for prenatal diagnosis. Objective: The purpose of the study was to detect fetal aneuploidy at chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y by analysis of fetal cell-free DNA from maternal blood, without endangering pregnancy. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study has been performed in Bucharest at Medlife Maternal and Fetal Medicine Department between 2013-2014. In total 201 women were offered noninvasive prenatal test. Maternal plasma samples were collected from women at greater than 9 weeks of gestation after informed consent and genetics counseling. Results: From 201 patients; 28 (13.93% had screening test with high risk for trisomy 21, 116 (57.71% had advanced maternal age, 1 (0.49% had second trimester ultrasound markers and the remaining 56 patients (27.86% performed the test on request. Of those patients, 189 (94.02% had a “low risk” result (99% risk all for trisomy 21 (T21. T21 was confirmed by amniocentesis in 1 patient and the other 4 patients declined confirmation. The 7 remaining patients (3.48% had a low fetal fraction of DNA. Conclusion: It is probably that prenatal diagnosis using fetal DNA in maternal blood would play an increasingly role in the future practice of prenatal testing because of high accuracy.

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Four Presumptive Tests for Blood to Detect Epithelial Injury on Fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Smokorowski, Karen; Haxton, Tim; Cooke, Steven J.

    2014-06-01

    Current methods of fish epithelial injury detection are limited to gross macroscopic examination that has a subjective bias as well as an inability to reliably quantify the degree of injury. Fluorescein, a presumptive test for blood, has been shown to have the capability to detect and quantify fish epithelial injury. However, there are several other presumptive tests for blood (Bluestar*, phenolphthalein, and HemastixH) that may have benefits over the use of fluorescein, particularly for field research on wild fish. This study investigated the capabilities of these four tests to detect and quantify a variety of injuries commonly encountered by fish (abrasion, cuts, fin frays, and punctures) using the freshwater bluegill Lepomis macrochirus as a model. Fluorescein was consistently found to be the most reliable (i.e., detected the highest proportion of true positive results and rarely detected false positive reactions) of the four presumptive tests for blood compared. Further testing was conducted to examine the reliability of fluorescein. By 24 h after an injury was inflicted, the injury was no longer detectable by fluorescein, and when fluorescein was applied to an injured fish, the fluorescein was no longer detectable 3 h after application. In a comparison of two common anaesthetics used in fisheries research, there was no significant difference in the proportion of injury detected when 3- aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester methanesulfate (tricaine) was used compared with a clove oil and ethanol (1:9) solution. In summary, fluorescein was the most reliable presumptive test for blood examined in this study for the detection and quantification of recent (hours) fish epithelial injury.

  5. Early detection of Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep using three different faecal occult blood tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Rodríguez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking parasite causing the presence of faecal occult blood (FOB. The objective was to study three different FOB tests in order to have a new indicator of H. contortus infection in sheep that could be included in the genetic evaluation system as an alternative selection criterion to faecal worm egg count (FEC. A total of 29 Corriedale lambs were experimentally infected with 10.000 larvae of H. contortus. Stool samples were recorded for FEC and FOB tests (Hexagon, Hematest® and Multistix®, blood for packed cell volume (PCV, haemoglobin, white and red blood cell count (RBC, and FAMACHA© for scoring anaemia. At the end of the experiment lambs were slaughtered to worm burden count. Field infection was achieved in 309 Merino lambs under natural parasite challenge. FEC data were normalized through logarithmic transformation (LnFEC. Pearson correlation was estimated to examine the relationship between all traits. The three tests were able to detect the presence of FOB at day 11. FEC, PCV and RBC decreased to sub-normal values from day 18. FAMACHA© score 3 was considered to be indicative of anaemia. Most of the correlations were of high magnitude, with the exception of Multistix® test that was moderately correlated with haematological parameters, LnFEC and FEC. In field infection, most samples were negative to FOB tests and the correlations were lower than those calculated under experimental infection. In conclusion, FOB tests were able to detect haemonchosis earlier than FEC under high experimental parasite challenge. However, they were not able to detect FOB under natural mixed parasite challenge. FAMACHA© and PCV demonstrated to be good indicators of Haemonchosis, having moderate to high correlations with FEC.

  6. Sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis of blood as a diagnostic test in mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsgaard Kristensen, Thomas; Vestergaard, Hanne; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten;

    2014-01-01

    The recent progress in sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis suggests that mutation analysis of peripheral blood (PB) represents a promising diagnostic test in mastocytosis. However, there is a need for systematic assessment of the analytical sensitivity and specificity of the approach in order...... the mutation in PB in nearly all adult mastocytosis patients. The mutation was detected in PB in 78 of 83 systemic mastocytosis (94%) and 3 of 4 cutaneous mastocytosis patients (75%). The test was 100% specific as determined by analysis of clinically relevant control patients who all tested negative. Mutation...

  7. Further investigations into the N-demethylation of oripavine using iron and stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Gaik B; Scammells, Peter J

    2011-02-21

    Further investigations into the direct synthesis of N-nororipavine from oripavine using iron powder under non-classical Polonovski conditions have been conducted. The stoichiometry, solvents and iron oxidation rates were found to have a dramatic effect on the rate of N-demethylation as well as product yield. Herein, we also present high-yield access to the N-demethylated product simply by employing stainless steel rather than iron powder as redox catalyst. To our knowledge, this is the first time stainless steel has been used to moderate the redox chemistry of iron in organic synthesis.

  8. Epigenetic targets and drug discovery Part 2: Histone demethylation and DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Liu, Yanli; Lau, Johnathan L; Min, Jinrong

    2015-07-01

    Chromatin structure is dynamically modulated by various chromatin modifications, such as histone/DNA methylation and demethylation. We have reviewed histone methyltransferases and methyllysine binders in terms of small molecule screening and drug discovery in the first part of this review series. In this part, we will summarize recent progress in chemical probe and drug discovery of histone demethylases and DNA methyltransferases. Histone demethylation and DNA methylation have attracted a lot of attention regarding their biology and disease implications. Correspondingly, many small molecule compounds have been designed to modulate the activity of histone demethylases and DNA methyltransferases, and some of them have been developed into therapeutic drugs or put into clinical trials.

  9. The Sympathetic Release Test: A Test Used to Assess Thermoregulation and Autonomic Control of Blood Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, E. A.; Roe, S. M.; Johnson, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    When a subject is heated, the stimulation of temperature-sensitive nerve endings in the skin, and the raising of the central body temperature, results in the reflex release of sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone in the skin of the extremities, causing a measurable temperature increase at the site of release. In the sympathetic release test, the…

  10. The Sympathetic Release Test: A Test Used to Assess Thermoregulation and Autonomic Control of Blood Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, E. A.; Roe, S. M.; Johnson, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    When a subject is heated, the stimulation of temperature-sensitive nerve endings in the skin, and the raising of the central body temperature, results in the reflex release of sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone in the skin of the extremities, causing a measurable temperature increase at the site of release. In the sympathetic release test, the…

  11. The effects of transport by pneumatic tube system on blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation and coagulation tests

    OpenAIRE

    Koçak, Fatma Emel; Yöntem, Mustafa; Yücel, Özlem; Çilo, Mustafa; Genç, Özlem; Meral, Ayfer

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Today, the pneumatic tube transport system (PTS) is used frequently because of its advantages related to timing and speed. However, the impact of various types of PTS on blood com-ponents is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of PTS on the quality of rou-tine blood cell counts, erythrocyte sedimentation, and certain blood coagulation tests. Materials and methods: Paired blood samples were obtained from each of 45 human volunteers and evaluated by bloo...

  12. Evaluation of a PCR test for detection of treponema pallidum in swabs and blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, P A; Gressier, L; Dion, P L; Farhi, D; Benhaddou, N; Gerhardt, P; Morini, J P; Deleuze, J; Pantoja, C; Bianchi, A; Lassau, F; Avril, M F; Janier, M; Dupin, N

    2012-03-01

    Syphilis diagnosis is based on clinical observation, serological analysis, and dark-field microscopy (DFM) detection of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the etiological agent of syphilis, in skin ulcers. We performed a nested PCR (nPCR) assay specifically amplifying the tpp47 gene of T. pallidum from swab and blood specimens. We studied a cohort of 294 patients with suspected syphilis and 35 healthy volunteers. Eighty-seven of the 294 patients had primary syphilis, 103 had secondary syphilis, 40 had latent syphilis, and 64 were found not to have syphilis. The T. pallidum nPCR results for swab specimens were highly concordant with syphilis diagnosis, with a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 95%. Reasonable agreement was observed between the results obtained with the nPCR and DFM methods (kappa = 0.53). No agreement was found between the nPCR detection of T. pallidum in blood and the diagnosis of syphilis, with sensitivities of 29, 18, 14.7, and 24% and specificities of 96, 92, 93, and 97% for peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), plasma, serum, and whole-blood fractions, respectively. HIV status did not affect the frequency of T. pallidum detection in any of the specimens tested. Swab specimens from mucosal or skin lesions seemed to be more useful than blood for the efficient detection of the T. pallidum genome and, thus, for the diagnosis of syphilis.

  13. Automatic system for blood donors control with seropositive results in epidemiological tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Menéndez Barrios

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevention of infectious diseases transmission through blood transfusion is one of the biggest challenges in the transfusion field of medicine. Objective: to design a computerized system for blood donors control with seropositive results in epidemiological tests. Methods: A system designed by the Provincial Blood Bank using Microsoft Access as a data base system and DELFHI 7 as associated language. It runs under Windows 2000 or any other superior system with 64 RAM and do not need special requirements of software or hardware. It includes the following data: Full name, age, sex, race, Id number, home address, number of the clinical record in the blood bank, date when the trial took place in each patient, kind of disease diagnosed, technical data of the trial such as: fluorescence, sectional level of the 1st trial as well as the repetition, name of the technician who performed it. Results: It permits to consult general data of donors as well as the disease diagnosed. It also permits to elaborate reports of these patients from any PC of the blood bank acceding with the security password of the program. Conclusions: It constitutes a beneficial tool which permits to improve the notification system established in the program of the web about sexually transmitted diseases from the Minister of Public Health in Cuba.

  14. Impact of nucleic acid amplification test on screening of blood donors in Northern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Saifullah Khan; Bhatti, Farhat Abbas; Salamat, Nuzhat; Ghani, Eijaz; Tayyab, Muhammad

    2015-07-01

    The Armed Forces Institute of Transfusion located in Rawalpindi, Northern Pakistan, acts as a regional blood center with more than 50,000 donations collected annually. Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) was introduced in our institution in September 2012 for screening all seronegative blood donors. The study was conducted from September 21, 2012, to September 20, 2013. Samples from the seronegative donors were run on cobas s 201 platform (Roche) in pools of six. Reactive donors were followed up for further confirmatory testing to rule out false-positive results. Viral load estimation was done for all NAT-reactive donors. After serologic screening of 56,772 blood donors, 2334 were found to be reactive; 719 (1.27%) were reactive for hepatitis B surface antigen, 1046 (1.84%) for antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), 12 (0.02%) for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus, and 557 (0.98%) for syphilis antibodies. A total of 27 NAT-reactive donors were confirmed after testing 54,438 seronegative donors, with an overall NAT yield of one in 2016 donors: 23 for hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA (HBV NAT yield, 1:2367) and four for HCV RNA (HCV NAT yield, 1:13,609). The residual risk after NAT implementation, calculated for the first-time blood donors, was 62.5 and 4.4 per million donors for HBV and HCV, respectively. NAT has improved the safety of blood products at our transfusion institution. Confirmation of NAT results must always be done either on follow-up samples or on samples from the retrieved frozen plasma bag. © 2015 AABB.

  15. Testing of models of flow-induced hemolysis in blood flow through hypodermic needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yangsheng; Kent, Timothy L; Sharp, M Keith

    2013-03-01

    Hemolysis caused by flow in hypodermic needles interferes with a number of tests on blood samples drawn by venipuncture, including assays for metabolites, electrolytes, and enzymes, causes discomfort during dialysis sessions, and limits transfusion flow rates. To evaluate design modifications to address this problem, as well as hemolysis issues in other cardiovascular devices, computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based prediction of hemolysis has potential for reducing the time and expense for testing of prototypes. In this project, three CFD-integrated blood damage models were applied to flow-induced hemolysis in 16-G needles and compared with experimental results, which demonstrated that a modified needle with chamfered entrance increased hemolysis, while a rounded entrance decreased hemolysis, compared with a standard needle with sharp entrance. After CFD simulation of the steady-state velocity field, the time histories of scalar stress along a grid of streamlines were calculated. A strain-based cell membrane failure model and two empirical power-law blood damage models were used to predict hemolysis on each streamline. Total hemolysis was calculated by weighting the predicted hemolysis along each streamline by the flow rate along each streamline. The results showed that only the strain-based blood damage model correctly predicted increased hemolysis in the beveled needle and decreased hemolysis in the rounded needle, while the power-law models predicted the opposite trends. © 2013, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2013, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. [Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive blood culture isolates from briefly incubated solid medium cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestero-Téllez, Mónica; Recacha, Esther; de Cueto, Marina; Pascual, Álvaro

    2016-02-16

    Mass spectrometry Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF) helps in the rapid identification of microorganisms causing blood stream infection. Rapid and reliable methods are required to decrease the turnaround time for reporting antimicrobial susceptibility results from blood culture isolates. An evaluation was performed on the reliability of a method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive blood culture isolates from briefly incubated solid medium cultures. The agreement between the evaluated and standard methods was 99.3%. The major and minor error rates were 0.4% and 0.3%, respectively, and no very major errors were observed. The inoculation of briefly incubated solid medium cultures into antimicrobial susceptibility testing panels is an easy and reliable technique, and helps to decrease the turnaround time for reporting antimicrobial susceptibility results of positive blood cultures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of the machinery and intermediates of the 5hmC-mediated DNA demethylation pathway in aging on samples from the MARK-AGE Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Elisabetta; Zampieri, Michele; Malavolta, Marco; Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Calabrese, Roberta; Guastafierro, Tiziana; Reale, Anna; Franceschi, Claudio; Hervonen, Antti; Koller, Bernhard; Bernhardt, Jürgen; Slagboom, P. Eline; Toussaint, Olivier; Sikora, Ewa; Gonos, Efstathios S.; Breusing, Nicolle; Grune, Tilman; Jansen, Eugène; Dollé, Martijn E.T.; Moreno-Villanueva, María; Sindlinger, Thilo; Bürkle, Alexander; Ciccarone, Fabio; Caiafa, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Gradual changes in the DNA methylation landscape occur throughout aging virtually in all human tissues. A widespread reduction of 5-methylcytosine (5mC), associated with highly reproducible site-specific hypermethylation, characterizes the genome in aging. Therefore, an equilibrium seems to exist between general and directional deregulating events concerning DNA methylation controllers, which may underpin the age-related epigenetic changes. In this context, 5mC-hydroxylases (TET enzymes) are new potential players. In fact, TETs catalyze the stepwise oxidation of 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC), driving the DNA demethylation process based on thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG)-mediated DNA repair pathway. The present paper reports the expression of DNA hydroxymethylation components, the levels of 5hmC and of its derivatives in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of age-stratified donors recruited in several European countries in the context of the EU Project ‘MARK-AGE’. The results provide evidence for an age-related decline of TET1, TET3 and TDG gene expression along with a decrease of 5hmC and an accumulation of 5caC. These associations were independent of confounding variables, including recruitment center, gender and leukocyte composition. The observed impairment of 5hmC-mediated DNA demethylation pathway in blood cells may lead to aberrant transcriptional programs in the elderly. PMID:27587280

  18. Disulfiram Is a DNA Demethylating Agent and Inhibits Prostate Cancer Cell Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jianqing; Haffner, Michael C.; Zhang, Yonggang; Lee, Byron H.; Brennen, W. Nathaniel; Britton, Justin; Kachhap, Sushant K.; Shim, Joong Sup; Liu, Jun O.; Nelson, William G.; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Carducci, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The clinical success of the nucleoside analogs 5-aza-cytidine (5-azaC) and 5-aza-2′deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) as DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors has spurred interest in the development of non-nucleoside inhibitors with improved pharmacologic and safety profiles. Because DNMT catalysis features attack of cytosine bases by an enzyme thiol group, we tested whether disulfiram (DSF), a thiol-reactive compound with known clinical safety, demonstrated DNMT inhibitory activity. METHODS Inhibition of DNMT1 activity by DSF was assessed using methyltransferase activity assays with recombinant DNMT1. Next, prostate cancer cell lines were exposed to DSF and assessed for: i) reduction of global 5-methyl cytosine (5meC) content using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS); ii) gene-specific promoter demethylation by methylation-specific PCR (MSP); and iii) gene-reactivation by real-time RT-PCR. DSF was also tested for growth inhibition using prostate cancer cell lines propagated in vitro in cell culture and in vivo as xenografts in nude mice. RESULTS Disulfiram showed a dose-dependent inhibition of DNMT1 activity on a hemimethylated DNA substrate. In prostate cancer cells in culture, DSF exposure led to reduction of global genomic 5meC content, increase in unmethylated APC and RARB gene promoters, and associated re-expression of these genes, but did not significantly alter prostate-specific antigen (PSA) expression. DSF significantly inhibited growth and clonogenic survival of prostate cancer cell lines in culture and showed a trend for reduced growth of prostate cancer xenografts. CONCLUSIONS Disulfiram is a non-nucleoside DNMT1 inhibitor that can reduce global 5meC content, reactivate epigenetically silenced genes, and significantly inhibit growth in prostate cancer cell lines. PMID:20809552

  19. Current Challenges Towards the Development of a Blood Test for Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Santiago

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’ disease (PD is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease worldwide. To date, there is no disease-modifying agent, and current medical treatment only provides symptomatic benefits. Early diagnosis of PD would be useful in clinical practice to identify patients for clinical trials, test potential drugs and neuroprotective agents and track their therapeutic effect. Considerable progress has been made in the discovery and validation of diagnostic biomarkers for PD. In particular, blood-based biomarkers have shown promise in identifying PD patients in samples from independent clinical trials. Evaluation of these biomarkers in de novo patients and individuals at risk for PD remains a top priority. Here, we review the current advances and challenges toward the clinical translation of these biomarkers into a blood-based test for PD.

  20. [Detection of fetal nucleated red blood cells in the maternal circulation by Kleihauer test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Yu; Jin, Chun-Lian; Liu, Li-Ying; Lin, Chang-Kun; Wang, Yan; Sun, Kai-Lai

    2007-03-01

    Maternal blood was obtained from 18 pregnant women at 7 to 25 weeks of gestation. After Percoll discontinuous density gradient centifugation, the fetal nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) were stained with Kleihauer test. Positive fetal cells appeared with an intense red cytoplasmic staining while maternal cells with adult haemoglobin were colourless. Individual positive NRBC was collected by micromanipulator and whole genome amplification was then performed to determine sex and STR status. This allowed the simultaneous verification of the fetal origin of NRBC and prenatal diagnosis of genetic diseases. The non-invasive prenatal genetic diagnosis of 9 fetuses at high risk of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) was completed successfully. The Kleihauer test is a rapid, simple and direct chemical staining method to select fetal cells and can be applied in prenatal diagnosis.

  1. Blood typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    A blood sample is needed. The test to determine your blood group is called ABO typing. Your blood sample is mixed with antibodies against type A and B blood. Then, the sample is checked to see whether ...

  2. Influence of mechanical trauma of blood and hemolysis on PFA-100 testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Fontana, Rossana; Avanzini, Paola; Aloe, Rosalia; Ippolito, Luigi; Sandei, Franca; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2012-01-01

    Although the appropriate quality of samples is essential for platelet function testing, information is lacking on interference from mechanical trauma of blood and hemolysis on PFA-100 analyzer. Citrated blood collected from nine healthy volunteers was divided into three aliquots. The first aliquot ('A') was processed without further manipulation, whereas the second and third were subjected to mechanical trauma by two ('aliquot B') or four passages ('aliquot C') through a very fine needle (30 gauge) to produce hemolysis and cell trauma mimicking poor sample collection. Samples were tested on PFA-100 and Advia 2120, and plasma then separated and tested for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and hemolysis index. Negligible hemolysis was present in aliquot A (hemolysis index 0.2 ± 0.1, cell-free hemoglobin 0-0.5 g/l), whereas an increasing amount was present in aliquots B (hemolysis index of 13.1 ± 1.8, cell-free hemoglobin 6.0-6.5 g/l) and C (hemolysis index 24.0 ± 1.1, cell-free hemoglobin 11.5-12.0 g/l). Increases in LDH, and concomitant reductions in platelet and red blood cell counts were observed in aliquots B and C. In hemolyzed aliquots B, four out of nine samples yielded 'flow obstruction' with both PFA-100 agonist cartridges, whereas the closure times were dramatically prolonged in the remaining five samples. In hemolyzed aliquots C, flow obstruction was recorded in six of nine samples for collagen and ADP and all samples for collagen and epinephrine, whereas closure times of collagen and ADP in the remaining three samples were dramatically prolonged. Mechanical trauma of blood causing hemolysis makes PFA-100 testing unreliable. When flow obstructions are observed, the potential presence of hemolysis should be investigated.

  3. New method for rapid Susceptibility Testing on blood culture with HB&L system: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Rondinelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood culture, although represents the gold standard in detecting the ethiological agent of sepsis, is rather rarely required in relation to the real diagnostic importance. The result of this test depends in fact on many factors (sample volume, time of collection, accuracy, antibiotic therapy, contamination, number of drawings, drawing site, interpretation difficulties, etc. that are often considered by many clinicians so limited as to doubt about their actual value. The disadvantages are therefore represented by the lack of standardization but also by the low sensitivity and above all by the technical times too long for the clinical needs. Blood culture begins with the drawing of samples from the “septic” patient followed incubation of the bottles in automatic thermostated systems. In case of positive result (36 hours, the culture is Gram stained and streaked on solid media in order to obtain isolated colonies for the identification and the susceptibility testing (48 hours from positive result. The long time required for pathogen identification and susceptibility testing involves empirical broad spectrum antibiotic therapy that can promote the increase of bacterial resistance but also patient management costs. A clinically useful report should be available on short notice in order to guide the clinician to choose the most appropriate antibiotic. The microbiologist has therefore the hard work of reviewing the organization and the management of the procedures.We have therefore started to consider the possibility of treating the blood as an biological liquid in order to quickly determine the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics.

  4. A study of common interferences with the forensic luminol test for blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quickenden, T I; Creamer, J I

    2001-01-01

    A wide range of domestic and industrial substances that might be mistaken for haemoglobin in the forensic luminol test for blood were examined. The substances studied were in the categories of vegetable or fruit pulps and juices; domestic and commercial oils; cleaning agents; an insecticide; and various glues, paints and varnishes. A significant number of substances in each category gave luminescence intensities that were comparable with the intensities of undiluted haemoglobin, when sprayed with the standard forensic solution containing aqueous alkaline luminol and sodium perborate. In these cases the substance could be easily mistaken for blood when the luminol test is used, but in the remaining cases the luminescence intensity was so weak that it is unlikely that a false-positive test would be obtained. In a few cases the brightly emitting substance could be distinguished from blood by a small but detectable shift of the peak emission wavelength. The results indicated that particular care should be taken to avoid interferences when a crime scene is contaminated with parsnip, turnip or horseradish, and when surfaces coated with enamel paint are involved. To a lesser extent, some care should be taken when surfaces covered with terracotta or ceramic tiles, polyurethane varnishes or jute and sisal matting are involved.

  5. Effects of applying continuous care model on blood tests in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi A

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The kidney is a complex and vital organ, regulating the electrolyte and fluid status of the human body. In clients with a chronic disease, such as end-stage renal disease, functioning status and hematologic indexes are different than among the general population. Electrolyte and hematologic changes may induce many illnesses for such patients. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of applying the continuous hemodialysis (HD the blood test results of HD patients.Methods: This quasi-experimental, before-after study included 38 HD patients from Hamedan, Iran in 2005. Subjects were selected using simple randomized sampling and were assigned to one group for the purpose of this research and investigated over a period of six months. Data collection tools included demographic questionnaire and control check lists. The first phase of the research involved orientation of the control group, which was limited to completion of the questionnaires and control check lists. Immediately after, the same patients became the case group, upon which continuous HD was applied and hemoglobin, hematocrit, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, potassium, sodium, and albumin tests were performed. Statistical analysis of the data employed SPSS (version 13, descriptive statistics, paired t-test and the Friedman test.Results: In this group, 47.2% of the subjects were male and 52.8% female. Data analysis shows that, using repeated measurement ANOVA test, a significant relationship between application of the continuous HD and improvement in hemoglobin, hematocrit, BUN, potassium, sodium, and albumin levels (p<0.05. conclusion: Application of continuous HD causes a significant improvement in the blood test results of HD patients. We recommend that continuous HD be used, whenever appropriate, to resolve the common causes of complications in HD clients, including abnormal levels of electrolytes, especially potassium and phosphorus, as well as BUN and creatinine.

  6. Preparation of a blood culture pellet for rapid bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxatto, Antony; Prod'hom, Guy; Durussel, Christian; Greub, Gilbert

    2014-10-15

    Bloodstream infections and sepsis are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The successful outcome of patients suffering from bacteremia depends on a rapid identification of the infectious agent to guide optimal antibiotic treatment. The analysis of Gram stains from positive blood culture can be rapidly conducted and already significantly impact the antibiotic regimen. However, the accurate identification of the infectious agent is still required to establish the optimal targeted treatment. We present here a simple and fast bacterial pellet preparation from a positive blood culture that can be used as a sample for several essential downstream applications such as identification by MALDI-TOF MS, antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) by disc diffusion assay or automated AST systems and by automated PCR-based diagnostic testing. The performance of these different identification and AST systems applied directly on the blood culture bacterial pellets is very similar to the performance normally obtained from isolated colonies grown on agar plates. Compared to conventional approaches, the rapid acquisition of a bacterial pellet significantly reduces the time to report both identification and AST. Thus, following blood culture positivity, identification by MALDI-TOF can be reported within less than 1 hr whereas results of AST by automated AST systems or disc diffusion assays within 8 to 18 hr, respectively. Similarly, the results of a rapid PCR-based assay can be communicated to the clinicians less than 2 hr following the report of a bacteremia. Together, these results demonstrate that the rapid preparation of a blood culture bacterial pellet has a significant impact on the identification and AST turnaround time and thus on the successful outcome of patients suffering from bloodstream infections.

  7. Effectiveness of saliva and fingerprints as alternative specimens to urine and blood in forensic drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Yamamuro, Tadashi; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko T; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    In forensic drug testing, it is important to immediately take biological specimens from suspects and victims to prove their drug intake. We evaluated the effectiveness of saliva and fingerprints as alternative specimens to urine and blood in terms of ease of sampling, drug detection sensitivity, and drug detection periods for each specimen type. After four commercially available pharmaceutical products were administered to healthy subjects, each in a single dose, their urine, blood, saliva, and fingerprints were taken at predetermined sampling times over approximately four weeks. Fourteen analytes (the administered drugs and their main metabolites) were extracted from each specimen using simple pretreatments, such as dilution and deproteinization, and were analyzed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Most of the analytes were detected in saliva and fingerprints, as well as in urine and blood. The time-courses of drug concentrations were similar between urine and fingerprints, and between blood and saliva. Compared to the other compounds, the acidic compounds, for example ibuprofen, acetylsalicylic acid, were more difficult to detect in all specimens. Acetaminophen, dihydrocodeine, and methylephedrine were detected in fingerprints at later sampling times than in urine. However, a relationship between the drug structures and their detection periods in each specimen was not found. Saliva and fingerprints could be easily sampled on site without using special techniques or facilities. In addition, fingerprints could be immediately analyzed after simple and rapid treatment. In cases where it would be difficult to immediately obtain urine and blood, saliva and fingerprints could be effective alternative specimens for drug testing. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Value of standardised exercise tests and blood biochemistry in the selection and training of breeding stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M; Wensing, T; Barneveld, A; Breukink, H J

    1991-10-19

    Stallions selected by the Royal Dutch Warmblood Society were submitted to a standardised lungeing test at the beginning and at the end of a 100-day test of performance and ability. The heart rate, haematology and biochemistry values obtained in the first lungeing test showed no significant differences between the 15 stallions which were rejected by the Royal Dutch Warmblood Society during the first month of the 100-day test, the 15 stallions rejected during the last month and the 11 stallions which were approved for registration in the studbook. The 26 stallions submitted to the second lungeing test had significantly lower heart rates and blood lactate concentrations than in the first test. The standardised lungeing test had no value in predicting the rejection or approval of the stallions, and the fitness of a stallion at the beginning of the 100-day test did not influence its chance of being approved as a breeding stallion. The differences between the results of the first and the second tests suggest that the fitness of the stallions improved during the 100-day test.

  9. Evaluation for secondary causes of headache: the role of blood and urine testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loder, Elizabeth; Cardona, Luzma

    2011-02-01

    Most patients presenting for evaluation of headache meet diagnostic criteria for a benign, primary headache disorder based on history and physical examination findings alone. No further testing is needed in such cases. Additional diagnostic evaluation is needed in cases that do not meet criteria for a primary headache disorder or which are associated with unusual or worrisome features. This article will review secondary causes of headache listed in the International Classification of Headache Disorders-II in which blood and urine testing might aid in diagnosis. We offer recommendations for diagnostic evaluation when these disorders are suspected causes of headache.

  10. Base-oxidant promoted metal-free N-demethylation of arylamines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    VINAYAK BOTLA; CHIRANJEEVI BARREDDI; RAMANA V DAGGUPATI; CHANDRASEKHARAM MALAPAKA

    2016-09-01

    A metal-free oxidative N-demethylation of arylamines with triethylamine as a base and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as oxidant is reported in this paper. The reaction is general, practical, inexpensive, non-toxic, and the method followed is environmentally benign, with moderate to good yields.

  11. Raman spectroscopic characterisations and analytical discrimination between caffeine and demethylated analogues of pharmaceutical relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, H. G. M.; Munshi, T.; Anstis, M.

    2005-05-01

    The FT Raman spectrum of caffeine was analysed along with that of its demethylated analogues, theobromine and theophylline. The similar but not identical structures of these three compounds allowed a more detailed assignment of the Raman bands. Noticeable differences in the Raman spectra of these compounds were apparent and key marker bands have been identified for the spectroscopic identification of these three compounds.

  12. Testosterone Depletion Induces Demethylation of Murine Reelin Promoter CpG Dinucleotides: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Augusto Moraes da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ is a debilitating mental disorder characterized by psychotic events, abnormal social behavior, false beliefs, and auditory hallucinations. Hypermethylation of the promoter region of reelin (RELN, a gene involved in regulation of neuronal positioning during telencephalic development, is strongly associated with low protein expression in several cortical structures and promoter hypermethylation in brain from postmortem SZ subjects. Recent experimental data suggests that testosterone is able to promote RELN demethylation, although no direct evidence of hormonal influence on reelin promoter methylation was obtained. We investigated if reduced levels of plasma testosterone in adult male mice lead to Reln promoter demethylation. Animals were administered with flutamide, an antiandrogenic compound, and reelin promoter methylation was assessed using methylationspecific PCR using bisulfite DNA from cerebellum. We found that flutamide was able to significantly lower plasma testosterone when compared to control mice, and treatment did not influence animal survival and body weight. We also show that low plasma testosterone was associated with demethylation of a cytosine residue located at −860 in reelin promoter region. These preliminary data suggest that androgenic hormones can influence cerebral reelin demethylation. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental approach directly linking testosterone depletion and RELN promoter methylation.

  13. Testosterone Depletion Induces Demethylation of Murine Reelin Promoter CpG Dinucleotides: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Victor Augusto Moraes; Dantas, Marília de Souza; Silva, Leonardo Agostinho de Castro; Carneiro, Juliana Garcia; Schamber-Reis, Bruno Luiz Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a debilitating mental disorder characterized by psychotic events, abnormal social behavior, false beliefs, and auditory hallucinations. Hypermethylation of the promoter region of reelin (RELN), a gene involved in regulation of neuronal positioning during telencephalic development, is strongly associated with low protein expression in several cortical structures and promoter hypermethylation in brain from postmortem SZ subjects. Recent experimental data suggests that testosterone is able to promote RELN demethylation, although no direct evidence of hormonal influence on reelin promoter methylation was obtained. We investigated if reduced levels of plasma testosterone in adult male mice lead to Reln promoter demethylation. Animals were administered with flutamide, an antiandrogenic compound, and reelin promoter methylation was assessed using methylationspecific PCR using bisulfite DNA from cerebellum. We found that flutamide was able to significantly lower plasma testosterone when compared to control mice, and treatment did not influence animal survival and body weight. We also show that low plasma testosterone was associated with demethylation of a cytosine residue located at -860 in reelin promoter region. These preliminary data suggest that androgenic hormones can influence cerebral reelin demethylation. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental approach directly linking testosterone depletion and RELN promoter methylation.

  14. The Importance of Blood Routine Test of Blood Smear%血常规检验中血涂片分析的重要性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁锐

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analysis the importance of blood smear in the routine blood test analysis.Methods 523 cases of patients were chosen in our hospital, during the inspection results to iflter, and divided into two groups, the blood samples will be two groups of patients are uniifed blood smear analysis, compare two groups patients in blood smear analysis after the false negative rate and false positive rate, complications and blood smear analysis results.Results The observation group patients blood smear of routine blood test analysis and incidence of complications after blood smear analysis results better than the control group patients, observation group patients with routine blood test blood smear analysis false negative rate is better than the control group after the false positive rate (P<0.05). Conclusion Artificial blood smear analysis method is applied to routine blood test, has certain application value, can provide more reliable diagnostic basis for clinical doctors.%目的:分析血常规检验中血涂片分析的重要性。方法选取我院进行血常规检验的患者523例,对其检验结果进行筛选,并分成两组,将两组患者的血液标本均统一进行血涂片分析,比较两组患者在血涂片分析后的假阴性率、假阳性率、并发症发生率和血涂片分析结果。结果实验组进行血常规检验的患者血涂片分析后的并发症发生率和血涂片分析结果优于对照组患者,实验组进行血常规检验的患者血涂片分析后假阴性率优于对照组假阳性率(P<0.05)。结论人工血涂片分析方式应用于血常规检验中,有其肯定的应用价值,可以为临床医生提供更为可靠的诊断依据。

  15. Patient factors associated with non-attendance at colonoscopy after a positive screening faecal occult blood test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, Andrew A; Ghanouni, Alex; Rainbow, Sandra; Djedovic, Natasha; Marshall, Sarah; Stein, Judith; Taylor, Stuart A; Halligan, Steve; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; von Wagner, Christian

    2017-03-01

    Background Screening participants with abnormal faecal occult blood test results who do not attend further testing are at high risk of colorectal cancer, yet little is known about their reasons for non-attendance. Methods We conducted a medical record review of 170 patients from two English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme centres who had abnormal guaiac faecal occult blood test screening tests between November 2011 and April 2013 but did not undergo colonoscopy. Using information from patient records, we coded and categorized reasons for non-attendance. Results Of the 170 patients, 82 were eligible for review, of whom 66 had at least one recorded reason for lack of colonoscopy follow-up. Reasons fell into seven main categories: (i) other commitments, (ii) unwillingness to have the test, (iii) a feeling that the faecal occult blood test result was a false positive, (iv) another health issue taking priority, (v) failing to complete bowel preparation, (vi) practical barriers (e.g. lack of transport), and (vii) having had or planning colonoscopy elsewhere. The most common single reasons were unwillingness to have a colonoscopy and being away. Conclusions We identify a range of apparent reasons for colonoscopy non-attendance after a positive faecal occult blood test screening. Education regarding the interpretation of guaiac faecal occult blood test findings, offer of alternative confirmatory test options, and flexibility in the timing or location of subsequent testing might decrease non-attendance of diagnostic testing following positive faecal occult blood test.

  16. [THE PERCENTAGE OF BLOOD SERUM TESTS WITH HEMOLYSIS IN DIFFERENT GROUPS OF PATIENTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshkin, A V

    2015-06-01

    In the process of laboratory analysis most of the errors occur at the pre-analytical stage. The percentage of blood serum tests with hemolysis is largely applied as an indicator of quality of sampling and transport of blood tests in laboratory. The study was carried out to analyze percentage of tests with hemolysis in different groups of in- and out-patients. The percentage of tests with hemolysis was estimated according actual recommendation of IFCC working group "Laboratory Errors and Patient Safety" as percentage oftests with free hemoglobin more than 0.5 g/l of total amount of serum tests analyzed on biochemical analyzer capable to measure hemolysis index. The hemolysis was identified in 199 (1.4%) out of 14 170 samples. The large dispersion of results in different groups of patient was established. In children younger than 7 years treated in hospital percentage of hemolysis amounted to 2.44%, in patients of reanimation department - 2.38%. In adult patients of hospital this indicator of quality ranged from 0.31% to 1.59%. In two groups of out-patients this indicator amounted to 0.36% (clinic personnel, dispensarization) and 1.81% (out-patients). Such a dispersion complicates inter-laboratory comparison of quality according this particular indicator. The necessity is substantiated to apply more efforts concerning harmonization of indicators of quality in laboratory medicine.

  17. The determination of phenazone in blood plasma for obtained sistem suitable test of monitoring drug level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Lazuardi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The determining of Phenazone to human blood plasma from healthy man after separated by solid phase extraction (SPE and spectroscopic measurements has been investigated. The objective of that research was to obtain system suitable test for determine the Phenazone level in biological fluids (human blood plasma, for new performed dosage regimented in clinical dentistry. The method can be divided into the following four steps. 1. Centrifugation the blood sample, 2. Extraction from blood plasma and, 3. Separation by SPE with manual pressured, 4. Elution to SPE followed by the measurement on a spectrophotometer in the ultra violet region. The critical value of  │t │at the 5% confidence level indicates that there is no systematic error in the linearity proposed method. Recoveries for this research were obtained at ranging 93.460 to 95.598%. The coefficient variation precision of this procedure was clearly good at smallest than 2%. The analytical procedure can be carried out in one working operation as a monitored therapeutic activity.

  18. Evaluation of latex agglutination tests for fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products in the forensic identification of menstrual blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, Tomoko; Watanabe, Ken; Motani, Hisako; Iwase, Hirotaro; Sakurada, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    The identification of menstrual blood is important when discriminating menstruation from vaginal trauma in sexual assault cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate two fibrin-fibrinogen degradation product (FDP)-latex agglutination test kits, FDPL® Test (FDP-L) and FDP Plasma "RD" (FDP-P), for their ability to forensically identify menstrual blood. Sensitivity and specificity of the two kits were compared for menstrual blood and various body fluids, and the sensitivity of the FDP-latex agglutination test kit was also compared with that of an immunochromatographic test for human hemoglobin. The robustness of the FDP-latex agglutination test was compared with that of gene expression analysis of menstrual blood specific markers. The FDP-L kit was more sensitive than the FDP-P kit, but it cross-reacted with peripheral bloodstains from healthy volunteers. The FDP-P kit was specific for menstrual blood, with the exception of postmortem blood samples, and was not affected by other body fluids. In an FDP-negative menstrual blood sample, the sensitivity of human hemoglobin detection was lower than for FDP-positive samples and peripheral blood stains, suggesting that determination of human hemoglobin could be useful in interpreting negative results in the FDP-latex agglutination test. In menstrual blood samples incubated in wet conditions, FDP was found to be a robust marker in the identification of menstrual blood compared with mRNA markers. FDP-P testing was shown to be a suitable and highly efficient rapid screening test for the laboratory identification of menstrual blood.

  19. Orthostatic blood pressure test for risk stratification in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Münch

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is the most common cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD in young adults, mainly ascribed to ventricular tachycardia (VT. Assuming that VT is the major cause of (pre- syncope in HCM patients, its occurrence is essential for SCD risk stratification and primarily preventive ICD-implantation. However, evidence of VT during syncope is often missing. As the differentiation of potential lethal causes for syncope such as VT from more harmless reasons is crucial, HCM patients were screened for orthostatic dysregulation by using a simple orthostatic blood pressure test.Over 15 months (IQR [9;20] 100 HCM patients (55.8±16.2 yrs, 61% male were evaluated for (pre-syncope and VT (24h-ECGs, device-memories within the last five years. Eighty patients underwent an orthostatic blood pressure test. Logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis.In older patients (>40 yrs a positive orthostatic test result increased the chance of (pre- syncope by a factor of 63 (95%-CI [8.8; 447.9], p<0.001; 93% sensitivity, 95%-CI [76; 99]; 74% specificity, 95%-CI [58; 86]. No correlation with VT was shown. A prolonged QTc interval also increased the chance of (pre- syncope by a factor of 6.6 (95%-CI [2.0; 21.7]; p=0.002.The orthostatic blood pressure test is highly valuable for evaluation of syncope and presyncope especially in older HCM patients, suggesting that orthostatic syncope might be more relevant than previously assumed. Considering the high complication rates due to ICD therapies, this test may provide useful information for the evaluation of syncope in individual risk stratification and may help to prevent unnecessary device implantations, especially in older HCM patients.

  20. Global DNA hypermethylation-associated cancer chemotherapy resistance and its reversion with the demethylating agent hydralazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benitez-Bribiesca Luis

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapy continues to be a major obstacle for successful anticancer therapy. It has been shown that cells exposed to toxic concentrations of commonly used cancer chemotherapy agents develop DNA hypermetylation. Hence, demethylating agents could play a role in overcoming drug resistance. Methods MCF-7 cells were rendered adriamycin-resistant by weekly treatment with adriamycin. Wild-type and the resulting MCF-7/Adr cells were analyzed for global DNA methylation. DNA methyltransferase activity and DNA methyltransferase (dnmt gene expression were also determined. MCF-7/Adr cells were then subjected to antisense targeting of dnmt1, -3a, and -b genes and to treatment with the DNA methylation inhibitor hydralazine to investigate whether DNA demethylation restores sensitivity to adriamycin. Results MCF-7/Adr cells exhibited the multi-drug resistant phenotype as demonstrated by adriamycin resistance, mdr1 gene over-expression, decreased intracellular accumulation of adriamycin, and cross-resistance to paclitaxel. The mdr phenotype was accompanied by global DNA hypermetylation, over-expression of dnmt genes, and increased DNA methyltransferase activity as compared with wild-type MCF-7 cells. DNA demethylation through antisense targeting of dnmts or hydralazine restored adriamycin sensitivity of MCF-7/Adr cells to a greater extent than verapamil, a known inhibitor of mdr protein, suggesting that DNA demethylation interferes with the epigenetic reprogramming that participates in the drug-resistant phenotype. Conclusion We provide evidence that DNA hypermethylation is at least partly responsible for development of the multidrug-resistant phenotype in the MCF-7/Adr model and that hydralazine, a known DNA demethylating agent, can revert the resistant phenotype.

  1. MAGEB2 is activated by promoter demethylation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita M Pattani

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Although promoter hypermethylation has been an accepted means of tumor suppressor gene inactivation, activation of otherwise normally repressed proto-oncogenes by promoter demethylation has been infrequently documented. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In this study we performed an integrative, whole-genome analysis for discovery of epigenetically activated proto-oncogenes in head and neck cancer tumors. We used the 47K GeneChip U133 Plus 2.0 Affymetrix expression microarray platform to obtain re-expression data from 5-aza treated normal cell line and expression data from primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC tumor tissues and normal mucosa tissues. We then investigated candidate genes by screening promoter regions for CpG islands and bisulfite sequencing followed by QUMSP and RT PCR for the best candidate genes. Finally, functional studies were performed on the top candidate gene. RESULTS: From the top 178 screened candidates 96 had CpG islands in their promoter region. Seven candidate genes showed promoter region methylation in normal mucosa samples and promoter demethylation in a small cohort of primary HNSCC tissues. We then studied the demethylation of the top 3 candidate genes in an expanded cohort of 76 HNSCC tissue samples and 17 normal mucosa samples. We identified MAGEB2 as having significant promoter demethylation in primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tissues. We then found significantly higher expression of MAGEB2 in tumors in a separate cohort of 73 primary HNSCC tissues and 31 normal tissues. Finally, we found that MAGEB2 has growth promoting effects on minimally transformed oral keratinocyte cell lines but not a definite effect on HNSCC cell lines. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we identified MAGEB2 as activated by promoter demethylation in HNSCCand demonstrates growth promoting effects in a minimally transformed oral keratinocyte cell line. More studies are needed to evaluate MAGBE2's exact role in HNSCC.

  2. [Digital blood flow measurement by venous occlusion plethysmography in Raynaud's phenomenon. Value of the rewarming test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristol, R; Debray, J

    1986-01-01

    The fingertip blood flow measured by mercury strain gauge plethysmography with venous occlusion, at 22 degrees C room temperature, had significantly lower mean values in 190 patients with Raynaud's phenomenon (55 men aged 49 yrs +/- 16, 135 women aged 48 yrs +/- 16) than in 40 age and sex matched controls: 18 ml/100 ml/minute +/- 14.6 versus 35 ml/100 ml/minute +/- 15 at level p less than 0.01. The mean fingertip blood flow was significantly lower (p less than 0.01) in 31 cases of scleroderma and 32 cases of pulpar necrosis (respectively 13 ml +/- 13 and 11 ml +/- 8) than in 55 cases of primary Raynaud's disease (no detectable etiology and normal capillaroscopy 5 years after onset) or in 34 cases of mild Raynaud's phenomenon (respectively 21.6 +/- 16 and 24.4 +/- 18). A warming test (both hands in water at 45 degrees C during 3 minutes) was performed in 50 cases with low basal fingertip blood flow. It induced a "normalized" flow in 22 cases (mostly primary or mild Raynaud), a partly improved flow in 20 cases (mostly secondary Raynaud) and no improvement in 8 cases (scleroderma). The warming test appears to be clinically useful to assess the vasospasm and the vasodilating capabilities.

  3. Detection of malaria infection in blood transfusion: a comparative study among real-time PCR, rapid diagnostic test and microscopy: sensitivity of Malaria detection methods in blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Gholamreza; Mohebali, Mehdi; Raeisi, Ahmad; Abolghasemi, Hassan; Zeraati, Hojjat; Alipour, Mohsen; Azizi, Ebrahim; Keshavarz, Hossein

    2011-06-01

    The transmission of malaria by blood transfusion was one of the first transfusion-transmitted infections recorded in the world. Transfusion-transmitted malaria may lead to serious problems because infection with Plasmodium falciparum may cause rapidly fatal death. This study aimed to compare real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) with rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and light microscopy for the detection of Plasmodium spp. in blood transfusion, both in endemic and non-endemic areas of malaria disease in Iran. Two sets of 50 blood samples were randomly collected. One set was taken from blood samples donated in blood bank of Bandar Abbas, a city located in a malarious-endemic area, and the other set from Tehran, a non-endemic one. Light microscopic examination on both thin and thick smears, RDTs, and real-time PCR were performed on the blood samples and the results were compared. Thin and thick light microscopic examinations of all samples as well as RDT results were negative for Plasmodium spp. Two blood samples from endemic area were positive only with real-time PCR. It seems that real-time PCR as a highly sensitive method can be helpful for the confirmation of malaria infection in different units of blood transfusion organization especially in malaria-endemic areas where the majority of donors may be potentially infected with malaria parasites.

  4. Factors affecting initial training success of blood glucose testing in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamer, Lisa A; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J; Freeman, Hani D; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes can be a problem for captive chimpanzees. Accurate blood glucose (BG) readings are necessary to monitor and treat this disease. Thus, obtaining voluntary samples from primates through positive reinforcement training (PRT) is critical. The current study assessed the voluntary participation of 123 chimpanzees in BG sampling and investigated factors that may contribute to individual success. All subjects participate in regular PRT sessions as part of a comprehensive behavioral management program. Basic steps involved in obtaining BG values include: voluntarily presenting a finger/toe; allowing digit disinfection; holding for the lancet device; and allowing blood collection onto a glucometer test strip for analysis. We recorded the level of participation (none, partial, or complete) when each chimpanzee was first asked to perform the testing procedure. Nearly 30% of subjects allowed the entire procedure in one session, without any prior specific training for the target behavior. Factors that affected this initial successful BG testing included sex, personality (chimpanzees rated higher on the factor "openness" were more likely to participate with BG testing), and past training performance for "present-for-injection" (chimpanzees that presented for their most recent anesthetic injection were more likely to participate). Neither age, rearing history, time since most recent anesthetic event nor social group size significantly affected initial training success. These results have important implications for captive management and training program success, underlining individual differences in training aptitude and the need for developing individual management plans in order to provide optimal care and treatment for diabetic chimpanzees in captivity.

  5. Comparison of Nonculture Blood-Based Tests for Diagnosing Invasive Aspergillosis in an Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P Lewis; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Loeffler, Juergen; Najvar, Laura K; Melchers, Willem; Herrera, Monica; Bretagne, Stephane; Wickes, Brian; Kirkpatrick, William R; Barnes, Rosemary A; Donnelly, J Peter; Patterson, Thomas F

    2016-04-01

    The EuropeanAspergillusPCR Initiative (EAPCRI) has provided recommendations for the PCR testing of whole blood (WB) and serum/plasma. It is important to test these recommended protocols on nonsimulated "in vivo" specimens before full clinical evaluation. The testing of an animal model of invasive aspergillosis (IA) overcomes the low incidence of disease and provides experimental design and control that is not possible in the clinical setting. Inadequate performance of the recommended protocols at this stage would require reassessment of methods before clinical trials are performed and utility assessed. The manuscript describes the performance of EAPCRI protocols in an animal model of invasive aspergillosis. Blood samples taken from a guinea pig model of IA were used for WB and serum PCR. Galactomannan and β-d-glucan detection were evaluated, with particular focus on the timing of positivity and on the interpretation of combination testing. The overall sensitivities for WB PCR, serum PCR, galactomannan, and β-d-glucan were 73%, 65%, 68%, and 46%, respectively. The corresponding specificities were 92%, 79%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. PCR provided the earliest indicator of IA, and increasing galactomannan and β-d-glucan values were indicators of disease progression. The combination of WB PCR with galactomannan and β-d-glucan proved optimal (area under the curve [AUC], 0.95), and IA was confidently diagnosed or excluded. The EAPRCI-recommended PCR protocols provide performance comparable to commercial antigen tests, and clinical trials are warranted. By combining multiple tests, IA can be excluded or confirmed, highlighting the need for a combined diagnostic strategy. However, this approach must be balanced against the practicality and cost of using multiple tests.

  6. Inconsistent detection of changes in cerebral blood volume by near infrared spectroscopy in standard clinical tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, D; Roatta, S; Bosone, D; Micieli, G

    2011-06-01

    The attractive possibility of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to noninvasively assess cerebral blood volume and oxygenation is challenged by the possible interference from extracranial tissues. However, to what extent this may affect cerebral NIRS monitoring during standard clinical tests is ignored. To address this issue, 29 healthy subjects underwent a randomized sequence of three maneuvers that differently affect intra- and extracranial circulation: Valsalva maneuver (VM), hyperventilation (HV), and head-up tilt (HUT). Putative intracranial ("i") and extracranial ("e") NIRS signals were collected from the forehead and from the cheek, respectively, and acquired together with cutaneous plethysmography at the forehead (PPG), cerebral blood velocity from the middle cerebral artery, and arterial blood pressure. Extracranial contribution to cerebral NIRS monitoring was investigated by comparing Beer-Lambert (BL) and spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS) blood volume indicators [the total hemoglobin concentration (tHb) and the total hemoglobin index, (THI)] and by correlating their changes with changes in extracranial circulation. While THIe and tHbe generally provided concordant indications, tHbi and THIi exhibited opposite-sign changes in a high percentage of cases (VM: 46%; HV: 31%; HUT: 40%). Moreover, tHbi was correlated with THIi only during HV (P < 0.05), not during VM and HUT, while it correlated with PPG in all three maneuvers (P < 0.01). These results evidence that extracranial circulation may markedly affect BL parameters in a high percentage of cases, even during standard clinical tests. Surface plethysmography at the forehead is suggested as complementary monitoring helpful in the interpretation of cerebral NIRS parameters.

  7. [Interpretation and use of routine pulmonary function tests: Spirometry, static lung volumes, lung diffusion, arterial blood gas, methacholine challenge test and 6-minute walk test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokov, P; Delclaux, C

    2016-02-01

    Resting pulmonary function tests (PFT) include the assessment of ventilatory capacity: spirometry (forced expiratory flows and mobilisable volumes) and static volume assessment, notably using body plethysmography. Spirometry allows the potential definition of obstructive defect, while static volume assessment allows the potential definition of restrictive defect (decrease in total lung capacity) and thoracic hyperinflation (increase in static volumes). It must be kept in mind that this evaluation is incomplete and that an assessment of ventilatory demand is often warranted, especially when facing dyspnoea: evaluation of arterial blood gas (searching for respiratory insufficiency) and measurement of the transfer coefficient of the lung, allowing with the measurement of alveolar volume to calculate the diffusing capacity of the lung for CO (DLCO: assessment of alveolar-capillary wall and capillary blood volume). All these pulmonary function tests have been the subject of an Americano-European Task force (standardisation of lung function testing) published in 2005, and translated in French in 2007. Interpretative strategies for lung function tests have been recommended, which define abnormal lung function tests using the 5th and 95th percentiles of predicted values (lower and upper limits of normal values). Thus, these recommendations need to be implemented in all pulmonary function test units. A methacholine challenge test will only be performed in the presence of an intermediate pre-test probability for asthma (diagnostic uncertainty), which is an infrequent setting. The most convenient exertional test is the 6-minute walk test that allows the assessment of walking performance, the search for arterial desaturation and the quantification of dyspnoea complaint.

  8. Understanding Blood Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...

  9. Tet3 and DNA replication mediate demethylation of both the maternal and paternal genomes in mouse zygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Inoue, Azusa; He, Jin; Liu, Yuting; Lu, Falong; Zhang, Yi

    2014-10-02

    With the exception of imprinted genes and certain repeats, DNA methylation is globally erased during preimplantation development. Recent studies have suggested that Tet3-mediated oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and DNA replication-dependent dilution both contribute to global paternal DNA demethylation, but demethylation of the maternal genome occurs via replication. Here we present genome-scale DNA methylation maps for both the paternal and maternal genomes of Tet3-depleted and/or DNA replication-inhibited zygotes. In both genomes, we found that inhibition of DNA replication blocks DNA demethylation independently from Tet3 function and that Tet3 facilitates DNA demethylation largely by coupling with DNA replication. For both genomes, our data indicate that replication-dependent dilution is the major contributor to demethylation, but Tet3 plays an important role, particularly at certain loci. Our study thus defines the respective functions of Tet3 and DNA replication in paternal DNA demethylation and reveals an unexpected contribution of Tet3 to demethylation of the maternal genome.

  10. Azacytidine and decitabine induce gene-specific and non-random DNA demethylation in human cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Hagemann

    Full Text Available The DNA methyltransferase inhibitors azacytidine and decitabine represent archetypal drugs for epigenetic cancer therapy. To characterize the demethylating activity of azacytidine and decitabine we treated colon cancer and leukemic cells with both drugs and used array-based DNA methylation analysis of more than 14,000 gene promoters. Additionally, drug-induced demethylation was compared to methylation patterns of isogenic colon cancer cells lacking both DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1 and DNMT3B. We show that drug-induced demethylation patterns are highly specific, non-random and reproducible, indicating targeted remethylation of specific loci after replication. Correspondingly, we found that CG dinucleotides within CG islands became preferentially remethylated, indicating a role for DNA sequence context. We also identified a subset of genes that were never demethylated by drug treatment, either in colon cancer or in leukemic cell lines. These demethylation-resistant genes were enriched for Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 components in embryonic stem cells and for transcription factor binding motifs not present in demethylated genes. Our results provide detailed insights into the DNA methylation patterns induced by azacytidine and decitabine and suggest the involvement of complex regulatory mechanisms in drug-induced DNA demethylation.

  11. Operational feasibility of using whole blood in the rapid HIV testing algorithm of a resource-limited settings like Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Munshi, Saif U.; Oyewale, Tajudeen O.; Begum, Shahnaz; Uddin, Ziya; Tabassum, Shahina

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum-based rapid HIV testing algorithm in Bangladesh constitutes operational challenge to scaleup HIV testing and counselling (HTC) in the country. This study explored the operational feasibility of using whole blood as alternative to serum for rapid HIV testing in Bangladesh. Methods Whole blood specimens were collected from two study groups. The groups included HIV-positive patients (n = 200) and HIV-negative individuals (n = 200) presenting at the reference laboratory in Dhaka,...

  12. Monkey liver cytochrome P450 2C9 is involved in caffeine 7-N-demethylation to form theophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utoh, Masahiro; Murayama, Norie; Uno, Yasuhiro; Onose, Yui; Hosaka, Shinya; Fujino, Hideki; Shimizu, Makiko; Iwasaki, Kazuhide; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is a phenotyping substrate for human cytochrome P450 1A2. 3-N-Demethylation of caffeine is the main human metabolic pathway, whereas monkeys extensively mediate the 7-N-demethylation of caffeine to form pharmacological active theophylline. Roles of monkey P450 enzymes in theophylline formation from caffeine were investigated using individual monkey liver microsomes and 14 recombinantly expressed monkey P450 enzymes, and the results were compared with those for human P450 enzymes. Caffeine 7-N-demethylation activity in microsomes from 20 monkey livers was not strongly inhibited by α-naphthoflavone, quinidine or ketoconazole, and was roughly correlated with diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation activities. Monkey P450 2C9 had the highest activity for caffeine 7-N-demethylation. Kinetic analysis revealed that monkey P450 2C9 had a high Vmax/Km value for caffeine 7-N-demethylation, comparable to low Km value for monkey liver microsomes. Caffeine could dock favorably with monkey P450 2C9 modeled for 7-N-demethylation and with human P450 1A2 for 3-N-demethylation. The primary metabolite theophylline was oxidized to 8-hydroxytheophylline in similar ways by liver microsomes and by recombinant P450s in both humans and monkeys. These results collectively suggest a high activity for monkey liver P450 2C9 toward caffeine 7-N-demethylation, whereas, in humans, P450 1A2-mediated caffeine 3-N-demethylation is dominant.

  13. Testing of a centrifugal blood pump with a high efficiency hybrid magnetic bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Dennis H; Swanson, Erik S; Walton, James F; Willis, John P; Heshmat, Hooshang

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present test results for a second generation, high efficiency, nonpulsatile centrifugal blood pump that is being developed for use as a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). The LVAD pump uses a hybrid passive-active magnetic bearing support system that exhibits extremely low power loss, low vibration, and high reliability under transient conditions and varying pump orientations. A unique feature of the second generation design configuration is the very simple and direct flow path for both main and washing blood flows. The pump was tested in both vertical and horizontal orientations using a standard flow loop to demonstrate the performance and durability of the second generation LVAD. Steady state and transient orientation pump operating characteristics including pressure, flow, speed, temperatures, vibration, and rotor orientation were measured. During the tests, pump performance was mapped at several operating conditions including points above and below the nominal design of 5 L/min at 100 mm Hg pressure rise. Flow rates from 2 to 7 L/min and pressure rises from 50 to 150 mm Hg were measured. Pump speeds were varied during these tests from 2,500 to 3,500 rpm. The nominal design flow of 5 L/min at 100 mm Hg pressure rise was successfully achieved at the design speed of 3,000 rpm. After LVAD performance testing, both 28 day continuous duty and 5 day transient orientation durability tests were completed without incident. A hydrodynamic backup bearing design feasibility study was also conducted. Results from this design study indicate that an integral hydrodynamic backup bearing may be readily incorporated into the second generation LVAD and other magnetically levitated pump rotors.

  14. Improving Detection of Prediabetes in Children and Adults: Using Combinations of Blood Glucose Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ike Solomon Okosun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine combinations of blood glucose tests: oral glucose tolerance (OGT, fasting plasma glucose (FBG and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C that are associated with highest diagnostic rates of prediabetes in non-diabetic American children and adults.Methods: The 2007-2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys data were used for this study. Overall and specific prevalence of prediabetes (defined using OGT+FPG, OGT+HbA1C, HbA1C+FPG and OGT+FPG+HbA1C tests were determined across age, race/ethnicity, sex and BMI categories.Results: FPG+HbA1C test was associated with significantly higher diagnostic rates of prediabetes across age, race/ethnicity and BMI. Estimates of overall prevalence of prediabetes using OGT+FPG, OGT+HbA1C, HbA1C+FPG and OGT+FPG+HbA1C tests were 20.3%, 24.2%, 33% and 34.3%, respectively. Compared to OGT+FPG, the use of HbA1C+FPG test in screening was associated with 44.8%, 135%, 38.6% and 35.9% increased prevalence of prediabetes in non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Mexican-American and other racial/ethnic men, respectively. The corresponding values in women were 67.8%, 140%, 37.2% and 42.6%, respectively. Combined use of all blood glucose tests did not improve the overall and gender-specific prediabetes prevalence beyond what was observed using HbA1C+FPG test.Conclusions: HbA1C criteria were associated with higher diagnosis rates of prediabetes than FPG and OGT tests in non-diabetic American children and adults. Using a combination of HbA1C and FPG test in screening for prediabetes reduces intrinsic systematic bias in using just HbA1C testing and offers the benefits of each test. A well-defined HbA1C that takes into consideration race/ethnicity, gender, age and body mass index may improve detection of prediabetes in population and clinical settings.

  15. Galectin-3: a possible complementary marker to the PSA blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Kho, Dhonghyo; Bajaj, Madhuri; Smith, Daryn; Heilbrun, Lance; Raz, Avraham; Heath, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test has served as a blood marker of prostate cancer (PCa), and for monitoring recurrence/metastasis in patients after therapeutic intervention. However, the applicability/reliability of the PSA test was recently questioned as it is not without challenges, in particular in men who have PCa without an elevated PSA (false negative), or in men who are disease-free with elevated levels of PSA (false positive). Galectin-3 is a tumor-associated protein; present in the seminal fluid and is a substrate for the PSA enzyme e.g., a chymotrypsin-like serine protease. We hypothesized that the cleavage status and level of galectin-3 in the prostate tissue and sera are associated with PCa. Thus, we compared galectin-3 levels obtained from sera of non-cancer urology patients to those of metastatic PCa patients. The data were confirmed by analyzing PCa tissue arrays. Here, we report that galectin-3 levels in the sera of patients with metastatic PCa were uniformly higher as compared to the non-cancer patient controls. The data suggest that galectin-3 serum level may be a useful serum complementary marker to the PSA blood test to be used for initial and follow-up PSA complimentary diagnostic/prognostic tool for recurrence in PCa patients. PMID:23625538

  16. Neurosyphilis is unlikely in patients with late latent syphilis and a negative blood VDRL-test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhrl, Stefan; Geusau, Alexandra

    2006-01-01

    Patients with latent syphilis or syphilis of unknown duration should be evaluated for tertiary disease and neurosyphilis. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine relevant serological parameters for the identification of those individuals with syphilis who are most likely to have neurosyphilis and who therefore require lumbar puncture. After excluding repeated estimates and patients whose blood syphilis serology had either been negative or not been determined within 3 months of lumbar puncture, 265 out of 710 cerebrospinal fluids from 1988 to 2004 were analysed. In each of those patients the earliest available pairs of serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples were evaluated. The diagnosis of neurosyphilis was based on criteria according to established guidelines. Forty-three of 265 patients (16.2%; 5 women, 38 men; mean age 47+/-16 years) had neurosyphilis. Seven of 72 (9.7%) of those testing HIV-positive, fulfilled the criteria of neurosyphilis. Not a single patient with neurosyphilis tested Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test (VDRL)-negative in peripheral blood, an effect which was highly significant (p VDRL titre was significantly higher in patients with neurosyphilis than in those without (1:32 vs. 1:0; p VDRL. Therefore, lumbar puncture is not recommended in these patients.

  17. Blood lactate minimum of rats during swimming test using three incremental stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Souza Sena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe purpose of this study was to determine the lactate minimum intensity (LMI by swimming LACmintest using three incremental stages (LACmintest3 and to evaluate its sensitivity to changes in aerobic fitness (AF. Twenty Wistar rats performed: LACmintest3 (1: induction of hyperlactacidemia and incremental phase (4%, 5% and 6.5% of bw; Constant loads tests on (2 and above (3 the LMI. Half of the animals were subjected to training with the individual LMI and the tests were performed again. The mean exercise load in LACmintest3 was 5.04 ± 0.13% bw at 5.08 ± 0.55 mmol L-1 blood lactate minimum (BLM. There was a stabilize and disproportionate increase of blood lactate in tests 2 and 3, respectively. After the training period, the mean BLM was lower in the trained animals. The LACmintest3 seems to be a good indicator of LMI and responsive to changes in AF in rats subjected to swim training.

  18. Validation of a new blood-mimicking fluid for use in Doppler flow test objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnarine, K V; Nassiri, D K; Hoskins, P R; Lubbers, J

    1998-03-01

    A blood-mimicking fluid (BMF) suitable for use in Doppler flow test objects is described and characterised. The BMF consists of 5 microns diameter nylon scattering particles suspended in a fluid base of water, glycerol, dextran and surfactant. The acoustical properties of various BMF preparations were measured under uniform flow to study the effects of particle size, particle concentration, surfactant concentration, flow rate and stability. The physical properties, (density, viscosity and particle size), and acoustical properties (velocity, backscatter and attenuation) of the BMF are within draft International Electrotechnical Commission requirements.

  19. Forensic application of the luminol reaction as a presumptive test for latent blood detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, Filippo; Lewis, Simon W; Berti, Andrea; Miskelly, Gordon M; Lago, Giampietro

    2007-05-15

    The forensic application of the luminol chemiluminescence reaction is reviewed. Luminol has been effectively employed for more than 40 years for the presumptive detection of bloodstains which are hidden from the naked eye at crime scenes and, for this reason, has been considered one of the most important and well-known assays in the field of forensic sciences. This review provides an historical overview of the forensic use of luminol, and the current understanding of the reaction mechanism with particular reference to the catalysis by blood. Operational use of the luminol reaction, including issues with interferences and the effect of the luminol reaction on subsequent serological and DNA testing is also discussed.

  20. The measurement of peripheral blood volume reactions to tilt test by the electrical impedance technique after exercise in athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, A. A.; Popov, S. G.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Vikulov, A. D.

    2013-04-01

    We have investigated the distribution of peripheral blood volumes in different regions of the body in response to the tilt-test in endurance trained athletes after aerobic exercise. Distribution of peripheral blood volumes (ml/beat) simultaneously in six regions of the body (two legs, two hands, abdomen, neck and ECG) was assessed in response to the tilt-test using the impedance method (the impedance change rate (dZ/dT). Before and after exercise session cardiac stroke (CSV) and blood volumes in legs, arms and neck were higher in athletes both in lying and standing positions. Before exercise the increase of heart rate and the decrease of a neck blood volume in response to tilting was lower (p blood volumes was higher (pblood volumes were similar. Also, the neck blood volumes as percentage of CSV (%/CSV) did not change in the control but increased in athletes (p exercise (mean HR = 156±8 beat/min, duration 30 min) blood volumes in neck and arms in response to the tilting were reduced equally, but abdomen (pblood volumes (p blood flow (%/CSV) did not change in athletes but decreased in control (pexercise. The data demonstrate greater orthostatic tolerance in athletes both before and after exercise during fatigue which is due to effective distribution of blood flows aimed at maintaining cerebral blood flow.

  1. Portable simultaneous multiple analyte whole-blood analyzer for point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembri, C T; Ostoich, V; Lingane, P J; Burd, T L; Buhl, S N

    1992-09-01

    We describe a portable clinical chemistry analyzer for point-of-care measurements of multiple analytes in less than 10 min from approximately 40 microL of whole blood (fingerstick or venous). Whole blood is applied directly to a 7.9-cm-diameter, single-use plastic rotor containing liquid diluent and greater than or equal to 4-12 tests in the form of 1- to 2-mm-diameter dry reagent beads. The reagent/rotor is immediately placed in a portable instrument along with a ticket/label results card. As the instrument spins the rotor, capillary and rotational forces process the blood into diluted plasma, distribute the patient's diluted sample to cuvettes containing the reagent beads, and mix the diluted sample with the reagents. The instrument monitors the chemical reactions optically at nine wavelengths; sample volume and temperature are also measured optically. The calibration data for each reagent are read from a bar code on the periphery of each rotor. The instrument processes all the measurements to calculate, store, print, and communicate the results. Each reagent/rotor contains an enzymatic control that must be within a defined range before the results from that analysis are reported.

  2. Changes in cerebral blood oxygenation induced by active standing test in children with POTS and NMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Ayumi; Fujita, Yukihiko; Fuchigami, Tatsuo; Takahashi, Shori; Mugishima, Hideo; Skatani, Kaoru

    2014-01-01

    Orthostatic dysregulation (OD) has been classified into subtypes by heart rate and blood pressure; however, the hemodynamics of brains have not yet been revealed. Therefore, we investigated changes in cerebral blood flow and oxygenation during an active standing test to clarify the pathophysiology of two subtypes: postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and neurally mediated syncope (NMS). We studied 31 children (15 boys, 16 girls; mean age, 14.0 ± 1.7 years) who presented with OD at the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Nihon University School of Medicine between 2009 and 2011. OD was diagnosed using the Japanese clinical guidelines for juvenile orthostatic dysregulation. After a 10-min resting period in the supine position, patients were asked to quickly stand up and keep upright for 10 min. Cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygenation were measured using transcranial Doppler sonography and near-infrared spectroscopy. POTS showed a significant decrease of oxy-Hb and resistance index (RI), suggesting transient ischemia with maintainable cerebral autoregulation. NMS showed a decrease of oxy-Hb and an increase of RI, suggesting ischemia and impairment of autoregulation.

  3. An ancient DNA test of a founder effect in Native American ABO blood group frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Melissa S; Bolnick, Deborah A

    2008-11-01

    Anthropologists have assumed that reduced genetic diversity in extant Native Americans is due to a founder effect that occurred during the initial peopling of the Americas. However, low diversity could also be the result of subsequent historical events, such as the population decline following European contact. In this study, we show that autosomal DNA from ancient Native American skeletal remains can be used to investigate the low level of ABO blood group diversity in the Americas. Extant Native Americans exhibit a high frequency of blood type O, which may reflect a founder effect, genetic drift associated with the historical population decline, or natural selection in response to the smallpox epidemics that occurred following European contact. To help distinguish between these possibilities, we determined the ABO genotypes of 15 precontact individuals from eastern North America. The precontact ABO frequencies were not significantly different from those observed in extant Native Americans from the same region, but they did differ significantly from the ABO frequencies in extant Siberian populations. Studies of other precontact populations are needed to better test the three hypotheses for low ABO blood group diversity in the Americas, but our findings are most consistent with the hypothesis of a founder effect during the initial settlement of this continent.

  4. Promoter demethylation of Keap1 gene in human diabetic cataractous lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palsamy, Periyasamy [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Ayaki, Masahiko [Shizuoka National Hospital, Saitama (Japan); Elanchezhian, Rajan [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Shinohara, Toshimichi, E-mail: tshinohara@unmc.edu [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2012-07-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found significant Keap1 promoter demethylation in diabetic cataractous lenses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demethylation of Keap1 gene upregulated the expression of Keap1 mRNA and protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated levels of Keap1 are known to decrease the levels of Nrf2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thereby, the levels of antioxidant enzymes are suppressed by decreased Nrf2 level. -- Abstract: Age-related cataracts (ARCs) are the major cause of visual impairments worldwide, and diabetic adults tend to have an earlier onset of ARCs. Although age is the strongest risk factor for cataracts, little is known how age plays a role in the development of ARCs. It is known that oxidative stress in the lens increases with age and more so in the lenses of diabetics. One of the central adaptive responses against the oxidative stresses is the activation of the nuclear transcriptional factor, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which then activates more than 20 different antioxidative enzymes. Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1 (Keap1) targets and binds to Nrf2 for proteosomal degradation. We hypothesized that hyperglycemia will lead to a dysfunction of the Nrf2-dependent antioxidative protection in the lens of diabetics. We studied the methylation status of the CpG islands in 15 clear and 21 diabetic cataractous lenses. Our results showed significant levels of demethylated DNA in the Keap1 promoter in the cataractous lenses from diabetic patients. In contrast, highly methylated DNA was found in the clear lens and tumorized human lens epithelial cell (HLEC) lines (SRA01/04). HLECs treated with a demethylation agent, 5-aza-2 Prime deoxycytidine (5-Aza), had a 10-fold higher levels of Keap1 mRNA, 3-fold increased levels of Keap1 protein, produced higher levels of ROS, and increased cell death. Our results indicated that demethylation of the CpG islands in the Keap1 promoter will activate the expression of Keap1 protein, which

  5. Evaluation of the effect of presence of blood in the stomach on endoscopic diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mittal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Presence of blood in the stomach has been thought to affect the performance of diagnostic tests used in detecting Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori in the stomach. This study evaluated the effect of blood on the efficacy of rapid urease test (RUT and microscopic appearance of the biopsy after staining with Giemsa stain. Materials and Methods: Patients with bleeding oesophageal varices who met the inclusion criteria were tested for H. pylori by RUT and microscopic examination of the biopsy. A repeat endoscopy, RUT and histology were done one month following initial presentation. The performance of the diagnostic tests was evaluated with and without the presence of intraluminal blood. A combined result of the two tests, RUT and histology, carried out in presence or absence of blood for the diagnosis of H. pylori, when considered together was considered as the gold standard. Results: Thirty six patients included in the study were in the ages ranging between 15-60 years (mean age = 44.14 years ±2.1. The combination of tests at both visits showed 20/36 (55.6% patients were positive for H. pylori. The decrease in H. pylori positivity in the presence of blood was significant for RUT (8.3% vs. 38.9%; P=0.005 and combined test (19.4% vs. 47.2%; P=0.02 but the decrease in positivity for histology (11.1% vs 30.6% was not significant (P=0.08. In the presence of blood, the sensitivity of RUT, histology and combined tests were 15%, 20% and 35%, respectively. In the absence of blood, the sensitivity of RUT, histology and combination of tests was 70%, 55% and 85%, respectively. Conclusion: Blood in the stomach significantly decreased the sensitivity of RUT, histology and the combination of both. Negative results of these tests in acute upper gastro intestinal (GI bleeding should therefore be interpreted carefully.

  6. Rapid, whole blood diagnostic test for detecting anti-hantavirus antibody in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amada, Takako; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Yasuda, Shumpei P; Shimizu, Kenta; Koma, Takaaki; Hayashimoto, Nobuhito; Gamage, Chandika D; Nishio, Sanae; Takakura, Akira; Arikawa, Jiro

    2013-10-01

    Hantavirus is a causative agent of rodent-borne viral zoonoses, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Seoul virus (SEOV) is a causative agent of urban and laboratory rat-associated HFRS worldwide. Surveillance of rodents has been done mainly by serological detection of hantavirus-specific antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA). An immunochromatographic (ICG) test was developed with the N-terminal 103 amino acids of nucleocapsid protein of Hantaan virus expressed by Escherichia coli as an antigen to detect IgG antibody specific to hantavirus in sera from Rattus sp. animals. Antibody-detecting sensitivity of the ICG test was the same as that of ELISA and about 100-times higher than that of IFA. Overall sensitivities and specificities of the ICG test in comparison to ELISA and IFA for sera from 192 urban rats and 123 laboratory rats were 99.3% and 100%, respectively. Diluted whole blood samples without separation could be used for the ICG test. The ICG test enabled detection of antibodies to SEOV, Hantaan, Dobrava/Belgrade, and Thailand viruses, which are causative agents of HFRS throughout Eurasia. The ICG test is a rapid, simple and safe method for diagnosis of SEOV infection in rats.

  7. New Zealand's breath and blood alcohol testing programs: further data analysis and forensic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, A R; Gainsford, A R; Gullberg, R G

    2008-07-01

    Paired blood and breath alcohol concentrations (BAC, in g/dL, and BrAC, in g/210 L), were determined for 11,837 drivers apprehended by the New Zealand Police. For each driver, duplicate BAC measurements were made using headspace gas chromatography and duplicate BrAC measurements were made with either Intoxilyzer 5000, Seres 679T or Seres 679ENZ Ethylometre infrared analysers. The variability of differences between duplicate results is described in detail, as well as the variability of differences between the paired BrAC and BAC results. The mean delay between breath and blood sampling was 0.73 h, ranging from 0.17 to 3.1 8h. BAC values at the time of breath testing were estimated by adjusting BAC results using an assumed blood alcohol clearance rate. The paired BrAC and time-adjusted BAC results were analysed with the aim of estimating the proportion of false-positive BrAC results, using the time-adjusted BAC results as references. When BAC results were not time-adjusted, the false-positive rate (BrAC>BAC) was 31.3% but after time-adjustment using 0.019 g/dL/h as the blood alcohol clearance rate, the false-positive rate was only 2.8%. However, harmful false-positives (defined as cases where BrAC>0.1 g/210L, while BACtest results were used as the evidential results instead of the means, the harmful false-positive rate dropped to 0.04%.

  8. Testing for HTLV 1 and HTLV 2 among blood donors in Western Saudi Arabia: prevalence and cost considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindawi, S; Badawi, M; Fouda, F; Mallah, B; Mallah, B; Rajab, H; Madani, T A

    2017-06-28

    Screening all blood donors for human T-cell lymphotropic viruses 1 and 2 (HTLV 1 and HTLV 2) is mandatory in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study is to evaluate the results and costs associated with the current testing policy for HTLV 1 and HTLV 2 in blood donors at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah. Donor-testing results from Blood Transfusion Services at KAUH were reviewed over a 10-year period, from January 2006 through December 2015. All donors were screened using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Reactive samples were then tested by Western blot for confirmation. Costs associated with testing were calculated. Data of 107 419 donations in the study period were reviewed. Saudi nationals constituted 51 168 donors (47·6%). Of 107 419 blood donors tested for HTLV 1 and HTLV 2 antibody, and 95 (0·088%) donors were reactive to screening tests. None of the samples found to be reactive to screening tests was positive by Western blot. The average cost of testing was US$ 171 870 per year. No donors were confirmed to have HTLV 1 and HTLV 2 in this cohort exceeding 100 000 donors. We propose changes to the policy mandating universal testing by replacing it with universal leukodepletion coupled with targeted screening to donors coming from endemic area or donors at risk. Such changes are expected to lead to a reduction of testing cost without affecting safety. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  9. Immunochemical faecal occult blood tests have superior stability and analytical performance characteristics over guaiac-based tests in a controlled in vitro study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Chun Seng

    2011-06-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to determine the measurement accuracy of a widely used guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) compared with an immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) during in vitro studies, including their analytical stability over time at ambient temperature and at 4°C; and (2) to compare analytical imprecision and other characteristics between two commercially available iFOBT methods.

  10. Toward laboratory blood test-comparable photometric assessments for anemia in veterinary hematology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehoon; Choi, Seung Ho; Lambert-Cheatham, Nathan; Xu, Zhengbin; Kritchevsky, Janice E.; Bertin, Francois-René; Kim, Young L.

    2016-10-01

    Anemia associated with intestinal parasites and malnutrition is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in small ruminants worldwide. Qualitative scoring of conjunctival redness has been developed so that farmers can gauge anemia in sheep and goats to identify animals that require treatment. For clinically relevant anemia diagnosis, complete blood count-comparable quantitative methods often rely on complicated and expensive optical instruments, requiring detailed spectral information of hemoglobin. We report experimental and numerical results for simple, yet reliable, noninvasive hemoglobin detection that can be correlated with laboratory-based blood hemoglobin testing for anemia diagnosis. In our pilot animal study using calves, we exploit the third eyelid (i.e., palpebral conjunctiva) as an effective sensing site. To further test spectrometer-free (or spectrometerless) hemoglobin assessments, we implement full spectral reconstruction from RGB data and partial least square regression. The unique combination of RGB-based spectral reconstruction and partial least square regression could potentially offer uncomplicated instrumentation and avoid the use of a spectrometer, which is vital for realizing a compact and inexpensive hematology device for quantitative anemia detection in the farm field.

  11. Direct Urease Test and Acridine Orange Staining on Bactec Blood Culture for Rapid Presumptive Diagnosis of Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Maleknejad

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases in Iran and human brucellosis is endemic in all parts of the country. Growth of Brucella is slow and blood culture of these bacteria by use of classical methods is time-consuming. Furthermore, in endemic area culture is required for definitive diagnosis. In the present study, direct urease test and acridine orange staining were tried on the BACTEC blood culture broths for early presumptive identification of Brucella growth. Blood cultures were attempted in 102 seropositive patients. In the forty one blood cultures positive for Brucella, coccobacilli were seen in broth smears stained with acridine orange stain, and also were urease test positive, thus providing presumptive identification of Brucella growth. Urease test was negative and bacteria were not seen in the broth smears of the remaining 61 broths negative for Brucella growth. Because of simplicity, reliability and reproducibility, these tests can be routinely incorporated in the laboratory for diagnosis of brucellosis.

  12. Modulation by decitabine of gene expression and growth of osteosarcoma U2OS cells in vitro and in xenografts: Identification of apoptotic genes as targets for demethylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Hui

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylation-mediated silencing of genes is one epigenetic mechanism implicated in cancer. Studies regarding the role of modulation of gene expression utilizing inhibitors of DNA methylation, such as decitabine, in osteosarcoma (OS have been limited. A biological understanding of the overall effects of decitabine in OS is important because this particular agent is currently undergoing clinical trials. The objective of this study was to measure the response of the OS cell line, U2OS, to decitabine treatment both in vitro and in vivo. Results Microarray expression profiling was used to distinguish decitabine-dependent changes in gene expression in U2OS cells, and to identify responsive loci with demethylated CpG promoter regions. U2OS xenografts were established under the sub-renal capsule of immune-deficient mice to study the effect of decitabine in vivo on tumor growth and differentiation. Reduced nuclear methylation levels could be detected in xenografts derived from treated mice by immunohistochemistry utilizing a 5-methylcytidine antibody. Decitabine treatment reduced tumor xenograft size significantly (p in vitro (p GADD45A, HSPA9B, PAWR, PDCD5, NFKBIA, and TNFAIP3 were also induced to ≥2-fold in vivo. Quantitative methylation pyrosequencing confirmed that the tested pro-apoptotic genes had CpG-island DNA demethylationas a result of U2OS decitabine treatment both in vitro and in xenografts Conclusion These data provide new insights regarding the use of epigenetic modifiers in OS, and have important implications for therapeutic trials involving demethylation drugs. Collectively, these data have provided biological evidence that one mode of action of decitabine may be the induction of apoptosis utilizing promoter-CpG demethylation of specific effectors in cell death pathways in OS.

  13. Factors Predicting Fecal Occult Blood Testing among Residents of Bushehr, Iran, Based on the Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadi Dashdebi, Kamel; Noroozi, Azita; Tahmasebi, Rahim

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Fecal occult blood testing has proven a very effective screening tool for early detection and mortality reduction. The aim of this study was to determine predictors factors related to fecal occult blood testing using the Health Belief Model method among residents of Bushehr, Iran. A cross sectional study was performed on a sample of 600 men and women more than 50 years of age. The sample was selected by a convenience method from patients referred to public and private laboratories throughout the city. Each subject filled out a questionnaire which was designed and developed based on Health Belief Model constructs. Statistical analysis was conducted using ANOVA, T-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression. Fecal occult blood tests were performed on 179 (29.8%) out of 600 subjects, of which 95 patients (58.1%) did a periodic examination test and 84 patients (46.9%) had a doctor's advice for testing. According to the logistic regression model, the perceived barriers (P=0.0, Exp(B)= 0.3), perceived benefits (P occult blood testing among subjects.The results showed that reducing people's perception of barriers to testing, increasing perceived benefits of screening, and reinforcing self efficacy can have major effect in increasing the rate of fecal occult blood screening for colorectal cancer prevention.

  14. Lipoxygenase—mediated N—demethylation of imipramine and related tricyclic antidepressants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuJA; SajaM

    2002-01-01

    The ability of soybean lipoxygenase to mediate the N-demethylation of imipramine and related drugs in the presence of hydrogen peroxide was examined.Under optimal assay conditions,Vmax values of 14 to 18 mol formaldehyde·min-1·mol-1 enzyme were observed.An inhibition of formaldehyde and desipramine formation by nordihydroguaiaretic acid confirmed the lipoxygenase involvement.The blockade of the reaction by glutathione,dithiothreitol butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene(BHT) indicated the generation of a free radical intermediate from imipramine.Desipramine,trimipramine,clomipramine,and diltiazem,but not amitriptyline and doxepin,were also oxidized,albeit at a lower rate.Collectively,the evidence gathered in this study suggests,for the first time,that tricyclic antidepressant drugs may undergo lipoxygenase-catalyzed N-demethylation.

  15. Targeted DNA demethylation and activation of endogenous genes using programmable TALE-TET1 fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeder, Morgan L; Angstman, James F; Richardson, Marcy E; Linder, Samantha J; Cascio, Vincent M; Tsai, Shengdar Q; Ho, Quan H; Sander, Jeffry D; Reyon, Deepak; Bernstein, Bradley E; Costello, Joseph F; Wilkinson, Miles F; Joung, J Keith

    2013-12-01

    Genome-wide studies have defined cell type-specific patterns of DNA methylation that are important for regulating gene expression in both normal development and disease. However, determining the functional significance of specific methylation events remains challenging, owing to the lack of methods for removing such modifications in a targeted manner. Here we describe an approach for efficient targeted demethylation of specific CpGs in human cells using fusions of engineered transcription activator-like effector (TALE) repeat arrays and the TET1 hydroxylase catalytic domain. Using these TALE-TET1 fusions, we demonstrate that modification of critical methylated promoter CpG positions can lead to substantial increases in the expression of endogenous human genes. Our results delineate a strategy for understanding the functional significance of specific CpG methylation marks in the context of endogenous gene loci and validate programmable DNA demethylation reagents with potential utility for research and therapeutic applications.

  16. Evaluation of canine and feline leishmaniasis by the association of blood culture, immunofluorescent antibody test and polymerase chain reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Braga, Audrey Renno; Langoni, Hélio; Lucheis, Simone Baldini [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania spp. in dogs and cats from Botucatu, Sao Paulo state, and Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil, by the association of three diagnostic tests: blood culture in liver infusion tryptose medium, immunofluorescent antibody test and polymerase chain reaction. Fifty blood samples of dogs and cats from the Center for Zoonosis Control in Campo Grande, an area endemic for canine visceral leishmaniasis, were collected random...

  17. Tetrahydrofolate serves as a methyl acceptor in the demethylation of dimethylsulfoniopropionate in cell extracts of sulfate-reducing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M; Hansen, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    Tetrahydrofolate was shown to function as a methyl acceptor in the anaerobic demethylation of dimethylsulfoniopropionate to methylthiopropionate in cell extracts of the sulfate-reducing bacterium strain WN. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate-dependent activities were 0.56 mu mol methyltetrahydrofolate min(-

  18. Tetrahydrofolate serves as a methyl acceptor in the demethylation of dimethylsulfoniopropionate in cell extracts of sulfate-reducing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M; Hansen, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    Tetrahydrofolate was shown to function as a methyl acceptor in the anaerobic demethylation of dimethylsulfoniopropionate to methylthiopropionate in cell extracts of the sulfate-reducing bacterium strain WN. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate-dependent activities were 0.56 mu mol methyltetrahydrofolate min(-

  19. Genistein promotes DNA demethylation of the steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) promoter in endometrial stromal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsukura, Hiroshi, E-mail: hmatsukura.epi@mri.tmd.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Aisaki, Ken-ichi; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Matsushima, Yuko; Kanno, Jun [Division of Cellular and Molecular Toxicology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Muramatsu, Masaaki [Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Sudo, Katsuko [Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Animal Research Center, Tokyo Medical University, 6-1-1 Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8402 (Japan); Sato, Noriko, E-mail: nsato.epi@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan)

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} Genistein (GEN) is a phytoestrogen found in soy products. {yields} GEN demethylated/unsilenced the steroidogenic factor 1 gene in endometrial tissue. {yields} GEN thus altered mRNA expression in uteri of ovariectomized (OVX) mice. {yields} A high-resolution melting assay was used to screen for epigenetic change. {yields} We isolated an endometrial cell clone that was epigenetically modulated by GEN. -- Abstract: It has recently been demonstrated that genistein (GEN), a phytoestrogen in soy products, is an epigenetic modulator in various types of cells; but its effect on endometrium has not yet been determined. We investigated the effects of GEN on mouse uterine cells, in vivo and in vitro. Oral administration of GEN for 1 week induced mild proliferation of the endometrium in ovariectomized (OVX) mice, which was accompanied by the induction of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) gene expression. GEN administration induced demethylation of multiple CpG sites in the SF-1 promoter; these sites are extensively methylated and thus silenced in normal endometrium. The GEN-mediated promoter demethylation occurred predominantly on the luminal side, as opposed to myometrium side, indicating that the epigenetic change was mainly shown in regenerated cells. Primary cultures of endometrial stromal cell colonies were screened for GEN-mediated alterations of DNA methylation by a high-resolution melting (HRM) method. One out of 20 colony-forming cell clones showed GEN-induced demethylation of SF-1. This clone exhibited a high proliferation capacity with continuous colony formation activity through multiple serial clonings. We propose that only a portion of endometrial cells are capable of receiving epigenetic modulation by GEN.

  20. AP endonucleases process 5-methylcytosine excision intermediates during active DNA demethylation in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jiyoon; Jang, Hosung; Shin, Hosub; Choi, Woo Lee; Mok, Young Geun; Huh, Jin Hoe

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is a primary epigenetic modification regulating gene expression and chromatin structure in many eukaryotes. Plants have a unique DNA demethylation system in that 5-methylcytosine (5mC) is directly removed by DNA demethylases, such as DME/ROS1 family proteins, but little is known about the downstream events. During 5mC excision, DME produces 3?-phosphor-?, ?-unsaturated aldehyde and 3?-phosphate by successive ?- and ?-eliminations, respectively. The kinetic studies revealed tha...

  1. Pluripotency Transcription Factor Oct4 Mediates Stepwise Nucleosome Demethylation and Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Arvind; Callister, Catherine; Goren, Alon; Yosef, Nir; Garg, Neha; Khoddami, Vahid; Nix, David; Regev, Aviv

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms whereby the crucial pluripotency transcription factor Oct4 regulates target gene expression are incompletely understood. Using an assay system based on partially differentiated embryonic stem cells, we show that Oct4 opposes the accumulation of local H3K9me2 and subsequent Dnmt3a-mediated DNA methylation. Upon binding DNA, Oct4 recruits the histone lysine demethylase Jmjd1c. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) time course experiments identify a stepwise Oct4 mechanism involving Jmjd1c recruitment and H3K9me2 demethylation, transient FACT (facilitates chromatin transactions) complex recruitment, and nucleosome depletion. Genome-wide and targeted ChIP confirms binding of newly synthesized Oct4, together with Jmjd1c and FACT, to the Pou5f1 enhancer and a small number of other Oct4 targets, including the Nanog promoter. Histone demethylation is required for both FACT recruitment and H3 depletion. Jmjd1c is required to induce endogenous Oct4 expression and fully reprogram fibroblasts to pluripotency, indicating that the assay system identifies functional Oct4 cofactors. These findings indicate that Oct4 sequentially recruits activities that catalyze histone demethylation and depletion. PMID:25582194

  2. Overproduction of stomatal lineage cells in Arabidopsis mutants defective in active DNA demethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamuro, Chizuko; Miki, Daisuke; Zheng, Zhimin; Ma, Jun; Wang, Jing; Yang, Zhenbiao; Dong, Juan; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2014-06-05

    DNA methylation is a reversible epigenetic mark regulating genome stability and function in many eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis, active DNA demethylation depends on the function of the ROS1 subfamily of genes that encode 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases/lyases. ROS1-mediated DNA demethylation plays a critical role in the regulation of transgenes, transposable elements and some endogenous genes; however, there have been no reports of clear developmental phenotypes in ros1 mutant plants. Here we report that, in the ros1 mutant, the promoter region of the peptide ligand gene EPF2 is hypermethylated, which greatly reduces EPF2 expression and thereby leads to a phenotype of overproduction of stomatal lineage cells. EPF2 gene expression in ros1 is restored and the defective epidermal cell patterning is suppressed by mutations in genes in the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway. Our results show that active DNA demethylation combats the activity of RNA-directed DNA methylation to influence the initiation of stomatal lineage cells.

  3. Dried blood spot sampling for hepatitis B virus serology and molecular testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane Mohamed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AIMS: Dried blood spots (DBS on filter paper have been successfully used to diagnose and monitor several infectious diseases. The aim was to investigate the performance of DBS in hepatitis B virus (HBV diagnosis using commercial tests in comparison to standard methods. METHODS: Paired DBS and plasma samples were collected from 200 patients: 100 patients with HBsAg negative status and 100 patients with HBsAg positive status. In the latter patient, HBeAg reactivity was tested. Ten samples of anti-HBs were collected from people vaccinated against HBV. We also studied 50 patients with positive HBV DNA viral load in plasma and 10 HBV DNA negative patients. HBV genotypes and gene polymerase mutations were determined in 10 randomly selected HBV-infected patients. The DBS sample consisted of 50 µL of whole blood, i.e. a 12-mm paper card. RESULTS: The sensitivity thresholds of HBsAg and anti-HBs antibody were 0.30 ± 0.08 IU/mL and 18.11 ± 6.05 IU/mL, respectively, for DBS with 98% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Sensitivity was 98% and specificity 100% for the detection of HBV DNA on a blotter, considering an HBV DNA threshold of 914.1 ± 157.8 IU/ml. Ten patients had an HBeAg positive status in plasma, all were detected positive using DBS. HBV genotyping and mutation detection were successfully performed on DBS, with full concordance between the 10 paired DBS and plasma samples. CONCLUSION: This study shows DBS is a reliable alternative to plasma specimens for quantifying and detecting HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg and genotyping. DBS may increase the opportunities for HBV testing and treatment follow-up in hard-to-reach individuals.

  4. Evaluation of the Verigene® Blood Culture Nucleic Acid test for rapid identification of gram positive pathogens from positive blood cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnese Cellini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The rapid identification of the etiology and the evaluation of the antimicrobial susceptibility of the bacteria causing bacteremia is of outmost relevance to set up an adequate treatment of sepsis. In this study we evaluated the microarray based method, Verigene Gram-positive blood cultures (BC-GP nucleic acid test (Nanosphere Inc., Northbrook, IL, USA for the identification of Gram positive pathogens from positive blood cultures. The panel BC-GP is capable to identify 13 germs and 3 genes associated with antimicrobial resistance. Materials and Methods. In this study a total of 100 positive, non replicated and monomicrobic blood cultures have been evaluated. For testing on the Verigene platform using the BC-GP assay, 350 L of blood culture media from a positive the blood culture bottle.Results. A total of 100 positive blood cultures were tested by the Verigene BC-GP assay: out of these a total of 100 Gram-positive cocci were identified. The most frequent bacteria identified included staphylococci, streptococci and enterococci. Among staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 25% (15/60, with 38% of S. epidermidis 37% (23/60 and 37% (22/60 other CoNS. All the S. aureus isolates were correctly identified by BC-GP whereas in 2/45 cases (4% BC-GP misidentified CoNS. In the case of enterococci 7/10 were E. faecalis and 3 E. faecium, all of these were correctly identified.Conclusions. The overall agreement with the results obtained by standard procedure is quite elevated (88% and as a consequence the BC-GP panel could be used as a rapid diagnostic tool to give a faster response in the case of bacteremia associated with sepsis.

  5. The Two-Tier Fecal Occult Blood Test: Cost-Effective Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Rae

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The two-tier test represents a strategy combining HO Sensa and Hemeselect fecal occult blood tests (FOBTs with the aim of greater specificity and consequent economic advantages. If patients register a positive result on any HO Sensa guaiac test, they are once again tested by a hemoglobin-specific Hemeselect test. This concept was applied to a multicentre study involving persons 40 years or older. One component of the study enrolled 573 high risk patients while the second arm recruited an additional 1301 patients (52% asymptomatic/48% symptomatic stratified according to personal history and symptoms. The two-tier test produced fewer false positives than traditional tests in both groups evaluated in the study. In the high risk group, specificity (88.7% for two-tier versus 80.6% for Hemoccult and 69.5% for HO Sensa was higher and false positive rates were lower (11.3% for two-tier versus 19.5% for Hemoccultand 30.5% for HO Sensa for the two-tier test versus Hemoccult and HO Sensa FOBTs (95% CI for all colorectal cancers [CRCs] and polyps greater than 1 cm, α=0.05 . No significant differences in sensitivity were observed between tests in the same group. Also, in the high risk group, benefits of the two-tier test outweighed the costs. Due to the small number of cancers and polyps in the second arm of the study, presentation of data is meant to be descriptive and representative of trends in a ‘normal’ population. Nevertheless, specificity of the two-tier test was higher (96.8% for two-tier versus 87.2% for Hemoccult and 69.5% for HO Sensa and false positive rate lower (3.2% for two-tier versus 12.8% for Hemoccult and 22.3% for HO Sensa than either the Hemoccult or HO Sensa FOBT (95% CI for all CRCs and polyps greater than 1 cm. This initial study, focusing on the cost-benefit relationship of increased specificity, represents a new way of economically evaluating existing FOBTs.

  6. Determinants of myocardial blood flow response to cold pressor testing and pharmacologic vasodilation in healthy humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prior, John O.; Schindler, Thomas H.; Facta, Alvaro D.; Hernandez-Pampaloni, Miguel; Campisi, Roxana; Dahlbom, Magnus; Schelbert, Heinrich R. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, B2-085J CHS, 10833 Le Conte Ave, Box 956948, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2007-01-15

    Response of myocardial blood flow (MBF) to sympathetic stimulation with cold is modulated by endothelium-related factors and is typically altered in the presence of coronary risk factors. Determinants of flow response to cold pressor testing (CPT) in normal volunteers at low risk for CAD remain less well defined, especially relative to baseline conditions such as hemodynamics and MBF, plasma substrate and lipid levels, and total pharmacologically stimulated vasodilator capacity. In 50 normal volunteers (42{+-}13 years; 31 women) without coronary risk factors, insulin resistance, or family history of diabetes/premature CAD, MBF was measured with {sup 13}N-ammonia and PET at baseline, during CPT, and during pharmacologic hyperemia. Sympathetic stimulation with CPT raised heart rate and blood pressure and thus MBF ({delta}MBF=0.23{+-}0.09 ml/min/g). MBF response, defined in absolute flow units as the difference between CPT and baseline, was independent of age, gender, heart rate, and blood pressure and rate-pressure product (RPP) at baseline as well as plasma substrate and lipid levels with the exception of an association with HDL cholesterol ({rho}=0.40, p=0.005) but depended on the change in RPP from rest ({rho}=0.33, p=0.019). Finally, changes in coronary vascular resistance in response to CPT were associated with changes in pharmacologic vasodilation ({rho}=0.56, p<0.0001). MBF response to sympathetic stimulation with cold (NO-mediated endothelium-dependent vasomotion), reflecting the functional state of the coronary endothelium, was independent of gender, age, and resting heart conditions. It was modulated by HDL cholesterol levels, even in healthy volunteers, and also related to pharmacologically stimulated vasodilator capacity at the coronary vascular resistance level. (orig.)

  7. Immunotoxicity and genotoxicity testing of PLGA-PEO nanoparticles in human blood cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulinska, Jana; Kazimirova, Alena; Kuricova, Miroslava; Barancokova, Magdalena; Liskova, Aurelia; Neubauerova, Eva; Drlickova, Martina; Ciampor, Fedor; Vavra, Ivo; Bilanicova, Dagmar; Pojana, Giulio; Staruchova, Marta; Horvathova, Mira; Jahnova, Eva; Volkovova, Katarina; Bartusova, Maria; Cagalinec, Michal; Dusinska, Maria

    2015-05-01

    A human blood cell model for immunotoxicity and genotoxicity testing was used to measure the response to polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA-PEO) nanoparticle (NP) (0.12, 3, 15 and 75 μg/cm(2) exposure in fresh peripheral whole blood cultures/isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures from human volunteers (n = 9-13). PLGA-PEO NPs were not toxic up to dose 3 μg/cm(2); dose of 75 μg/cm(2) displays significant decrease in [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation into DNA of proliferating cells after 4 h (70% of control) and 48 h (84%) exposure to NPs. In non-cytotoxic concentrations, in vitro assessment of the immunotoxic effects displayed moderate but significant suppression of proliferative activity of T-lymphocytes and T-dependent B-cell response in cultures stimulated with PWM > CON A, and no changes in PHA cultures. Decrease in proliferative function was the most significant in T-cells stimulated with CD3 antigen (up to 84%). Cytotoxicity of natural killer cells was suppressed moderately (92%) but significantly in middle-dosed cultures (4 h exposure). On the other hand, in low PLGA-PEO NPs dosed cultures, significant stimulation of phagocytic activity of granulocytes (119%) > monocytes (117%) and respiratory burst of phagocytes (122%) was recorded. Genotoxicity assessment revealed no increase in the number of micronucleated binucleated cells and no induction of SBs or oxidised DNA bases in PLGA-PEO-treated cells. To conclude on immuno- and genotoxicity of PLGA-PEO NPs, more experiments with various particle size, charge and composition need to be done.

  8. Study on Importance of Primary Screening Test of Blood Donors in the Blood Detection in Blood Bank%献血者初筛检验在血站血液检测中重要性的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玲玲

    2016-01-01

    Objective To detect and analyze the blood specimens of different seasons, time, addresses and blood donors and analyze the related influence factors of blood test results thus discussing the suitable primary screening test method. Meth-ods The blood test results of research staff from May 2013 to October 2015 were selected and the blood test results of dif-ferent seasons, time and populations were analyzed, and the microcomputer inquiry was conducted according to the primary screening results of ALT and HBsAg before blood collection and previous blood donors. Results The time and address had an effect on the test results of ALT and HBsAg of blood donors, the use of primary screening test before blood donation could reduce the collection of positive blood or reactive blood to a certain degree, thus reducing the contamination to envi-ronment after blood donation. Conclusion For street blood donation, we should enhance the primary screening test of feasi-ble projects of ALT and HBsAg, and the electronic files are inquired by the microcomputer, and we should enhance the en-quiry of dieting and rest issues when carrying out blood donation in summer and the rapid test can effectively reduce the is-sues of blood resource waste and blood bank environment pollution.%目的:检测分析在不同季节、时间、地点以及不同献血人群的血液标本,分析影响血液检验结果的相关因素,从而探讨出合适的初筛检验方法。方法该次研究挑选在2013—2015年期间5~10月这个时间段采集研究人员血液的检验结果。分析不同季节、时间以及人群的血液检测结果,并根据采血前的丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)以及乙型肝炎病毒表面抗原(HBsAg)的检测项目的初筛检测和既往献血者的结果进行微机查询。结果时间和地点等因素对于献血者的检测结果在丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)以及乙型肝炎病毒表面抗原(HBsAg)等项目上均有影响,利用献血前初筛

  9. A Rapid Screening Test on Dried Blood for the Neonatal Diagnosis of Tyrosinemia Type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Bodaghkhan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tyrosinemia is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by elevated levels of tyrosine and its metabolites in plasma. Without treatment, the disease will progress to hepatic and renal failure, so that without liver transplantation will cause death in less than 10 years of age. So, early diagnosis and treatment can be life saving and crucial. It means that with early treatment starting in the neonatal period, the patient can have normal life with very few restrictions in diets containing tyrosine and phenylalanine. Objectives: In this study we wanted to evaluate an easy to perform, rapid and sensitive qualitative test with low cost, as a part of neonatal screening tests to help early diagnosis and treatment of hereditary tyrosinemia. Patients and Methods: In this cross sectional study, during the study period (2013 - 2014, 100 patients were selected. Fifty three (53 of these patients had proven tyrosinemia and the other 47 cases biliary atresia, paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts, cytomegalovirus (CMV hepatitis, galactosemia and storage diseases. Results: There were 2 false negative and 14 false positive cases of hereditary tyrosinemia (HT-1 in the test. Six cases of biliary atresia, 7 cases of paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts and one patient with cytomegalovirus (CMV hepatitis were falsely positive with the test. Sensitivity of the test was 96.23%, specificity 71.43%, positive predictive value (PPV 78.46%, and negative predictive value (NPV 94.59%. Conclusions: This rapid qualitative test on dried blood sample is an easy, cheap, and feasible method for the screening of hereditary tyrosinemia in neonatal period.

  10. POPULATION BASED COLORECTAL CANCER SCREENING: COMPARISON OF TWO FAECAL OCCULT BLOOD TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren Begoña eZubero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of screening for colorectal cancer is to improve prognosis by the detection of cancer at its early stages. In order to inform the decision on the specific test to be used in the population-based programme in the Basque Autonomous Region (Spain, we compared two immunochemical faecal occult blood quantitative tests (I-FOBT. Methods: Residents of selected study areas, aged 50-69 years, were invited to participate in the screening. Two tests based on latex agglutination (OC-Sensor and FOB Gold were randomly assigned to different study areas. A colonoscopy was offered to patients with a positive test result. The cut-off point used to classify a result as positive, according to manufacturer’s recommendations, was 100 ng/ml for both tests. Results: The invited population included 37,999 individuals. Participation rates were 61.8% (n=11,162 for OC-Sensor and 59.1% (n=11,786 for FOB Gold, (p=0.008. Positive rate for OC-Sensor was 6.6% (n=737 and 8.5% (n=1,002 for FOB Gold, (pConclusions: OC-Sensor test appears to be superior for I-FOBT based CRC screening, given its acceptance, ease of use, associated small number of errors and its screening accuracy. FOB-Gold on the other hand, has higher rate of positive values, with more colonoscopies performed, it shows higher detection incidence rates, but involves more false positives.

  11. USING CAPILLARY WHOLE BLOOD GLUCOSE TEST IN SCREENING FOR GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qing-kai; LUO Lai-min; GU Jing-hong; LI Ping; HUANG Ya-juan; FENG Jie; ZHANG Rui

    2007-01-01

    Objective To discuss whether the capillary whole blood glucose (CBG) test can be used in glucose screening test (GST) for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared to the venous plasma glucose (VPG) method, and to determine the cutoff value of CBG. Methods This was a self-control test. The 50-g oral GST was conducted among 1 557 pregnant women between 24-28 weeks. Every woman was measured CBG and VPG at the same time and same arm. Three hundred and forty women underwent 100-g 3-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Receiver operation curve (ROC) was used to determine the potential cutoff level of CBG and VPG. Diagnose criteria of GDM was based on NDDG criteria. OGTT diagnosed GDM and VPG ≥ 7. 8 mmol/L were used as golden standard for ROC. Results There was good relationship between CBG and VPG ( P < 0.01 ). Correlation coefficient was 0. 86. The value of CBG was lower than VPG. The statistical and high-sensitivity cutoff values were 7. 4 mmol/L in CBG and 7. 8 mmol/L in VPG when GDM was used as golden standard. Cutoff value of CBG was 7. 0 mmol/L when VPG≥ 7. 8 mmol/L was used as golden standard. The pregnant outcomes of positive cases of three thresholds had no significant differences. But it was better in case of the pregnant woman when the CBG value was more than 7. 4 mmol/L. Conclusion CBG can be used in GST, the threshold of CBG was suggested as 7. 4 mmol/L. CBG test was more convenience and effective than VPG test.

  12. Regeneration and DNA demethylation do not trigger PDX-1 expression in rat hepatocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rudolf; T; Pillich; Gianfranco; Scarsella; Gianfranco; Risuleo

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To explore the possibility that PDX-1 gene is reactivated as a consequence of molecular events that occur during liver regeneration. METHODS:Rat hepatocytes were maintained in DMEM- F12,10%fetal bovine serum(FBS),penicillin/streptomycin and geneticin when applicable.Rat insulinoma RIN 1046-38 cells were maintained in M-199-10%FBS and penicillin/streptomycin.The final concentration of glucose was 11.1 mmol/L.During regeneration,lateral and medial liver lobes of adult male Wistar rats were surgically removed,with up 70%loss of liver mass.In methylation experiments,5-aza-deoxycytidine(5-aza-dC)was used.Primer3 software was used for poly- merase chain reaction(PCR).Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR)was performed using SYBR Green technol- ogy;primers were designed by Beacon Designer 6 software.Western blotting and SDS-PAGE were performed according to standard procedures.Antibodies were purchased from commercial suppliers.RESULTS:We explored the possibility that liver regeneration could trigger PDX-1 expression,and hence insulin production.Twenty-four hours after surgical liver removal,regeneration was active as demonstrated by the increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen;however, all the other checked genes(involved in insulin gene expression):PC-1,Ngn3,NeuroD1,Btc,PDX-1 and Ins-1, were not related to the molecular events caused by this process.The only marker detected in regenerating liver was E47:a transcription factor of the the basic helixloop-helix family known to be expressed ubiquitously in mammalian cells.In the rat pancreas,almost all of the tested genes were expressed as shown by RT-PCR, except for Ngn3,which was silenced 2 d after birth. Therefore,the molecular events in liver regeneration are not sufficient to promote PDX-1 expression.DNA methylation is a known mechanism to achieve stable re- pression of gene expression in mammals:Hxk 2 gene is silenced through this mechanism in normal hepatocytes. The administration of 5-aza-dC to cultured cells

  13. Blunted heart rate recovery is associated with exaggerated blood pressure response during exercise testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Umuttan; Duzenli, Mehmet Akif; Ozdemir, Kurtulus; Gok, Hasan

    2013-11-01

    Increased sympathetic activity and endothelial dysfunction are the proposed mechanisms underlying exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise (EBPR). However, data regarding heart rate behavior in patients with EBPR are lacking. We hypothesized that heart rate recovery (HRR) could be impaired in patients with EBPR. A total of 75 normotensive subjects who were referred for exercise treadmill test examination and experienced EBPR were included to this cross-sectional case-control study. The control group consisted of 75 age- and gender-matched normotensive subjects without EBPR. EBPR was defined as a peak exercise systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥210 mmHg in men and ≥190 mmHg in women. HRR was defined as the difference in HR from peak exercise to 1 min in recovery; abnormal HRR was defined as ≤12 beats/min. These parameters were compared with respect to occurrence of EBPR. Mean values of systolic and diastolic BP at baseline, peak exercise, and the first minute of the recovery were significantly higher in the subjects with EBPR. Mean HRR values were significantly lower (P exercise, a linear correlation existed between the degree of HRR and decrease in systolic BP during the recovery period. However, such a correlation was not found in subjects with EBPR. Our data suggest that mechanisms underlying the blunting of the HRR might be associated with the genesis of EBPR. The association between the extent of HRR and adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with EBPR needs to be investigated in detail in future research.

  14. Interactions of hemoglobin in live red blood cells measured by the electrophoresis release test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Gao, Lijun; Ma, Qiang; Zhou, Lishe; Qin, Liangyi; Han, Lihong; Qin, Wenbin

    2010-09-01

    To elucidate the protein-protein interactions of hemoglobin (Hb) variants A and A(2), HbA was first shown to bind with HbA(2) in live red blood cells (RBCs) by diagonal electrophoresis and then the interaction between HbA and HbA(2) outside the RBC was shown by cross electrophoresis. The starch-agarose gel electrophoresis of hemolysate, RBCs, freeze-thawed RBCs and the supernatant of freeze-thawed RBCs showed that the interaction between HbA and HbA(2) was affected by membrane integrity. To identify the proteins involved in the interaction, protein components located between HbA and HbA(2) in RBCs (RBC HbA-HbA(2)) and hemolysate (hemolysate HbA-HbA(2)) were isolated from the starch-agarose gel and separated by 5-12% SDS-PAGE. The results showed that there was a ≈22 kDa protein band located in the RBC HbA-HbA(2) but not in hemolysate HbA-HbA(2). Sequencing by LC/MS/MS showed that this band was a protein complex that included mainly thioredoxin peroxidase B, α-globin, δ-globin and β-globin. Thus, using our unique in vivo whole blood cell electrophoresis release test, Hbs were proven for the first time to interact with other proteins in the live RBC.

  15. Blood gas testing and related measurements: National recommendations on behalf of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukić, Lora; Kopčinović, Lara Milevoj; Dorotić, Adrijana; Baršić, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Blood gas analysis (BGA) is exposed to risks of errors caused by improper sampling, transport and storage conditions. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) generated documents with recommendations for avoidance of potential errors caused by sample mishandling. Two main documents related to BGA issued by the CLSI are GP43-A4 (former H11-A4) Procedures for the collection of arterial blood specimens; approved standard – fourth edition, and C46-A2 Blood gas and pH analysis and related measurements; approved guideline – second edition. Practices related to processing of blood gas samples are not standardized in the Republic of Croatia. Each institution has its own protocol for ordering, collection and analysis of blood gases. Although many laboratories use state of the art analyzers, still many preanalytical procedures remain unchanged. The objective of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CSMBLM) is to standardize the procedures for BGA based on CLSI recommendations. The Working Group for Blood Gas Testing as part of the Committee for the Scientific Professional Development of the CSMBLM prepared a set of recommended protocols for sampling, transport, storage and processing of blood gas samples based on relevant CLSI documents, relevant literature search and on the results of Croatian survey study on practices and policies in acid-base testing. Recommendations are intended for laboratory professionals and all healthcare workers involved in blood gas processing. PMID:27812301

  16. Blood gas testing and related measurements: National recommendations on behalf of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukić, Lora; Kopčinović, Lara Milevoj; Dorotić, Adrijana; Baršić, Ivana

    2016-10-15

    Blood gas analysis (BGA) is exposed to risks of errors caused by improper sampling, transport and storage conditions. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) generated documents with recommendations for avoidance of potential errors caused by sample mishandling. Two main documents related to BGA issued by the CLSI are GP43-A4 (former H11-A4) Procedures for the collection of arterial blood specimens; approved standard - fourth edition, and C46-A2 Blood gas and pH analysis and related measurements; approved guideline - second edition. Practices related to processing of blood gas samples are not standardized in the Republic of Croatia. Each institution has its own protocol for ordering, collection and analysis of blood gases. Although many laboratories use state of the art analyzers, still many preanalytical procedures remain unchanged. The objective of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CSMBLM) is to standardize the procedures for BGA based on CLSI recommendations. The Working Group for Blood Gas Testing as part of the Committee for the Scientific Professional Development of the CSMBLM prepared a set of recommended protocols for sampling, transport, storage and processing of blood gas samples based on relevant CLSI documents, relevant literature search and on the results of Croatian survey study on practices and policies in acid-base testing. Recommendations are intended for laboratory professionals and all healthcare workers involved in blood gas processing.

  17. Global identification of genes regulated by estrogen signaling and demethylation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putnik, Milica, E-mail: milica.putnik@ki.se [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge S-14183 (Sweden); Zhao, Chunyan, E-mail: chunyan.zhao@ki.se [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge S-14183 (Sweden); Gustafsson, Jan-Ake, E-mail: jan-ake.gustafsson@ki.se [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge S-14183 (Sweden); Department of Biology and Biochemistry, Science and Engineering Research Center Bldg, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5056 (United States); Dahlman-Wright, Karin, E-mail: karin.dahlman-wright@ki.se [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge S-14183 (Sweden)

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estrogen signaling and demethylation can both control gene expression in breast cancers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cross-talk between these mechanisms is investigated in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 137 genes are influenced by both 17{beta}-estradiol and demethylating agent 5-aza-2 Prime -deoxycytidine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A set of genes is identified as targets of both estrogen signaling and demethylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is no direct molecular interplay of mediators of estrogen and epigenetic signaling. -- Abstract: Estrogen signaling and epigenetic modifications, in particular DNA methylation, are involved in regulation of gene expression in breast cancers. Here we investigated a potential regulatory cross-talk between these two pathways by identifying their common target genes and exploring underlying molecular mechanisms in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Gene expression profiling revealed that the expression of approximately 140 genes was influenced by both 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) and a demethylating agent 5-aza-2 Prime -deoxycytidine (DAC). Gene ontology (GO) analysis suggests that these genes are involved in intracellular signaling cascades, regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Based on previously reported association with breast cancer, estrogen signaling and/or DNA methylation, CpG island prediction and GO analysis, we selected six genes (BTG3, FHL2, PMAIP1, BTG2, CDKN1A and TGFB2) for further analysis. Tamoxifen reverses the effect of E2 on the expression of all selected genes, suggesting that they are direct targets of estrogen receptor. Furthermore, DAC treatment reactivates the expression of all selected genes in a dose-dependent manner. Promoter CpG island methylation status analysis revealed that only the promoters of BTG3 and FHL2 genes are methylated, with DAC inducing demethylation, suggesting DNA methylation directs repression of

  18. Development of an Intervention for implementing Immunochemical Faecal Occult Blood Test in General Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jakob Søgaard; Vedsted, Peter; Bro, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Denne korte artikel handler om udviklingen af en intervention til implementering af immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) i almen praksis. Artiklen gennemgår processen fra de tidlige udviklingsstadier, over pilot-testning og frem til de endelige justeringer før selve implementeringen blev...... iværksat i almen praksis. Erfaringerne fra pilot-testningen betød, at vejledningen til brugen af iFOBT blev ændret – fra en fast og ”rigid” vejledning, som byggede på helt specifikke indikationer, til en mere ”fleksibel” vejledning, som i højere grad byggede på den praktiserende læges egen kliniske...

  19. Determinants of participation in colorectal cancer screening with faecal occult blood testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Brasso, Klaus; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in men and women. Participation rates in faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) screening activities are, however, relatively low. In terms of lowering the colorectal cancer mortality, high participation rates are essential, and therefore...... it is important to understand the barriers to FOBT screening. METHODS: We undertook a systematic search through PUBMED, Medline, EMBASE and PsycINFO in order to identify studies that provide information on socio-demographic determinants of participation in FOBT screening. RESULTS: FOBT participation varied...... considerably across countries, but they have rarely been above 60%. The use of other health-care services was in most studies a strong determinant for participation in screening with FOBT. There was a tendency to higher participation among women than among men and among married as opposed to not married...

  20. Preliminary indications for antibiotic susceptibility tests in less than six hour in positive blood cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesselina Kroumova

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A rapid determination of the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of pathogens responsible for sepsis represents a significant milestone for a timely correct antibiotic therapy.The system HB&L® (ALIFAX allows reduced time in the detection of bacterial growth and consequently is able to detect the growth or absence of certain microorganisms in the presence of a given antibiotic. In this study three system for rapid antibiotic susceptibility tests among bacteria isolated from blood were compared: HB&L® (ALIFAX,VITEK®2 (bioMérieux and essays Etest® (bioMérieux. Present findings indicate that HB&L® (ALIFAX is rapid reliable instrument that may support the clinician for a rapid and appropriate treatment, particularly in the critical patient.

  1. The mathematical analysis of the heart rate and blood lactate curves during incremental exercise testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosic, Mirko; Ilic, V; Obradovic, Z; Pantovic, S; Rosic, G

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes a new mathematical approach for the analysis of HR (heart rate) and BL (blood lactate) curves during incremental exercise testing using a HR/BL curve and its derivatives, taking into account the native shape of all curves, without any linear approximation. Using this approach the results indicate the appearance of three characteristic points (A, B and C) on the HR/BL curve. The point A on the HR/BL curve which is the value that corresponds to the load (12.73 ± 0.46 km h-1) at which BL starts to increase above the resting levels (0.9 ± 0.06 mM), and is analogous to Lactate Turn Point 1 (LTP1). The point C on the HR/BL curve which corresponds to a BL of approximately 4mM, and is analogous to LTP2. The point B on the HR/BL curve, which corresponds to the load (16.32 ± 0.49 km h-1) at which the moderate increase turns into a more pronounced increase in BL. This point has not been previously recognized in literature. We speculate this point represents attenuation of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) increase, accompanied by the decrease in diastolic time duration during incremental exercise testing. Proposed mathematical approach allows precise determination of lactate turnpoints during incremental exercise testing.

  2. Effects of recovery type after a kickboxing match on blood lactate and performance in anaerobic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouergui, Ibrahim; Hammouda, Omar; Chtourou, Hamdi; Gmada, Nabil; Franchini, Emerson

    2014-06-01

    To verify whether active recovery (AR) applied after a kickboxing match resulted in better performance in anaerobic tests when compared to passive recovery (PR). Eighteen kickboxers volunteered to participate on a Kickboxing match preceded and followed by anaerobic tests: squat jump (SJ), the counter movement jump (CMJ) and the upper-body Wingate test. Blood lactate (BL), heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were analyzed before and after rounds. The recovery sessions consisted of 10min at 50% of maximal aerobic speed or PR. BL was measured at 3, 5 and 10 min after the match, while HR, RPE and anaerobic power were assessed after the recovery period. BL, HR and RPE increased significantly (P<0.001) during the match. BL was lower (P<0.001) after AR compared to PR at 5 min and 10 min (e.g. AR: 8.94 ± 0.31 mmol.l(-1), PR: 10.98 ± 0.33 mmol.l(-1)). However, PR resulted in higher (P<0.05) upper-body mean power (4.65 ± 0.5 W.kg(-1)) compared to AR (4.09 ± 0.5 W.kg(-1)), while SJ and CMJ were not affected by the recovery type. The lactate removal was improved with AR when compared with PR, but AR did not improve subsequent performance.

  3. Blood Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests and Procedures Blood donation By Mayo Clinic Staff Blood donation is a voluntary procedure. You agree to have blood drawn so that it can ... have a disease that requires blood components. Blood donation makes all of this possible. There are several ...

  4. A new model of centrifugal blood pump for cardiopulmonary bypass: design improvement, performance, and hemolysis tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Juliana; Fonseca, Jeison; Bock, Eduardo; da Silva, Cibele; da Silva, Bruno Utiyama; Dos Santos, Alex Eugênio; Dinkhuysen, Jarbas; Andrade, Aron; Biscegli, José F

    2011-05-01

    A new model of blood pump for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) application has been developed and evaluated in our laboratories. Inside the pump housing is a spiral impeller that is conically shaped and has threads on its surface. Worm gears provide an axial motion of the blood column. Rotational motion of the conical shape generates a centrifugal pumping effect and improves pumping performance. One annular magnet with six poles is inside the impeller, providing magnetic coupling to a brushless direct current motor. In order to study the pumping performance, a mock loop system was assembled. Mock loop was composed of Tygon tubes (Saint-Gobain Corporation, Courbevoie, France), oxygenator, digital flowmeter, pressure monitor, electronic driver, and adjustable clamp for flow control. Experiments were performed on six prototypes with small differences in their design. Each prototype was tested and flow and pressure data were obtained for rotational speed of 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, and 3000 rpm. Hemolysis was studied using pumps with different internal gap sizes (1.35, 1.45, 1.55, and 1.7 mm). Hemolysis tests simulated CPB application with flow rate of 5 L/min against total pressure head of 350 mm Hg. The results from six prototypes were satisfactory, compared to the results from the literature. However, prototype #6 showed the best results. Best hemolysis results were observed with a gap of 1.45 mm, and showed a normalized index of hemolysis of 0.013 g/100 L. When combined, axial and centrifugal pumping principles produce better hydrodynamic performance without increasing hemolysis.

  5. Applicability of bacterial endotoxins test to various blood products by the use of endotoxin-specific lysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Masaki; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Naito, Seishiro; Maeyama, Jun-Ichi; Masumi, Atsuko; Hamaguchi, Isao; Horiuchi, Yoshinobu; Yamaguchi, Kazunari

    2010-11-01

    Endotoxin contamination is a serious threat to the safety of parenteral drugs, and the rabbit pyrogen test has played a crucial role in controlling this contamination. Although the highly sensitive endotoxin test has replaced the pyrogen test for various pharmaceuticals, the pyrogen test is still implemented as the control test for most blood products in Japan. We examined the applicability of the endotoxin test to blood products for reliable detection and quantification of endotoxin. Nineteen types of blood products were tested for interfering factors based on spike/recovery of endotoxin by using 2 types of endotoxin-specific lysate reagents for photometric techniques. Interfering effects on the endotoxin test by the products could be eliminated by diluting from 1/2 to 1/16, with the exception of antithrombin III. However, conventional lysate reagents that also react with non-pyrogenic substances, such as (1-3)-β-D-glucan, produced results that were not relevant to endotoxin content or pyrogenicity. Our results showed that the endotoxin test would be applicable to most blood products if used with appropriate endotoxin-specific lysate reagents.

  6. Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive blood cultures using MALDI-TOF MS and a modification of the standardised disc diffusion test: a pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, C

    2016-04-27

    In an era when clinical microbiology laboratories are under increasing financial pressure, there is a need for inexpensive, yet effective, rapid microbiology tests. The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel modification of standard methodology for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of pathogens in positive blood cultures, reducing the turnaround time of laboratory results by 24 h.

  7. Roles of preoperative arterial blood gas tests in the surgical treatment of scoliosis with moderate or severe pulmonary dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Ming; Shen, Jian-Xiong; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhao, Hong; Li, Shu-Gang; Zhao, Yu; Qiu, Giu-Xing

    2012-01-01

    It has been stated that preoperative pulmonary function tests are essential to assess the surgical risk in patients with scoliosis. Arterial blood gas tests have also been used to evaluate pulmonary function before scoliotic surgery. However, few studies have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of preoperative arterial blood gas tests in the surgical treatment of scoliosis with moderate or severe pulmonary dysfunction. This study involved scoliotic patients with moderate or severe pulmonary dysfunction (forced vital capacity arterial blood gas tests and pulmonary function tests before surgery. The arterial blood gas tests included five parameters: partial pressure of arterial oxygen, partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide, alveolar-arterial oxygen tension gradient, pH, and standard bases excess. The pulmonary function tests included three parameters: forced expiratory volume in 1 second ratio, forced vital capacity ratio, and peak expiratory flow ratio. All five parameters of the arterial blood gas tests were compared between the two groups with or without postoperative pulmonary complications by variance analysis. Similarly, all three parameters of the pulmonary function tests were compared. The average coronal Cobb angle before surgery was 97.42° (range, 50° - 180°). A total of 15 (20.5%) patients had postoperative pulmonary complications, including hypoxemia in 5 cases (33.3%), increased requirement for postoperative ventilatory support in 4 (26.7%), pneumonia in 2 (13.3%), atelectasis in 2 (13.3%), pneumothorax in 1 (6.7%), and hydrothorax in 1 (6.7%). No significant differences in demographic characteristics or perioperative factors (P > 0.05) existed between the two groups with or without postoperative pulmonary complications. According to the variance analysis, there were no statistically significant differences in any parameter of the arterial blood gas tests between the two groups. No significant correlation between

  8. Analysis of Hypodermic Needles and Syringes for the Presence of Blood and Polydimethylsiloxane (Silicone) Utilizing Microchemical Tests and Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, John B; Lanzarotta, Adam; Witkowski, Mark R; Andria, Sara E

    2015-07-01

    Suspect hypodermic needles and syringes were seized from an unlicensed individual who was allegedly injecting patients with silicone (polydimethylsiloxane [PDMS]) for cosmetic enhancement. Since control syringe barrels and needles often contain an interfering PDMS lubricant, a risk for false positives of foreign PDMS exists. The focus of this report was to minimize this risk and determine a quick and reliable test for the presence of blood in PDMS matrices. Using ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy, the risk for false-positive identification of foreign PDMS was reduced by (i) overfilling the sampling aperture to prevent spectral distortions and (ii) sampling a region of the suspect syringe/needle assembly where manufacturer-applied PDMS is not typically located. Analysis for blood indicated that the Teichman microchemical test was effective for detecting blood in the presence of PDMS. Overall, detecting PDMS established intent and detecting blood established that the needle containing the PDMS had been used for injection.

  9. One-day workflow scheme for bacterial pathogen detection and antimicrobial resistance testing from blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Wendy L J; Beuving, Judith; Verbon, Annelies; Wolffs, Petra F G

    2012-07-09

    Bloodstream infections are associated with high mortality rates because of the probable manifestation of sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock(1). Therefore, rapid administration of adequate antibiotic therapy is of foremost importance in the treatment of bloodstream infections. The critical element in this process is timing, heavily dependent on the results of bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Both of these parameters are routinely obtained by culture-based testing, which is time-consuming and takes on average 24-48 hours(2, 4). The aim of the study was to develop DNA-based assays for rapid identification of bloodstream infections, as well as rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The first assay is a eubacterial 16S rDNA-based real-time PCR assay complemented with species- or genus-specific probes(5). Using these probes, Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli as well as Gram-positive bacteria including Staphylococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Streptococcus pneumoniae could be distinguished. Using this multiprobe assay, a first identification of the causative micro-organism was given after 2 h. Secondly, we developed a semi-molecular assay for antibiotic susceptibility testing of S. aureus, Enterococcus spp. and (facultative) aerobe Gram-negative rods(6). This assay was based on a study in which PCR was used to measure the growth of bacteria(7). Bacteria harvested directly from blood cultures are incubated for 6 h with a selection of antibiotics, and following a Sybr Green-based real-time PCR assay determines inhibition of growth. The combination of these two methods could direct the choice of a suitable antibiotic therapy on the same day (Figure 1). In conclusion, molecular analysis of both identification and antibiotic susceptibility offers a faster alternative for pathogen detection and could improve the diagnosis of

  10. The Psychological Impact of a Colorectal Cancer Diagnosis Following a Negative Fecal Occult Blood Test Result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Anne; McClements, Paula L; Steele, Robert J C; Redeker, Claudia; Sevdalis, Nick; Wardle, Jane

    2015-07-01

    Screening using fecal occult blood testing (FOBt) reduces colorectal cancer mortality, but the test has low sensitivity. A "missed" cancer may cause psychologic harms in the screened population that partially counteract the benefits of early detection. Three hundred and eleven people diagnosed with colorectal cancer (i) after a negative FOBt result (interval cancer), (ii) a positive result (screen-detected cancer), or (iii) in regions where screening was not offered, completed questions on quality of life (FACT-C), depression (CES-D), perceived diagnostic delay, and trust in the results of FOBt screening. Fifteen withheld consent to data matching with medical records, leaving a sample size of 296. Controlling for demographic and clinical variables, patients with an interval cancer reported poorer quality of life (difference in means = 6.16, P = 0.03) and more diagnostic delay (OR, 0.37; P = 0.02) than patients with screen-detected disease, with no differences in depression. No differences were observed between the interval cancer group and the group not offered screening on these measures. Patients with an interval cancer reported the lowest levels of trust in FOBt. An interval cancer has adverse effects on trust in FOBt, but does not result in worse psychologic outcomes compared with people diagnosed in areas with no screening program. People with an interval cancer report poorer quality of life than people with screen-detected disease. Improvements in test sensitivity could improve quality of life among people who complete an FOB test over and above any benefits already conferred by earlier detection. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Development and testing of a new disposable sterile device for labelling white blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Signore, A.; Glaudemans, A. W. J. M.; Malviya, G.; Lazzeri, E.; Prandini, N.; Viglietti, A. L.; De Vries, E. F. J.; Dierckx, R. A. J. O.

    2012-01-01

    Aim. White blood cell (WBC) labelling requires isolation of cells from patient's blood under sterile conditions using sterile materials, buffers and disposables under good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions. Till now, this limited the use of white blood cell scintigraphy (WBC-S) only to well eq

  12. Development and testing of a new disposable sterile device for labelling white blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Signore, A.; Glaudemans, A. W. J. M.; Malviya, G.; Lazzeri, E.; Prandini, N.; Viglietti, A. L.; De Vries, E. F. J.; Dierckx, R. A. J. O.

    Aim. White blood cell (WBC) labelling requires isolation of cells from patient's blood under sterile conditions using sterile materials, buffers and disposables under good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions. Till now, this limited the use of white blood cell scintigraphy (WBC-S) only to well

  13. Theoretical study on the N-demethylation mechanism of theobromine catalyzed by P450 isoenzyme 1A2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jing; Kang, Yuan; Xue, Zhiyu; Wang, Yongting; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Qiu; Chen, Zeqin; Xue, Ying

    2015-09-01

    Theobromine, a widely consumed pharmacological active substance, can cause undesirable muscle stiffness, nausea and anorexia in high doses ingestion. The main N-demethylation metabolic mechanism of theobromine catalyzed by P450 isoenzyme 1A2 (CYP1A2) has been explored in this work using the unrestricted hybrid density functional method UB3LYP in conjunction with the LACVP(Fe)/6-31G (H, C, N, O, S, Cl) basis set. Single-point calculations including empirical dispersion corrections were carried out at the higher 6-311++G** basis set. Two N-demethylation pathways were characterized, i.e., 3-N and 7-N demethylations, which involve the initial N-methyl hydroxylation to form carbinolamines and the subsequent carbinolamines decomposition to yield monomethylxanthines and formaldehydes. Our results have shown that the rate-limiting N-methyl hydroxylation occurs via a hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanism, which proceeds in a spin-selective mechanism (SSM) in the gas phase. The carbinolamines generated are prone to decomposition via the contiguous heteroatom-assisted proton-transfer. Strikingly, 3-N demethylation is more favorable than 7-N demethylation due to its lower free energy barrier and 7-methylxanthine therefore is the optimum product reported for the demethylation of theobromine catalyzed by CYP1A2, which are in good agreement with the experimental observation. This work has first revealed the detail N-demethylation mechanisms of theobromine at the theoretical level. It can offer more significant information for the metabolism of purine alkaloid.

  14. Evaluation of a new, rapid test for detecting HCV infection, suitable for use with blood or oral fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephen R; Kardos, Keith W; Schiff, Eugene; Berne, Cheryl A; Mounzer, Karam; Banks, Alpha T; Tatum, Harvey A; Friel, Timothy J; Demicco, Michael P; Lee, William M; Eder, Scott E; Monto, Alexander; Yearwood, Graham D; Guillon, Geraldine B; Kurtz, Lisa A; Fischl, Mark; Unangst, Jay Lynn; Kriebel, Laura; Feiss, Gary; Roehler, Michele

    2011-03-01

    The availability of a highly accurate, rapid, point-of-care test for hepatitis C virus (HCV) may be useful in addressing the problem of under-diagnosis of HCV, by increasing opportunities for testing outside of traditional clinical settings. A new HCV rapid test device (OraQuick® HCV Rapid Antibody Test), approved recently in Europe for use with venous blood, fingerstick blood, serum, plasma, or oral fluid was evaluated in a multi-center study and performance compared to established laboratory-based tests for detection of HCV. The HCV rapid test was evaluated in prospective testing of subjects with signs and/or symptoms of hepatitis, or who were at risk for hepatitis C using all 5 specimen types. Performance was assessed relative to HCV serostatus established by laboratory methods (EIA, RIBA and PCR) approved in Europe for diagnosis of hepatitis C infection. Sensitivity to antibody in early infection was also compared to EIA in 27 seroconversion panels. In addition, the reliability of the oral fluid sample for accurate detection of anti-HCV was assessed by studying the impact of various potentially interfering conditions of oral health, use of oral care products and consumption of food and drink. In this large study of at-risk and symptomatic persons, the overall specificities of the OraQuick® HCV Rapid Antibody Test were equivalent (99.6-99.9%) for all 5 specimen types and the 95% CIs substantially overlapped. Overall sensitivities were virtually identical for venous blood, fingerstick blood, serum and plasma (99.7-99.9%). Observed sensitivity was slightly lower for oral fluid at 98.1% though the upper CI (99.0%) was equal to the lower CI for venous blood and fingerstick blood. Most of the HCV positive subjects which gave nonreactive results in oral fluid had serological and virological results consistent with resolved infection. Sensitivity for anti-HCV in early seroconversion was virtually identical between the HCV rapid test and EIA. Detection of anti-HCV in

  15. Bayesian estimation of sensitivity and specificity of Coxiella burnetii antibody ELISA tests in bovine blood and milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Suman; Toft, Nils; Agerholm, Jørgen S.;

    2013-01-01

    Serological tests for Coxiella burnetii (the causative agent of Q fever) antibodies are usually based on enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) although this method is not thoroughly evaluated. The objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of an ELISA for detection...... of the ELISA methods on milk and blood were equal at 0.99. No conditional dependence was observed between the specificity estimates of the two test methods. However, the sensitivity estimates of both tests were significantly reduced when conditional covariances ≥40 were used. Collection of milk samples from...... to positive (S/P) cut-off of 40 for both blood and milk ELISAs. At this cut-off, sensitivity of milk ELISA was 0.86 (95% posterior credibility interval [PCI] [0.76; 0.96]). This was slightly but insignificantly higher than sensitivity of blood ELISA (0.84; 95% PCI [0.75; 0.93]). The specificity estimates...

  16. Evaluation of canine and feline leishmaniasis by the association of blood culture, immunofluorescent antibody test and polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Audrey Rennó Campos; Langoni, Hélio; Lucheis, Simone Baldini

    2014-02-24

    This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania spp. in dogs and cats from Botucatu, São Paulo state, and Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil, by the association of three diagnostic tests: blood culture in liver infusion tryptose medium, immunofluorescent antibody test and polymerase chain reaction. Fifty blood samples of dogs and cats from the Center for Zoonosis Control in Campo Grande, an area endemic for canine visceral leishmaniasis, were collected randomly, as well as canine and feline blood samples from the Municipal Kennel and Animal Protection Association in Botucatu, currently considered a transmission-free, non-endemic area. Of the 50 dog blood cultures from Botucatu, three (6%) were positive and of the 50 cats, two (4%) were positive. In Campo Grande, 29 dog blood cultures (58%) were positive and all (100%) cats negative by this test. Polymerase chain reaction detected Leishmania spp. in 100% of dog and cat samples from Botucatu but found all the cats from Campo Grande to be negative. On the other hand, 36 dogs from Campo Grande were positive (72%) by the same technique. Immunofluorescent antibody test in Botucatu found 100% of dogs and cats non-reactive, while in Campo Grande, it detected positivity in 32 dogs (64%) and 15 cats (30%). The results show the importance of not only continuous epidemiological surveillance in areas not endemic for leishmaniasis, but also research for accurate diagnosis of this zoonosis.

  17. N-demethylation and N-oxidation of imipramine in rat thoracic aortic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yukari; Yaginuma, Toshihiko; Sakurai, Eiko; Sakurai, Eiichi

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether cultured rat thoracic aortic endothelial cells (TAECs) have the ability to metabolize the tertiary amine, imipramine. In rat TAECs, imipramine was biotransformed into N-demethylate and N-oxide by cytochrome P450 (CYP) and flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO), respectively. The intrinsic clearance (V max/K m) for the N-oxide formation was approximately five times as high as that for the N-demethylate formation, indicating that oxidation by CYP was much higher than that by FMO. Moreover, we suggest that CYP2C11 and CYP3A2 are key players in the metabolism to N-demethylate in rat TAECs using the respective anti-rat CYP antibodies (anti-CYP2C11 and anti-CYP3A2). The presence of CYP2C11 and CYP3A2 proteins was also confirmed in cultured rat TAECs using a polyclonal anti-CYP antibody and immunofluorescence microscopy. In contrast, the formation rate of N-oxide at pH 8.4 was higher than that at pH 7.4. Inhibition of N-oxide formation by methimazole was found to be the best model of competitive inhibition yielding an apparent K i value of 0.80 μmol/L, demonstrating that N-oxidation was catalyzed by FMO in rat TAECs. These results suggest that rat TAEC enzymes can convert substrates of exogenous origin such as imipramine, indicating that TAECs have an important function for metabolic products, besides hepatic cells.

  18. Green synthesis of low-toxicity graphene-fulvic acid with an open band gap enhances demethylation of methylmercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiangang; Mu, Li; Lu, Kaicheng; Kang, Jia; Zhou, Qixing

    2014-06-25

    The demethylation of methylmercury has received substantial attention. Here, a novel chemical method for the demethylation of methylmercury is proposed. The low-toxicity graphene-fulvic acid (FA, a ubiquitous material in the environment) was synthesized without the use of a chemical reagent. The hybridized graphene-FA presented an indirect open band gap of 2.25-2.87 eV as well as adequate aqueous dispersion. More importantly, the hybridized graphene-FA exhibited 6- and 10-fold higher photocatalytic efficiencies for the demethylation of methylmercury than FA and free FA with graphene, respectively. This result implies that immobilized, rather than free, FA accelerated the catalysis. Furthermore, inorganic mercuric ion, elemental mercury, and mercuric oxide were identified as the primary demethylation products. For free FA with graphene, graphene quenches the excited-state FA, inhibiting the demethylation by electron transfer. In contrast, the graphene of the self-assembled graphene-FA serves as an electron reservoir, causing electron-hole pair separation. Graphene-FA showed a negligible toxicity toward microalgae compared to graphene. The above results reveal that the green synthesis of graphene and organic molecules is a convenient strategy for obtaining effective cocatalysts.

  19. Detection of colorectal cancer in symptomatic outpatients without visible rectal bleeding: Validity of the fecal occult blood test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Niels Christian; Tøttrup, Anders; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, a new diagnostic strategy in symptomatic outpatients without known established colorectal cancer risk factors aged 40 years or older was implemented in Denmark. Fecal occult blood test (Hemoccult Sensa®) was a part of that strategy in patients without visible rectal bleeding.......In 2002, a new diagnostic strategy in symptomatic outpatients without known established colorectal cancer risk factors aged 40 years or older was implemented in Denmark. Fecal occult blood test (Hemoccult Sensa®) was a part of that strategy in patients without visible rectal bleeding....

  20. A New Device for Mechanical Testing of Blood Vessels at Cryogenic Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez Rios, Jorge L.; Rabin, Yoed

    2008-01-01

    As part of an ongoing program to study the thermo-mechanical effects associated with cryopreservation via vitrification (vitreous in Latin means glassy), the current study focuses on the development of a new device for mechanical testing of blood vessels at cryogenic temperatures. This device is demonstrated on a bovine carotid artery model, permeated with the cryoprotectant cocktail VS55 and a reference solution of 7.05M DMSO, below glass transition. Results are also presented for crystallized specimens, in the absence of cryoprotectants. Results indicate that the elastic modulus of a specimen with no cryoprotectant, at about −140°C (8.6°C and 15.5°C below the glass transition temperature of 7.05M DMSO and VS55, respectively), is 1038.8 ± 25.2 MPa, which is 8% and 3% higher than that of a vitrified specimen permeated with 7.05M DMSO and VS55, respectively. The elastic modulus of a crystallized material at −50°C is lower by ~20% lower from that at −140°C. PMID:18958183

  1. The characterization of NMR signal for blood pressure monitoring system and its testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Murdaka Eka Jati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A blood monitoring system based on NMR method has been designed on constructed. This set-up of equipment used magnetic permanent, radio frequency (RF, receiver coil (RC, function generator (FG, amplifier which included the filter, as well as the oscilloscope digital storage. The background of this research was based on the sensitivity of NMR signal. The signal must be separated from signals background. This method was done by adjusting the frequency on FG, which was connected to radio frequency (RF coil, on empty sample. Subsequently, NMR signal was received by RC, and that signal could be shown on oscilloscope at resonance condition. The true frequency on NMR signal was Larmor frequency, and the other was background. The two variables of this experiment were the position of RF coil and the location temperature (20 up to 30oC. In conclusion, the resonance frequency of NMR signal (as Larmor frequency was 4.7 MHz (at static magnetic field of 1,600 gauss and it could be separated from background signals (3.4 and 6.2 MHz, and that signal was almost constant to room temperature. The equipment was used for sample testing. It gave systole/diastole data of 110/70 mmHg (on sphygmomanometer that was similar to 17/9 mV (on NMR signal. ABSTRAK Telah dikembangkan alat pemantauan tekanan darah berdasar prinsip NMR.

  2. Malabsorption Blood Test: Assessing Fat Absorption in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis and Pancreatic Insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Maria R.; Mondick, John; Barrett, Jeffrey S.; Wilson, Martha; Stallings, Virginia A.; Schall, Joan I.

    2015-01-01

    The Malabsorption Blood Test (MBT), consisting of pentadecanoic acid (PA), a free fatty acid and triheptadecanoic acid (THA), a triglyceride that requires pancreatic lipase for absorption of the heptadecanoic acid (HA), was developed to assess fat malabsorption in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI). The objective was to construct a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model to describe PA and HA disposition in healthy subjects and CF subjects. A model was simultaneously fit to PA and HA concentrations, consisting of one compartment disposition and a transit model to describe absorption. PA bioavailability estimates for CF subjects without pancreatic enzyme administration [1.07 (0.827,1.42)] and with enzymes [0.88 (0.72,1.09)] indicated PA absorption comparable to healthy subjects. HA bioavailability in CF without enzyme administration was 0.0292 (0.0192,0.0459), and with enzymes increased to 0.606 (0.482,0.823). In CF, compared to taking enzymes with the MBT, HA bioavailability was further decreased by factors of 0.829 (0.664,0.979) and 0.78 (0.491,1.13) with enzymes taken 30 and 60 minutes after MBT, respectively. The MBT detected differences in fat absorption in subjects with CF with and without enzyme administration and with changes in enzyme timing. Future studies will address application of the MBT in CF and other malabsorption diagnoses. PMID:25689042

  3. Identification of lung cancer with high sensitivity and specificity by blood testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Bernhard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is a very frequent and lethal tumor with an identifiable risk population. Cytological analysis and chest X-ray failed to reduce mortality, and CT screenings are still controversially discussed. Recent studies provided first evidence for the potential usefulness of autoantigens as markers for lung cancer. Methods We used extended panels of arrayed antigens and determined autoantibody signatures of sera from patients with different kinds of lung cancer, different common non-tumor lung pathologies, and controls without any lung disease by a newly developed computer aided image analysis procedure. The resulting signatures were classified using linear kernel Support Vector Machines and 10-fold cross-validation. Results The novel approach allowed for discriminating lung cancer patients from controls without any lung disease with a specificity of 97.0%, a sensitivity of 97.9%, and an accuracy of 97.6%. The classification of stage IA/IB tumors and controls yielded a specificity of 97.6%, a sensitivity of 75.9%, and an accuracy of 92.9%. The discrimination of lung cancer patients from patients with non-tumor lung pathologies reached an accuracy of 88.5%. Conclusion We were able to separate lung cancer patients from subjects without any lung disease with high accuracy. Furthermore, lung cancer patients could be seprated from patients with other non-tumor lung diseases. These results provide clear evidence that blood-based tests open new avenues for the early diagnosis of lung cancer.

  4. Joint analysis of multiple blood pressure phenotypes in GAW19 data by using a multivariate rare-variant association test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianping; Bhatnagar, Sahir R; Oualkacha, Karim; Ciampi, Antonio; Greenwood, Celia M T

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale sequencing studies often measure many related phenotypes in addition to the genetic variants. Joint analysis of multiple phenotypes in genetic association studies may increase power to detect disease-associated loci. We apply a recently developed multivariate rare-variant association test to the Genetic Analysis Workshop 19 data in order to test associations between genetic variants and multiple blood pressure phenotypes simultaneously. We also compare this multivariate test with a widely used univariate test that analyzes phenotypes separately. The multivariate test identified 2 genetic variants that have been previously reported as associated with hypertension or coronary artery disease. In addition, our region-based analyses also show that the multivariate test tends to give smaller p values than the univariate test. Hence, the multivariate test has potential to improve test power, especially when multiple phenotypes are correlated.

  5. Cumene hydroperoxide supported demethylation of N,N-dimethylaniline by cytochrome P-450 from adrenal cortex mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhrem, A A; Khatyleva SYu; Shkumatov, V M; Chashchin, V L; Kiselev, P A

    1982-01-01

    The interaction of highly purified cytochrome P-450 from bovine adrenal cortex mitochondria (cytochrome P-450scc) with N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA), aniline, N-dimethylcyclohexylamine and cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) has been investigated. The formation of complexes between cytochrome P-450scc and the above listed compounds could be demonstrated. The reaction of oxidative demethylation of DMA by cumene hydroperoxide involving cytochrome P-450scc has been carried out at 37 degrees C; the mechanism of this process is discussed. Incubation of cytochrome P-450scc with negatively charged phospholipids, phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and phosphatidylinosite (PI) exerts an inhibiting effect on the reaction of oxidative demethylation. The interaction of cytochrome P-450scc with CHP is accompanied by hemoprotein destruction in a complex biphasic way. The process of oxidative demethylation of DMA in the system of cytochrome P-450scc-CHP has been concluded to have a predominantly radical character.

  6. Clomipramine demethylation rate is important on the outcome of obsessive-compulsive disorder treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcourakis, Tania; Bernik, Márcio A; Lotufo Neto, Francisco; Gedanke Shavitt, Roseli; Gorenstein, Clarice

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of demethylation rate on the outcome of obsessive-compulsive disorder patients treated with clomipramine. Eighteen patients meeting the DSM-IV criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder received 150-300 mg of clomipramine daily in a single-blind design for 12 weeks. The patients were evaluated with the Clinical Global Impression scale and the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS). Clinical assessment and serum measurements of clomipramine and desmethylclomipramine were carried out at baseline and after 3, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks. A greater improvement in Clinical Global Impression scale rating was associated with a lower desmethylclomipramine/daily dose and the total clomipramine and desmethylclomipramine/daily dose. Moreover, an improved response on the YBOCS-obsession score was associated with higher serum levels of clomipramine and the total clomipramine and desmethylclomipramine/daily dose. Patients with a greater reduction in baseline YBOCS rating had a lower desmethylclomipramine/clomipramine ratio. These data suggest that a lower demethylation rate correlates with better clinical outcome.

  7. Ascorbic acid increases demethylation in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos of the pig (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Investigated the effect and mechanism of ascorbic acid on the development of porcine embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. Methods Porcine embryos were produced by SCNT and cultured in the presence or absence of ascorbic acid. Ten-eleven translocation 3 (TET3 in oocytes was knocked down by siRNA injection. After ascorbic acid treatment, reprogramming genes were analyzed by realtime reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Furthermore, relative 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine content in pronucleus were detected by realtime PCR. Results Ascorbic acid significantly increased the development of porcine embryos produced by SCNT. After SCNT, transcript levels of reprogramming genes, Pou5f1, Sox2, and Klf were significantly increased in blastocysts. Furthermore, ascorbic acid reduced 5-methylcytosine content in pronuclear embryos compared with the control group. Knock down of TET3 in porcine oocytes significantly prevents the demethylation of somatic cell nucleus after SCNT, even if in the presence of ascorbic acid. Conclusion Ascorbic acid enhanced the development of porcine SCNT embryos via the increased TET3 mediated demethylation of somatic nucleus.

  8. AP endonucleases process 5-methylcytosine excision intermediates during active DNA demethylation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiyoon; Jang, Hosung; Shin, Hosub; Choi, Woo Lee; Mok, Young Geun; Huh, Jin Hoe

    2014-10-01

    DNA methylation is a primary epigenetic modification regulating gene expression and chromatin structure in many eukaryotes. Plants have a unique DNA demethylation system in that 5-methylcytosine (5mC) is directly removed by DNA demethylases, such as DME/ROS1 family proteins, but little is known about the downstream events. During 5mC excision, DME produces 3'-phosphor-α, β-unsaturated aldehyde and 3'-phosphate by successive β- and δ-eliminations, respectively. The kinetic studies revealed that these 3'-blocking lesions persist for a significant amount of time and at least two different enzyme activities are required to immediately process them. We demonstrate that Arabidopsis AP endonucleases APE1L, APE2 and ARP have distinct functions to process such harmful lesions to allow nucleotide extension. DME expression is toxic to E. coli due to excessive 5mC excision, but expression of APE1L or ARP significantly reduces DME-induced cytotoxicity. Finally, we propose a model of base excision repair and DNA demethylation pathway unique to plants. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Continuous Zebularine Treatment Effectively Sustains Demethylation in Human Bladder Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jonathan C.; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Gonzales, Felicidad A.; Liang, Gangning; Xu, Guo-Liang; Hu, Ye-Guang; Marquez, Victor E.; Jones, Peter A.

    2004-01-01

    During tumorigenesis, tumor suppressor and cancer-related genes are commonly silenced by aberrant DNA methylation in their promoter regions. Recently, we reported that zebularine [1-(β-d-ribofuranosyl)-1,2-dihydropyrimidin-2-one] acts as an inhibitor of DNA methylation and exhibits chemical stability and minimal cytotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. Here we show that continuous application of zebularine to T24 cells induces and maintains p16 gene expression and sustains demethylation of the 5′ region for over 40 days, preventing remethylation. In addition, continuous zebularine treatment effectively and globally demethylated various hypermethylated regions, especially CpG-poor regions. The drug caused a complete depletion of extractable DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and partial depletion of DNMT3a and DNMT3b3. Last, sequential treatment with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine followed by zebularine hindered the remethylation of the p16 5′ region and gene resilencing, suggesting the possible combination use of both drugs as a potential anticancer regimen. PMID:14729971

  10. DNMT3B gene amplification predicts resistance to DNA demethylating drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simó-Riudalbas, Laia; Melo, Sónia A; Esteller, Manel

    2011-07-01

    Disruption of the DNA methylation landscape is one of the most common features of human tumors. However, genetic alterations of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) have not been described in carcinogenesis. Herein, we show that pancreatic and breast cancer cells undergo gene amplification of the DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B). The presence of extra copies of the DNMT3B gene is linked to higher levels of the corresponding mRNA and protein. Most importantly, the elevated gene dosage of DNMT3B is associated with increased resistance to the growth-inhibitory effect mediated by DNA demethylating agents. In particular, cancer cells harboring DNMT3B gene amplification are less sensitive to the decrease in cell viability caused by 5-azacytidine (Vidaza), 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (Decitabine), and SGI-1027. Overall, the data confirm DNMT3B as a bona fide oncogene in human cancer and support the incorporation of the DNMT3B copy number assay into current clinical trials assessing the efficacy of DNA demethylating drugs in solid tumors.

  11. Evaluation of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture nucleic acid test for rapid detection of bacteria and resistance determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojewoda, Christina M; Sercia, Linda; Navas, Maria; Tuohy, Marion; Wilson, Deborah; Hall, Geraldine S; Procop, Gary W; Richter, Sandra S

    2013-07-01

    Rapid identification of pathogens from blood cultures can decrease lengths of stay and improve patient outcomes. We evaluated the accuracy of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture (BC-GP) nucleic acid test for investigational use only (Nanosphere, Inc., Northbrook, IL) for the identification of Gram-positive bacteria from blood cultures. The detection of resistance genes (mecA in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and vanA or vanB in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis) by the BC-GP assay also was assessed. A total of 186 positive blood cultures (in BacT/Alert FA bottles) with Gram-positive cocci observed with Gram staining were analyzed using the BC-GP assay. The BC-GP results were compared with the identification and susceptibility profiles obtained with routine methods in the clinical laboratory. Discordant results were arbitrated with additional biochemical, cefoxitin disk, and repeat BC-GP testing. The initial BC-GP organism identification was concordant with routine method results for 94.6% of the blood cultures. Only 40% of the Streptococcus pneumoniae identifications were correct. The detection of the mecA gene for 69 blood cultures with only S. aureus or S. epidermidis was concordant with susceptibility testing results. For 3 of 6 cultures with multiple Staphylococcus spp., mecA detection was reported but was correlated with oxacillin resistance in a species other than S. aureus or S. epidermidis. The detection of vanA agreed with susceptibility testing results for 45 of 46 cultures with E. faecalis or E. faecium. Comparison of the mean times to results for each organism group showed that BC-GP results were available 31 to 42 h earlier than phenotypic identifications and 41 to 50 h earlier than susceptibility results.

  12. The stability of the reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) tests on stored horse blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celi, P; Sullivan, M; Evans, D

    2010-02-01

    Increasing interest in the role of oxidative stress (OS) in equine medicine has highlighted the need to develop reliable methods to quantify it. In this study we describe the effect of refrigeration (at 4 degrees C) on the stability of the reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) tests carried out on 15 healthy horses. Blood samples, collected from the jugular vein, were immediately placed on ice and analysed using both the d-ROMs and BAP tests. Samples were also refrigerated at 4 degrees C and tested after 3, 7 and 24 h. The average results were similar for up to 24 h and minimal variations were found for each horse. The findings suggest that refrigeration is suitable for preserving equine blood samples for these assays and this approach will provide veterinarians with a technically simple, reliable test to measure OS under field conditions.

  13. Comparison of pneumatic tube system with manual transport for routine chemistry, hematology, coagulation and blood gas tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupek, Alex; Matthewson, Beverly; Whitman, Erin; Fullarton, Rachel; Chen, Yu

    2017-08-28

    The pneumatic tube system (PTS) is commonly used in modern clinical laboratories to provide quick specimen delivery. However, its impact on sample integrity and laboratory testing results are still debatable. In addition, each PTS installation and configuration is unique to its institution. We sought to validate our Swisslog PTS by comparing routine chemistry, hematology, coagulation and blood gas test results and sample integrity indices between duplicate samples transported either manually or by PTS. Duplicate samples were delivered to the core laboratory manually by human courier or via the Swisslog PTS. Head-to-head comparisons of 48 routine chemistry, hematology, coagulation and blood gas laboratory tests, and three sample integrity indices were conducted on 41 healthy volunteers and 61 adult patients. The PTS showed no impact on sample hemolysis, lipemia, or icterus indices (all pgas (in syringe and capillary tube) laboratory tests.

  14. 去甲苔藓葸噻吩抑制血管生成作用的体外实验研究%Anti-angiogenesis effect of Demethyl bryoanthrathiophene (DBT) in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhong; Xiangdong Zhou; Minghui Zhang; Yide Hu

    2011-01-01

    Objective:The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Demethyl bryoanthrathiophene (DBT) on pro-liferations of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549, and antian-giogenic effect of DBT on HUVECs in vitro. Methods: MTT assay was used to observe the effect of DBT on proliferations of HUVECs and A549 cells, fiat plate scarification assay and tube formation in vitro test were used to observe the impact of DBT on migration and vaso-formed ability of HUVECs. The effects of DBT on apoptosis and cell cycle of HUVECs were calculated by flow cytometry. Results: MTT assay showed that treatment with DBT resulted in strong inhibition to the growth of HUVECs and A549 cells. The inhibition effects of DBT on HUVECs and A549 cells were related to dosage and times of dependency.In different doses of DBT (0.16, 0.32 and 0.48 μmol/L) of fiat plate scarification for 24 h, inhibition rates of DBT to migration of HUVECs were 14.70%, 38.23% and 58.82%, respectively. In dose of DBT from 0.04, 0.20 to 0.40 μmol/L for 24 h in tube formation, there were significance differences (P < 0.01) in the decreasing number of angiogenesis and incomplete blood vessel compared with control groups. All results showed that DBT promoted the apoptosis rate of HUVECs, and the increase of concentration of DBT accompanied the acceleration of apoptosis rate. Conclusion: DBT could inhibit the proliferations of HUVECs and A549 cells, and effectively suppress angiogenesis in vitro.

  15. Why do patients want to have their blood tested? : A qualitative study of patient expectations in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhoven, M.A. van; Pleunis-van Empel, M.C.; Koch, H.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Dinant, G.J.; Weijden, T. van der

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: General practitioners often take their impression of patients' expectations into account in their decision to have blood tests done. It is commonly recommended to involve patients in decision-making during consultations. The study aimed to obtain detailed information on patients' expecta

  16. Quantitative measurement of demethylation of /sup 14/C-methoxyl labeled DMPEA and TMA-2 in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargent, T. III; Shulgin, A.T.; Kusubov, N.

    1976-01-01

    Some reports have suggested that methylation and demethylation of compounds related to 6-hydroxydopamine may be involved in endogenous mental disorder. We report the synthesis of 3,4-dimethyoxyphenethylamine (DMPEA) and 2,4,5-trimethoxyphenylisopropylamine (TMA-2) with each methoxyl group separately labeled with /sup 14/C. The rate and percent demethylation of these two compounds, with five labeled positions, were determined in the rat. The results suggest that TMA-2 might be metabolized to a hydroquinone in vivo; a similar metabolic intermediate of the psychoactive compound DOM is known to give rise in vitro to an indole.

  17. The impact of high-dose vitamin C on blood glucose testing in ¹⁸F-FDG PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Rebekah L; Wilson, Don C

    2015-03-01

    Complementary and alternative therapies in addition to standard oncology protocols are commonly sought by cancer patients; however, few patients disclose their complementary treatments to their cancer care team. A lack of communication may result in unforeseen side effects and the potential for some alternative therapies to interfere with or inhibit conventional treatment. High-dose vitamin C therapy, in particular, may lead to an inability to measure a patient's blood glucose level before (18)F-FDG injection for PET/CT scanning. We report a case of a 52-y-old woman referred for (18)F-FDG PET/CT to evaluate the extent of recurrent colorectal cancer. The PET/CT scan immediately followed a single intravenous dose of 25 g of ascorbic acid from her naturopath. A glucometer that applies the glucose oxidase method for measuring fasting blood glucose was used, for which high doses of vitamin C are listed as a contraindication. The high concentration of ascorbic acid in the patient's blood sample interfered with the chemical reaction on the glucose strip, and therefore no blood glucose measurement could be attained. With more patients receiving alternative and complementary cancer therapies, it is important to know what the implications of orthomolecular therapy might be on routine blood glucose testing for (18)F-FDG PET scans. (18)F-FDG is in direct competition with glucose; therefore, elevated blood glucose levels will cause a decrease in (18)F-FDG absorption and may lead to a false-negative scan.

  18. How to encourage non-donors to be more willing to donate blood? Testing of binding communication based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonte, D; Blondé, J; Girandola, F

    2017-06-01

    Our study aims to test the effectiveness of binding communication based interventions (vs classical persuasive communication based ones) inciting non-donors to act in favour of blood donation. The implementation of effective communication interventions represents a major public health issue. Nevertheless, persuasive media campaigns appear to have little effect on behaviours. Even though non-donors hold a positive attitude towards blood donation, they are not inclined to donate. As an alternative to producing behavioural changes, many recent studies have shown the superiority of binding communication over persuasive communication. All participants, non-donors, were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions of a 2 (type of communication: persuasive vs binding) × 2 (source credibility: low vs high) factorial design. Then, they were asked to report their intention to donate blood, and their intention to distribute leaflets regarding blood donation. Binding communication is a more effective strategy for increasing intention towards blood donation compared with persuasive communication, especially when combined with high credibility source. Accordingly this study calls for more consideration of knowledge of social psychology to design effective communication interventions and increase the number of donations. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  19. Test for antioxidant ability by scavenging long-lived mutagenic radicals in mammalian cells and by blood test with intentional radicals: an application of gallic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Jun; Kawaura, Tomoko; Miyazaki, Tetsuo; Prost, Michel; Prost, Emmanuelle; Watanabe, Masami; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2003-01-01

    Antioxidant ability of gallic acid (GA) are determined both by electron spin resonance measurement of long-lived radicals produced in γ-ray irradiated Syrian golden hamster embryo cells with GA and by hemolysis measurement with GA when blood cells are submitted to radicals. Scavenging properties of GA are determined by the reaction rate constant with long-lived mutagenic radicals in the cells while the blood test allows to analyze the global effects of this compound: radical scavenger+metal ion chelator+regeneration of intra- and extra-cellular antioxidant.

  20. Same-day identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing on positive blood cultures: a simple and inexpensive procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maelegheer, K; Nulens, E

    2016-11-26

    Fast diagnostic tools are becoming a hot topic in microbiology, especially in the case of septic patients. Therefore, we attempted to develop a fast, inexpensive, accurate and easy method to identify bacteria and perform an antibiotic susceptibility test directly on positive blood cultures that could be used in a routine laboratory. A procedure based on centrifugation and washing steps was performed on 110 non-duplicated (including nine seeded) positive blood culture bottles. Direct identification (DID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was conducted on the pellet with the MALDI Biotyper and Phoenix, respectively. Identification (ID) to the species level was correct in 44/45 (97%) cases for Gram-negative bacteria and 44/56 (79%) cases for Gram-positive bacteria. In total, 98.9% of the AST results were identical to the routine laboratory result. No very major errors, four major errors and eight minor errors were detected. A reliable identification and a high AST agreement were obtained from blood cultures seeded with multi-resistant bacteria. We simulated the timeline of DID and demonstrated an identification and AST result within 24 h using Escherichia coli- and Staphylococcus aureus-positive blood cultures as examples. We developed an easy, fast and cheap method to generate reliable ID and AST results. Moreover, this method may be used to obtain results within 24 h after incubating the blood culture bottles in the microbiology lab.

  1. Demographic, risk factors and motivations among blood donors with reactive serologic tests for syphilis in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, S C; de Almeida-Neto, C; Nishiya, A S; Oliveira, C D L; Ferreira, J E; Alencar, C S; Levi, J E; Salles, N A; Mendrone, A; Sabino, E C

    2014-06-01

    To identify the demographic characteristics, risk factors and motivations for donating among blood donors with reactive serologic tests for syphilis. Post-donation interviews with syphilis seropositive blood donors improve recruitment and screening strategies. This case-control study compares 75 Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) > 8, EIA+ (enzyme immunoassay) and FTA-ABS+ (fluorescent treponemal antibody); 80 VDRL-, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+; and 34 VDRL- and EIA- donors between 2004 and 2009. Donors were assessed by their demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour, history of alcohol and illicit drugs use, and motivations to donate. Donors with VDRL > 8 were more likely to be divorced [AOR = 12·53; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·30-120·81], to have had more than six sexual partners (AOR=7·1; 95% CI 1·12-44·62) and to report male-male-sex in the past 12 months (AOR=8·18; 95% CI 1·78-37·60). Donors with VDRL-, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ were less likely to be female (AOR=0·26; 95% CI 0·07-0·96), more likely to be older (AOR=10·2; 95% CI 2·45-42·58 ≥ 39 and VDRL > 8) and 12·5% (VDRL-, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+) of donors reported that they had been at risk for HIV infection (P = 0·004). One-third of donors came to the blood bank to help a friend or a relative who needed blood. Although donors exposed to syphilis reported and recognised some high risk behaviour, most were motivated by direct appeal to donate blood. Monitoring the risk profile of blood donors can benefit public health and improve blood safety. © 2014 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2014 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  2. Comparison of three feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) point-of-care antigen test kits using blood and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Mark E; Malik, Richard; Hall, Evelyn; Sheehy, Paul A; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2017-02-01

    Feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) can be a challenging infection to diagnose due to a complex feline host-pathogen relationship and occasionally unreliable test results. This study compared the accuracy of three point-of-care (PoC) FeLV p27 antigen test kits commonly used in Australia and available commercially worldwide (SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo, Witness FeLV/FIV and Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV), using detection of FeLV provirus by an in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay as the diagnostic gold standard. Blood (n=563) and saliva (n=419) specimens were collected from a population of cats determined to include 491 FeLV-uninfected and 72 FeLV-infected individuals (45 progressive infections [p27 and qPCR positive], 27 regressive infections [p27 negative, qPCR positive]). Sensitivity and specificity using whole blood was 63% and 94% for SNAP Combo, 57% and 98% for Witness, and 57% and 98% for Anigen Rapid, respectively. SNAP Combo had a significantly lower specificity using blood compared to the other two kits (P=0.004 compared to Witness, P=0.007 compared to Anigen Rapid). False-positive test results occurred with all three kits using blood, and although using any two kits in parallel increased specificity, no combination of kits completely eliminated the occurrence of false-positive results. We therefore recommend FeLV proviral PCR testing for any cat that tests positive with a PoC FeLV antigen kit, as well as for any cat that has been potentially exposed to FeLV but tests negative with a FeLV antigen kit, before final assignment of FeLV status can be made with confidence. For saliva testing, sensitivity and specificity was 54% and 100%, respectively, for all three test kits. The reduced sensitivity of saliva testing compared to blood testing, although not statistically significant, suggests saliva testing with the current generation of PoC FeLV antigen kits is unsuitable for screening large populations of cats, such as in shelters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  3. Direct blood culturing on solid medium outperforms an automated continuously monitored broth-based blood culture system in terms of time to identification and susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelevich, E A; Grünastel, B; Peters, G; Becker, K

    2016-03-01

    Pathogen identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) should be available as soon as possible for patients with bloodstream infections. We investigated whether a lysis-centrifugation (LC) blood culture (BC) method, combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identification and Vitek 2 AST, provides a time advantage in comparison with the currently used automated broth-based BC system. Seven bacterial reference strains were added each to 10 mL human blood in final concentrations of 100, 10 and 1 CFU/mL. Inoculated blood was added to the Isolator 10 tube and centrifuged at 3000 g for 30 min, then 1.5 mL sediment was distributed onto five 150-mm agar plates. Growth was observed hourly and microcolonies were subjected to MALDI-TOF MS and Vitek 2 as soon as possible. For comparison, seeded blood was introduced into an aerobic BC bottle and incubated in the BACTEC 9240 automated BC system. For all species/concentration combinations except one, successful identification and Vitek 2 inoculation were achieved even before growth detection by BACTEC. The fastest identification and inoculation for AST were achieved with Escherichia coli in concentrations of 100 CFU/mL and 10 CFU/mL (after 7 h each, while BACTEC flagged respective samples positive after 9.5 h and 10 h). Use of the LC-BC method allows skipping of incubation in automated BC systems and, used in combination with rapid diagnostics from microcolonies, provides a considerable advantage in time to result. This suggests that the usefulness of direct BC on solid medium should be re-evaluated in the era of rapid microbiology.

  4. A comparative study of Widal test with blood culture in the diagnosis of typhoid fever in febrile patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andualem, Gizachew; Abebe, Tamrat; Kebede, Nigatu; Gebre-Selassie, Solomon; Mihret, Adane; Alemayehu, Haile

    2014-09-17

    Typhoid fever is a major health problem in developing countries and its diagnosis on clinical ground is difficult. Diagnosis in developing countries including Ethiopia is mostly done by Widal test. However, the value of the test has been debated. Hence, evaluating the result of this test is necessary for correct interpretation of the result. The main aim of this study was to compare the result of Widal test and blood culture in the diagnosis of typhoid fever in febrile patients. Blood samples were collected from 270 febrile patients with symptoms clinically similar to typhoid fever and visiting St. Paul's General Specialized Hospitals from mid December 2010 to March 2011. Blood culture was used to isolate S.typhi and S.paratyphi. Slide agglutination test and tube agglutination tests were used for the determination of antibody titer. An antibody titer of ≥1:80 for anti TO and ≥1:160 for anti TH were taken as a cut of value to indicate recent infection of typhoid fever. One hundred and eighty six (68.9%) participants were females and eighty four (31.1%) were males. 7 (2.6%) cases of S. typhi and 4 (1.5%) cases of S. paratyphi were identified with the total prevalence of typhoid fever 4.1%. The total number of patients who have indicative of recent infection by either of O and H antigens Widal test is 88 (32.6%). The sensitivity, specificity, Positive predictive Value and Negative predictive Value of Widal test were 71.4%, 68.44%, 5.7% and 98.9% respectively. Widal test has a low sensitivity, specificity and PPV, but it has good NPV which indicates that negative Widal test result have a good indication for the absence of the disease.

  5. Development and Testing of a Plastic Optical Fiber Grating Biosensor for Detection of Glucose in the Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunianto, M.; Eka, D.; Permata, A. N.; Ariningrum, D.; Wahyuningsih, S.; Marzuki, A.

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study is to detect glucose content in human blood serum using optical fiber grating with LED wavelength corresponding to the absorption of glucose content in blood serum. The testing used a UV-Vis spectrometer and Rays spectrometers, in which in the ray spectrometer it was used optical fiber biosensor using optical fiber grating. The result obtained is the typical peak of glucose absorption in UV-Vis at 581 nm wavelength and rays spectrometer on green LED at 514.2 nm wavelength with linear regression result by 0.97 and 0.94, respectively.

  6. Neonatal gut function, measured by the one hour blood D (+) xylose test: influence of gestational age and size.

    OpenAIRE

    Ducker, D A; Hughes, C A; Warren, I.; McNeish, A S

    1980-01-01

    D(+) Xylose absorption, assessed by one hour blood xylose levels, has been measured after intraduodenal infusion of the sugar in 35 infants of differing gestational age and size. The test was performed between the 2nd and 6th days of life. Full-term appropriately grown infants had higher blood xylose levels (1.41+/-0.07 mmol/l) at one hour than pre-term appropriately grown infants (1.17+/-0.07 mmol/l; P less than 0.05), or 'light for dates' infants, both full-term (0.73+/-0.06 mmol/l; P less ...

  7. Roles of preoperative arterial blood gas tests in the surgical treatment of scoliosis with moderate or severe pulmonary dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jia-ming; SHEN Jian-xiong; ZHANG Jian-guo; ZHAO Hong; LI Shu-gang; ZHAO Yu; QIU Giu-xing

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been stated that preoperative pulmonary function tests are essential to assess the surgical risk in patients with scoliosis.Arterial blood gas tests have also been used to evaluate pulmonary function before scoliotic surgery.However,few studies have been reported.The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of preoperative arterial blood gas tests in the surgical treatment of scoliosis with moderate or severe pulmonary dysfunction.Methods This study involved scoliotic patients with moderate or severe pulmonary dysfunction (forced vital capacity <60%) who underwent surgical treatment between January 2002 and April 2010.A total of 73 scoliotic patients (23 males and 50 females) with moderate or severe pulmonary dysfunction were included.The average age of the patients was 16.53 years (ranged 10-44).The demographic distribution,medical records,and radiographs of all patients were collected.All patients received arterial blood gas tests and pulmonary function tests before surgery.The arterial blood gas tests included five parameters:partial pressure of arterial oxygen,partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide,alveolar-arterial oxygen tension gradient,pH,and standard bases excess.The pulmonary function tests included three parameters:forced expiratory volume in 1 second ratio,forced vital capacity ratio,and peak expiratory flow ratio.All five parameters of the arterial blood gas tests were compared between the two groups with or without postoperative pulmonary complications by variance analysis.Similarly,all three parameters of the pulmonary function tests were compared.Results The average coronal Cobb angle before surgery was 97.42° (range,50°-180°).A total of 15 (20.5%) patients had postoperative pulmonary complications,including hypoxemia in 5 cases (33.3%),increased requirement for postoperative ventilatory support in 4 (26.7%),pneumonia in 2 (13.3%),atelectasis in 2 (13.3%),pneumothorax in 1 (6.7%),and hydrothorax in 1

  8. Do maximal aerobic power and blood lactate concentration affect Specific Judo Fitness Test performance in female judo athletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbouj, H; Selmi, M A; Sassi, R Haj; Yahmed, M Haj; Chamari, K; Chaouachi, A

    2016-12-01

    The Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) has become the test most widely used by coaches and physical trainers for assessment of competitors' judo-specific physical aptitude and training programme prescription. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the SJFT performance indices and both maximal aerobic power and the level of blood lactate concentrations in female judo athletes. Seventeen female judokas (age: 21.9±1.6 years, body mass: 74.6±27.4 kg, height: 164.5±8.6 cm; BMI: 27.1±8.0 kg · m(-2)) took part in this study. All participants performed the SJFT, 20 m multi-stage shuttle run test (MSRT), and 30 m straight sprint test (SST), from which we calculated both acceleration (10 m) and the maximal anaerobic speed (MAnS: flying 20 m sprint). A blood sample was taken 3 min after the SJFT. The number of throws was significantly correlated with estimated VO2max (r=0.795, p=0.0001) and both acceleration (r=0.63, p =0.006) and MAnS (r=0.76, p=0.0004). Peak blood lactate recorded after the SJFT was 13.90±1.39 mmol · l(-1). No significant correlation was found between blood lactate concentration and the SJFT performance indices. The lack of significant correlation between blood lactate and SJFT performance suggests that lactic anaerobic metabolism has no effect on this type of judo-specific supra-maximal exercise. The observed results can provide coaches and strength and conditioning professionals with relevant information for the interpretation of SJFT performance and the prescription of specific training programmes for female judo athletes.

  9. Half a decade of mini-pool nucleic acid testing: Cost-effective way for improving blood safety in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaram Chandrashekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: It is well established that Nucleic acid testing (NAT reduces window phase of transfusion transmissible infections (TTI and helps improve blood safety. NAT testing can be done individually or in pools. The objectives of this study were to determine the utility, feasibility and cost effectiveness of an in-house minipool-NAT(MP-NAT. Materials and Methods: Blood donors were screened by history, tested by ELISA and sero-negative samples were subjected to an in-house NAT by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Testing was done in mini-pools of size eight (8. Positive pools were repeated with individual samples. Results: During the study period of Oct 2005-Sept 2010 (5 years all blood donors (n=53729 were screened by ELISA. Of which 469 (0.87% were positive for HIV-1, HBV or HCV. Sero-negative samples (n=53260 were screened by in-house MP-NAT. HIV-NAT yield was 1/53260 (n=1 and HBV NAT yield (n=2 was 1/26630. Conclusion: NAT yield was lower than other India studies possibly due to the lower sero-reactivity amongst our donors. Nevertheless it intercepted 9 lives including the components prepared. The in-house assay met our objective of improving blood safety at nominal cost and showed that it is feasible to set up small molecular biology units in medium-large sized blood banks and deliver blood within 24-48 hours. The utility of NAT (NAT yield will vary based on the donor population, the type of serological test used, the nature of kit employed and the sensitivity of NAT test used. The limitations of our in-house MP-NAT consisted of stringent sample preparation requirements, with labor and time involved. The benefits of our MP-NAT were that it acted as a second level of check for ELISA tests, was relatively inexpensive compared to ID-NAT and did not need sophisticated equipment.

  10. Impacts of Activated Carbon Amendment on Hg Methylation, Demethylation and Microbial Activity in Marsh Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, C. C.; Ghosh, U.; Santillan, E. F. U.; Soren, A.; Bell, J. T.; Butera, D.; McBurney, A. W.; Brown, S.; Henry, E.; Vlassopoulos, D.

    2015-12-01

    In-situ sorbent amendments are a low-impact approach for remediation of contaminants in sediments, particular in habitats like wetlands that provide important ecosystem services. Laboratory microcosm trials (Gilmour et al. 2013) and early field trials show that activated carbon (AC) can effectively increase partitioning of both inorganic Hg and methylmercury to the solid phase. Sediment-water partitioning can serve as a proxy for Hg and MeHg bioavailability in soils. One consideration in using AC in remediation is its potential impact on organisms. For mercury, a critical consideration is the potential impact on net MeHg accumulation and bioavailability. In this study, we specifically evaluated the impact of AC on rates of methylmercury production and degradation, and on overall microbial activity, in 4 different Hg-contaminated salt marsh soils. The study was done over 28 days in anaerobic, sulfate-reducing slurries. A double label of enriched mercury isotopes (Me199Hg and inorganic 201Hg) was used to separately follow de novo Me201Hg production and Me199Hg degradation. AC amendments decreased both methylation and demethylation rate constants relative to un-amended controls, but the impact on demethylation was stronger. The addition of 5% (dry weight) regenerated AC to soil slurries drove demethylation rate constants to nearly zero; i.e. MeHg sorption to AC almost totally blocked its degradation. The net impact was increased solid phase MeHg concentrations in some of the soil slurries with the highest methylation rate constants. However, the net impact of AC amendments was to increase MeHg (and inorganic Hg) partitioning to the soil phase and decrease concentrations in the aqueous phase. AC significantly decreased aqueous phase inorganic Hg and MeHg concentrations after 28 days. Overall, the efficacy of AC in reducing aqueous MeHg was highest in the soils with the highest MeHg concentrations. The AC addition did not significantly impact microbial activity, as

  11. Surrogate testing suggests that chlorine dioxide gas exposure would not inactivate Ebola virus contained in environmental blood contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, John J; Hewlett, Angela L; Iwen, Peter C; Smith, Philip W; Gibbs, Shawn G

    2015-05-08

    The ability to decontaminate a room potentially containing the Ebola virus is important to healthcare facilities in the United States. Ebola virus remains viable in body fluids, a room that has housed a patient with Ebola virus disease must have all surfaces manually wiped with an approved disinfectant, which increases occupational exposure risk. This study evaluated the efficacy of gaseous chlorine dioxide inactivation of bacterial organisms in blood as Ebola virus surrogates and as the organisms used by the Nebraska Biocontainment Unit to provide the margin of safety for decontamination. Bacillus anthracis, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Mycobacterium smegmatis blood suspensions that were exposed to ClO2 gas concentrations and exposure limits. The log reduction in Colony Forming Units (CFU) was determined for each bacterial blood suspension. Exposure parameters approximating industry practices for ClO2 environmental decontamination (360ppm concentration to 780 ppm-hrs exposure, 65% relative humidity) as well as parameters exceeding current practice (1116 ppm concentration to 1400 ppm-hrs exposure; 1342ppm concentration to 1487 ppm-hrs exposure) were evaluated. Complete inactivation was not achieved for any of the bacterial blood suspensions tested. Reductions were observed in concentrations of B. anthracis spores (1.3 -3.76 log) and E. faecalis vegetative cells (1.3 log) whereas significant reductions in vegetative cell concentrations for E. coli and M. smegmatis blood suspensions were not achieved. Our results showed that bacteria in the presence of blood were not inactivated using gaseous ClO2 decontamination. ClO2 decontamination alone should not be used for Ebola virus, but decontamination processes should first include manual wiping of potentially contaminated blood; especially for microorganisms as infectious as the Ebola virus.

  12. Direct identification and susceptibility testing of positive blood cultures using high speed cold centrifugation and Vitek II system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Ali M; Rabaan, Ali A; Fawarah, Mahmoud M; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A

    2016-06-13

    Compared to routine isolated colony-based methods, direct testing of bacterial pellets from positive blood cultures reduces turnaround time for reporting of antibiotic susceptibility. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy, and precision, of a rapid method for direct identification and susceptibility testing of blood cultures with the routine method used in our laboratory, using Vitek 2. A total of 60 isolates were evaluated using the candidate and the routine method. The candidate method had 100% accuracy for the identification of Gram negative bacteria, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus, 50% for Streptococcus and 33.3% for Corynebacterium species. Susceptibility testing of Gram negative isolates yielded 98-100% essential agreement. For Staphylococcus and Enterococcus isolates, essential agreement was 100% for 17 antibiotics except for moxifloxacin. Direct testing of blood culture samples with Vitek 2 produced reliable identification and susceptibility results 18-24h sooner for aerobic/anaerobic facultative Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive Staphylococcus and Enterococcus strains.

  13. Dissecting the sterol C-4 demethylation process in higher plants. From structures and genes to catalytic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahier, Alain

    2011-03-01

    Sterols become functional only after removal of the two methyl groups at C-4. This review focuses on the sterol C-4 demethylation process in higher plants. An intriguing aspect in the removal of the two C-4 methyl groups of sterol precursors in plants is that it does not occur consecutively as it does in yeast and animals, but is interrupted by several enzymatic steps. Each C-4 demethylation step involves the sequential participation of three individual enzymatic reactions including a sterol methyl oxidase (SMO), a 3β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase/C4-decarboxylase (3βHSD/D) and a 3-ketosteroid reductase (SR). The distant location of the two C-4 demethylations in the sterol pathway requires distinct SMOs with respective substrate specificity. Combination of genetic and molecular enzymological approaches allowed a thorough identification and functional characterization of two distinct families of SMOs genes and two 3βHSD/D genes. For the latter, these studies provided the first molecularly and functionally characterized HSDs from a short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family in plants, and the first data on 3-D molecular interactions of an enzyme of the postoxidosqualene cyclase sterol biosynthetic pathway with its substrate in animals, yeast and higher plants. Characterization of these three new components involved in C-4 demethylation participates to the completion of the molecular inventory of sterol synthesis in higher plants.

  14. Microbial identification and automated antibiotic susceptibility testing directly from positive blood cultures using MALDI-TOF MS and VITEK 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattal, C; Oberoi, J K

    2016-01-01

    The study addresses the utility of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) using VITEK MS and the VITEK 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) system for direct identification (ID) and timely AST from positive blood culture bottles using a lysis-filtration method (LFM). Between July and December 2014, a total of 140 non-duplicate mono-microbial blood cultures were processed. An aliquot of positive blood culture broth was incubated with lysis buffer before the bacteria were filtered and washed. Micro-organisms recovered from the filter were first identified using VITEK MS and its suspension was used for direct AST by VITEK 2 once the ID was known. Direct ID and AST results were compared with classical methods using solid growth. Out of the 140 bottles tested, VITEK MS resulted in 70.7 % correct identification to the genus and/ or species level. For the 103 bottles where identification was possible, there was agreement in 97 samples (94.17 %) with classical culture. Compared to the routine method, the direct AST resulted in category agreement in 860 (96.5 %) of 891 bacteria-antimicrobial agent combinations tested. The results of direct ID and AST were available 16.1 hours before those of the standard approach on average. The combined use of VITEK MS and VITEK 2 directly on samples from positive blood culture bottles using a LFM technique can result in rapid and reliable ID and AST results in blood stream infections to result in early institution of targeted treatment. The combination of LFM and AST using VITEK 2 was found to expedite AST more reliably.

  15. Blood gases and oximetry: calibration-free new dry-chemistry and optical technology for near-patient testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boalth, N; Wandrup, J; Larsson, L; Frischauf, P A; Lundsgaard, F C; Andersen, W L; Jensen, N; Singer, R; Troldborg, C P; Lunding, G

    2001-05-01

    The first calibration-free Near-Patient-Testing instrument (NPT7) for blood gases, pH and oximetry has been developed. With cartridges of 30 single-use cuvettes, the NPT7 needs no preparation prior to sample aspiration, no manual calibration, and no maintenance apart from paper and cartridge changes and regulatory quality control. Each cuvette measures pCO2, pO2, pH, total hemoglobin (ctHb), oxygen saturation (sO2), fractions of carboxyhemoglobin (FCOHb) and methemoglobin (FMetHb) on 95 microl whole blood with a 110-s measuring cycle. The measurement principles are as follows: pCO2-three-wavelength infrared spectroscopy of dissolved CO2; pO2-measurement of O2-induced changes in the decay time of phosphorescence; pH-the absorbance spectra change of an azo-dye color indicator; and oximetry is performed with a 128-wavelength spectrophotometer. We determined the within and between instrument variations with tonometered whole blood on seven prototype instruments, using between one and five control levels per analyte. The 95% analytical performance limits: +/-(/Bias/ +2 xS(T)) in the NPT7 instrument matched the analytical performance criteria for the measured quantities as defined by AACC guidelines. The application of these optical measuring methods for blood gases, pH and oximetry in single-use devices introduces a new concept into point-of-care testing (POCT), where preanalytical activities otherwise associated with instrument preparation are eliminated.

  16. Inhibitors of DNA Methylation, Histone Deacetylation, and Histone Demethylation: A Perfect Combination for Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnow, C A; Topper, M; Stone, M; Murray-Stewart, T; Li, H; Baylin, S B; Casero, R A

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic silencing and inappropriate activation of gene expression are frequent events during the initiation and progression of cancer. These events involve a complex interplay between the hypermethylation of CpG dinucleotides within gene promoter and enhancer regions, the recruitment of transcriptional corepressors and the deacetylation and/or methylation of histone tails. These epigenetic regulators act in concert to block transcription or interfere with the maintenance of chromatin boundary regions. However, DNA/histone methylation and histone acetylation states are reversible, enzyme-mediated processes and as such, have emerged as promising targets for cancer therapy. This review will focus on the potential benefits and synergistic/additive effects of combining DNA-demethylating agents and histone deacetylase inhibitors or lysine-specific demethylase inhibitors together in epigenetic therapy for solid tumors and will highlight what is known regarding the mechanisms of action that contribute to the antitumor response.

  17. A probabilistic generative model for quantification of DNA modifications enables analysis of demethylation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Äijö, Tarmo; Huang, Yun; Mannerström, Henrik; Chavez, Lukas; Tsagaratou, Ageliki; Rao, Anjana; Lähdesmäki, Harri

    2016-03-14

    We present a generative model, Lux, to quantify DNA methylation modifications from any combination of bisulfite sequencing approaches, including reduced, oxidative, TET-assisted, chemical-modification assisted, and methylase-assisted bisulfite sequencing data. Lux models all cytosine modifications (C, 5mC, 5hmC, 5fC, and 5caC) simultaneously together with experimental parameters, including bisulfite conversion and oxidation efficiencies, as well as various chemical labeling and protection steps. We show that Lux improves the quantification and comparison of cytosine modification levels and that Lux can process any oxidized methylcytosine sequencing data sets to quantify all cytosine modifications. Analysis of targeted data from Tet2-knockdown embryonic stem cells and T cells during development demonstrates DNA modification quantification at unprecedented detail, quantifies active demethylation pathways and reveals 5hmC localization in putative regulatory regions.

  18. Clozapine and sulpiride but not haloperidol or olanzapine activate brain DNA demethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, E; Nelson, M; Grayson, D R; Costa, E; Guidotti, A

    2008-09-09

    Cortical GABAergic dysfunction, a hallmark of both schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar (BP) disorder pathophysiologies may relate to the hypermethylation of GABAergic gene promoters (i.e., reelin and GAD67). Benefits elicited by a combination of atypical antipsychotics with valproate (VPA) (a histone deacetylase inhibitor that may also activate brain DNA demethylation) in SZ or BP disorder treatment prompted us to investigate whether the beneficial action of this association depends on induction of a putative DNA demethylase activity. To monitor this activity, we measured the ratio of 5-methyl cytosine to unmethylated cytosine in reelin and GAD67 promoters in the mouse frontal cortex and striatum. We compared normal mice with mice pretreated with l-methionine (5.2 mmol/kg s.c. twice a day for 7 days) to hypermethylate promoters, including reelin and GAD67. Clinically relevant doses of clozapine (CLZ) (3.8 to 15 micromol/kg twice a day s.c. for 3 days) and sulpiride (SULP) (12.5 to 50 micromol/kg twice a day for 3 days) but not clinically relevant doses of haloperidol (HAL) (1.3 to 4 micromol/kg twice a day s.c. for 3 days) or olanzapine (OLZ) (4 to 15 micromol/kg twice a day for 3 days) exhibited dose-related increases in the cortical and striatal demethylation of hypermethylated reelin and GAD67 promoters. These effects of CLZ and SULP were dramatically potentiated by a clinically relevant VPA dose (0.5 mmol/kg twice a day for 3 days). By activating a DNA demethylase, the association of CLZ or SULP with VPA may facilitate a chromatin remodeling that normalizes the GABAergic gene expression down-regulation detected in the telencephalic regions of SZ and BP patients.

  19. Mercury Methylation, Demethylation, and Bioavailability in the Hyporheic Sediments of a Northern Wisconsin Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J. E.; Babiarz, C. L.; Shafer, M. M.; Roden, E. E.; Armstrong, D. E.

    2007-12-01

    It is generally accepted that wetland sediments have a high potential to produce methylmercury, yet the factors controlling the relevant chemical transformations are poorly understood. Previous studies suggest that sulfate- reducing bacteria play an important role in methylation, but iron-reducing bacteria may also participate in this process. Methylation rates are influenced by both the concentration of Hg(II) and its speciation, which affects its bioavailability. Net accumulation depends also on demethylation rates, rates which may be significant in these systems. The objective of this study is to gain a better understanding of the main factors controlling the bioavailability of inorganic mercury for the production of methylmercury in wetland hyporheic zones. Stable isotopes of mercury are being used to investigate potential methylation and demethylation rates in the hyporheic sediments of Allequash Creek, near Boulder Junction, WI. Other techniques that are being applied to examine the chemical and biological drivers of mercury methylation and bioavailability include tin-reducible mercury "titrations" to measure the concentration of strong mercury-binding ligands in porewater, 14C-acetate uptake assays to determine the activity of the native microbial consortia , ion exchange resin experiments to explore the role of dissolved organic carbon in mercury binding, and inhibition studies (e.g. molybdenum amendments) of sulfate-reducing bacteria to assess their role in producing methylmercury. Manipulations of environmental conditions in laboratory microcosms are used to determine the relative importance of physical factors, such as temperature, and biogeochemical factors, such as sulfate, sulfide, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and iron levels, on the fate of mercury in hyporheic systems. Preliminary results show that while significant levels of inorganic mercury are present in the hyporheic groundwater, strong mercury-binding ligands in the wetland porewaters at a

  20. Human concentrative nucleoside transporter 1-mediated uptake of 5-azacytidine enhances DNA demethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Maria; Stresemann, Carlo; Keller, Daniela; Brom, Manuela; Schirrmacher, Esther; Keppler, Dietrich; Lyko, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The DNA methyltransferase inhibitors 5-azacytidine (5-azaCyd) and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine have found increasing use for the treatment of myeloid leukemias and solid tumors. Both nucleoside analogues must be transported into cells and phosphorylated before they can be incorporated into DNA and inactivate DNA methyltransferases. The members of the human equilibrative and concentrative nucleoside transporter families mediate transport of natural nucleosides and some nucleoside analogues into cells. However, the molecular identity of the transport proteins responsible for mediating the uptake of 5-azanucleosides has remained unknown. To this end, we have generated a stably transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney strain II cell line expressing recombinant hCNT1. An antiserum directed against hCNT1 specifically detected the protein in the apical membrane of hCNT1-expressing Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Using [14C]5-azaCyd, we show here that hCNT1 mediated the Na+-dependent uptake of this drug with a Km value of 63 micromol/L. Na+-dependent transport of radiolabeled cytidine, uridine, and 5-fluoro-5'-deoxyuridine further showed the functionality of the transporter. hCNT1-expressing cells were significantly more sensitive to 5-azaCyd, and drug-dependent covalent trapping of DNA methyltransferase 1 was substantially more pronounced. Importantly, these results correlated with a significant sensitization of hCNT1-expressing cells toward the demethylating effects of 5-azaCyd and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. In conclusion, our study identifies 5-azaCyd as a novel substrate for hCNT1 and provides direct evidence that hCNT1 is involved in the DNA-demethylating effects of this drug.

  1. A comprehensive experimental study of industrial, domestic and environmental interferences with the forensic luminol test for blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, J I; Quickenden, T I; Apanah, M V; Kerr, K A; Robertson, P

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the fi rst comprehensive and quantitative study of substances that interfere with the forensic luminol test for blood. Two hundred and fifty substances have been selected on the basis of modern lifestyles and of contiguity with crime scenes. The intensity of the chemiluminescence produced by each substance has been measured relative to that of haemoglobin and the peak wavelength shift has also been determined. The following is a short list of nine substances that produce chemiluminescence intensities comparable with that of haemoglobin: turnips, parsnips, horseradishes, commercial bleach (NaClO), copper metal, some furniture polishes, some enamel paints, and some interior fabrics in motor vehicles. Care needs to be taken when the luminol test for blood is used in the presence of these substances.

  2. Blood tests for investigating maternal wellbeing. 4. When nausea and vomiting in pregnancy becomes pathological: hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) is commonplace, with many midwives frequently counselling women in their care. But how do midwives know when NVP becomes pathological? Although hyperemesis gravidarum (HEG) is less common, midwives must be able to recognise and differentiate between these two conditions, especially as HEG has the potential to have a detrimental effect on maternal and fetal wellbeing. The physiological impact of HEG is well documented but what often goes unacknowledged is the psychological, social, occupational and familial impact it also has on a woman's life. Knowledge about the aetiology of HEG and treatment options available is essential but a timely initial diagnosis is paramount. For this to occur the midwife must be skilled in history taking, clinical examination and utilisation of serum blood tests--specifically electrolytes and urea. An understanding of how electrolyte levels can cause pathology is vital if the midwife wishes to interpret blood tests for women with this condition.

  3. The Assessment of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Mirtazapine in Human Blood Lymphocytes Using Micronucleus Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Norizadeh tazehkand

    2015-02-01

    Results: MN formation was not significantly induced at 24- and 48-h treatment periods when compared with control but Nuclear division index (NDI significantly decreased at all concentrations for two treatment periods. Conclusion: Mirtazapine was not genetoxic but was cytotoxic in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. According to this study mirtazapine has cytotoxic effects on human's cells.

  4. Awareness and Knowledge of Cardiovascular Risk through Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Testing in College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, J. A.; Panza, G.; Zaleski, A.; Taylor, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, yet knowledge of CVD risk factors is surprisingly low in college students. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an individualized blood pressure, cholesterol, and CVD education intervention on college freshmen. Methods:…

  5. Awareness and Knowledge of Cardiovascular Risk through Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Testing in College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, J. A.; Panza, G.; Zaleski, A.; Taylor, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, yet knowledge of CVD risk factors is surprisingly low in college students. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an individualized blood pressure, cholesterol, and CVD education intervention on college freshmen. Methods:…

  6. A single dual-emissive nanofluorophore test paper for highly sensitive colorimetry-based quantification of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Yujie; Liu, Cui; Zhang, Ruilong; Zhang, Liying; Du, Shuhu; Liu, Bianhua; Han, Ming-Yong; Zhang, Zhongping

    2016-12-15

    Fluorescent test papers are promising for the wide applications in the assays of diagnosis, environments and foods, but unlike classical dye-absorption-based pH test paper, they are usually limited in the qualitative yes/no type of detection by fluorescent brightness, and the colorimetry-based quantification remains a challenging task. Here, we report a single dual-emissive nanofluorophore probe to achieve the consecutive color variations from blue to red for the quantification of blood glucose on its as-prepared test papers. Red quantum dots were embedded into silica nanoparticles as a stable internal standard emission, and blue carbon dots (CDs) were further covalently linked onto the surface of silica, in which the ratiometric fluorescence intensity of blue to red is controlled at 5:1. While the oxidation of glucose induced the formation of Fe(3+) ions, the blue emission of CDs was thus quenched by the electron transfer from CDs to Fe(3+), displaying a serial of consecutive color variations from blue to red with the dosage of glucose. The high-quality test papers printed by the probe ink exhibited a dosage-sensitive allochromatic capability with the clear differentiations of ~5, 7, 9, 11mM glucose in human serum (normal: 3-8mM). The blood glucose determined by the test paper was almost in accordance with that measured by a standard glucometer. The method reported here opens a window to the wide applications of fluorescent test paper in biological assays.

  7. Fish oil-supplementation from 9 to 12 months of age affects infant attention in a free-play test and is related to change in blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbild, Helle Liliegren; Harsløf, Laurine Bente Schram; Christensen, J. H.;

    2013-01-01

    This intervention examined whether fish-oil-supplementation in late infancy modifies free-play test scores and if this is related to blood pressure (BP) and mean RR interval.......This intervention examined whether fish-oil-supplementation in late infancy modifies free-play test scores and if this is related to blood pressure (BP) and mean RR interval....

  8. Colorectal cancer screening for the natural population of Beijing with sequential fecal occult blood test: a multicenter study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世荣; 聂昭华; 李楠; 李军祥; 章萍; 杨昭徐; 牟善坤; 杜亚萍; 胡继春; 袁申元; 屈汉庭; 张泰昌; 王世鑫; 董恩钰; 漆德芳

    2003-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Beijing and the reliability of the sequential fecal occult blood test (SFOBT) for CRC screening. Methods Of the natural population (48 100 persons) in several Beijing communities, we screened 26@!827 persons with age over 30 using the SFOBT screening p rogram, Guaiacum Fecal Occult Blood Test (GFOBT), Immuno Fecal Occult Blood Test (IFOBT), and colonoscopies.Results The screening rate of the population was 74%. The positive rate of SFOBT was 5.6%. The prevalence of CRC in the entire population of Beijing was therefore c alculated to be 36.57/105. Of 12 CRC detected patients, 4 cases were in stage Dukes A (33.33%), 7 cases in stage Dukes B (58.33%), only 1 case (8.34% ) in stage Dukes C.Conclusions The prevalence of CRC in Beijing is one of the highest in China. Individuals at high risk for CRC or those over 50 years of age should be considered as primary candidates for screening. SFOBT screening is a cost-effective and reliable me thod for early detection of CRC.

  9. Derivation of a measure of systolic blood pressure mutability: a novel information theory-based metric from ambulatory blood pressure tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Danitza J; Vogel, Eugenio E; Saravia, Gonzalo; Stockins, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    We provide ambulatory blood pressure (BP) exams with tools based on information theory to quantify fluctuations thus increasing the capture of dynamic test components. Data from 515 ambulatory 24-hour BP exams were considered. Average age was 54 years, 54% were women, and 53% were under BP treatment. The average systolic pressure (SP) was 127 ± 8 mm Hg. A data compressor (wlzip) designed to recognize meaningful information is invoked to measure mutability which is a form of dynamical variability. For patients with the same average SP, different mutability values are obtained which reflects the differences in dynamical variability. In unadjusted linear regression models, mutability had low association with the mean systolic BP (R(2) = 0.056; P information toward diagnosis.

  10. For People of African, Mediterranean, or Southeast Asian Heritage: Important Information about Diabetes Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Biopsy Liver Biopsy Lower GI Series Prostate Tests Sickle Cell Trait & Other Hemoglobinopathies & Diabetes (For Providers) Thyroid Tests Upper ... a carrier. One condition caused by hemoglobin S is sickle cell trait, which occurs most often in people of African ...

  11. Epi proColon(®) 2.0 CE: A Blood-Based Screening Test for Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Yvette N; Dhillon, Sohita

    2017-04-01

    Epi proColon(®) 2.0 CE is a blood-based test designed to aid in the early detection of colorectal cancer. The test comprises a qualitative assay for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of methylated Septin9 DNA, the presence of which is associated with colorectal cancer: however, positive results should be verified by colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy. Epi proColon(®) 2.0 CE discriminated between patients with colorectal cancer and healthy controls with high clinical sensitivity and specificity in pivotal case-control studies. The sensitivity of the test did not appear to be affected by the tumour location or by patient age or gender. In addition, limited data suggest that Epi proColon(®) 2.0 CE discriminated between patients with colorectal cancer and healthy controls with higher sensitivity and generally similar specificity to that of the faecal immunochemical test, and with higher sensitivity and specificity to that of the guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (statistical data not available). In an observational study, most patients who refused colonoscopy for screening accepted a non-invasive test option as an alternative, and preferred Epi proColon(®) 2.0 CE over a stool-based test. Large prospective trials of Epi proColon(®) 2.0 CE in a screening setting will be required to further elucidate the cost-effectiveness of the test. Nevertheless, currently available data suggests that Epi proColon(®) 2.0 CE has the potential to be a sensitive and convenient screening option for patients refusing screening by colonoscopy.

  12. Evaluation of a multi-endpoint assay in rats, combining the bone-marrow micronucleus test, the Comet assay and the flow-cytometric peripheral blood micronucleus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Damian E; Whitwell, James H; Lillford, Lucinda; Henderson, Debbie; Kidd, Darren; Mc Garry, Sarah; Pearce, Gareth; Beevers, Carol; Kirkland, David J

    2011-05-18

    With the publication of revised draft ICH guidelines (Draft ICH S2), there is scope and potential to establish a combined multi-end point in vivo assay to alleviate the need for multiple in vivo assays, thereby reducing time, cost and use of animals. Presented here are the results of an evaluation trial in which the bone-marrow and peripheral blood (via MicroFlow(®) flow cytometry) micronucleus tests (looking at potential chromosome breakage and whole chromosome loss) in developing erythrocytes or young reticulocytes were combined with the Comet assay (measuring DNA strand-breakage), in stomach, liver and blood lymphocytes. This allowed a variety of potential target tissues (site of contact, site of metabolism and peripheral distribution) to be assessed for DNA damage. This combination approach was performed with minimal changes to the standard and regulatory recommended sampling times for the stand-alone assays. A series of eight in vivo genotoxins (2-acetylaminofluorene, benzo[a]pyrene, carbendazim, cyclophosphamide, dimethylnitrosamine, ethyl methanesulfonate, ethyl nitrosourea and mitomycin C), which are known to act via different modes of action (direct- and indirect-acting clastogens, alkylating agents, gene mutagens, cross-linking and aneugenic compounds) were tested. Male rats were dosed at 0, 24 and 45 h, and bone marrow and peripheral blood (micronucleus endpoint), liver, whole blood and stomach (Comet endpoint) were sampled at three hours after the last dose. Comet and micronucleus responses were as expected based on available data for conventional (acute) stand-alone assays. All compounds were detected as genotoxic in at least one of the endpoints. The importance of evaluating both endpoints was highlighted by the uniquely positive responses for certain chemicals (benzo[a]pyrene and 2-acetylaminofluorene) with the Comet endpoint and certain other chemicals (carbendazim and mitomycin C) with the micronucleus endpoint. The data generated from these

  13. Stress and coping in HIV-positive former plasma/blood donors in China: a test of cognitive appraisal theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Christina S; Wang, Jianping; Lin, Xiuyun; Wu, Hao; Poppen, Paul J

    2010-04-01

    Throughout the 1990s, many villagers in rural China were infected with HIV through commercial plasma/blood donation. These former plasma/blood donors (FPDs) experienced many HIV-related stressors. This study tested a cognitive appraisal model of stress and coping in a sample of HIV-positive adult FPDs. Participants (N = 207) from multiple villages completed a battery of questionnaires assessing HIV-related stress, HIV symptoms, cognitive appraisal, coping behaviors, and psychological distress. Participants reported high levels of HIV-related stress, depression, and anxiety. In a structural equation model, greater HIV-related stress, HIV symptoms, and threat appraisal were directly associated with psychological distress. HIV-related stress was also indirectly associated with psychological distress through threat appraisal. In a second model, coping was found to mediate the relationship between challenge appraisal and psychological distress. Results support the utility of cognitive appraisal theory. Stress management interventions targeting HIV-positive FPDs in China are indicated.

  14. Clinical laboratory experience of blood CRIM testing in infantile Pompe disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeksha S. Bali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cross-reactive immunological material (CRIM status is an important prognostic factor in patients with infantile Pompe disease (IPD being treated with enzyme replacement therapy. Western blot analysis of cultured skin fibroblast lysates has been the gold standard for determining CRIM status. Here, we evaluated CRIM status using peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC protein. For 6 of 33 patients (18% CRIM status determination using PBMC was either indeterminate or discordant with GAA genotype or fibroblast CRIM analysis results. While the use of PBMCs for CRIM determination has the advantage of a faster turnaround time, further evaluation is needed to ensure the accuracy of CRIM results.

  15. Focal increase of cerebral blood flow during stereognostic testing in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roland, E; Larsen, B

    1976-01-01

    An attempt was made to study the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) pattern during stereognostic discrimination in man. The rCBF was measured in 18 subjects who had no major neurological defects. The clearance from the hemisphere of xenon 133 injected (133Xe) into the carotid artery was measured...... with a 254-channel dynamic gamma camera. During stereognostic discrimination with hand, mouth, or foot, the rCBF increased focally in the corresponding contralateral sensory-motor region and increased focally in the premotor part of the frontal lobe. The increase in the sensory region was attributed...

  16. Dynamics of changes in the activation of blood coagulation tests at different variants of thromboprophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Миколаївна Клигуненко

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study an influence of the different variants of thromboprophylaxis on activation of blood coagulation test on the background of surgical aggression. D-dimer concentration in serum is in direct proportion to fibrinolysis activity and to an amount of lysed fibrin. At the same time fibrinolysis activation is followed with an increase of formation of products of fibrin degradation (PFD that interact with fibrin-monomers and increase the number of SFMC.Materials and methods: After informed consent 200 patients were prospectively divided into groups depending on preparation and regimen of thromboprophylaxis. 1 group (n=30 – ungraded heparin (UGH (5000 ОD for 2 hours before surgery 2 times during 7 days after it. 2 group(n=30 nadraparin calcium 9500 anti-Ха МO (0,3 ml for 2 hours before surgery 2500 МО 1 time for a day 7 days after surgery; 3 group(n=48 – endoxaparin sodium(0,2 ml for 2 hours before surgery 1 time a day 7 days; 4 group(n=29 endoxaparin sodium(0,2ml for 8 hours before surgery, 0,2 ml 1 time a day 7 days; 5 group(n=34 – bemiparin sodium(0,2 ml for 2 hours before surgery 0,2 ml 1 time a day 7 days; 6 group(n=29 bemiparin sodium(0,2ml in 6 hours after surgery 1 time a day 7 days. Patients were comparable on sex, concomitant pathology, class АSA (1-2 and type of surgical intervention. There were studied the number of thrombocytes, prothrombin time (PT, INR AFTT, fibrinogen, Х-а factor activity, antithrombin, 111 (AT111, protein C, SFMC, d-dimer before surgery, on 1,5 and 7 day after it.Results and discussions: On the 1 day of postsurgical period the most influence on D-dimer level had presurgical thromboprophylaxis (TPP with UGH and nadroparin calcium. So the D-dimer level exceeded norm respectively by 67 % (р=0,017 and 65,9 % (р<0,05. In patients of 3 and 4 groups D-dimer level was the lowest that formed deficiency by 56 % (р<0,05 and 52,7 % (р<0,05 from the norm respectively. At the same time an analysis of

  17. Effect of stage duration on maximal heart rate and post-exercise blood lactate concentration during incremental treadmill tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Fabiana A; Kravchychyn, Ana Claudia P; Peserico, Cecilia S; da Silva, Danilo F; Mezzaroba, Paulo V

    2013-05-01

    This study compared the responses during maximal incremental treadmill tests of 1-min, 2-min, and 3-min stage durations mainly in terms of maximal heart rate (HRmax) and peak blood lactate concentration (LApeak). Repeated-measures. Thirty-four male, recreational, endurance-trained runners (40±13 years) performed three tests on a motorized treadmill. The tests started at 8kmh(-1) with increments of 1kmh(-1) every 1min for the short-stage protocol, every 2min for the intermediate-stage protocol, and every 3min for the long-stage protocol. LApeak was defined for each subject as the highest value among the lactate concentrations determined at the end of each test and at the third, fifth and seventh minutes after test, during passive recovery. Analysis of variance revealed a significant effect of the stage duration on the HRmax (p=0.003) and LApeak (p=0.001). The HRmax was higher in the intermediate-stage compared to the short-stage protocol (184.8±12.7 vs. 181.8±12.1beatsmin(-1), p0.05). The LApeak was lower in the long-stage compared to the short-stage and intermediate-stage protocols (7.9±2.2 vs. 9.4±2.2 and 9.2±1.9mmolL(-1), respectively, pblood lactate reached peak concentration at the fifth minute after test for all the protocols. Thus, HRmax and LApeak depend on the stage duration of the incremental test, but the moment at which blood lactate reaches peak concentration is independent of the duration. Further, we suggest 2-min stage duration protocols to determine HRmax. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , ...

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Gram-positive and -negative bacterial isolates directly from spiked blood culture media with Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekter, H E; Orelio, C C; Morsink, M C; Tektas, S; Vis, B; Te Witt, R; van Leeuwen, W B

    2017-01-01

    Patients suffering from bacterial bloodstream infections have an increased risk of developing systematic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), which can result in rapid deterioration of the patients' health. Diagnostic methods for bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility tests are time-consuming. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Raman spectroscopy would be able to rapidly provide an antimicrobial susceptibility profile from bacteria isolated directly from positive blood cultures. First, bacterial strains (n = 133) were inoculated in tryptic soy broth and incubated in the presence or absence of antibiotics for 5 h. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. Subsequently, a selection of strains was isolated from blood cultures and analyzed similarly. VITEK®2 technology and broth dilution were used as the reference methods. Raman spectra from 67 antibiotic-susceptible strains showed discriminatory spectra in the absence or at low concentrations of antibiotics as compared to high antibiotic concentrations. For 66 antibiotic-resistant strains, no antimicrobial effect was observed on the bacterial Raman spectra. Full concordance with VITEK®2 data and broth dilution was obtained for the antibiotic-susceptible strains, 68 % and 98 %, respectively, for the resistant strains. Discriminative antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) profiles were obtained for all bacterial strains isolated from blood cultures, resulting in full concordance with the VITEK®2 data. It can be concluded that Raman spectroscopy is able to detect the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial species isolated from a positive blood culture bottle within 5 h. Although Raman spectroscopy is cheap and rapid, further optimization is required, to fulfill a great promise for future AST profiling technology development.

  20. Blood glucose testing and primary prevention of diabetes mellitus type 2 - evaluation of the effect of evidence based patient information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giani Guido

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based patient information (EBPI has been recognised as important tool for informed choice in particular in the matter of preventive options. An objective, on the best scientific evidence-based consumer information about subthreshold elevated blood glucose levels (impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance and primary prevention of diabetes, is not available yet. Thus we developed a web-based EBPI and aim to evaluate its effects on informed decision making in people 50 years or older. Methods/Design We conduct a web-based randomised-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of information about elevated blood glucose levels and diabetes primary prevention on five specific outcomes: (i knowledge of elevated blood glucose level-related issues (primary outcome; (ii attitudes to a metabolic testing; (iii intention to undergo a metabolic testing; (iv decision conflict; (v satisfaction with the information. The intervention group receives a specially developed EBPI about subthreshold elevated blood glucose levels and diabetes primary prevention, the control group information about this topic, available in the internet. The study population consists of people between 50 and 69 years of age without known diabetes. Participants will be recruited via the internet page of the cooperating health insurance company, Techniker Krankenkasse (TK, and the internet page of the German Diabetes Centre. Outcomes will be measured through online questionnaires. We expect better informed participants in the intervention group. Discussion The design of this study may be a prototype for other web-based prevention information and their evaluation. Trial registration Current Controlled Trial: ISRCTN22060616.

  1. Shortened Time to Identify Staphylococcus Species from Blood Cultures and Methicillin Resistance Testing Using CHROMAgar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Chihara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to rapidly differentiate coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS from Staphylococcus aureus and to determine methicillin resistance is important as it affects the decision to treat empiric antibiotic selection. The objective of this study was to evaluate CHROMagar S. aureus and CHROMagar MRSA (Becton Dickinson for rapid identification of Staphylococcus spp. directly from blood cultures. Consecutive blood culture bottles (BacT Alert 3D SA and SN, bioMérieux growing gram-positive cocci in clusters were evaluated. An aliquot was plated onto CHROMagar MRSA (C-MRSA and CHROMagar S. aureus (C-SA plates, which were read at 12 to 16 hours. C-SA correctly identified 147/147 S. aureus (100% sensitivity; 2 CoNS were misidentified as S. aureus (98% specificity. C-MRSA correctly identified 74/77 MRSA (96% sensitivity. None of the MSSA isolates grew on C-MRSA (100% specificity. In conclusion, CHROMagar is a rapid and sensitive method to distinguish MRSA, MSSA, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and may decrease time of reporting positive results.

  2. Blood serum components and serum protein test of Hybro-PG broilers of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRL Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood serum samples of HYBRO PG broilers were analyzed, with 30 samples collected from 21-day-old broilers (G1, 30 from 35-day-old birds (G2, and 30 from 42-day-old birds (G3, with the aim of establishing normal values of some blood serum parameters. The activities of the enzymes gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, creatine kinase (CK, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, serum levels of total calcium, calcium ion, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, chlorides, creatinine, uric acid, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, total and indirect and direct bilirubin, and electrophoretic profile of serum proteins in acrylamide (SDS-PAGE and agarose gel were determined. There was no influence of age on total bilirubin and albumin levels. All the other evaluated parameters presented differences in at least one age group. Protein electrophoretic profile also changed as a function of age. The obtained results can be considered as normal for the studied ages, and therefore be used as references for the interpretation of laboratory exams of broilers of this genetic line in the evaluated ages.

  3. Advanced contrast nanoagents for photoacoustic molecular imaging, cytometry, blood test and photothermal theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Zerda, Adam; Kim, Jin-Woo; Galanzha, Ekaterina I; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Zharov, Vladimir P

    2011-01-01

    Various nanoparticles have raised significant interest over the past decades for their unique physical and optical properties and biological utilities. Here we summarize the vast applications of advanced nanoparticles with a focus on carbon nanotube (CNT)-based or CNT-catalyzed contrast agents for photoacoustic (PA) imaging, cytometry and theranostics applications based on the photothermal (PT) effect. We briefly review the safety and potential toxicity of the PA/PT contrast nanoagents, while showing how the physical properties as well as multiple biological coatings change their toxicity profiles and contrasts. We provide general guidelines needed for the validation of a new molecular imaging agent in living subjects, and exemplify these guidelines with single-walled CNTs targeted to α(v) β(3) , an integrin associated with tumor angiogenesis, and golden carbon nanotubes targeted to LYVE-1, endothelial lymphatic receptors. An extensive review of the potential applications of advanced contrast agents is provided, including imaging of static targets such as tumor angiogenesis receptors, in vivo cytometry of dynamic targets such as circulating tumor cells and nanoparticles in blood, lymph, bones and plants, methods to enhance the PA and PT effects with transient and stationary bubble conjugates, PT/PA Raman imaging and multispectral histology. Finally, theranostic applications are reviewed, including the nanophotothermolysis of individual tumor cells and bacteria with clustered nanoparticles, nanothrombolysis of blood clots, detection and purging metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes, spectral hole burning and multiplex therapy with ultrasharp rainbow nanoparticles.

  4. Comparison of the Staphylococcus QuickFISH BC test with the tube coagulase test performed on positive blood cultures for evaluation and application in a clinical routine setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretto, E; Bardaro, M; Russello, G; Mirra, M; Zuelli, C; Barbarini, D

    2013-01-01

    Many studies demonstrate that delayed proper therapy in bloodstream infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus increases the mortality rate, emphasizing the need to shorten the turnaround time for positive blood cultures. Different techniques are currently available, from phenotypic methods to more complex tests such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF), real-time PCR (RT-PCR), and fluorescence in situ hybridization using peptide nucleic acid probes (PNA FISH). This study evaluated the performance of the Staphylococcus QuickFISH BC test (QFT), a novel FISH methodology, compared with the direct tube coagulase test (DTCT) on blood cultures exhibiting Gram-positive cocci in clusters. A total of 173 blood cultures collected from 128 different patients were analyzed using the DTCT, evaluated after both 4 and 24 h, and the QFT. A total of 179 isolates were identified using the Vitek2 system. Thirty-five out of 35 Staphylococcus aureus were correctly identified by the QFT (sensitivity = 100%), with a specificity of 100% (no green fluorescence was detected for strains different from S. aureus). The DTCT was positive after 4 h for 28 out of the 35 samples (sensitivity = 80%) and after 24 h for 31 out of the 35 samples (sensitivity = 88.57%). Among the remaining 144 isolates, one was then identified as Corynebacterium striatum and two as Micrococcus luteus. QFT identified 139 out of the 141 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (sensitivity = 98.58%), showing again a specificity of 100% (no fluorescent red signals were detected for strains different from CoNS). We also discuss also the implementation process of this methodology in our setting, with particular emphasis on the workflow and the cost-effectiveness.

  5. Public banking of umbilical cord blood or storage in a private bank: testing social and ethical policy in northeastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parco S

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sergio Parco, Fulvia Vascotto, Patrizia Visconti Institute for Maternal and Child Health, Trieste, Italy Background: In northeastern Italy, according to Italian legislation, authorized public facilities can accept the donation and preservation of cord blood stem cells (CB-SC. Attitudes and knowledge in pregnant women differs between the local and immigrant (non-European Union [EU] population. In this study we assessed the choices that pregnant women have with respect to the public and private harvesting system and the main reasons driving their decisions. We examined the ethnic origin of the families and compared tests for syphilis screening and leukocyte (WBC counts in the CB-SC bags that are required for validation of the collection. Methods: Out of a population of 3450 pregnant patients at the Institute for Maternal and Child Health of Trieste, northeast Italy, 772 women agreed to cord blood harvesting and the associated lab tests. Of these, 221 women (28.6% were from immigrant families of non-EU countries. Their ethnic affiliation was recorded, and tests were performed for syphilis screening and for nucleated red blood cell (NRBC interference with the WBC count in CB-SC bags to assess cellularity and to determine if storage was appropriate. Results: Of the 772 pregnant women, 648 (84.0% accessed the public collection system, which is free of charge, and 124 (15.0% accessed the private fee-based system. One woman from the non-EU group opted for the private fee-based system. Of the 3450 pregnant women screened for syphilis at the Institute for Maternal and Child Health, the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA and Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL tests were the main tests performed (66.0% of total cases because many gynecologists in the public harvesting system apply the Italian regulations of the 1988 Decree, while the private system requires tests on syphilis and leaves the option to the lab physicians to select the best

  6. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β regulates leucine-309 demethylation of protein phosphatase-2A via PPMT1 and PME-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiu-Qing; Li, Xia-Chun; Zhang, Xiao-Xue; Yin, Yang-Yang; Liu, Bin; Luo, Dan-Ju; Wang, Qun; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Liu, Gong-Ping

    2012-07-30

    Protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) activity is significantly suppressed in Alzheimer's disease. We have reported that glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) inhibits PP2A via upregulating the phosphorylation of PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2A(C)). Here we studied the effects of GSK-3β on the inhibitory demethylation of PP2A at leucine-309 (dmL309-PP2A(C)). We found that GSK-3β regulates dmL309-PP2A(C) level by regulating PME-1 and PPMT1. Knockdown of PME-1 or PPMT1 eliminated the effects of GSK-3β on PP2A(C). GSK-3 could negatively regulate PP2A regulatory subunit protein level. We conclude that GSK-3β can inhibit PP2A by increasing the inhibitory L309-demethylation involving upregulation of PME-1 and inhibition of PPMT1.

  7. Routine blood tests to predict liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yung-Yu Hsieh; Shui-Yi Tung; Kamfai Lee; Cheng-Shyong Wu; Kuo-Liang Wei; Chien-Heng Shen; Te-Sheng Chang; Yi-Hsiung Lin

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To verify the usefulness of FibroQ for predicting fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C,compared with other noninvasive tests.METHODS:This retrospective cohort study included 237 consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis C who had undergone percutaneous liver biopsy before treatment.FibroQ,aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR),AST to platelet ratio index,cirrhosis discriminant score,age-platelet index (API),Pohl score,FIB-4 index,and Lok's model were calculated and compared.RESULTS:FibroQ,FIB-4,AAR,API and Lok's model results increased significantly as fibrosis advanced (analysis of variance test:P < 0.001).FibroQ trended to be superior in predicting significant fibrosis score in chronic hepatitis C compared with other noninvasive tests.CONCLUSION:FibroQ is a simple and useful test for predicting significant fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

  8. Risk factors for false positive and for false negative test results in screening with fecal occult blood testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegeman, Inge; de Wijkerslooth, Thomas R; Stoop, Esther M; van Leerdam, Monique; van Ballegooijen, M; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A; Fockens, Paul; Kuipers, Ernst J; Dekker, Evelien; Bossuyt, Patrick M

    2013-11-15

    Differences in the risk of a false negative or a false positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) across subgroups may affect optimal screening strategies. We evaluate whether subgroups are at increased risk of a false positive or a false negative FIT result, whether such variability in risk is related to differences in FIT sensitivity and specificity or to differences in prior CRC risk. Randomly selected, asymptomatic individuals were invited to undergo colonoscopy. Participants were asked to undergo one sample FIT and to complete a risk questionnaire. We identified patient characteristics associated with a false negative and false positive FIT results using logistic regression. We focused on statistically significant differences as well as on variables influencing the false positive or negative risk for which the odds ratio exceeded 1.25. Of the 1,426 screening participants, 1,112 (78%) completed FIT and the questionnaire; 101 (9.1%) had advanced neoplasia. 102 Individuals were FIT positive, 65 (64%) had a false negative FIT result and 66 (65%) a false positive FIT result. Participants at higher age and smokers had a significantly higher risk of a false negative FIT result. Males were at increased risk of a false positive result, so were smokers and regular NSAID users. FIT sensitivity was lower in females. Specificity was lower for males, smokers and regular NSAID users. FIT sensitivity was lower in women. FIT specificity was lower in males, smokers and regular NSAID users. Our results can be used for further evidence based individualization of screening strategies.

  9. Comparison of breath-alcohol screening test results with venous blood alcohol concentration in suspected drunken drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriikku, Pirkko; Wilhelm, Lars; Jenckel, Stefan; Rintatalo, Janne; Hurme, Jukka; Kramer, Jan; Jones, A Wayne; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2014-06-01

    Hand-held electronic breath-alcohol analyzers are widely used by police authorities in their efforts to detect drunken drivers and to improve road-traffic safety. Over a three month period, the results of roadside breath-alcohol tests of drivers apprehended in Finland were compared with venous blood alcohol concentration (BAC). The mean (median) time between sampling blood and breath was 0.71h (0.58h) with a range from 0 to 6h. Some hand-held instruments gave results as the concentration of alcohol in breath and were converted into BAC assuming a blood-breath alcohol ratio (BBR) of 2260. The mean venous BAC (1.82g/kg) in traffic offenders was higher than the result predicted by the hand-held breath analyzers (1.72g/kg). In 1875 roadside tests, the relationship between venous BAC (x) and BrAC (y) was defined by the regression equation y=0.18+0.85x. The coefficients show both a constant bias (y-intercept 0.18g/kg) and a proportional bias (slope=0.85). The residual standard deviation (SD), an indicator of random variation, was ±0.40g/kg. After BAC results were corrected for the time elapsed between sampling blood and breath, the y-intercept decreased to 0.10g/kg and 0.004g/kg, respectively, when low (0.1g/kg/h) and high (0.25g/kg/h) rates of alcohol elimination were used. The proportional bias of 0.85 shows that the breath-alcohol test result reads lower than the actual BAC by 15% on average. This suggests that the BBR of 2260 used for calibration should be increased by about 15% to give closer agreement between BAC and BrAC. Because of the large random variation (SD±0.40g/kg), there is considerable uncertainty if and when results from the roadside screening test are used to estimate venous BAC. The roadside breath-alcohol screening instruments worked well for the purpose of selecting drivers above the statutory limit of 0.50g/kg.

  10. [An adolescent with autism and a somatic high-risk profile receiving treatment with antipsychotics refuses blood tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlaar, J; Gelderblom, I L; van der Sijde, A; Bastiaansen, D

    2013-01-01

    An 18-year-old adolescent with an autism spectrum disorder was on antipsychotic medication for anxiety and aggressive behaviour. From a physical examination and the patient’s family medical history there emerged a high-risk profile for the metabolic syndrome. Because the patient refused blood tests the doctors were faced with the dilemma of whether to continue the patient’s medication with the risk of severe side effects or whether to stop medication, which could lead to the recurrence of severe behavioural problems and aggressive behaviour. The dilemma is discussed and some recommendations are given.

  11. [Syphilis detection using ELISA and VDRL tests on blood donors at the blood center of Guarapuava, State of Paraná].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Viviane Matoso de; Verdasca, Izabel Cristina; Monteiro, Marta Chagas

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the syphilis seroprevalence among 5,752 blood donors who were attended at the blood center of Guarapuava, State of Paraná, in 2006. The seropositivity rates were 2.1% for enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay and 0.2% for Veneral Disease Research Laboratory, thus showing low prevalence of syphilis among the individuals who came to this blood bank.

  12. Baseline Systolic Blood Pressure Response to Exercise Stress Test Can Predict Exercise Indices following Cardiac Rehabilitation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Sardari

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systolic blood pressure recovery (rSBP is of prognostic value for predicting the survival and co-morbidity rate in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. This study investigated the association between rSBP and exercise indices after complete cardiac rehabilitation program (CR in a population-based sample of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG.Methods: The sample population consisted of 352 patients who underwent pure CABG. The patients underwent standard symptom-limited exercise testing immediately before and also after the completion of the CR sessions. rSBP was defined as the ratio of the systolic blood pressure at 3 minutes in recovery to the systolic blood pressure at peak exercise.Results: An abnormal baseline rSBP after exercise was a strong predictor of exercise parameters in the last session, including metabolic equivalents (β = -0.617, SE = 0.127, p value < 0.001 and peak O2 consumption (β = -1.950, SE = 0.363, p value < 0.001 measured in the last session adjusted for baseline exercise characteristics, demographics, function class, and left ventricular ejection fraction.Conclusion: The current study strongly emphasizes the predictive role of baseline rSBP after exercise in evaluating exercise parameters following CR. This baseline index can predict abnormal METs value, peak O2 consumption, post-exercise heart rate, and heart rate recovery after a 24-session CR program.

  13. Quantitative analysis of genomic DNA degradation in whole blood under various storage conditions for molecular diagnostic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permenter, Jessalyn; Ishwar, Arjun; Rounsavall, Angie; Smith, Maddie; Faske, Jennifer; Sailey, Charles J; Alfaro, Maria P

    2015-12-01

    Proper storage of whole blood is crucial for isolating nucleic acids from leukocytes and to ensure adequate performance of downstream assays in the molecular diagnostic laboratory. Short-term and long-term storage recommendations are lacking for successful isolation of genomic DNA (gDNA). Container type (EDTA or heparin), temperature (4 °C and room temperature) and time (1-130 days) were assessed as criterion for sample acceptance policies. The percentage of integrated area (%Ti) between 150 and 10,000 bp from the 2200 TapeStation electropherogram was calculated to measure gDNA degradation. Refrigerated EDTA samples yielded gDNA with low %Ti (high quality). Heparinized samples stored at room temperature yielded gDNA of worst quality. Downstream analysis demonstrated that the quality of the gDNA correlated with the quality of the data; samples with high %Ti generated significantly lower levels of high molecular weight amplicons. Recommendations from these analyses include storing blood samples intended for nucleic acid isolation in EDTA tubes at 4 °C for long term storage (>10 days). gDNA should be extracted within 3 days when blood is stored at room temperature regardless of the container. Finally, refrigerated heparinized samples should not be stored longer than 9 days if expecting high quality gDNA isolates. Laboratories should consider many factors, in addition to the results obtained herein, to update their policies for sample acceptance for gDNA extraction intended for molecular genetic testing.

  14. O-Demethylation and successive oxidative dechlorination of methoxychlor by Bradyrhizobium sp. strain 17-4, isolated from river sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satsuma, Koji; Masuda, Minoru; Sato, Kiyoshi

    2012-08-01

    O-Demethylation of insecticide methoxychlor is well known as a phase I metabolic reaction in various eukaryotic organisms. Regarding prokaryotic organisms, however, no individual species involved in such reaction have been specified and characterized so far. Here we successfully isolated a bacterium that mediates oxidative transformation of methoxychlor, including O-demethylation and dechlorination, from river sediment. The isolate was found to be closely related to Bradyrhizobium elkanii at the 16S rRNA gene sequence level (100% identical). However, based on some differences in the physiological properties of this bacterium, we determined that it was actually a different species, Bradyrhizobium sp. strain 17-4. The isolate mediated O-demethylation of methoxychlor to yield a monophenolic derivative [Mono-OH; 1,1,1-trichloro-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethane] as the primary degradation product. The chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that the isolate possesses high enantioselectivity favoring the formation of (S)-Mono-OH (nearly 100%). Accompanied by the sequential O-demethylation to form the bis-phenolic derivative Bis-OH [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethane], oxidative dechlorination of the side chain proceeded, and monophenolic carboxylic acid accumulated, followed by the formation of multiple unidentified polar degradation products. The breakdown proceeded more rapidly when reductively dechlorinated (dichloro-form) methoxychlor was applied as the initial substrate. The resultant carboxylic acids and polar degradation products are likely further biodegraded by ubiquitous bacteria. The isolate possibly plays an important role for complete degradation (mineralization) of methoxychlor by providing the readily biodegradable substrates.

  15. Evaluation of mercury methylation and methylmercury demethylation rates in vegetated and non-vegetated saltmarsh sediments from two Portuguese estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesário, Rute; Hintelmann, Holger; Mendes, Ricardo; Eckey, Kevin; Dimock, Brian; Araújo, Beatriz; Mota, Ana Maria; Canário, João

    2017-07-01

    Neurotoxic methylmercury (MMHg) is formed from inorganic divalent mercury (Hg(2+)). However, it is poorly understood to what extent different mercury (Hg) pools contribute to existent MMHg levels. In this study, ambient concentrations of total Hg (THg) and MMHg as well as rates of methylation and demethylation were measured simultaneously in sediments with and without salt-marsh plant vegetation, which were collected in Guadiana and Tagus estuaries, Portugal. Concurrent processes of Hg methylation and MMHg demethylation were directly monitored and compared by spiking sediments cores with stable isotope tracers of (199)Hg(2+) and CH3(201)Hg(+) followed by gas chromatographic separation and isotope-specific detection using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Compared to the Guadiana estuary, where concentrations were comparatively low, THg and MMHg levels varied between vegetated and non-vegetated sediments collected at the Rosário site (ROS) of the Tagus estuary. Methylation (KM) and demethylation rates (KD) were also different between estuaries being dependent on the presence of vegetation. In addition, the type of macrophyte species influenced KM and KD values. In fact, the highest KM value was found in Sarcocornia fruticosa vegetated sediments at the Castro Marim site in Guadiana (CM, 0.160 day(-1)) and the lowest KM was observed in non-vegetated sediments at the Alcochete site in Tagus (ALC, 0.009 day(-1)). KD varied by a factor of three among sites with highest rates of demethylation observed in non-vegetated sediments in Guadiana (12 ± 1.3 day(-1), corresponding to a half-life of 1.4 ± 0.2 h). This study clearly shows that the presence of vegetation in sediments favors the formation of MMHg. Moreover, this effect might be site specific and further studies are needed to confirm the findings reported here. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Screening for colorectal cancer: random comparison of guaiac and immunochemical faecal occult blood testing at different cut-off levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol, L; Wilschut, J A; van Ballegooijen, M; van Vuuren, A J; van der Valk, H; Reijerink, J C I Y; van der Togt, A C M; Kuipers, E J; Habbema, J D F; van Leerdam, M E

    2009-01-01

    Immunochemical faecal occult blood testing (FIT) provides quantitative test results, which allows optimisation of the cut-off value for follow-up colonoscopy. We conducted a randomised population-based trial to determine test characteristics of FIT (OC-Sensor micro, Eiken, Japan) screening at different cut-off levels and compare these with guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) screening in an average risk population. A representative sample of the Dutch population (n=10 011), aged 50–74 years, was 1 : 1 randomised before invitation to gFOBT and FIT screening. Colonoscopy was offered to screenees with a positive gFOBT or FIT (cut-off 50 ng haemoglobin/ml). When varying the cut-off level between 50 and 200 ng ml−1, the positivity rate of FIT ranged between 8.1% (95% CI: 7.2–9.1%) and 3.5% (95% CI: 2.9–4.2%), the detection rate of advanced neoplasia ranged between 3.2% (95% CI: 2.6–3.9%) and 2.1% (95% CI: 1.6–2.6%), and the specificity ranged between 95.5% (95% CI: 94.5–96.3%) and 98.8% (95% CI: 98.4–99.0%). At a cut-off value of 75 ng ml−1, the detection rate was two times higher than with gFOBT screening (gFOBT: 1.2%; FIT: 2.5%; P<0.001), whereas the number needed to scope (NNscope) to find one screenee with advanced neoplasia was similar (2.2 vs 1.9; P=0.69). Immunochemical faecal occult blood testing is considerably more effective than gFOBT screening within the range of tested cut-off values. From our experience, a cut-off value of 75 ng ml−1 provided an adequate positivity rate and an acceptable trade-off between detection rate and NNscope. PMID:19337257

  17. Rapid testing using the Verigene Gram-negative blood culture nucleic acid test in combination with antimicrobial stewardship intervention against Gram-negative bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bork, Jacqueline T; Leekha, Surbhi; Heil, Emily L; Zhao, LiCheng; Badamas, Rilwan; Johnson, J Kristie

    2015-03-01

    Rapid identification of microorganisms and antimicrobial resistance is paramount for targeted treatment in serious bloodstream infections (BSI). The Verigene Gram-negative blood culture nucleic acid test (BC-GN) is a multiplex, automated molecular diagnostic test for identification of eight Gram-negative (GN) organisms and resistance markers from blood culture with a turnaround time of approximately 2 h. Clinical isolates from adult patients at the University Maryland Medical Center with GN bacteremia from 1 January 2012 to 30 June 2012 were included in this study. Blood culture bottles were spiked with clinical isolates, allowed to incubate, and processed by BC-GN. A diagnostic evaluation was performed. In addition, a theoretical evaluation of time to effective and optimal antibiotic was performed, comparing actual antibiotic administration times from chart review ("control") to theoretical administration times based on BC-GN reporting and antimicrobial stewardship team (AST) review ("intervention"). For organisms detected by the assay, BC-GN correctly identified 95.6% (131/137), with a sensitivity of 97.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90.7 to 98.4%) and a specificity of 99.5% (95% CI, 98.8 to 99.8%). CTX-M and OXA resistance determinants were both detected. Allowing 12 h from Gram stain for antibiotic implementation, the intervention group had a significantly shorter duration to both effective (3.3 versus 7.0 h; P < 0.01) and optimal (23.5 versus 41.8 h; P < 0.01) antibiotic therapy. BC-GN with AST intervention can potentially decrease time to both effective and optimal antibiotic therapy in GN BSI.

  18. Cornel Iridoid Glycoside Attenuates Tau Hyperphosphorylation by Inhibition of PP2A Demethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cui-Cui; Kuai, Xue-Xian; Li, Ya-Li; Zhang, Li; Yu, Jian-Chun; Li, Lin; Zhang, Lan

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cornel iridoid glycoside (CIG) on tau hyperphosphorylation induced by wortmannin (WT) and GF-109203X (GFX) and the underlying mechanisms. Methods. Human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells were preincubated with CIG (50, 100, and 200 µg/ml, resp.) for 24 h and then exposed to 10 µM WT and 10 µM GFX for 3 h after washing out CIG. Immunohistochemistry was used to observe the microtubular cytoskeleton of the cultured cells. Western blotting was used to measure the phosphorylation level of tau protein, glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK-3 β ), and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). The activity of PP2A was detected by a biochemical assay. Results. Preincubation of CIG significantly attenuated the WT/GFX-induced tau hyperphosphorylation at the sites of Thr205, Thr212, Ser214, Thr217, Ser396, and PHF-1 and improved the damage of morphology and microtubular cytoskeleton of the cells. CIG did not prevent the decrease in p-AKT-ser473 and p-GSK-3 β -ser9 induced by WT/GFX. However, CIG significantly elevated the activity of PP2A by reducing the demethylation of PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac) at Leu309 and the ratio of PME-1/LCMT in the WT/GFX-treated cells. The results suggest that CIG may be beneficial to the treatment of AD.

  19. Harnessing Noxa demethylation to overcome Bortezomib resistance in mantle cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshchenko, Violetta V; Kuo, Pei-Yu; Jiang, Zewei; Weniger, Marc A; Overbey, Jessica; Dunleavy, Kieron; Wilson, Wyndham H; Wiestner, Adrian; Parekh, Samir

    2015-09-29

    Bortezomib (BZM) is the first proteasome inhibitor approved for relapsed Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL) with durable responses seen in 30%-50% of patients. Given that a large proportion of patients will not respond, BZM resistance is a significant barrier to use this agent in MCL. We hypothesized that a subset of aberrantly methylated genes may be modulating BZM response in MCL patients. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using a NimbleGen array platform revealed a striking promoter hypomethylation in MCL patient samples following BZM treatment. Pathway analysis of differentially methylated genes identified molecular mechanisms of cancer as a top canonical pathway enriched among hypomethylated genes in BZM treated samples. Noxa, a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member essential for the cytotoxicity of BZM, was significantly hypomethylated and induced following BZM treatment. Therapeutically, we could demethylate Noxa and induce anti-lymphoma activity using BZM and the DNA methytransferase inhibitor Decitabine (DAC) and their combination in vitro and in vivo in BZM resistant MCL cells. These findings suggest a role for dynamic Noxa methylation for the therapeutic benefit of BZM. Potent and synergistic cytotoxicity between BZM and DAC in vitro and in vivo supports a strategy for using epigenetic priming to overcome BZM resistance in relapsed MCL patients.

  20. Expression of Caveolin 1 is enhanced by DNA demethylation during adipocyte differentiation. status of insulin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Ortega, Sara; Varela-Guruceaga, Maider; Milagro, Fermín Ignacio; Martínez, José Alfredo; de Miguel, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Caveolin 1 (Cav-1) is an essential constituent of adipocyte caveolae which binds the beta subunit of the insulin receptor (IR) and is implicated in the regulation of insulin signaling. We have found that, during adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells the promoter, exon 1 and first intron of the Cav-1 gene undergo a demethylation process that is accompanied by a strong induction of Cav-1 expression, indicating that epigenetic mechanisms must have a pivotal role in this differentiation process. Furthermore, IR, PKB-Akt and Glut-4 expression are also increased during the differentiation process suggesting a coordinated regulation with Cav-1. Activation of Cav-1 protein by phosphorylation arises during the differentiation process, yet in fully mature adipocytes insulin is no longer able to significantly increase Cav-1 phosphorylation. However, these long-term differentiated cells are still able to respond adequately to insulin, increasing IR and PKB-Akt phosphorylation and glucose uptake. The activation of Cav-1 during the adipocyte differentiation process could facilitate the maintenance of insulin sensitivity by these fully mature adipocytes isolated from additional external stimuli. However, under the influence of physiological conditions associated to obesity, such as chronic inflammation and hypoxia, insulin sensitivity would finally be compromised.

  1. Demethylation of FANCF gene may be a potential treatment through inhibiting the proliferation of cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Li; Chanyu Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the effect of demethylating agent 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-ADC) on expression of Fanconi anemia complementation group F (FANCF) gene and the proliferation of cervical cancer cells, to observe cell's sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drug taxol, and to explore the antitumor effect of 5-ADC as well as the new treatment of cervical cancer. Methods: Cervical cancer cell lines SiHa (FANCF gene full-methylated) and Hela (unmethylated) were treated with 5-ADC. We used the methylation-specific PCR (MSP), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot to detect the FANCF methylation, mRNA and protein respectively. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2- yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to detect the proliferation of cells. The cytotoxicity of taxol was measured by flow cytometer. The nude mice bearing SiHa was used to observe the effect of 5-ADC in vivo. Results: Inhibition of DNA promoter methylation by 5-ADC reactivated the expression of FANCF mRNA and protein in SiHa cells, consistent with decreased growth speed and increased taxol resistance. These results were proven in experiments in vivo. Conclusion: The 5-ADC probably become a potential treatment drug through inhibiting the proliferation of cervical cancer cells in taxol-resistant patients.

  2. The putative oncogene GASC1 demethylates tri- and dimethylated lysine 9 on histone H3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cloos, Paul A C; Christensen, Jesper; Agger, Karl;

    2006-01-01

    Methylation of lysine and arginine residues on histone tails affects chromatin structure and gene transcription. Tri- and dimethylation of lysine 9 on histone H3 (H3K9me3/me2) is required for the binding of the repressive protein HP1 and is associated with heterochromatin formation...... and transcriptional repression in a variety of species. H3K9me3 has long been regarded as a 'permanent' epigenetic mark. In a search for proteins and complexes interacting with H3K9me3, we identified the protein GASC1 (gene amplified in squamous cell carcinoma 1), which belongs to the JMJD2 (jumonji domain containing...... 2) subfamily of the jumonji family, and is also known as JMJD2C. Here we show that three members of this subfamily of proteins demethylate H3K9me3/me2 in vitro through a hydroxylation reaction requiring iron and alpha-ketoglutarate as cofactors. Furthermore, we demonstrate that ectopic expression...

  3. Antiproliferative effects of DNA methyltransferase 3B depletion are not associated with DNA demethylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Hagemann

    Full Text Available Silencing of genes by hypermethylation contributes to cancer progression and has been shown to occur with increased frequency at specific genomic loci. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the establishment and maintenance of aberrant methylation marks are still elusive. The de novo DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B has been suggested to play an important role in the generation of cancer-specific methylation patterns. Previous studies have shown that a reduction of DNMT3B protein levels induces antiproliferative effects in cancer cells that were attributed to the demethylation and reactivation of tumor suppressor genes. However, methylation changes have not been analyzed in detail yet. Using RNA interference we reduced DNMT3B protein levels in colon cancer cell lines. Our results confirm that depletion of DNMT3B specifically reduced the proliferation rate of DNMT3B-overexpressing colon cancer cell lines. However, genome-scale DNA methylation profiling failed to reveal methylation changes at putative DNMT3B target genes, even in the complete absence of DNMT3B. These results show that DNMT3B is dispensable for the maintenance of aberrant DNA methylation patterns in human colon cancer cells and they have important implications for the development of targeted DNA methyltransferase inhibitors as epigenetic cancer drugs.

  4. Suppression of TET1-Dependent DNA Demethylation Is Essential for KRAS-Mediated Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Kuan Wu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypermethylation-mediated tumor suppressor gene (TSG silencing is a central epigenetic alteration in RAS-dependent tumorigenesis. Ten-eleven translocation (TET enzymes can depress DNA methylation by hydroxylation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC bases to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC. Here, we report that suppression of TET1 is required for KRAS-induced DNA hypermethylation and cellular transformation. In distinct nonmalignant cell lines, oncogenic KRAS promotes transformation by inhibiting TET1 expression via the ERK-signaling pathway. This reduces chromatin occupancy of TET1 at TSG promoters, lowers levels of 5hmC, and increases levels of 5mC and 5mC-dependent transcriptional silencing. Restoration of TET1 expression by ERK pathway inhibition or ectopic TET1 reintroduction in KRAS-transformed cells reactivates TSGs and inhibits colony formation. KRAS knockdown increases TET1 expression and diminishes colony-forming ability, whereas KRAS/TET1 double knockdown bypasses the KRAS dependence of KRAS-addicted cancer cells. Thus, suppression of TET1-dependent DNA demethylation is critical for KRAS-mediated transformation.

  5. IL-2 and GM-CSF are regulated by DNA demethylation during activation of T cells, B cells and macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yan [College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Department of Genome Biology, John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, ACT 2601 (Australia); Ohms, Stephen J. [ACRF Biomolecular Resource Facility, John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, ACT 2601 (Australia); Shannon, Frances M. [Department of Genome Biology, John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, ACT 2601 (Australia); The University of Canberra, ACT 2602 (Australia); Sun, Chao, E-mail: sunchao2775@163.com [College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Fan, Jun Y., E-mail: jun.fan@anu.edu.au [Department of Genome Biology, John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, ACT 2601 (Australia)

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA methylation is dynamic and flexible and changes rapidly upon cell activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA methylation controls the inducible gene expression in a given cell type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some enzymes are involved in maintaining the methylation profile of immune cells. -- Abstract: DNA demethylation has been found to occur at the promoters of a number of actively expressed cytokines and is believed to play a critical role in transcriptional regulation. While many DNA demethylation studies have focused on T cell activation, proliferation and differentiation, changes in DNA methylation in other types of immune cells are less well studied. We found that the expression of two cytokines (IL-2 and GM-CSF) responded differently to activation in three types of immune cells: EL4, A20 and RAW264.7 cells. Using the McrBC and MeDIP approaches, we observed decreases in DNA methylation at a genome-wide level and at the promoters of the genes of these cytokines. The expression of several potential enzymes/co-enzymes involved in the DNA demethylation pathways seemed to be associated with immune cell activation.

  6. Genome-wide Bisulfite Sequencing in Zygotes Identifies Demethylation Targets and Maps the Contribution of TET3 Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian R. Peat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization triggers global erasure of paternal 5-methylcytosine as part of epigenetic reprogramming during the transition from gametic specialization to totipotency. This involves oxidation by TET3, but our understanding of its targets and the wider context of demethylation is limited to a small fraction of the genome. We employed an optimized bisulfite strategy to generate genome-wide methylation profiles of control and TET3-deficient zygotes, using SNPs to access paternal alleles. This revealed that in addition to pervasive removal from intergenic sequences and most retrotransposons, gene bodies constitute a major target of zygotic demethylation. Methylation loss is associated with zygotic genome activation and at gene bodies is also linked to increased transcriptional noise in early development. Our data map the primary contribution of oxidative demethylation to a subset of gene bodies and intergenic sequences and implicate redundant pathways at many loci. Unexpectedly, we demonstrate that TET3 activity also protects certain CpG islands against methylation buildup.

  7. Regulation of Active DNA Demethylation by a Methyl-CpG-Binding Domain Protein in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Active DNA demethylation plays crucial roles in the regulation of gene expression in both plants and animals. In Arabidopsis thaliana, active DNA demethylation is initiated by the ROS1 subfamily of 5-methylcytosine-specific DNA glycosylases via a base excision repair mechanism. Recently, IDM1 and IDM2 were shown to be required for the recruitment of ROS1 to some of its target loci. However, the mechanism(s by which IDM1 is targeted to specific genomic loci remains to be determined. Affinity purification of IDM1- and IDM2- associating proteins demonstrated that IDM1 and IDM2 copurify together with two novel components, methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 7 (MBD7 and IDM2-like protein 1 (IDL1. IDL1 encodes an α-crystallin domain protein that shows high sequence similarity with IDM2. MBD7 interacts with IDM2 and IDL1 in vitro and in vivo and they form a protein complex associating with IDM1 in vivo. MBD7 directly binds to the target loci and is required for the H3K18 and H3K23 acetylation in planta. MBD7 dysfunction causes DNA hypermethylation and silencing of reporter genes and a subset of endogenous genes. Our results suggest that a histone acetyltransferase complex functions in active DNA demethylation and in suppression of gene silencing at some loci in Arabidopsis.

  8. Green tea polyphenol EGCG reverse cisplatin resistance of A549/DDP cell line through candidate genes demethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youwei; Wang, Xiang; Han, Liang; Zhou, Yizhou; Sun, Sanyuan

    2015-02-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol in green tea, has been extensively studied as a potential demethylating agent. Our hypothesis is that EGCG could resensitize non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells to cisplatin (DDP) through candidate genes demethylation. The A549/DDP cell line was established by continuous exposure of A549 cells to increasing concentrations of DDP. MTT, colony formation assay, flow cytometric analysis, Hoechst staining, real time-PCR, quantitative methylation-specific PCR and in vivo experiments were performed in this study. EGCG+DDP treatment significantly caused proliferation inhibition, cell cycle arrest in G1 phase, increase of apoptosis in A549/DDP cells, along with inhibition of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity and histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, reversal of hypermethylated status and downregulated expression of GAS1, TIMP4, ICAM1 and WISP2 gene in A549/DDP cells. Furthermore, pre-treatment with EGCG followed by DDP caused significant tumor inhibition in vivo. Methylation levels of GAS1, TIMP4, ICAM1 and WISP2 were decreased and their expression levels were increased in EGCG-treatment groups, but only combinatorial treatment group caused growth inhibition. In conclusion, we identified EGCG pretreatment resensitized cells to DDP, along with the demethylation and restoration of expression of candidate genes.

  9. Blood glucose testing in the hospital: error sources and risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, James H

    2011-01-01

    Glucose testing in the hospital with point-of-care devices presents multiple opportunities for error. Any device can fail under the right conditions. For glucose monitoring in the hospital, with thousands of operators, hundreds of devices, and dozens of locations involved, there is ample opportunity for errors that can impact the quality of test results. Errors can occur in any phase of the testing process: preanalytic, analytic, or postanalytic. Common sources of meter error include patient or methodology interferences, operator mistakes, environmental exposure, and device malfunction. Early models of glucose meters had few internal checks or capability to warn the operator of meter problems. The latest generation of glucose monitors has a number of internal checks and controls engineered into the testing process to prevent serious errors or warn the operator by suppressing test results. Some of these control processes are built into the software and data management system of the meters, others require the hospital to do something, such as regularly clean the meter or analyze control samples of known glucose concentration, to verify meter performance. Hospitals need to be aware of the potential for errors by understanding weaknesses in the testing process that could lead to erroneous results and take steps to prevent errors from occurring or to minimize the harm to patients when errors do occur. The reliability of a glucose result will depend on the balance of internal control features available from manufacturers in conjunction with the liquid control analysis and other control processes (operator training, device validation, and maintenance) utilized by the hospitals.

  10. Validation of Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 Test on dried blood spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Ruiz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The plasma specimen is the gold standard for viral load monitoring, the key method to assess the effect of antiviral chemotherapy and to monitor progression of the disease toward AIDS. Nevertheless, several works endorse the use of dried blood spots (DBS on filter paper for the reliable quantification of the levels needed to take therapeutic decisions, detect of treatment failure and monitor the occurrence of drug resistance. The purpose of this study was to validate the use of Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 test version 2.0, with DBS. To evaluate the performance of the above mentioned kit, three stages were involved: 1- Standardization of DBS working conditions, 2- Stability studies at three temperature conditions and 3- Performance evaluation of the kit using this alternative specimen. Additionally, the viral load was quantified in parallel (plasma and DBS to 43 genetically characterized samples, with different levels of viral load. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated and the prediction of the value of RNA in plasma starting from the obtained value in DBS was made. Linear regression analysis was performed and coefficients of variation in precision assays were calculated. The best conditions pickups to the work with DBS were: 100 µL of blood (2 spots/50 µl, dried time between 16 and 18 hours at room temperature and, elution of the blood, 2 hours, between 2 and 8°C; in TRIS-EDTA buffer. The samples on DBS proved to be stable during the study periods. A strong correlation was attained between the measurements of viral load in plasma and DBS samples (r=0.96. The detection rate was 90.7 and the coefficient of variation between the values obtained in plasma-DBS sample pairs averaged 3.42%. The CAP/CTM HIV-1 test provided a linear response in DBS, from 330 copies/mL to 420 000 copies/mL. Overall, coefficients of variation in precision tests were below 10%. Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 test version 2.0 had a good

  11. Antioxidant Activity in the Blood and Testes of the Mottled Brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IJAAAR

    Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. ... Key words: Reproductive potentials, Mottled brown male quail, Age groups, ... oxygen species (ROS)-generating systems. ... this risk, the testes have developed a ... centrifuge model of BOSCH 90-2) at 4000rpm .... human against oxidant and radical-.

  12. First-trimester contingent screening for trisomy 21 by biomarkers and maternal blood cell-free DNA testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaides, K H; Wright, D; Poon, L C; Syngelaki, A; Gil, M M

    2013-07-01

    To define risk cut-offs with corresponding detection rates (DR) and false-positive rates (FPR) in screening for trisomy 21 using maternal age and combinations of first-trimester biomarkers in order to determine which women should undergo contingent maternal blood cell-free (cf) DNA testing. From singleton pregnancies undergoing screening for aneuploidies at three UK hospitals between March 2006 and May 2012, we analyzed prospectively collected data on the following biomarkers: fetal nuchal translucency thickness (NT) and ductus venosus pulsatility index for veins (DV-PIV) at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks' gestation and serum free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG), pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), placental growth factor (PlGF) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) at 8 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks. Estimates of risk cut-offs, DRs and FPRs were derived for combinations of biomarkers and these were used to define the best strategy for contingent cfDNA testing. In contingent screening, detection of 98% of fetuses with trisomy 21 at an overall invasive testing rate 21% and 11% of cases identified by first-line screening using the combined test alone, using the combined test with the addition of serum PlGF and AFP and using the combined test with the addition of PlGF, AFP and DV-PIV, respectively. Effective first-trimester screening for trisomy 21, with DR of 98% and invasive testing rate < 0.5%, can be potentially achieved by contingent screening incorporating biomarkers and cfDNA testing. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Orchard factors associated with resistance and cross resistance to sterol demethylation inhibitor fungicides in populations of Venturia inaequalis from Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeufer, Emily E; Ngugi, Henry K

    2012-03-01

    Orchard management practices, such as destroying of overwintered inoculum and limiting the number of fungicide applications, are often recommended as tactics for slowing the development of resistance to sterol demethylation-inhibitor (DMI) fungicides in populations of Venturia inaequalis. However, there is little quantitative evidence relating the use of such practices to levels of resistance in orchards. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of V. inaequalis isolates from Pennsylvania to DMI fungicides, and to identify orchard management factors related to the incidence of resistant isolates. In total, 644 single-spore V. inaequalis cultures obtained from 20 apple orchards in 2008 or 2009 were tested for sensitivity to myclobutanil, fenbuconazole, or difenoconazole. Growers provided management history of the sampled plots. Widespread shifts toward resistance to the three fungicides were noted, with mean effective concentration for 50% inhibition (EC(50)) values of 2.136, 0.786, and 0.187 μg/ml for myclobutanil, fenbuconazole, and difenoconazole, respectively. Cross resistance to the three fungicides was documented in high correlation (Spearman's r > 0.6) between mean EC(50) values for 14 orchards. Based on a 0.5-μg/ml threshold, 66 and 26% of isolates were resistant to myclobutanil and fenbuconazole, respectively, and 22% were cross resistant to the two fungicides. A significant between-year shift toward increased resistance was noted in two of three orchards surveyed in both years. Failure to use dormant copper sprays, older trees, larger orchards, orchards with ≤10 cultivars, and application of >4 DMI sprays were positively correlated (0.0001 resistant isolates. Isolates from orchards with >4 DMI sprays were four times as likely to be resistant to fenbuconazole (odds ratio = 4.57; P = 0.015). Isolates from orchards without dormant copper sprays were twice as likely to be cross-shifted toward resistance to all three fungicides (odds ratio = 1

  14. Development of a blood-based molecular biomarker test for identification of schizophrenia before disease onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, M K; Krebs, M-O; Cox, D; Guest, P C; Yolken, R H; Rahmoune, H; Rothermundt, M; Steiner, J; Leweke, F M; van Beveren, N J M; Niebuhr, D W; Weber, N S; Cowan, D N; Suarez-Pinilla, P; Crespo-Facorro, B; Mam-Lam-Fook, C; Bourgin, J; Wenstrup, R J; Kaldate, R R; Cooper, J D; Bahn, S

    2015-01-01

    Recent research efforts have progressively shifted towards preventative psychiatry and prognostic identification of individuals before disease onset. We describe the development of a serum biomarker test for the identification of individuals at risk of developing schizophrenia based on multiplex immunoassay profiling analysis of 957 serum samples. First, we conducted a meta-analysis of five independent cohorts of 127 first-onset drug-naive schizophrenia patients and 204 controls. Using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression, we identified an optimal panel of 26 biomarkers that best discriminated patients and controls. Next, we successfully validated this biomarker panel using two independent validation cohorts of 93 patients and 88 controls, which yielded an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.97 (0.95–1.00) for schizophrenia detection. Finally, we tested its predictive performance for identifying patients before onset of psychosis using two cohorts of 445 pre-onset or at-risk individuals. The predictive performance achieved by the panel was excellent for identifying USA military personnel (AUC: 0.90 (0.86–0.95)) and help-seeking prodromal individuals (AUC: 0.82 (0.71–0.93)) who developed schizophrenia up to 2 years after baseline sampling. The performance increased further using the latter cohort following the incorporation of CAARMS (Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental State) positive subscale symptom scores into the model (AUC: 0.90 (0.82–0.98)). The current findings may represent the first successful step towards a test that could address the clinical need for early intervention in psychiatry. Further developments of a combined molecular/symptom-based test will aid clinicians in the identification of vulnerable patients early in the disease process, allowing more effective therapeutic intervention before overt disease onset. PMID:26171982

  15. Effects of blood contamination of cerebrospinal fluid on results of indirect fluorescent antibody tests for detection of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finno, Carrie J; Packham, Andrea E; David Wilson, W; Gardner, Ian A; Conrad, Patricia A; Pusterla, Nicola

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of blood contamination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on the results of indirect fluorescent antibody tests (IFATs) for Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi. The in vitro study used antibody-negative CSF collected from non-neurologic horses immediately after euthanasia and blood samples from 40 healthy horses that had a range of IFAT antibody titers against S. neurona and N. hughesi. Serial dilutions of whole blood were made in seronegative CSF to generate blood-contaminated CSF with red blood cell (RBC) concentrations ranging from 10 to 100,000 RBCs/microl. The blood-contaminated CSF samples were then tested for antibodies against both pathogens using IFAT. Blood contamination of CSF had no detectable effect on IFAT results for S. neurona or N. hughesi at any serologic titer when the RBC concentration in CSF was or=5) for S. neurona and N. hughesi were detected only when the corresponding serum titers were >or=160 and >or=80, respectively. The IFAT performed on CSF is reliable for testing horses for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis caused by S. neurona or N. hughesi, even when blood contamination causes the RBC concentration in CSF to be up to 10,000 RBCs/microl.

  16. A systems biology approach to the blood-aluminium problem: the application and testing of a computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardmore, James; Rugg, Gordon; Exley, Christopher

    2007-09-01

    Transport and distribution of systemic aluminium are influenced by its interaction with blood. Current understanding is centred upon the role played by the iron transport protein transferrin which has been shown to bind up to 90% of serum total aluminium. We have coined what we have called the blood-aluminium problem which states that the proportion of serum aluminium which, at any one moment in time, is bound by transferrin is more heavily influenced by kinetic constraints than thermodynamic equilibria with the result that the role played by transferrin in the transport and distribution of aluminium is likely to have been over estimated. To begin to solve the blood-aluminium problem and therewith provide a numerical solution to the aforementioned kinetic constraints we have applied and tested a simple computational model of the time-dependency of a putative transferrin ligand (L) binding aluminium to form an Al-L complex with a probability of existence, K(E), between 0% (no complex) and 100% (complex will not dissociate). The model is based upon the principles of a lattice-gas automaton which when ran for K(E) in the range 0.1-98.0% demonstrated the emergence of complex behaviour which could be defined in the terms of a set of parameters (equilibrium value, E(V), equilibrium time, E(T), peak value, P(V), peak time, P(T), area under curve, AUC) the values of which varied in a predictable way with K(E). When K(E) was set to 98% the model predicted that ca. 90% of the total aluminium would be bound by transferrin within ca. 350 simulation timesteps. We have used a systems biology approach to develop a simple model of the time-dependency of the binding of aluminium by transferrin. To use this approach to begin to solve the blood-aluminium problem we shall need to increase the complexity of the model to better reflect the heterogeneity of a biological system such as the blood.

  17. Early detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamase from blood culture positive for an Enterobacteriaceae using βLACTA test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Prod'hom

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial pellets from Enterobacteriaceae positive blood cultures prepared using ammonium chloride were tested for rapid detection of β-lactamase using the commercial βLACTA test and read after 30 minutes. During 7 months, 137 bacterial pellets were tested prospectively. βLACTA test exhibited a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 100% for the detection of third-generation cephalosporin resistance. False negative tests were mainly observed with hyperproduced chromosomal or plasmid-borne AmpC.

  18. Comparative performance of lab tests and blood testing device to monitor glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Zubioli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance of lab tests (LT and blood testing devices (BTD to monitor glycemia vs. glycated hemoglobin A1c (A1c were compared. In addition, the performance of blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC and triacylglycerol measured by LT and BDT were compared. All parameters were measured based on the same blood samples from overnight fasted type 2 diabetic patients (T2DP. Linear regression analysis was used for all comparisons. The results showed that A1c correlated better with LT-glucose (r = 0.58 than BTD-glucose (r = 0.42. Moreover, LT vs. BTD showed r values of 0.90, 0.82 and 0.92 for glucose, TC and triacylglycerol, respectively. It was concluded that the performance of LT-glucose was better than BDT-glucose. Moreover, since triacylycerol and TC measured by BTD correlated better with LT compared to BDT-glucose vs. LT-glucose, the inclusion of BTD-TC and BTD-triacylglycerol for detecting and monitoring hyperlipidemia in T2DP should be considered.Comparou-se a performance de avaliação da glicemia através de dosagens laboratoriais (DL ou dispositivo para teste de sangue capilar (DTSC vs. hemoglobina glicada A1c (A1c. Comparou-se ainda a performance de avaliação da glicemia, colesterol total (CT e triacilglicerol (DL vs. DTSC. Avaliou-se estes parametros a partir das mesmas amostras de sangue coletadas em pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 (PDT2 em jejum noturno, sendo as comparações realizadas através de análise de regressão linear. A A1c correlacionou-se melhor com a glicemia-DL (r = 0,58 em relação a glicemia-DTSC (r = 0,42. Comparou-se DL vs. DTSC obtendo se r = 0,90, 0,82 e 0,92 para glicemia, CT e triacilglicerol, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que houve melhor performance da glicose-DL em relação a glicose-DTSC. Além disso, considerando que o triacilglicerol e TC avaliado através de DTSC correlaciona-se melhor com DL em comparação a DTSC-glicose vs. DL-glicose, a inclusão de DTSC-TC e DTSC-triacilglicerol visando detectar e

  19. Analysis of test results of HBV markers for 482 cases of placental blood and maternal blood%482例胎盘血和母体血 HBV标志物测定结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉晓云

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate relationship of HBV markers in placental blood and maternal blood. Methods:The HBV markers in 482 cases of placental blood and maternal blood were determined and analyzed statistically. Results:The test results of the HBV markers in the 482 cases of placental blood and maternal blood were not completely consistent. Conclusions:There is no obvious difference in the HBV markers in placental blood and maternal blood and its reason remains to be further discussed.%目的:探讨胎盘血与母体血HBV标志物的关系。方法:将482例胎盘血与母体血进行HBV标志物测定,然后统计分析。结果:482例人次的胎盘血与母体血HBV标志和检测,发现其结果并非完全一致。结论:胎盘血和母体血二者的结果差异不大,其原因有待进一步探讨。

  20. Improving the screening of blood donors with syphilis rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkodie, F.; Hassall, O.; Owusu-Dabo, E.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Syphilis testing conventionally relies on a combination of non-treponemal and treponemal tests. The primary objective of this study was to describe the positive predictive value (PPV) of a screening algorithm in a combination of a treponemal rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and rapid plasm...... of blood donors by combining syphilis RDT and RPR with relatively good PPV may provide a reasonable technology for LMIC that has a limited capacity for testing and can contribute to the improvement of blood safety with a minimal loss of donors....

  1. Practical and reliable enzyme test for the detection of mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (Morquio Syndrome type A) in dried blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelier, Marli V; Burin, Maira G; De Mari, Jurema; Vieira, Taiane A; Marasca, Giórgia; Giugliani, Roberto

    2011-09-18

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA), or Morquio Syndrome type A, is an autosomal recessive disease caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (GALNS), resulting in excessive lysosomal storage of keratan sulfate in many tissues and organs. This accumulation causes a severe skeletal dysplasia with short stature, and affects the eye, heart and other organs, with many signs and symptoms. Morquio A syndrome is estimated to occur in 1 in 200,000 to 300,000 live births. Clinical trials with enzyme replacement therapy for this disease are in progress, and it is probable that the treatment, when available, would be more effective if started early. We describe an innovative fluorometric method for the assay of GALNS in dried blood spots (DBS). We used dried blood spots (DBS) as the enzyme source and compared it with leukocytes samples, having studied 25 MPS IVA patients and 54 healthy controls. We optimized the assay conditions, including incubation time and stability of DBS samples. To eppendorf type tubes containing a 3-mm diameter blood spot we added elution liquid and substrate solution. After 2 different incubations at 37°C, the amount of hydrolyzed product was compared with a calibrator to allow the quantification of the enzyme activity. Results in DBS were compared to the ones obtained in leukocytes using the standard technique. The fluorescent methodology was validated in our laboratory and the assay was found sensitive and specific, allowing reliable detection of MPS IVA patients. The use of DBS simplifies the collection and transport steps, and is especially useful for testing patients from more remote areas of large countries, and when samples need to cross country borders. This assay could be easily incorporated into the protocol of reference laboratories and play a role in the screening for MPS IVA, contributing to earlier detection of affected patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cornel Iridoid Glycoside Attenuates Tau Hyperphosphorylation by Inhibition of PP2A Demethylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui-cui Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cornel iridoid glycoside (CIG on tau hyperphosphorylation induced by wortmannin (WT and GF-109203X (GFX and the underlying mechanisms. Methods. Human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells were preincubated with CIG (50, 100, and 200 µg/ml, resp. for 24 h and then exposed to 10 µM WT and 10 µM GFX for 3 h after washing out CIG. Immunohistochemistry was used to observe the microtubular cytoskeleton of the cultured cells. Western blotting was used to measure the phosphorylation level of tau protein, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β, and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A. The activity of PP2A was detected by a biochemical assay. Results. Preincubation of CIG significantly attenuated the WT/GFX-induced tau hyperphosphorylation at the sites of Thr205, Thr212, Ser214, Thr217, Ser396, and PHF-1 and improved the damage of morphology and microtubular cytoskeleton of the cells. CIG did not prevent the decrease in p-AKT-ser473 and p-GSK-3β-ser9 induced by WT/GFX. However, CIG significantly elevated the activity of PP2A by reducing the demethylation of PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac at Leu309 and the ratio of PME-1/LCMT in the WT/GFX-treated cells. The results suggest that CIG may be beneficial to the treatment of AD.

  3. Demethylating agent decitabine induces autologous cancer testis antigen specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ji-hao; YAO Yu-shi; WANG Li-xin; WANG Jia; LI Yong-hui; JIANG Meng-meng; ZHOU Min-hang

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer testis antigens (CTAs) are a novel group of tumor associated antigens.Demethylating agent decitabine was reported to be able to up-regulate CTAs through its hypomethylation mechanism,thus enhance the immunogenicity of leukemia cells.However,few researches have ever focused on the questions that whether this immunostimulatory effect of decitabine could induce autologous CTA specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in vivo,and if so,whether this effect contributes to disease control.In this study,we aimed to show that decitabine could induce specific autologous CTLs against some mouse CTAs in leukemia cells in vitro and in vivo.Methods Several mouse CTAs were screened by RT-PCR.CTL specific to one of the CTAs named P1A was detected and sorted by P1A specific dimer by flow cytometry.The activity of specific CTLs was measured by real time RT-PCR.Results We firstly screened expression of some CTAs in mouse leukemia cells before and after decitabine treatment and found that decitabine treatment did up-regulate expression of many CTAs.Then we measured the CTLs' activity specific to a mouse CTA P1A in vivo and showed that this activity increased after decitabine treatment.Finally,we sorted these in vivo induced P1A specific CTLs by flow cytometry and demonstrated their cytotoxicity against decitabine treated leukemia cells.Conclusions Our study showed the autologous immune response induced by decitabine in vivo.And more importantly,we firstly proved that this response may contribute to disease control.We believe that this immunostimulatory effect is another anti-cancer mechanism of decitabine,and this special effect would inspire new applications of decitabine in the field of leukemia treatment in the future.

  4. Design and Testing of a Minimally Invasive Blood Clot Removal Device ConstructedWith Elements of Superelastic Nitinol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, Andrew J.

    Many vascular system problems stem from insufficient blood return flow to the heart. One of the main causes is a blockage within veins or arteries known as a blood clot, or thrombus. This can occur after trauma, surgery, or other phenomenological reasons. Each year in the U.S. more than 175,000 bypass procedures and more than 160,000 amputations resulting from peripheral vessel disease are performed. Clinical data indicates that clot removal devices and procedures can reduce the need for an amputation by 80 percent. Percutaneous thrombectomy refers to the removal of thrombus using catheter based non-surgical methods. The ultimate goal of any modality to treat these conditions of the arterial or venous system is to restore patency, quickly, safely, and cost effectively. Catheter directed thrombectomy and thrombolysis is less traumatic and avoids the morbidity and mortality associated with conventional surgical technique. As a result, there has been a push recently for the use of percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT) devices. However, all devices have their own set of drawbacks: distal embolization, vessel wall trauma, hemolysis, to name a few. Ongoing efforts have been made to create a prototype thrombectomy device that uses elements of superelastic nitinol (a type of shape memory alloy), that seeks to address some of the drawbacks of current devices. The prototype was designed and tested in a simulated human circulatory system along side a commercially available device (The DiverCE Clot Extraction Catheter). The test evaluated how well the devices minimized distal embolization of a human blood clot created in vitro.. Results of the testing showed that the prototype device created significantly less embolization when compared to the DiverCE particles greater than 102mum (p = 0.0332). Means were statistically not different for particles between 25mum and 102mum (p = 0.2454), and particles between 5mum and 25mum (p = 0.6524). In addition the prototype was shown

  5. Patient experience of CT colonography and colonoscopy after fecal occult blood test in a national screening programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plumb, Andrew A.; Taylor, Stuart A.; Halligan, Steve [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, Division of Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Ghanouni, Alex; Von Wagner, Christian [University College London, Health Behaviour Research Centre, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, London (United Kingdom); Rees, Colin J. [Durham University School of Medicine, Pharmacy and Health, Durham (United Kingdom); Hewitson, Paul [University of Oxford, Health Services Research Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, Oxford (United Kingdom); Nickerson, Claire; Wright, Suzanne [Fulwood House, NHS Cancer Screening Programmes, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-15

    To investigate patient experience of CT colonography (CTC) and colonoscopy in a national screening programme. Retrospective analysis of patient experience postal questionnaires. We included screenees from a fecal occult blood test (FOBt) based screening programme, where CTC was performed when colonoscopy was incomplete or deemed unsuitable. We analyzed questionnaire responses concerning communication of test risks, test-related discomfort and post-test pain, as well as complications. CTC and colonoscopy responses were compared using multilevel logistic regression. Of 67,114 subjects identified, 52,805 (79 %) responded. Understanding of test risks was lower for CTC (1712/1970 = 86.9 %) than colonoscopy (48783/50975 = 95.7 %, p < 0.0001). Overall, a slightly greater proportion of screenees found CTC unexpectedly uncomfortable (506/1970 = 25.7 %) than colonoscopy (10,705/50,975 = 21.0 %, p < 0.0001). CTC was tolerated well as a completion procedure for failed colonoscopy (unexpected discomfort; CTC = 26.3 %: colonoscopy = 57.0 %, p < 0.001). Post-procedural pain was equally common (CTC: 288/1970,14.6 %, colonoscopy: 7544/50,975,14.8 %; p = 0.55). Adverse event rates were similar in both groups (CTC: 20/2947 = 1.2 %; colonoscopy: 683/64,312 = 1.1 %), but generally less serious with CTC. Even though CTC was reserved for individuals either unsuitable for or unable to complete colonoscopy, we found only small differences in test-related discomfort. CTC was well tolerated as a completion procedure and was extremely safe. CTC can be delivered across a national screening programme with high patient satisfaction. (orig.)

  6. 血液检测人员防护艾滋病措施%AIDS protective measures of blood testing personnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锐; 李莹

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemic trend of AIDS, explore the protective measures of blood testing personnel. Method Analyze the reason of occupational exposure by combining with the research data in recent years, and summarize the protective measures of AIDS according to National AIDS Testing Management Measure and National AIDS Testing Technical Specifications. Results According to the U. S. CDC studies, occurred when the needle stab wounds, the probability of HIV infection was 0. 33% (20/6 135) , when the mu-cosal surface exposed, the probability of HIV infection was 0. 09% (1/1 143) . Strict implement of protective measures were the precondition in the medical and laboratory testing activities. Conclusions Operating safely by requirement and doing protective measures could avoid the exposure event of medical personnel and blood testing personnel.%目的 分析艾滋病流行趋势,探讨血液检测人员防护措施.方法 结合近年来各方面研究资料,了解职业暴露的各方面原因,依据《全国艾滋病检测工作管理办法》和《全国艾滋病检测技术规范》对艾滋病防护措施进行详细分析总结.结果 根据美国CDC研究资料,发生针具刺伤时,HIV感染的机率为0.33% (20/6 135),粘膜表面暴露时,感染HIV的机率为0.09% (1/1 143).严格执行防护措施是从事医疗和实验室检测活动的前提.结论 按要求进行安全操作,认真进行防护,能够避免医护及血液实验室检测人员的暴露事件.

  7. Results of The Analysis of The Blood Beryllium Lymphocyte Proliferation Test Data From The Oak Ridge Y-12 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frome, EL

    2001-12-18

    The potential hazards from exposure to beryllium or beryllium compounds in the workplace were first reported in the 1930s. The tritiated thymidine beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) is an in vitro blood test that is widely used to screen beryllium exposed workers in the nuclear industry for sensitivity to beryllium. Newman [18] has discussed the clinical significance of the BeLPT and described a standard protocol that was developed in the late 1980s. Cell proliferation is measured by the incorporation of tritiated thymidine into dividing cells on two culture dates and using three concentrations of beryllium sulfate. Results are expressed as a ''stimulation index'' (SI) which is the ratio of the amount of tritiated thymidine (measured by beta counts) in the stimulated cells divided by the counts for the unstimulated cells on the same culture day. Several statistical methods for use in the routine analysis of the BeLPT were considered in the early 1990's by Frome et al. [7]. The least absolute values (LAV) method was recommended for routine analysis of the BeLPT. The purposes of this report are to further evaluate the LAV method using new data, and to describe a new method for identification of an abnormal or borderline test. This new statistical biological positive (SBP) method reflects the clinical judgment that (1) at least two SIs show a ''positive'' response to beryllium, and (2), that the maximum of the six SIs must exceed a cut point that is determined from a reference data set of normal individuals whose blood has been tested by the same method in the same serum. The new data is from the Y-12 facility in Oak Ridge and consist of 1080 worker and 33 nonexposed control BeLPTs (all tested in the same serum). Graphical results are presented to explain the statistical method, and the new SBP method is applied to the Y-12 group. The true positive rate and specificity of the new method were estimated to be 86

  8. Results of The Analysis of The Blood Beryllium Lymphocyte Proliferation Test Data From The Oak Ridge Y-12 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frome, EL

    2001-12-18

    The potential hazards from exposure to beryllium or beryllium compounds in the workplace were first reported in the 1930s. The tritiated thymidine beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) is an in vitro blood test that is widely used to screen beryllium exposed workers in the nuclear industry for sensitivity to beryllium. Newman [18] has discussed the clinical significance of the BeLPT and described a standard protocol that was developed in the late 1980s. Cell proliferation is measured by the incorporation of tritiated thymidine into dividing cells on two culture dates and using three concentrations of beryllium sulfate. Results are expressed as a ''stimulation index'' (SI) which is the ratio of the amount of tritiated thymidine (measured by beta counts) in the stimulated cells divided by the counts for the unstimulated cells on the same culture day. Several statistical methods for use in the routine analysis of the BeLPT were considered in the early 1990's by Frome et al. [7]. The least absolute values (LAV) method was recommended for routine analysis of the BeLPT. The purposes of this report are to further evaluate the LAV method using new data, and to describe a new method for identification of an abnormal or borderline test. This new statistical biological positive (SBP) method reflects the clinical judgment that (1) at least two SIs show a ''positive'' response to beryllium, and (2), that the maximum of the six SIs must exceed a cut point that is determined from a reference data set of normal individuals whose blood has been tested by the same method in the same serum. The new data is from the Y-12 facility in Oak Ridge and consist of 1080 worker and 33 nonexposed control BeLPTs (all tested in the same serum). Graphical results are presented to explain the statistical method, and the new SBP method is applied to the Y-12 group. The true positive rate and specificity of the new method were estimated to be 86

  9. Pressão arterial em adolescentes durante teste ergométrico Arterial blood pressure in adolescents during exercise stress testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica de Moraes Chaves Becker

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a resposta da pressão arterial em adolescentes submetidos ao teste de esforço. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo transversal de 218 adolescentes entre 10 e 19 anos (131 do sexo masculino submetidos a teste ergométrico, e descrita a freqüência cardíaca máxima, tempo de exercício, consumo máximo de oxigênio, pressão arterial sistólica (PAS e diastólica (PAD de repouso, no esforço máximo e aos seis minutos da recuperação. RESULTADOS: No repouso, a PAS teve valores maiores no sexo masculino e a PAD não mostrou diferença entre os sexos, porém ambas aumentaram com a idade. No exercício ocorreu elevação da PAS e queda da PAD em ambos os sexos. A variação da PAS foi maior no sexo masculino, principalmente acima dos 14 anos. CONCLUSÃO: A análise dos resultados demonstrou que a PAS durante o exercício teve relação direta com idade, peso, altura e índice de massa corpórea do indivíduo e a PAD teve relação apenas com a idade.OBJECTIVE: Describe arterial blood pressure response in adolescents undergoing exercise stress testing. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted with 218 adolescents (131 of whom were males, aged between 10 to 19 years, undergoing exercise stress testing. Maximum heart rate, total exercise time, maximum oxygen uptake, systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic (DBP at rest, during maximal physical exertion and at six minutes of recovery were measured. RESULTS: At rest, SBP values were greater in males and no difference was found in DBP between genders, although both increased with age. During exercise, SBP rose and DBP fell in both genders. SBP variation was greater in men, particularly in those over 14 years of age. CONCLUSION: Analysis of results showed that during physical exercise, SBP had a direct relationship with the individual’s age, weight, height and body mass index, whereas DBP bore a relationship to age only.

  10. Involvement of mitochondria and caspase pathways in N-demethyl-clarithromycin-induced apoptosis in human cervical cancer HeLa cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-min QIAO; Takashi IKEJIMA; Shini-chi TASHIRO; Satoshi ONODERA; Wei-ge ZHANG; Ying-liang WU

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study the mechanisms by which N-demethyl-clarithromycin (NDC) induces human cervical cancer HeLa cell apoptosis in vitro. Methods: The viability of N-demethyl-clarithromycin-induced HeLa cells was measured by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells with condensed nuclei were visualized by phase contrast microscopy. Nucleosomal DNA fragmentation was assayed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Measurement of mitochondrial transmembrane potential was analyzed by a FACScan flowcytometer. Caspase-3, poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), caspase-activated DNase (ICAD), Bcl-2, Bax, p53, and SIRT1 protein expression and the release of cytochrome c were detected by Western blot analysis. Results: N-demethyl-clarithromycin, an anti-inflammatory substance, inhibited HeLa cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner.N-demethyl-clarithromycin induced HeLa cell death through the apoptotic pathways. The pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk), caspase-3 inhibitor (z-DEVD-fmk) and the caspase-9 inhibitor (z-LEHD-fmk) partially enhanced cell viability induced by N-demethyl-clarithromycin, but the caspase-8 inhibitor (z-IETD-fmk) had almost no effect. Caspase-3 was activated then followed by the degradation of caspase-3 substrates, the inhibitor of ICAD and PARP. Simultaneously, mitochondrial transmembrane potential was markedly reduced and the release of cytochrome c in the cytosol was increased.N-demethyl-clarithromycin upregulated the expression ratio of mitochondrial Bax/Bcl-2, and significantly increased the expression of the p53 protein. It also downregulated anti-apoptotic protein SIRT1 expression. Conclusion: N-demethyl-clarithromycin induced apoptosis in HeLa cells via the mitochondrial pathway.

  11. Risk stratification and detection of new colorectal neoplasms after colorectal cancer screening with faecal occult blood test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Andreas; Milter, Maya Christel; Andersen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on adenoma surveillance as recommended in the European guidelines for quality assurance in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and diagnosis after faecal occult blood test (FOBT) screening. OBJECTIVE: To assess the European guidelines for adenoma surveillance after CRC...... screening with FOBT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a population-based cohort-study of 176 782 Danish individuals aged 50-74 years invited for CRC screening in 2005-2006. Adenoma patients were stratified into risk groups (low A, medium B, high C) in accordance with the European guidelines and followed up......-detected adenomas. During a median follow-up period of 72.7 months, detection of new advanced adenomas (B+C) was significantly higher in risk group C than group A (RR 2.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.13-4.48). Nine patients were diagnosed with CRC: one in risk group A, two in B and six in C. The detection rate...

  12. [Measures to prevent patient identification errors in blood collection/physiological function testing utilizing a laboratory information system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Chisato; Hoshino, Satoshi; Furukawa, Taiji

    2013-08-01

    We constructed an integrated personal identification workflow chart using both bar code reading and an all in-one laboratory information system. The information system not only handles test data but also the information needed for patient guidance in the laboratory department. The reception terminals at the entrance, displays for patient guidance and patient identification tools at blood-sampling booths are all controlled by the information system. The number of patient identification errors was greatly reduced by the system. However, identification errors have not been abolished in the ultrasound department. After re-evaluation of the patient identification process in this department, we recognized that the major reason for the errors came from excessive identification workflow. Ordinarily, an ultrasound test requires patient identification 3 times, because 3 different systems are required during the entire test process, i.e. ultrasound modality system, laboratory information system and a system for producing reports. We are trying to connect the 3 different systems to develop a one-time identification workflow, but it is not a simple task and has not been completed yet. Utilization of the laboratory information system is effective, but is not yet perfect for patient identification. The most fundamental procedure for patient identification is to ask a person's name even today. Everyday checks in the ordinary workflow and everyone's participation in safety-management activity are important for the prevention of patient identification errors.

  13. Curvilinear VO(2):power output relationship in a ramp test in professional cyclists: possible association with blood hemoglobin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucía, Alejandro; Hoyos, Jesús; Santalla, Alfredo; Pérez, Margarita; Chicharro, José L

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine (1) if there exists an additional, nonlinear increase (DeltaVO(2)) in the oxygen uptake observed (VO2 (obs)) at the maximal power output reached during a ramp cycle ergometer test and that expected (VO2 (exp)) from the linear relationship between VO(2) and power output below the lactate threshold (LT) in professional riders, and (2) the relationship between DeltaVO(2) and possible explanatory mechanisms. Each of 12 professional cyclists (25 +/- 1 years; VO(2 max): 71.3 +/- 1.2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) performed a ramp test until exhaustion (power output increases of 25 W x min(-1)) during which several gas-exchange and blood variables were measured (including lactate, HCO(3)(-) and K(+)). VO(2) was linearly related to power output until the LT in all subjects. Afterward, a nonlinear deflection was observed in the VO(2):power output relationship (DeltaVO(2) = 2492 +/- 55 ml x min(-1) and p < 0.05 for VO2 (obs) vs. VO2 (exp)). A significant negative correlation was encountered between DeltaVO(2) and resting hemoglobin levels before the tests (r = 20.61; p < 0.05). In conclusion, professional cyclists exhibit an attenuation of the VO(2) rise above the LT.

  14. Children's blood lead and standardized test performance response as indicators of neurotoxicity in metropolitan New Orleans elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, S; Mielke, H W; Weiler, S; Berry, K J; Gonzales, C

    2009-11-01

    This study analyzes pre-Katrina variation in aggregate student performance and children's blood lead (BPb) in 117 elementary school districts in metropolitan New Orleans. Fourth grade student achievement on Louisiana Educational Assessment Program (LEAP) tests were analyzed as a function of BPb for children 1-6 years old within school districts, controlling for student-teacher ratios, percent of students eligible for a free or discounted lunch, and school racial demography. Measures of performance across subject areas (English Language Arts, Science, Mathematics, and Social Studies) include school Achievement Test Scores (ATS) and indices of agreement and variation in student achievement. ATS are measured on a 5-point scale, corresponding to achievement categories of advanced=5 to unsatisfactory=1. Regression results show that median BPb (microg/dL) and percent of children with BPb > or =10 microg/dL are significantly associated with reductions in test scores across all subjects and depress variation in student performance across achievement categories. These data suggest that assisting children with improved school performance requires alleviation of pre-school Pb exposure and its associated neurotoxic damage. Cost-benefit calculations suggest that it is more cost effective to pay for onetime primary prevention instead of paying continuous expenses focused on reversing neurotoxic damage.

  15. Use of a portable system with ultrasound and blood tests to improve prenatal controls in rural Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispín Milart, Patricia Hanna; Diaz Molina, César Augusto; Prieto-Egido, Ignacio; Martínez-Fernández, Andrés

    2016-09-13

    Maternal and neonatal mortality figures remain unacceptably high worldwide and new approaches are required to address this problem. This paper evaluates the impact on maternal and neonatal mortality of a pregnancy care package for rural areas of developing countries with portable ultrasound and blood/urine tests. An observational study was conducted, with intervention and control groups not randomly assigned. Rural areas of the districts of Senahu, Campur and Carcha, in Alta Verapaz Department (Guatemala). The control group is composed by 747 pregnant women attended by the community facilitator, which is the common practice in rural Guatemala. The intervention group is composed by 762 pregnant women attended under the innovative Healthy Pregnancy project. That project strengthens the local prenatal care program, providing local nurses training, portable ultrasound equipment and blood and urine tests. The information of each pregnancy is registered in a medical exchange tool, and is later reviewed by a gynecology specialist to ensure a correct diagnosis and improve nurses training. No maternal deaths were reported within the intervention group, versus five cases in the control group. Regarding neonatal deaths, official data revealed a 64 % reduction for neonatal mortality. A 37 % prevalence of anemia was detected. Non-urgent referral was recommended to 70 pregnancies, being fetal malpresentation the main reported cause. Impact data on maternal mortality (reduction to zero) and neonatal mortality (NMR was reduced to 36 %) are encouraging, although we are aware of the limitations of the study related to possible biasing and the small sample size. The major reduction of maternal and neonatal mortality provides promising prospects for these low-cost diagnostic procedures, which allow to provide high quality prenatal care in isolated rural communities of developing countries. This research was not registered because it is an observational study where the assignment of

  16. Assessing the sensitivity and specificity of First Response HIV-1-2 test kit with whole blood and serum samples: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Boadu, Raymond; Darko, George; Nortey, Priscilla; Akweongo, Patricia; Sarfo, Bismark

    2016-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Rapid diagnostic Test (RDT) kits are the preferred assays for HIV testing in many countries. Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission, Know Your Status Campaigns, Blood-Safety, Voluntary Counseling and Testing are major strategies adapted to control transmission of the virus and the pivot of these interventions is either screening or diagnosing individuals through testing. There are reports of inconsistent sensitivity and specificity with whole ...

  17. Nutritional status and random blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride test among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel in Kuala Lumpur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadiy, I.; Razalee, S.; Zalifah, M. K. [Nutrition Programme, School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Zulkeffeli, M. J. [Department of Health Service, Ministry of Defense, Level 11, Menara Park, 50450 (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    With the rising trend of obesity among the general population, it is also important to assess the obesity and health status among military population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel as well as the relationship between selected socio-demographics factors, antropometric profiles, body composition and random blood test value. A cross sectional study involving 378 male military personnel aged between 20 to 48 years old was conducted at two MA bases in Kuala Lumpur between November and December 2012. Antropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body fat percentage was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis method (Tanita TBF-300A). Mean height, weight, BMI, WC, body fat percentage, age, monthly income and duration of service were 1.71 ± 0.6 m, 71.7 ± 12.2 kg, 24.6 ± 4.1 kg/m{sup 2}, 87.0 ± 10.0 cm, 23.4 ± 6.6%, 29.1 ± 5.5 years, RM 2115.12 ± 860.70 and 9.9 ± 5.6 years respectively. According to WHO (1998) classification of BMI, 3.2% of the subjects were underweight, 54.8% normal, 32.8% overweight and 9.3% obese. It was obeserved that 40.2% of the subjects had waist circumference value of 90 cm or more and were considered high risk for diebetes and cardiovascular diseases. This study found that BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.925, p<0.05), WC (r=0.852, p<0.05) and body fat percentage. Body fat percentage also show high correlation with weight (r=0.759, p<0.05) and WC (r=0.768, p<0.05. The result from 173 of 378 subjects that were selected for random blood test found that 4.6%, 3.5% and 26.0% had diabetes, high cholesterol and high triglyceride respectively. There was a weak correlation between random blood glucose level with weight (r=0.221, p<0.05), BMI (r=0.243, p<0.05), WC (r=0.298, p<0.05), body fat percentage (r=0.163, p<0.05) and age (r=0.223, p<0.05). Random blood cholesterol level had significant correlation with

  18. Analysis of blood test in patients with anemia%贫血患者的血液检验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢育昌

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the diagnostic value of blood test in diagnosis of anemia.Methods:228 patients with anemia were selected.At the same time,200 cases of healthy people were collected as the control group.Fasting venous blood of all the staff were taken and detected.Mean red cell volume(MCV),mean corpuscular hemoglobin(MCH),mean corpuscular-hemoglobin concentration(MCHC)and red cell distribution width(RDW)of the two groups were statistically analyzed.Result:The RDW,MCV, MCH,MCHC of mediterranean anemia,hemolytic anemia,chronic infection,giant cell anemia,iron deficiency anemia were significantly different from those of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:The diagnostic value of blood test in diagnosis of anemia is significant.%目的:探讨血液检验在诊断贫血中的价值。方法:收治贫血患者228例,同时收集同期行健康体检的人员200例作为对照组,所有人员均抽取空腹静脉血并进行检测,统计两组患者的平均红细胞容积(MCV)、平均红细胞血红蛋白量(MCH)、平均红细胞血红蛋白浓度(MCHC)、红细胞分布宽度(RDW)。结果:地中海贫血、溶血性贫血、慢性感染、巨幼细胞性贫血、缺铁性贫血的 RDW、MCV、MCH、MCHC 与对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:血液检验对诊断贫血有着重要的临床意义。

  19. Development of NuQ nucleosome blood tests for the detection of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Jake; Wilson, Hannah L

    2014-01-01

    Dr Jake Micallef speaks to Hannah L Wilson, Commissioning Editor: Dr Micallef has 20 years of experience in research and development and in the management of early-stage biotechnical companies, including the manufacture of biotechnology products and the establishment of manufacturing operations. Dr Micallef gained this experience while working for WHO over a 10-year period from 1985. While working for WHO, Dr Micallef developed new diagnostic products in the areas of reproductive health and cancer. In 1990 he commenced development of a new diagnostic technology platform for WHO that was launched in 1992 and supported 13 tests. Dr Micallef also initiated and implemented in-house manufacture (previously outsourced to Abbott Diagnostics Inc., Dartford, UK) and worldwide distribution of these products for WHO. In 1990, he started a 'not-for-profit' WHO company, Immunometrics Ltd (London, UK), which marketed and distributed those diagnostic products worldwide. In 1999 Dr Micallef studied for an MBA and went on to co-found Gene Expression Technologies Ltd (London, UK) in 2001 where he successfully lead the development of the chemistry of the GeneICE technology and implemented the manufacture of GeneICE molecules. He also played a major role in business development and procured a GeneICE contract with Bayer Pharmaceuticals (Leverkusen, Germany). From 2004 to 2007, he taught 'science and enterprise' to science research workers from four universities at CASS Business School (London, UK) before joining Cronos Therapeutics (London, UK) in 2004. In 2006 Cronos was listed in the UK on AIM, becoming ValiRx. Dr Micallef continued to work as Technical Officer for ValiRx, where he in-licensed the Hypergenomics and Nucleosomics technologies and co-founded ValiBio SA (Namur, Belgium), which is now Belgian Volition SA, a subsidiary of Singapore Volition. Dr Micallef was educated at King's College London (UK; BSc, Biology and Chemistry, 1977; PhD Physical Chemistry, 1981), St Thomas

  20. Comparison of Molecular Detection Method (Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction) with Blood Culture and Paired Widal test for the Rapid Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S; Miah, R A; Pal, S; Khatun, S; Fatema, N; Roy, R R; Naheen, C R

    2017-01-01

    Typhoid fever is a major health problem in developing countries in spite of the use of antibiotics and the development of newer antibacterial drugs. Blood culture & serological tests (specially Widal test) which are invariably done in Bangladesh for typhoid fever diagnosis give unacceptable levels of false negative & false positive results respectively. This cross sectional study was done at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University from March 2013 to February 2014. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction-based technique (which has 100% specificity for Salmonella Typhi) was compared with blood culture and widal test among 80 clinically suspected cases of typhoid fever. PCR showed maximum positivity rate (70%) followed by widal test (43.75%) and blood culture (16.25%). PCR showed positive results for 17(48.6%) of 35 typhoid patients with negative results with blood culture and widal test. The results of the study revealed that PCR is rapid and reliable diagnostic technique for detection of S. Typhi in clinically suspected typhoid fever cases, as compared to most commonly done methods such as conventional blood culture, widal test applied.

  1. 血液化验二次分组模型的简捷算法%A Simple Algorithm of Blood Two Time's Group Test Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高焕江

    2013-01-01

    运用概率和微分学基本理论推导血液二次分组化验最佳分组方案,给出确定二次分组化验最佳分组组数和最佳分组人数的方法,并将血液二次分组化验最佳分组方式与一次分组化验进行比较.%Applying probability theory and differential calculus the optimum method of grouping of blood two time's group test is given,it present a method in quest of the optimum number of groups and optimum number of group members in blood two time's group test.Finally,it gives a comparison with the optimum methods of grouping between blood two time's group test and one time's group test.

  2. Detecting a low prevalence of latent tuberculosis among health care workers in Denmark detected by M. tuberculosis specific IFN-gamma whole-blood test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soborg, Bolette; Andersen, Aase B; Larsen, Helle K

    2007-01-01

    The study was designed to estimate prevalence of tuberculosis infection among health care workers, using the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the new M. tuberculosis specific diagnostic whole-blood test and to identify possible risk factors. Employees at 2 departments of infectious diseases...

  3. Global demethylation of rat chondrosarcoma cells after treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine results in increased tumorigenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Hamm

    Full Text Available Abnormal patterns of DNA methylation are observed in several types of human cancer. While localized DNA methylation of CpG islands has been associated with gene silencing, the effect that genome-wide loss of methylation has on tumorigenesis is not completely known. To examine its effect on tumorigenesis, we induced DNA demethylation in a rat model of human chondrosarcoma using 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine. Rat specific pyrosequencing assays were utilized to assess the methylation levels in both LINEs and satellite DNA sequences following 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment. Loss of DNA methylation was accompanied by an increase in invasiveness of the rat chondrosarcoma cells, in vitro, as well as by an increase in tumor growth in vivo. Subsequent microarray analysis provided insight into the gene expression changes that result from 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine induced DNA demethylation. In particular, two genes that may function in tumorigenesis, sox-2 and midkine, were expressed at low levels in control cells but upon 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment these genes became overexpressed. Promoter region DNA analysis revealed that these genes were methylated in control cells but became demethylated following 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment. Following withdrawal of 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine, the rat chondrosarcoma cells reestablished global DNA methylation levels that were comparable to that of control cells. Concurrently, invasiveness of the rat chondrosarcoma cells, in vitro, decreased to a level indistinguishable to that of control cells. Taken together these experiments demonstrate that global DNA hypomethylation induced by 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine may promote specific aspects of tumorigenesis in rat chondrosarcoma cells.

  4. Cytochrome P4502D6 catalyzes the O-demethylation of the psychoactive alkaloid ibogaine to 12-hydroxyibogamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obach, R S; Pablo, J; Mash, D C

    1998-08-01

    Ibogaine is a psychoactive alkaloid that possesses potential as an agent to treat opiate and cocaine addiction. The primary metabolite arises via O-demethylation at the 12-position to yield 12-hydroxyibogamine. In this report, evidence is presented that the O-demethylation of ibogaine observed in human hepatic microsomes is catalyzed primarily by the polymorphically expressed cytochrome P-4502D6 (CYP2D6). An enzyme kinetic examination of ibogaine O-demethylase activity in pooled human liver microsomes suggested that two (or more) enzymes are involved in this reaction: one with a low KMapp (1.1 microM) and the other with a high KMapp (>200 microM). The low KMapp activity comprised >95% of total intrinsic clearance. Human liver microsomes from three individual donors demonstrated similar enzyme kinetic parameters (mean KMapp = 0.55 +/- 0.09 microM and 310 +/- 10 microM for low and high KM activities, respectively). However, a fourth human microsome sample that appeared to be a phenotypic CYP2D6 poor metabolizer possessed only the high KMapp activity. In hepatic microsomes from a panel of human donors, the low KMapp ibogaine O-demethylase activity correlated with CYP2D6-catalyzed bufuralol 1'-hydroxylase activity but not with other P450 isoform-specific activities. Quinidine, a CYP2D6-specific inhibitor, inhibited ibogaine O-demethylase (IC50 = 0.2 microM), whereas other P450 isoform-specific inhibitors did not inhibit this activity. Also, of a battery of recombinant heterologously expressed human P450 isoforms, only rCYP2D6 possessed significant ibogaine O-demethylase activity. Thus, it is concluded that ibogaine O-demethylase is catalyzed by CYP2D6 and that this isoform is the predominant enzyme of ibogaine O-demethylation in humans. The potential pharmacological implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. Blood Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anemia such as sickle cell disease and thalassemia Bleeding during or after surgery Injury or trauma Excessive blood loss Cancer and the effects of chemotherapy Bleeding disorders such as hemophilia Testing is ordered when ...

  6. Synergism between demethylation inhibitor fungicides or gibberellin inhibitor plant growth regulators and bifenthrin in a pyrethroid-resistant population of Listronotus maculicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoutar, D; Cowles, R S; Requintina, E; Alm, S R

    2010-10-01

    In 2007-2008, the "annual bluegrass weevil," Listronotus maculicollis Kirby (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a serious pest of Poa annua L. (Poales: Poaceae) on U.S. golf courses, was shown to be resistant to two pyrethroids, bifenthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. In 2008, we showed that bifenthrin resistance was principally mediated by oxidase detoxification (cytochrome P450 [P450]). P450s can be inhibited by demethylation inhibitor fungicides and gibberellin inhibitor plant growth regulators, both of which are commonly used on golf courses. We tested these compounds for synergistic activity with bifenthin against a pyrethroid-resistant population of L. maculicollis. The LD50 value for bifenthrin was significantly reduced from 87 ng per insect (without synergists) to 9.6-40 ng per insect after exposure to the fungicides fenarimol, fenpropimorph, prochloraz, propiconazole, and pyrifenox and the plant growth regulators flurprimidol, paclobutrazol, and trinexapac-ethyl. Simulated field exposure with formulated products registered for use on turf revealed enhanced mortality when adult weevils were exposed to bifenthrin (25% mortality, presented alone) combined with field dosages of propiconizole, fenarimol, flurprimidol, or trinexapac-ethyl (range, 49-70% mortality).

  7. Use of a rapid test on umbilical cord blood to screen for Trypanosoma cruzi infection in pregnant women in Argentina, Bolivia, Honduras, and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Gamboa-León, Miriam Rubi; Del Cid-Lemus, Jaime; Althabe, Fernando; Alger, Jackeline; Almendares, Olivia; Cafferata, María L; Chippaux, Jean-Philippe; Dumonteil, Eric; Gibbons, Luz; Padilla-Raygoza, Nicolás; Schneider, Dominique; Belizán, José M; Buekens, Pierre

    2008-11-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study of Chagas disease in five endemic areas in Argentina, Bolivia, Honduras, and México to estimate the prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi-specific antibodies in pregnant women, and to assess the use of a rapid test (Chagas Stat-Pak) to screen for T. cruzi infection at the time of delivery. The prevalence of antibodies to T. cruzi measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in maternal blood was 5.5% (a range of 0.8-28.8% among the countries) in 2,495 women enrolled. Compared with ELISA in maternal blood samples, the Chagas Stat-Pak rapid test sensitivity and specificity in umbilical cord blood were 94.6% and 99.0%, respectively. These results show the ability for a rapid determination of the presence of T. cruzi-specific antibodies in umbilical cord blood as a pragmatic strategy to screen for infection in pregnant women.

  8. Thyroid Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calories and how fast your heart beats. Thyroid tests check how well your thyroid is working. They ... thyroid diseases such as hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Thyroid tests include blood tests and imaging tests. Blood tests ...

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Different Testing Strategies that Use Antibody Levels to Detect Chronic Hepatitis C in Blood Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-García, Víctor; Contreras, Ana M; García-Peña, Carmen; Salinas-Escudero, Guillermo; Thein, Hla-Hla; Flores, Yvonne N

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of seven hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing strategies in blood donors. Three of the seven strategies were based on HCV diagnosis and reporting guidelines in Mexico and four were from previous and current recommendations outlined by the CDC. The strategies that were evaluated determine antibody levels according to the signal-to-cut-off (S/CO) ratio and use reflex Immunoblot (IMB) or HCV RNA tests to confirm true positive (TP) cases of chronic HCV infection. Costs were calculated from the perspective of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). A decision tree model was developed to estimate the expected number of true positive cases and costs for the base-case scenarios and for the sensitivity analyses. Base-case findings indicate an extended dominance of the CDC-USA2 and CDC-USA4 options by the IMSS Mexico3 and IMSS-Mexico1 alternatives. The probabilistic sensitivity analyses results suggest that for a willingness-to-pay (WTP) range of $0-9,000 USD the IMSS-Mexico1 strategy is the most cost-effective of all strategies ($5,000 USD per TP). The IMSS-Mexico3, IMSS-Mexico2, and CDC-USA3 strategies are also cost-effective strategies that cost between $7,800 and $8,800 USD per TP case detected. The CDC-USA1 strategy was very expensive and not cost-effective. HCV antibody testing strategies based on the classification of two or three levels of the S/CO are cost-effective procedures to identify patients who require reflex IMB or HCV RNA testing to confirm chronic HCV infection.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Different Testing Strategies that Use Antibody Levels to Detect Chronic Hepatitis C in Blood Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-García, Víctor; Contreras, Ana M.; García-Peña, Carmen; Salinas-Escudero, Guillermo; Thein, Hla-Hla; Flores, Yvonne N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of seven hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing strategies in blood donors. Methods. Three of the seven strategies were based on HCV diagnosis and reporting guidelines in Mexico and four were from previous and current recommendations outlined by the CDC. The strategies that were evaluated determine antibody levels according to the signal-to-cut-off (S/CO) ratio and use reflex Immunoblot (IMB) or HCV RNA tests to confirm true positive (TP) cases of chronic HCV infection. Costs were calculated from the perspective of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). A decision tree model was developed to estimate the expected number of true positive cases and costs for the base-case scenarios and for the sensitivity analyses. Results. Base-case findings indicate an extended dominance of the CDC-USA2 and CDC-USA4 options by the IMSS Mexico3 and IMSS-Mexico1 alternatives. The probabilistic sensitivity analyses results suggest that for a willingness-to-pay (WTP) range of $0–9,000 USD the IMSS-Mexico1 strategy is the most cost-effective of all strategies ($5,000 USD per TP). The IMSS-Mexico3, IMSS-Mexico2, and CDC-USA3 strategies are also cost-effective strategies that cost between $7,800 and $8,800 USD per TP case detected. The CDC-USA1 strategy was very expensive and not cost-effective. Conclusions. HCV antibody testing strategies based on the classification of two or three levels of the S/CO are cost-effective procedures to identify patients who require reflex IMB or HCV RNA testing to confirm chronic HCV infection. PMID:27159320

  11. Comparison of the Results Observed Urine Occult Blood Test and Microscopic Examination of Red Blood Cells%尿液潜血试验与镜检红细胞结果的对比观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁玉玲; 李哲

    2012-01-01

      目的观察比较镜检尿红细胞和尿潜血经过尿液分析仪检测后的结果.方法选取2009年7月至2009年7月我院收治的内科住院患者256例,作为研究对象.采集患者新鲜的晨尿,在第一时间用尿液分析仪检测血的阴阳性.在显微镜下观察是否有红细胞并数出其个数.根据观察结果对比尿液潜血试验与镜检红细胞的测量准确度.结果用镜检尿红细胞法检测出患者潜血呈阴性的患者数116,呈阳性的患者数140.用尿液分析仪检测出患者潜血呈阴性的患者数102,呈阳性的患者数154.两组结果经χ2检验后得出两组结过有明显差异,具有统计学意义.患者经尿液分析仪判断出阴性后镜检有红细胞的患者数5名,无红细胞的患者数为97名.判断出阳性后镜检有红细胞的患者数135名,无红细胞的患者数为15名.结果经χ2检验后得出两组结过有明显差异,具有统计学意义.结论尿液潜血试验与镜检红细胞联合起来会增加测量准确度.%  Objectives Compare the microscopic examination of urinary red blood cells and urinary occult blood detected through urine analysis results. Methods 256 cases from July 2009 to July 2009, the hospital medical inpatients, as the object of study. Collection in patients with fresh morning urine, and urine analysis detected by blood, yin and yang, the first time. Whether there are red blood cells under a microscope and count their number. Comparison based on the observed results of the measurement accuracy of the urine occult blood test and microscopic examination of red blood cells. Results Microscopic examination of urinary red blood cells detected number of 116 patients with occult blood-negative patients, showing the number of 140 patients with positive urine analysis detected a number of 102 patients with occult blood-negative patients, the number of 154 positive patients two sets of resultsdrawn by theχ2 test to two groups Results were

  12. The CYP2B6*6 allele significantly alters the N-demethylation of ketamine enantiomers in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yibai; Coller, Janet K; Hutchinson, Mark R; Klein, Kathrin; Zanger, Ulrich M; Stanley, Nathan J; Abell, Andrew D; Somogyi, Andrew A

    2013-06-01

    Ketamine is primarily metabolized to norketamine by hepatic CYP2B6 and CYP3A4-mediated N-demethylation. However, the relative contribution from each enzyme remains controversial. The CYP2B6*6 allele is associated with reduced enzyme expression and activity that may lead to interindividual variability in ketamine metabolism. We examined the N-demethylation of individual ketamine enantiomers using human liver microsomes (HLMs) genotyped for the CYP2B6*6 allele, insect cell-expressed recombinant CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 enzymes, and COS-1 cell-expressed recombinant CYP2B6.1 and CYP2B6.6 protein variant. Effects of CYP-selective inhibitors on norketamine formation were also determined in HLMs. The two-enzyme Michaelis-Menten model best fitted the HLM kinetic data. The Michaelis-Menten constants (K(m)) for the high-affinity enzyme and the low-affinity enzyme were similar to those for the expressed CYP2B6 and CYP3A4, respectively. The intrinsic clearance for both ketamine enantiomers by the high-affinity enzyme in HLMs with CYP2B6*1/*1 genotype were at least 2-fold and 6-fold higher, respectively, than those for CYP2B6*1/*6 genotype and CYP2B6*6/*6 genotype. The V(max) and K(m) values for CYP2B6.1 were approximately 160 and 70% of those for CYP2B6.6, respectively. N,N'N'-triethylenethiophosphoramide (thioTEPA) (CYP2B6 inhibitor, 25 μM) and the monoclonal antibody against CYP2B6 but not troleandomycin (CYP3A4 inhibitor, 25 μM) or the monoclonal antibody against CYP3A4 inhibited ketamine N-demethylation at clinically relevant concentrations. The degree of inhibition was significantly reduced in HLMs with the CYP2B6*6 allele (gene-dose P < 0.05). These results indicate a major role of CYP2B6 in ketamine N-demethylation in vitro and a significant impact of the CYP2B6*6 allele on enzyme-ketamine binding and catalytic activity.

  13. The blood donors’anti determined blood types from the blood bag plaits and the effect of the cross matching test%浅论供血者血袋小辫血样的反向血型及其对交叉配血结果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄燕雪; 甘玮玮; 原敏

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨供血者血袋小辫血样的反向血型以及其对交叉配血结果的影响。方法:对2013年3月~2013年12月期间漳州市中心血站提供的2040份供血者血袋小辫血样的检测资料进行回顾性研究。我们使用试管法鉴定这2040份供血者血袋小辫血样的反向血型,并使用聚凝胺法和微柱凝胶法对这2040份供血者血袋小辫血样的反向血型进行异型交叉配血试验。结果:当供血者血袋小辫血样的血型抗体减弱甚至无法测到时,会对交叉配血的结果产生影响。结论:鉴定供血者血袋小辫血样的反向血型对提高交叉配血结果的准确性具有重要的意义。因此,血站在制备红细胞悬液时应尽量保留含有完整血浆成分的血袋小辫血样。%Objectlve:To analysis the blood donors’anti determined blood types from the blood bag plaits,and the effect of the cross matching of blood in Zhangzhou area.Methods:To appraise the blood donors’anti determined blood type from the blood bag plait by test tube method, and use Polybrene method and micro column gel method respectively for different type of blood cross matching test.Results:The blood donors’blood group antibody from the blood bag plaits were weakening or even cannot be detected.And causing interference in blood cross matching test.Conclusion:Donors’anti determined blood types had important significances in the blood cross matching test.The blood stations should try to retain a complete components of plasma blood bag pigtail when preparating of red blood cell suspension.

  14. Role of heme oxygenase-1 in demethylating effects on SKM-1 cells induced by decitabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, R; Ma, D; Wang, P; Sun, J; Wang, J S; Fang, Q

    2015-12-22

    We evaluated the influence of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene inhibition in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) cell line SKM-1 on enhancement of the demethylating effects of decitabine on p15, and explored the possible mechanism. DNMT1 gene expression in SKM-1 cells was silenced by being transfected by a constructed siRNA with liposomes. The proliferation inhibition rates after drug treatment were detected by cell counting kit-8 assay. The apoptotic rates were detected by Annexin V/PI assay with flow cytometry. The expressions of p16, p15, TP73, CDH1, ESR1, and PDLIM4 mRNAs were detected by real-time PCR, and those of HO-1, DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, HDAC, and p15 proteins were measured by western blot. The degree of methylation of the p15 gene was analyzed by using methylation-specific PCR (MSP). CCK-8 assay showed that after HO-1 gene expression was inhibited; the proliferation rate of SKM-1 cells treated by decitabine (70.91 ± 0.05%) was significantly higher than that of the control group (53.67 ± 0.05%). Flow cytometry showed that the apoptotic rate of SKM- 1 cells treated by decitabine in combination with HO-1 expression inhibition (44.25 ± 0.05%) exceeded that of the cells treated by this drug alone (37.70 ± 0.05%). MSP showed that inhibiting HO-1 expression significantly increased the degree of methylation of the p15 gene. As suggested by western blot, the degree of methylation of the p15 protein was changed after decitabine treatment when the expression of the HO-1 protein was changed, being associated with the affected DNMT1 expression. Inhibited HO-1 expression attenuated the hypermethylation of CDKN2B by suppressing DNMT1, which was conducive to treatment by cooperating with decitabine. In conclusion, the findings of this study provide valuable experimental evidence for targeted MDS therapy, and a theoretical basis for further studies.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of population-based screening for colorectal cancer: a comparison of guaiac-based faecal occult blood testing, faecal immunochemical testing and flexible sigmoidoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, L; Tilson, L; Whyte, S; O'Ceilleachair, A; Walsh, C; Usher, C; Tappenden, P; Chilcott, J; Staines, A; Barry, M; Comber, H

    2012-02-28

    Several colorectal cancer-screening tests are available, but it is uncertain which provides the best balance of risks and benefits within a screening programme. We evaluated cost-effectiveness of a population-based screening programme in Ireland based on (i) biennial guaiac-based faecal occult blood testing (gFOBT) at ages 55-74, with reflex faecal immunochemical testing (FIT); (ii) biennial FIT at ages 55-74; and (iii) once-only flexible sigmoidoscopy (FSIG) at age 60. A state-transition model was used to estimate costs and outcomes for each screening scenario vs no screening. A third party payer perspective was adopted. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were undertaken. All scenarios would be considered highly cost-effective compared with no screening. The lowest incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER vs no screening euro 589 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained) was found for FSIG, followed by FIT euro 1696) and gFOBT (euro 4428); gFOBT was dominated. Compared with FSIG, FIT was associated with greater gains in QALYs and reductions in lifetime cancer incidence and mortality, but was more costly, required considerably more colonoscopies and resulted in more complications. Results were robust to variations in parameter estimates. Population-based screening based on FIT is expected to result in greater health gains than a policy of gFOBT (with reflex FIT) or once-only FSIG, but would require significantly more colonoscopy resources and result in more individuals experiencing adverse effects. Weighing these advantages and disadvantages presents a considerable challenge to policy makers.

  16. Interval Colorectal Cancers following Guaiac Fecal Occult Blood Testing in the Ontario ColonCancerCheck Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Paszat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This work examines the occurrence of interval colorectal cancers (CRCs in the Ontario ColonCancerCheck (CCC program. We define interval CRC as CRC diagnosed within 2 years following normal guaiac fecal occult blood testing (gFOBT. Methods. Persons aged 50–74 who completed a baseline CCC gFOBT kit in 2008 and 2009, without a prior history of CRC, or recent colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, or gFOBT, were identified. Rates of CRC following positive and normal results at baseline and subsequent gFOBT screens were computed and overall survival was compared between those following positive and normal results. Results. Interval CRC was diagnosed within 24 months following the baseline screen among 0.16% of normals and following the subsequent screen among 0.18% of normals. Interval cancers comprised 38.70% of CRC following the baseline screen and 50.86% following the subsequent screen. Adjusting for age and sex, the hazard ratio (HR for death following interval cancer compared to CRC following positive result was 1.65 (1.32, 2.05 following the first screen and 1.71 (1.00, 2.91 following the second screen. Conclusion. Interval CRCs following gFOBT screening comprise a significant proportion of CRC diagnosed within 2 years after gFOBT testing and are associated with a higher risk of death.

  17. Autonomic nervous system function in type 2 diabetes using conventional clinical autonomic tests, heart rate and blood pressure variability measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sucharita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are currently approximately 40.9 million patients with diabetes mellitus in India and this number is expected to rise to about 69.9 million by the year 2025. This high burden of diabetes is likely to be associated with an increase in associated complications. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 (15 male and 8 female patients with type 2 diabetes of 10-15 years duration and their age and gender matched controls (n=23 were recruited. All subjects underwent detailed clinical proforma, questionnaire related to autonomic symptoms, anthropometry, peripheral neural examination and tests of autonomic nervous system including both conventional and newer methods (heart rate and blood pressure variability. Results: Conventional tests of cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic activity were significantly lower in patients with diabetes compared to the controls (P<0.05. The diabetic patients group had significantly lower high frequency and low-frequency HRV when expressed in absolute units (P<0.05 and total power (P<0.01 compared to the controls. Conclusion: Data from the current study demonstrated that diabetics had both cardiac sympathetic and cardiac parasympathetic nervous system involvement. The presence of symptoms and involvement of both components of the autonomic nervous system suggest that dysfunction has been present for a while in these diabetics. There is a strong need for earlier and regular evaluation of autonomic nervous system in type 2 diabetics to prevent further complications.

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  20. Coughing up blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gastrointestinal tract. Blood that comes up with a cough often looks bubbly because it is mixed with ... conditions, diseases, and medical tests may make you cough up blood. These include: Blood clot in the ...

  1. Symptoms of Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leg (causing most often swelling, redness, and/or warmth of the leg or shortness of breath) Petechiae ( ... Disorders Symptoms of Blood Disorders Medical History and Physical Examination for Blood Disorders Laboratory Tests for Blood ...

  2. Detection of EPO-Fc fusion protein in human blood: screening and confirmation protocols for sports drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Christian; Thevis, Mario

    2012-11-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) has been under investigation for several years as a pharmaceutical drug target. Clinical studies have shown that fusion proteins consisting of human recombinant erythropoietin (rhEPO) and the Fc-part of IgG can be transported after pulmonary administration via FcRn across the airway epithelium to the blood stream. So far, no clinically approved pharmaceutical formulation of EPO-Fc is available. Since various forms of recombinant erythropoietins have been frequently misused by athletes as performance-enhancing agents, EPO-Fc might play a similar role in sports in the future. In order to investigate the detectability of EPO-Fc in human blood, different strategies were tested and developed. Only two of them fulfilled the necessary requirements regarding sensitivity and specificity. A rapid protocol useful for screening purposes first enriches EPO-Fc from human serum via high capacity protein A beads and subsequently detects EPO-Fc in the eluate with a commercial EPO ELISA kit. The limit of detection (LOD) of the method is about 5 pg (45 amol) EPO-Fc and is independent of the serum volume used. For screening and/or confirmation purposes a second protocol was evaluated, which consists of a fast EPO immunopurification step followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate or sarcosyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, SAR-PAGE) and Western double-blotting with chemiluminescence detection - a method already established in routine EPO anti-doping control. The latter strategy allows the detection of EPO-Fc in serum together with all other recombinant erythropoietins and with an identical LOD (5 pg/45 amol) as for the rapid screening protocol.

  3. Test performance of faecal occult blood testing for the detection of bowel cancer in people with chronic kidney disease (DETECT protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Narelle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. In patients without kidney disease, screening is a major strategy for reducing the risk of cancer and improving the health outcomes for those who developed cancers by detecting treatable cancers at an early stage. Among those with CKD, the effectiveness, the efficacy and patients' preferences for cancer screening are unknown. Methods/Design This work describes the protocol for the DETECT study examining the effectiveness, efficiency and patient's perspectives of colorectal cancer screening using immunochemical faecal occult blood testing (iFOBT for people with CKD. The aims of the DETECT study are 1 to determine the test performance characteristics of iFOBT screening in individuals with CKD, 2 to estimate the incremental costs and health benefits of iFOBT screening in CKD compared to no screening and 3 to elicit patients' perspective for colorectal cancer screening in the CKD population. Three different study designs will be used to explore the uncertainties surrounding colorectal cancer screening in CKD. A diagnostic test accuracy study of iFOBT screening will be conducted across all stages of CKD in patients ages 35-70. Using individually collected direct healthcare costs and outcomes from the diagnostic test accuracy study, cost-utility and cost-effective analyses will be performed to estimate the costs and health benefits of iFOBT screening in CKD. Qualitative in-depth interviews will be undertaken in a subset of participants from the diagnostic test accuracy study to investigate the perspectives, experiences, attitudes and beliefs about colorectal cancer screening among individuals with CKD. Discussion The DETECT study will target the three major unknowns about early cancer detection in CKD. Findings from our study will provide accurate and definitive estimates of screening efficacy and efficiency for colorectal cancer, and

  4. Individual donor-nucleic acid testing for human immunodeficiency virus-1, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus and its role in blood safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs are one of the biggest threats to blood transfusion safety. Nucleic acid testing (NAT in blood donor screening has been implemented in many countries to reduce the risk of TTIs. NAT shortens this window period, thereby offering blood centers a much higher sensitivity for detecting viral infections. Aims: The objective was to assess the role of individual donor-NAT (ID-NAT for human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1, hepatitis C virus (HCV and hepatitis B virus (HBV and its role in blood safety. Materials and Methods: A total of 32978 donations were tested for all three viruses using enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (Vironostika ® HIV Ag-Ab, Hepanostika ® HCV ultra and hepatitis B surface antigen ultra by Biomerieux and ID-NAT using Procleix Ultrio plus ® Assay (Novartis Diagnostic, USA. All initial NAT reactive samples and serology nonreactive were retested in triplicate and NAT discriminatory assay for HIV-1, HCV and HBV were performed. Results: Of the 32978 samples, 43 (0.13% were found to be ID-NAT reactive but seronegative. Out of 43, one for HIV-1, 13 for HCV and 27 for HBV were reactive by discriminatory assays. There were two samples that were reactive for both HCV-HBV and counted as HCV-HBV co-infection NAT yield. The prevalence of these viruses in our sample, tested by ID-NAT is 0.06%, 0.71%, and 0.63% for HIV-1, HCV and HBV respectively. The combined NAT yield among blood donors was 1 in 753. Conclusion: ID-NAT testing for HIV-1, HCV and HBV can tremendously improve the efficacy of screening for protecting blood recipient from TTIs. It enables detection of these viruses that were undetected by serological test and thus helped in providing safe blood to the patients.

  5. Blood differential test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... glands do not produce enough hormones) Allergic reaction Cancer Chronic myelogenous leukemia Collagen vascular disease Hypereosinophilic syndromes Parasitic infection An increased percentage of basophils may be ...

  6. ACTH blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gland not producing enough hormones, such as ACTH ( hypopituitarism ) Tumor of the adrenal gland that produces too ... syndrome due to adrenal tumor Ectopic Cushing syndrome Hypopituitarism Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) I Review Date 10/ ...

  7. Estradiol blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may also be used to monitor people with hypopituitarism and women on certain fertility treatments. Normal Results ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 24. Read More Hypopituitarism Ovarian cancer Turner syndrome Vagina Review Date 9/ ...

  8. Calcitonin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin is broken) References Bringhurst FR, Demay MB, Kronenberg HM. Hormones and disorders of mineral metabolism. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. ...

  9. Aldolase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pancreatic, or prostate cancer Muscle disease such as dermatomyositis , muscular dystrophy , polymyositis Swelling and inflammation of the ... Saunders; 2016:chap 269. Vleugels RA, Callen JP. Dermatomyositis. In: Lebwohl MG, Heymann WR, Berth-Jones J, ...

  10. Ammonia blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is most commonly used to diagnose and monitor hepatic encephalopathy , a severe liver disease. ... Nevah MI, Fallon MB. Hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal ... disease. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger ...

  11. Creatinine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum creatinine ... Creatinine is a chemical waste product of creatine. Creatine is a chemical made by the body and ... done to see how well your kidneys work. Creatinine is removed from the body entirely by the ...

  12. Toxoplasma blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsche TR, Selvarangan R. Medical parasitology. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011: ...

  13. Blood Test: Lipid Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provide individual results for your good and bad cholesterol and triglycerides.Good (HDL) cholesterol: Your body needs good cholesterol to lower your ... of heart disease. Your doctor will prescribe a cholesterol medicine based ... and health history.Triglycerides: 150 md/dL or less is considered normal, ...

  14. TBG - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TBG levels may be due to: Acute illness Acromegaly (disorder caused by too much growth hormone) Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) Malnutrition Nephrotic syndrome (symptoms that show kidney damage is present) Stress from ...

  15. Second-tier test for quantification of underivatized amino acids in dry blood spot for metabolic diseases in newborn screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunyan; Zhu, Hongbin; Zhang, Wenyan; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Shuying

    2013-02-01

    The quantitative analysis of amino acids (AAs) in single dry blood spot (DBS) samples is an important issue for metabolic diseases as a second-tier test in newborn screening. An analytical method for quantifying underivatized AAs in DBS was developed by using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The sample preparation in this method is simple and ion-pairing agent is not used in the mobile phase that could avoid ion suppression, which happens in mass spectrometry and avoids damage to the column. Through chromatographic separation, some isomeric compounds could be identified and quantified, which cannot be solved through only appropriate multiple reactions monitoring transitions by MS/MS. The concentrations of the different AAs were determined using non-deuterated internal standard. All calibration curves showed excellent linearity within test ranges. For most of the amino acids the accuracy of extraction recovery was between 85.3 and 115 %, and the precision of relative standard deviation was <7.0 %. The 35 AAs could be identified in DBS specimens by the developed LC-MS/MS method in 17-19 min, and eventually 24 AAs in DBS were quantified. The results of the present study prove that this method as a second-tier test in newborn screening for metabolic diseases could be performed by the quantification of free AAs in DBS using the LC-MS/MS method. The assay has advantages of high sensitive, specific, and inexpensive merits because non-deuterated internal standard and acetic acid instead of ion-pairing agent in mobile phase are used in this protocol.

  16. Routine screening of blood donations at Qingdao central blood bank, China, for hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA with a real-time, multiplex nucleic acid test for HBV, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus Types 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhongsi; Xu, Lei; Liu, Li; Feng, Qiuxia; Zhang, Longmu; Ma, Weijuan; Saldanha, John; Wang, Mingmin; Zhao, Lin

    2013-10-01

    The Roche cobas TaqScreen MPX test was used to evaluate the rate of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative donations that were hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA reactive from June 2010 to January 2011 in Qingdao, China. HBsAg-negative samples from 65,800 voluntary blood donors were tested with the cobas TaqScreen MPX test in pools of 6 on the Roche cobas s 201 blood screening platform. Samples positive for HBV DNA and negative for HBsAg were quantitated with the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HBV test. In addition, serologic tests for HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antibody, anti-hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), anti-hepatitis B e antigen (anti-HBe), and hepatitis B e antigen (HBe) were done using the Roche electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. A total of 80 nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT) test-reactive pools were identified and 59 pools (74%) resolved to a reactive sample. All samples were HBV DNA reactive and the viral load in each sample was quantitated. The viral loads of the samples ranged from less than 20 to 34,600 IU/mL; 13 samples (22%) had viral loads of more than 20 IU/mL, 27 samples (45.8%) had viral loads of less than 20 IU/mL, and 19 samples (32.2%) had undetectable viral loads. Of the 59 NAT-reactive samples, 40 (67.8%) were anti-HBc positive. Fifteen of the 59 samples could not be confirmed as NAT reactive either by an alternative NAT test or by serology. The HBV NAT yield in blood donors in Qingdao is 0.06% (38/65,800). This study confirmed the value of NAT for interdicting HBV-positive donations and preventing transfusion-transmitted HBV infections. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  17. Postprandial blood glucose latency after oatmeal is a valid screening test for diabetic gastropathy in type 1 diabetes, but not in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jüngling, B; Schleiffer, T; Buttmann, A; Kraatz, K; Kress, S; Vogt, M; Windeler, J; Riemann, J F

    2001-04-01

    Disordered gastric motility occurs frequently in diabetes mellitus. Gastric emptying time is abnormal in about 50% of diabetic patients and delayed emptying time is known as an important cause for brittle diabetes in type 1 diabetes. We compared the rise in blood glucose after a standardized meal (oatmeal test) as a noninvasive screening test for diabetic gastropathy with the noninvasive measurement of gastric emptying time with ultrasound in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. The test result was considered pathological if the rise of blood glucose after an initial steady state did not reach 20 mg/dl in the first 20 min after the meal (prolonged blood glucose latency). We found a sensitivity of 90% (58.7-99.8) and a specificity of 100% (71.5-100) for the oatmeal test in type 1 diabetes in the gastropathy screening. In type 2 diabetes we found a sensitivity of 13% (1.5-38.3) and a specificity of 78% (60-90.7) (95% CI). In conclusion, the oatmeal test seemed to be a good, noninvasive screening test in diabetic gastropathy in type 1 diabetes, but has no diagnostic value in type 2 diabetes. The causes for such a difference may be due to a different postprandial blood glucose regulation in type 2 diabetes compared to the beta-cell-depleted type 1 diabetes.

  18. 血液检验标本误差的影响因素分析%Analysis of the factors affecting blood test specimens error

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶云

    2015-01-01

    目的:对血液检验标本误差的影响因素进行探讨。方法:选取我院100份出现误差的血液检验标本为研究对象,对检验误差的原因进行分析和统计,并针对影响因素制定相应的预防对策。结果:100份血液检验标本的误差诱因包括采集因素、患者自身因素、标本处理因素、标本送检因素及标本检验因素。结论:在对患者实施血液检验时,对血液检验标本造成误差的诱因较多,医院单位需要规范血液检验的流程,加强把控,从而减少临床检验的误差率。%AIM:To discuss the factors of the blood specimens error. METHODS: 100 blood test specimens with error in our hospital were selected as the research subjects. Analyzing the fac⁃tors and developing appropriate preventive measures. RESULTS:The incentive factors of 100 blood test specimens include the patient�s own factors, collecting factors, specimens handing and specimens inspecting factors. CONCLUSION: Because of the varies factors of the blood specimens testing error, hospitals need to regulate the flow of blood tests and strengthen the control of the blood tests, which can reduce the error rate in clinical testing.

  19. Quantitative immunochemical fecal occult blood testing for colorectal adenoma detection: evaluation in the target population of screening and comparison with qualitative tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Ulrike; Hundt, Sabrina; Brenner, Hermann

    2010-03-01

    Quantitative and qualitative immunochemical fecal occult blood tests (FOBTs) have been proposed for noninvasive colorectal cancer screening, but comparative evaluation is lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of two (quantitative) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based immunochemical FOBTs for identifying colorectal adenomas in the target population of screening and to compare the results with six (qualitative) immunochromatographic FOBTs, previously evaluated in the same study participants using the same stool samples. A total of 1,319 participants of screening colonoscopy at average risk for colorectal neoplasia (mean age 63 years; age range 31-86 years; 50% men) were recruited prospectively from January 2006 to December 2007 in collaboration with 20 gastroenterological practices in Germany. Fecal hemoglobin and hemoglobin-haptoglobin levels were measured using an automated ELISA (RIDASCREEN). Test performance characteristics at different cutoff values were derived by comparing the results of stool testing with the results of colonoscopy in a blinded manner. A total of 130 participants (10%) had an advanced adenoma. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve with regard to advanced adenomas was 0.68 (0.65-0.71) for hemoglobin and 0.64 (0.61-0.67) for hemoglobin-haptoglobin (P=0.034). At a specificity of approximately 95%, the sensitivity (95% confidence interval) for advanced adenomas was 33% (25-42%) for hemoglobin and 24% (17-32%) for hemoglobin-haptoglobin, respectively. The sensitivity for hemoglobin was very close to sensitivities of the six qualitative FOBTs at (strongly divergent) levels of specificity observed for the latter. ELISA-based measurement of hemoglobin was superior to hemoglobin-haptoglobin, but showed a similar sensitivity for advanced adenomas compared with (qualitative) immunochromatographic FOBTs at defined levels of specificity. Compared with the latter, its quantitative nature

  20. Interleukin-4 Induces CpG Site-Specific Demethylation of the Pendrin Promoter in Primary Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giada Scantamburlo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pendrin is upregulated in bronchial epithelial cells following IL-4 stimulation via binding of STAT6 to an N4 GAS motif. Basal CpG methylation of the pendrin promoter is cell-specific. We studied if a correlation exists between IL-4 sensitivity and the CpG methylation status of the pendrin promoter in human bronchial epithelial cell models. Methods: Real-time PCR and pyrosequencing were used to respectively quantify pendrin mRNA levels and methylation of pendrin promoter, with and without IL-4 stimulation, in healthy and diseased primary HBE cells, as well as NCI-H292 cells. Results: Increases in pendrin mRNA after IL-4 stimulation was more robust in NCI-H292 cells than in primary cells. The amount of gDNA methylated varied greatly between the cell types. In particular, CpG site 90 located near the N4 GAS motif was highly methylated in the primary cells. An additional CpG site (90bis, created by a SNP, was found only in the primary cells. IL-4 stimulation resulted in dramatic demethylation of CpG sites 90 and 90bis in the primary cells. Conclusions: IL-4 induces demethylation of specific CpG sites within the pendrin promoter. These epigenetic alterations are cell type specific, and may in part dictate pendrin mRNA transcription.

  1. Induced Pib Expression and Resistance to Magnaporthe grisea are Compromised by Cytosine Demethylation at Critical Promoter Regions in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Xia, Qiong; Kou, Hongping; Wang, Dan; Lin, Xiuyun; Wu, Ying; Xu, Chunming; Xing, Shaochen; Liu, Bao

    2011-10-01

    Pib is a well-characterized rice blast-resistance gene belonging to the nucleotide binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) superfamily. Expression of Pib was low under non-challenged conditions, but strongly induced by the blast-causing fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea, thereby conferring resistance to the pathogen. It is generally established that cytosine methylation of the promoter-region often plays a repressive role in modulating expression of the gene in question. We report here that two critical regions of the Pib promoter were heavily CG cytosine-methylated in both cultivars studied. Surprisingly, induced expression of Pib by M. grisea infection did not entail its promoter demethylation, and partial demethylation by 5-azacytidine-treatment actually reduced Pib expression relative to wild-type plants. Accordingly, the blast disease-resistance was compromised in the 5'-azaC-treated plants relative to wild-type. In contrast, the disease susceptibility was not affected by the 5'-azaC treatment in another two rice cultivars that did not contain the Pib gene, ruling out effects of other R genes and non-specific genotoxic effects by the drug-treatment as a cause for the compromised Pib-conditioned blast-resistance. Taken together, our results suggest that promoter DNA methylation plays a novel enhancing role in conditioning high-level of induced expression of the Pib gene in times of M. grisea infection, and its conferred resistance to the pathogen.

  2. Cumene hydroperoxide-supported demethylation reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P450 2B4 lacking the NH2-terminal sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Pernecky, S J

    1999-04-29

    Catalytic activities of cytochrome P450 2B4 lacking NH2-terminal amino acids 2-27 (wt Delta2B4) and that of truncated 2B4 containing a Pro to Ser mutation at position 221 were examined in a system supported by cumene hydroperoxide. Demethylation activities of either truncated 2B4 with N-methylaniline, N,N-dimethylaniline, and d-benzphetamine were lower than those of liver microsomal 2B4, whereas the rate of 1-phenylethanol oxidation to acetophenone catalyzed by liver microsomal and truncated 2B4 enzymes was nearly the same. The Km and Vmax values for cumene hydroperoxide in the demethylation of N-methylaniline by wt Delta2B4 were 20% and 28%, respectively, of those obtained for 2B4. The reaction with wt Delta2B4 displayed a lesser dependence on phospholipid than did that with 2B4, and a complex relationship between activity and substrate concentration. The results suggest that the NH2-terminal region contributes to interaction of oxidant, substrate, and phospholipid in cumene hydroperoxide-supported reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P450 2B4.

  3. Demethylation restores SN38 sensitivity in cells with acquired resistance to SN38 derived from human cervical squamous cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    TANAKA, TETSUJI; BAI, TAO; TOUJIMA, SAORI; UTSUNOMIYA, TOMOKO; MATSUOKA, TOSHIHIDE; KOBAYASHI, AYA; YAMAMOTO, MADOKA; SASAKI, NORIYUKI; TANIZAKI, YUKO; UTSUNOMIYA, HIROTOSHI; TANAKA, JUNKO; YUKAWA, KAZUNORI

    2012-01-01

    Using seven monoclonal SN38-resistant subclones established from ME180 human cervical squamous cell carcinoma cells, we examined the demethylation effects of 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) on the SN38-sensitivity of the cells as well as the expression of death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) in the SN38-resistant cells. The DAPK expression levels were evaluated among parent ME180 cells, SN38-resistant ME180 cells and cisplatin-resistant ME180 cells by methylation-specific DAPK-PCR, quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis. The SN38-resistant cells co-treated with SN38 and 5-aza-CdR strongly exhibited enhanced SN38-sensitivities resembling those found in the parent cells. In the SN38-resistant subclones, no relationships were found between the restored SN38 sensitivity and hypermethylation of the DAPK promoter, DAPK mRNA expression, DAPK protein expression and induction of DAPK protein after 5-aza-CdR treatment, unlike the strong suppression of 5-aza-CdR-induced DAPK protein expression in the cisplatin-resistant subclones. These findings indicate that reversibly methylated molecules, but not DAPK, may regulate SN38 resistance, and that demethylating agents can be strong sensitizing anticancer chemotherapeutic drugs for SN38-resistant cancers. PMID:22246465

  4. [Methylation of FHIT gene promoter region in DNA from plasma of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and demethylating effect of decitabine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yin-Fen; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xiu-Qun; Hu, Ming-Qiu; Dai, Dan; Zhang, Xue-Zhong; Xu, Yan-Li

    2012-10-01

    This study was aimed to detect the methylation status of FHIT gene promoter region in the DNA from plasma of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and to investigate the demethylating effect of decitabine. Methylation-specific PCR method was used to detect the methylation status of FHIT gene promoter region in the DNA from plasma of 4 patients with MDS before and after treatment with decitabine plus semis CAG therapy (among them, 1 case of newly diagnosed MDS, 3 cases progressed into acute leukemia). The results indicated that 3 cases were found to have an increased methylation in the promoter region. After treatment with decitabine plus semis CAG, increased methylation was reversed in 2 cases. In 4 cases, 2 cases displayed clinical response. It is concluded that FHIT gene hypermethylation is associated with MDS pathogenesis. Decitabine has demethylating effect on the FHIT gene hypermethylation of plasma from MDS patients. Detecting the methylation status of FHIT gene in DNA from plasma may play a role in MDS auxiliary diagnosis or prognosis.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA copy number is regulated by DNA methylation and demethylation of POLGA in stem and cancer cells and their differentiated progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W; Johnson, J; Gough, D J; Donoghue, J; Cagnone, G L M; Vaghjiani, V; Brown, K A; Johns, T G; St John, J C

    2015-02-26

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number is strictly regulated during differentiation so that cells with a high requirement for ATP generated through oxidative phosphorylation have high mtDNA copy number, whereas those with a low requirement have few copies. Using immunoprecipitation of DNA methylation on 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), which distinguish between de novo DNA methylation and demethylation, respectively, we set out to determine whether DNA methylation at exon 2 of the human mtDNA-specific polymerase (DNA polymerase gamma A (POLGA)) regulates cell-specific mtDNA copy number in highly proliferative and terminally differentiated cells. Highly proliferative cancer and pluripotent and multipotent cells possessed low mtDNA copy number and were highly methylated at exon 2 of POLGA in contrast to post-mitotic cells. Unlike neural stem cells, cancer cells were unable to differentiate and remained extensively DNA methylated at exon 2 of POLGA. However, mtDNA depletion of cancer cells reduced DNA methylation at exon 2 of POLGA as they replenished mtDNA to form tumours in mice. Glioblastoma cells treated with the DNA demethylation agent 5-azacytidine over 28 days of astrocyte-induced differentiation demethylated exon 2 of POLGA leading to increased mtDNA copy number and expression of the astrocyte endpoint marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). However, the demethylation agent vitamin C (VitC) was unable to sustain increased mtDNA copy number and differentiation, as was the case when VitC was withdrawn after short-term treatment. These data demonstrate that DNA demethylation of POLGA is an essential regulator of mtDNA copy number and cellular fate and that cancer cells are only able to modulate DNA methylation of POLGA and mtDNA copy number in the presence of a DNA demethylation agent that inhibits de novo methyltransferase 1 activity.

  6. The CentriMag centrifugal blood pump as a benchmark for in vitro testing of hemocompatibility in implantable ventricular assist devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chris H H; Pieper, Ina Laura; Hambly, Rebecca; Radley, Gemma; Jones, Alyssa; Friedmann, Yasmin; Hawkins, Karl M; Westaby, Stephen; Foster, Graham; Thornton, Catherine A

    2015-02-01

    Implantable ventricular assist devices (VADs) have proven efficient in advanced heart failure patients as a bridge-to-transplant or destination therapy. However, VAD usage often leads to infection, bleeding, and thrombosis, side effects attributable to the damage to blood cells and plasma proteins. Measuring hemolysis alone does not provide sufficient information to understand total blood damage, and research exploring the impact of currently available pumps on a wider range of blood cell types and plasma proteins such as von Willebrand factor (vWF) is required to further our understanding of safer pump design. The extracorporeal CentriMag (Thoratec Corporation, Pleasanton, CA, USA) has a hemolysis profile within published standards of normalized index of hemolysis levels of less than 0.01 g/100 L at 100 mm Hg but the effect on leukocytes, vWF multimers, and platelets is unknown. Here, the CentriMag was tested using bovine blood (n = 15) under constant hemodynamic conditions in comparison with a static control for total blood cell counts, hemolysis, leukocyte death, vWF multimers, microparticles, platelet activation, and apoptosis. The CentriMag decreased the levels of healthy leukocytes (P pump which could be used as a standard in blood damage assays to inform the design of new implantable blood pumps.

  7. DNA methylome profiling of maternal peripheral blood and placentas reveal potential fetal DNA markers for non-invasive prenatal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yuqian; Zhang, Junyu; Li, Qiaoli; Zhou, Xinyao; Wang, Teng; Xu, Mingqing; Xia, Shihui; Xing, Qinghe; Wang, Lei; He, Lin; Zhao, Xinzhi

    2014-09-01

    Utilizing epigenetic (DNA methylation) differences to differentiate between maternal peripheral blood (PBL) and fetal (placental) DNA has been a promising strategy for non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). However, the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) have yet to be fully ascertained. In the present study, we performed genome-wide comparative methylome analysis between maternal PBL and placental DNA from pregnancies of first trimester by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-sequencing (MeDIP-Seq) and Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip assays. A total of 36 931 DMRs and 45 804 differentially methylated sites (DMSs) covering the whole genome, exclusive of the Y chromosome, were identified via MeDIP-Seq and Infinium 450k array, respectively, of which 3759 sites in 2188 regions were confirmed by both methods. Not only did we find the previously reported potential fetal DNA markers in our identified DMRs/DMSs but also we verified fully the identified DMRs/DMSs in the validation round by MassARRAY EpiTYPER. The screened potential fetal DNA markers may be used for NIPT on aneuploidies and other chromosomal diseases, such as cri du chat syndrome and velo-cardio-facial syndrome. In addition, these potential markers may have application in the early diagnosis of placental dysfunction, such as pre-eclampsia.

  8. Asymptomatic colonic metastases from primary squamous cell carcinoma of the lung with a positive fecal occult blood test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shoji Hirasaki; Seiyuu Suzuki; Shigeki Umemura; Haruhito Kamei; Masato Okuda; Kenichiro Kudo

    2008-01-01

    We describe a 74-year-old man with a colonic metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) from the lung.His chest X-ray revealed an abnormal shadow in the right upper lobe.Computed tomography (CT) of the chest demonstrated a large lung tumor in the right upper lobe obstructing the right upper bronchus.Bronchoscopy revealed an easy-bleeding tumor in the right upper bronchus that was diagnosed as poorly differentiated squamous cell lung carcinoma.He underwent colonoscopy because he had a positive fecal occult blood test.Colonoscopy revealed a large protruding lesion with central ulceration in the descending colon.Histological examination of the biopsy specimen obtained from the colonic lesion revealed SCC.The lesion was diagnosed as metastatic colonic SCC.He had no abdominal symptoms.He underwent chemotherapy with an infusion of cisplatin 130 mg I.v.day 1,and docetaxel hydrate 100 mg I.v.day 1,repeated every 4 wk,followed by 4 courses of chemotherapy.The primary lesion shrank by less than 10% and was judged to be "Partial Response" (PR)after 3 courses of treatment.The patient still lived 23 wk after the diagnosis of metastatic colonic SCC.Colonic metastasis of primary SCC of the lung is rare.

  9. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Be Smart About Social Media Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar Print A ... Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar levels ( ...

  10. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar A ... Other Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar ...

  11. Analysis of Abnormal Factors of Blood Cell Test Process%血细胞检验过程中发生异常的因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛银儿

    2014-01-01

    Objective To make the blood celltest in detection of more stable, ef ective, accurate and reliable data, avoiding errors occurring in clinical diagnosis, disease and treatment determination errors. Methods Based on the specimens of blood specimen col ection, anticoagulation, specimen preservation and transportation, calibration analysis, prevent blood test work abnormal factors af ect the final result. Results Working on blood test results of scientific, reasonable, each step, careful, can effectively improve the quality of blood test. Conclusion We must give ful consideration to a variety of influencing factors of blood testing, strict control, ensure the accuracy of the test.%目的使血细胞检验在检测中获得更为稳定、有效、精准的可靠数据,避免临床诊断出现偏差,病情和治疗方案判定错误。方法通过对血细胞标本采集、标本抗凝、标本保存和运输、仪器校准等环节的分析,防范血细胞检验工作中异常因素对最终结果的影响。结果科学、合理的开展血液检验工作的每一个步骤,认真细致的防范,可有效提高血细胞检验的质量。结论要充分考虑血细胞检验的多种影响因素,严格控制,保证检验的准确性。

  12. A Retrospective Study of the Impact of Rapid Diagnostic Testing on Time to Pathogen Identification and Antibiotic Use for Children with Positive Blood Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veesenmeyer, Angela Fimbres; Olson, Jared A; Hersh, Adam L; Stockmann, Chris; Korgenski, Kent; Thorell, Emily A; Pavia, Andrew T; Blaschke, Anne J

    2016-12-01

    Rapid identification of bloodstream pathogens provides crucial information that can improve the choice of antimicrobial therapy for children. Previous impact studies have primarily focused on adults. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of rapid testing in a children's hospital on time to organism identification and antibiotic use in the setting of an established antimicrobial stewardship program. We conducted a retrospective study over three consecutive time periods (spanning January 2013-August 2015) as our hospital sequentially introduced two rapid testing methods for positive blood cultures. An antimicrobial stewardship program was active throughout the study. In the baseline period, no rapid diagnostic methods were routinely utilized. In the second period (PNAFISH), a fluorescent in situ hybridization test was implemented for gram-positive organisms and in the third a rapid multiplex PCR (rmPCR) test was employed. For children with positive blood cultures, time to organism identification use and duration of select antimicrobial therapies were compared between periods. Positive blood cultures were analyzed. Median overall time to organism identification was 23, 11, and 0 h in the baseline, PNAFISH, and rmPCR periods, respectively (p Rapid diagnostic testing for children with positive blood cultures results in faster time to identification and can influence antibiotic prescribing in the setting of active antimicrobial stewardship particularly for gram-positive pathogens. Merck.

  13. Blood test using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with colloidal silver nanoparticle substrate to detect polyps and colorectal cancer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbo; Feng, Shangyuan; Tai, Isabella T.; Chen, Guannan; Chen, Rong; Zeng, Haishan

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer and forth leading cause of cancer-related death. Early diagnosis is the key to long-term patient survival. Programmatic screening for the general population has shown to be cost-effective in reducing the incidence and mortality from CRC. Current CRC screening strategy relies on a broad range of test techniques such as fecal based tests and endoscopic exams. Occult blood tests like fecal immunochemical test is a cost effective way to detect CRC but have limited diagnostic values in detecting adenomatous polyp, the most treatable precursor to CRC. In the present work, we proposed the use of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with silver nanoparticles as substrate to analyze blood plasma for detecting both CRC and adenomatous polyps. Blood plasma samples collected from healthy subjects and patients diagnosed with adenomas and CRC were prepared with nanoparticles and measured using a real-time fiber optic probe based Raman system. The collected SERS spectra are analyzed with partial least squares-discriminant analysis. Classification of normal versus CRC plus adenomatous polyps achieved diagnostic sensitivity of 86.4% and specificity of 80%. This exploratory study suggests that blood plasma SERS analysis has potential to become a screening test for detecting both CRC and adenomas.

  14. Blood glucose test in the fast blood glucose meter and the value of conventional biochemical instrument analysis%血糖检验中快速血糖仪和常规生化仪的价值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡政兵; 刘宁

    2015-01-01

    目的::探讨快速血糖仪和常规生化仪在临床血糖检验中应用的价值差异。方法:某院收治的82例患者为研究对象,对所有患者均采用快速血糖仪和常规生化仪检验血糖,对比两种方法的应用价值的差异。结果:快速血糖仪单次检测的血糖值为(6.20±1.18)mmol/L,多次检测的血糖值为(5.53±1.03)mmol/L,常规生化仪单次检测的血糖值为(5.69±1.12)mmol/L,多次检测的血糖值为(5.81±0.96)mmol/L。经统计学分析,两种方法比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:快速血糖仪具有常规生化仪在检验血糖方面的准确性,而且使用更简易可行和经济实用,能一定程度上减轻患者的身心负担和经济压力,利于医生及时确诊和给予救治措施,具有一定的临床推广和应用价值。%Objective:To study the fast blood glucose meter and conventional biochemical instrument in clinical application value of differences in blood sugar test. Methods: 82 cases of patients as the research object, adopt the fast blood glucose meter for all patients and normal biochemical analyzer test blood sugar, compared the difference of the value of the application of the two methods. Results:blood sugar value of fast blood glucose meter single detection (6.20±1.18)mmol/L, repeatedly testing blood glucose value is (5.53± 1.03) mmol/L;Routine biochemistry analyzer the blood sugar value of single detection (5.69 ± 1.12) mmol/L, multiple testing blood glucose value is (5.81 ± 0.96) mmol/L.After statistical analysis, P>0.05 there was no statistically significant difference comparing the two methods. Conclusion:fast blood glucose meter with conventional biochemical analyzer in the accuracy of the test blood glucose, and more simple and feasible and economical and practical to use, and to a certain extent, reduce the patient's physical and mental burden and economic pressures, conducive to the doctor in time

  15. Hydralazine target: From blood vessels to the epigenome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candelaria Myrna

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hydralazine was one of the first orally active antihypertensive drugs developed. Currently, it is used principally to treat pregnancy-associated hypertension. Hydralazine causes two types of side effects. The first type is an extension of the pharmacologic effect of the drug and includes headache, nausea, flushing, hypotension, palpitation, tachycardia, dizziness, and salt retention. The second type of side effects is caused by immunologic reactions, of which the drug-induced lupus-like syndrome is the most common, and provides clues to underscoring hydralazine's DNA demethylating property in connection with studies demonstrating the participation of DNA methylation disorders in immune diseases. Abnormalities in DNA methylation have long been associated with cancer. Despite the fact that malignant tumors show global DNA hypomethylation, regional hypermethylation as a means to silence tumor suppressor gene expression has attracted the greatest attention. Reversibility of methylation-induced gene silencing by pharmacologic means, which in turns leads to antitumor effects in experimental and clinical scenarios, has directed efforts toward developing clinically useful demethylating agents. Among these, the most widely used comprise the nucleosides 5-azacytidine and 2'deoxy-5-azacytidine; however, these agents, like current cytotoxic chemotherapy, causes myelosuppression among other side effects that could limit exploitation of their demethylating properties. Among non-nucleoside DNA demethylating drugs currently under development, the oral drug hydralazine possess the ability to reactivate tumor suppressor gene expression, which is silenced by promoter hypermethylation in vitro and in vivo. Decades of extensive hydralazine use for hypertensive disorders that demonstrated hydralazine's clinical safety and tolerability supported its testing in a phase I trial in patients with cancer, confirming its DNA demethylating activity. Hydralazine is

  16. A symphony on C : orchestrating DNA repair for gene expression via cytosine modification The 2012 IMB Conference: DNA Demethylation, Repair and Beyond Institute of Molecular Biology, Mainz, Germany, 18-21 October 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rots, Marianne G.; Petersen-Mahrt, Svend K.

    2013-01-01

    Headline-grabbing attention has been given to DNA demethylation pathways as new epigenetic mechanisms, with reviews and hypotheses outnumbering research papers. As candidate proteins for DNA demethylation include well-known DNA repair enzymes, it was timely to join epigenetics and DNA repair experts

  17. Waist circumference, body mass index, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal liver function tests in the Taiwanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Lin, Wen-Yi; Chien, Hsu-Han; Chien, Li-Ho; Huang, Chao-Kuan; Yang, Jeng-Fu; Chang, Ning-Chia; Huang, Chung-Feng; Wang, Chao-Ling; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung; Dai, Chia-Yen; Ho, Chi-Kung

    2012-09-01

    Several studies have found that metabolic syndrome and uric acid level are related to abnormal liver function test results. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of risk factors [including blood pressure, blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) measurements] with abnormal liver function in the Taiwanese population.In total, 11,411 Taiwanese adults were enrolled in this study. Blood pressure was assessed according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure criteria, fasting blood sugar level according to the Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health, R.O.C., criteria, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels according to the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, BMI according to the Asia-Pacific criteria, and waist circumference according to the Revised Diagnostic Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome in Taiwan. The prevalence of a past history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus was 17.7% and 6.5%, respectively, and the rates of abnormal measurements of blood pressure, BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, total cholesterol, uric acid (male/female), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were 76.2%, 67.6%, 40.0%, 28.6%, 30.6%, 57.3%, 37.9%/21.9%, 14.6% and 21.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels were related to abnormal AST and ALT (pwaist circumference was larger than that for BMI. In conclusion, waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal AST and ALT readings in Taiwanese adults. Waist circumference might be a better indicator of risk of abnormal liver function than BMI.

  18. Susceptibility to fragility test of red blood cell in congenital spherocytosis: an explanation based on surface area principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nCongenital spherocytosis is a rare congenital defect with red blood cell membrane abnormality. Based on the author's previous publication on surface area principle, an explanation for the increased fragility of red blood cell in congenital spherocytosis is hereby discussed in this paper.

  19. A Finger-Stick Whole-Blood HIV Self-Test as an HIV Screening Tool Adapted to the General Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazuck, Thierry; Karon, Stephen; Gubavu, Camelia; Andre, Jerome; Legall, Jean Marie; Bouvet, Elisabeth; Kreplak, Georges; Teglas, Jean Paul; Pialoux, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, the French Health Authority approved the use of HIV self-tests in pharmacies for the general public. This screening tool will allow an increase in the number of screenings and a reduction in the delay between infection and diagnosis, thus reducing the risk of further infections. We previously compared 5 HIV-self test candidates (4 oral fluid and one whole blood) and demonstrated that the whole blood HIV test exhibited the optimal level of performance (sensitivity/specificity). We studied the practicability of an easy-to-use finger-stick whole blood HIV self-test "autotest VIH®", when used in the general public. This multicenter cross-sectional study involved 411 participants from the Parisian region (AIDES and HF association) between April and July 2014 and was divided into 2 separate studies: one evaluating the capability of participants to obtain an interpretable result using only the information notice, and a second evaluating the interpretation of test results, using a provided chart. A total of 411 consenting participants, 264 in the first study and 147 in the second, were included. All participants were over 18 years of age. In the first study, 99.2% of the 264 participants correctly administered the auto-test, and 21.2% needed, upon their request, telephone assistance. Ninety-two percent of participants responded that the test was easy/very easy to perform, and 93.5% did not find any difficulty obtaining a sufficient good quantity of blood. In the second study, 98.1% of the 147 participants correctly interpreted the results. The reading/interpretation errors concerned the negative (2.1%) or the indeterminate (3.3%) auto-tests. The success rate of handling and interpretation of this self-test is very satisfactory, demonstrating its potential for use by the general public and its utility to increase the number of opportunities to detect HIV patients.

  20. A Finger-Stick Whole-Blood HIV Self-Test as an HIV Screening Tool Adapted to the General Public.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Prazuck

    Full Text Available In 2013, the French Health Authority approved the use of HIV self-tests in pharmacies for the general public. This screening tool will allow an increase in the number of screenings and a reduction in the delay between infection and diagnosis, thus reducing the risk of further infections. We previously compared 5 HIV-self test candidates (4 oral fluid and one whole blood and demonstrated that the whole blood HIV test exhibited the optimal level of performance (sensitivity/specificity. We studied the practicability of an easy-to-use finger-stick whole blood HIV self-test "autotest VIH®", when used in the general public.This multicenter cross-sectional study involved 411 participants from the Parisian region (AIDES and HF association between April and July 2014 and was divided into 2 separate studies: one evaluating the capability of participants to obtain an interpretable result using only the information notice, and a second evaluating the interpretation of test results, using a provided chart.A total of 411 consenting participants, 264 in the first study and 147 in the second, were included. All participants were over 18 years of age. In the first study, 99.2% of the 264 participants correctly administered the auto-test, and 21.2% needed, upon their request, telephone assistance. Ninety-two percent of participants responded that the test was easy/very easy to perform, and 93.5% did not find any difficulty obtaining a sufficient good quantity of blood. In the second study, 98.1% of the 147 participants correctly interpreted the results. The reading/interpretation errors concerned the negative (2.1% or the indeterminate (3.3% auto-tests.The success rate of handling and interpretation of this self-test is very satisfactory, demonstrating its potential for use by the general public and its utility to increase the number of opportunities to detect HIV patients.