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Sample records for dementia vascular

  1. Vascular dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poor judgment and loss of ability to recognize danger Using the wrong word, not pronouncing words correctly, ... disease and other dementias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  2. Diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltens, P.; Hijdra, A. H.

    1998-01-01

    The term vascular dementia implies the presence of a clinical syndrome (dementia) caused by, or at least assumed to be caused by, a specific disorder (cerebrovascular disease). In this review, the various sets of criteria used to define vascular dementia are outlined. The various sets of criteria

  3. Neurocognitive differential diagnosis of dementing diseases: Alzheimer's Dementia, Vascular Dementia, Frontotemporal Dementia, and Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, Alyssa J; Parsons, Thomas D; McCue, Robert; Sellers, Alfred; Burns, William J

    2006-11-01

    Similarities in presentation of Dementia of Alzheimer's Type, Vascular Dementia, Frontotemporal Dementia, and Major Depressive Disorder, pose differential diagnosis challenges. The current study identifies specific neuropsychological patterns of scores for Dementia of Alzheimer's Type, Vascular Dementia, Frontotemporal Dementia, and Major Depressive Disorder. Neuropsychological domains directly assessed in the study included: immediate memory, delayed memory, confrontational naming, verbal fluency, attention, concentration, and executive functioning. The results reveal specific neuropsychological comparative profiles for Dementia of Alzheimer's Type, Vascular Dementia, Frontotemporal Dementia, and Major Depressive Disorder. The identification of these profiles will assist in the differential diagnosis of these disorders and aid in patient treatment.

  4. Vascular dementia: Facts and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular dementia (VaD is the second most frequent dementia after Alzheimer’s disease, and is diagnosed during lifetime in 20% of demented patients. Five­year survival rate in VaD is 39%, while it is estimated to be 75% in healthy persons of the same age. It is therefore important to make correct diagnosis of VaD early in the course of the disease. Risk factors for VaD are identical to stroke risk factors, and there are significant possibilities for the prevention of vascular cognitive decline. Cognitive decline develops acutely or step­by­step within three months after stroke, but more gradual progression of intellectual decline is also possible. Neurological examination can reveal pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs, pseudobulbar palsy, gait disturbance and urinary incontinence. Neuropsychological profile comprises the loss of cognitive set shifting, decline in word fluency, verbal learning difficulties, perseverations, difficulties in complex figure copying, and in patients with cortically located lesions also problems with speech and praxia. The basis of the diagnosis is, besides history, neurological examination and neuropsychological assessment, computed tomography and/ or magnetic resonance brain imaging. Vascular risk factors control is the most important measure in VaD prevention. Modern guidelines for the treatment of cognitive decline in VaD emphasize that donepezil can be useful in the improvement of cognitive status at the level of Class IIa recommendation at the level of evidence A, while memantine may be useful in patients with mixed VaD and Alzheimer’s disease dementia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175022 i br. 175033

  5. Vascular dementia | Connor | African Journal of Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is a common but heterogeneous condition in which there is a clear temporal relationship between the dementia and vascular disease. It may result from multiple large or small vessel strokes or a single strategic stroke. Subcortical ischaemic VaD includes multiple lacunes and subcortical ...

  6. Neuroradiological findings in vascular dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guermazi, Ali; Miaux, Yves; Suhy, Joyce; Pauls, Jon; Lopez, Ria [Synarc, Inc., Department of Radiology Services, San Francisco, CA (United States); Rovira-Canellas, Alex [Hospital General Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Unita de Resonancia Magnetica, Barcelona (Spain); Posner, Holly [Eisai, Inc., Teaneck, NJ (United States)

    2007-01-15

    There are multiple diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia (VaD) that may define different populations. Utilizing the criteria of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences (NINDS-AIREN) has provided improved consistency in the diagnosis of VaD. The criteria include a table listing brain imaging lesions associated with VaD. The different neuroradiological aspects of the criteria are reviewed based on the imaging data from an ongoing large-scale clinical trial testing a new treatment for VaD. The NINDS-AIREN criteria were applied by a centralized imaging rater to determine eligibility for enrollment in 1,202 patients using brain CT or MRI. Based on the above data set, the neuroradiological features that are associated with VaD and that can result from cerebral small-vessel disease with extensive leukoencephalopathy or lacunae (basal ganglia or frontal white matter), or may be the consequence of single strategically located infarcts or multiple infarcts in large-vessel territories, are illustrated. These features may also be the consequence of global cerebral hypoperfusion, intracerebral hemorrhage, or other mechanisms such as genetically determined arteriopathies. Neuroimaging confirmation of cerebrovascular disease in VaD provides information about the topography and severity of vascular lesions. Neuroimaging may also assist with the differential diagnosis of dementia associated with normal pressure hydrocephalus, chronic subdural hematoma, arteriovenous malformation or tumoral diseases. (orig.)

  7. Major Vascular Neurocognitive Disorder: A Reappraisal to Vascular Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Kumral

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Major vascular neurocognitive disorder (NCD is the second leading form of dementia after Alzheimer’s disease, accounting for 17-20% of all dementias. Vascular NCD is a progressive disease caused by reduced cerebral blood flow related to multiple large volume or lacunar infarcts that induce a sudden onset and stepwise decline in cognitive abilities. Despite its prevalence and clinical importance, there is still controversy in the terminology of vascular NCD. Only after the release of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5 (2013 did the American Psychiatric Association define vascular dementia as “major vascular NCD”. This review includes an overview of risk factors, pathophysiology, types, diagnostic and clinical features of major vascular NCD, and current treatment options of vascular NCD regarding to DSM-5 criteria

  8. Vascular risk factors, cognitve decline, and dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Duron

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available E Duron, Olivier HanonBroca Hospital, Paris, FranceAbstract: Dementia is one of the most important neurological disorders in the elderly. Aging is associated with a large increase in the prevalence and incidence of degenerative (Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia, leading to a devastating loss of autonomy. In view of the increasing longevity of populations worldwide, prevention of dementia has turned into a major public health challenge. In the past decade, several vascular risk factors have been found to be associated with vascular dementia but also Alzheimer’s disease. Some longitudinal studies, have found significant associations between hypertension, diabetus mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, assessed at middle age, and dementia. Studies assessing the link between hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, smoking, and dementia have given more conflicting results. Furthermore, some studies have highlighted the possible protective effect of antihypertensive therapy on cognition and some trials are evaluating the effects of statins and treatments for insulin resistance. Vascular risk factors and their treatments are a promising avenue of research for prevention of dementia, and further long-term, placebo-controlled, randomized studies, need to be performed.Keywords: dementia, hypertension, diabetus mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, metabolic syndrome

  9. The pathology and pathophysiology of vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaria, Raj N

    2017-12-19

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is widely recognised as the second most common type of dementia. Consensus and accurate diagnosis of clinically suspected VaD relies on wide-ranging clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging measures in life but more importantly pathological confirmation. Factors defining subtypes of VaD include the nature and extent of vascular pathologies, degree of involvement of extra and intracranial vessels and the anatomical location of tissue changes as well as time after the initial vascular event. Atherosclerotic and cardioembolic diseases combined appear the most common subtypes of vascular brain injury. In recent years, cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) has gained prominence worldwide as an important substrate of cognitive impairment. SVD is characterised by arteriolosclerosis, lacunar infarcts and cortical and subcortical microinfarcts and diffuse white matter changes, which involve myelin loss and axonal abnormalities. Global brain atrophy and focal degeneration of the cerebrum including medial temporal lobe atrophy are also features of VaD similar to Alzheimer's disease. Hereditary arteriopathies have provided insights into the mechanisms of dementia particularly how arteriolosclerosis, a major contributor of SVD promotes cognitive impairment. Recently developed and validated neuropathology guidelines indicated that the best predictors of vascular cognitive impairment were small or lacunar infarcts, microinfarcts, perivascular space dilation, myelin loss, arteriolosclerosis and leptomeningeal cerebral amyloid angiopathy. While these substrates do not suggest high specificity, VaD is likely defined by key neuronal and dendro-synaptic changes resulting in executive dysfunction and related cognitive deficits. Greater understanding of the molecular pathology is needed to clearly define microvascular disease and vascular substrates of dementia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Philip B.; Scuteri, Angelo; Black, Sandra E.; DeCarli, Charles; Greenberg, Steven M.; Iadecola, Costantino; Launer, Lenore J.; Laurent, Stephane; Lopez, Oscar L.; Nyenhuis, David; Petersen, Ronald C.; Schneider, Julie A.; Tzourio, Christophe; Arnett, Donna K.; Bennett, David A.; Chui, Helena C.; Higashida, Randall T.; Lindquist, Ruth; Nilsson, Peter M.; Roman, Gustavo C.; Sellke, Frank W.; Seshadri, Sudha

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose This scientific statement provides an overview of the evidence on vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia. Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia of later life are common. Definitions of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), neuropathology, basic science and pathophysiological aspects, role of neuroimaging and vascular and other associated risk factors, and potential opportunities for prevention and treatment are reviewed. This statement serves as an overall guide for practitioners to gain a better understanding of VCI and dementia, prevention, and treatment. Methods Writing group members were nominated by the writing group co-chairs on the basis of their previous work in relevant topic areas and were approved by the American Heart Association Stroke Council Scientific Statement Oversight Committee, the Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, and the Manuscript Oversight Committee. The writing group used systematic literature reviews (primarily covering publications from 1990 to May 1, 2010), previously published guidelines, personal files, and expert opinion to summarize existing evidence, indicate gaps in current knowledge, and, when appropriate, formulate recommendations using standard American Heart Association criteria. All members of the writing group had the opportunity to comment on the recommendations and approved the final version of this document. After peer review by the American Heart Association, as well as review by the Stroke Council leadership, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention Council, and Scientific Statements Oversight Committee, the statement was approved by the American Heart Association Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee. Results The construct of VCI has been introduced to capture the entire spectrum of cognitive disorders associated with all forms of cerebral vascular brain injury—not solely stroke—ranging from mild cognitive impairment through fully developed

  11. White matter alterations in neurodegenerative and vascular dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supprian, T.; Kessler, H.; Falkai, P.; Retz, W.; Roesler, M.; Grunwald, I.; Reith, W.

    2003-01-01

    Due to a significant overlap of the two syndromes, differentiation of degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer-type from vascular dementia may be difficult even when imaging studies are available. White matter changes occur in many patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease. Little is known about the impact of white matter changes on the course and clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease. High sensitivity of MRI in the detection of white matter alterations may account for over-diagnosing vascular dementia. The clinical significance of white matter alterations in dementia is still a matter of debate. The article reviews current concepts about the role of white matter alterations in dementia. (orig.) [de

  12. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Alzheimer Disease, Vascular Dementia, and Mixed Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anor, Cassandra J; O'Connor, Sean; Saund, Amardeep; Tang-Wai, David F; Keren, Ron; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela

    2017-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are common in Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD), and are distressful to patients and caregivers. NPS are likely related to the underlying pathology. Previous studies suggest that frontal lobe lesions and vascular changes such as white matter hyperintensities (WMH) have a significant association with specific NPS. The current study aimed to compare NPS in patients with AD, VaD, and mixed AD/VaD, and to evaluate the differences in the prevalence of NPS in relation to frontal WMH volume. In total, 180 patients with NPS and MRI data (92 probable AD, 51%; 34 probable VaD, 19%; and 54 probable mixed AD/VaD, 30%) were included in the study. Regression analyses were performed to determine the relationships between NPS prevalence and diagnosis, and between NPS and frontal WMH. VaD patients had significantly more agitation (p < 0.05; 40 vs. 14%) and sleep disturbances (p < 0.05; 57 vs. 32%) than AD patients, and significantly more depression (p < 0.05; 48 vs. 20%) and aberrant motor behaviors (p < 0.05; 31 vs. 13%) than mixed AD/VaD patients. AD patients with delusions had significantly greater right frontal WMH volumes than those without (p < 0.05; delusions 1/0 = 314.8/112.6 mm3). Differences in NPS prevalence are likely related to the underlying pathology and warrant further study as they have implications for treatment. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Physical Activity Prevents Progression for Cognitive Impairment and Vascular Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdelho, Ana; Madureira, Sofia; Ferro, José M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to study if physical activity could interfere with progression for cognitive impairment and dementia in older people with white matter changes living independently. METHODS: The LADIS (Leukoaraiosis and Disability) prospective multinational European study evaluates....... Physical activity was recorded during the clinical interview. MRI was performed at entry and at the end of the study. RESULTS: Six hundred thirty-nine subjects were included (74.1±5 years old, 55% women, 9.6±3.8 years of schooling, 64% physically active). At the end of follow-up, 90 patients had dementia...... (vascular dementia, 54; Alzheimer disease with vascular component, 34; frontotemporal dementia, 2), and 147 had cognitive impairment not dementia. Using Cox regression analysis, physical activity reduced the risk of cognitive impairment (dementia and not dementia: β=-0.45, P=0.002; hazard ratio, 0.64; 95...

  14. Gait and Equilibrium in Subcortical Vascular Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Moretti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcortical vascular dementia is a clinical entity, widespread, even challenging to diagnose and correctly treat. Patients with this diagnosis are old, frail, often with concomitant pathologies, and therefore, with many drugs in therapy. We tried to diagnose and follow up for three years more than 600 patients. Study subjects were men and women, not bedridden, aged 68–94 years, outpatients, recruited from June, 1st 2007 to June, 1st 2010. We examined them clinically, neurologically, with specific consideration on drug therapies. Our aim has been to define gait and imbalance problem, if eventually coexistent with the pathology of white matter and/or with the worsening of the deterioration. Drug intake interference has been detected and considered.

  15. Cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and senile dementia of Lewy body type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, C; Patel, A; Oyebode, F; Wilcock, G

    1996-05-01

    One hundred and twenty-four patients with DSM-III-R dementia were assessed with a standardized battery which included the Geriatric Mental State Schedule, the History and Aetiology Schedule, the Secondary Dementia Schedule and the CAMCOG. Patients with Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and senile dementia of Lewy body type (SDLT) all had a similar degree of cognitive impairment at the time of the baseline interview. Patients with Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia each experienced a mean decline of 27 points in patients with SDLT. Patients with SDLT had a significantly greater decline of verbal fluency than both the other groups. Women were significantly more impaired than men at the time of the baseline assessment but experienced a similar decline during the year of follow-up.

  16. Clinical-pathologic correlations in vascular cognitive impairment and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Margaret; Larson, Eric B; Latimer, Caitlin S; Cholerton, Brenna; Crane, Paul K; Montine, Kathleen S; White, Lon R; Keene, C Dirk; Montine, Thomas J

    2016-05-01

    The most common causes of cognitive impairment and dementia are Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular brain injury (VBI), either independently, in combination, or in conjunction with other neurodegenerative disorders. The contribution of VBI to cognitive impairment and dementia, particularly in the context of AD pathology, has been examined extensively yet remains difficult to characterize due to conflicting results. Describing the relative contribution and mechanisms of VBI in dementia is important because of the profound impact of dementia on individuals, caregivers, families, and society, particularly the stability of health care systems with the rapidly increasing age of our population. Here we discuss relationships between pathologic processes of VBI and clinical expression of dementia, specific subtypes of VBI including microvascular brain injury, and what is currently known regarding contributions of VBI to the development and pathogenesis of the dementia syndrome. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Alzheimer and vascular dementia in the elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seetlani, Naresh Kumar; Kumar, Narindar; Imran, Khalid; Ali, Asif; Shams, Nadia; Sheikh, Taha

    2016-01-01

    To find out the frequency of Alzheimer's and Vascular dementia in the elderly patients. This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Department of Medicine, Ziauddin Hospital Karachi from 1 st October 2013 to 31 st March 2014. Patients with symptoms of dementia for more than 6 months duration, and Mini Mental State Examination score dementia were assessed for duration of symptoms. Patients underwent CT scan of brain. Patients with generalized atrophy of brain on CT scanning of brain were labeled as Alzheimer's dementia, while patients with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke on CT scan of brain were labeled as vascular dementia. Four hundred twenty two patients were included in this study. There were 232 (54.98 %) male and 190 (45.02 %) were female. The mean age ± SD of the patients was 72.58±5.34 years (95% CI: 72.07 to 73.09), similarly average duration of symptoms was 10.14±2.85 months. About 18.96% of patients were illiterate, 32.23% were matric, 28.44% were intermediate and 20.33% were graduate and post graduate. Hypertension and diabetes were the commonest co-morbid i.e. 81.3% and 73.7%, hyperlipedimia and smoking were 38.2% and 45% respectively. Frequency of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia in the elderly was observed in 3.79% (16/422) and 2.61% (11/422) cases. A good number of patients, 27 out of 422, in this hospital based study were suffering from Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Early detection and prompt treatment can reduce the burden of the disease in our population.

  18. Vitamin D, Homocysteine, and Folate in Subcortical Vascular Dementia and Alzheimer Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Moretti, Rita; Caruso, Paola; Dal Ben, Matteo; Conti, Corrado; Gazzin, Silvia; Tiribelli, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Dementia is a worldwide health problem which affects millions of patients; Alzheimer's disease (AD) and subcortical vascular dementia (sVAD) are the two most frequent forms of its presentation. As no definite therapeutic options have been discovered, different risk factors for cognitive impairment have been searched for potential therapies. This report focuses on the possible evidence that vitamin D deficiency and hyper-homocysteinemia can be considered as two important factors for the develo...

  19. Adaptive cognitive testing in cerebrovascular disease and vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Hans; de Koning, Inge; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; van Gool, Willem A; Schmand, Ben; Buiter, Maarten; Lindeboom, Robert

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: To examine whether brevity can be combined with precision in measuring global cognitive ability in patients with cerebrovascular disease (CVD) or vascular dementia (VaD). Longer tests (e.g. the CAMCOG) are precise but inefficient, whereas brief tests (e.g. the MMSE) are efficient

  20. Hippocampal diffusion tensor imaging microstructural changes in vascular dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostojic, Jelena; Kozic, Dusko; Pavlovic, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    To explore microstructural integrity of hippocampus in vascular dementia (VD) using DTI. Twenty-five individuals with VD, without magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of gray matter pathology, and 25 matched healthy control (HC) individuals underwent a 3T MRI protocol including T2, FLAIR, an...

  1. Overdiagnosing Vascular Dementia using Structural Brain Imaging for Dementia Work-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemantsverdriet, Ellis; Feyen, Bart F. E.; Le Bastard, Nathalie; Martin, Jean-Jacques; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2015-01-01

    Hypothesizing that non-significant cerebrovascular lesions on structural brain imaging lead to overdiagnosis of a vascular etiology of dementia as compared to autopsy-confirmed diagnosis, we set up a study including 71 patients with autopsy-confirmed diagnoses. Forty-two patients in the population

  2. Senile dementia of the Binswanger type: a vascular form of dementia in the elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, G.C.

    1987-01-01

    Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the elderly have demonstrated the common occurrence of deep white-matter lesions in the aging brain. These radiologic lesions (leukoaraiosis) may represent an early marker of dementia. At autopsy, an ischemic periventricular leukoencephalopathy (Binswanger's disease) has been found in most cases. The clinical spectrum of Binswanger's disease appears to range from asymptomatic radiologic lesions to dementia with focal deficits, frontal signs, pseudobulbar palsy, gait difficulties, and urinary incontinence. The name senile dementia of the Binswanger type (SDBT) is proposed for this poorly recognized, vascular form of subcortical dementia. The SDBT probably results from cortical disconnections most likely caused by hypoperfusion. In contrast, multi-infarct dementia is correlated with multiple large and small strokes that cause a loss of over 50 to 100 mL of brain volume. The periventricular white matter is a watershed area irrigated by long, penetrating medullary arteries. Risk factors for SDBT are small-artery diseases, such as hypertension and amyloid angiopathy, impaired autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in the elderly, and periventricular hypoperfusion due to cardiac failure, arrhythmias, and hypotension. The SDBT may be a potentially preventable and treatable form of dementia

  3. Occult CSF flow disturbance of patients with Alzheimer type dementia and vascular dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Kazuhiko; Sugita, Yasuko; Funaki, Chiaki

    1994-01-01

    We report results of Iotrolan CT-cisternography on 41 demented patients (13 males and 28 females) to find 'occult normal pressure hydrocephalus'. These patients were suspected to have CSF flow disturbance from clinical symptoms and simple brain CT scan findings. Their average age, duration of dementia, and score of Hasegawa's dementia scale (HDS) were 76.2 years, 5.9 years, 9.5/32.5,respectively. Before performing CT-cisternography, clinical diagnosis for their dementia were vascular dementia in 18 patients. Alzheimer type dementia in 12, suspect of NPH in 5, and other diagnoses in 6. From the results of cisternography, we found 13 patients with CSF flow disturbance (contrast material remained in the ventricle more than 48 hours after injection), and 17 patients with normal CSF flow. The former showed lower scores of HDS, higher urinary incontinence scores and smaller areas of the interhemispheric fissure on CT scan than the latter. But the former showed no significant difference from the latter in the average age, duration of dementia and width of the ventricles. (author)

  4. Vitamin D, Homocysteine, and Folate in Subcortical Vascular Dementia and Alzheimer Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Rita; Caruso, Paola; Dal Ben, Matteo; Conti, Corrado; Gazzin, Silvia; Tiribelli, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Dementia is a worldwide health problem which affects millions of patients; Alzheimer's disease (AD) and subcortical vascular dementia (sVAD) are the two most frequent forms of its presentation. As no definite therapeutic options have been discovered, different risk factors for cognitive impairment have been searched for potential therapies. This report focuses on the possible evidence that vitamin D deficiency and hyper-homocysteinemia can be considered as two important factors for the development or the progression of neurodegenerative or vascular pathologies. To this end, we assessed: the difference in vascular risk factors and vitamin D-OH25 levels among groups of sVAD, AD, and healthy age-matched controls; the association of folate, B12, homocysteine, and vitamin D with sVAD/AD and whether a deficiency of vitamin D and an increment in homocysteine levels may be related to neurodegenerative or vessel damages. The commonly-considered vascular risk factors were collected in 543 patients and compared with those obtained from a healthy old volunteer population. ANOVA group comparison showed that vitamin D deficiency was present in demented cases, as well as low levels of folate and high levels of homocysteine, more pronounced in sVAD cases. The statistical models we employed, with regression models built, and adjustments for biochemical, demographic and neuropsychiatric scores, confirmed the association between the three measures (folate decrease, hyperhomocysteinemia and vitamin D decrease) and dementia, more pronounced in sVAD than in AD.

  5. Impaired imitation of gestures in mild dementia: comparison of dementia with Lewy bodies, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahama, Yasuhiro; Okina, Tomoko; Suzuki, Norio

    2015-11-01

    To examine whether imitation of gestures provided useful information to diagnose early dementia in elderly patients. Imitation of finger and hand gestures was evaluated in patients with mild dementia; 74 patients had dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), 100 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 52 with subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD). Significantly, more patients with DLB (32.4%) compared with patients with AD (5%) or SVaD (11.5%) had an impaired ability to imitate finger gestures bilaterally. Also, significantly, more patients with DLB (36.5%) compared with patients with AD (5%) or SVaD (15.4%) had lower mean scores of both hands. In contrast, impairment of the imitation of bimanual gestures was comparable among the three patient groups (DLB 50%, AD 42%, SVaD 42.3%). Our study revealed that imitation of bimanual gestures was impaired non-specifically in about half of the patients with mild dementia, whereas imitation of finger gestures was significantly more impaired in patients with early DLB than in those with AD or SVaD. Although the sensitivity was not high, the imitation tasks may provide additional information for diagnosis of mild dementia, especially for DLB. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Analysis of affective disorders in patients with vascular dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Zakharchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The outpatient records of 147 patients followed up for diagnosed vascular dementia were analyzed to assess the relationship between affective disorders and severe cognitive impairments. It was found that 7% of the examinees had a history of depressive states. Estimating the development time for vascular dementia could divide the patients into 2 groups: 1 60% of the patients in whom cognitive impairments began to determine its clinical picture just within the first 2 years after identification of affective disorders and 2 40%, in whom cognitive impairments occurred 10—20 years later. In both groups, mental disorders occurred at an equal age in the presence of depressive disorders; in Group 1, vascular dementia developed nearly twice as often as that in Group 2. At the same time, the occurrence of cognitive impairments in Group 1 patients just in the early disease stages is indicative of the organic genesis of affective disorders, as confirmed by the moderately rapid progression of psychopathological symptoms, such as sharpening of personality traits, increased rigidity of psychic processes, emotional lability, variations in affective symptomatology, inadequate remissions, and the presence of neurological symptoms. Another type of a ratio of depressive to severe cognitive disorders was found in the elderly persons in Group 2. The long existence of affective disorders without signs of cognitive diminution leads one to say that they have recurrent depressive disorder with further addition of a comorbid vascular process. These patients showed a fairly high severity of affective pathology that was responsible for more frequent admissions, as well as a phase course with relatively pure remissions without any clear intellectual-mnestic reduction and a predominance of hysterical character traits.

  7. Disturbed oscillatory brain dynamics in subcortical ischemic vascular dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Straaten Elisabeth CW

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White matter hyperintensities (WMH can lead to dementia but the underlying physiological mechanisms are unclear. We compared relative oscillatory power from electroencephalographic studies (EEGs of 17 patients with subcortical ischemic vascular dementia, based on extensive white matter hyperintensities (SIVD-WMH with 17 controls to investigate physiological changes underlying this diagnosis. Results Differences between the groups were large, with a decrease of relative power of fast activity in patients (alpha power 0.25 ± 0.12 versus 0.38 ± 0.13, p = 0.01; beta power 0.08 ± 0.04 versus 0.19 ± 0.07; p Conclusions This pattern of disturbance in oscillatory brain activity indicate loss of connections between neurons, providing a first step in the understanding of cognitive dysfunction in SIVD-WMH.

  8. Clinical and imaging characteristics of the vascular dementia. Preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Viera, Nelson; Rivero Arias, Edmundo; Perez Nellar, Jesus; Begueria Santos, Ramon; Arias Sifontes, William; Raiteris Flores, Juan

    1997-01-01

    A descriptive prospective study was carried out in 41 patients presenting with vascular dementia from Habana Vieja municipality, Havana City, in order to know some of the clinical and imaging characteristics of this disease. The main risk factors observed were the history of cerebrovascular disease and arterial hypertension. Depression, sleeping disorders and focal and pseudo bulbar neurologic signs were the most frequent clinical findings. Folstein neuropsychological test evidenced an important disorder of attention, calculation, the evocation memory and orientation. According to this test, 29 % of the patients had a severe dementia and nearly 50 % showed a severe handicap. The most frequent imaging findings observed in the computerized axial tomography of the cranium were cerebral atrophy, and single or multiple infarctions. Multiple cerebral infarctions, the lacunar status, subcortical encephalopathy of Binswanger, and single infarction located in cerebral areas related to cognition were considered as possible psychopathological mechanisms associated with the disease

  9. Risk factors for vascular dementia: Hypotension as a key point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Moretti

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Rita Moretti, Paola Torre, Rodolfo M Antonello, Davide Manganaro, Cristina Vilotti, Gilberto PizzolatoDepartment of Internal Medicine and Clinical Neurology University of Trieste, ItalyAbstract: Physiologically, the cerebral autoregulation system allows maintenance of constant cerebral blood flow over a wide range of blood pressure. In old people, there is a progressive reshape of cerebral autoregulation from a sigmoid curve to a straight line. This implies that any abrupt change in blood pressure will result in a rapid and significant change in cerebral blood flow. Hypertension has often been observed to be a risk factor for vascular dementia (VaD and sometimes for Alzheimer disease although not always. Indeed, high blood pressure may accelerate cerebral white matter lesions, but white matter lesions have been found to be facilitated by excessive fall in blood pressure, including orthostatic dysregulation and postprandial hypotension. Many recent studies observed among other data, that there was a correlation between systolic pressure reduction and cognitive decline in women, which was not accounted for by other factors. Baseline blood pressure level was not significantly related to cognitive decline with initial good cognition. Some researchers speculate that blood pressure reduction might be an early change of the dementing process. The most confounding factor is that low pressure by itself might be a predictor of death; nevertheless, the effect of low blood pressure on cognition is underestimated because of a survival bias. Another explanation is that clinically unrecognized vascular lesions in the brain or atherosclerosis are responsible for both cognitive decline and blood pressure reduction. We discuss the entire process, and try to define a possible mechanism that is able to explain the dynamic by which hypotension might be related to dementia.Keywords: vascular dementia, hypotension, low blood pressure, alzheimer disease

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of vascular damage in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biessels, Geert Jan

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of cognitive impairment due to vascular brain damage, which is referred to as vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Over the past decades, we have seen marked progress in detecting VCI, both through maturation of diagnostic concepts and through advances in brain imaging, especially MRI. Yet in daily practice, it is often challenging to establish the diagnosis, particularly in patients where there is no evident temporal relation between a cerebrovascular event and cognitive dysfunction. Because vascular damage is such a common cause of cognitive dysfunction, it provides an obvious target for treatment. In patients whose cognitive dysfunction follows directly after a stroke, the etiological classification of this stroke will direct treatment. In many patients however, VCI develops due to so-called "silent vascular damage," without evident cerebrovascular events. In these patients, small vessel diseases (SVDs) are the most common cause. Yet no SVD-specific treatments currently exist, which is due to incomplete understanding of the pathophysiology. This review addresses developments in this field. It offers a framework to translate diagnostic criteria to daily practice, addresses treatment, and highlights some future perspectives. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia, edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau, and Donna M. Wilcock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Distinguishing between vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease by means of the WAIS: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, E.J A; Oosterman, J

    2006-01-01

    This study was intended to, meta-analytically, review whether the subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale are useful in differentiating between vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. We expected the Alzheimer's disease group to outperform the vascular dementia group on those subtests

  12. Distinguishing between vascular dementia and alzheimer's disease by means of the WAIS: a meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterman, J.M.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2006-01-01

    This study was intended to, meta-analytically, review whether the subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale are useful in differentiating between vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. We expected the Alzheimer's disease group to outperform the vascular dementia group on those subtests

  13. Distinguishing between vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease by means of the WAIS : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, Erik J. A.; Oosterman, J

    2006-01-01

    This study was intended to, meta-analytically, review whether the subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale are useful in differentiating between vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. We expected the Alzheimer's disease group to outperform the vascular dementia group on those subtests

  14. Role of DTI neuroimaging in diagnosis of vascular dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozarova, G.; Georgieva- Penev, L.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Since its introduction more than two decades ago, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has not only allowed for visualization of the macrostructure of the CNS, but also has been able to study dynamic processes which constitute the substrate of currently available MRI variants. Materials and methods: In this presentation, the potential role of MRI techniques, particularly DTI, for the study of the relationship between changes in the microstructural integrity of WM and cognitive impairment in the context of cerebrovascular disease and particularly the vascular dementia (VaD) are discussed. Results: While conventional Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) permits a robust visualization of lesions just a few minutes after the onset of cerebral ischemia, Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) measures the magnitude and direction of diffusion, leading to the characterization of cerebral white matter (WM) microstructural integrity of white matter fibers using quantitative fractionated anisotropy (DTI-FA) and tractography (DTI-TR). DTI-FA is an important technique in considering the large extension of white matter, and has been previously applied in clinical practice. DTI-TR can visualize the bundles interconnecting various regions whose interruption can cause a range of different disconnection syndromes. The method is not routinely used in clinical practice.In this presentation, the potential role of MRI techniques, particularly DTI, for the study of the relationship between changes in the microstructural integrity of WM and cognitive impairment in the context of cerebrovascular disease and particularly the vascular dementia (VaD) are discussed. Conclusion: Significant correlations between cognitive function and regional anisotropy values are an example of the potential efficacy of DTI for in vivo studies of brain connectivity in vascular neurodegenerative conditions

  15. Neuroprotective effect of selective DPP-4 inhibitor in experimental vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Swati; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2015-12-01

    Vascular risk factors are associated with a higher incidence of dementia. Diabetes mellitus is considered as a main risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Both forms of dementia are posing greater risk to the world population and are increasing at a faster rate. In the past we have reported the induction of vascular dementia by experimental diabetes. This study investigates the role of vildagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor in the pharmacological interdiction of pancreatectomy diabetes induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and subsequent vascular dementia in rats. Attentional set shifting and Morris water-maze test were used for assessment of learning and memory. Vascular endothelial function, blood brain barrier permeability, serum glucose, serum nitrite/nitrate, oxidative stress (viz. aortic superoxide anion, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species and brain glutathione), brain calcium and inflammation (myeloperoxidase) were also estimated. Pancreatectomy diabetes rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, blood brain barrier permeability, learning and memory along with increase in brain inflammation, oxidative stress and calcium. Administration of vildagliptin has significantly attenuated pancreatectomy induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial function, blood brain barrier permeability and biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that vildagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor may be considered as potential pharmacological agents for the management of pancreatectomy induced endothelial dysfunction and subsequent vascular dementia. The selective modulators of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 may further be explored for their possible benefits in vascular dementia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 123I-IMP-SPECT in vascular dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namura, Yasuhiro; Miyoshi, Toshihiko; Shio, Hideo; Yamaguchi, Shinya; Kimura, Jun

    1990-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied by N-isopropyl-p- 123 I-iodoamphetamine (IMP)-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with vascular dementia. Patients were divided by CT/MRI findings into multiple or localized type and cortical or subcortical type. Of patients with multiple lesions in the cortex, the reduction of CBF was noted in several cortex corresponding to CT/MRI findings. Patients in this group had a high incidence of aphasia, agraphia, dyscalculia, and amnesia. Patients with multiple lesions in the white matter and basal ganglia were subdivided into 3 groups by clinical manifestations. CBF in those with dementia showed generalized reduction in all cerebral cortex and especially in bilateral frontal regions. CBF in those with slightly impaired mentality was almost normal. In another group with pseudobulbar palsy and/or extrapyramidal sings, CBF was reduced intermediately only in bilateral frontal regions. Typical symptoms in demented patients were apathy, emotional lability, and forgetfulness. In those with the localized type, CBF was reduced in cerebral cortical areas correlating with the impaired mental functions. (author)

  17. sup 123 I-IMP-SPECT in vascular dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namura, Yasuhiro; Miyoshi, Toshihiko; Shio, Hideo; Yamaguchi, Shinya; Kimura, Jun (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Hospital)

    1990-12-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied by N-isopropyl-p-{sup 123}I-iodoamphetamine (IMP)-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with vascular dementia. Patients were divided by CT/MRI findings into multiple or localized type and cortical or subcortical type. Of patients with multiple lesions in the cortex, the reduction of CBF was noted in several cortex corresponding to CT/MRI findings. Patients in this group had a high incidence of aphasia, agraphia, dyscalculia, and amnesia. Patients with multiple lesions in the white matter and basal ganglia were subdivided into 3 groups by clinical manifestations. CBF in those with dementia showed generalized reduction in all cerebral cortex and especially in bilateral frontal regions. CBF in those with slightly impaired mentality was almost normal. In another group with pseudobulbar palsy and/or extrapyramidal sings, CBF was reduced intermediately only in bilateral frontal regions. Typical symptoms in demented patients were apathy, emotional lability, and forgetfulness. In those with the localized type, CBF was reduced in cerebral cortical areas correlating with the impaired mental functions. (author).

  18. Distinctive Resting State Network Disruptions Among Alzheimer's Disease, Subcortical Vascular Dementia, and Mixed Dementia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Jin; Cha, Jungho; Lee, Jong-Min; Shin, Ji Soo; Jung, Na-Yeon; Kim, Yeo Jin; Choe, Yearn Seong; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Sung Tae; Kim, Jae Seung; Lee, Jae Hong; Na, Duk L; Seo, Sang Won

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in resting-state functional MRI have revealed altered functional networks in Alzheimer's disease (AD), especially those of the default mode network (DMN) and central executive network (CEN). However, few studies have evaluated whether small vessel disease (SVD) or combined amyloid and SVD burdens affect the DMN or CEN. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether SVD or combined amyloid and SVD burdens affect the DMN or CEN. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the resting-state functional connectivity within DMN and CEN in 37 Pittsburgh compound-B (PiB)(+) AD, 37 PiB(-) subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD), 13 mixed dementia patients, and 65 normal controls. When the resting-state DMN of PiB(+) AD and PiB(-) SVaD patients were compared, the PiB(+) AD patients displayed lower functional connectivity in the inferior parietal lobule while the PiB(-) SVaD patients displayed lower functional connectivity in the medial frontal and superior frontal gyri. Compared to the PiB(-) SVaD or PiB(+) AD, the mixed dementia patients displayed lower functional connectivity within the DMN in the posterior cingulate gyrus. When the resting-state CEN connectivity of PiB(+) AD and PiB(-) SVaD patients were compared, the PiB(-) SVaD patients displayed lower functional connectivity in the anterior insular region. Compared to the PiB(-) SVaD or PiB(+) AD, the mixed dementia patients displayed lower functional connectivity within the CEN in the inferior frontal gyrus. Our findings suggest that in PiB(+) AD and PiB(-) SVaD, there is divergent disruptions in resting-state DMN and CEN. Furthermore, patients with combined amyloid and SVD burdens exhibited more disrupted resting-state DMN and CEN than patients with only amyloid or SVD burden.

  19. Regional cerebral blood flow analysis of vascular dementia by the single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyakawa, Kouichi; Watanabe, Sho; Suzuki, Michiyo; Kamijima, Gonbei

    1989-01-01

    In order to evaluate the relationship between the regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular dementia, eleven patients with vascular dementia and eight patients with non-demented infarction were studied and regional CBF were measured quantitatively with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) by using N-isopropyl-p-(I-123) iodoamphetamine. All cases were basal infarction and vascular dementia were diagnosed by less than 21.5 of the Hasegawa's dementia score and more than 7 of Hachinsk's ischemic score. The results of the present study were as follows: (1) Cerebrovascular dementia showed lower mean CBF value compared with non-demented group. (2) Regional CBF of bilateral frontal areas and affected basal ganglia were significantly reduced than occipital area in the dementia group. (3) A comparison of regional CBF and the Hasegawa's dementia score revealed a statistically significant correlation at the bilateral frontal areas in the dementia group. It is possible that measuring the regional CBF quantitatively by IMP-SPECT is useful for clinical analysis of vascular dementia. (author)

  20. MTHFR and ACE Gene Polymorphisms and Risk of Vascular and Degenerative Dementias in the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pratima; Pradhan, Sunil; Modi, Dinesh Raj; Mittal, Balraj

    2009-01-01

    Focal lacunar infarctions due to cerebral small vessel atherosclerosis or single/multiple large cortical infarcts lead to vascular dementia, and different genes and environmental factors have been implicated in causation or aggravation of the disease. Previous reports suggest that some of the risk factors may be common to both vascular as well as…

  1. Usefulness of Diffusion Tensor Imaging of White Matter in Alzheimer Disease and Vascular Dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, S.; Kinoshita, T.; Matsusue, E.; Fujii, S.; Ogawa, T.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of diffusion tensor imaging in detecting the water diffusivity caused by neuro pathological change in Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Material and Methods: Twenty patients with Alzheimer disease, 20 with vascular dementia, and 10 control subjects were examined. Diffusion tensor imaging applied diffusion gradient encoding in six non-collinear directions. Fractional anisotropy values were compared in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, and anterior and posterior white matter among the three groups. Results: In the patients with Alzheimer disease, fractional anisotropy values of the posterior white matter were significantly lower than those of controls. In patients with vascular dementia, fractional anisotropy values of the anterior white matter tended to be lower than those of the posterior white matter (P=0.07). Conclusion: Diffusion tensor imaging reflects the neuro pathological changes in the white matter, and may be useful in the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Keywords: Alzheimer disease, .; diffusion tensor imaging, .; vascular dementia

  2. Occult CSF flow disturbance of patients with Alzheimer type dementia and vascular dementia; Results from Iotrolan CT-cisternography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kono, Kazuhiko; Sugita, Yasuko; Funaki, Chiaki [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; and others

    1994-04-01

    We report results of Iotrolan CT-cisternography on 41 demented patients (13 males and 28 females) to find 'occult normal pressure hydrocephalus'. These patients were suspected to have CSF flow disturbance from clinical symptoms and simple brain CT scan findings. Their average age, duration of dementia, and score of Hasegawa's dementia scale (HDS) were 76.2 years, 5.9 years, 9.5/32.5,respectively. Before performing CT-cisternography, clinical diagnosis for their dementia were vascular dementia in 18 patients. Alzheimer type dementia in 12, suspect of NPH in 5, and other diagnoses in 6. From the results of cisternography, we found 13 patients with CSF flow disturbance (contrast material remained in the ventricle more than 48 hours after injection), and 17 patients with normal CSF flow. The former showed lower scores of HDS, higher urinary incontinence scores and smaller areas of the interhemispheric fissure on CT scan than the latter. But the former showed no significant difference from the latter in the average age, duration of dementia and width of the ventricles. (author).

  3. Neuroprotection against vascular dementia after acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride: P300 event related potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture can be used to treat various nervous system diseases. Here, 168 vascular dementia patients were orally administered donepezil hydrochloride alone (5 mg/day, once a day for 56 days, or combined with acupuncture at Shenting (DU24, Tianzhu (BL10, Sishencong (Extra, Yintang (Extra, Renzhong (DU26, Neiguan (PC6, Shenmen (HT7, Fengchi (GB20, Wangu (GB12 and Baihui (DU20 (once a day for 56 days. Compared with donepezil hydrochloride alone, P300 event related potential latency was shorter with an increased amplitude in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. Mini-Mental State Examination score was also higher. Moreover, these differences in P300 latency were identified within different infarcted regions in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. These findings indicate that acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride noticeably improves cognitive function in patients with vascular dementia, and exerts neuroprotective effects against vascular dementia.

  4. Neuronal changes after chronic high blood pressure in animal models and its implication for vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gonzalo; Flores-Gómez, Gabriel D; de Jesús Gomez-Villalobos, Ma

    2016-05-01

    Vascular dementia is a devastating disorder not only for the patient, but also for the family because this neurocognitive disorder breaks the patient's independence, and leads to family care of the patient with a high cost for the family. This complex disorder alters memory, learning, judgment, emotional control and social behavior and affects 4% of the elderly world population. The high blood pressure or arterial hypertension is a major risk factor for cerebrovascular disease, which in most cases leads to vascular dementia. Interestingly, this neurocognitive disorder starts after long lasting hypertension, which is associated with reduced cerebral blood flow or hypoperfusion, and complete or incomplete ischemia with cortical thickness. Animal models have been generated to elucidate the pathophysiology of this disorder. It is known that dendritic complexity determines the receptive synaptic contacts, and the loss of dendritic spine and arbor stability are strongly associated with dementia in humans. This review evaluates relevant data of human and animal models that have investigated the link between long-lasting arterial hypertension and neural morphological changes in the context of vascular dementia. We examined the effect of chronic arterial hypertension and aged in vascular dementia. Neural dendritic morphology in the prefrontal cortex and the dorsal hippocampus and nucleus accumbens after chronic hypertension was diskussed in the animal models of hypertension. Chronic hypertension reduced the dendritic length and spine density in aged rats. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Systemic and Disease-Specific Risk Factors in Vascular Dementia: Diagnosis and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraim Jaul

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent the onset of vascular dementia (VaD in aging individuals, it is critical to detect clinically relevant vascular and systemic pathophysiological changes to signal the onset of its preceding prodromal stages. Identifying behavioral and neurobiological markers that are highly sensitive to VaD classification vs. other dementias is likely to assist in developing novel preventive treatment strategies that could delay the onset of disruptive psychomotor symptoms, decrease hospitalizations, and increase the quality of life in clinically-high-risk aging individuals. In light of empirical diagnostic and clinical findings associated with VaD pathophysiology, the current investigation will suggest a few clinically-validated biomarker measures of prodromal VaD cognitive impairments that are correlated with vascular symptomology, and VaD endophenotypes in non-demented aging people. In prodromal VaD individuals, distinguishing VaD from other dementias (e.g., Alzheimer's disease could facilitate specific early preventive interventions that significantly delay more severe cognitive deterioration or indirectly suppress the onset of dementia with vascular etiology. Importantly, the authors conclude that primary prevention strategies should examine aging individuals by employing comprehensive geriatric assessment approach, taking into account their medical history, and longitudinally noting their vascular, systemic, cognitive, behavioral, and clinical functional status. Secondary prevention strategies may include monitoring chronic medication as well as promoting programs that facilitate social interaction and every-day activities.

  6. Pathophysiology of white matter perfusion in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Rachel; Ashby, Emma L; Wellington, Dannielle; Barrow, Vivienne M; Palmer, Jennifer C; Kehoe, Patrick G; Esiri, Margaret M; Love, Seth

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about the contributors and physiological responses to white matter hypoperfusion in the human brain. We previously showed the ratio of myelin-associated glycoprotein to proteolipid protein 1 in post-mortem human brain tissue correlates with the degree of ante-mortem ischaemia. In age-matched post-mortem cohorts of Alzheimer's disease (n = 49), vascular dementia (n = 17) and control brains (n = 33) from the South West Dementia Brain Bank (Bristol), we have now examined the relationship between the ratio of myelin-associated glycoprotein to proteolipid protein 1 and several other proteins involved in regulating white matter vascularity and blood flow. Across the three cohorts, white matter perfusion, indicated by the ratio of myelin-associated glycoprotein to proteolipid protein 1, correlated positively with the concentration of the vasoconstrictor, endothelin 1 (P = 0.0005), and negatively with the concentration of the pro-angiogenic protein, vascular endothelial growth factor (P = 0.0015). The activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme, which catalyses production of the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II was not altered. In samples of frontal white matter from an independent (Oxford, UK) cohort of post-mortem brains (n = 74), we confirmed the significant correlations between the ratio of myelin-associated glycoprotein to proteolipid protein 1 and both endothelin 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. We also assessed microvessel density in the Bristol (UK) samples, by measurement of factor VIII-related antigen, which we showed to correlate with immunohistochemical measurements of vessel density, and found factor VIII-related antigen levels to correlate with the level of vascular endothelial growth factor (P = 0.0487), suggesting that upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor tends to increase vessel density in the white matter. We propose that downregulation of endothelin 1 and upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in the context

  7. Neurological signs in relation to type of cerebrovascular disease in vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staekenborg, S.S.; van der Flier, W.M.; van Straaten, E.C.W.; Lane, R.; Barkhof, F.; Scheltens, P.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE - The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of a number of neurological signs in a large population of patients with vascular dementia (VaD) and to compare the relative frequency of specific neurological signs dependent on type of cerebrovascular disease. METHODS -

  8. Adipocyte-derived factors in age-related dementia and their contribution to vascular and Alzheimer pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Makoto; Iadecola, Costantino

    2016-05-01

    Age-related dementia is increasingly recognized as having a mixed pathology, with contributions from both cerebrovascular factors and pathogenic factors associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Furthermore, there is accumulating evidence that vascular risk factors in midlife, e.g., obesity, diabetes, and hypertension, increase the risk of developing late-life dementia. Since obesity and changes in body weight/adiposity often drive diabetes and hypertension, understanding the relationship between adiposity and age-related dementia may reveal common underlying mechanisms. Here we offer a brief appraisal of how changes in body weight and adiposity are related to both AD and dementia on vascular basis, and examine the involvement of two key adipocyte-derived hormones: leptin and adiponectin. The evidence suggests that in midlife increased body weight/adiposity and subsequent changes in adipocyte-derived hormones may increase the long-term susceptibility to dementia. On the other hand, later in life, decreases in body weight/adiposity and related hormonal changes are early manifestations of disease that precede the onset of dementia and may promote AD and vascular pathology. Understanding the contribution of adiposity to age-related dementia may help identify the underlying pathological mechanisms common to both vascular dementia and AD, and provide new putative targets for early diagnosis and therapy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia, edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Higher Risk of Vascular Dementia in Myocardial Infarction Survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbøll, Jens; Hováth-Puhó, Erzsébet; Adelborg, Kasper

    2018-01-01

    -based cohort study of all patients with first-time MI and a sex-, birth year-, and calendar year-matched general population comparison cohort without MI (1980-2012). Cox regression analysis was used to compute 1-35 year adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for dementia, controlled for matching factors and adjusted...

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of vascular damage in dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biessels, GJ

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of cognitive impairment due to vascular brain damage, which is referred to as vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Over the past decades, we have seen marked progress in detecting VCI, both through maturation of diagnostic concepts and through advances in brain

  11. Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Vascular Dementia: An Overview of Scientific Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Chang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a leading cause of mental and physical disability. Vascular dementia (VaD is the second most common cause of dementia after Alzheimer’s disease (AD constituting 10–15% of the dementia population. Currently there are no approved pharmaceutical options for VaD and the conventional anti-AD therapies provide only modest, short-term relief of symptoms associated with VaD. Herbal medicines have been used for the management of dementia-like symptoms for centuries and may provide viable therapies for VaD due to their multicomponent and multitarget approach. This review is designed to provide an updated overview on the current status of herbal medicine research, with an emphasis on Chinese herbal medicine, for the treatment of VaD or dementia. A case study is also provided to demonstrate the development process of a novel standardized complex herbal formulation for VaD. The article reveals some preliminary evidence to support the use of single and complex herbal preparations for VaD and dementia. Multiple issues in relation to clinical and preclinical research have been identified and future research directions are discussed.

  12. Role of neuropsychological assessment in the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Maria Lima Pimentel

    Full Text Available Abstract The prevalence of dementia increases significantly from the age of 65 years, doubling every five years thereafter. Alzheimer's disease (AD and vascular dementia (VaD constitute the two main dementia types. Differentiating them encompasses anamnesis, neurological examination, laboratory and neuroimaging exams and neuropsychological assessment. Neuropsychological assessment produces different findings for each dementia type, and reveals those areas most impaired as well as those most preserved. The aim of the present article was to describe the role of neuropsychology in diagnosing dementia and achieving a differential diagnosis between AD and VaD. A general overview follows of the most widely known instruments used to assess cognitive function in dementia, and the cognitive changes seen in AD and VaD. The conclusion drawn was that there is significant overlap in cognitive changes between both these dementia types, while each type has its own specific characteristics which are identifiable and quantifiable on neuropsychological assessments and provide the basis for reaching a differential diagnosis.

  13. Immunohistochemical study of N-epsilon-carboxymethyl lysine (CML in human brain: relation to vascular dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Jonathan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs and their receptor (RAGE occur in dementia of the Alzheimer's type and diabetic microvascular disease. Accumulation of AGEs relates to risk factors for vascular dementia with ageing, including hypertension and diabetes. Cognitive dysfunction in vascular dementia may relate to microvascular disease resembling that in diabetes. We tested if, among people with cerebrovascular disease, (1 those with dementia have higher levels of neuronal and vascular AGEs and (2 if cognitive dysfunction depends on neuronal and/or vascular AGE levels. Methods Brain Sections from 25 cases of the OPTIMA (Oxford Project to Investigate Memory and Ageing cohort, with varying degrees of cerebrovascular pathology and cognitive dysfunction (but only minimal Alzheimer type pathology were immunostained for Nε-(carboxymethyl-lysine (CML, the most abundant AGE. The level of staining in vessels and neurons in the cortex, white matter and basal ganglia was compared to neuropsychological and other clinical measures. Results The probability of cortical neurons staining positive for CML was higher in cases with worse cognition (p = 0.01 or a history of hypertension (p = 0.028. Additionally, vascular CML staining related to cognitive impairment (p = 0.02 and a history of diabetes (p = 0.007. Neuronal CML staining in the basal ganglia related to a history of hypertension (p = 0.002. Conclusion CML staining in cortical neurons and cerebral vessels is related to the severity of cognitive impairment in people with cerebrovascular disease and only minimal Alzheimer pathology. These findings support the possibility that cerebral accumulation of AGEs may contribute to dementia in people with cerebrovascular disease.

  14. Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Rob; Radhakrishnan, Raghavakurup

    2012-09-10

    Dementia is characterised by chronic, global, non-reversible deterioration in memory, executive function, and personality. Speech and motor function may also be impaired. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments on cognitive symptoms of dementia (Alzheimer's, Lewy body, or vascular)? What are the effects of treatments on behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (Alzheimer's, Lewy body, or vascular)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 49 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine), antidepressants (clomipramine, fluoxetine, imipramine, sertraline), antipsychotics (haloperidol, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone), aromatherapy, benzodiazepines (diazepam, lorazepam), cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), cognitive stimulation, exercise, ginkgo biloba, memantine, mood stabilisers (carbamazepine, sodium valproate/valproic acid), music therapy, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), omega 3 (fish oil), reminiscence therapy, and statins.

  15. Contribution of computerized tomography and nuclear magnetic resonance to the diagnosis of vascular dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallois, P; Pruvo, J P

    1987-06-18

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and computerized tomography (CT) have become indispensable to the exploration of patients with vascular dementia. NMR is remarkable for its innocuity, its anatomical accuracy, its sensitivity and the three-dimensional approach it offers. CT is less sensitive, but the examinations are shorter and less costly. These two techniques seem to be about equally effective in visualizing multiple infarcts, although NMR gives a better contrast. In dementia due to multiple infarcts, the bilateral cortical and subcortical lesions coexist with moderate cortical atrophy. The cerebral lacunae of lacunar dementia are better visualized by NMR; they are distributed on both sides, predominate in the frontal lobes and only produce slight cortical atrophy, less pronounced than ventricular dilatation. The main advantage of NMR is its high sensitivity in detecting early changes in the white matter, changes which are particularly perceptible in juxta- and peri-ventricular areas in arteriosclerous subcortical leucoencephalopathy. NMR, not very specific here, does not readily separate these lesions from those of other types of leucoencephalopathy. The finding of hypodense areas at CT or hypersignals at NMR (T2) around the ventricles may help in differentiating between vascular dementia, irrespective of its mechanism, and primary dementia.

  16. White matter alterations in neurodegenerative and vascular dementia; Marklagerveraenderungen bei neurodegenerativen und vaskulaeren Demenzerkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supprian, T. [Arbeitsgruppe Gerontopsychiatrie, Universitaets-Nervenklinik Homburg (Germany); Arbeitsgruppe Gerontopsychiatrie, Universitaets-Nervenklinik, Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, 66421, Homburg (Germany); Kessler, H.; Falkai, P. [Arbeitsgruppe Gerontopsychiatrie, Universitaets-Nervenklinik Homburg (Germany); Retz, W.; Roesler, M. [Arbeitsgruppe Gerontopsychiatrie, Universitaets-Nervenklinik Homburg (Germany); Institut fuer gerichtliche Psychologie und Psychiatrie, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg (Germany); Grunwald, I.; Reith, W. [Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Universitaetskliniken des Saarlandes, Homburg (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Due to a significant overlap of the two syndromes, differentiation of degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer-type from vascular dementia may be difficult even when imaging studies are available. White matter changes occur in many patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease. Little is known about the impact of white matter changes on the course and clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease. High sensitivity of MRI in the detection of white matter alterations may account for over-diagnosing vascular dementia. The clinical significance of white matter alterations in dementia is still a matter of debate. The article reviews current concepts about the role of white matter alterations in dementia. (orig.) [German] Die Zuordnung einer Demenzerkrankung zu einem neurodegenerativen Pathomechanismus, wie der Demenz vom Alzheimer-Typ (DAT) oder einem vaskulaeren Pathomechanismus, kann trotz der Verfuegbarkeit bildgebender Verfahren Probleme bereiten. Ueberlappungen neurodegenerativer und vaskulaerer Mechanismen sind haeufig. Mikroangiopathische Veraenderungen des Marklagers finden sich bei einem hohen Anteil von Patienten mit der klinischen Verlaufsform einer Demenz vom Alzheimer-Typ. Es ist unklar, ob es sich um eine Koinzidenz zweier Pathomechanismen handelt oder ob eine wechselseitige Beeinflussung stattfindet. Die hohe Sensitivitaet der Magnetresonanztomographie bei der Erfassung mikroangiopathischer Veraenderungen des Marklagers koennte dazu fuehren, dass zu vaskulaere Demenzerkrankungen haeufig diagnostiziert werden. Der Einfluss mikroangiopathischer Veraenderungen des Marklagers auf den Demenzverlauf wird kontrovers diskutiert. Die vorgelegte Arbeit gibt eine Uebersicht ueber die aktuellen Konzepte zum Stellenwert von Marklagerveraenderungen bei Demenzerkrankungen. (orig.)

  17. A clinical study on the usefulness of CT and MRI imaging in evaluating differential diagnosis and the degree of dementia in vascular dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Mariko [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    1990-06-01

    In a retrospective review of 117 computed tomography (CT) scans and 56 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans sequentially performed for dementia patients, CT and MRI were compared for assessment of the usefulness in the differential diagnosis and determination of the functional prognosis of vascular dementia. The correlation between CT findings and the degree of mental function was also examined. Since MRI had a higher sensitivity than CT in detecting small infarcts or lacunaes in the perforating area or white matter, it should differentiate vascular dementia from dementia of Alzheimer type. When both dementia of Alzheimer type was clinically diagnosed and infarct areas were detected on either CT or MRI, activity of daily living tended to be poor. Even when mixed type of dementia or vascular dementia was clinically diagnosed in spite of negative findings on either CT or MRI, troublesome behavior was frequently observed, posing the likelihood of dementia of Alzheimer type. The ability of CT and MRI to detect lesions was not correlated with the degree of dementia or aging, even if MRI was capable of detecting smaller lesions. CT was thus considered to be more specific modality for evaluating mental function. The size of lesions on CT was found to be more significant than the number and localization of lesions in determining the degree of dementia in the chronic stage of cerebrovascular disease. The ability of MRI to detect smaller lesions, as well as clinically determined ischemic scores, may assist in the diagnostic differentiation. Lesion size on CT may be an important factor for determining the degree of dementia and functional prognosis. (N.K.).

  18. A clinical study on the usefulness of CT and MRI imaging in evaluating differential diagnosis and the degree of dementia in vascular dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Mariko

    1990-01-01

    In a retrospective review of 117 computed tomography (CT) scans and 56 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans sequentially performed for dementia patients, CT and MRI were compared for assessment of the usefulness in the differential diagnosis and determination of the functional prognosis of vascular dementia. The correlation between CT findings and the degree of mental function was also examined. Since MRI had a higher sensitivity than CT in detecting small infarcts or lacunaes in the perforating area or white matter, it should differentiate vascular dementia from dementia of Alzheimer type. When both dementia of Alzheimer type was clinically diagnosed and infarct areas were detected on either CT or MRI, activity of daily living tended to be poor. Even when mixed type of dementia or vascular dementia was clinically diagnosed in spite of negative findings on either CT or MRI, troublesome behavior was frequently observed, posing the likelihood of dementia of Alzheimer type. The ability of CT and MRI to detect lesions was not correlated with the degree of dementia or aging, even if MRI was capable of detecting smaller lesions. CT was thus considered to be more specific modality for evaluating mental function. The size of lesions on CT was found to be more significant than the number and localization of lesions in determining the degree of dementia in the chronic stage of cerebrovascular disease. The ability of MRI to detect smaller lesions, as well as clinically determined ischemic scores, may assist in the diagnostic differentiation. Lesion size on CT may be an important factor for determining the degree of dementia and functional prognosis. (N.K.)

  19. Comparison of Alzheimer's disease with vascular dementia and non-dementia using specific voxel-based Z score maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Shirou; Shishido, Fumio; Miyajima, Masayuki; Sakuma, Koutarou; Shigihara, Takeshi; Tameta, Tadanobu; Miyazaki, Makoto; Kuroda, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the ability to discriminate between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD), and between AD and non-dementia using the program ''easy Z score imaging system'' (eZIS) developed by Matsuda et al., for the diagnosis of very early AD. Of 201 patients, we investigated 12 patients with AD, 10 with VaD, and 9 with non-dementia, who underwent brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography by technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer ( 99m Tc-ECD) between February 2005 and September 2006. The sensitivity and specificity of the indicators of specific volume of interest (VOI) analysis, namely, severity, extent, and ratio were evaluated for the distinction of AD from VaD and non-dementia. There was a significant difference in all the criteria for severity, extent, and ratio between AD and non-dementia cases and in the ratio between AD and VaD. Between AD and non-dementia, the sensitivity and specificity of severity were 100% and 45%, respectively, using the cutoff value of 1.19. When using the cutoff value of 14.2 for extent, the sensitivity and specificity were both 100%. Using the cutoff value of 2.22 for ratio, the sensitivity of 42% and specificity of 100% were demonstrated. When comparing AD with VaD, using the cutoff value of 2.22 for ratio, the sensitivity and specificity were 42% and 100%, respectively. Using the cutoff value of 1.5 for ratio, the sensitivity and specificity between AD and VaD were 92% and 80%, respectively, thereby showing the best results. The specific VOI analysis program of AD using specific voxel-based Z score maps is not influenced by interobserver differences among radiologists and is useful to discriminate AD from VaD and non-dementia. However, the setting of the cutoff value at each institution and comparison with original and eZIS images are suggested to distinguish better AD from VaD. (author)

  20. Apraxia for differentiating Alzheimer’s disease from subcortical vascular dementia and mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkan S

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Serhat Ozkan,1 Demet Ozbabalik Adapinar,1 Nese Tuncer Elmaci,2 Didem Arslantas31Department of Neurology, Eskisehir Osmangazi University Medical Faculty, Eskisehir, Turkey; 2Department of Neurology, Marmara University Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Department of Public Health, Eskisehir Osmangazi University Medical Faculty, Eskisehir, TurkeyAbstract: Although ideomotor limb apraxia is considered to be a typical sign of cortical pathologies such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD, it has been also reported in subcortical neurodegenerative diseases and vascular lesions. We aimed to investigate the difference between AD, subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI patients by means of ideomotor limb apraxia frequency and severity. Ninety-six AD, 72 SVaD, and 84 MCI patients were assessed with the mini-mental status examination (MMSE, clinical dementia rating (CDR and the apraxia screening test of TULIA (AST. Apraxia was significantly more frequent in the AD patients (32.3% than in both of the SVaD (16.7% and MCI (4.8% patients. The frequency of apraxia was also significantly higher in SVaD patients than in MCI patients. AD patients had significantly lower apraxia scores than both SVaD and MCI patients. In addition, a significant difference was found between SVaD and MCI patients in terms of apraxia scores. These results suggest that the widespread belief of the association between apraxia and cortical dementias is not exactly correct. The significant difference between both of the dementia groups and the MCI patients suggests that the absence of apraxia can be an indicator for MCI diagnosis.Keywords: apraxia, Alzheimer’s disease, subcortical vascular dementia, mild cognitive impairment

  1. Characteristics of Cerebral Blood Flow in Vascular Dementia using SPM Analysis Compared to Normal Control and Alzheimer's Dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo

    2003-01-01

    Cerebral perfusion pattern of vascular dementia (VD) was not well established and overlap of cerebral perfusion pattern was reported between VD and Alzheimer's dementia (AD). The aim of this study is to assess the specific patterns of SPECT finding in VD compared with normal control subjects and to disclose differences of cerebral blood flow between subjects with VD and AD were investigated using statistic parametric mapping analysis. Thirty-two VD (mean age ; 67.86.4 years, mean CDR ; 0.980.27), 51 AD (mean age ; 71.47.2 years, CDR ; 1.160.47), which were matched for age and severity of dementia, and 30 normal control subjects (mean age ; 60.17.7 years) participated in this study. The Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT data were analyzed by SPM99. The SPECT data of the patients with VD were compared to those of the control subjects and then compared to the patients with AD. SPM analysis of the SPECT image showed significant perfusion deficits in the both frontal (both cingulate gyrus, both inferior frontal gyrus, B no.47, right frontal rectal gyrus, left frontal subcallosal gyrus, B no.25), both temporal (right insula, B no.13, left superior temporal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, B no.35), occipital (occipital lingual gyrus), right corpus callosum and right cerebellar tonsil regions in subjects with VD compared with normal control subjects (uncorrected p<0.01). Comparison of the two dementia groups (uncorrected p<0.01) revealed significant hypoperfusion in both parietal posterior central gyrus, right inferior frontal gyrus (B no.47), left insula, right thalamus (ventral lateral nucleus), right claustrum and right occipital cuneus regions in VD group compared with AD. There were no typical confined regional hypoperfusion areas but scattered multiple perfusion deficits in VD compared AD. These findings may be helpful to reflect the pathophysiological mechanisms of VD and to disclose differences of cerebral blood flow between subjects with VD and AD

  2. [Effects of Total Alkaloids of Harmaline on Learning and Memory in Vascular Dementia Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-shuang; Sun, Jian-ning; Yu, Hui-ling

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the effects of total alkaloids of harmaline on learning and memory in vascular dementia rats, and its mechanism. The model rats of vascular dementia were established with bilateral carotid artery ligation. After 30 days, the model rats were randomly divided into six groups: sham group, model group, nicergoline tablets 7 mg/kg group, and 25, 12.5 and 6.25 mg/kg dose groups of total alkaloids of harmaline, the rats were given medicine for 30 days. Learning and memory abilities were tested by Morris water maze, histomorphology in hippocampal CA1 area were observed by HE staining, BAX and BCL-2 protein expression in hippocampal CA1 area were detected by immunohistochemistry. Compared with model group, 25 mg/kg group of total alkaloids of harmaline shortened the incubation period in the third and fourth day significantly, 12.5 mg/kg group of total alkaloids of harmaline shortened the incubation period in the fourth day. 25 and 12.5 mg/kg groups of total alkaloids of harmaline significantly increased the times crossing the target. Total alkaloids of harmaline improved the neurons pathological changes of rat in the hippocampus CA1 area, 25 and 12.5 mg/kg of total alkaloids of harmaline downregulated the expression of apoptosis proteins BAX, upregulated the protein expression of BCL-2. Total alkaloids of harmaline can improve the learning and memory abilities in vascular dementia rats, which probably is related to inhibiting apoptosis of hippocampus cell.

  3. Binswanger's disease: biomarkers in the inflammatory form of vascular cognitive impairment and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Gary A

    2018-03-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is a major public health concern because of the increased incidence of vascular disease in the aging population and the impact of vascular disease on Alzheimer's disease. VCID is a heterogeneous group of diseases for which there are no proven treatments. Biomarkers can be used to select more homogeneous populations. Small vessel disease is the most prevalent form of VCID and is the optimal form for treatment trials because there is a progressive course with characteristic pathological changes. Subcortical ischemic vascular disease of the Binswanger type (SIVD-BD) has a characteristic set of features that can be used both to identify patients and to follow treatment. SIVD-BD patients have clinical, neuropsychological, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and imaging features that can be used as biomarkers. No one feature is diagnostic, but a multimodal approach defines the SIVD-BD spectrum disorder. The most important features are large white matter lesions with axonal damage, blood-brain barrier disruption as shown by magnetic resonance imaging and CSF, and neuropsychological evidence of executive dysfunction. We have used these features to create a Binswanger Disease Scale and a probability of SIVD-BD, using a machine-learning algorithm. The patients discussed in this review are derived from published studies. Biomarkers not only aid in early diagnosis before the disease process has progressed too far for treatment, but also can indicate response to treatment. Refining the use of biomarkers will allow dementia treatment to enter the era of precision medicine. This article is part of the Special Issue "Vascular Dementia". © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  4. Depression in elderly patients with Alzheimer dementia or vascular dementia and its influence on their quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav Winter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alzheimer dementia (AD and vascular dementia (VD are the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Depression is an important co-morbid disorder in these diseases, which is often challenging to recognize. We investigated the prevalence of depression in patients with AD and VD and estimated the influence of depression on the health-related quality of life (HrQoL in these patients. Materials and Methods: We evaluated prevalence of depression in consecutively recruited patients with AD or VD (n= 98. Depression was diagnosed according to criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV and scored using the Geriatric Depression Scale. The EuroQol (EQ-5D and visual analogue scale was applied to evaluate HrQoL. The severity of cognitive impairment was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors predicting severity of depression. Results: The prevalence of depression in AD/VD was 87%. In comparison to the general population, HrQoL measured on the visual analogue scale was reduced by 54% in patients with AD/VD. In the dimension "anxiety/depression" of the EQ-5D, 81% of patients with AD/VD had moderate or severe problems. Depression showed significant association with reduced HrQoL (P<0.01. Independent predictors of more severe depression were older age, male gender, better MMSE scores and being not married. Conclusions: Depression is a prevalent psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with AD/VD, which is often under-diagnosed being masked by cognitive impairment. Depression is a predictor of reduced HrQoL in elder people with AD/VD. Therefore, they should be screened for presence of depressive symptoms and receive adequate antidepressant treatment.

  5. Efficacy of cognitive stimulation therapy for older adults with vascular dementia

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    Federica Piras

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Background: Cognitive stimulation therapy (CST is an evidence-based psychosocial intervention for people with mild-to-moderate dementia due to various etiological factors. Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of the CST program, Italian adaptation -CST-IT-, in individuals who have vascular dementia (VaD. Methods: Older adults with mild-to-moderate VaD (N = 35 were assigned to one of two programs: one group (N = 21 attended the 14 sessions of the CST-IT program, while the other, active control group (N = 14 took part in alternative activities. The following domains were examined: cognitive functioning, quality of life, mood, behavior, functional activities of daily living. Results: Compared with the active controls, the CST-IT group showed a greater improvement in general cognitive functioning after the intervention (i.e. score increase on the Mini-Mental State Examination and decrease on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale – Cognitive subscale. A trend towards improvement was also identified in short-term/working memory – the backward digit span task- and perceived quality of life (Quality of Life – Alzheimer's Disease scale. No significant differences emerged between the two groups for the other domains considered. Conclusion: The present results support the efficacy of CST in people with vascular dementia.

  6. Screening for New Biomarkers for Subcortical Vascular Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Öhrfelt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Novel biomarkers are important for identifying as well as differentiating subcortical vascular dementia (SVD and Alzheimer’s disease (AD at an early stage in the disease process. Methods: In two independent cohorts, a multiplex immunoassay was utilized to analyze 90 proteins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from dementia patients and patients at risk of developing dementia (mild cognitive impairment. Results: The levels of several CSF proteins were increased in SVD and its incipient state, and in moderate-to-severe AD compared with the control group. In contrast, some CSF proteins were altered in AD, but not in SVD. The levels of heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP were consistently increased in all groups with dementia but only in some of their incipient states. Conclusions: In summary, these results support the notion that SVD and AD are driven by different pathophysiological mechanisms reflected in the CSF protein profile and that H-FABP in CSF is a general marker of neurodegeneration.

  7. Reduced 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Shoaib; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated as a risk factor for dementia in several cross-sectional studies. We tested the hypothesis that reduced plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia in the general.......28 (95% CI, 1.00-1.64) for 25(OH)D less than 25 nmol/L vs. greater than or equal to 50 nmol/L, and 1.27 (95% CI, 1.01-1.60) for less than the 25th vs. more than the 50th seasonally adjusted 25(OH)D. CONCLUSIONS: We observed an association of reduced plasma 25(OH)D with increased risk of the combined end...

  8. Determinants of Dropout and Nonadherence in a Dementia Prevention Randomized Controlled Trial: The Prevention of Dementia by Intensive Vascular Care Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beishuizen, Cathrien R. L.; Coley, Nicola; Moll van Charante, Eric P.; van Gool, Willem A.; Richard, Edo; Andrieu, Sandrine

    2017-01-01

    To explore and compare sociodemographic, clinical, and neuropsychiatric determinants of dropout and nonadherence in older people participating in an open-label cluster-randomized controlled trial-the Prevention of Dementia by Intensive Vascular care (preDIVA) trial-over 6 years. Secondary analysis.

  9. Determinants of Dropout and Nonadherence in a Dementia Prevention Randomized Controlled Trial: The Prevention of Dementia by Intensive Vascular Care Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beishuizen, C.R.; Coley, N.; Charante, E.P.M. van; Gool, W.A. van; Richard, E.; Andrieu, S.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore and compare sociodemographic, clinical, and neuropsychiatric determinants of dropout and nonadherence in older people participating in an open-label cluster-randomized controlled trial-the Prevention of Dementia by Intensive Vascular care (preDIVA) trial-over 6 years. DESIGN:

  10. Cerebral blood flow single-photon emission tomography with 123I-IMP in vascular dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahata, Nobuya; Gotoh, Chiharu; Yokoyama, Sakura; Daitoh, Nobuyuki

    2001-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow differences between patients with vascular dementia, patients with multiple lacunar infarction without cognitive dysfunction, and age-matched controls were examined. Thirty four patients with vascular dementia (VD) were selected from consecutive referrals to the Memory Clinic at Narita Memorial Hospital. All the patients had routine assessment including history, physical and neurological examinations, neuropsychological assessment, blood tests, EEG, head MRI, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). All of them fulfilled the NINDS-AIREN diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia. Thirty nine patients with multiple lacunar infarction without cognitive dysfunction and 110 age-matched controls were included in this study. Mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were measured using N-isopropyl-P- 123 I-iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) and SPECT imager. The mCBF in VD was 27.6±5.3 ml/100 g/min, while those in the control group and multiple lacunar infarction without cognitive dysfunction were 36.6±6.1 ml/100 g/min and 32.5±5.5 ml/100 g/min, respectively. The patients with VD demonstrated significantly reduced mCBF and rCBF in twenty regions including both cerebellar hemispheres as compared with those of the control group. Although there was no significant rCBF differences in bilateral inferior occipital regions and the right cerebellar hemisphere between patients with VD and multiple lacunar infarction without cognitive dysfunction, we could find significant lower rCBF in the remaining brain areas. In spite of the severity of VD, the diffuse decrease of cerebral blood flow was recognized in all patients with VD. (author)

  11. Clinical significance of circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 to white matter disintegrity in Alzheimer's dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Wei; Tsai, Meng-Han; Chen, Nai-Ching; Chen, Wei-Hsi; Lu, Yan-Ting; Lui, Chun-Chung; Chang, Ya-Ting; Chang, Wen-Neng; Chang, Alice Y W; Chang, Chiung-Chih

    2015-11-25

    Endothelial dysfunction leads to worse cognitive performance in Alzheimer's dementia (AD). While both cerebrovascular risk factors and endothelial dysfunction lead to activation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin, it is not known whether these biomarkers extend the diagnostic repertoire in reflecting intracerebral structural damage or cognitive performance. A total of 110 AD patients and 50 age-matched controls were enrolled. Plasma levels of VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin were measured and correlated with the cognitive performance, white matter macro-structural changes, and major tract-specific fractional anisotropy quantification. The AD patients were further stratified by clinical dementia rating score (mild dementia, n=60; moderate-to-severe dementia, n=50). Compared with the controls, plasma levels of VCAM-1 (p< 0.001), ICAM-1 (p=0.028) and E-selectin (p=0.016) were significantly higher in the patients, but only VCAM-1 levels significantly reflected the severity of dementia (p< 0.001). In addition, only VCAM-1 levels showed an association with macro- and micro- white matter changes especially in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (p< 0.001), posterior thalamic radiation (p=0.002), stria terminalis (p=0.002) and corpus callosum (p=0.009), and were independent of, age and cortical volume. These tracts show significant association with MMSE, short term memory and visuospatial function. Meanwhile, while VCAM-1 level correlated significantly with short-term memory (p=0.026) and drawing (p=0.025) scores in the AD patients after adjusting for age and education, the significance disappeared after adjusting for global FA. Endothelial activation, especially VCAM-1, was of clinical significance in AD that reflects macro- and micro-structural changes and poor short term memory and visuospatial function.

  12. Neuropsychiatric profiles in patients with Alzheimer′s disease and vascular dementia

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    Tushar Kanti Bandyopadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The aim of the following study is to compare the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD in patients of Alzheimer disease (AD and vascular dementia (VaD. Materials and Methods: We used National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke-Alzheimer′s Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria for diagnosing AD and National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Association International pour la Recherche et l′Enseignement en Neurosciences Criteria for diagnosing VaD. VaD cohort was further subcategorized into small vessel and large vessel disease. The severity of cognitive impairment and the BPSD were studied by means of the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory respectively. Results: We studied 50 AD and 50 VaD patients of whom 38 were small vessels and 12 were large vessels VaD. The severity of dementia was comparable in both groups. The agitation/aggression, depression/dysphoria, anxiety, apathy/indifference, irritability, aberrant motor behavior, appetite and eating behavior and night-time behaviors occurred significantly more frequently in patients with VaD than AD. We found a weak positive correlation between the CDR score and the number of neuropsychiatric symptoms per patient in both cohorts. Elation/euphoria, agitation/aggression was significantly more frequent in patients with large vessel in comparison to small vessel VaD. Conclusions: BPSD are common in both types of dementia and they are more severe in VaD than AD when the groups have similar levels of cognitive impairment.

  13. Experimental study of icariin on vascular dementia in rats induced by 2-VO method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-xiaXU; QinWU; Jing-shanSHI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of icariin (ICA) on the learning and memory of ischemic vascular dementia (VD) model of rats,and explore the protective mechanisms. METHODS: ICA was administered to the VD model rats induced by a permanent bilateral occlusion of both common carotids arteries(2-VO method) and by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I10-R 10-110 method). Morris water maze was used to examine the abilities of spatial learning and memory of VD model rats. The activity of SOD, level of

  14. NEUROPSI battery subtest profile in subcortical vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Niures P.S. Matioli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of subtests of the NEUROPSI battery for differentiating subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD from Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods: Thirteen patients with mild SVaD, 15 patients with mild probable AD, and 30 healthy controls, matched for age, education and dementia severity (in the case of patients, were submitted to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and NEUROPSI battery. The performance of AD and SVaD groups on NEUROPSI subtests was compared. The statistical analyses were performed using Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. The results were interpreted at the 5% significance level (p<0.05. Bonferroni's correction was applied to multiple comparisons (a=0.02. Results: SVaD and AD patients showed no statistical difference in MMSE scores (SVaD=20.8 and AD=21.0; p=1.0 or in NEUROPSI total score (SVaD=65.0 and AD=64.3; p=0.56, suggesting a similar severity of dementia. The AD group performed worse on memory recall (<0.01 and SVaD group was worse in verbal fluency subtests (p=0.02. Conclusion: NEUROPSI's memory and language subtests can be an auxiliary tool for differentiating SVaD from AD.

  15. Neuropsychological Profiles Differentiate Alzheimer Disease from Subcortical Ischemic Vascular Dementia in an Autopsy-Defined Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Gomez, Liliana; Zheng, Ling; Reed, Bruce; Kramer, Joel; Mungas, Dan; Zarow, Chris; Vinters, Harry; Ringman, John M; Chui, Helena

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the ability of neuropsychological tests to differentiate autopsy-defined Alzheimer disease (AD) from subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD). From a sample of 175 cases followed longitudinally that underwent autopsy, we selected 23 normal controls (NC), 20 SIVD, 69 AD, and 10 mixed cases of dementia. Baseline neuropsychological tests, including Memory Assessment Scale word list learning test, control oral word association test, and animal fluency, were compared between the three autopsy-defined groups. The NC, SIVD, and AD groups did not differ by age or education. The SIVD and AD groups did not differ by the Global Clinical Dementia Rating Scale. Subjects with AD performed worse on delayed recall (p < 0.01). A receiver operating characteristics analysis comparing the SIVD and AD groups including age, education, difference between categorical (animals) versus phonemic fluency (letter F), and the first recall from the word learning test distinguished the two groups with a sensitivity of 85%, specificity of 67%, and positive likelihood ratio of 2.57 (AUC = 0.789, 95% CI 0.69-0.88, p < 0.0001). In neuropathologically defined subgroups, neuropsychological profiles have modest ability to distinguish patients with AD from those with SIVD. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Subcortical vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia : EEG global power independently predicts vascular impairment and brain symmetry index reflects severity of cognitive decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheorajpanday, Rishi V.A.; Mariën, Peter; Nagels, Guy; Weeren, Arie J.T.M.; Saerens, Jos; Van Putten, Michel J.A.M.; de Deyn, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia (vCIND) is a prevalent and potentially preventable disorder. Clinical presentation of the small-vessel subcortical subtype may be insidious, and differential difficulties can arise with mild cognitive impairment. We investigated EEG

  17. Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment, No Dementia : EEG Global Power Independently Predicts Vascular Impairment and Brain Symmetry Index Reflects Severity of Cognitive Decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheorajpanday, Rishi V. A.; Marien, Peter; Nagels, Guy; Weeren, Arie J. T. M.; Saerens, Jos; van Putten, Michel J. A. M.; De Deyn, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose:Vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia (vCIND) is a prevalent and potentially preventable disorder. Clinical presentation of the small-vessel subcortical subtype may be insidious, and differential difficulties can arise with mild cognitive impairment. We investigated EEG

  18. Frailty as a Predictor of Alzheimer Disease, Vascular Dementia, and All Dementia Among Community-Dwelling Older People: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Gotaro; Taniguchi, Yu; Iliffe, Steve; Walters, Kate

    2016-10-01

    To perform a systematic search of the literature for currently available evidence on frailty as a predictor of dementia and to conduct a meta-analysis to synthesize the pooled risk estimates among community-dwelling older people. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Embase, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library from 2000 to January 2016, and reference lists of relevant articles. Any studies that prospectively examined the incident risks of dementia with frailty among community-dwelling older people without language restriction. Of 2565 studies identified through the systematic review, 7 studies were included in this review. Of these, 4 studies reported hazard ratios (HR) of incident dementia for physical frailty defined by Cardiovascular Health Study criteria and were included in a meta-analysis. Frailty was a significant predictor of incident Alzheimer disease (4 studies: pooled HR = 1.28, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.00-1.63, P = .05), vascular dementia (2 studies: pooled HR 2.70, 95% CI 1.40-5.23, P = .003), and all dementia (3 studies: pooled HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.07-1.67, P = .01). Heterogeneity across the studies was low to modest (I(2) = 0%-51%). A random-effects meta-regression analysis showed that the female proportion of the cohort primarily mediated the association of frailty with Alzheimer disease (female proportion coefficient = 0.04, 95%CI = 0.01-0.08, P = .01). This systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that frailty was a significant predictor of Alzheimer disease, vascular dementia, and all dementia among community-dwelling older people. Frail women may have a higher risk of incident Alzheimer disease than frail men. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficacy Of Rivastigmine And Donepezil On Cognitive Impairment Of Vascular Dementia - Some Preliminary Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vascular Dementia (VaD is common, global, disabling and a rather neglected, age related dementia. It is important to identify and treat it since cognitive impairment produces dysfunction in occupational and social life. Moreso, due to increase in geriatric population, incidence and prevalence of VaD is also increasing. Aim: We share our observations on efficacy of Rivastigmine and Donepezil (drugs advocated for improving cognition in dementia in patients of VaD. Material and Method: This was a non-randomized study based on clinical evaluation. We selected 53 patients suffering from VaD (as per clinical and radiological criteria. Their age range was 55-78 years (mean 65.3 + 6.2 yrs. Clinical, biochemical and radiological (Cranial CT and MRI evaluation was done to establish etiology. Cognition was measured using modified Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE which was repeated 2 times, at interval of 3 months. We observed the role of Rivastigmine in 14 and Donepezil in 19 patients of VaD. The change in MMSE score was compared with 20 control patients of VaD. The associated risk factors like hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia etc. were managed. Acetyl Salicylic Acid (ASA in dose of 150mg/day was given as an antiplatelet agent to all 53 patients in this study. Results: At end of study, no statistically significant improvement was observed in MMSE score in any of the 53 patients. Improvement in MMSE score (though statistically insignificant was observed with Rivastigmine in 11 and with Donepezil in 14 patients. Progressive decline in MMSE score was observed in 14 (70% control patients of VaD who did not receive rivastigmine or donepezil. Conclusion - Rivastigmine and Donepezil are beneficial in halting deterioration of dementia in patients suffering from VaD.

  20. Positron emission tomography for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielke, R.; Heiss, W.-D.

    1998-01-01

    In mild or atypical cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD) the differential diagnosis to other dementing diseases, such as vascular dementia (VD), may pose a difficult problem. Beside computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional neuroimaging by positron emission tomography (PET). Support the clinical diagnosis by visualizing cerebral function. PET of 18 F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) for measurement of regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRGl) has shown a typical metabolic pattern in patients with probable AD: hypometabolism in temporoparietal and frontal association areas, but relative recessing of primary cortical areas, basal ganglia and cerebellum. In VD a different pattern is seen. It consists of scattered areas with reduction of rCMRGl typically extending over cortical and subcortical structures. Severity of dementia is correlated with rCMRGl reduction in the temporoparietal association cortex, irrespective of the cause of dementia. Also the total volume of hypometabolic regions is related to severity of dementia but did not differ between AD and VD, even in patients with small lacunar infarction. This indicates that the total volume of functional tissue loss is more important, since it also includes the effects of incompletely infarcted tissue and morphologically intact but deafferented cortex. The characteristic metabolic pattern has a high diagnostic accuracy for the discrimination between probable AD, normals and VD, even in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Under clinical and therapeutic aspects the analysis of longitudinal changes of rCMRGl has shown that neuropsychological and metabolic changes are closely related in both, AD and VD. (author)

  1. Korean Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (K-ACER) for differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and subcortical ischemic vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yong Tae; Yang, Youngsoon; Kim, Gyung Whan

    2010-10-01

    Sensitive, specific neuropsychological screening tests, such as the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R), are essential for dementia diagnosis. We aimed to validate the use of the Korean version of ACE-R (K-ACER) to differentiate Alzheimer's disease (AD) from subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD). Standard tests for dementia screening were applied to 156 subjects (84 controls, 30 AD, 42 SIVD), and total and sub-domain scores on the K-ACER, as well as the sub-domain ratio (VLOM), were compared. The reliability of the K-ACER was very good (α-coefficient 0.84), and cut-off score for dementia was determined (cut-off value 78, sensitivity 0.93, specificity 0.95). The likelihood ratio for dementia was calculated as between 78 and 82. At a cut-off of 78, the likelihood of dementia was 18.6:1. Although a comparison of K-ACER scores between AD and SIVD patients revealed significant differences in verbal fluency, language domain and VLOM ratio, sensitivity and specificity for differential diagnosis between AD and SVID proved less accurate. The K-ACER is a rapid, sensitive and specific dementia screening test. Though sub-domains of items may be useful for differentiating between AD and SIVD, sensitivity and specificity is less accurate than dementia screening itself. © 2010 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  2. Taking a positive spin: preserved initiative and performance of everyday activities across mild Alzheimer's, vascular and mixed dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Clarissa M; Burns, Alistair; Challis, David

    2017-09-01

    The literature commonly evaluates those daily activities which are impaired in dementia. However, in the mild stages, people with dementia (PwD) are still able to initiate and perform many of those tasks. With a lack of research exploring variations between different dementia diagnoses, this study sought to investigate those daily activities with modest impairments in the mild stages and how these compare between Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD) and mixed dementia. Staff from memory assessment services from nine National Health Service trusts across England identified and approached informal carers of people with mild dementia. Carers completed the newly revised Interview for Deteriorations in Daily Living Activities in Dementia 2 assessing the PwD's initiative and performance of instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Data were analysed using analysis of variance and Chi-square tests to compare the maintenance of IADL functioning across AD, VaD, and mixed dementia. A total of 160 carers returned the Interview for Deteriorations in Daily Living Activities in Dementia 2, of which 109, 21, and 30 cared for someone with AD, VaD, and mixed dementia, respectively. There were significant variations across subtypes, with AD showing better preserved initiative and performance than VaD for several IADLs. Overall, PwD showed greater preservation of performance than initiative, with tasks such as preparing a hot drink and dressing being best maintained. Findings can help classify dementia better into subtypes in order to receive bespoke support. It suggests that interventions should primarily address initiative to improve overall functioning. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aging. Many different diseases can cause dementia, including Alzheimer's disease and stroke. Drugs are available to treat some of these diseases. While these drugs cannot cure dementia or repair brain damage, they may improve ...

  4. Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... continue to look for new genes that may be responsible for the development of Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia. Several research projects hope to identify dementia biomarkers (measurable biological signs ...

  5. Effects of fisetin on hyperhomocysteinemia-induced experimental endothelial dysfunction and vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemanth Kumar, Boyina; Arun Reddy, Ravula; Mahesh Kumar, Jerald; Dinesh Kumar, B; Diwan, Prakash V

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of fisetin (FST) on hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-induced experimental endothelial dysfunction (ED) and vascular dementia (VaD) in rats. Wistar rats were randomly divided into 8 groups: control, vehicle control, l-methionine, FST (5, 10, and 25 mg/kg, p.o.), FST-per se (25 mg/kg, p.o.), and donepezil (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.). l-Methionine administration (1.7 g/kg, p.o.) for 32 days induced HHcy. ED and VaD induced by HHcy were determined by vascular reactivity measurements, behavioral analysis using Morris water maze and Y-maze, along with a biochemical and histological evaluation of thoracic aorta and brain tissues. Administration of l-methionine developed behavioral deficits; triggered brain lipid peroxidation (LPO); compromised brain acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE); and reduced the levels of brain superoxide dismutase (SOD), brain catalase (CAT), brain reduced glutathione (GSH), and serum nitrite; and increased serum homocysteine and cholesterol levels. These effects were accompanied by decreased vascular NO bioavailability, marked intimal thickening of the aorta, and multiple necrotic foci in brain cortex. HHcy-induced alterations in the activities of SOD, CAT, GSH, AChE, LPO, behavioral deficits, ED, and histological aberrations were significantly attenuated by treatment with fisetin in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, our results indicate that fisetin exerts endothelial and neuroprotective effects against HHcy-induced ED and VaD.

  6. [Premorbid psychological processes in patients with Alzheimer's disease and in patients with vascular dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, J; Stadtmüller, G; Qualmann, J; Bauer, H

    1995-01-01

    We analyzed the premorbid biographies of 21 patients with Alzheimer's disease for possible common features. Eleven age-matched patients suffering from vascular dementia served as a control group. The observations from our qualitative study indicate that persons with a conflict-avoiding, submissive, premorbid personality predominate among Alzheimer patients. Persons who later became Alzheimer patients tended to leave important daily-life decisions to their partners (or other persons of reference). Prior to the onset of the very first neuropsychological deficits, persons who later became Alzheimer patients were found to stay in a lasting situation in which they were subject to a treatment that could be designated as "caring tutelage." Subsequently, most patients became subject to an increasingly patronizing and restricting treatment. Further elements that were frequently found as part of the premorbid development were physical or psychological burden, loss of social contacts, and loss of motivation. In contrast, assertive and dominant premorbid traits predominated in the group of vascular patients. The premorbid biographical situation of persons who later became vascular patients was characterized by a loss of the control which these persons had hitherto exerted over partners, their families, or the situation at their working place. We advance the hypothesis that in Alzheimer's disease the described psychological phenomena are part of a preclinical process, during which biological, psychological, and social factors interact, finally joining into the clinical stage of the disease. Possibilities for psychotherapeutic interventions are discussed.

  7. Post-mortem assessment of hypoperfusion of cerebral cortex in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Taya; Miners, Scott; Love, Seth

    2015-04-01

    Perfusion is reduced in the cerebral neocortex in Alzheimer's disease. We have explored some of the mechanisms, by measurement of perfusion-sensitive and disease-related proteins in post-mortem tissue from Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and age-matched control brains. To distinguish physiological from pathological reduction in perfusion (i.e. reduction exceeding the decline in metabolic demand), we measured the concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a protein induced under conditions of tissue hypoxia through the actions of hypoxia-inducible factors, and the myelin associated glycoprotein to proteolipid protein 1 (MAG:PLP1) ratio, which declines in chronically hypoperfused brain tissue. To evaluate possible mechanisms of hypoperfusion, we also measured the levels of amyloid-β40, amyloid-β42, von Willebrand factor (VWF; a measure of microvascular density) and the potent vasoconstrictor endothelin 1 (EDN1); we assayed the activity of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE), which catalyses the production of another potent vasoconstrictor, angiotensin II; and we scored the severity of arteriolosclerotic small vessel disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and determined the Braak tangle stage. VEGF was markedly increased in frontal and parahippocampal cortex in Alzheimer's disease but only slightly and not significantly in vascular dementia. In frontal cortex the MAG:PLP1 ratio was significantly reduced in Alzheimer's disease and even more so in vascular dementia. VEGF but not MAG:PLP1 increased with Alzheimer's disease severity, as measured by Braak tangle stage, and correlated with amyloid-β42 and amyloid-β42: amyloid-β40 but not amyloid-β40. Although MAG:PLP1 tended to be lowest in cortex from patients with severe small vessel disease or cerebral amyloid angiopathy, neither VEGF nor MAG:PLP1 correlated significantly with the severity of structural vascular pathology (small vessel disease, cerebral amyloid angiopathy or VWF

  8. White matter damage and glymphatic dysfunction in a model of vascular dementia in rats with no prior vascular pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat, Poornima; Chopp, Michael; Zacharek, Alex; Cui, Chengcheng; Zhang, Li; Li, Qingjiang; Lu, Mei; Zhang, Talan; Liu, Amy; Chen, Jieli

    2017-02-01

    We investigated cognitive function, axonal/white matter (WM) changes and glymphatic function of vascular dementia using a multiple microinfarction (MMI) model in retired breeder (RB) rats. The MMI model induces significant (p rats subjected to MMI exhibit significant axonal/WM damage identified by decreased myelin thickness, oligodendrocyte progenitor cell numbers, axon density, synaptic protein expression in the cortex and striatum, cortical neuronal branching, and dendritic spine density in the cortex and hippocampus compared with age-matched controls. MMI evokes significant dilation of perivascular spaces as well as water channel dysfunction indicated by decreased Aquaporin-4 expression around blood vessels. MMI-induced glymphatic dysfunction with delayed cerebrospinal fluid penetration into the brain parenchyma via paravascular pathways as well as delayed waste clearance from the brain. The MMI model in RB rats decreases Aquaporin-4 and induces glymphatic dysfunction which may play an important role in MMI-induced axonal/WM damage and cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Color perception differentiates Alzheimer's Disease (AD) from Vascular Dementia (VaD) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaoutoglou, N A; Arnaoutoglou, M; Nemtsas, P; Costa, V; Baloyannis, S J; Ebmeier, K P

    2017-08-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Vascular Dementia (VaD) are the most common causes of dementia in older people. Both diseases appear to have similar clinical symptoms, such as deficits in attention and executive function, but specific cognitive domains are affected. Current cohort studies have shown a close relationship between αβ deposits and age-related macular degeneration (Johnson et al., 2002; Ratnayaka et al., 2015). Additionally, a close link between the thinning of the retinal nerve fiber (RNFL) and AD patients has been described, while it has been proposed that AD patients suffer from a non-specific type of color blindness (Pache et al., 2003). Our study included 103 individuals divided into three groups: A healthy control group (n = 35), AD (n = 32) according to DSM-IV-TR, NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, and VaD (n = 36) based on ΝΙΝDS-AIREN, as well as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) results. The severity of patient's cognitive impairment, was measured with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and was classified according to the Reisberg global deterioration scale (GDS). Visual perception was examined using the Ishihara plates: "Ishihara Color Vision Test - 38 Plate." The three groups were not statistically different for demographic data (age, gender, and education). The Ishihara color blindness test has a sensitivity of 80.6% and a specificity of 87.5% to discriminate AD and VaD patients when an optimal (32.5) cut-off value of performance is used. Ishihara Color Vision Test - 38 Plate is a promising potential method as an easy and not time-consuming screening test for the differential diagnosis of dementia between AD and VaD.

  10. Vascular dementia of Binswanger's type: clinical, neuroradiological and 99mTc-HMPAO SPET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyu Woeicherng; Lin Jiannchyun; Shen Chihchieh; Hsu Yawdon; Lee Chauchin; Shiah Ishin; Tsao Wenlong

    1996-01-01

    In 24 patients with vascular dementia of Binswanger's type (VDBT) and 14 age-matched neurologically normal volunteers, we investigated the relationship between clinical features, white matter lesions (leucoaraiosis) and cerebral atrophy on computed tomographic (CT) scan, and regional cerebral blood flow. All subjects underwent the Mini-Mental State Examination of Taiwan, version 1 (MMSE-T1), for assessing the severity of cognitive impairment. The patients were subdivided into two groups, one with mild to moderate (group I, MMSE-T1 scores: 11-24, n=11), and the other with severe dementia (group II, MMSE-T1 scores: below 10, n=13). White matter degeneration was evaluated with densitometric methods. Loss of brain parenchyma was estimated with seven linear measurements (Evan's ratio, third ventricle ratio, width of temporal horn tip, anterior-posterior length of temporal horn, anterior-posterior length of Sylvian fissure and width of frontal interhemispheric fissure) by CT scans. Regional cerebral blood flow was determined with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) single-photon emission tomography (SPET). In neuroimaging studies, subcortical leuco-araiosis was localized at the frontal region in group I patients and scattered diffusely in group II patients. 99m Tc-HMPAO SPET analysis revealed reduction of regional cerebral blood flow in the frontal lobe in group I patients and widespread reduction of regional cerebral blood flow in group II patients. A correlation between frontal leuco-araiosis and perfusion defect of the frontal pole was demonstrated in group I patients, showing findings typical of subcortical dementia. There was no difference in frontal athrophic measurements between group I patients and controls. Ratios of volumes of lost brain parenchyma and leuco-araiosis were significantly higher in group II patients than in the age-matched controls, corresponding to a diffuse cerebral perfusion defect. (orig./MG)

  11. Vascular cognitive impairment, dementia, aging and energy demand. A vicious cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa-Wagner, A; Buga, Ana-Maria; Popescu, B; Muresanu, D

    2015-08-01

    To a great extent, cognitive health depends on cerebrovascular health and a deeper understanding of the subtle interactions between cerebrovascular function and cognition is needed to protect humans from one of the most devastating affliction, dementia. However, the underlying biological mechanisms are still not completely clear. Many studies demonstrated that the neurovascular unit is compromised in cerebrovascular diseases and also in other types of dementia. The hemodynamic neurovascular coupling ensures a strong increase of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and an acute increase in neuronal glucose uptake upon increased neural activity. Dysfunction of cerebral autoregulation with increasing age along with age-related structural and functional alterations in cerebral blood vessels including accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) in the media of cortical arterioles, neurovascular uncoupling due to astrocyte endfeet retraction, impairs the CBF and increases the neuronal degeneration and susceptibility to hypoxia and ischemia. A decreased cerebral glucose metabolism is an early event in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology and may precede the neuropathological Aβ deposition associated with AD. Aβ accumulation in turn leads to further decreases in the CBF closing the vicious cycle. Alzheimer, aging and diabetes are also influenced by insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling, and accumulated evidence indicates sporadic AD is associated with disturbed brain insulin metabolism. Understanding how vascular and metabolic factors interfere with progressive loss of functional neuronal networks becomes essential to develop efficient drugs to prevent cognitive decline in elderly.

  12. Big data and data repurposing - using existing data to answer new questions in vascular dementia research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubal, Fergus N; Ali, Myzoon; Batty, G David; Charidimou, Andreas; Eriksdotter, Maria; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Kim, Yun-Hee; Levine, Deborah A; Mead, Gillian; Mucke, Hermann A M; Ritchie, Craig W; Roberts, Charlotte J; Russ, Tom C; Stewart, Robert; Whiteley, William; Quinn, Terence J

    2017-04-17

    Traditional approaches to clinical research have, as yet, failed to provide effective treatments for vascular dementia (VaD). Novel approaches to collation and synthesis of data may allow for time and cost efficient hypothesis generating and testing. These approaches may have particular utility in helping us understand and treat a complex condition such as VaD. We present an overview of new uses for existing data to progress VaD research. The overview is the result of consultation with various stakeholders, focused literature review and learning from the group's experience of successful approaches to data repurposing. In particular, we benefitted from the expert discussion and input of delegates at the 9 th International Congress on Vascular Dementia (Ljubljana, 16-18 th October 2015). We agreed on key areas that could be of relevance to VaD research: systematic review of existing studies; individual patient level analyses of existing trials and cohorts and linking electronic health record data to other datasets. We illustrated each theme with a case-study of an existing project that has utilised this approach. There are many opportunities for the VaD research community to make better use of existing data. The volume of potentially available data is increasing and the opportunities for using these resources to progress the VaD research agenda are exciting. Of course, these approaches come with inherent limitations and biases, as bigger datasets are not necessarily better datasets and maintaining rigour and critical analysis will be key to optimising data use.

  13. Validation of the Addenbrooke's cognitive examination for detecting early Alzheimer's disease and mild vascular dementia in a German population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, P; Greim, B; Nadler, K; Martens, U; Krecklow, B; Domes, G; Herpertz, S; Kurz, A

    2006-01-01

    We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the German version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) in identifying early Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild vascular dementia (VaD) in comparison with the conventional Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The study refers to 50 patients with mild dementia of AD, 26 patients with mild dementia of vascular etiology and to 54 cognitively normal subjects. The ACE and MMSE were validated against an expert diagnosis based on a comprehensive diagnostic workup. Statistical analysis was performed using the receiver operator characteristics method. The optimal cut-off score for the ACE for detecting dementia in patients with early AD was 85/86, which had a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 86%. The optimal cut-off for the ACE for the identification of dementia in patients with mild VaD was also 85/86 and it had a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 100%. The kappa values imply a substantial agreement between the diagnoses made by the ACE and the MMSE. The German version of the ACE is a short and practical but accurate test battery for the identification of AD and VaD, assessing a broad range of cognitive functions and providing a wide profile of cognitive functions/dysfunctions.

  14. Qualitative Analysis of Mini Mental State Examination Pentagon in Vascular Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease: A Longitudinal Explorative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Buono, Viviana; Bonanno, Lilla; Corallo, Francesco; Foti, Maria; Palmeri, Rosanna; Angela, Marra; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Todaro, Antonino; Bramanti, Placido; Bramanti, Alessia; Marino, Silvia

    2018-06-01

    Vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease are the most diffuse forms of dementia. Sometimes, they are difficult to distinguish due to overlaps in symptomatology, pathophysiology, and comorbidity. Visual constructive apraxia is very common in dementia and impairment in these abilities can provide clinical information for differential diagnosis. All patients underwent Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) at basal visit (T0) and after 1 year (T1). We analyzed differences in Qualitative Scoring Method for the Pentagon Copying Test and we explored the visual constructive apraxia evolution in these 2 types of dementia. In intragroup analysis, we found a significant difference in each group between T0 and T1 in MMSE score (P < .001) and total qualitative scores (P < .001). In intergroup analysis, at T0, we found significance difference in total qualitative scores (P < .001), in numbers of angles (P = .005), in distance/intersection (P < .001), in closure/opening (P = .01), in rotation (P < .001), and in closing-in (P < .001). At T1, we found significance difference in total qualitative scores (P < .001), in particular, in numbers of angles (P < .001), in distance/intersection (P < .001), in closure/opening (P < .001), in rotation (P < .001), and in closing-in (P < .001). The total score showed the highest classification accuracy (.90, 95%CI = .81-0.96) in differentiating patients with Alzheimer's disease from patients with vascular dementia. The optimal threshold value was k = 5. with .84 (95%CI = .69-0.93) sensitivity and .81 (95%CI = .64-0.93) specificity. Patients with vascular dementia showed more accuracy errors and graphic difficulties than patients with Alzheimer's disease. Qualitative analysis of copy provided a sensitive measure of visual constructive abilities in differentiating dementias, underlining a particularly vulnerability of visuoconstructive functions in vascular dementia compared

  15. EEG in Silent Small Vessel Disease : sLORETA Mapping Reveals Cortical Sources of Vascular Cognitive Impairment No Dementia in the Default Mode Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheorajpanday, Rishi V. A.; Marien, Peter; Weeren, Arie J. T. M.; Nagels, Guy; Saerens, Jos; van Putten, Michel J. A. M.; De Deyn, Peter P.

    Introduction: Vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia (vCIND) is a prevalent and potentially preventable disorder. Clinical presof the small vessel subcortical subtype may be insidious and difficult to diagnose in the initial stage. We investigated electroencephalographic sources of subcortical

  16. Patient with rapidly evolving neurological disease with neuropathological lesions of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Lewy body dementia, chronic subcortical vascular encephalopathy and meningothelial meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, Maria Gabriella; Tiple, Dorina; Bizzarro, Alessandra; Ladogana, Anna; Colaizzo, Elisa; Capellari, Sabina; Rossi, Marcello; Parchi, Piero; Masullo, Carlo; Pocchiari, Maurizio

    2017-04-01

    We report a case of rapidly evolving neurological disease in a patient with neuropathological lesions of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Lewy body dementia (LBD), chronic subcortical vascular encephalopathy and meningothelial meningioma. The coexistence of severe multiple pathologies in a single patient strengthens the need to perform accurate clinical differential diagnoses in rapidly progressive dementias. © 2016 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  17. Bee Venom Ameliorates Cognitive Dysfunction Caused by Neuroinflammation in an Animal Model of Vascular Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mudan; Lee, Jun Hwan; Yang, Eun Jin

    2017-10-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is caused by the reduction of blood supply by vessel occlusion and is characterized by progressive cognitive decline. VaD incidence has been growing due to the aging population, placing greater strain on social and economic resources. However, the pathological mechanisms underlying VaD remain unclear. Many studies have used the bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) animal model to investigate potential therapeutics for VaD. In this study, we investigated whether bee venom (BV) improves cognitive function and reduces neuroinflammation in the hippocampus of BCCAO animals. Animals were randomly divided into three groups: a sham group (n = 15), BCCAO control group (n = 15), and BV-treated BCCAO group (n = 15). BCCAO animals were treated with 0.1 μg/g BV at ST36 ("Joksamli" acupoint) four times every other day. In order to investigate the effect of BV treatment on cognitive function, we performed a Y-maze test. In order to uncover any potential relationship between these results and neuroinflammation, we also performed Western blotting in the BCCAO group. Animals that had been treated with BV showed an improved cognitive function and a reduced expression of neuroinflammatory proteins in the hippocampus, including Iba-1, TLR4, CD14, and TNF-α. Furthermore, we demonstrated that BV treatment increased pERK and BDNF in the hippocampus. The present study thus underlines the neuroprotective effect of BV treatment against BCCAO-induced cognitive impairment and neuroinflammation. Our findings suggest that BV may be an effective complementary treatment for VaD, as it may improve cognitive function and attenuate neuroinflammation associated with dementia.

  18. Prevalence of depression in stroke patients with vascular dementia in universiti kebangsaan malaysia medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, K F; Tan, H J; R, Rosdinom; Raymond, A A; M I, Norlinah; A, Shamsul; W Y, Nafisah

    2013-04-01

    Depression among patients with vascular dementia is frequently overlooked and potentially causes significant morbidity. There is limited data in Malaysia on the subject and this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of depression in vascular dementia (VaD) in UKMMC. This was a cross-sectional study involving diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM IV) criteria and who had a mini mental state examination (MMSE) score of less than 26. All patients were interviewed, examined clinically and their previous brain computer tomography (CT) were reviewed. The prevalence of depression was determined using the Cornell scale of depression. A total of 76 patients were recruited with a mean age of 70.5 ± 9.5 years. The median duration of illness was 2.0 (1.0-4.8) years. The prevalence of depression in the study population was 31.6%. The patients with depression had a significant older mean age (74.5±8.7 years old) compared to those without depression (68.6±9.4 years old). Patients with large artery stroke of less than 3 years had significant higher frequency of depression (53.6%) compared to patients with small artery stroke (23.8%) and patients with right sided large artery stroke had significantly higher frequency of depression compared to left (70% vs. 44.4%). Median MMSE score (17.0) for depressed patients was significantly lower compared with median MMSE score (22.5) for non depressed patients. Median Barthel Index (30.0) for depressed patients was significantly lower compared with median Barthel score for non depressed patients. Depression was prevalent among post stroke patients with VaD in UKMMC particularly for patients with older age, large artery stroke, right sided large artery stroke, low MMSE score and low Barthel Index. Early recognition of high risk patients is important in the holistic management of patients to prevent significant morbidity arising from depression.

  19. Effect of electroacupuncture on the expression of mTOR and eIF4E in hippocampus of rats with vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanzhen; Zeng, Yanjun; Wang, Xuan; Ye, Xiaobao

    2013-07-01

    Clinically, electroacupuncture is proved to be an effective therapy for vascular dementia; however, their mechanisms remain uncertain. The aim of the current study was to investigate the mechanism of electroacupuncture therapy for vascular dementia. One month after a vascular dementia animal model was established by bilateral occlusion of common carotid arteries, electroacupuncture treatment was given at "Baihui" (DU20), "Dazhui" (DU14), and "Shenshu" (BL23). Morris water maze was used to assess the learning and memory ability of rats. Western blot assay was performed to detect the expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in hippocampus of rats. Morris water maze test showed that electroacupuncture improved the learning ability of vascular dementia rats. Western blot assay revealed that the expression level of mTOR and eIF4E in the electroacupuncture group and sham-operated group was higher than that in the vascular dementia group (P Electroacupuncture improves learning and memory ability by up-regulating expression of mTOR and eIF4E in the hippocampus of vascular dementia rats.

  20. Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poor judgment and loss of ability to recognize danger Using the wrong word, not pronouncing words correctly, ... disease and other dementias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  1. Word list and story recall elicit different patterns of memory deficit in patients with Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, subcortical ischemic vascular disease, and Lewy body dementia.

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    Perri, Roberta; Fadda, Lucia; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Different roles have been attributed to mesio-temporal areas and frontal lobes in declarative memory functioning, and qualitative differences have been observed in the amnesic symptoms due to pathological damage of these two portions of the central nervous system. The aim of the present study was to look for memory profiles related to pathological involvement in the temporal and frontal structures in patients with different dementia syndromes on word-list and prose memory tasks. 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 20 with frontal variant of FTD (fvFTD), 20 with subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD), and 20 with Lewy body dementia (LBD) and 34 healthy subjects (NCs) were submitted to word-list and prose memory tasks. All groups performed similarly on both the immediate and delayed recall of the word-list. Conversely, AD patients performed worse than all the other dementia groups on the immediate prose recall. On delayed prose recall, AD patients performed worse than fvFTD and SIVD patients but similar to LBD patients. Differential scores between word-list and prose tests were minimal in the AD group and very pronounced in fvFTD and SIVD groups. The combined use of the prose and word-list tasks evidenced a "mesio-temporal" memory profile in AD patients as opposed to a "frontal" one in fvFTD and SIVD patients and a mixed profile in the LBD patients. In particular, a differential score between the two tests can be useful in differentiating AD patients from patients with other forms of dementia.

  2. Discovery of Acupoints and Combinations with Potential to Treat Vascular Dementia: A Data Mining Analysis

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    Shuwei Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of vascular dementia (VaD is high among the elderly. Acupuncture, a popular therapeutic method in China, can improve memory, orientation, calculation, and self-managing ability in VaD patients. However, in clinical acupuncture and acupuncture research, the selection of acupoints to treat VaD remains challenging. This study aimed to discover acupoints and acupoint combinations with potential for VaD based on data mining. After database searching and screening for articles on clinical trials evaluating the effects of acupuncture on VaD, 238 acupuncture prescriptions were included for further analysis. Baihui (GV 20, Sishencong (EX-HN 1, Fengchi (GB 20, Shuigou (GV 26, and Shenting (GV 24 appeared most frequently in the modern literature and are potential acupoints for VaD. Combinations between Baihui (GV 20, Sishencong (EX-HN 1, Fengchi (GB 20, Shenting (GV 24, Shuigou (GV 26, and Zusanli (ST 36 were most frequent and represent potential combinations for VaD treatment. These results provide a reference for the selection and combination of acupoints to treat VaD in clinical acupuncture and acupuncture research.

  3. Acupuncture Prevents the Impairment of Hippocampal LTP Through β1-AR in Vascular Dementia Rats.

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    Xiao, Ling-Yong; Wang, Xue-Rui; Yang, Jing-Wen; Ye, Yang; Zhu, Wen; Cao, Yan; Ma, Si-Ming; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2018-02-13

    It is widely accepted that the synaptic dysfunction and synapse loss contribute to the cognitive deficits of vascular dementia (VD) patients. We have previously reported that acupuncture improved cognitive function in rats with VD. However, the mechanisms involved in acupuncture improving cognitive ability remain to be elucidated. The present study aims to investigate the pathways and molecules involved in the neuroprotective effect of acupuncture. We assessed the effects of acupuncture on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), the most prominent cellular model of memory formation. Acupuncture enhanced LTP and norepinephrine (NE) levels in the hippocampus. Inhibition of the β-adrenergic receptor (AR), but not the α-AR, was able to block the effects of acupuncture on hippocampal LTP. Furthermore, inhibition of β1-AR, not β2-AR, abolished the enhanced LTP induced by acupuncture. The expression analysis revealed a significant upregulation of β1-AR and unchanged β2-AR with acupuncture, which supported the above findings. Specifically, increased β1-ARs in the dentate gyrus were expressed on neurons exclusively. Taken together, the present data supports a beneficial role of acupuncture in synaptic plasticity challenged with VD. A likely mechanism is the increase of NE and activation of β1-AR in the hippocampus.

  4. MR volumetric measurement of medial temporal lobe in differentiating Alzheimer disease and subcortical ischemic vascular dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liang; Li Kuncheng; Liu Shuliang

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of measurement of medial temporal structure by MR imaging volumetry in the differential diagnosis for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD). Methods: Thirty-three probable patients of AD, 33 normal controls, and 17 patients suspected with SIVD had been scanned by MRI, and volumetric measurements of amygdala (AMY), hippocampal formations (HF), entorhinal cortices (EC), parahippocampal gyri (PHG), and temporal horn of lateral ventricle (TH) were done on a serial reconstructed MR images. Results: Both atrophy of HF and dilatation of TH were significant (P<0.05) in SIVD group compared with that in control group. All the measurements with the exception of TH were atrophied significantly (P<0.001) in AD group compared with that in SIVD group and could significantly discriminate the two group. Among these indexes, the left EC provided the best discrimination with the specificity of 82.4%, sensitivity of 87.9%, and accuracy of 86.0%, respectively, and the average accuracy of bilateral EC in discrimination was 85%. Conclusion: The MR imaging volumetric measurements of medial temporal structure could offer useful information in discriminating individuals with AD from that with SIVD. Meanwhile, it should be understood that the AD-type pathological changes could also be induced by cerebrovascular disease

  5. Neuroprotective Effects of Clostridium butyricum against Vascular Dementia in Mice via Metabolic Butyrate

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    Jiaming Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics actively participate in neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the role of gut microbiota in brain disorders and vascular dementia (VaD remains unclear. We used a mouse model of VaD induced by a permanent right unilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (rUCCAO to investigate the neuroprotective effects and possible underlying mechanisms of Clostridium butyricum. Following rUCCAO, C. butyricum was intragastrically administered for 6 successive weeks. Cognitive function was estimated. Morphological examination was performed by electron microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin (H&E staining. The BDNF-PI3K/Akt pathway-related proteins were assessed by western blot and immunohistochemistry. The diversity of gut microbiota and the levels of butyrate in the feces and the brains were determined. The results showed that C. butyricum significantly attenuated the cognitive dysfunction and histopathological changes in VaD mice. C. butyricum not only increased the levels of BDNF and Bcl-2 and decreased level of Bax but also induced Akt phosphorylation (p-Akt and ultimately reduced neuronal apoptosis. Moreover, C. butyricum could regulate the gut microbiota and restore the butyrate content in the feces and the brains. These results suggest that C. butyricum might be effective in the treatment of VaD by regulating the gut-brain axis and that it can be considered a new therapeutic strategy against VaD.

  6. Lack of association between PRNP 1368 polymorphism and Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia

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    Jeong Byung-Hoon

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP at codons 129 and 219 play an important role in the susceptibility to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, and might be associated with other neurodegenerative disorders. Several recent reports indicate that polymorphisms outside the coding region of PRNP modulate the expression of prion protein and are associated with sporadic CJD, although other studies failed to show an association. These reports involved the polymorphism PRNP 1368 which is located upstream from PRNP exon 1. In a case-controlled protocol, we assessed the possible association between the PRNP 1368 polymorphism and either Alzheimer's disease (AD or vascular dementia (VaD. Methods To investigate whether the PRNP 1368 polymorphism is associated with the occurrence of AD or VaD in the Korean population, we compared the genotype, allele, and haplotype frequencies of the PRNP 1368 polymorphism in 152 AD patients and 192 VaD patients with frequencies in 268 healthy Koreans. Results and conclusion Significant differences in genotype, allele and haplotype frequencies of PRNP 1368 polymorphism were not observed between AD and normal controls. There were no significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies of the PRNP 1368 polymorphism between Korean VaD patients and normal controls. However, in the haplotype analysis, haplotype Ht5 was significantly over-represented in Korean VaD patients. This was the first genetic association study of a polymorphism outside the coding region of PRNP in relation to AD and VaD.

  7. Systematic Review on the Efficacy and Safety of Herbal Medicines for Vascular Dementia

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    Sui Cheung Man

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a systematic review of existing research that aims to assess the efficacy and safety of herbal medications (HM, as either monotherapy or adjunct to orthodox medications (OM, mainly comprised of cholinesterase inhibitors, for vascular dementia (VaD. We included 47 studies conducted in mainland China, each testing different HM. Of 43 HM monotherapy studies, 37 reported HM to be significantly better than OM or placebo; six reported similar efficacy between HM and OM. All four HM adjuvant studies reported significant efficacy. No major adverse events for HM were reported. Heterogeneity in diagnostic criteria, interventions and outcome measures hindered comprehensive data analysis. Studies suggested that HM can be a safe and effective treatment for VaD, either alone or in conjunction with OM. However, methodological flaws in the design of the studies limited the extent to which the results could be interpreted. Thirty most commonly used herbal constituents, including Rhizoma Chuanxiong (Chuanxiong in Chinese, Radix Polygoni Multiflori (Heshouwu in Chinese and Radix Astragali (Huangqi in Chinese. were ranked. Further multi-center trials with large sample sizes, high methodological quality and standardized HM ingredients are necessary for clinical recommendations to be made.

  8. Evolution of short cognitive test performance in stroke patients with vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia: Baseline evaluation and follow-up

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    Custodio, Nilton; Montesinos, Rosa; Lira, David; Herrera-Perez, Eder; Bardales, Yadira; Valeriano-Lorenzo, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT. There is limited evidence about the progression of cognitive performance during the post-stroke stage. Objective: To assess the evolution of cognitive performance in stroke patients without vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), patients with vascular mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and patients with vascular dementia (VD). Methods: A prospective cohort of stroke outpatients from two secondary medical centers in Lima, Peru was studied. We performed standardized evaluations at definitive diagnosis (baseline evaluation), and control follow-ups at 6 and 12 months, including a battery of short cognitive tests: Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE), and INECO Frontal Screening (IFS). Results: 152 outpatients completed the follow-up, showing progressive increase in mean score on the CDR(0.34 to 0.46), contrary to the pattern observed on the ACE and IFS (78.18 to 76.48 and 23.63 to 22.24). The box plot for the CDR test showed that VCI patients had progressive worsening (0.79 to 0.16). Conversely, this trend was not observed in subjects without VCI. The box plot for the ACE and IFS showed that, for the majority of the differentiated stroke types, both non-VCI and VCI patients had progressive worsening. Conclusion: According to both ACE and IFS results during a 1-year follow-up, the cognitive performance of stroke patients worsened, a trend which was particularly consistent in infarction-type stroke patients. PMID:29354218

  9. Evolution of short cognitive test performance in stroke patients with vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia: Baseline evaluation and follow-up

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    Nilton Custodio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. There is limited evidence about the progression of cognitive performance during the post-stroke stage. Objective: To assess the evolution of cognitive performance in stroke patients without vascular cognitive impairment (VCI, patients with vascular mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and patients with vascular dementia (VD. Methods: A prospective cohort of stroke outpatients from two secondary medical centers in Lima, Peru was studied. We performed standardized evaluations at definitive diagnosis (baseline evaluation, and control follow-ups at 6 and 12 months, including a battery of short cognitive tests: Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR, Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE, and INECO Frontal Screening (IFS. Results: 152 outpatients completed the follow-up, showing progressive increase in mean score on the CDR(0.34 to 0.46, contrary to the pattern observed on the ACE and IFS (78.18 to 76.48 and 23.63 to 22.24. The box plot for the CDR test showed that VCI patients had progressive worsening (0.79 to 0.16. Conversely, this trend was not observed in subjects without VCI. The box plot for the ACE and IFS showed that, for the majority of the differentiated stroke types, both non-VCI and VCI patients had progressive worsening. Conclusion: According to both ACE and IFS results during a 1-year follow-up, the cognitive performance of stroke patients worsened, a trend which was particularly consistent in infarction-type stroke patients.

  10. Rivastigmine: the advantages of dual inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase and its role in subcortical vascular dementia and Parkinson’s disease dementia

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    Kandiah N

    2017-04-01

    AChE-BuChE inhibitory activity of rivastigmine as a therapeutic strategy in the treatment of neurological disorders, with a focus on the role of rivastigmine in subcortical dementias such as vascular dementia (VaD and PDD. Toward this objective, we performed a literature search in PubMed and Ovid with limits to articles published in the English language before June 2016. The available evidence from the literature suggests that the dual inhibition of AChE and BuChE may afford additional therapeutic potential of rivastigmine in subcortical dementias (subcortical VaD and PDD with benefits on cognition and behavioral symptoms. Rivastigmine was found to specifically benefit executive dysfunction frequently observed in subcortical dementias; however, large randomized clinical studies are warranted to support these observations. Keywords: acetylcholinesterase, BuChE genotype, butyrylcholinesterase, Parkinson’s disease dementia, rivastigmine, subcortical vascular dementia

  11. Panax ginseng extract attenuates neuronal injury and cognitive deficits in rats with vascular dementia induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion

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    Jun-De Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Panax ginseng is a slow-growing perennial plant. Panax ginseng extract has numerous biological activities, including antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antistress activities. Panax ginseng extract also has a cognition-enhancing effect in rats with alcohol-induced memory impairment. In this study, we partially occluded the bilateral carotid arteries in the rat to induce chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, a well-known model of vascular dementia. The rats were then intragastrically administered 50 or 100 mg/kg Panax ginseng extract. Morris water maze and balance beam tests were used to evaluate memory deficits and motor function, respectively. Protein quantity was used to evaluate cholinergic neurons. Immunofluorescence staining was used to assess the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells. Western blot assay was used to evaluate protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, Bcl-2 and Bax. Treatment with Panax ginseng extract for 8 weeks significantly improved behavioral function and increased neuronal density and VEGF and bFGF protein expression in the hippocampal CA3 area. Furthermore, Panax ginseng extract reduced the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunoreactive cells, and it decreased apoptosis by upregulating Bcl-2 and downregulating Bax protein expression. The effect of Panax ginseng extract was dose-dependent and similar to that of nimodipine, a commonly used drug for the treatment of vascular dementia. These findings suggest that Panax ginseng extract is neuroprotective against vascular dementia induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, and therefore might have therapeutic potential for preventing and treating the disease.

  12. Determinants of Dropout and Nonadherence in a Dementia Prevention Randomized Controlled Trial: The Prevention of Dementia by Intensive Vascular Care Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beishuizen, Cathrien R L; Coley, Nicola; Moll van Charante, Eric P; van Gool, Willem A; Richard, Edo; Andrieu, Sandrine

    2017-07-01

    To explore and compare sociodemographic, clinical, and neuropsychiatric determinants of dropout and nonadherence in older people participating in an open-label cluster-randomized controlled trial-the Prevention of Dementia by Intensive Vascular care (preDIVA) trial-over 6 years. Secondary analysis. One hundred sixteen general practices in the Netherlands. Community-dwelling individuals aged 70 to 78 (N = 2,994). Nurse-led multidomain intervention targeting cardiovascular risk factors to prevent dementia. The associations between participant baseline sociodemographic (age, sex, education), clinical (medical history, disability, cardiovascular risk), neuropsychiatric (depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale-15), and cognitive (Mini-Mental State Examination)) characteristics and dropout from the trial and nonadherence to the trial intervention were explored using multilevel logistic regression models. Older age, poorer cognitive function, more symptoms of depression, and greater disability were the most important determinants of dropout of older people. The presence of cardiovascular risk factors was not associated with dropout but was associated with nonadherence. Being overweight was a risk factor for nonadherence, whereas people with high blood pressure or a low level of physical exercise adhered better to the intervention. The association between poorer cognitive function and symptoms of depression and dropout was stronger in the control group than in the intervention group, and vice versa for increased disability. In a large dementia prevention trial with 6-year follow-up, dropout was associated with older age, poorer cognitive function, symptoms of depression, and disability at baseline. These findings can help to guide the design of future dementia prevention trials in older adults. The associations found between cardiovascular risk factors and nonadherence need to be confirmed in other older populations receiving cardiovascular prevention interventions

  13. Characteristics of Cerebral Blood Flow in Vascular Dementia using SPM Analysis Compared to Normal Control and Alzheimer's Dementia

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    Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo [College of Medicine, Univ. of Donga, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Cerebral perfusion pattern of vascular dementia (VD) was not well established and overlap of cerebral perfusion pattern was reported between VD and Alzheimer's dementia (AD). The aim of this study is to assess the specific patterns of SPECT finding in VD compared with normal control subjects and to disclose differences of cerebral blood flow between subjects with VD and AD were investigated using statistic parametric mapping analysis. Thirty-two VD (mean age ; 67.86.4 years, mean CDR ; 0.980.27), 51 AD (mean age ; 71.47.2 years, CDR ; 1.160.47), which were matched for age and severity of dementia, and 30 normal control subjects (mean age ; 60.17.7 years) participated in this study. The Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT data were analyzed by SPM99. The SPECT data of the patients with VD were compared to those of the control subjects and then compared to the patients with AD. SPM analysis of the SPECT image showed significant perfusion deficits in the both frontal (both cingulate gyrus, both inferior frontal gyrus, B no.47, right frontal rectal gyrus, left frontal subcallosal gyrus, B no.25), both temporal (right insula, B no.13, left superior temporal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, B no.35), occipital (occipital lingual gyrus), right corpus callosum and right cerebellar tonsil regions in subjects with VD compared with normal control subjects (uncorrected p<0.01). Comparison of the two dementia groups (uncorrected p<0.01) revealed significant hypoperfusion in both parietal posterior central gyrus, right inferior frontal gyrus (B no.47), left insula, right thalamus (ventral lateral nucleus), right claustrum and right occipital cuneus regions in VD group compared with AD. There were no typical confined regional hypoperfusion areas but scattered multiple perfusion deficits in VD compared AD. These findings may be helpful to reflect the pathophysiological mechanisms of VD and to disclose differences of cerebral blood flow between subjects with VD and AD.

  14. Reliability and validity of the upper-body dressing scale in Japanese patients with vascular dementia with hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Arisa; Suzuki, Makoto; Akagi, Atsumi; Chiba, Naoyuki; Ishizaka, Ikuyo; Matsunaga, Atsuhiko; Fukuda, Michinari

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Upper-body Dressing Scale (UBDS) for buttoned shirt dressing, which evaluates the learning process of new component actions of upper-body dressing in patients diagnosed with dementia and hemiparesis. This was a preliminary correlational study of concurrent validity and reliability in which 10 vascular dementia patients with hemiparesis were enrolled and assessed repeatedly by six occupational therapists by means of the UBDS and the dressing item of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). Intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.97 for intra-rater reliability and 0.99 for inter-rater reliability. The level of correlation between UBDS score and FIM dressing item scores was -0.93. UBDS scores for paralytic hand passed into the sleeve and sleeve pulled up beyond the shoulder joint were worse than the scores for the other components of the task. The UBDS has good reliability and validity for vascular dementia patients with hemiparesis. Further research is needed to investigate the relation between UBDS score and the effect of intervention and to clarify sensitivity or responsiveness of the scale to clinical change. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Choto-san in the treatment of vascular dementia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasawa, K; Shimada, Y; Kita, T; Yamamoto, T; Tosa, H; Tanaka, N; Saito, Y; Kanaki, E; Goto, S; Mizushima, N; Fujioka, M; Takase, S; Seki, H; Kimura, I; Ogawa, T; Nakamura, S; Araki, G; Maruyama, I; Maruyama, Y; Takaori, S

    1997-03-01

    In an earlier placebo-controlled study, we demonstrated that a kampo (Japanese herbal) medicine called Choto-san (Diao-Teng-San in Chinese) was effective in treating vascular dementia. To evaluate its efficacy using more objective criteria, we carried out a multi-center, double-blind study of Choto-san extract (7.5 g/day) and a placebo, each given three times a day for 12 weeks to patients suffering from this condition. The study enrolled and analyzed 139 patients, 50 males and 89 females, with a mean age of 76.6 years. Choto-san was statistically superior to the placebo in global improvement rating, utility rating, global improvement rating of subjective symptoms, global improvement rating of psychiatric symptoms and global improvement rating of disturbance in daily living activities. Such items as spontaneity of conversation, lack of facial expression, decline in simple mathematical ability, global intellectual ability, nocturnal delirium, sleep disturbance, hallucination or delusion, and putting on and taking off clothes were significantly improved at one or more evaluation points in those taking Choto-san compared to those taking the placebo. Furthermore, the change in revised version of Hasegawa's dementia scale from the beginning point in Choto-san group was tended to be higher than that in placebo group with no statistical significance. These results suggest that Choto-san is effective in the treatment of vascular dementia. Copyright © 1997 Gustav Fischer Verlag. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  16. Vascular Risk as a Predictor of Cognitive Decline in a Cohort of Elderly Patients with Mild to Moderate Dementia

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    Pedro K. Curiati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The purpose of our study was to evaluate vascular risk factors and other clinical variables as predictors of cognitive and functional decline in elderly patients with mild to moderate dementia. Methods: The clinical characteristics of 82 elderly patients (mean age 79.0 ± 5.9 years; 67.1% females with mild to moderate dementia were obtained at baseline, including years of education, Framingham Coronary Heart Disease Risk score, Hachinski Ischemic Score (HIS, Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE score, Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ score, Burden Interview Scale score, and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI score. Changes in MMSE and FAQ scores over time were assessed annually. The association between baseline clinical variables and cognitive and functional decline was investigated during 3 years of follow-up through the use of generalized linear mixed effects models. Results: A trend was found towards steeper cognitive decline in patients with less vascular burden according to the HIS (β = 0.056, p = 0.09, better cognitive performance according to the CDR score (β = 0.313, p = 0.06 and worse caregiver burden according to the Burden Interview Scale score (β = -0.012, p = 0.07 at baseline. Conclusion: Further studies with larger samples are necessary to confirm and expand our findings.

  17. Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Raffaele; Golaszewski, Stefan; Trinka, Eugen

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used extensively to characterize motor system pathophysiology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other forms of dementia, as well to monitor the effects of certain pharmacological agents. Among the studies focusing on motor cortical excitability measures, the most consistent finding is a significant reduction of short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) in AD and other forms of dementia in which the cholinergic system is affected, such as dementia with Lewy bodies. SAI evaluation may thus provide a reliable biomarker of cortical cholinergic dysfunction in dementias. Moreover, most TMS studies have demonstrated cortical hyperexcitability and asymptomatic motor cortex functional reorganization in the early stages of the disease. Integrated approaches utilizing TMS together with high-density EEG have indicated impaired cortical plasticity and functional connectivity across different neural networks in AD. Paired associative stimulation-induced plasticity has also been found to be abnormal in patients with AD. The development of novel noninvasive methods of brain stimulation, in particular repetitive TMS (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), has increased the interest in neuromodulatory techniques as potential therapeutic tools for cognitive rehabilitation in AD. Preliminary studies have revealed that rTMS and tDCS can induce beneficial effects on specific cognitive functions in AD. Future studies are warranted to replicate and extend the initial findings. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficacy and safety of nimodipine in treatment of vascular dementia: a systematic review

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    Tao CHEN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To systematically evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of nimodipine in treating vascular dementia (VaD.  Methods Taking "nimodipine AND vascular dementia" as search terms, retrieve in databases such as PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE/SCOPUS, Science Citation Index (SCI, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, VIP and Wanfang Data (January 1995-March 2015. Annual searching was applied to retrieve partial periodical literatures and unpublished studies. Google Scholar was used for randomized controlled trials (RCTs about nimodipine in treating VaD. Jadad scale was used to evaluate the quality of literature, and Meta-analyses were performed by using RevMan 5.3 software.  Results Eleven literatures met inclusion criteria, including 10 clinical studies (1333 patients. All 10 studies were RCTs, including 4 nimodipine vs placebo, 5 nimodipine vs donepezil and one nimodipne vs hydergine, but only 2 described randomization methods. The results of Meta-analysis showed: nimodipine had better Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE score than before treatment and placebo group (3 studies, MD = 0.270, 95%CI: 0.070—0.460, P = 0.007; one study of blank control, MD = 2.950, 95% CI: 1.670—4.200, P = 0.000. Patients treated with nimodipne had no significantly improved Activities of Daily Living (ADL score than placebo group [one study of ADL, MD = 5.800, 95%CI: 2.480—9.120, P = 0.000; one study of ADL Index, MD = -0.040, 95%CI: -0.110—0.030, P = 0.230; one study of instrumental ADL (IADL, MD = -0.080, 95%CI: -0.110—0.000, P = 0.060]. Both nimodipine and donepezil can improve MMSE and ADL scores, but the efficacy of nimodipine was not superior to donepezil [4 studies of MMSE (12-week observation, MD = -4.400, 95% CI: -4.870— -3.920, P = 0.000; one study of MMSE (24-week observation, MD = -8.800, 95% CI: -8.970— -7.430, P = 0.000; 2 studies of ADL, MD = 1.800, 95% CI: 1.360—2.230, P = 0.000]. Compared with hydergine

  19. Electroencephalogram (EEG spectral features discriminate between Alzheimer’s (AD and Vascular dementia (VaD

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    Emanuel eNeto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD and vascular dementia (VaD present with similar clinical symptoms of cognitive decline, but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms differ. To determine whether clinical electroencephalography (EEG can provide information relevant to discriminate between these diagnoses, we used quantitative EEG analysis to compare the spectra between non-medicated patients with AD (n=77 and VaD (n=77 and healthy elderly normal controls (NC (n=77. We use curve-fitting with a combination of a power loss and Gaussian function to model the averaged resting-state spectra of each EEG channel extracting six parameters. We assessed the performance of our model and tested the extracted parameters for group differentiation. We performed regression analysis in a MANCOVA with group, age, gender, and number of epochs as predictors and further explored the topographical group differences with pair-wise contrasts. Significant topographical differences between the groups were found in several of the extracted features. Both AD and VaD groups showed increased delta power when compared to NC, whereas the AD patients showed a decrease in alpha power for occipital and temporal regions when compared with NC. The VaD patients had higher alpha power than NC and AD. The AD and VaD groups showed slowing of the alpha rhythm. Variability of the alpha frequency was wider for both AD and VaD groups. There was a general decrease in beta power for both AD and VaD. The proposed model is a useful to parameterize spectra which allowed extracting relevant clinical EEG key features that move towards simple and interpretable diagnostic criteria.

  20. Edaravone injection reverses learning and memory deficits in a rat model of vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Lu, Fen; Li, Wei; Qin, Lingzhi; Yao, Yong; Ge, Xuerong; Yu, Qingkai; Liang, Xinliang; Zhao, Dongmei; Li, Xiaohong; Zhang, Jiewen

    2017-01-01

    Edaravone is a novel free radical scavenger that exerts neuroprotective effects by inhibiting endothelial injury and by ameliorating neuronal damage in brain ischemia. Recently, it was reported that edaravone could alleviate the pathology and cognitive deficits of Alzheimer's disease patients. However, its relevance to vascular dementia (VaD) is not clear. In this study, we partially occluded the bilateral carotid arteries of rats surgically to induce chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), a well-known rat model of VaD. Water maze and step-down inhibitory test were used to evaluate the memory deficit. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total reactive oxygen species were measured to evaluate the oxidative stress level. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate the synaptic protein expression. It was found that treatment with edaravone for a 5-week period was able to reverse both spatial and fear-memory deficits in rats with CCH. Edaravone significantly reduced the level of oxidative stress in the brains of rats with CCH by increasing SOD activity and decreasing the content of MDA, LDH, and total reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, edaravone treatment also restored the levels of multiple synaptic proteins in the hippocampi of rats with CCH. Our data provide direct evidence supporting the neuroprotective effects of edaravone in VaD. We propose that the alleviation of oxidative stress and restoration of synaptic proteins play important roles in neuroprotection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Mismatch negativity as a potential neurobiological marker of early-stage Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shixiang; Yan, Chang; Qiao, Zhengxue; Yao, Haiqian; Jiang, Shiquan; Qiu, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiuxian; Fang, Deyu; Yang, Yanjie; Zhang, Limei; Wang, Lina; Zhang, Liming

    2017-04-24

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD) are serious, irreversible forms of cognitive impairment, which means that an early diagnosis is essential to slow down their progression. One potential neurophysiological biomarker of these diseases is the mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related potentials (ERP) component, which reflects an automatic detection mechanism at the pre-attentive stages of information processing. We evaluated the auditory MMN response in individuals from two patient groups: those in the prodromal stages of AD (P-AD) and those in the prodromal stages of VD (P-VD). Thirty patients (15 P-AD patients and 15 P-VD patients) and 30 age-matched controls were recruited to undergo electrophysiological recordings during the presentation of an auditory deviant-standard-reverse oddball paradigm that was used to elicit genuine MMN responses. We show that over the frontal-central area, the mean amplitude of the MMN was significantly reduced in both the P-AD (p=0.017) and P-VD groups (p=0.013) compared with controls. The MMN peak latency in P-VD patients was significantly shorter than in controls (p=0.027). No MMN response differences between the P-AD and P-VD were found in either the frontal-central or the temporal areas. These results indicate that P-AD and P-VD patients exhibit impaired pre-attentive information processing mechanisms as revealed by the frontal-central area MMN response, which is associated with sensory memory and cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevention of Hippocampal Neuronal Damage and Cognitive Function Deficits in Vascular Dementia by Dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Bin; Lu, Kaili; Deng, Jiangshan; Zhao, Fei; Zhao, Bing-Qiao; Zhao, Yuwu

    2016-07-01

    Dextromethorphan (DM) is a non-competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors and a widely used component of cough medicine. Recently, its indication has been extended experimentally to a wide range of disorders including inflammation-mediated central nervous system disorders such as Parkinson disease (PD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we investigate whether DM treatment has protective effects on the hippocampal neuron damage induced by bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (two-vessel occlusion [2VO]), an animal model of vascular dementia (VaD). Sprague-Dawley (SD) (10 weeks of age) rats were subjected to the 2VO, and DM was injected intraperitoneally once per day for 37 days. Neuron death, glial activation, and cognitive function were assessed at 37 days after 2VO (0.2 mg/kg, i.p., "DM-0.2" and 2 mg/kg, i.p., "DM-2"). DM-2 treatment provided protection against neuronal death and glial activation in the hippocampal CA1 subfield and reduced cognitive impairment induced by 2VO in rats. The study also demonstrates that activation of the Nrf2-HO-1 pathway and upregulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) play important roles in these effects. These results suggest that DM is effective in treating VaD and protecting against oxidative stress, which is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of VaD. Therefore, the present study suggests that DM treatment may represent a new and promising protective strategy for treating VaD.

  3. Graph theoretical analysis of EEG effective connectivity in vascular dementia patients during a visual oddball task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Xu, Jin; Zhao, Songzhen; Lou, Wutao

    2016-01-01

    The study was dedicated to investigating the change in information processing in brain networks of vascular dementia (VaD) patients during the process of decision making. EEG was recorded from 18 VaD patients and 19 healthy controls when subjects were performing a visual oddball task. The whole task was divided into several stages by using global field power analysis. In the stage related to the decision-making process, graph theoretical analysis was applied to the binary directed network derived from EEG signals at nine electrodes in the frontal, central, and parietal regions in δ (0.5-3.5Hz), θ (4-7Hz), α1 (8-10Hz), α2 (11-13Hz), and β (14-30Hz) frequency bands based on directed transfer function. A weakened outgoing information flow, a decrease in out-degree, and an increase in in-degree were found in the parietal region in VaD patients, compared to healthy controls. In VaD patients, the parietal region may also lose its hub status in brain networks. In addition, the clustering coefficient was significantly lower in VaD patients. Impairment might be present in the parietal region or its connections with other regions, and it may serve as one of the causes for cognitive decline in VaD patients. The brain networks of VaD patients were significantly altered toward random networks. The present study extended our understanding of VaD from the perspective of brain functional networks, and it provided possible interpretations for cognitive deficits in VaD patients. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Regional cerebral blood flow analysis of vascular dementia by the 133Xe inhalation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Sho; Maruyama, Michiyuki; Miyakawa, Koichi; Kamijima, Gonbei; Sasaki, Yasuto.

    1987-01-01

    Eighty-one cases of ischemic cerebrovascular disease were investigated using the 133 Xe inhalation method. Fifty-six were male and 25 were female. ages ranged from 25 to 84, with a mean age of 65.4 years. Thirty-two had cerebrovascular dementia and 49 had non dementia infarction. Two criteria were used for a diagnosis of cerebrovascular dementia: 1) the presense of cerebrovascular disease and 2) a score of less than 21.5 Hasegawa's dementia scale. By computed tomographic findings all cases were classified into three groups: lesion on a right hemisphere, a left hemisphere and bilateral hemispheres. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was calculated by 2-compartmental analysis and initial slope index method. The results are as follows: 1) Cases of cerebrovascular dementia tended to have a lower mean rCBF value. (p < 0.001). 2)rCBF patterns showed lower values in the central area for cases of laterality as determined by CT scan. 3) Both interhemispheric mean rCBF and mean rCBF classified from main lesion were no significant different between dementia group and non dementia group. 4) A comparison of mean rCBF with Hasegawa's dementia scale revealed a statistically significant correlation. (p < 0.001). (author)

  5. Cerebral blood flow single-photon emission tomography with {sup 123}I-IMP in vascular dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahata, Nobuya; Gotoh, Chiharu; Yokoyama, Sakura; Daitoh, Nobuyuki [Narita Memorial Hospital, Toyohashi, Aichi (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    Cerebral blood flow differences between patients with vascular dementia, patients with multiple lacunar infarction without cognitive dysfunction, and age-matched controls were examined. Thirty four patients with vascular dementia (VD) were selected from consecutive referrals to the Memory Clinic at Narita Memorial Hospital. All the patients had routine assessment including history, physical and neurological examinations, neuropsychological assessment, blood tests, EEG, head MRI, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). All of them fulfilled the NINDS-AIREN diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia. Thirty nine patients with multiple lacunar infarction without cognitive dysfunction and 110 age-matched controls were included in this study. Mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were measured using N-isopropyl-P-{sup 123}I-iodoamphetamine ({sup 123}I-IMP) and SPECT imager. The mCBF in VD was 27.6{+-}5.3 ml/100 g/min, while those in the control group and multiple lacunar infarction without cognitive dysfunction were 36.6{+-}6.1 ml/100 g/min and 32.5{+-}5.5 ml/100 g/min, respectively. The patients with VD demonstrated significantly reduced mCBF and rCBF in twenty regions including both cerebellar hemispheres as compared with those of the control group. Although there was no significant rCBF differences in bilateral inferior occipital regions and the right cerebellar hemisphere between patients with VD and multiple lacunar infarction without cognitive dysfunction, we could find significant lower rCBF in the remaining brain areas. In spite of the severity of VD, the diffuse decrease of cerebral blood flow was recognized in all patients with VD. (author)

  6. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of rivastigmine capsules in patients with probable vascular dementia: the VantagE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, C; Sauter, M; Scheltens, P; He, Y; Barkhof, F; van Straaten, E C W; van der Flier, W M; Hsu, C; Wu, S; Lane, R

    2008-09-01

    The aim was to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of rivastigmine capsules in patients diagnosed with probable vascular dementia (VaD). VantagE (Vascular Dementia trial studying Exelon) was a 24-week, multicentre, double-blind study. VaD patients aged 50-85 years were randomized to rivastigmine capsules (3-12 mg/day) or placebo. Efficacy assessments included global and cognitive performances, activities of daily living and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Adverse events were recorded. Additional exploratory analyses determined whether heterogeneity in pathologies and symptoms extended to differential treatment effects. NCT00099216. 710 patients were randomized. Rivastigmine demonstrated superiority over placebo on three measures of cognitive performance (Vascular Dementia Assessment Scale, Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale cognitive subscale, Mini-Mental State Examination; all p or =75 years old), assumed more likely to also have Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, demonstrated significant cognitive responses to rivastigmine and a safety profile similar to that seen in AD patients. Younger patients, assumed less likely to have concomitant AD pathology, showed no efficacy response and were associated with slight elevations of blood pressure, cerebrovascular accidents and mortality. Rivastigmine-placebo differences in patients with, versus those without, medial temporal atrophy (also suggestive of concomitant AD) showed a numerical difference similar to that seen between the older versus younger patients, but did not attain statistical significance. Consistent with trials evaluating other cholinesterase inhibitors, rivastigmine did not provide consistent efficacy in probable VaD. The efficacy apparent on cognitive outcomes was derived from effects in older patients likely to have concomitant Alzheimer pathology. This is supportive of an existing argument that the putative cholinergic deficit in VaD reflects the presence of concomitant Alzheimer pathology.

  7. The Spanish version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination - Revised (ACE-R) in subcortical ischemic vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Catalina; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Richly, Pablo; Torralva, Teresa; Roca, María; Camino, Julieta; Manes, Facundo

    2012-11-15

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is one of the most prevalent causes of dementia, and it is frequently misdiagnosed and undertreated in clinical practice. Because neuropsychological outcome depends, among other factors, on the size and location of the vascular brain injury, characterizing the cognitive profile of VaD has been especially challenging. Yet, there has been sufficient evidence to show a marked impairment of attention and executive functions, in particular in relation to Alzheimer disease. Being able to detect these deficits at bedside is crucial for everyday clinical practice, and yet, brief cognitive screening toots such as the Mini-Mental Sate Examination (MMSE) may overlook at cognitive deficits typical of patients with VaD. The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) is also a brief cognitive screening tool designed to incorporate the items of the MMSE and further extend the test to assess orientation, attention, verbal fluency, memory, language, and visuospatial abilities. In this study, we investigated the ability of the Spanish version of the ACE-R to detect the cognitive impairment showed in patients with subcortical ischemic vascular dementia, and we compared its usefulness to that of the MMSE in this population. Scores on these tests were compared to those of patients with Alzheimer disease and matched healthy controls. The 88-point cut-off proposed for the ACE-R was associated with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100% for the detection of cognitive impairment, demonstrating a stronger capacity than the MMSE (sensitivity of 42% with its 23-point cut-off score). We also found that the verbal fluency subtest of the ACE-R may be potentially useful in discriminating patients with subcortical ischemic vascular dementia from patients with AD. We discuss the utility of these findings in the context of everyday clinical practice and we propose that future studies should evaluate the potential usefulness of combining the ACE-R with a

  8. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in senile dementia of Alzheimer's type and vascular dementia with deep white matter changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohgi, H.; Yonezawa, H.; Takahashi, S.; Sato, N.; Kato, E.; Kudo, M.; Hatano, K.; Sasaki, T.

    1998-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (rCMRO 2 ), oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF), and cerebral blood volume (rCBV) were investigated using positron emission tomography (PET) in 16 patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer's type (SDAT), and compared with those of 6 nondemented and 3 demented patients with deep white matter high signal (DWMH) on T2-weighted MRI and 6 controls. rCBF, rCMRO 2 and rCBV were determined using C 15 O 2 , 15 O 2 and C 15 O, respectively. rCBF and CMRO 2 were significantly decreased in the frontal, parietal and temporal cortex (P 2 was significantly reduced in only the frontal and temporal cortex of demented patients (P < 0.05). rOEF was significantly increased in the parietal cortex of patients with SDAT and in the white matter of patients with SDAT or DWMH (P < 0.05), and the increase in the frontal white matter significantly paralleled the progression of dementia in patients with SDAT (P < 0.05). rCBV was significantly decreased in the parietal and temporal cortex of patients with SDAT (P < 0.05), but not in any areas of those with DWMH. (orig.)

  9. Acupuncture attenuates cognitive deficits and increases pyramidal neuron number in hippocampal CA1 area of vascular dementia rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Yan, Chao-Qun; Lin, Li-Ting; Li, Hui; Zeng, Xiang-Hong; Liu, Yi; Du, Si-Qi; Zhu, Wen; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2015-04-28

    Decreased cognition is recognized as one of the most severe and consistent behavioral impairments in dementia. Experimental studies have reported that acupuncture may improve cognitive deficits, relieve vascular dementia (VD) symptoms, and increase cerebral perfusion and electrical activity. Multi-infarction dementia was modeled in rats with 3% microemboli saline suspension. Two weeks after acupuncture at Zusanli (ST36), all rats were subjected to a hidden platform trial to test their 3-day spatial memory using the Morris water maze test. To estimate the numbers of pyramidal neuron, astrocytes, and synaptic boutons in hippocampal CA1 area, we adopted an unbiased stereology method to accurately sample and measure the size of cells. We found that acupuncture at ST36 significantly decreased the escape latency of VD rats. In addition, acupuncture significantly increased the pyramidal neuron number in hippocampal CA1 area (P area in any of the groups (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that acupuncture may improve cognitive deficits and increase pyramidal neuron number of hippocampal CA1 area in VD rats.

  10. Electropuncture influences on learning, memory, and neuropeptide expression in a rat model of vascular dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Shao; Yanqian Fu; Lihua Qiu; Bing Yan; Xinsheng Lai; Chunzhi Tang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies in recent years have indicated that several neuropeptide-like substances, such as arginine vasopressin (AVP), somatostatin (SS), and β-endorphine (β-EP), are involved in the process of cerebral ischemic damage to cranial nerves.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of electropuncture on back-shu points, as well as the influence on learning and memory, AVP, SS, and β-EP levels in plasma and brain were measured in a rat model of vascular dementia (VD). DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial.SETTING: College of Acupuncture and Massage of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS: This experiment was performed at the Animal Experiment Center of Guangzhou University of TCM from December 2005 to December 2006. A total of 48 healthy adult male Sprague Dawley rats of SPF-grade, 180-220 g, were provided by The Animal Experiment Center of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The following instruments were used: SDQ-30 Dipolar Radio-frequency Electrocoagulator (Shanghai Operation Instrument Factory), Morris Water Maze (The Animal Experiment Center of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine), Type G6805-1 Treating Equipment (Huasheng Equipment Factory, Qingdao, China).METHODS: ① Eight rats were randomly selected for the control group; the remaining 40 rats underwent 4-vascular occlusion to establish a cerebral ischemia model. Due to the death of 13 rats and 2 hemiplegies during model establishment, there was a total of 25 model rats available for testing. The model rats were divided randomly into 3 groups according to their body weight: electropuncture group (n = 9), medication group (n = 8), and VD group (n = 8). ② Electropuncture group: 25 mm needles (28 gauge) were used to electropuncture (150 Hz, continuous waves, 1.0-2.0 mA, duration of 20 minutes) the following acupoints: Baihui (GV20), Geshu (BL17), Pishu (BL20), and Shenshu (BL23). The acupoints were located according to Experimental acupuncturology and were

  11. ELECTROACUPUNCTURE AT THE WANGU ACUPOINT SUPPRESSES EXPRESSION OF INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS OF RATS WITH VASCULAR DEMENTIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yanan; Sui, Rubo

    2016-01-01

    Vascular dementia (VD) is the most frequent psychiatric complication of stroke, and is often difficult to treat. Incidence rate of vascular cognition impairment is still 70% after stroke in one year (Sui R et al.2011). Stroke patients with VD suffer from a higher mortality rate and have worse functional outcomes and quality of life. However, despite the extensive literatures on this topic, there is no agreement on the causal mechanisms and effective therapy for VD. The objective of this study is to examine if electroacupuncture at the Wangu acupoint (GB 12), whose position is similar to the cerebellar fastigial nucleus, could reduce inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus of rats with vascular dementia (VD). The 54 healthy, male, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, 9 months old, and of clean grade (300-450) g, were randomly divided into three groups: sham surgery group, VD group and electro-acupuncture group. The ethology scores of VD rats were evaluated and the mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) in the hippocampus were assessed and the hippocampal tissues were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Compared with the VD group, in the electroacupuncture group, the rats' learning ability improved significantly and the mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β decreased. Simultaneously, the damage extent of nerve cells in the hippocampal tissues decreased, with their morphology recovered to nearly normal. Electro-acupuncture at the Wangu acupoint can decrease the levels of inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus, reduce the damage extent of nerve cells in the hippocampus, and thus provide a new neuroprotective method in VD.

  12. MR spectroscopy in dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, T.; Gerigk, L.; Giesel, F.; Schuster, L.; Essig, M.

    2010-01-01

    With an increasingly aging population we are faced with the problem of an increasing number of dementia patients. In addition to clinical, neuropsychological and laboratory procedures, MRI plays an important role in the early diagnosis of dementia. In addition to various morphological changes functional changes can also help in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of dementia. Overall the diagnosis of dementia can be improved by using parameters from MR spectroscopy. This article focuses on MR spectroscopic changes in the physiological aging process as well as on changes in mild cognitive impairment a precursor of Alzheimer's dementia, in Alzheimer's dementia, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia and Lewy body dementia. (orig.) [de

  13. Dementia: Alzheimer pathology and vascular factors: From mutually exclusive to interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Norden, A.G.W.; van Dijk, E.J.; de Laat, K.F.; Scheltens, P.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; de Leeuw, F.E.

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. Both its incidence and prevalence are expected to increase exponentially as populations' age worldwide. Despite impressive efforts of research worldwide, neither cure nor effective preventive strategy is available for this devastating

  14. Dementia: Alzheimer pathology and vascular factors: from mutually exclusive to interaction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norden, A.G.W. van; Dijk, E.J. van; Laat, K.F. de; Scheltens, P.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. Both its incidence and prevalence are expected to increase exponentially as populations' age worldwide. Despite impressive efforts of research worldwide, neither cure nor effective preventive strategy is available for this devastating

  15. ABCA7 and risk of dementia and vascular disease in the Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Emilie W.; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: ATP-binding-cassette transporter A7(ABCA7) is suggested to be involved in lipid transport as well as in phagocytosis of amyloid-β in the brain. We tested the hypothesis that a common genetic variant in ABCA7 is associated with dementia, ischemic heart disease, ischemic cerebrovascular ...

  16. Social withdrawal of persons with vascular dementia associated with disturbance of basic daily activities, apathy, and impaired social judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Yukiko; Meguro, Kenichi; Meguro, Mitsue; Akanuma, Kyoko

    2013-01-01

    Patients with vascular dementia (VaD) are often isolated, withdrawn from society because of negative symptoms and functional disabilities. The aim of this study was to detect factors associated with social withdrawal in patients with VaD. The participants were 36 institutionalized patients with VaD. Social withdrawal was assessed with the social withdrawal of the Multidimensional Observation Scale for Elderly Subjects (MOSES). Possible explanatory variables were the MOSES items depression and self-care, Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI), apathy evaluation scale (AES), and Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Frequency-Weighted Severity Scale (BEHAVE-AD-FW). Multiple regression analyses were conducted for two groups: Analysis 1 was performed in all patients (N = 36) and Analysis 2 was performed in the patients with the ability to move by themselves (i.e., independent walking or independent movement with a cane or a wheelchair; n = 28). In Analysis 1, MOSES item social withdrawal was correlated with AES and MOSES item self-care. In Analysis 2, MOSES item social withdrawal was correlated with AES and CASI domain abstraction and judgment. Decreased social activities of VaD were not related to general cognitive function or depression. Disturbed activities of daily living (ADLs) for self-care may involve decreased frontal lobe function, indicating that comprehensive rehabilitation for both ADL and dementia are needed to improve the social activities of patients with VaD.

  17. Functional Neuroimaging in Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Papma (Janne)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractDementia refers to a clinical syndrome of cognitive deterioration and difficulty in the performance of activities of daily living. The most common cause of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease (AD), followed by vascular dementia (VaD) at old age and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) at young

  18. Differences of Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT imaging in the early stage of subcortical vascular dementia compared with Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Won; Kang, Do Young; Park, Min Jeong; Cheon, Sang Myung; Cha, Jae Kwan; Kim, Sang Ho; Kim, Jae Woo

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the specific patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with the early stage of subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT, and to compare the differences between the two conditions. Sixteen SVaD, 46 AD and 12 control subjects participated in this study. We included the patients with SVaD and AD according to NINCDS-ADRDA and NINDS-AIREN criteria. They were all matched for age, education and clinical dementia rating scores. Three groups were evaluated by Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) for measuring rCBF. The SPECT data of patients with SVaD and AD were compared with those of normal control subjects and then compared with each other. SPM analysis of the SPECT image showed significant perfusion deficits on the right temporal region and thalamus, left insula and superior temporal gyrus, both cingulate gyri and frontal subgyri in patients with SVaD and on the left supramarginal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, postcentral gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, right fugiform gyrus and both cingulate gyri in AD compared with control subjects (uncorrected ρ < 0.01). SVaD patients revealed significant hypoperfusion in the right parahippocampal gyrus with cingulated gyrus, left insula and both frontal subgyral regions compared with AD (uncorrected ρ < 0.01). Our study shows characteristic and different pattern of perfusion deficits in patients with SVaD and AD, and these results may be helpful to discriminate the two conditions in the early stage of illness

  19. Characteristic pattern of cerebral perfusion in patients with the early stage of subcortical vascular dementia compared with Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Cheon, Sang Myung; Kim, Jong Kuk; Kim, Jae Woo

    2004-01-01

    Brain perfusion SPECT has been commonly used to evaluate several different types of dementia. The aim of this study is to assess the specific patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with the early stage of subcortical vascular dementia (SVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT, and to compare the differences between the two conditions. Sixteen SVD (mean age; 68.0±7.0 years, educational period; 6.3±5.6 years, CDR; 0.80±0.26). 46 AD (mean age; 69.9±7.4 years, educational period; 5.4±4.7 years, CDR; 0.86±0.23) and 12 normal control subjects (mean age; 67.1±7.7 years, educational period; 6.2±4.2 years) participated in this study. We included the patients with SVD and AD according to NINCDS-ADRDA criteria for probable AD and NINDS-AIREN criteria for probable or possible VD. They were all matched for age, education and clinical dementia scale scores. SPM analysis of the SPECT image showed significant perfusion deficits on the right temporal region and right thalamus, left insula and superior temporal gyrus, both cingulate gyri and frontal subgyral regions in patients with SVD and on the left supramarginal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, postcentral gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, right fugiform gyrus and both cingulate gyri in patients with AD compared with control subjects (uncorrected p<0.01). SVD patients revealed significant hypoperfusion in the right parahippocampal gyrus, right cingulated gyrus, left insula, and both frontal subgyral regions compared with AD patients (uncorrected p<0.01). SVD patients revealed significant hyperperfusion in right superior frontal gyrus, left pre- and postcentral gyri, left paracentral lobule, left precuneus and both medial frontal gyri compared with AD patients (uncorrected p<0.01). Our study shows characteristic and different pattern of perfusion deficits in patients with SVD and AD, and these results may be helpful to discriminate the two conditions in the early stage of illness

  20. The Effect of Scalp Point Cluster-Needling on Learning and Memory Function and Neurotransmitter Levels in Rats with Vascular Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Junli; Litscher, Gerhard; Li, Haitao; Guo, Wenhai; Liang, Zhang; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Weihua; Li, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Yao; Zhao, Bing; Rong, Qi; Sheng, Zemin; Gaischek, Ingrid; Litscher, Daniela; Wang, Lu

    2014-01-01

    We observed the effect of scalp point cluster-needling treatment on learning and memory function and neurotransmitter levels in rats with vascular dementia (VD). Permanent ligation of the bilateral carotid arteries was used to create the VD rat model. A Morris water maze was used to measure the rats' learning and memory function, and the changes in neurotransmitter levels in the rats' hippocampus were analyzed. The results show that scalp point cluster-needling can increase the VD rat model's...

  1. The role of methods of radiation diagnosis in detecting vascular dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, V.N.; Anishchenko, L.V.; Rozhkovsky, G.M.; Tsvigovsky, V.M.; Dorofeeva, T.K.; Stasiuk, Y.V.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of our research was to identify characteristic morphological changes in the structure of the brain, their location, the size, the study of association cortex, sub cortex, the establishment of differential diagnostic features for vascular discirculatory encephalopathy various etiologies (aneurysms, AVMs, tumor lesions of the brain, various vasculopathy ). We used a CT scanner ASTENYON-SUPER 4 (firm Toshiba), staffed workstation 'VITREA-2' and 'VITREA-3' firm 'VITAL IMAGES Inc.' (U.S. and Avanto MRI T1, 5 (Siemens). Multislice CT angiography is a fairly modern method in clinical practice and in the foreign medicine (authors)

  2. Effects of Electroacupuncture on Learning, Memory and Formation System of Free Radicals in Brain Tissues of Vascular Dementia Model Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王黎; 唐纯志; 赖新生

    2004-01-01

    In order to observe the regulative effect of electro-acupuncture on the formation system of free radicals in the brain tissues and learning and memory in vascular dementia (VD) model rats, the Morris's water labyrinth was used for testing the learning ability and memory in VD model rats made by 4-vessel occlusion method, and the activities or contents of nitric oxide (NO), NO synthase (NOS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were determined. Results showed that the mean escape latency in the electro-acupuncture group was markedly reduced in place test, and the times swam the place of the plate-form in the original plate-form quadrant were significantly more than those in the rest three quadrants in spatia1 probe test as compared with the model group. In the electro-acupuncture group and the nimodipine group the contents of NO and MDA and the activity of NOS were decreased, while the activities of SOD and GSH-Px were increased. It is indicated that electro-acupuncture can modulate the production and clearance of free radicals, and improve the ability of learning and memory of the VD model rats.

  3. Vitamin D status and vascular dementia due to cerebral small vessel disease in the elderly Asian Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Puttachandra; Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Supriya, Manjunath; Issac, Thomas Gregor; Prasad, Chandrajit; Christopher, Rita

    2015-12-15

    Vitamin D plays vital roles in human health and recent studies have shown its beneficial effect on brain functioning. The present study was designed to evaluate the association of vitamin D with vascular dementia (VaD) due to cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) in Asian Indian population. 140 VaD patients aged ≥ 60 years with neuroimaging evidence of SVD, and 132 age and gender-matched controls, were investigated. Vitamin D status was estimated by measuring serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D. Logistic regression model revealed that deficient levels of vitamin D (vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency (12-20 ng/ml), the odds were increased to 31.6-fold and 14.4-fold, respectively. However, in hypertensives with vitamin D sufficiency (>20 ng/ml), the odds of VaD were increased by 3.8-fold only. Pearson correlation showed that serum vitamin D was inversely associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (r=-0.401 and -0.411, pvitamin D-deficient subjects. Since the combined presence of hypertension and vitamin D deficiency increases the probability of developing VaD, screening for vitamin D status in addition to regular monitoring of blood pressure, could reduce the risk of VaD associated with cerebral SVD in the elderly Asian Indian subjects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Neuropsychology and its correlation with cerebral blood flow in patients with Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and normal seniors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang Qiuqing; Jiang Kaida; Huang Yanyan; Zhang Mingyuan; Zhao Jinghua; Lin Xiangtong; He Fengfeng; Gu Niufan

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the psychological, functional imaging findings and the relationship between them in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VD) and normal seniors (NS). Methods: Psychological evaluation with rating scales and functional imaging examination with single photon emission computed tomography were conducted to AD, VD (both met the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria) and NS. Results: In psychological examination, AD and VD showed significantly lower scores in every scale than NS, and in Fuld goods memory test (FOM), AD appeared even worse than VD. In functional imaging examination, at most brain areas, radioactive ratio (RAR) in AD and VD were obviously lower than that in NS. While in right parietal lobe and bilateral frontal lobes, RAR in AD showed significantly lower than in VD. FOM score of NS was correlated with RAR in several brain areas. RARs of right parietal lobe in AD and of left parietal lobe in VD showed correlation with scores of most rating scales. Conclusions: Hypoperfusion in right parietal lobe of AD and in left parietal lobe of VD contributes mainly to their cognitive deficiency, this may further suggest the different right or left hemisphere mechanism in AD and VD

  5. Prediction of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease in patients with atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter using CHADS2 score

    OpenAIRE

    Ruey-Hsing Chou; Chun-Chih Chiu; Chin-Chou Huang; Wan-Leong Chan; Po-Hsun Huang; Yu-Chun Chen; Tzeng-Ji Chen; Chia-Min Chung; Shing-Jong Lin; Jaw-Wen Chen; Hsin-Bang Leu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of dementia. However, limited data are available on the predictors of dementia in patients with AF. This study aimed to evaluate whether the CHADS2 score could be a useful tool for risk stratification with regard to dementia occurrence among patients with AF. Methods: AF patients were identified from the National Health Insurance sampling database, which has accumulated a total of 1,000,000 participants since 2000. A...

  6. Assessment of free and cued recall in Alzheimer's disease and vascular and frontotemporal dementia with 24-item Grober and Buschke test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerciello, Milena; Isella, Valeria; Proserpi, Alice; Papagno, Costanza

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are the most common forms of dementia. It is well known that memory deficits in AD are different from those in VaD and FTD, especially with respect to cued recall. The aim of this clinical study was to compare the memory performance in 15 AD, 10 VaD and 9 FTD patients and 20 normal controls by means of a 24-item Grober-Buschke test [8]. The patients' groups were comparable in terms of severity of dementia. We considered free and total recall (free plus cued) both in immediate and delayed recall and computed an Index of Sensitivity to Cueing (ISC) [8] for immediate and delayed trials. We assessed whether cued recall predicted the subsequent free recall across our patients' groups. We found that AD patients recalled fewer items from the beginning and were less sensitive to cueing supporting the hypothesis that memory disorders in AD depend on encoding and storage deficit. In immediate recall VaD and FTD showed a similar memory performance and a stronger sensitivity to cueing than AD, suggesting that memory disorders in these patients are due to a difficulty in spontaneously implementing efficient retrieval strategies. However, we found a lower ISC in the delayed recall compared to the immediate trials in VaD than FTD due to a higher forgetting in VaD.

  7. [Treatment of vascular dementia by Chinese herbal medicine: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials of clinical studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Wen-Jia; Shi, Jing; Tian, Jin-Zhou; Ni, Jing-Nian

    2015-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine has been extensively used in the treatment of vascular dementia (VaD), but lacked systematic review on its efficacy and safety. So we conducted a systematic review to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine in treating VaD. CNKI, CBM, PubMed, and Wiley Online Library were retrieved for randomized trials (RCTs) on Chinese herbal medicine treating VaD patients. Randomized parallel control trials by taking Chinese herbal medicine as one treatment method and placebos/cholinesterase inhibitors/Memantine hydrochloride as the control were included. Quality rating and data extraction were performed. RevMan5.2.0 Software was used for meta-analysis. Standardized mean difference (SMD) at 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to indicate effect indicators of results. Seven RCTs met the inclusive criteria. Totally 677 VaD patients were randomly assigned to the treatment group and the control group. Descriptive analyses were performed in inclusive trials. The cognitive function was assessed in all trials. Results showed Mini-Mental state examination (MMSE) score was better in the Chinese herbal medicine group than in the placebo group, but with no significant difference when compared with the donepezil group (P > 0.05). Adverse reactions were mainly manifested as gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain in the Chinese herbal medicine group. But they occurred more in the donepezil group than in the Chinese herbal medicine group. The methodological quality of included trials was poor with less samples. Results of different trials were lack of consistency. Present evidence is not sufficient to prove or disapprove the role of Chinese herbal medicine in improving clinical symptoms and outcome indicators of VaD patients. Their clinical efficacy and safety need to be supported by more higher quality RCTs.

  8. Group-based exercise combined with dual-task training improves gait but not vascular health in active older adults without dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Michael A; Gill, Dawn P; Zou, Guangyong; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Shigematsu, Ryosuke; Fitzgerald, Clara; Hachinski, Vladimir; Shoemaker, Kevin; Petrella, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Gait abnormalities and vascular disease risk factors are associated with cognitive impairment in aging. To determine the impact of group-based exercise and dual-task training on gait and vascular health, in active community-dwelling older adults without dementia. Participants [n=44, mean (SD) age: 73.5 (7.2) years, 68% female] were randomized to either intervention (exercise+dual-task; EDT) or control (exercise only; EO). Each week, for 26 weeks, both groups accumulated 50 or 75 min of aerobic exercise from group-based classes and 45 min of beginner-level square stepping exercise (SSE). Participants accumulating only 50 min of aerobic exercise were instructed to participate in an additional 25 min each week outside of class. The EDT group also answered cognitively challenging questions while performing SSE (i.e., dual-task training). The effect of the interventions on gait and vascular health was compared between groups using linear mixed effects models. At 26 weeks, the EDT group demonstrated increased dual-task (DT) gait velocity [difference between groups in mean change from baseline (95% CI): 0.29 m/s (0.16-0.43), pexercise combined with dual-task training can improve DT gait characteristics in active older adults without dementia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Low serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) level is associated with increased risk of vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Patrick; Horvath, Alexandra; Nordlund, Arto; Wallin, Anders; Svensson, Johan

    2017-12-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is important for the adult brain, but little is known of the role of IGF-I in Alzheimeŕs disease (AD) or vascular dementia (VaD). A prospective study of 342 patients with subjective or objective mild cognitive impairment recruited at a single memory clinic. We determined whether serum IGF-I concentrations at baseline were associated with the risk of all-cause dementia, AD, or VaD. Patients developing mixed forms of AD and VaD were defined as suffering from VaD. The statistical analyses included Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. During the follow-up (mean 3.6 years), 95 (28%) of the patients developed all-cause dementia [AD, n=37 (11%) and VaD, n=42 (12%)]. Low as well as high serum IGF-I (quartile 1 or 4 vs. quartiles 2-3) did not associate with all-cause dementia [crude hazard ratio (HR) 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81-2.08 and crude HR 1.05, 95% CI: 0.63-1.75, respectively] or AD (crude HR 0.79, 95% CI: 0.35-1.79 and crude HR 0.94, 95% CI: 0.43-2.06, respectively]. In contrast, low serum IGF-I concentrations were associated with increased risk of VaD (quartile 1 vs. quartiles 2-3, crude HR 2.22, 95% CI: 1.13-4.36). The latter association remained significant also after adjustment for multiple covariates. In a memory clinic population, low serum IGF-I was a risk marker for subsequent VaD whereas low IGF-I did not associate with the risk of AD. High serum IGF-I was not related to the risk of conversion to dementia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Physical Activity: A Viable Way to Reduce the Risks of Mild Cognitive Impairment, Alzheimer’s Disease, and Vascular Dementia in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Gallaway

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A recent alarming rise of neurodegenerative diseases in the developed world is one of the major medical issues affecting older adults. In this review, we provide information about the associations of physical activity (PA with major age-related neurodegenerative diseases and syndromes, including Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, and mild cognitive impairment. We also provide evidence of PA’s role in reducing the risks of these diseases and helping to improve cognitive outcomes in older adults. Finally, we describe some potential mechanisms by which this protective effect occurs, providing guidelines for future research.

  11. A comparative study of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in patients with Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia referred to psychogeriatric services in Korea and the U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit; Ellanchenny, Nalini; Suh, Guk-Hee

    2005-06-01

    There is a paucity of cross-cultural studies of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). BPSD were examined in consecutive series of referrals to a psychogeriatric service in Korea and the U.K. using the Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease (BEHAVE-AD) rating scale and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD). Results were analyzed separately for Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Koreans in both diagnostic groups had lower Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) scores and higher BEHAVE-AD total and subscale scores for most subscales. In both countries, for both diagnostic groups, the total BEHAVE-AD score and several subscale scores were negatively correlated with the MMSE scores. Logistic regression analysis for Alzheimer's disease revealed that BEHAVE-AD total and most subscale scores independently predicted the country of origin in addition to the MMSE scores predicting the same. These differences in BPSD are most likely explained by the lower MMSE scores in the Korean sample. However, genuine differences in BPSD between the two countries can only be critically examined in a cross-cultural population-based epidemiological study for both diagnostic categories using validated instruments to measure BPSD and controlling for the influence of MMSE score.

  12. Imaging dementias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoiardo, M.; Grisoli, M. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Istituto Nazionale Neurologico, Milan (Italy)

    2001-03-01

    Dementia is the progressive loss of intellectual functions due to involvement of cortical or subcortical areas. Specific involvement of certain brain areas in the different diseases leads to impairment of different functions, e. g., memory, language, visuospatial abilities, and behavior. Magnetic resonance imaging and other neuroradiological studies may indicate which structures are mainly or selectively involved in a demented patient, thus allowing clinical-radiological correlations. Clinical presentation and evolution of the disease, supported by imaging studies, may lead to a highly probable diagnosis. The most common disorders, or the most relevant from the neuroradiological point of view, such as Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementias, dementia associated with parkinsonism, Huntington's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and normal-pressure hydrocephalus, are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  13. Imaging dementias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savoiardo, M.; Grisoli, M.

    2001-01-01

    Dementia is the progressive loss of intellectual functions due to involvement of cortical or subcortical areas. Specific involvement of certain brain areas in the different diseases leads to impairment of different functions, e. g., memory, language, visuospatial abilities, and behavior. Magnetic resonance imaging and other neuroradiological studies may indicate which structures are mainly or selectively involved in a demented patient, thus allowing clinical-radiological correlations. Clinical presentation and evolution of the disease, supported by imaging studies, may lead to a highly probable diagnosis. The most common disorders, or the most relevant from the neuroradiological point of view, such as Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementias, dementia associated with parkinsonism, Huntington's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and normal-pressure hydrocephalus, are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  14. Multichannel linear descriptors analysis for event-related EEG of vascular dementia patients during visual detection task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Wutao; Xu, Jin; Sheng, Hengsong; Zhao, Songzhen

    2011-11-01

    Multichannel EEG recorded in a task condition could contain more information about cognition. However, that has not been widely investigated in the vascular-dementia (VaD)- related studies. The purpose of this study was to explore the differences of brain functional states between VaD patients and normal controls while performing a detection task. Three multichannel linear descriptors, i.e. spatial complexity (Ω), field strength (Σ) and frequency of field changes (Φ), were applied to analyse four frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha and beta) of multichannel event-related EEG signals for 12 VaD patients (mean age ± SD: 69.25 ± 10.56 years ; MMSE score ± SD: 22.58 ± 4.42) and 12 age-matched healthy subjects (mean age ± SD: 67.17 ± 5.97 years ; MMSE score ± SD: 29.08 ± 0.9). The correlations between the three measures and MMSE scores were also analysed. VaD patients showed a significant higher Ω value in the delta (p = 0.013) and theta (p = 0.021) frequency bands, a lower Σ value (p = 0.011) and a higher Φ (p = 0.008) value in the delta frequency band compared with normal controls. The MMSE scores were negatively correlated with the Ω (r = -0.52, p = 0.01) and Φ (r = -0.47, p = 0.02) values in the delta frequency band. The results indicated the VaD patients presented a reduction of synchronization in the slow frequency band during target detection, and suggested more neurons might be activated in VaD patients compared with normal controls. The Ω and Φ measures in the delta frequency band might be used to evaluate the degree of cognitive dysfunction. The multichannel linear descriptors are promising measures to reveal the differences in brain functions between VaD patients and normal subjects, and could potentially be used to evaluate the degree of cognitive dysfunction in VaD patients. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. EFFECT OF AURICULAR ACUPUNCTURE ON THE LEARNING AND MEMORY AND bcl-2 EXPRESSION IN VASCULAR DEMENTIA RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xuezhao; XIAO Maolei; SUN Guojie

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of auricular acupuncture on dysmnesia and the relationship between the memory improvement and bcl-2 protein expression in vascular dementia (VD) rats. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were randomized into control group, VD group, acupuncture+ VD group and pseudo-operation group, with 10 cases in each group. Rat VD model was established by using 4-vessel occlusion method. Otopoint "Nao"-point and "Shen"(MA-SC)were punctured, once daily continuously for 15 days. The rats' memory capability was tested with Y-maze method and bcl-2 expression of the brain tissues displayed by immunohistochemical method and measured using MIAS-2000 Image Analyzer. Results: Results showed that the scores of control group, VD group and acupuncture+ VD group before operation were 5.68±1.29, 6.07±1.67 and 5.86±1.74 respectively, while following auricular acupuncture treatment,the scores of the 3 groups were 5.81±1.51, 18.06±2.68 and 8.31 ± 1.85 separately, suggesting that the VD rat's learning and memory abilities in acupuncture+ VD group were raised apparently in comparison with those of VD group (P < 0.01 ). In control, VD and acupuncture+VD group, bcl-2 immuno-reaction positive neurons in CA1 area of the hippocampus were 14.31 ± 4.87, 28.67 ± 5.63 and 65.74 ± 8.19 respectively, displaying that the improvement of learning and memory abilities caused by auricular acupuncture treatment may be related to the up-regulation of bcl-2expression (an inhibitory gene of apoptosis). In comparison with control group, the loss of neurons in the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampal CA1 area of VD group was more severe, while that of acupuncture group was markedly lighter. Conclusion: Auricular acupuncture of otopoint "Nao"-point and "Shen" (MA-SC) can raise the learning and memory abilities of VD rats, which may be realized by its inhibitory effect on apoptosis and the protection action on ischemic hippocampal neurons.

  16. Profile of clinically-diagnosed dementias in a neuropsychiatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Vascular dementia (VaD) were the predominant phenotypes seen in 62 (57.4%) and 18 (16.7%) subjects respectively. Others include mixed dementia (4 cases), frontotemporal dementia (4 cases), Lewy body dementia (3 cases), alcohol-related dementia (3 cases), PD dementia (1 case) and ...

  17. Disorders of "taste cognition" are associated with insular involvement in patients with Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia: "memory of food is impaired in dementia and responsible for poor diet".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Teiko; Meguro, Kenichi; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Kato, Yuriko; Tezuka, Kimihiro; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Tashiro, Manabu

    2014-07-01

    In dementia patients, dietary intake problems may occur despite the absence of swallowing problems. We investigated cognitive functions on food and taste in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) patients. Participants included 15 healthy controls (HC), 30 AD and 20 VaD patients. Food Cognition Test: Replicas of three popular foods in Japan with no odors were presented visually to each participant, with the instruction to respond with the name of each food. Replicas of food materials were subsequently presented to ask whether they were included in these foods. Taste Cognition Test: Replicas of 12 kinds of foods were presented to describe their expected tastes. The AD/VaD groups exhibited significantly lower scores on Food/Taste Cognition Tests compared with the HC group. These scores correlated inversely with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores in the AD group. Decreased dietary intake was observed in 12 of the 50 patients; 8 of the 12 exhibited decreased Taste Cognition Test scores, higher than that of the normal-intake patients. There was no difference in the filter paper taste disc test between HC/AD/VaD groups. To test the hypothesis that the insula is associated with taste cognition, two MMSE-matched AD subgroups (n = 10 vs. 10) underwent positron emission tomography. Glucose metabolism in the right insula was lower in the low taste cognition subgroup. The VaD patients with insular lesions exhibited impaired Taste Cognition Test findings. It is important to consider the cognitive aspect of dietary intake when we care for dementia patients.

  18. Neuroprotection, learning and memory improvement of a standardized extract from Renshen Shouwu against neuronal injury and vascular dementia in rats with brain ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Li; Cheng, Yufang; Luo, Zhanyuan; Guo, Haibiao; Zhao, Wenjing; Gu, Quanlin; Yang, Xu; Xu, Jiangping; Bei, Weijian; Guo, Jiao

    2015-05-13

    The Renshen Shouwu capsule (RSSW) is a patented Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), that has been proven to improve memory and is widely used in China to apoplexy syndrome and memory deficits. To investigate the neuroprotective and therapeutic effect of the Renshen Shouwu standardized extract (RSSW) on ischemic brain neuronal injury and impairment of learning and memory related to Vascular Dementia (VD) induced by a focal and global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Using in vivo rat models of both focal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries induced by a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and VD with transient global brain I/R neuronal injuries induced by a four-vessel occlusion (4-VO) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, RSSW (50,100, and 200 mg kg(-1) body weights) and Egb761® (80 mg kg(-1)) were administered orally for 20 days (preventively 6 days+therapeutically 14 days) in 4-VO rats, and for 7 days (3 days preventively+4 days therapeutically) in MCAO rats. Learning and memory behavioral performance was assayed using a Morris water maze test including a place navigation trial and a spatial probe trial. Brain histochemical morphology and hippocampal neuron survival was quantified using microscope assay of a puffin brain/hippocampus slice with cresyl violet staining. MCAO ischemia/reperfusion caused infarct damage in rat brain tissue. 4-VO ischemia/reperfusion caused a hippocampal neuronal lesion and learning and memory deficits in rats. Administration of RSSW (50, 100, and 200mg/kg) or EGb761 significantly reduced the size of the insulted brain hemisphere lesion and improved the neurological behavior of MCAO rats. In addition, RSSW markedly reduced an increase in the brain infarct volume from an I/R-induced MCAO and reduced the cerebral water content in a dose-dependent way. Administration of RSSW also increased the pyramidal neuronal density in the hippocampus of surviving rats after transient global brain ischemia and improved the learning and memory

  19. The relationship between cognitive impairment and in vivo metabolite ratios in patients with clinical Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldman, A.D.; Rai, G.S.

    2003-01-01

    Previous magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies have shown increased myo-inositol (MI) and decreased N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) levels in the parieto-occipital lobes of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to those with other dementias and normal subjects. This study aimed to establish the quantitative relationship between metabolite ratios and degree of cognitive impairment in patients with mild to moderate AD and sub-cortical ischaemic vascular dementia (SIVD). Forty-four older people with clinical dementia were recruited from a memory clinic and followed up for 2.0-3.5 years; 20 cases were finally classified as probable AD, 18 as SIVD and 6 as mixed type. Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and short echo time single voxel automated MRS from the mesial parieto-occipital lobes were performed at the time of initial referral. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were calculated for MMSE scores and measured metabolite ratios MI/Cr, NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr and NAA/MI. The AD group showed a significant correlation between MMSE and NAA/MI (r=0.54, P=0.014) and NAA/Cr (r=0.48, P=0.033), and a negative, non-significant association with MI/Cr (r=-0.41, P=0.072). MI/Cr was negatively correlated with NAA/Cr (r=-0.51, P=0.021). Neither Cho/Cr ratios nor age correlated with cognitive function. The SIVD group showed no correlation between any of the measured metabolite ratios and MMSE score. This study reinforces the specific association between reduced NAA and increased MI levels in the parieto-occipital region and cognitive impairment in AD. MRS may have a role in evaluating disease progression and therapeutic monitoring in AD, as new treatments become available. (orig.)

  20. The Portuguese version of Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) in the diagnosis of subcortical vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Cátia; Pinho, Maria Salomé; Cruz, Vitor; Pais, Joana; Gens, Helena; Oliveira, Fátima; Santana, Isabel; Rente, José; Santos, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the Portuguese version of Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) in detecting and differentiating early stage subcortical vascular dementia (SVD) from early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ninety-two subjects (18 SVD patients, 36 AD patients, and 38 healthy controls) were assessed using the ACE-R. Between-group's differences were evaluated using the Quade's rank analysis of covariance. The diagnostic accuracy and discriminatory ability of the ACE-R were examined via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The ACE-R was able to successfully discriminate between patients and healthy subjects. The mean ACE-R total scores differed between SVD and AD patients; there were also significant differences in attention and orientation and in memory measures between the groups. An optimal cut-off of 72/73 was found for the detection of AD (sensitivity: 97%; specificity: 92%) and SVD (sensitivity: 100%; specificity: 92%).

  1. An Estimate of Attributable Cases of Alzheimer Disease and Vascular Dementia due to Modifiable Risk Factors: The Impact of Primary Prevention in Europe and in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Mayer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Up to 53.7% of all cases of dementia are assumed to be due to Alzheimer disease (AD, while 15.8% are considered to be due to vascular dementia (VaD. In Europe, about 3 million cases of AD could be due to 7 potentially modifiable risk factors: diabetes, midlife hypertension and/or obesity, physical inactivity, depression, smoking, and low educational level. Aims: To estimate the number of VaD cases in Europe and the number of AD and VaD cases in Italy attributable to these 7 potentially modifiable risk factors. Methods: Assuming the nonindependence of the 7 risk factors, the adjusted combined population attributable risk (PAR was estimated for AD and VaD. Results: In Europe, adjusted combined PAR was 31.4% for AD and 37.8% for VaD. The total number of attributable cases was 3,033,000 for AD and 873,000 for VaD. In Italy, assuming a 20% reduction of the prevalence of each risk factor, adjusted combined PAR decreased from 45.2 to 38.9% for AD and from 53.1 to 46.6% for VaD, implying a 6.4 and 6.5% reduction in the prevalence of AD and VaD, respectively. Conclusion: A relevant reduction of AD and VaD cases in Europe and Italy could be obtained through primary prevention.

  2. An Estimate of Attributable Cases of Alzheimer Disease and Vascular Dementia due to Modifiable Risk Factors: The Impact of Primary Prevention in Europe and in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Flavia; Di Pucchio, Alessandra; Lacorte, Eleonora; Bacigalupo, Ilaria; Marzolini, Fabrizio; Ferrante, Gianluigi; Minardi, Valentina; Masocco, Maria; Canevelli, Marco; Di Fiandra, Teresa; Vanacore, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    Up to 53.7% of all cases of dementia are assumed to be due to Alzheimer disease (AD), while 15.8% are considered to be due to vascular dementia (VaD). In Europe, about 3 million cases of AD could be due to 7 potentially modifiable risk factors: diabetes, midlife hypertension and/or obesity, physical inactivity, depression, smoking, and low educational level. To estimate the number of VaD cases in Europe and the number of AD and VaD cases in Italy attributable to these 7 potentially modifiable risk factors. Assuming the nonindependence of the 7 risk factors, the adjusted combined population attributable risk (PAR) was estimated for AD and VaD. In Europe, adjusted combined PAR was 31.4% for AD and 37.8% for VaD. The total number of attributable cases was 3,033,000 for AD and 873,000 for VaD. In Italy, assuming a 20% reduction of the prevalence of each risk factor, adjusted combined PAR decreased from 45.2 to 38.9% for AD and from 53.1 to 46.6% for VaD, implying a 6.4 and 6.5% reduction in the prevalence of AD and VaD, respectively. A relevant reduction of AD and VaD cases in Europe and Italy could be obtained through primary prevention.

  3. Dementia: role of MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva-Kozarova, G.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: This presentation will focus on the role of MRI in the diagnosis of dementia and related diseases. We will discuss the following subjects: 1. Systematic assessment of MR in dementia 2. MR protocol for dementia 3. Typical findings in the most common dementia syndrome Alzheimer's disease (AD), Vascular Dementia (VaD), Frontotemporal lobe dementia (FTLD) 4. Short overview of neurodegenerative disorders which may be associated with dementia. The role of neuroimaging in dementia nowadays extends to support the diagnosis of specific neurodegenerative disorders. It is a challenge to the early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Early diagnosis includes recognition of predementia conditions, such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Neuroimaging may also be used to assess disease progression and is adopted in current trials investigating MCI and AD. An MR-study of a patient suspected of having dementia must be assessed in a standardized way. First of all, treatable diseases like subdural hematomas, tumors and hydrocephalus need to be excluded. Next we should look for signs of specific dementias such as: Alzheimer's disease (AD): medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) and parietal atrophy. Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD): (asymmetric) frontal lobe atrophy and atrophy of the temporal pole. Vascular Dementia (VaD): global atrophy, diffuse white matter lesions, lacunas and 'strategic infarcts' (infarcts in regions that are involved in cognitive function). Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB): in contrast to other forms of dementia usually no specific abnormalities. So when we study the MR images we should score in a systematic way for global atrophy, focal atrophy and for vascular disease (i.e. infarcts, white matter lesions, lacunas)

  4. Tongqiao Huoxue Decoction ameliorates learning and memory defects in rats with vascular dementia by up-regulating the Ca(2+)-CaMKII-CREB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xin-Ming; Huang, Zhao-Gang; Xia, Quan; Wang, Ning; Xu, Du-Juan

    2015-11-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the effects of Tongqiao Huoxue Decoction (TQHXD) on the Ca(2+)-CaMKII-CREB pathway and the memory and learning capacities of rats with vascular dementia (VD). The rat VD model was established by using an improved bilateral carotid artery ligation method. The Morris water maze experiment was used to evaluate the ethology of the VD rats following treatments with TQHXD at 3.01, 6.02, and 12.04 g·kg(-1) per day for 31 days. At the end of experiment, the hippocampus were harvested and analyzed. Western blotting and RT-PCR were used to measure the expression levels of calmodulin-binding protein kinase II(CaMKII), protein kinase A(PKA), cAMP-response element binding protein(CREB), and three N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor subunits (NR1, NR2A, and NR2B). Our results revealed that TQHXD could alleviate the loss of learning abilities and increase the memory capacity (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 vs the model group, respectively). The treatment with 6.02 and 12.04 g·kg(-1) of TQHXD significantly up-regulated the Ca(2+)-CaMKII-CREB pathway in the hippocampus. In conclusion, TQHXD showed therapeutic effects on a bilateral carotid artery ligation-induced vascular dementia model, through the up-regulation of calcium signalling pathways. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular Pharmacology of Rosmarinic and Salvianolic Acids: Potential Seeds for Alzheimer’s and Vascular Dementia Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Habtemariam

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Both caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid (danshensu are synthesized through two distinct routs of the shikimic acid biosynthesis pathway. In many plants, especially the rosemary and sage family of Lamiaceae, these two compounds are joined through an ester linkage to form rosmarinic acid (RA. A further structural diversity of RA derivatives in some plants such as Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is a form of RA dimer, salvianolic acid-B (SA-B, that further give rise to diverse salvianolic acid derivatives. This review provides a comprehensive perspective on the chemistry and pharmacology of these compounds related to their potential therapeutic applications to dementia. The two common causes of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease (AD and stroke, are employed to scrutinize the effects of these compounds in vitro and in animal models of dementia. Key pharmacological mechanisms beyond the common antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of polyphenols are highlighted with emphasis given to amyloid beta (Aβ pathologies among others and neuronal regeneration from stem cells.

  6. Differences of Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT imaging in the early stage of subcortical vascular dementia compared with Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Won; Kang, Do Young; Park, Min Jeong; Cheon, Sang Myung; Cha, Jae Kwan; Kim, Sang Ho; Kim, Jae Woo [College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the specific patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with the early stage of subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT, and to compare the differences between the two conditions. Sixteen SVaD, 46 AD and 12 control subjects participated in this study. We included the patients with SVaD and AD according to NINCDS-ADRDA and NINDS-AIREN criteria. They were all matched for age, education and clinical dementia rating scores. Three groups were evaluated by Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) for measuring rCBF. The SPECT data of patients with SVaD and AD were compared with those of normal control subjects and then compared with each other. SPM analysis of the SPECT image showed significant perfusion deficits on the right temporal region and thalamus, left insula and superior temporal gyrus, both cingulate gyri and frontal subgyri in patients with SVaD and on the left supramarginal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, postcentral gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, right fugiform gyrus and both cingulate gyri in AD compared with control subjects (uncorrected {rho} < 0.01). SVaD patients revealed significant hypoperfusion in the right parahippocampal gyrus with cingulated gyrus, left insula and both frontal subgyral regions compared with AD (uncorrected {rho} < 0.01). Our study shows characteristic and different pattern of perfusion deficits in patients with SVaD and AD, and these results may be helpful to discriminate the two conditions in the early stage of illness.

  7. The effect of Scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf flavonoids on spatial learning and memory in chronic cerebral ischemia-induced vascular dementia of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanjing; Liang, Lizhen; Xu, Jian; Wu, Jiali; Yan, Yongxing; Lin, Ping; Chen, Qiang; Zheng, Fengming; Wang, Qin; Ren, Qian; Gou, Zengmei; Du, Yifeng

    2016-05-01

    Flavonoids have been shown to improve cognitive function and delay the dementia progression. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In the present study, we examined the effect of Scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoids (SSTFs) extracted from S. baicalensis Georgi on spatial learning and memory in a vascular dementia (VaD) rat model and explored its molecular mechanisms. The VaD rats were developed by permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery. Seven days after recovery, the VaD rats were treated with either 50 or 100 mg/kg of SSTF for 60 days. The spatial learning and memory was evaluated in the Morris water maze (MWM) test. The tau hyperphosphorylation and the levels of the related protein kinases or phosphatases were examined by western blot analysis. In VaD rats, SSTF treatment at 100 mg/kg significantly reduced the escape latency in training trial in MWM test. In the probe trial, SSTF treatment increased the searching time and travel distance in the target quadrant. SSTF treatment inhibited the tau phosphorylation in both cortex and hippocampus in VaD rats. Meanwhile, SSTF reduced the activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3β and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 in VaD rats. In contrast, SSTF treatment increased the level of the protein phosphatase 2A subunit B in VaD rats. SSTF treatment significantly improved the spatial cognition in VaD rats. Our results suggest that SSTF may alleviate tau-hyperphosphorylation-induced neurotoxicity through coordinating the activity of kinases and phosphatase after a stroke. SSTF may be developed into promising novel therapeutics for VaD. © The Author 2016. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Characteristic pattern of cerebral perfusion in patients with the early stage of subcortical vascular dementia compared with Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Cheon, Sang Myung; Kim, Jong Kuk; Kim, Jae Woo [Dong-A University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Brain perfusion SPECT has been commonly used to evaluate several different types of dementia. The aim of this study is to assess the specific patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with the early stage of subcortical vascular dementia (SVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT, and to compare the differences between the two conditions. Sixteen SVD (mean age; 68.0{+-}7.0 years, educational period; 6.3{+-}5.6 years, CDR; 0.80{+-}0.26). 46 AD (mean age; 69.9{+-}7.4 years, educational period; 5.4{+-}4.7 years, CDR; 0.86{+-}0.23) and 12 normal control subjects (mean age; 67.1{+-}7.7 years, educational period; 6.2{+-}4.2 years) participated in this study. We included the patients with SVD and AD according to NINCDS-ADRDA criteria for probable AD and NINDS-AIREN criteria for probable or possible VD. They were all matched for age, education and clinical dementia scale scores. SPM analysis of the SPECT image showed significant perfusion deficits on the right temporal region and right thalamus, left insula and superior temporal gyrus, both cingulate gyri and frontal subgyral regions in patients with SVD and on the left supramarginal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, postcentral gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, right fugiform gyrus and both cingulate gyri in patients with AD compared with control subjects (uncorrected p<0.01). SVD patients revealed significant hypoperfusion in the right parahippocampal gyrus, right cingulated gyrus, left insula, and both frontal subgyral regions compared with AD patients (uncorrected p<0.01). SVD patients revealed significant hyperperfusion in right superior frontal gyrus, left pre- and postcentral gyri, left paracentral lobule, left precuneus and both medial frontal gyri compared with AD patients (uncorrected p<0.01). Our study shows characteristic and different pattern of perfusion deficits in patients with SVD and AD, and these results may be helpful to discriminate the two conditions in the

  9. Risk of incident clinical diagnosis of AD-type dementia attributable to pathology-confirmed vascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Hiroko H.; Zhu, Jian; Woltjer, Randy; Nelson, Peter T.; Bennett, David A.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Fardo, David W.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.; Lyons, Deniz-Erten; Mattek, Nora; Schneider, Julie A; Silbert, Lisa C.; Xiong, Chengjie; Yu, Lei; Schmitt, Frederick A.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Abner, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Presence of cerebrovascular pathology may increase the risk of clinical diagnosis of AD. Methods We examined excess risk of incident clinical diagnosis of AD (probable and possible AD) posed by the presence of lacunes and large infarcts beyond AD pathology using data from the Statistical Modelling of Aging and Risk of Transition (SMART) study, a consortium of longitudinal cohort studies with over 2000 autopsies. We created six mutually exclusive pathology patterns combining three levels of AD pathology (low, moderate or high AD pathology) and two levels of vascular pathology (without lacunes and large infarcts or with lacunes and/or large infarcts). Results The coexistence of lacunes and large infarcts results in higher likelihood of clinical diagnosis of AD only when AD pathology burden is low. Discussion Our results reinforce the diagnostic importance of AD pathology in clinical AD. Further harmonization of assessment approaches for vascular pathologies is required. PMID:28017827

  10. Imaging of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors using (+)N-[11C]methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate (11C-3NMPB) in vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Hirohiko

    2006-01-01

    In order to clarify the integrity of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) in vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), PET imaging with (+) N-[ 11 C]methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate ( 11 C-3NMPB) was performed in 12 patients with VaD, 11 patients with AD, and 7 normal controls (NC group). The mAChR binding was compared by the ratios compared with the cerebellum which were calculated from the regions of interest (ROI), and by three-dimensional statistic analysis. Compared with the NC group, mAChR was not significantly reduced in any ROI in AD patients. In those with VaD due to cortical lesions, mAChR was reduced in the infarcted areas. On the other hand, mAChR was significantly reduced in the thalamus and anterior cingulated gyrus, but not in other cerebral cortices in patients with VaD due to subcortical lesions. Accordingly, it is suggested that the mAChR is preserved in the cerebral cortices in patients with VaD due to subcortical lesions as well as in AD patients. (author)

  11. Intracranial stenosis in cognitive impairment and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Saima; Xu, Xin; Ikram, M Kamran; Vrooman, Henri; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Chen, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    Intracranial stenosis is a common vascular lesion observed in Asian and other non-Caucasian stroke populations. However, its role in cognitive impairment and dementia has been under-studied. We, therefore, examined the association of intracranial stenosis with cognitive impairment, dementia and their subtypes in a memory clinic case-control study, where all subjects underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment and 3 T neuroimaging including three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography. Intracranial stenosis was defined as ≥50% narrowing in any of the intracranial arteries. A total of 424 subjects were recruited of whom 97 were classified as no cognitive impairment, 107 as cognitive impairment no dementia, 70 vascular cognitive impairment no dementia, 121 Alzheimer's Disease, and 30 vascular dementia. Intracranial stenosis was associated with dementia (age/gender/education - adjusted odds ratios (OR): 4.73, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.93-11.60) and vascular cognitive impairment no dementia (OR: 3.98, 95% CI: 1.59-9.93). These associations were independent of cardiovascular risk factors and MRI markers. However, the association with Alzheimer's Disease and vascular dementia became attenuated in the presence of white matter hyperintensities. Intracranial stenosis is associated with vascular cognitive impairment no dementia independent of MRI markers. In Alzheimer's Disease and vascular dementia, this association is mediated by cerebrovascular disease. Future studies focusing on perfusion and functional markers are needed to determine the pathophysiological mechanism(s) linking intracranial stenosis and cognition so as to identify treatment strategies.

  12. Prevalence and etiology of dementia in a Japanese community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, K; Kawano, H; Hasuo, Y; Fujishima, M

    1992-06-01

    We sought to determine the type-specific prevalence of dementia and its risk factors in elderly persons from the Japanese community of Hisayama. We studied the prevalence of dementia in 887 Hisayama residents (353 men and 534 women) aged 65 years or older (screening rate, 94.6%) using various items of clinical information, neurological examination, and dementia scales. We also studied brain morphology in 50 of 59 determined to have dementia by computed tomography or autopsy during the subsequent 54-month period. Factors relevant to dementia were compared between 27 patients with vascular dementia and 789 control subjects without dementia in a retrospective fashion. The prevalence rate of dementia among Hisayama residents aged 65 or older was estimated at 6.7%, with a females to males ratio of 1:2. Among 50 cases of dementia in which brain morphology was examined, the frequency of vascular dementia was 56%; this rate was 2.2 times higher than that for senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. Aging, hypertension, electrocardiographic abnormalities, and high hematocrit were significantly (p less than 0.05) and independently associated with the occurrence of vascular dementia. Prevalence of dementia among the Hisayama residents was relatively identical to that previously reported, but vascular dementia was more predominant. Risk factors for vascular dementia were similar to those for lacunar infarcts. Control of hypertension may be a key to reducing dementia among the Japanese population.

  13. Dementia in Qatar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, Ahmad I.; Ibrahim, Mohammed A.; Sulaiti, Essa M.

    2004-01-01

    Dementia is the major public health problem among the elderly in developed countries and a growing problem in the underdeveloped countries. There are no published data on dementia in any of the Arab countries. The aim of this study was to determine the different subtypes of dementia among Qataris. A retrospective and prospective ongoing hospital based study in which all medical records of the patients with diagnosis of dementia seen at the Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar, between June 1997 and June 2003, whether inpatient and outpatient were reviewed. Dementia was defined according to diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM) IV criteria. Those who had dementia were evaluated by a psychologist, psychiatrist, neurologist and a geriatrician. All had brain computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging or both and routine blood test. Finally, they were classified into sub-types according to the cause of dementia. One of 300 patients, 134 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, most of them were illiterate, married and non-smokers. Among those dementia sub-types were: Alzheimer disease (AD) 39 (29%), vascular dementia (VaD) 30 (22%), mixed AD and VaD 20 (15%) and Parkinson's disease with dementia due to other medical conditions. Our stidy showed that AD is more prevalent than VaD. It also showed that patients and their families seek medical help late due to to the general belief among the public that forgetfulness and other associated cognitive impairment are part of normal aging process. The emergence of new drugs and advancement in prevention of cerebrovascular diseases make early diagnosis of dementia sub-type important. A community based study to show the real prevalence and incidence of sub-types of dementia is highly indicated. These data are necessory for planning and setting up community services and health care programs for demented patients. (author)

  14. Effects of Delay Duration on the WMS Logical Memory Performance of Older Adults with Probable Alzheimer's Disease, Probable Vascular Dementia, and Normal Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Valencia; Harris, Katie; Stabler, Anthony; Lu, Lisa H

    2017-05-01

    To examine how the duration of time delay between Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) Logical Memory I and Logical Memory II (LM) affected participants' recall performance. There are 46,146 total Logical Memory administrations to participants diagnosed with either Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), or normal cognition in the National Alzheimer's Disease Coordinating Center's Uniform Data Set. Only 50% of the sample was administered the standard 20-35 min of delay as specified by WMS-R and WMS-III. We found a significant effect of delay time duration on proportion of information retained for the VaD group compared to its control group, which remained after adding LMI raw score as a covariate. There was poorer retention of information with longer delay for this group. This association was not as strong for the AD and cognitively normal groups. A 24.5-min delay was most optimal for differentiating AD from VaD participants (47.7% classification accuracy), an 18.5-min delay was most optimal for differentiating AD versus normal participants (51.7% classification accuracy), and a 22.5-min delay was most optimal for differentiating VaD versus normal participants (52.9% classification accuracy). Considering diagnostic implications, our findings suggest that test administration should incorporate precise tracking of delay periods. We recommend a 20-min delay with 18-25-min range. Poor classification accuracy based on LM data alone is a reminder that story memory performance is only one piece of data that contributes to complex clinical decisions. However, strict adherence to the recommended range yields optimal data for diagnostic decisions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The Determinants of Quality of Life of Nursing Home Residents with Young-Onset Dementia and the Differences between Dementia Subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appelhof, Britt; Bakker, C.; Van Duinen-van den Ijssel, Jeannette C L; Zwijsen, Sandra A; Smalbrugge, Martin; Verhey, Frans R. J.; de Vugt, Marjolein E; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Koopnnans, Raymond T. C. M.

    Aims: The aims of this study are to (1) explore the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in nursing home residents with young-onset dementia (YOD), (2) investigate whether there are differences between dementia subtypes (Alzheimer dementia, vascular/mixed dementia, frontotemporal dementia, other)

  16. Cumulative Effect of Depression on Dementia Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Olazarán, J.; Trincado, R.; Bermejo-Pareja, F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To analyze a potential cumulative effect of life-time depression on dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD), with control of vascular factors (VFs). Methods. This study was a subanalysis of the Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES) study. Past and present depression, VFs, dementia status, and dementia due to AD were documented at study inception. Dementia status was also documented after three years. Four groups were created according to baseline data: never depression (n...

  17. The Cost of Dementia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg Andersen, C; Søgaard, Jes; Hansen, E

    1999-01-01

    In a population-based study of dementia, the cost of care for 245 demented elderly and 490 controls matched by age and gender was estimated. Dementia of Alzheimer's type was diagnosed according to the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, and vascular dementia and other types of dementia were diagnosed accordin...... with dementia and the matched controls and amounts on average to DKK 77,000 per person per year. However, priority setting cannot be based on the cost of dementia per se, but only on the cost of a specific dementia intervention compared to its health benefit.......In a population-based study of dementia, the cost of care for 245 demented elderly and 490 controls matched by age and gender was estimated. Dementia of Alzheimer's type was diagnosed according to the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, and vascular dementia and other types of dementia were diagnosed according...... to the DSM-IIIR criteria. Severity of dementia was determined by the Clinical Dementia Rating scale. The annual cost of medical care, domestic care, home help, nursing home and special equipment for nondemented patients was DKK 22,000 per person while the cost for very mildly, mildly, moderately and severely...

  18. Brain perfusion SPECT in dementia syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libus, P.; Stupalova, J.; Kuzelka, I.; Konrad, J.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Brain perfusion SPECT is used in differential diagnostics of dementia syndromes. First of all the aim is to distinguish vascular dementia from degenerative dementia and to differentiate dementia from delirium, psychiatric syndromes, depression and secondary dementia, which is important in relation to therapy. The purpose of our study was to detect significance of BP SPECT and include it into the diagnostic process in dementia syndromes. Materials and methods: 51 women and 63 men aged 55 - 88 were evaluated in the study. The patients correspond to the general criteria of dementia diagnosis. They were sent to the examination by neurological, internal and psychiatric departments and out-patient departments. All patients were examined by 99mTc ECD SPECT using a double head camera PRISM 200 VP with LEHR collimator. The scintigraphic data were evaluated by the visual and semiquantitative analysis. Results: It was established that most patients in our group had vascular dementia, while Alzheimer's disease was second. In other groups we found out dementia at strategic infarct location, e.g. in gyrus angularis in the dominant hemisphere, frontal temporal lobe dementia and alcoholic dementia. Twenty-four patients had a normal diagnosis. Fifteen of them had a somatic reason of the delirious state and were re-classified into pseudodementia. Nine patients were not diagnostically included and the examination will repeated in four months time. Conclusion: We have found out a good applicability of brain perfusion SPECT in dementia syndromes diagnosis in our work. The best diagnosticable and most specific were the findings in multi-infarct dementia, Alzheimer's disease and frontal temporal lobe dementia. When vascular dementia is concerned we can even distinguish dementia at strategic infarction location, e.g. in thalamus, basal frontal telencefalon, in gyrus angularis of the dominant hemisphere, etc

  19. Comparison of Hippocampal Volume in Dementia Subtypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, Avinash; Vijayakumar, Abhishek

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To examine the relationship between different types of dementia and hippocampal volume. Methods. Hippocampal volume was measured using FL3D sequence magnetic resonance imaging in 26 Alzheimer's, vascular dementia, mixed dementia, and normal pressure hydrocephalus patients and 15 healthy controls and also hippocampal ratio, analyzed. Minimental scale was used to stratify patients on cognitive function impairments. Results. Hippocampal volume and ratio was reduced by 25% in Alzheimer's disease, 21% in mixed dementia, 11% in vascular dementia and 5% in normal pressure hydrocephalus in comparison to control. Also an asymmetrical decrease in volume of left hippocampus was noted. The severity of dementia increased in accordance to decreasing hippocampal volume. Conclusion. Measurement in hippocampal volume may facilitate in differentiating different types of dementia and in disease progression. There was a correlation between hippocampal volume and severity of cognitive impairment

  20. The value of diffusion tensor imaging in the differential diagnosis of subcortical ischemic vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease in patients with only mild white matter alterations on T2-weighted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jian-Liang; Zhang, Ting; Chang, Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Li, Wen-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a form of functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that allows examination of the microstructural integrity of white matter in the brain. Dementia is a neurodegenerative disease, and DTI can provide indirect insights of the microstructural characteristics of brains in individuals with different forms of dementia. Purpose: To evaluate the value of DTI in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of patients with subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Material and Methods: The study included 40 patients (20 AD patients and 20 SIVD patients) and 20 normal controls (NC). After routine MRI and DTI, fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured and compared in regions of interest (ROI). Results: Compared to NC and AD patients, SIVD patients had lower FA values and higher ADC values in the inferior-fronto-occipital fascicles (IFOF), genu of the corpus callosum (GCC), splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Compared to controls and SIVD patients, AD patients had lower FA values in the anterior frontal lobe, temporal lobe, hippocampus, IFOF, GCC, and CF; and higher ADC values in the temporal lobe and hippocampus. Conclusion: DTI can be used to estimate the white matter impairment in dementia patients. There were significant regional reductions of FA values and heightened ADC values in multiple regions in SIVD patients compared to AD patients. When compared with conventional MRI, DTI may provide a more objective method for the differential diagnosis of SIVD and AD disease patients who have only mild white matter alterations on T2-weighted imaging

  1. The value of diffusion tensor imaging in the differential diagnosis of subcortical ischemic vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease in patients with only mild white matter alterations on T2-weighted images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Jian-Liang; Zhang, Ting (Dept. of Neurology, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China)); Chang, Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Li, Wen-Bin (Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China)), Email: liwenbin@sh163.net

    2012-04-15

    Background: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a form of functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that allows examination of the microstructural integrity of white matter in the brain. Dementia is a neurodegenerative disease, and DTI can provide indirect insights of the microstructural characteristics of brains in individuals with different forms of dementia. Purpose: To evaluate the value of DTI in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of patients with subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Material and Methods: The study included 40 patients (20 AD patients and 20 SIVD patients) and 20 normal controls (NC). After routine MRI and DTI, fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured and compared in regions of interest (ROI). Results: Compared to NC and AD patients, SIVD patients had lower FA values and higher ADC values in the inferior-fronto-occipital fascicles (IFOF), genu of the corpus callosum (GCC), splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Compared to controls and SIVD patients, AD patients had lower FA values in the anterior frontal lobe, temporal lobe, hippocampus, IFOF, GCC, and CF; and higher ADC values in the temporal lobe and hippocampus. Conclusion: DTI can be used to estimate the white matter impairment in dementia patients. There were significant regional reductions of FA values and heightened ADC values in multiple regions in SIVD patients compared to AD patients. When compared with conventional MRI, DTI may provide a more objective method for the differential diagnosis of SIVD and AD disease patients who have only mild white matter alterations on T2-weighted imaging

  2. [Effects of bushen jiannao recipe on the content of acetylcholine and the hippocampal ERK1 and ERK2 protein expressions of vascular dementia rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Hui; Li, Shao-Wei; Zheng, Qing-Lian

    2012-04-01

    To explore the effects of Bushen Jiannao Recipe (BJR) on the content of acetylcholine (Ach) and ERK1 and ERK2 protein expressions in the hippocampal CA1 region of vascular dementia (VD) rats, and to explore its possible mechanisms for treating VD. Eighty-three rats were selected. The VD model was established by permanent bilateral occlusion of both common carotid arteries (2-VO). Then the modeled rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, i. e., the memory deficit model group, the donepezil group, and the positive drug control groups [including high (n = 13), middle (n = 13), and low (n = 12) dose BJR group]. Besides, another 13 rats were chosen as the sham-operative group. The distilled water was given by gastrogavage to rats in the sham-operative group and the memory deficit model group (5 mL/kg). The donepezil hydrochloride suspension was given to rats in the donepezil group by gastrogavage (0.52 mg/kg). High (56 g/kg), middle (28 g/kg), and low (14 g/kg) dose of BJR were respectively given to rats in the other three groups. After 30 days of intervention, the escape latency period and platform crossing times were determined using Morris water maze experiment. The contents of Ach in the hippocampus and cortex were determined using colorimetry. The expressions of ERK1 and ERK2 in the CA1 region of the hippocampus were detected using immunohistochemical assay. The average escape latency of intervened rats showed an overall decreasing trend. From the third to the fifth day, the escape latency period was prolonged, the platform crossing times were reduced, the contents of Ach in the cortex and the hippocampus were lowered, the numbers of positive stained neuron of ERK1 and ERK2 in the hippocampus CA1 region were reduced, showing statistical difference when compared with the sham-operative group (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the 4th day escape latency of the donepezil group and the high dose BJR group was shortened. The escape latency was shortened, and the

  3. Vascular neurocognitive disorders and the vascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen V. Albu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dementias are clinical neurodegenerative diseases characterized by permanent and progressive transformation of cognitive functions such as memory, learning capacity, attention, thinking, language, passing judgments, calculation or orientation. Dementias represent a relatively frequent pathology, encountered at about 10% of the population of 65-year olds and 20% of the population of 80-year olds. This review presents the main etiological forms of dementia, which include Alzheimer form of dementia, vascular dementia, dementia associated with alpha-synucleionopathies, and mixed forms. Regarding vascular dementia, the risk factors are similar to those for an ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident: arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking, obesity, age, alcohol consumption, cerebral atherosclerosis/ arteriosclerosis. Several studies show that efficient management of the vascular risk factors can prevent the expression and/ or progression of dementia. Thus, lifestyle changes such as stress reduction, regular physical exercise, decreasing dietary fat, multivitamin supplementation, adequate control of blood pressure and serum cholesterol, and social integration and mental stimulation in the elderly population are important factors in preventing or limiting the symptoms of dementia, a disease with significant individual, social, and economic implications.

  4. Spouse with schizophrenia and risk of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Christopher; Agerbo, Esben; Nielsen, Philip Rising

    2016-12-01

    Increased prevalence of lifestyle risk factors or shared etiology may underlie the association between schizophrenia and the subsequent risk of dementia. We explored the association between having a spouse with schizophrenia and the risk of dementia. We found a positive relationship between having a spouse with schizophrenia and vascular dementia in individuals without a mental disorder themselves but no association between having a spouse with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's dementia. As spouses share environmental risk factors and lifestyle, this might suggest that the excess risk of dementia in probands with schizophrenia could be ascribed to the unhealthy living environment among individuals with schizophrenia.

  5. Diabetes and dementia links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Jankowska

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The number of patients suffering from diabetes mellitus is growing globally. It is expected to observe 253.4 million sufferers in geriatric population in 2045. In this time, also 131.5 million of people is going to have dementia and other cognitive problems. In people aged over 65 these two diseases are concomitant quite often. What are the connections in the area of etiology and treatment? Aim The purpose of this study is to present links between dementia and diabetes are depicted in professional literature. Results Diabetes and dementia are associated on many levels. These conditions have common risk factors. Diabetes may contribute to cognitive impairment in many ways, promoting development of atherosclerosis, brain vessel damage and vascular dementia. Alzheimer disease may be promoted by hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. On contrary also hypoglycaemia, often met in elderly diabetic patients has negative impact on cognitive function. Dementia seriously affects treatment of diabetes. The main problems are not satisfying adherence and diabetes self-management. Conclusions Prevention of diabetes and dementia risk factors can be performed simultaneously as the are common for both diseases. Enhancing physical activity, reducing saturated fats consumption, levels of cholesterol and body mass are considered to be beneficial in the context of described conditions. Furthermore, treatment of diabetes is strongly affected by cognitive dysfunction. Management of dementive diabetics requires individualization and using long-acting drugs. It is crucial to reduce risk of life-threatening hypoglycaemias and to create wide team to take care of these patients.

  6. Pharmacotherapy of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Avasthi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to evaluate the existing evidence for pharmacotherapy for management of dementia. Data search strategies included electronic databases of relevant publications or cross-references. The searches were limited to acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs, memantine, antipsychotics, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and benzodiazepines. Data in the form of meta-analysis and systemic reviews for treatment in five main types of dementia (Alzheimer′s, frontotemporal, Parkinson′s, Lewy body disease, and vascular type were extracted. If a meta-analysis or systemic review was not available, then the searches included evaluation of data in the form of double-blind, randomized controlled trials or open-label studies. Various studies suggest that compared to placebo, AChEIs and memantine are associated with better outcome in all domains of Alzheimer′s disease. In addition, combination therapy of AChEIs and memantine is superior to monotherapy with AChEIs in terms of behavioral disturbances, activities of daily living, and global assessment. In patients with dementia associated with Parkinson′s disease or Lewy body dementia, use of donepezil, rivastigmine, and memantine is associated with significant efficacy on the global outcome measures when compared with placebo. Compared to placebo, AChEIs, but not memantine, have also been shown to have better cognitive outcomes in patients with dementia associated with Parkinson′s disease or Lewy body dementia. Data are limited for the role of pharmacotherapy in management of frontotemporal dementia. In patients of vascular dementia, all AChEIs and memantine show some beneficial effects on cognition. Antidepressants and antipsychotics have been shown to be beneficial in management of behavioral symptoms and agitation. However, it is important to remember that there is black box warning for use of antipsychotics among patients with dementia. One of the major limitations of the research is

  7. Trichotillomania in a dementia case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Caixeta

    Full Text Available Abstract We report an 87-year-old male case of hair pulling associated with a white-matter vascular dementia (Binswanger's disease. Trichotillomania in our case did not resolve using mirtazapine or anticholinesterasic medication. Trichotillomania seems to be related to a form of perseveration associated with dementia. The findings in this case suggest the abnormality involving white matter in the pathogenesis of trichotillomania, may constitute a defect in connectivity in the right frontal-subcortical circuit.

  8. Trichotillomania in a dementia case

    OpenAIRE

    Caixeta, Leonardo; Lopes, Danielly Bandeira

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We report an 87-year-old male case of hair pulling associated with a white-matter vascular dementia (Binswanger's disease). Trichotillomania in our case did not resolve using mirtazapine or anticholinesterasic medication. Trichotillomania seems to be related to a form of perseveration associated with dementia. The findings in this case suggest the abnormality involving white matter in the pathogenesis of trichotillomania, may constitute a defect in connectivity in the right frontal-s...

  9. Trajectories of cognitive decline in different types of dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, L.L.; van Harten, A.C.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.; Koedam, E.L.G.E.; Bouwman, F.H.; Sistermans, N.; Reuling, I.E.W.; Prins, N.D.; Lemstra, A.W.; Scheltens, P.; van der Flier, W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. To investigate trajectories of cognitive decline in patients with different types of dementia compared to controls in a longitudinal study. Method. In 199 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 10 with vascular dementia (VaD), 26 with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), 20 with behavioural

  10. Cerebral emboli and depressive symptoms in dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purandare, N.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Hardicre, J.; Byrne, J.; McCollum, C.N.; Burns, A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The vascular depression hypothesis and our recent findings of increased frequency of spontaneous cerebral emboli in dementia suggest that such emboli may be involved in the causation of depressive symptoms in dementia. AIMS: To evaluate the association between spontaneous cerebral emboli

  11. Cardiovascular risk factors and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillit, Howard; Nash, David T; Rundek, Tatjana; Zuckerman, Andrea

    2008-06-01

    Dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia, are disorders of aging populations and represent a significant economic burden. Evidence is accumulating to suggest that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors may be instrumental in the development of dementia. The goal of this review was to discuss the relationship between specific CVD risk factors and dementia and how current treatment strategies for dementia should focus on reducing CVD risks. We conducted a review of the literature for the simultaneous presence of 2 major topics, cardiovascular risk factors and dementia (eg, AD). Special emphasis was placed on clinical outcome studies examining the effects of treatments of pharmacologically modifiable CVD risk factors on dementia and cognitive impairment. Lifestyle risk factors for CVD, such as obesity, lack of exercise, smoking, and certain psychosocial factors, have been associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Some evidence suggests that effectively managing these factors may prevent cognitive decline/dementia. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antihypertensive medications have found that such therapy may reduce the risk of cognitive decline, and limited data suggest a benefit for patients with AD. Some small open-label and randomized clinical trials of statins have observed positive effects on cognitive function; larger studies of statins in patients with AD are ongoing. Although more research is needed, current evidence indicates an association between CVD risk factors--such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus--and cognitive decline/dementia. From a clinical perspective, these data further support the rationale for physicians to provide effective management of CVD risk factors and for patients to be compliant with such recommendations to possibly prevent cognitive decline/dementia.

  12. Lewy Body Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewy body dementia Overview Lewy body dementia, also known as dementia with Lewy bodies, is the second most common type of progressive dementia after Alzheimer's disease dementia. Protein deposits, ...

  13. Methodological challenges in designing dementia prevention trials - The European Dementia Prevention Initiative (EDPI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, Edo; Andrieu, Sandrine; Solomon, Alina; Mangialasche, Francesca; Ahtiluoto, Satu; Moll van Charante, Eric P.; Coley, Nicola; Fratiglioni, Laura; Neely, Anna Stigsdotter; Vellas, Bruno; van Gool, Willem A.; Kivipelto, Miia

    2012-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have indicated numerous associations between vascular and lifestyle related risk factors and incident dementia. However, evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) showing effectiveness of interventions aimed at these risk factors in preventing or postponing

  14. Etiologies and risk factors for dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is understood as a clinical syndrome characterized by impairment in memory impairment along with cognitive deficits in other domains. Over the years, understanding about the causes of dementias has improved. Broadly, dementias can be classified as irreversible degenerative dementias and reversible dementias. Alzheimer′s disease is the prototype of degenerative dementias and is characterized by the accumulation of beta-amyloid protein (called as amyloid plaques outside the neurons and accumulation of tau protein (called tau tangles inside the neurons. Vascular dementias are characterized by cerebrovascular insults which lead to pathological brain changes that impair cognition. The pathological hallmark of Lewy body dementia is the presence of α-synuclein neuronal inclusions, also known as Lewy bodies, accompanied by neuronal loss. Frontotemporal dementias are characterized by abnormal deposits of the microtubule-associated protein tau, the trans-activation response TAR DNA-binding protein with molecular weight 43 kDa (TDP-43, and the fused in sarcoma protein. Reversible dementias are characterized by the primary illness and may not present with characteristic brain deposits as seen with many degenerative dementias.

  15. Considering sex and gender in Alzheimer disease and other dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podcasy, Jessica L; Epperson, C Neill

    2016-12-01

    Suffering related to dementia is multifaceted because cognitive and physical functioning slowly deteriorates. Advanced age and sex, two of the most prominent risk factors for dementia, are not modifiable. Lifestyle factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol use, and poor diet modulate susceptibility to dementia in both males and females. The degree to which the resulting health conditions (eg, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease) impact dementia risk varies by sex. Depending on the subtype of dementia, the ratio of male to female prevalence differs. For example, females are at greater risk of developing Alzheimer disease dementia, whereas males are at greater risk of developing vascular dementia. This review examines sex and gender differences in the development of dementia with the goal of highlighting factors that require further investigation. Considering sex as a biological variable in dementia research promises to advance our understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of these conditions.

  16. Considering sex and gender in Alzheimer disease and other dementias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podcasy, Jessica L.; Epperson, C. Neill

    2016-01-01

    Suffering related to dementia is multifaceted because cognitive and physical functioning slowly deteriorates. Advanced age and sex, two of the most prominent risk factors for dementia, are not modifiable. Lifestyle factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol use, and poor diet modulate susceptibility to dementia in both males and females. The degree to which the resulting health conditions (eg, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease) impact dementia risk varies by sex. Depending on the subtype of dementia, the ratio of male to female prevalence differs. For example, females are at greater risk of developing Alzheimer disease dementia, whereas males are at greater risk of developing vascular dementia. This review examines sex and gender differences in the development of dementia with the goal of highlighting factors that require further investigation. Considering sex as a biological variable in dementia research promises to advance our understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of these conditions. PMID:28179815

  17. Difficulty with learning of exercise instructions associated with 'working memory' dysfunction and frontal glucose hypometabolism in a patient with very mild subcortical vascular dementia with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kenji; Meguro, Kenichi; Tanaka, Naofumi; Nakatsuka, Masahiro

    2013-07-25

    We present a patient with no dementia, depression or apathy, who had difficulty in learning self-exercise instructions. The patient was an 80-year-old right-handed woman who was admitted to a rehabilitation unit to receive postoperative rehabilitation after a femoral neck fracture. She was instructed quadriceps isometric exercises to perform 10 repetitions and to hold each stretch for 10 s. She performed the exercise correctly with motivation, but she had difficulty in learning the number of repetitions and the duration of each stretch. She had no history of cerebrovascular accident and the neurological examination was normal. Neuropsychological testing, MRI and (18)F-fluoro- D-glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) were performed to examine the neural mechanisms associated with this difficulty in learning instructions. Neuropsychological tests revealed dysfunction of working memory while other cognitive domains were relatively preserved. Her neuropsychological tests scores were (1) Mini-Mental State Examination: 24 (mild cognitive impairment), (2) Geriatric Depression Scale-15: 2 (no depression), (3) Apathy Scale: 2 (no apathy), (4) digit span forward: 5 (normal), (5) digit span backward: 2 (impaired), (6) visuospatial span forward: 4 (normal), (7) visuospatial span backward: 2 (impaired), (8) frontal assessment battery: 11 (normal), (9) Weigl test: 0 (impaired), (10) trail making test A: 52 s (normal), (11) train making test B: failed (impaired). T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI showed high signal-intensity lesions in the cerebral deep white matter. FDG-PET revealed hypometabolic areas in the bilateral frontal lobes, particularly in the bilateral dorsolateral frontal area, anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex. One of the possible neural mechanisms underlying the learning difficulties in this patient may have been partial blockage of the cingulofrontal network by deep white matter lesions.

  18. Is postoperative cognitive dysfunction a risk factor for dementia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmetz, J; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Kessing, L V

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: /st>Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a common complication in elderly patients after major surgery. An association between POCD and the development of dementia has been suspected. In this study, we assessed if POCD was a risk factor for the occurrence of dementia. METHODS...... surgery, using a neuropsychological test battery. The time of (first) occurrence of dementia after surgery was assessed using the National Patient Register and the Psychiatric Central Research Register. Recorded dementia diagnoses (ICD-8 and ICD-10) were: Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia......, frontotemporal dementia, or dementia without specification. The risk of dementia according to POCD was assessed in the Cox regression models. RESULTS: /st>A total of 686 patients with a median age of 67 [inter-quartile range (IQR) 61-74] yr were followed for a median of 11.1 (IQR 5.2-12.6) yr. Only 32 patients...

  19. Types of Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids For Teens For Parents & Teachers Resolving Family Conflicts The Holidays and Alzheimer's Glossary Virtual Library Online ... Use Map Selector Search Alzheimer’s Association Alzheimer's & Dementia Types of Dementia Types of Dementia Types of Dementia ...

  20. Neurodegenerative Dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    Full text: With increasing life expectancy across the world, the number of elderly people at risk of developing dementia is growing rapidly. Thus, progressive neurodegenerative disorders such as dementia represent a growing public health concern. These diseases are characterized by a progressive loss in most of the cognitive functions. The promise, possibly in a near future, of disease-modifying therapies has made the characterization of the early stages of dementia a topic of major interest. The assessment of these early stages is a challenge for neuroimaging studies. In order to conceive prevention trials; it is of major outcome to fully understand the mechanisms of the cognitive system impairment and its evolution, with a particular reference to the symptomatic pre-dementia stage, when subjects just begin to depart from normality. In this article we review recent progress in neuroimaging, and their potentiality for increasing a diagnostic accuracy. (author)

  1. Clinical features and multidisciplinary approaches to dementia care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gr

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Jacob HG Grand¹, Sienna Caspar², Stuart WS MacDonald11Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada; 2Interdisciplinary Graduate Studies, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, CanadaAbstract: Dementia is a clinical syndrome of widespread progressive deterioration of cognitive abilities and normal daily functioning. These cognitive and behavioral impairments pose considerable challenges to individuals with dementia, along with their family members and caregivers. Four primary dementia classifications have been defined according to clinical and research criteria: 1 Alzheimer’s disease; 2 vascular dementias; 3 frontotemporal dementias; and 4 dementia with Lewy bodies/Parkinson’s disease dementia. The cumulative efforts of multidisciplinary healthcare teams have advanced our understanding of dementia beyond basic descriptions, towards a more complete elucidation of risk factors, clinical symptoms, and neuropathological correlates. The characterization of disease subtypes has facilitated targeted management strategies, advanced treatments, and symptomatic care for individuals affected by dementia. This review briefly summarizes the current state of knowledge and directions of dementia research and clinical practice. We provide a description of the risk factors, clinical presentation, and differential diagnosis of dementia. A summary of multidisciplinary team approaches to dementia care is outlined, including management strategies for the treatment of cognitive impairments, functional deficits, and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. The needs of individuals with dementia are extensive, often requiring care beyond traditional bounds of medical practice, including pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic management interventions. Finally, advanced research on the early prodromal phase of dementia is reviewed, with a focus on change-point models, trajectories of cognitive change, and threshold models of

  2. Diffusion MRI studies in vascular cognitive impairment and dementia Estudos de ressonância magnética funcional (imagens tensores de difusão nos quadros de prejuízo cognitivo vasculares e demências

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio L Urresta

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction more than two decades ago, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI has not only allowed for visualization of the macrostructure of the CNS, but also has been able to study dynamic processes which constitute the substrate of currently available MRI variants. While conventional Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI permits a robust visualization of lesions just a few minutes after the onset of cerebral ischemia, Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI measures the magnitude and direction of diffusion, leading to the characterization of cerebral white matter (WM microstructural integrity. In this paper, the potential role of MRI techniques, particularly DTI, for the study of the relationship between changes in the microstructural integrity of WM and cognitive impairment in the context of cerebrovascular disease are discussed. Significant correlations between scores of behavioral measures of cognitive function and regional anisotropy values are an example of the potential efficacy of DTI for in vivo studies of brain connectivity in vascular neurodegenerative conditions.Desde a sua introdução há mais de duas décadas, as Imagens de Ressonância Magnética (MRI não somente permitiram a visualização da macroestrutura do sistema nervoso central, mas também foram capazes de estudar múltiplos processos dinâmicos, os quais são o substrato para as variantes atuais da técnica. Enquanto que as Imagens de Difusão Ponderada permitem uma robusta visualização de lesões, apenas há minutos de iniciar-se a isquemia cerebral, as Imagens de Tensores de Difusão medem a magnitude e direção da difusão, caracterizando a integridade estrutural da substância branca (WM cerebral. Neste artigo, discute-se a utilidade potencial das técnicas de MRI, particularmente DTI, para o estudo da relação entre mudanças da integridade microestrutural da WM e a deterioração cognitiva, no contexto da doença cerebrovascular. As correlações significativas entre as

  3. Internet-based screening for dementia risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jason; Sullivan, Campbell; Burrell, Larry E; Rogerson, Mark; Anderson, Allan

    2013-01-01

    The Dementia Risk Assessment (DRA) is an online tool consisting of questions about known risk factors for dementia, a novel verbal memory test, and an informant report of cognitive decline. Its primary goal is to educate the public about dementia risk factors and encourage clinical evaluation where appropriate. In Study 1, more than 3,000 anonymous persons over age 50 completed the DRA about themselves; 1,000 people also completed proxy reports about another person. Advanced age, lower education, male sex, complaints of severe memory impairment, and histories of cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson's disease, and brain tumor all contributed significantly to poor memory performance. A high correlation was obtained between proxy-reported decline and actual memory test performance. In Study 2, 52 persons seeking first-time evaluation at dementia clinics completed the DRA prior to their visits. Their responses (and those of their proxy informants) were compared to the results of independent evaluation by geriatric neuropsychiatrists. The 30 patients found to meet criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, or frontotemporal dementia differed on the DRA from the 22 patients without dementia (most other neuropsychiatric conditions). Scoring below criterion on the DRA's memory test had moderately high predictive validity for clinically diagnosed dementia. Although additional studies of larger clinical samples are needed, the DRA holds promise for wide-scale screening for dementia risk.

  4. Does wine prevent dementia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger M Pinder

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Roger M PinderPharma Consultant, York, UKAbstract: There is substantial evidence that moderate consumption of alcohol reduces significantly the risks of coronary heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, the incidence of dementia, both of the Alzheimer’s type (AD and the vascular variety (VaD, is lower in societies which consume a Mediterranean diet of mainly fish, fruit, vegetables, olive oil, and wine. In particular, extensive evidence from both population-based cohort and case control studies in different areas of the world and across genders and racial groups suggests that regular consumption of moderate amounts of alcohol, especially in the form of wine, is associated with a lower risk of developing AD and VaD compared with abstention and heavy drinking. Carriers of the APOE ε4 allele seem to gain less benefit. Age-related cognitive decline, particularly in women, is lower in regular drinkers, while older drinkers with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI progress less frequently to AD than their abstaining counterparts. Plausible biological mechanisms for the neuroprotective effects of wine include its glucose-modifying, antioxidant and inflammatory properties, but it additionally seems to modify the neuropathology of AD, particularly the deposition of amyloid plaque. Indeed, some of these mechanisms are already targets for the development of new therapeutic agents for the treatment of dementia.Keywords: alcohol, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, epidemiology, polyphenols, wine

  5. Difference in MRI findings and risk factors between multiple infarction without dementia and multi-infarct dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Masashi; Kaieda, Makoto; Nagatsumi, Atsushi; Terashi, Akiro

    1995-01-01

    MRI findings and risk factors for vascular dementia were evaluated with multi-variate analysis in 96 multi-infarct patients without dementia and 40 multi-infarct patients with dementia (MID). Only subjects with small infarcts in the territory of the perforator artery or deep white matter were studied. The diagnosis of MID was diagnosed according to DMS-III criteria and Hachinski's ischemia score. Location and area of patchy high-intensity areas including small infarcts, the degree of periventricular high intensity (PVH), and the degree of brain atrophy were examined with MR images. Independent variables were: history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, other complications; systolic and diastolic blood pressure, atherosclerotic index, hematocrit, history of smoking, level of education, and activities of daily life (ADL). Hayashi's quantification method II was used to analyze the data. The most significant correlation was found between history of hypertension and dementia (partial correlation coefficient: 0.39). Significant correlations were also found between ADL and dementia (0.32), between thalamic infarction and dementia (0.31), and between PVH and dementia (0.27). Age, brain atrophy index, and history of diabetes mellitus contributed little to dementia. The contribution to dementia did not differ significantly between right and left patchy high-intensity areas on MR images. Location of infarcts, except for bilateral thalamic infarcts and large PVH, contributed little to dementia. Thus it would be difficult to base a prediction of the prevalence of vascular dementia on MRI findings. However, both hypertention and ADL contribute to vascular dementia and both are treatable, which may be significant for the prevention of dementia. (author)

  6. The cost of dementia in Denmark: the Odense Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronborg Andersen, C; Søgaard, J; Hansen, E; Kragh-Sørensen, A; Hastrup, L; Andersen, J; Andersen, K; Lolk, A; Nielsen, H; Kragh-Sørensen, P

    1999-01-01

    In a population-based study of dementia, the cost of care for 245 demented elderly and 490 controls matched by age and gender was estimated. Dementia of Alzheimer's type was diagnosed according to the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, and vascular dementia and other types of dementia were diagnosed according to the DSM-IIIR criteria. Severity of dementia was determined by the Clinical Dementia Rating scale. The annual cost of medical care, domestic care, home help, nursing home and special equipment for nondemented patients was DKK 22,000 per person while the cost for very mildly, mildly, moderately and severely demented patients was DKK 49,000, DKK 93,000, DKK 138,000 and DKK 206,000, respectively. Except for very mild dementia the cost did not differ between elderly who suffer from Alzheimer's disease and those with other types of dementia. The net cost of dementia is the difference in cost between those with dementia and the matched controls and amounts on average to DKK 77,000 per person per year. However, priority setting cannot be based on the cost of dementia per se, but only on the cost of a specific dementia intervention compared to its health benefit.

  7. Depression and Risk of Developing Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Amy L.; Yaffe, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    Depression is highly common throughout the life course and dementia is common in late life. The literature suggests an association between depression and dementia, and growing evidence implies that timing of depression may be important to defining the nature of the association. In particular, earlier-life depression or depressive symptoms consistently have been shown to be associated with a 2-fold or greater increase in risk of dementia. In contrast, studies of late-life depression have been more conflicting but the majority support an association; yet, the nature of this association is unclear (e.g., if depression is a prodrome or consequence or risk factor for dementia). The likely biological mechanisms linking depression to dementia include vascular disease, alterations in glucocorticoid steroids and hippocampal atrophy, increased deposition of β-amyloid plaques, inflammatory changes, and deficits of nerve growth factors. Treatment strategies for depression might intervene on these pathways and in turn may alter risk for dementia. Given the projected increase of dementia in the coming decades, it is critically important that we understand whether treatment for depression alone or combined with other regimens improves cognition. In this review, we summarize and analyze current evidence for late-life and earlier-life depression and their relationship to dementia, discuss the primary underlying mechanisms and implications for treatment. PMID:21537355

  8. Recognizing Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjødsbøl, Iben Mundbjerg; Svendsen, Mette Nordahl

    2018-01-01

    narratives; yet during memory testing, patients are not allowed any substitution to clearly expose cognitive shortcomings. In combining works of theorists Ian Hacking and Paul Ricoeur, we argue that the clinical identification of dementia unmakes the knowing subject, a deconstruction that threatens...

  9. Lewy body dementias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Annemette; Korbo, Lise

    2017-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson disease dementia share the same pathophysiology. Together they are called Lewy body dementias and are the second most common type of dementia. Lewy body dementias receive little attention, and patients are often misdiagnosed, leading to less than ideal...

  10. Prevalence of Pain in Nursing Home Residents: The Role of Dementia Stage and Dementia Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kooten, Janine; Smalbrugge, Martin; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Stek, Max L; Hertogh, Cees M P M

    2017-06-01

    To study pain prevalence, pain type, and its pharmacological treatment in Dutch nursing home residents in relation to dementia subtype and dementia severity. Data were collected as part of the PAINdemiA study, an observational cross-sectional study conducted between May 2014 and December 2015. Ten nursing homes in the Netherlands. A total of 199 nursing home residents in various stages of dementia. We collected data on pain (by observation: MOBID-2 Pain Scale and by self-report scales), pain type, pain medication, dementia subtype, dementia severity (GDS), and demographic features. In the whole sample, the prevalence of pain was 43% (95% confidence interval 36%-50%) using the MOBID-2 Pain Scale. Regardless of regularly scheduled analgesics, approximately one-third of the residents with pain suffered from moderate to severe pain. Pain assessment with the MOBID-2 Pain Scale showed no difference in pain between dementia subtypes, but residents with more severe dementia experienced pain more often than those with less severe dementia (27% vs 15%). The prevalence of self-reported pain was significantly higher in residents with vascular dementia (VaD) (54%) compared with those with Alzheimer disease (18%) and other dementia subtypes (14%). Nociceptive pain was the predominant type of pain (72%) followed by mixed pain (25%). Acetaminophen was the most prescribed analgesic (80%). Most of the participating nursing home residents had no pain; however, pain was observed more often in residents with severe dementia, whereas residents in the early stages of VaD self-reported pain more often that those with other dementia subtypes. As one-third of the residents with clinically relevant pain had moderate to severe pain regardless of using pain medication, more focus should be on how pain management could use more tailored approaches and be regularly adjusted to individual needs. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by

  11. Parkinson's Disease Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find your local chapter Join our online community Parkinson's Disease Dementia Parkinson's disease dementia is an impairment ... disease. About Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Parkinson's disease dementia The brain changes caused by Parkinson's ...

  12. Lewy Body Dementia Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provide an experienced diagnostic team skilled in Lewy body dementia. A thorough dementia diagnostic evaluation includes physical ... a good way to benefit others with Lewy body dementia. Medications Medications are one of the most ...

  13. The Association between Hypertension and Dementia in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiya Igase

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension (HT and dementia are common disorders in the elderly. HT in the elderly is associated with increased occurrence rates of dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD and vascular dementia (VaD. In connection to this, some studies have suggested that HT in old age correlates with the pathogenesis of dementia. Since HT is potentially reversible, a number of randomized trials have examined whether antihypertensive treatment may help in preventing dementia occurrence. We review five studies, all using subjects 60 years or older, which investigated different antihypertensive pharmacological treatments. Data from two trials (Syst-Eur, PROGRESS open the way toward the prevention of dementia (AD or VaD by antihypertensive treatments. In the Syst-Eur study, with the dihydropyridine calcium antagonists, a reduction in both types of dementia was demonstrated (risk reduction 55%. The PROGRESS study showed that the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs, with or without diuretics, resulted in decrease incidence of stroke-related dementia (risk reduction 19%, but dementia without stroke was not reduced. In contrast, the SHEP trial, treatment with a chlorthalidone-based antihypertensive regimen, did not significantly reduced the incidence of dementia. The SCOPE study (candesartan or hydrochlorothiazide versus placebo and the HYVET-COG study (indapamide or perindopril versus placebo found no significant difference between the active treatment and placebo group on the incidence of dementia. We found conflicting results regarding treatment benefits in dementia prevention. Recent clinical trials and studies on animal models suggest that blockades of RAS system could have reduced cognitive decline seen in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Future trials primarily designed to investigate the effects of antihypertensive agents on impaired cognition are needed.

  14. Cumulative Effect of Depression on Dementia Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Olazarán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze a potential cumulative effect of life-time depression on dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD, with control of vascular factors (VFs. Methods. This study was a subanalysis of the Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES study. Past and present depression, VFs, dementia status, and dementia due to AD were documented at study inception. Dementia status was also documented after three years. Four groups were created according to baseline data: never depression (nD, past depression (pD, present depression (prD, and present and past depression (prpD. Logistic regression was used. Results. Data of 1,807 subjects were investigated at baseline (mean age 74.3, 59.3% women, and 1,376 (81.6% subjects were evaluated after three years. The prevalence of dementia at baseline was 6.7%, and dementia incidence was 6.3%. An effect of depression was observed on dementia prevalence (OR [CI 95%] 1.84 [1.01–3.35] for prD and 2.73 [1.08–6.87] for prpD, and on dementia due to AD (OR 1.98 [0.98–3.99] for prD and OR 3.98 [1.48–10.71] for prpD (fully adjusted models, nD as reference. Depression did not influence dementia incidence. Conclusions. Present depression and, particularly, present and past depression are associated with dementia at old age. Multiple mechanisms, including toxic effect of depression on hippocampal neurons, plausibly explain these associations.

  15. Dementia in hereditary cystatin C amyloidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blöndal, H; Guomundsson, G; Benedikz, Eirikur

    1989-01-01

    in seventeen cases of whom two presented with dementia. At the last examination the majority had severe dementia and severely abnormal EEG. Anti-cystatin C positive amyloid vascular and perivascular infiltrates were found. The resulting damage to the microvasculature of the brain and secondary hemorrhages......Nineteen cases with verified Hereditary Cystatin C Amyloid Angiopathy are presented. All of the cases had one or more cerebrovascular insults starting at the age of 20-41 years and survived from 10 days to 23 years after the first insult. Progressive dementia was a prominent clinical feature...... and infarctions were considered to be an adequate explanation for the dementia in these cases. Skin biopsies can now probably be used to demonstrate cystatin C positive amyloid deposits conclusively in the tissues of these patients....

  16. Bilingualism, dementia, cognitive and neural reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perani, Daniela; Abutalebi, Jubin

    2015-12-01

    We discuss the role of bilingualism as a source of cognitive reserve and we propose the putative neural mechanisms through which lifelong bilingualism leads to a neural reserve that delays the onset of dementia. Recent findings highlight that the use of more than one language affects the human brain in terms of anatomo-structural changes. It is noteworthy that recent evidence from different places and cultures throughout the world points to a significant delay of dementia onset in bilingual/multilingual individuals. This delay has been reported not only for Alzheimer's dementia and its prodromal mild cognitive impairment phase, but also for other dementias such as vascular and fronto-temporal dementia, and was found to be independent of literacy, education and immigrant status. Lifelong bilingualism represents a powerful cognitive reserve delaying the onset of dementia by approximately 4 years. As to the causal mechanism, because speaking more than one language heavily relies upon executive control and attention, brain systems handling these functions are more developed in bilinguals resulting in increases of gray and white matter densities that may help protect from dementia onset. These neurocognitive benefits are even more prominent when second language proficiency and exposure are kept high throughout life.

  17. Cerebral blood flow changes in Parkinson's disease associated with dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derejko, M.; Lass, P.; Slawek, J.; Nyka, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    Dementia is one of the main non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) and it is diagnosed in about 30% of cases. Its aetiology remains unclear and contributing factors are controversial. Dementia may be more common in old patients with severe motor symptoms and mild cognitive impairment. Clinico-pathological studies show the association between dementia in PD and the age-related group of dementias, such as AD and VaD. A valuable aid in the assessment of dementia in PD is cerebral blood flow (CBF) brain SPECT scanning. It shows three different patterns of rCBF reduction, including frontal lobe hypoperfusion, iu Alzheimer-likel type of hypoperfusion and multiple, vascular defects. The heterogeneity of rCBF reduction may reflect the multifactorial pathophysiology of dementia in PD. It may result from concomitant AD pathology, cerebrovascular disease, destruction of nigro-striato-frontal projection or may be a distinct disease of different aetiology. (author)

  18. Vascular Risk Factors as Treatment Target to Prevent Cognitive Decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, Edo; Moll van Charante, Eric P.; van Gool, Willem A.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that vascular risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and lack of physical exercise are associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Neuroradiological and neuropathological studies

  19. Prevalence of dementia and major dementia subtypes in Spanish populations: A reanalysis of dementia prevalence surveys, 1990-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boix Raquel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the prevalence of dementia and major dementia subtypes in Spanish elderly. Methods We identified screening surveys, both published and unpublished, in Spanish populations, which fulfilled specific quality criteria and targeted prevalence of dementia in populations aged 70 years and above. Surveys covering 13 geographically different populations were selected (prevalence period: 1990-2008. Authors of original surveys provided methodological details of their studies through a systematic questionnaire and also raw age-specific data. Prevalence data were compared using direct adjustment and logistic regression. Results The reanalyzed study population (aged 70 year and above was composed of Central and North-Eastern Spanish sub-populations obtained from 9 surveys and totaled 12,232 persons and 1,194 cases of dementia (707 of Alzheimer's disease, 238 of vascular dementia. Results showed high variation in age- and sex-specific prevalence across studies. The reanalyzed prevalence of dementia was significantly higher in women; increased with age, particularly for Alzheimer's disease; and displayed a significant geographical variation among men. Prevalence was lowest in surveys reporting participation below 85%, studies referred to urban-mixed populations and populations diagnosed by psychiatrists. Conclusion Prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Central and North-Eastern Spain is higher in females, increases with age, and displays considerable geographic variation that may be method-related. People suffering from dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Spain may approach 600,000 and 400,000 respectively. However, existing studies may not be completely appropriate to infer prevalence of dementia and its subtypes in Spain until surveys in Southern Spain are conducted.

  20. Vascular Cognitive Impairment: risk factors and brain MRI correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijmer, Y.D.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular disease plays an important role in the development of dementia, also in patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. Risk factors such as hypertension, obesity, and type 2 diabetes, are associated with a two-fold increased risk of cognitive dysfunction and dementia. The development of

  1. Dementia in middle-aged patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Gaël; Beherec, Laurène; Hannequin, Didier; Opolczynski, Gaëlle; Rothärmel, Maud; Wallon, David; Véra, Pierre; Martinaud, Olivier; Guillin, Olivier; Campion, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Although numerous studies have assessed cognitive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia, very few have focused on the diagnosis of dementia. Our objectives were to accurately diagnose dementia in a cohort of middle-aged patients with schizophrenia and to assess the type of dementia. 96 patients with schizophrenia (46 inpatients and 50 outpatients), aged 50 to 70 years, underwent a psychiatric, neurological, and neuropsychological evaluation at baseline and after a 20-month follow-up. We established a 3-step procedure: 1) diagnose dementia according to the DSM-IV criteria, using the Mattis Dementia Rating and Activities of Daily Living scales; 2) characterize dementia using brain imaging, perfusion by 99mTc-ECD-SPECT and laboratory tests including Alzheimer's disease cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers; and 3) search for genetic determinants. Fourteen patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of dementia. Four were diagnosed with possible or probable behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), two with probable Alzheimer's disease, two with probable vascular dementia (including one due to CADASIL), one with CNS inflammatory disease, and six could not be fully characterized. The diagnosis of dementia in middle-aged patients with schizophrenia is challenging but possible, using a multistep procedure. The most frequent condition, bvFTD, could reflect the presence of an evolutive neurodegenerative process in some patients.

  2. Dementia beyond 2025: Knowledge and uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenigsberg, Paul-Ariel; Aquino, Jean-Pierre; Bérard, Alain; Gzil, Fabrice; Andrieu, Sandrine; Banerjee, Sube; Brémond, François; Buée, Luc; Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Mangialasche, Francesca; Platel, Hervé; Salmon, Eric; Robert, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Given that there may well be no significant advances in drug development before 2025, prevention of dementia-Alzheimer's disease through the management of vascular and lifestyle-related risk factors may be a more realistic goal than treatment. Level of education and cognitive reserve assessment in neuropsychological testing deserve attention, as well as cultural, social, and economic aspects of caregiving. Assistive technologies for dementia care remain complex. Serious games are emerging as virtual educational and pleasurable tools, designed for individual and cooperative skill building. Public policies are likely to pursue improving awareness and understanding of dementia; providing good quality early diagnosis and intervention for all; improving quality of care from diagnosis to the end of life, using clinical and economic end points; delivering dementia strategies quicker, with an impact on more people. Dementia should remain presented as a stand-alone concept, distinct from frailty or loss of autonomy. The basic science of sensory impairment and social engagement in people with dementia needs to be developed. E-learning and serious games programs may enhance public and professional education. Faced with funding shortage, new professional dynamics and economic models may emerge through coordinated, flexible research networks. Psychosocial research could be viewed as an investment in quality of care, rather than an academic achievement in a few centers of excellence. This would help provide a competitive advantage to the best operators. Stemming from care needs, a logical, systems approach to dementia care environment through organizational, architectural, and psychosocial interventions may be developed, to help reduce symptoms in people with dementia and enhance quality of life. Dementia-friendly environments, culture, and domesticity are key factors for such interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Poor Gait Performance and Prediction of Dementia: Results From a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchet, Olivier; Annweiler, Cédric; Callisaya, Michele L; De Cock, Anne-Marie; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Kressig, Reto W; Srikanth, Velandai; Steinmetz, Jean-Paul; Blumen, Helena M; Verghese, Joe; Allali, Gilles

    2016-06-01

    Poor gait performance predicts risk of developing dementia. No structured critical evaluation has been conducted to study this association yet. The aim of this meta-analysis was to systematically examine the association of poor gait performance with incidence of dementia. An English and French Medline search was conducted in June 2015, with no limit of date, using the medical subject headings terms "Gait" OR "Gait Disorders, Neurologic" OR "Gait Apraxia" OR "Gait Ataxia" AND "Dementia" OR "Frontotemporal Dementia" OR "Dementia, Multi-Infarct" OR "Dementia, Vascular" OR "Alzheimer Disease" OR "Lewy Body Disease" OR "Frontotemporal Dementia With Motor Neuron Disease" (Supplementary Concept). Poor gait performance was defined by standardized tests of walking, and dementia was diagnosed according to international consensus criteria. Four etiologies of dementia were identified: any dementia, Alzheimer disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), and non-AD (ie, pooling VaD, mixed dementias, and other dementias). Fixed effects meta-analyses were performed on the estimates in order to generate summary values. Of the 796 identified abstracts, 12 (1.5%) were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Poor gait performance predicted dementia [pooled hazard ratio (HR) combined with relative risk and odds ratio = 1.53 with P analysis provides evidence that poor gait performance predicts dementia. This association depends on the type of dementia; poor gait performance is a stronger predictor of non-AD dementias than AD. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Leisure activities and the risk of dementia in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verghese, Joe; Lipton, Richard B; Katz, Mindy J; Hall, Charles B; Derby, Carol A; Kuslansky, Gail; Ambrose, Anne F; Sliwinski, Martin; Buschke, Herman

    2003-06-19

    Participation in leisure activities has been associated with a lower risk of dementia. It is unclear whether increased participation in leisure activities lowers the risk of dementia or participation in leisure activities declines during the preclinical phase of dementia. We examined the relation between leisure activities and the risk of dementia in a prospective cohort of 469 subjects older than 75 years of age who resided in the community and did not have dementia at base line. We examined the frequency of participation in leisure activities at enrollment and derived cognitive-activity and physical-activity scales in which the units of measure were activity-days per week. Cox proportional-hazards analysis was used to evaluate the risk of dementia according to the base-line level of participation in leisure activities, with adjustment for age, sex, educational level, presence or absence of chronic medical illnesses, and base-line cognitive status. Over a median follow-up period of 5.1 years, dementia developed in 124 subjects (Alzheimer's disease in 61 subjects, vascular dementia in 30, mixed dementia in 25, and other types of dementia in 8). Among leisure activities, reading, playing board games, playing musical instruments, and dancing were associated with a reduced risk of dementia. A one-point increment in the cognitive-activity score was significantly associated with a reduced risk of dementia (hazard ratio, 0.93 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.90 to 0.97]), but a one-point increment in the physical-activity score was not (hazard ratio, 1.00). The association with the cognitive-activity score persisted after the exclusion of the subjects with possible preclinical dementia at base line. Results were similar for Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. In linear mixed models, increased participation in cognitive activities at base line was associated with reduced rates of decline in memory. Participation in leisure activities is associated with a reduced

  5. FDG PET imaging dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Byeong Cheol [Kyungpook National University Medical School and Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Dementia is a major burden for many countries including South Korea, where life expectancy is continuously growing and the proportion of aged people is rapidly growing. Neurodegenerative disorders, such as, Alzheimer disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia. Parkinson disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, Huntington disease, can cause dementia, and cerebrovascular disease also can cause dementia. Depression or hypothyroidism also can cause cognitive deficits, but they are reversible by management of underlying cause unlike the forementioned dementias. Therefore these are called pseudodementia. We are entering an era of dementia care that will be based upon the identification of potentially modifiable risk factors and early disease markers, and the application of new drugs postpone progression of dementias or target specific proteins that cause dementia. Efficient pharmacologic treatment of dementia needs not only to distinguish underlying causes of dementia but also to be installed as soon as possible. Therefore, differential diagnosis and early diagnosis of dementia are utmost importance. F-18 FDG PET is useful for clarifying dementing diseases and is also useful for early detection of the disease. Purpose of this article is to review the current value of FDG PET for dementing diseases including differential diagnosis of dementia and prediction of evolving dementia.

  6. FDG PET imaging dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Byeong Cheol

    2007-01-01

    Dementia is a major burden for many countries including South Korea, where life expectancy is continuously growing and the proportion of aged people is rapidly growing. Neurodegenerative disorders, such as, Alzheimer disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia. Parkinson disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, Huntington disease, can cause dementia, and cerebrovascular disease also can cause dementia. Depression or hypothyroidism also can cause cognitive deficits, but they are reversible by management of underlying cause unlike the forementioned dementias. Therefore these are called pseudodementia. We are entering an era of dementia care that will be based upon the identification of potentially modifiable risk factors and early disease markers, and the application of new drugs postpone progression of dementias or target specific proteins that cause dementia. Efficient pharmacologic treatment of dementia needs not only to distinguish underlying causes of dementia but also to be installed as soon as possible. Therefore, differential diagnosis and early diagnosis of dementia are utmost importance. F-18 FDG PET is useful for clarifying dementing diseases and is also useful for early detection of the disease. Purpose of this article is to review the current value of FDG PET for dementing diseases including differential diagnosis of dementia and prediction of evolving dementia

  7. Delayed-onset dementia after stroke or transient ischemic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Vincent C T; Lam, Bonnie Y K; Wang, Zhaolu; Liu, Wenyan; Au, Lisa; Leung, Eric Y L; Chen, Sirong; Yang, Jie; Chu, Winnie C W; Lau, Alexander Y L; Chan, Anne Y Y; Shi, Lin; Fan, Florence; Ma, Sze H; Ip, Vincent; Soo, Yannie O Y; Leung, Thomas W H; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Ho, Chi L; Wong, Lawrence K S; Wong, Adrian

    2016-11-01

    Patients surviving stroke without immediate dementia are at high risk of delayed-onset dementia. Mechanisms underlying delayed-onset dementia are complex and may involve vascular and/or neurodegenerative diseases. Dementia-free patients with stroke and/or transient ischemic attack (TIA; n = 919) were studied for 3 years prospectively, excluding those who developed dementia 3 to 6 months after stroke and/or TIA. Forty subjects (4.4%) developed dementia during the study period. Imaging markers of severe small vessel disease (SVD), namely presence of ≥3 lacunes and confluent white matter changes; history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus independently predicted delayed-onset dementia after adjustment for age, gender, and education. Only 6 of 31 (19.4%) subjects with delayed cognitive decline harbored Alzheimer's disease-like Pittsburg compound B (PiB) retention. Most PiB cases (16/25, 64%) had evidence of severe SVD. Severe SVD contributes importantly to delayed-onset dementia after stroke and/or TIA. Future clinical trials aiming to prevent delayed-onset dementia after stroke and/or TIA should target this high-risk group. Copyright © 2016 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. MR spectroscopy in dementia; MR-Spektroskopie bei Demenz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, T.; Gerigk, L.; Giesel, F.; Schuster, L.; Essig, M. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Abteilung E010, Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    With an increasingly aging population we are faced with the problem of an increasing number of dementia patients. In addition to clinical, neuropsychological and laboratory procedures, MRI plays an important role in the early diagnosis of dementia. In addition to various morphological changes functional changes can also help in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of dementia. Overall the diagnosis of dementia can be improved by using parameters from MR spectroscopy. This article focuses on MR spectroscopic changes in the physiological aging process as well as on changes in mild cognitive impairment a precursor of Alzheimer's dementia, in Alzheimer's dementia, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia and Lewy body dementia. (orig.) [German] Angesichts einer immer aelter werdenden Bevoelkerung sind wir mit dem Problem einer zunehmenden Zahl an Demenzerkrankungen konfrontiert. Neben klinischen, neuropsychologischen und laborchemischen Verfahren spielt die MRT zur Fruehdiagnostik einer Demenz eine wichtige Rolle. Morphologische Veraenderungen wie auch verschiedene funktionelle Verfahren helfen bei der Diagnostik und Differenzialdiagnostik einer Demenz. Insgesamt kann mittels MR-spektroskopischer Parameter die Diagnostik einer Demenz verbessert werden. In diesem Artikel soll auf MR-spektroskopische Veraenderungen im Rahmen des physiologischen Alterungsprozesses eingegangen werden. Ferner werden speziell Veraenderungen bei leichter kognitiver Beeintraechtigung, einer Vorform der Alzheimer-Demenz, bei Alzheimer-, frontotemporaler, vaskulaerer und Lewy-Koerper-Demenz eroertert. (orig.)

  9. Drawing Disorders in Alzheimer's Disease and Other Forms of Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojano, Luigi; Gainotti, Guido

    2016-04-21

    Drawing is a multicomponential process that can be impaired by many kinds of brain lesions. Drawing disorders are very common in Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia, and can provide clinical information for the distinction of the different dementing diseases. In our review we started from an overview of the neural and cognitive bases of drawing, and from a recollection of the drawing tasks more frequently used for assessing individuals with dementia. Then, we analyzed drawing disorders in dementia, paying special attention to those observed in Alzheimer's disease, from the prodromal stages of the amnesic mild cognitive impairment to the stages of full-blown dementia, both in the sporadic forms with late onset in the entorhino-hippocampal structures and in those with early onset in the posterior neocortical structures. We reviewed the drawing features that could differentiate Alzheimer's disease from vascular dementia and from the most frequent forms of degenerative dementia, namely frontotemporal dementia and Lewy body disease. Finally, we examined some peculiar aspects of drawing disorders in dementia, such as perseverations, rotations, and closing-in. We argue that a careful analysis of drawing errors helps to differentiate the different forms of dementia more than overall accuracy in drawing.

  10. Association between diabetes and causes of dementia: Evidence from a clinicopathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Niures Pimentel dos Santos Matioli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Background: Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for dementia, especially for vascular dementia (VaD, but there is no consensus on diabetes as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD and other causes of dementia. Objective: To explore the association between diabetes and the neuropathological etiology of dementia in a large autopsy study. Methods: Data were collected from the participants of the Brain Bank of the Brazilian Aging Brain Study Group between 2004 and 2015. Diagnosis of diabetes was reported by the deceased's next-of-kin. Clinical dementia was established when CDR ≥ 1 and IQCODE > 3.41. Dementia etiology was determined by neuropathological examination using immunohistochemistry. The association of diabetes with odds of dementia was investigated using multivariate logistic regression. Results: We included 1,037 subjects and diabetes was present in 279 participants (27%. The prevalence of dementia diagnosis was similar in diabetics (29% and non-diabetics (27%. We found no association between diabetes and dementia (OR = 1.22; 95%CI = 0.81-1.82; p = 0.34 on the multivariate analysis. AD was the main cause of dementia in both groups, while VaD was the second-most-frequent cause in diabetics. Other mixed dementia was the second-most-common cause of dementia and more frequent among non-diabetics (p = 0.03. Conclusion: Diabetes was not associated with dementia in this large clinicopathological study.

  11. ABO Blood Group and Dementia Risk--A Scandinavian Record-Linkage Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Rostgaard, Klaus; Ullum, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    ,615 cases of Alzheimer's disease, 1,842 cases of vascular dementia, and 9,091 cases of unspecified dementia. Overall, our study showed no association between ABO blood group and risk of Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia or unspecified dementia. This was also true when analyses were restricted to donors......BACKGROUND: Dementia includes a group of neuro-degenerative disorders characterized by varying degrees of cognitive impairment. Recent data indicates that blood group AB is associated with impaired cognition in elderly patients. To date there are no large-scale studies that have examined...... the relationship between ABO blood group and dementia-related disorders in detail. METHODS: We used data from the SCANDAT2 database that contains information on over 1.6 million blood donors from 1968 in Sweden and 1981 from Denmark. The database was linked with health outcomes data from nationwide patient...

  12. Incidence of dementia and major subtypes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fratiglioni, L; Launer, L J; Andersen, K

    2000-01-01

    The authors examined the association of incident dementia and subtypes with age, sex, and geographic area in Europe. Incidence data from eight population-based studies carried out in seven European countries were compared and pooled. The pooled data included 835 mild to severe dementia cases and 42......,996 person-years of follow-up. In all studies a higher proportion of cases were diagnosed with AD (60 to 70% of all demented cases) than vascular dementia (VaD). The incidence of dementia and AD continued to increase with age up to age 85 years, after which rates increased in women but not men....... There was a large variation in VaD incidence across studies. In the pooled analysis, the incidence rates increased with age without any substantial difference between men and women. Surprisingly, higher incidence rates of dementia and AD were found in the very old in northwest countries than in southern countries...

  13. Dementia: Diagnosis and Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Dementia Diagnosis & Tests If you or someone you care ... To determine whether an older adult might have dementia, a healthcare professional will: Ask about the person’s ...

  14. Dementia and driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000028.htm Dementia and driving To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. If your loved one has dementia , deciding when they can no longer drive may ...

  15. The interuncal distance in elderly patients with dementia; MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Takasaki, Masaru [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan); Sugiyama, Takeshi; Abe, Shinei; Kobayashi, Yasutaka; Maehata, Yukihiko; Katsunuma, Hidetaka

    1993-09-01

    The interuncal distance between the unci of the temporal lobes was measured from axial MR images of the brain in elderly patients with dementia including dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT), vascular dementia (VD), and others. The measured value of the interuncal distance completely separated patients with DAT from normal controls, and there was significant diference in the interuncal distance between patients with DAT and VD. This measurement is a practical method of assessing hippocampal atrophy and appears to be a useful adjunct in the clinical diagnosis of DAT. (author).

  16. The interuncal distance in elderly patients with dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Takasaki, Masaru; Sugiyama, Takeshi; Abe, Shinei; Kobayashi, Yasutaka; Maehata, Yukihiko; Katsunuma, Hidetaka.

    1993-01-01

    The interuncal distance between the unci of the temporal lobes was measured from axial MR images of the brain in elderly patients with dementia including dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT), vascular dementia (VD), and others. The measured value of the interuncal distance completely separated patients with DAT from normal controls, and there was significant diference in the interuncal distance between patients with DAT and VD. This measurement is a practical method of assessing hippocampal atrophy and appears to be a useful adjunct in the clinical diagnosis of DAT. (author)

  17. Posttraumatic stress disorder and dementia in Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Wolfgang; Kreil, Sebastian Konstantin; Biermann, Teresa

    2011-03-01

    The incidence of mental and somatic sequelae has been shown to be very high in the group of people damaged by the Holocaust. Within the context of internal research, 93 Holocaust survivors suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder have been examined. Patients suffered on average from 4.5 (standard deviation ± 1.8) somatic diagnoses as well as 1.8 (standard deviation ± 0.5) psychiatric diagnoses. A diagnosis of dementia was ascertained according to ICD-10 criteria in 14%. Vascular dementia (66%) dominated over Alzheimer's dementia (23%) and other subtypes (11%).

  18. Cognitive impairment of dementias

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, L. D.; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Yaneth

    2012-01-01

    Dementia is a clinical syndrome characterized by a loss of cognitive and emotional abilities of sufficient severity to infer with social or occupational functioning, or both. Although the causes of dementia and characteristics are not always fully understood, it is understood that it is not a natural part of aging. Definitive diagnosis of dementia is made only through the autopsy and although the diagnosis of probable or possible dementia is complex is achieved by the intervention of several ...

  19. B vitamins influence vascular cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the number of elderly in the USA and globally continues to increase, age-related neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia, are a growing concern. The loss of memory, emotional changes, and impairments in general cognitive functioning frequently result in social is...

  20. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Vascular Cognitive Impairment: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Tiel

    Full Text Available Neuropsychiatric symptoms or Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD are common and invariably appear at some point during the course of the disease, mediated both by cerebrovascular disease and neurodegenerative processes. Few studies have compared the profiles of BPSD in Vascular Cognitive Impairment (VCI of different subtypes (subcortical or cortical and clinical stages (Vascular Cognitive Impairment No Dementia [VaCIND] and Vascular Dementia [VaD].Objective:To review the BPSD associated with different subtypes and stages of VCI using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI.Methods:Medline, Scielo and Lilacs databases were searched for the period January 2000 to December 2014, with the key words: "BPSD AND Vascular Dementia, "NPI AND Vascular Dementia" and "NPI AND VCI. Qualitative analysis was performed on studies evaluating BPSD in VCI, using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI.Results:A total of 82 studies were retrieved of which 13 were eligible and thus included. Among the articles selected, 4 compared BPSD in Subcortical Vascular Dementia (SVaD versus Cortical-Subcortical Vascular Dementia (CSVaD, 3 involved comparisons between SVaD and VaCIND, 1 study analyzed differences between CSVaD and VaCIND, while 5 studies assessed BPSD in CSVaD. Subcortical and Cortical-Subcortical VaD were associated predominantly with Apathy and Depression. VaCIND may present fewer behavioral symptoms than VaD.Conclusion:The profile of BPSD differs for different stages of VCI. Determining the most prevalent BPSD in VCI subtypes might be helpful for improving early diagnosis and management of these symptoms.

  1. Early diagnosis of dementia and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Toshiki

    2010-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) refers to the transitional state between the normal elderly and dementia. This concept accelerated many clinical, epidemiological and neuroimaging research in recent 10 years about an early stage of dementia. These studies have approved a significance of this concept and MCI have been classified into subtypes, including prodromal forms of a variety of dementias. An algorithm is proposed to assist the clinician in subclassifying subjects into the various types of MCI, but new several concepts, such as vascular cognitive impairment, still confused clinicians. Therefore, definition and diagnostic procedure for MCI were discussed in this review. Several population-based studies as well as Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study have documented a higher rate of progression to Alzheimer's disease in individuals diagnosed with MCI. Progression factors, including neuroimaging and vascular risk factors are also discussed. Vascular risk factors, such as hypertension, hyperlipemia and diabetes mellitus can be modulated by food, life style and treatment. The recent clinical trials for protective cognition using anti- hypertensive medication as well as statin is discussed. (author)

  2. Lewy body dementias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Annemette; Korbo, Lise

    2017-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson disease dementia share the same pathophysiology. Together they are called Lewy body dementias and are the second most common type of dementia. Lewy body dementias receive little attention, and patients are often misdiagnosed, leading to less than ideal...... management. In this article, diagnostic criteria combined with imaging and other biomarkers as well as current treatment recommendations are summarized, and some of the challenges for the future are outlined. Refinement of diagnosis and clarification of the pathogenesis are required in search for disease...

  3. Cognition and dementia in older patients with epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Arjune; Capelli, Valentina

    2018-01-01

    Abstract With advances in healthcare and an ageing population, the number of older adults with epilepsy is set to rise substantially across the world. In developed countries the highest incidence of epilepsy is already in people over 65 and, as life expectancy increases, individuals who developed epilepsy at a young age are also living longer. Recent findings show that older persons with epilepsy are more likely to suffer from cognitive dysfunction and that there might be an important bidirectional relationship between epilepsy and dementia. Thus some people with epilepsy may be at a higher risk of developing dementia, while individuals with some forms of dementia, particularly Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia, are at significantly higher risk of developing epilepsy. Consistent with this emerging view, epidemiological findings reveal that people with epilepsy and individuals with Alzheimer’s disease share common risk factors. Recent studies in Alzheimer’s disease and late-onset epilepsy also suggest common pathological links mediated by underlying vascular changes and/or tau pathology. Meanwhile electrophysiological and neuroimaging investigations in epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease, and vascular dementia have focused interest on network level dysfunction, which might be important in mediating cognitive dysfunction across all three of these conditions. In this review we consider whether seizures promote dementia, whether dementia causes seizures, or if common underlying pathophysiological mechanisms cause both. We examine the evidence that cognitive impairment is associated with epilepsy in older people (aged over 65) and the prognosis for patients with epilepsy developing dementia, with a specific emphasis on common mechanisms that might underlie the cognitive deficits observed in epilepsy and Alzheimer’s disease. Our analyses suggest that there is considerable intersection between epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease and cerebrovascular disease raising

  4. Health Policy and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Tia

    2018-02-01

    The anticipated number of persons with dementia continues to grow, and the US has insufficiently planned to provide and pay for care for this large population. A number of significant clinical trials aiming to prevent or cure dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, have not demonstrated success. Because of the lack of efficacious treatments, and the fact that brain changes associated with dementia may begin decades before symptoms, we can predict that efforts to cure or prevent dementia will not succeed in time for millions of people in the baby boomer generation. Because of the anticipated increase in people suffering with dementia in the coming years, US health policy must address major gaps in how to provide and pay for dementia care. Reliance on Medicaid and Medicare as currently structured will not sustain the necessary care, nor can families alone provide all necessary dementia care. Innovative forms of providing long-term care and paying for it are crucially needed.

  5. Dementia in Palliative Care in the Seychelles´ Hospice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Carlos Roca Socarrás

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dementia presents a high prevalence both in developed and developing countries. It is one of the main causes of terminal stage for a non oncological illness. Objective: To determine the behaviour of some biological variables in terminal stage patients with dementia. Method: A descriptive study was conducted in 16 patients with a diagnostic of dementia in terminal stage. These patients were admitted in the Seychelles´ Hospice between February 2010 and February 2011. The behaviour of dementia in relation to patient’s age, type of dementia, responses to the Folstein´s cognitive mini-test, Charlson´s and Barthel´s indexes, presence of non communicable chronic diseases, and health settings responsible for the remission was analyzed. Results: 31,3 % of patients admitted in the Hospice presented  dementia. The age group with more cases was that from 75 to 84 years old. Vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease presented the same number of cases (37,5 % each. 56% of the patients died during the first 15 days of admission and only 12,5 % lived more than 6 months. Hypertension and cerebrovascular disease were the most common non communicable chronic diseases. 56% of cases had been remitted from hospitals. Conclusions: Dementia in terminal stages follows a behaviour that allows anticipating an appropriate strategy for palliative care in the Hospice.

  6. Qualitative aspects of learning, recall, and recognition in dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjith Neelima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine whether learning and serial position effect (SPE differs qualitatively and quantitatively among different types of dementia and between dementia patients and controls; we also wished to find out whether interference affects it. Materials and Methods: We administered the Malayalam version of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT to 30 cognitively unimpaired controls and 80 dementia patients [30 with Alzheimer′s disease (AD, 30 with vascular dementia (VaD, and 20 with frontotemporal dementia (FTD] with mild severity on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale. Results: All groups were comparable on education and age, except the FTD group, who were younger. Qualitatively, the learning pattern and SPE (with primacy and recency being superior to intermediate was retained in the AD, VaD, and control groups. On SPE in free recall, recency was superior to intermediate in the FTD group (P < 0.01 using Bonferroni correction. On recognition, the AD and VaD groups had more misses (P < 0.01, while the FTD group had more false positives (P < 0.01. Conclusion: Quantitative learning is affected by dementia. The pattern of qualitative learning remains unaltered in dementia in the early stages.

  7. Epidemiology of early-onset dementia: a review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Renata Teles; Caixeta, Leonardo; Machado, Sergio; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Presenile Dementia or Early Onset Dementia (EOD) is a public health problem, it differs from Senile Dementia, and encloses a significant number of cases; nevertheless, it is still poorly understood and underdiagnosed. This study aims to review the prevalence and etiology of EOD, comparing EOD with Senile Dementia, as well as to show the main causes of EOD and their prevalence in population and non-population based studies. The computer-supported search used the following databases: Pubmed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge and Scielo. The search terms were alcohol-associated dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, Creutzfeldt-jakob disease, dementia with lewy bodies, early onset dementia, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Huntington’s disease, mixed dementia, neurodegenerative disorders, Parkinson’s disease dementia, presenile dementia, traumatic brain injury, vascular dementia. Only papers published in English and conducted from 1985 up to 2012 were preferentially reviewed. Neurodegenerative diseases are the most common etiologies seen in EOD. Among the general population, the prevalence of EOD was found to range between 0 to 700 per 100.000 habitants in groups of 25-64 years old, with an increasing incidence with age. The progression of EOD was found to range between 8.3 to 22.8 new cases per 100.000 in those aged under 65 years. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the major etiology, followed by Vascular Dementia (VaD) and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD). A larger number of epidemiological studies to elucidate how environmental issues contribute to EOD are necessary, thus, we can collaborate in the planning and prevention of services toward dementia patients. PMID:23878613

  8. Causes of Death According to Death Certificates in Individuals with Dementia: A Cohort from the Swedish Dementia Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ptacek, Sara; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Cermakova, Pavla; Rizzuto, Debora; Religa, Dorota; Eriksdotter, Maria

    2016-11-01

    The causes of death in dementia are not established, particularly in rarer dementias. The aim of this study is to calculate risk of death from specific causes for a broader spectrum of dementia diagnoses. Cohort study. Swedish Dementia Registry (SveDem), 2007-2012. Individuals with incident dementia registered in SveDem (N = 28,609); median follow-up 741 days. Observed deaths were 5,368 (19%). Information on number of deaths and causes of mortality was obtained from death certificates. Odds ratios for the presence of dementia on death certificates were calculated. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox hazards regression for cause-specific mortality, using Alzheimer's dementia (AD) as reference. Hazard ratios for death for each specific cause of death were compared with hazard ratios of death from all causes (P-values from t-tests). The most frequent underlying cause of death in this cohort was cardiovascular (37%), followed by dementia (30%). Dementia and cardiovascular causes appeared as main or contributory causes on 63% of certificates, followed by respiratory (26%). Dementia was mentioned less in vascular dementia (VaD; 57%). Compared to AD, cardiovascular mortality was higher in individuals with VaD than in those with AD (HR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.64-2.02). Respiratory death was higher in individuals with Lewy body dementia (LBD, including Parkinson's disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies, HR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.71-2.71), and the risk of respiratory death was higher than expected from the risk for all-cause mortality. Participants with frontotemporal dementia were more likely to die from external causes of death than those with AD (HR = 2.86, 95% CI = 1.53-5.32). Dementia is underreported on death certificates as main and contributory causes. Individuals with LBD had a higher risk of respiratory death than those with AD. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society published by Wiley

  9. Depression is linked to dementia in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkanova, Vyara; Ebmeier, Klaus P; Allan, Charlotte L

    2017-01-01

    Depression and dementia are both common conditions in older people, and they frequently occur together. Late life depression affects about 3.0-4.5% of adults aged 65 and older. Depression occurs in up to 20% of patients with Alzheimer’s disease and up to 45% of patients with vascular dementia. Rather than a risk factor, depression with onset in later life is more likely to be either prodromal to dementia or a condition that unmasks pre-existing cognitive impairment by compromising cognitive reserve. Depression can be a psychological response to receiving a diagnosis of dementia. The distinction between depression and early dementia may be particularly difficult. Detailed histories obtained from patients and their relatives as well as longitudinal follow-up are important. Cognitive testing can be very helpful. It is preferable to use a neuropsychological test that is sensitive to subtle cognitive changes and assesses all cognitive domains, such as the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Older people with depression are at raised risk of dementia and this risk is increased if they have had symptoms for a long time, if their symptoms are severe, where there are multiple (vascular) comorbidities, and where there are structural brain changes including hippocampal atrophy and white matter abnormalities.

  10. Communicating through singing. Individual music therapy with persons suffering from dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2002-01-01

    In degenerative diseases like dementia, persons experience problems in communicating. In Alzheimer's disease the language problems resemble Wernicke's aphasia; in vascular, or other types of dementia, the course can be quite different and have less predictable features. When verbal language...... deteriorates other means of communication are essential and the question can be asked, if it is at all possible to communicate with persons in later stages of dementia? In dementia care the focus of research is on central domains, with a need to generalise and prove effects. In the last decade person centred...

  11. Clinical advances of SPECT rCBF and interventional imaging applied in the diagnosis of dementias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kaijun

    2002-01-01

    Brain perfusion SPECT is a functional and noninvasive neuroimaging technique that allow the investigation of physiological and physiopathologic events in the human brain, including cerebral perfusion and function. Interventional rCBF imaging can also evaluate cerebrovascular reserve. In clinically, rCBF imaging play an important role in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of dementias, especially vascular and Alzheimer's dementia. If etiology of some types of dementias is determined so that it can be early diagnosed, treated and taken prevention; the partial patients with dementia can get recovery or remission

  12. Depression associated with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzmann, H; Qazi, A

    2015-06-01

    Depression and cognitive disorders, including dementia and mild cognitive impairment, are common disorders in old age. Depression is frequent in dementia, causing distress, reducing the quality of life, exacerbating cognitive and functional impairment and increasing caregiver stress. Even mild levels of depression can significantly add to the functional impairment of dementia patients and the severity of psychopathological and neurological impairments increases with increasing severity of depression. Depressive symptoms may be both a risk factor for, as well as a prodrome of dementia. Major depressive syndrome of Alzheimer's disease may be among the most common mood disorders of older adults. Treating depression is therefore a key clinical priority to improve the quality of life both of people with dementia as well as their carergivers. Nonpharmacological approaches and watchful waiting should be attempted first in patients who present with mild to moderate depression and dementia. In cases of severe depression or depression not able to be managed through nonpharmacological means, antidepressant therapy should be considered.

  13. Paradoxical embolisation and cerebral white matter lesions in dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purandare, N.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; McCollum, C.; Jackson, A.; Burns, A.

    2008-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the relationship between spontaneous cerebral emboli (SCE), patent foramen ovale (PFO) and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on cerebral MRI in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). SCE were identified by transcranial Doppler of the middle

  14. Identifying risk for dementia across populations: A study on the prevalence of dementia in tribal elderly population of Himalayan region in Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Raina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies have suggested that dementia is differentially distributed across populations with a lower prevalence in developing regions than the developed ones. A comparison in the prevalence of dementia across populations may provide an insight into its risk factors. Keeping this in view, a study was planned to evaluate the prevalence of dementia in tribal elderly population. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional comprehensive two-phase survey of all residents aged 60 years and older was conducted. Phase one involved screening of all individuals aged 60 and above with the help of a cognitive screen specifically developed for the tribal population. Phase two involved clinical examination of individuals who were suspected of dementia as per the developed cognitive screening test. Results: The results revealed that no individual above 60 years of age in the studied population was diagnosed as a case of dementia. Thereby, pointing out at some unknown factors, which are responsible for prevention of dementia. Discussion: The differences between the prevalence rate in this study and other studies in India appear to be a function of a valid regional difference. Environmental, phenotypic and genetic factors may contribute to regional and racial variations in dementia. Societies living in isolated hilly and tribal areas seem less predisposed to dementia, particularly age related neurodegenerative and vascular dementia, which are the most common causes for dementia in elderly. This may be because some environmental risk factors are much less prevalent in these settings.

  15. Cerebral imaging and dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rascol, A.; Celsis, P.; Berry, I.

    1989-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques undoubtedly are of value when applied to the study of dementia. This value, however, varies with the technique utilized, and one must distinguish between acquired and potential knowledge. Morphological imaging with computerized tomography or magnetic resonance detects or confirms certain causes of dementia (tumours, lacunae, hydrocephalus with normal CSF pressure), but it is still not sensitive and specific enough to be very useful in primary dementias. Functional imaging (essentially with emission tomography) has already provided interesting data in the study of degenerative dementia (correlations with neuropsychology, subtyping), but what is most promising is its possibilities in the physiopathological approach of the disease [fr

  16. Cerebral imaging and dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rascol, A.; Celsis, P.; Berry, I.

    1989-02-01

    Modern imaging techniques undoubtedly are of value when applied to the study of dementia. This value, however, varies with the technique utilized, and one must distinguish between acquired and potential knowledge. Morphological imaging with computerized tomography or magnetic resonance detects or confirms certain causes of dementia (tumours, lacunae, hydrocephalus with normal CSF pressure), but it is still not sensitive and specific enough to be very useful in primary dementias. Functional imaging (essentially with emission tomography) has already provided interesting data in the study of degenerative dementia (correlations with neuropsychology, subtyping), but what is most promising is its possibilities in the physiopathological approach of the disease.

  17. Vascular care in patients with Alzheimer's disease with cerebrovascular lesions-a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, Edo; Kuiper, Roy; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; van Gool, Willem A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether vascular care slows dementia progression in patients with Alzheimer's disease with cerebrovascular lesions on neuroimaging. DESIGN: Multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial with 2-year follow-up. SETTING: Neurological and geriatric outpatient clinics in 10

  18. Cerebral microbleeds: different prevalence, topography, and risk factors depending on dementia diagnosis—the Karolinska Imaging Dementia Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, S; Martola, J; Granberg, T; Li, X; Shams, M; Fereshtehnejad, S M; Cavallin, L; Aspelin, P; Kristoffersen-Wiberg, M; Wahlund, L O

    2015-04-01

    Cerebral microbleeds are thought to represent cerebral amyloid angiopathy when in lobar regions of the brain and hypertensive arteriopathy when in deep and infratentorial locations. By studying cerebral microbleeds, their topography, and risk factors, we aimed to gain an insight into the vascular and amyloid pathology of dementia diagnoses and increase the understanding of cerebral microbleeds in dementia. We analyzed 1504 patients (53% women; mean age, 63 ± 10 years; 10 different dementia diagnoses) in this study. All patients underwent MR imaging as part of the dementia investigation, and all their clinical parameters were recorded. Among the 1504 patients with dementia, 22% had cerebral microbleeds. Cerebral microbleed topography was predominantly lobar (P = .01) and occipital (P = .007) in Alzheimer disease. Patients with cerebral microbleeds were significantly older (P < .001), were more frequently male (P < .001), had lower cognitive scores (P = .006), and more often had hypertension (P < .001). Risk factors for cerebral microbleeds varied depending on the dementia diagnosis. Odds ratios for having cerebral microbleeds increased with the number of risk factors (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, male sex, and age 65 and older) in the whole patient group and increased differently in the separate dementia diagnoses. Prevalence, topography, and risk factors of cerebral microbleeds vary depending on the dementia diagnosis and reflect the inherent pathology of different dementia diagnoses. Because cerebral microbleeds are seen as possible predictors of intracerebral hemorrhage, their increasing prevalence with an increasing number of risk factors, as shown in our study, may require taking the number of risk factors into account when deciding on anticoagulant therapy in dementia. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  19. Multi-Infarct Dementia: A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin McKay

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multi-infarct dementia (MID, a prominent subtype of vascular dementia (VaD, has only achieved recognition in the last 4 decades. Since its original description, the characterization, etiological understanding, and therapeutic direction of MID and other VaD subtypes has progressed at an astounding rate. Summary: This paper divides the landmark discoveries and emergence of new research strategies for MID into decade-defining patterns so that a condensed picture of the total history of MID and its eventual inclusion as a VaD subtype emerges. This paper follows the first descriptive decade, a shift to a preventative focus, a renewed interest coinciding with timely advances in research technology, and a hopeful return to treatment possibilities for VaD. Key Message: Concisely tracing the historical lineage of the modern understanding of MID, both as a singular entity and as part of the VaD con­stellation of disorders, provides a novel perspective on the foundation upon which future advances in combating vascular contributions to dementia will be based.

  20. Prognosis of dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vorst, IE

    2016-01-01

    Background: In this thesis, we focused on the prognosis of patients with dementia who visited a hospital (inpatient or day clinic care) in the Netherlands. So far, absolute mortality risks for dementia were lacking in the Netherlands, whereas these risks have been available for years for cancer or

  1. Atherosclerosis, apolipoprotein E and the prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in a population-based study: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ott (Alewijn); M.L. Bots (Michiel); A.J.C. Slooter (Arjen); F. van Harskamp (Frans); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); C. van Broeckhoven (Christine); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Vascular disorders have been implicated in dementia, but whether atherosclerosis is related to the most frequent type of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, is not known. The apolipoprotein-E genotype has been associated with Alzheimer's disease, and we postulate that it plays a

  2. Early-Onset Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konijnenberg, Elles; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Kate, Mara Ten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early-onset dementia (EOD) is a rare condition, with an often atypical clinical presentation, and it may therefore be challenging to diagnose. Specialized memory clinics vary in the type of patients seen, diagnostic procedures applied, and the pharmacological treatment given. The aim...... of this study was to investigate quality-of-care indicators in subjects with EOD from 3 tertiary memory clinics in 3 European countries. METHODS: We included 1325 newly diagnosed EOD patients, ages 65 years or younger, between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2013, from the Danish Dementia Registry...... (Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen), the Swedish Dementia Registry ("SveDem", Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm), and the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (VU University Medical Center). RESULTS: The frequency of EOD among all dementia patients was significantly lower in Copenhagen (410, 20%) and Stockholm (284, 21...

  3. Antidepressants and dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Søndergård, Lars; Forman, Julie Lyng

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that antidepressants may have neuroprotective abilities but it has newer been investigated lately whether treatment with antidepressants reduces the risk of dementia. METHOD: Linkage of registers of all prescribed antidepressants and diagnoses of dementia...... in Denmark during a period from 1995 to 2005. RESULTS: Persons who purchased antidepressants once (N=687,552) had an increased rate of dementia compared to persons unexposed to antidepressants (N=779,831). Nevertheless, the rate of dementia changed over time; thus during the initial prescription periods...... the rate increased with the number of prescriptions but continued long-term antidepressants treatment was associated with a reduction in the rate of dementia, however, not to the same level as the rate for the general population. This pattern was found for all classes of antidepressants (SSRIs, newer non...

  4. Dementia in the National Cause of Death Registry in Norway 1969-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidar Hjellvik

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of dementia is expected to increase markedly during the coming decades. Epidemiological studies involving the National Cause of Death Registry (NCDR may be useful for exploring the aetiology of dementia. We therefore wanted to study developments in the reporting of dementia in the NCDR over the last four decades.Methods: We calculated the age- and gender specific proportion of deaths with dementia reported in the NCDR (dementia deaths in the period 1969-2010, and the proportion of vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease deaths in 1986-2010. Separate analyses were done for deaths occurring in nursing homes in 1996-2010. The proportion of dementia deaths where dementia was coded as underlying cause of death was also calculated.Results: The proportion of dementia deaths increased more than threefold in the period 1969-2010 among women (from 4% to 15%, and more than doubled among men (from 3% to 7%. In nursing homes the proportion increased from 17% to 26% for women and from 13% to 18% for men. The proportion of dementia deaths with Alzheimer’s disease reported in the NCDR increased from practically zero in 1986 to a maximum of 28% in 2005. The proportion of dementia deaths with dementia as underlying cause of death increased from a minimum of 6% in 1972 to a maximum of 51% in 2009.Conclusion: Although the reporting of dementia in the NCDR increased markedly from 1969 to 2010, dementia is still under-reported for old people and for deaths occurring in nursing homes when compared to prevalence estimates.

  5. Music and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Amee; Samson, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing incidence of dementia in our aging population, and consequently an urgent need to develop treatments and activities that may alleviate the symptoms of dementia. Accumulating evidence shows that persons with dementia enjoy music, and their ability to respond to music is potentially preserved even in the late or severe stages of dementia when verbal communication may have ceased. Media interest in this topic has contributed to the public perception that music abilities are an "island of preservation" in an otherwise cognitively impaired person with dementia. In this chapter, we review the current literature on music cognition in dementia and show that there has been very scarce rigorous scientific investigation of this issue, and that various types of music memory exist and are differentially impaired in the different types of dementia. Furthermore, we discuss the recent development of music activities as a nonpharmacological treatment for dementia and highlight the methodological limitations of the current literature on this topic. While it has been reported that music activities can improve behavior, (particularly agitation), mood, and cognition in persons with dementia, recent large-scale randomized control studies have questioned the specificity of the effect of music and found that it is no more beneficial than other pleasant activities. Nevertheless, music is unique in its powerful ability to elicit both memories and emotions. This can provide an important link to individual's past and a means of nonverbal communication with carers, which make it an ideal stimulus for persons with dementia. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Depression, Dementia, and Social Supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Sally R.; Vitaliano, Peter P.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews recent literature on the relationships among dementia, depression, and social support, emphasizing the diagnostic differentiation of dementia and depression, and the role of these three entities in elderly with cognitive impairment. Discusses dementia-like symptoms arising in depression and the coexistence of dementia and depression.…

  7. Factors associated with a depressive disorder in Alzheimer's disease are different from those found for other dementia disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, Maria Lage; Engedal, Knut; Laks, Jerson; Selbaek, Geir

    2012-01-01

    This study explores factors associated with depression in Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and other dementia disorders. In a prospective study we included 195 patients: 31 with MCI, 112 with AD and 52 with other dementias. According to the ICD-10 and the DSM-IV criteria, 88 (44.1%) and 59 (30.3%), respectively, had a depressive disorder. An adjusted multiple regression analysis showed that previous depression (p depression in AD patients. Severity of dementia (p depressive disorder in a group of patients with frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia, or dementia due to Lewy Body disease or Parkinson's disease. We found different factors associated with a depressive disorder in AD compared to those found for other dementia disorders.

  8. Dementia in developing countries: Does education play the same role in India as in the West?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Gowri K; Alladi, Suvarna; Bak, Thomas H; Shailaja, Mekala; Mamidipudi, Annapurna; Rajan, Amulya; Gollahalli, Divyaraj; Chaudhuri, Jaydip Ray; Kaul, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that education protects from dementia by enhancing cognitive reserve. However, this may be influenced by several socio-demographic factors. Rising numbers of dementia in India, high levels of illiteracy and heterogeneity in socio-demographic factors provide an opportunity to explore this relationship. To study the association between education and age at dementia onset, in relation to socio-demographic factors. Association between age at dementia onset and literacy was studied in relationship to potential confounding factors such as gender, bilingualism, place of dwelling, occupation, vascular risk factors, stroke, family history of dementia and dementia subtypes. Case records of 648 dementia patients diagnosed in a specialist clinic in a University hospital in Hyderabad, India were examined. All patients were prospectively enrolled as part of an ongoing longitudinal project that aims to evaluate dementia subjects with detailed clinical, etiological, imaging, and follow-up studies. Of the 648 patients, 98 (15.1%) were illiterate. More than half of illiterate skilled workers were engaged in crafts and skilled agriculture unlike literates who were in trade or clerical jobs. Mean age at onset in illiterates was 60.1 years and in literates 64.5 years (p=0.0002). Factors independently associated with age at dementia onset were bilingualism, rural dwelling and stroke, but not education. Our study demonstrates that in India, rural dwelling, bilingualism, stroke and occupation modify the relationship between education and dementia.

  9. Dementia in developing countries: Does education play the same role in India as in the West?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Gowri K.; Alladi, Suvarna; Bak, Thomas H.; Shailaja, Mekala; Mamidipudi, Annapurna; Rajan, Amulya; Gollahalli, Divyaraj; Chaudhuri, Jaydip Ray; Kaul, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that education protects from dementia by enhancing cognitive reserve. However, this may be influenced by several socio-demographic factors. Rising numbers of dementia in India, high levels of illiteracy and heterogeneity in socio-demographic factors provide an opportunity to explore this relationship. Objective To study the association between education and age at dementia onset, in relation to socio-demographic factors. Methods Association between age at dementia onset and literacy was studied in relationship to potential confounding factors such as gender, bilingualism, place of dwelling, occupation, vascular risk factors, stroke, family history of dementia and dementia subtypes. Results Case records of 648 dementia patients diagnosed in a specialist clinic in a University hospital in Hyderabad, India were examined. All patients were prospectively enrolled as part of an ongoing longitudinal project that aims to evaluate dementia subjects with detailed clinical, etiological, imaging, and follow-up studies. Of the 648 patients, 98 (15.1%) were illiterate. More than half of illiterate skilled workers were engaged in crafts and skilled agriculture unlike literates who were in trade or clerical jobs. Mean age at onset in illiterates was 60.1 years and in literates 64.5 years (p=0.0002). Factors independently associated with age at dementia onset were bilingualism, rural dwelling and stroke, but not education. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that in India, rural dwelling, bilingualism, stroke and occupation modify the relationship between education and dementia. PMID:29213894

  10. Dementia in developing countries: Does education play the same role in India as in the West?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowri K. Iyer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Evidence suggests that education protects from dementia by enhancing cognitive reserve. However, this may be influenced by several socio-demographic factors. Rising numbers of dementia in India, high levels of illiteracy and heterogeneity in socio-demographic factors provide an opportunity to explore this relationship. Objective: To study the association between education and age at dementia onset, in relation to socio-demographic factors. Methods: Association between age at dementia onset and literacy was studied in relationship to potential confounding factors such as gender, bilingualism, place of dwelling, occupation, vascular risk factors, stroke, family history of dementia and dementia subtypes. Results: Case records of 648 dementia patients diagnosed in a specialist clinic in a University hospital in Hyderabad, India were examined. All patients were prospectively enrolled as part of an ongoing longitudinal project that aims to evaluate dementia subjects with detailed clinical, etiological, imaging, and follow-up studies. Of the 648 patients, 98 (15.1% were illiterate. More than half of illiterate skilled workers were engaged in crafts and skilled agriculture unlike literates who were in trade or clerical jobs. Mean age at onset in illiterates was 60.1 years and in literates 64.5 years (p=0.0002. Factors independently associated with age at dementia onset were bilingualism, rural dwelling and stroke, but not education. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that in India, rural dwelling, bilingualism, stroke and occupation modify the relationship between education and dementia.

  11. The Effects of Anti-Dementia and Nootropic Treatments on the Mortality of Patients with Dementia: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yi Wu

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the contribution of treatment on the mortality of dementia based on a population-based study.To investigate the effects of anti-dementia and nootropic treatments on the mortality of dementia using a population-based cohort study.12,193 incident dementia patients were found from 2000 to 2010. Their data were compared with 12,193 age- and sex-matched non-dementia controls that were randomly selected from the same database. Dementia was classified into vascular (VaD and degenerative dementia. Mortality incidence and hazard ratios (HRs were calculated.The median survival time was 3.39 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.88-3.79 for VaD without medication, 6.62 years (95% CI: 6.24-7.21 for VaD with nootropics, 3.01 years (95% CI: 2.85-3.21 for degenerative dementia without medication, 8.11 years (95% CI: 6.30-8.55 for degenerative dementia with anti-dementia medication, 6.00 years (95% CI: 5.73-6.17 for degenerative dementia with nootropics, and 9.03 years (95% CI: 8.02-9.87 for degenerative dementia with both anti-dementia and nootropic medications. Compared to the non-dementia group, the HRs among individuals with degenerative dementia were 2.69 (95% CI: 2.55-2.83 without medication, 1.46 (95% CI: 1.39-1.54 with nootropics, 1.05 (95% CI: 0.82-1.34 with anti-dementia medication, and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.80-1.05 with both nootropic and anti-dementia medications. VaD with nootropics had a lower mortality (HR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.15-1.37 than VaD without medication (HR: 2.46, 95% CI: 2.22-2.72.Pharmacological treatments have beneficial effects for patients with dementia in prolonging their survival.

  12. The Effects of Anti-Dementia and Nootropic Treatments on the Mortality of Patients with Dementia: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Yi; Hu, Hsiao-Yun; Chow, Lok-Hi; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Huang, Nicole; Wang, Pei-Ning; Li, Chung-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the contribution of treatment on the mortality of dementia based on a population-based study. To investigate the effects of anti-dementia and nootropic treatments on the mortality of dementia using a population-based cohort study. 12,193 incident dementia patients were found from 2000 to 2010. Their data were compared with 12,193 age- and sex-matched non-dementia controls that were randomly selected from the same database. Dementia was classified into vascular (VaD) and degenerative dementia. Mortality incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated. The median survival time was 3.39 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.88-3.79) for VaD without medication, 6.62 years (95% CI: 6.24-7.21) for VaD with nootropics, 3.01 years (95% CI: 2.85-3.21) for degenerative dementia without medication, 8.11 years (95% CI: 6.30-8.55) for degenerative dementia with anti-dementia medication, 6.00 years (95% CI: 5.73-6.17) for degenerative dementia with nootropics, and 9.03 years (95% CI: 8.02-9.87) for degenerative dementia with both anti-dementia and nootropic medications. Compared to the non-dementia group, the HRs among individuals with degenerative dementia were 2.69 (95% CI: 2.55-2.83) without medication, 1.46 (95% CI: 1.39-1.54) with nootropics, 1.05 (95% CI: 0.82-1.34) with anti-dementia medication, and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.80-1.05) with both nootropic and anti-dementia medications. VaD with nootropics had a lower mortality (HR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.15-1.37) than VaD without medication (HR: 2.46, 95% CI: 2.22-2.72). Pharmacological treatments have beneficial effects for patients with dementia in prolonging their survival.

  13. Does Magnetization Transfer Ratio (MTR) contribute to the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the dementias?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentschel, F.; Kreis, M.; Damian, M.; Krumm, B.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) is a MR-based neuroimaging procedure aiming at the quantification of the structural integrity of brain tissue. Its contribution to the differential diagnosis of dementias was examined and discussed in relation to the pathogenesis of age-related dementias. Materials and Methods: Sixty-one patients from a memory clinic were diagnosed by general physical and neuropsychiatric examination, and underwent neuropsychologic testing and neuroimaging using MRI. Their clinical diagnoses were based on standard operational research criteria. Additionally, the MTR in 10 defined regions of interest (ROI) was determined. This investigation was performed using a T1-weighted SE sequence. Average MTR values were determined in the individual ROI and their combinations and correlated with the age gender, cognitive impairment and clinical diagnosis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were determined, as well as the rate of correct classifications. Results: For cognitive healthy subjects, the MRT values correlate only mildly, though significantly, with age in the hippocampus and with gender in the dorsal corpus callosum. In contrast, the MTR in the frontal white matter correlates strongly and highly significantly with cognitive impairment in patients with dementia. The differential diagnostic assignment of Alzheimer's disease versus vascular dementia by MTR provides a correct classification of approximately 50% to 70%. PPV for no dementia vs. vascular dementia or the NPV for vascular vs. Alzheimer's disease are considerably higher exceeding 80%. For no dementia vs. Alzheimer's disease, the NPV was over 90%. (orig.)

  14. Incidence of dementia in elderly Latin Americans: Results of the Maracaibo Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, Gladys E; Mena, Luis J; Melgarejo, Jesus D; Aguirre-Acevedo, Daniel C; Pino-Ramírez, Gloria; Urribarrí, Milady; Chacon, Inara J; Chávez, Carlos A; Falque-Madrid, Luis; Gaona, Ciro A; Terwilliger, Joseph D; Lee, Joseph H; Scarmeas, Nikolaos

    2018-02-01

    There are few longitudinal studies of dementia in developing countries. We used longitudinal data from the Maracaibo Aging Study to accurately determine the age- and sex-specific incidence of dementia in elderly Latin Americans. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision) was used to diagnose dementia, which was classified as Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, or other. Age- and sex-specific incidence was estimated as the number of new cases of dementia divided by person-years (p-y) of follow-up. The incidence of all dementia diagnoses was 9.10 per 1000 p-y (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.13-11.44; 8026 total p-y), 5.18 for Alzheimer's disease (95% CI 3.72-7.03; 7916 total p-y), and 3.35 for vascular dementia (95% CI 2.19-4.91; 7757 total p-y). Among Maracaibo Aging Study participants younger than 65 years, the incidence of dementia was higher than that of US Whites. Among individuals older than 65 years, the incidence was comparable to the mean of previous incidence estimates for other populations worldwide. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment and Reporting of Driving Fitness in Patients with Dementia in Clinical Practice: Data from SveDem, the Swedish Dementia Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovas, Joel; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Cermakova, Pavla; Lundberg, Catarina; Johansson, Björn; Johansson, Kurt; Winblad, Bengt; Eriksdotter, Maria; Religa, Dorota

    2016-05-05

    Driving constitutes a very important aspect of daily life and is dependent on cognitive functions such as attention, visuo-spatial skills and memory, which are often compromised in dementia. Therefore, the driving fitness of patients with dementia needs to be addressed by physicians and those that are deemed unfit should not be allowed to continue driving. We aimed at investigating to what extent physicians assess driving fitness in dementia patients and determinant factors for revoking of their licenses. This study includes 15113 patients with newly diagnosed dementia and driver's license registered in the Swedish Dementia Registry (SveDem). The main outcomes were reporting to the licensing authority and making an agreement about driving eligibility with the patients. Physicians had not taken any action in 16% of dementia patients, whereas 9% were reported to the authority to have their licenses revoked. Males (OR = 3.04), those with an MMSE score between 20-24 (OR = 1.35) and 10-19 (OR = 1.50), patients with frontotemporal (OR = 3.09) and vascular dementia (OR = 1.26) were more likely to be reported to the authority. For the majority of patients with dementia, driving fitness was assessed. Nevertheless, physicians did not address the issue in a sizeable proportion of dementia patients. Type of dementia, cognitive status, age, sex and burden of comorbidities are independent factors associated with the assessment of driving fitness in patients with dementia. Increased knowledge on how these factors relate to road safety may pave the way for more specific guidelines addressing the issue of driving in patients with dementia.

  16. VASCULAR SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... with the literature from South Africa over the last four decades, and reflects the high rate of interpersonal violence in the country.14,15 As expected, cervical ... via the intact circle of Willis in young patients is the most likely explanation for the lack of strokes. Five patients were referred to the Durban vascular ...

  17. Vascular Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Vascular Disorders Email to a friend * required fields ...

  18. Prevalence of dementia and major subtypes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobo, A; Launer, L J; Fratiglioni, L

    2000-01-01

    The last comparison of prevalence figures of dementia across European studies was 10 years ago. Using studies conducted in the 1990s, the authors compare the age- and sex-specific prevalence of dementia, AD, and vascular dementia (VaD) across European population-based studies of persons 65 years...... and older. Data from these studies were also pooled to obtain stable estimates of age- and sex-specific prevalence. A total of 2346 cases of mild to severe dementia were identified in 11 cohorts. Age-standardized prevalence was 6.4% for dementia (all causes), 4.4% for AD, and 1.6% for VaD. The prevalence...... of dementia increased continuously with age and was 0.8% in the group age 65 to 69 years and 28.5% at age 90 years and older. The corresponding figures for AD (53.7% of cases) were 0.6% and 22.2%, and for VaD (15.8% of cases), 0.3% and 5.2%. Variation of AD prevalence across studies was greatest for men...

  19. The neurologist facing pain in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro González, Luis Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Ageing, a common background in dementia, is usually associated with painful disorders. Nevertheless, the use of analgesics is limited due to poor communication. On the other hand, dementia lesions are placed in the nociceptive pathways. For this reason, the painful experience becomes different and distinctive for every lesional type. The lateral nociceptive pathway (lateral thalamic nuclei and primary parietal cortex), which is in charge of the primary pain perception, is preserved in dementia. Thereafter, the shear painful perception, including pain intensity and threshold, remains unmodified. Distinctly, the medial pain pathways are affected by dementia lesions. In this pathway are included: the intralaminar thalamic nuclei, the pons (locus ceruleus:LC), the mesencephalon (periaacueductal grey substance: PGS), the hypothalamus (paraventricular nuclei, mamilary tuberculum) and different areas of the parietal (primary, secondary, operculum), temporal (amigdala, hypoccampus) and frontal (anterior cingular: ACC). As a consequence, the features of pain executed by these areas will be compromised: the cognitive assessment, the mood and emotion inherent to pain, the pain memory or the autonomic responses are modified in dementia. Specifically, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) there is a reduction in the anticipatory and avoidance responses and also a flattening of the autonomic responses. These are essentially secondary to the degenerative changes in the medial temporal (pain memory) and ACC (cognitive and mood aspects) areas. In vascular dementias, there is a cortico-subcortical deafferentation secondary to the white matter lesions. The consequence is the presence of hyperpathy and hyperalgesia. In the frontotemporal dementias, there is a reduction in pain expressivity. It is linked to the lesions in the orbitofrontal and anterior temporal areas, which are responsible of the emotional aspects of pain. In Parkinson's disease, painful conditions are a common characteristic

  20. Lewy Body Dementia Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... notices changes in at least one area of cognition, such as memory or language. Daytime Sleepiness is ... the field of Lewy body dementias. Memantine Improves Attention and Episodic Memory in Mild to Moderate Lewy ...

  1. Lewy Body Dementia Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Now events There are no upcoming events. Lewy Body Digest September 2017 Lewy Digest Caregiving as a ... and research, we support those affected by Lewy body dementias, their families and caregivers. We are dedicated ...

  2. Dementia - home care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help improve communication skills and prevent wandering. Calming music may reduce wandering and restlessness, ease anxiety, and ... Budson AE, Solomon PR. Why diagnose and treat memory loss, Alzheimer's disease, and dementia? In: Budson AE, ...

  3. Differential Classification of Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mohr

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of biological markers, dementia classification remains complex both in terms of characterization as well as early detection of the presence or absence of dementing symptoms, particularly in diseases with possible secondary dementia. An empirical, statistical approach using neuropsychological measures was therefore developed to distinguish demented from non-demented patients and to identify differential patterns of cognitive dysfunction in neurodegenerative disease. Age-scaled neurobehavioral test results (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Revised and Wechsler Memory Scale from Alzheimer's (AD and Huntington's (HD patients, matched for intellectual disability, as well as normal controls were used to derive a classification formula. Stepwise discriminant analysis accurately (99% correct distinguished controls from demented patients, and separated the two patient groups (79% correct. Variables discriminating between HD and AD patient groups consisted of complex psychomotor tasks, visuospatial function, attention and memory. The reliability of the classification formula was demonstrated with a new, independent sample of AD and HD patients which yielded virtually identical results (classification accuracy for dementia: 96%; AD versus HD: 78%. To validate the formula, the discriminant function was applied to Parkinson's (PD patients, 38% of whom were classified as demented. The validity of the classification was demonstrated by significant PD subgroup differences on measures of dementia not included in the discriminant function. Moreover, a majority of demented PD patients (65% were classified as having an HD-like pattern of cognitive deficits, in line with previous reports of the subcortical nature of PD dementia. This approach may thus be useful in classifying presence or absence of dementia and in discriminating between dementia subtypes in cases of secondary or coincidental dementia.

  4. Cognitive functions and behavioral and psychological symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease and patients with vascular dementia%阿尔茨海默病和血管性痴呆患者的认知功能和精神行为症状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丽君; 张楠; 程焱; 杜红坚

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the cognitive impairment and behavioral and psychological symptoms between with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD). Methods: Totally 115 outpatients with mild-to-moderate dementia who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-Ⅳ) dementia diagnosis criteria, were recruited in this case-controlled study. The cognitive function, including memory, language, attention, etc, and the behavioral and psychological symptoms, including delusions, illusions, agitation, depression, apathy irritability, aberrant motor behavior, etc, were evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), World Health Organization-University of California, Los Angeles, auditory verbal learning test (WHO-UCLA AVLT), Clock Drawing Test (CDT), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) in 61 patients with AD according to NINCDS-ADRDA criteria and 54 patients with VD according to NINDS-AIREN criteria. Results: AD patients had lower scores in languages of MMSE scale and delayed recall of objects and prolonged memory recognition in the WHO-UCLA AVLT, while VD patients had lower scores in attention of the MMSEscale [(5.6 ±1.9) vs. (6.7±1.5),(1.3±1.9) vs. (2.8±3.2),(2.9±3.3) vs. (5.9±3.8),(1.0± 1.2) vs. ( 1.7 ± 1.9); Ps < 0. 05]. The rate of apathy, agitation, irritability, aberrant motor behavior in AD group was significantly higher than that in VD group in the test of the NPI scale, while the rate of depression symptoms were more common in VD group than in AD group (P <0. 05). Conclusion: The cognitive impairment and behavioral and psychological symptoms between AD and VD patients are different. AD patients are worse in language ability and memory, while VD patients perform worse in attention. AD patients are more likely to have apathy, agitation, irritability, aberrant motor behavior, and VD patients are more likely to have depression. It is help to distinguish AD and VD patients by evaluating

  5. Early Dementia Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Panegyres

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the population of the world increases, there will be larger numbers of people with dementia and an emerging need for prompt diagnosis and treatment. Early dementia screening is the process by which a patient who might be in the prodromal phases of a dementing illness is determined as having, or not having, the hallmarks of a neurodegenerative condition. The concepts of mild cognitive impairment, or mild neurocognitive disorder, are useful in analyzing the patient in the prodromal phase of a dementing disease; however, the transformation to dementia may be as low as 10% per annum. The search for early dementia requires a comprehensive clinical evaluation, cognitive assessment, determination of functional status, corroborative history and imaging (including MRI, FDG-PET and maybe amyloid PET, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examination assaying Aβ1–42, T-τ and P-τ might also be helpful. Primary care physicians are fundamental in the screening process and are vital in initiating specialist investigation and treatment. Early dementia screening is especially important in an age where there is a search for disease modifying therapies, where there is mounting evidence that treatment, if given early, might influence the natural history—hence the need for cost-effective screening measures for early dementia.

  6. Phytosterols and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuang, Rong; Rui, Xu; Wenfang, Li

    2016-12-01

    As the aging of the world's population is becoming increasingly serious, dementia-related diseases have become a hot topic in public health research. In recent years, human epidemiological studies have focused on lipid metabolism disorders and dementia. The efficacy of phytosterol intake as a cholesterol-lowering agent has been demonstrated. Phytosterols directly serve as ligands of the nuclear receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), activating Sirtuin 1 (SIRT-1), which are involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism and the pathogenesis of dementia. Moreover, phytosterols mediate cell and membrane cholesterol efflux or beta amyloid (Aβ) metabolism, which have preventative and therapeutic effects on dementia. Additionally, incorporation of plant sterols in lipid rafts can effectively reduce dietary fat and alter the dietary composition of fiber, fat and cholesterol to regulate appetite and calories. Overall, the objectives of this review are to explore whether phytosterols are a potentially effective target for the prevention of dementia and to discuss a possible molecular mechanism by which phytosterols play a role in the pathogenesis of dementia via the PPARs-SIRT-1 pathway.

  7. Sexuality, aging, and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbow, Susan Mary; Beeston, Derek

    2012-07-01

    Sexuality in later life and its relationship to dementia is a neglected topic: greater understanding of the area has the potential to contribute to the quality of life of people with dementia, their family members, and formal carers. We review current knowledge about sexuality, aging, and dementia. We undertook a review of the recent literature to examine of the following areas: what is known about sexuality and aging, and about attitudes to sexuality and aging; what is known about the relevance of sexuality and aging to people living with dementia and their care; and the management of sexual behaviors causing concern to others. Sexual activity decreases in frequency with increasing age but many older people remain sexually active; there is no age limit to sexual responsiveness; and sexuality is becoming more important to successive cohorts of older people, including people living with dementia and gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered elderly people. Attitudes and beliefs toward sexuality and aging are strongly influenced by stereotypes and myths, not only among the general public but also among those working in health and social care. Professional bodies should include sexuality, aging, and dementia in their training curricula. More work is needed on the impact of environmental issues, particularly in group living situations, on older adults' sexuality, and on consent issues. Ethical decision-making frameworks can be useful in practice. Organizations should investigate how to support staff in avoiding a problem-orientated approach and focus on providing holistic person-centered care.

  8. Computertomographic studies of dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlmeyer, K.

    1983-01-01

    It seems to be very complicated even for the experienced neurologist and psychiatrist to correlate the clinical syndrome of dementia to different causing cerebral processes such as a primarily degenerative brain atrophy, a chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency, or other rarer occurring brain diseases unless neurological signs and symptoms do indicate a focal brain lesion. Since computed tomography is able to show both focal and general changes of the brain tissue each patient presenting with a dementia clinically should be undergone such a neuroradiological investigation at least once, and if being negative even repeatedly. Computed tomography is able not only to detect unexpected treatable brain lesions as a cause of dementia for instance tumors, subdural hematomas, and communicating hydrocephalus to expect in about 6% of cases with the clinical diagnosis of dementia, but also it is able to help to make the differentialdiagnosis of the dementia of Alzheimer's and the multi-infarct-type in a high percentage. Nevertheless despite the use of computed tomography the pathogenesis of dementia even though being undoubtful clinically remains obscure in 15% of our material of 367 demented patients studied by computed tomography but presenting with a normal finding. (orig.) [de

  9. 18F-FDDNP positron emission tomography in differentiating Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia%18F-FDDNP脑正电子发射计算机断层显像鉴别阿尔茨海默病与血管性痴呆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾建军; 郭喆; 汤洪川; 张锦明; 王鲁宁; 王振福; 孙彬彬; 田嘉禾

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:At present, some neurological imaging methods, including MRI, fMRI, 2-(1-(6-[(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)(methyl)amino]-2-naphthyi) ethylidene) malononitrile (18F-FDDNP) positron emission tomography (PET), are helpful but not specific for the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD). 18F-FDG is a special marker of beta-amyloid (Aβ), thus AD can be diagnosed by 18F-FDDNP PET at early period.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of 18F-FDDNP PET in the diagnosis of AD, and establish reliable clinical biological indexes for the diagnosis of AD patients.DESIGN: A controlled analysis.SETTINGS : Department of Geriatric Neurology and Department of Nuclear Medicine, the General Hospital of Chinese PLA. PARTICIPANTS: Patients visiting the General Hospital of Chinese PLA from May 2004 to March 2005 were selected. Informed consents were obtained from all the participants. ① AD group (n =7): (74.88±12.03) years old; Accorded with the criteria related to diagnosis of AD in NINCDS/ADRDA (National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke/Alzheimer Disease and Related Disease Association) and revision of Diagnostic and statistical Manual (DSM-Ⅳ, 4th ed.); brain CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination displayed that inter-uncus distance of temporal lobes was ≥ 30 mm. ② Vascular dementia group (n =6): (73.83±4.75) years old; Accorded with the diagnostic criteria of NINDS-AIREN (National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, USA) and DSM-Ⅳ for vascular dementia; Inter-uncus distance of temporal lobes < 30 mm. ③ Control group (n =6): (71.17±3.71) years old; Without rarefaction of white matter; Intelligence examination was normal.METHODS: PET was performed in all the subjects. PET scanner type was SEIMENS ECAT EXACT HR. The tracer selected was 18F-FDDNP which had radiochemical purity higher than 95% and error of radioactivity measurement lower than 10%. The images were collected at 5, 25 and 45 minutes after injection of 18F

  10. CSF/serum albumin ratio in dementias: a cross-sectional study on 1861 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillbäck, Tobias; Delsing, Louise; Synnergren, Jane; Mattsson, Niklas; Janelidze, Shorena; Nägga, Katarina; Kilander, Lena; Hicks, Ryan; Wimo, Anders; Winblad, Bengt; Hansson, Oskar; Blennow, Kaj; Eriksdotter, Maria; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2017-11-01

    A connection between dementias and blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction has been suggested, but previous studies have yielded conflicting results. We examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/serum albumin ratio in a large cohort of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD, early onset [EAD, n = 130], late onset AD [LAD, n = 666]), vascular dementia (VaD, n = 255), mixed AD and VaD (MIX, n = 362), Lewy body dementia (DLB, n = 50), frontotemporal dementia (FTD, n = 56), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD, n = 23), other dementias (other, n = 48), and dementia not otherwise specified (NOS, n = 271). We compared CSF/serum albumin ratio to 2 healthy control groups (n = 292, n = 20), between dementia diagnoses, and tested biomarker associations. Patients in DLB, LAD, VaD, MIX, other, and NOS groups had higher CSF/serum albumin ratio than controls. CSF/serum albumin ratio correlated with CSF neurofilament light in LAD, MIX, VaD, and other groups but not with AD biomarkers. Our data show that BBB leakage is common in dementias. The lack of association between CSF/serum albumin ratio and AD biomarkers suggests that BBB dysfunction is not inherent to AD but might represent concomitant cerebrovascular pathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Natural Phytochemicals in the Treatment and Prevention of Dementia: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaliana Libro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The word dementia describes a class of heterogeneous diseases which etiopathogenetic mechanisms are not well understood. There are different types of dementia, among which, Alzheimer’s disease (AD, vascular dementia (VaD, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB and frontotemporal dementia (FTD are the more common. Currently approved pharmacological treatments for most forms of dementia seem to act only on symptoms without having profound disease-modifying effects. Thus, alternative strategies capable of preventing the progressive loss of specific neuronal populations are urgently required. In particular, the attention of researchers has been focused on phytochemical compounds that have shown antioxidative, anti-amyloidogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties and that could represent important resources in the discovery of drug candidates against dementia. In this review, we summarize the neuroprotective effects of the main phytochemicals belonging to the polyphenol, isothiocyanate, alkaloid and cannabinoid families in the prevention and treatment of the most common kinds of dementia. We believe that natural phytochemicals may represent a promising sources of alternative medicine, at least in association with therapies approved to date for dementia.

  12. Bilingualism delays age at onset of dementia, independent of education and immigration status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alladi, Suvarna; Bak, Thomas H; Duggirala, Vasanta; Surampudi, Bapiraju; Shailaja, Mekala; Shukla, Anuj Kumar; Chaudhuri, Jaydip Ray; Kaul, Subhash

    2013-11-26

    The purpose of the study was to determine the association between bilingualism and age at onset of dementia and its subtypes, taking into account potential confounding factors. Case records of 648 patients with dementia (391 of them bilingual) diagnosed in a specialist clinic were reviewed. The age at onset of first symptoms was compared between monolingual and bilingual groups. The influence of number of languages spoken, education, occupation, and other potentially interacting variables was examined. Overall, bilingual patients developed dementia 4.5 years later than the monolingual ones. A significant difference in age at onset was found across Alzheimer disease dementia as well as frontotemporal dementia and vascular dementia, and was also observed in illiterate patients. There was no additional benefit to speaking more than 2 languages. The bilingual effect on age at dementia onset was shown independently of other potential confounding factors such as education, sex, occupation, and urban vs rural dwelling of subjects. This is the largest study so far documenting a delayed onset of dementia in bilingual patients and the first one to show it separately in different dementia subtypes. It is the first study reporting a bilingual advantage in those who are illiterate, suggesting that education is not a sufficient explanation for the observed difference. The findings are interpreted in the context of the bilingual advantages in attention and executive functions.

  13. Does Schizophrenia in Offspring Increase the Risk of Developing Alzheimer's Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Rohde

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Prior studies have consistently found a higher risk of dementia in individuals with schizophrenia, but whether this is due to a common etiology between the disorders remains obscure. We wanted to elucidate this association by investigating whether schizophrenia in offspring increases the risk of Alzheimer's dementia. Methods: All individuals born between 1930 and 1953 were identified through national registers and followed from their 50th birthday until the date of Alzheimer's dementia, death or end of the study. Regressions were performed to evaluate the association between offspring with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's dementia. Results: Individuals with offspring with schizophrenia did not have an increased risk of Alzheimer's dementia [incidence rate ratio (IRR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.88-1.07] compared to individuals with offspring without psychiatric contact. This finding remained stable when evaluating early-onset (IRR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.91-1.31 and late-onset Alzheimer's dementia (IRR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.88-1.07. Similar findings were made for vascular and unspecified dementia. Conclusion: The finding of no familial coaggregation between schizophrenia and Alzheimer's dementia may suggest that no common etiology between the disorders exists. This may indicate that the excess risk of dementia in individuals with schizophrenia is a by-product of the higher rates of somatic comorbidity and adverse health risk factors among these individuals.

  14. [Dementia and diabetes: casual or causal relationship?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formiga, Francesc; Reñe, Ramón; Pérez-Maraver, Manuel

    2015-02-20

    Several studies have reported the existence of an epidemiological association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and dementia. Although this association is more evident for vascular dementia, it is also described in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this review we evaluate the different hypotheses that may explain the association between DM and dementia. We can consider the existence of a diabetes type 3 as the situation that occurs when hyperinsulinemia in response to insulin resistance leads to a decrease of the brain insulin and a poor regulation of insulin-degrading enzyme; thus, beta-amyloid accumulates, among other mechanisms, by the decline of its degradation by insulin-degrading enzyme. Consequently, AD may be related, at least in part, to a brain insulin resistance. There are several studies that prove the concept that a better metabolic control, especially in not very old people, is associated with an increased cognitive performance. It is not known whether the use of any specific drug for the treatment of DM is better than any other. It is important for physicians responsible for the metabolic control of diabetic patients to know this possible association, and to explore cognition in the control visits of patients with DM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Guidance for reading FDG PET scans in dementia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herholz, K.

    2014-01-01

    18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is a powerful method for detection of disease-related impairment of cerebral glucose metabolism in neuro degenerative diseases. It is of particular interest for early and differential diagnosis of dementia. Reading FDG PET scans requires training to recognise deviations from normal functional brain anatomy and its variations. This paper provides guidance for displaying FDG PET brain scans in a reproducible manner that allows reliable recognition of characteristic disease-related metabolic changes. It also describes typical findings in Alzheimer’s disease, Frontotemporal Dementia and Dementia with Lewy Bodies and possible confounding factors, such as vascular changes and brain atrophy. It provides a brief overview on findings in other neuro degenerative diseases and addresses the potential and limitations of software packages for comparison of individual scans with reference data.

  16. Symptoms of Lewy Body Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the fight against LBD! Donate Symptoms Lewy body dementia (LBD) has variable presentations that include cognitive difficulties ... wake cycle alterations. Cognitive impairment in Lewy body dementia (LBD) is often misdiagnosed as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). ...

  17. Dementia - behavior and sleep problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000029.htm Dementia - behavior and sleep problems To use the sharing ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. People with dementia , often have certain problems when it gets dark ...

  18. Vascular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, D B; Ricci, M A

    1998-04-01

    Surgeon-interpreted diagnostic ultrasound has become the preferred screening test and often the definitive test for the diagnosis of arterial stenosis, aneurysm, and venous thrombosis. As a modality for surveillance, its noninvasive quality makes it particularly appealing as the test of choice to screen patients for abdominal aortic aneurysms or to perform follow-up examinations on those patients with a carotid endartectomy or in situ bypass grafts. The increasing reliance on intraoperative duplex imaging of vascular procedures demands that the surgeon learn the skills to perform the studies without a technologist or radiologist to interpret the examination.

  19. Influence of dementia on pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, E

    2006-01-01

    In the next decades the number of older persons with dementia and with a painful condition will increase. This is an important conclusion since at this moment older persons with dementia and a painful condition receive less analgesic medication than older persons without dementia. One explanation

  20. Language and Dementia: Neuropsychological Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Kempler, Daniel; Goral, Mira

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews recent evidence for the relationship between extralinguistic cognitive and language abilities in dementia. A survey of data from investigations of three dementia syndromes (Alzheimer's disease, semantic dementia and progressive nonfluent aphasia) reveals that, more often than not, deterioration of conceptual organization appears associated with lexical impairments, whereas impairments in executive function are associated with sentence- and discourse-level deficits. These ...

  1. Dementia in affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V; Olsen, E W; Mortensen, P B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether patients with affective disorder have increased risk of developing dementia compared to other groups of psychiatric patients and compared to the general population. METHOD: In the Danish psychiatric central register, 3363 patients...... with unipolar affective disorder, 518 patients with bipolar affective disorder, 1025 schizophrenic and 8946 neurotic patients were identified according to the diagnosis at the first ever discharge from psychiatric hospital during the period from 1970 to 1974. The rate of discharge diagnosis of dementia...... on readmission was estimated during 21 years of follow-up. In addition, the rates were compared with the rates for admission to psychiatric hospitals with a discharge diagnosis of dementia for the total Danish population. RESULTS: Patients with unipolar and with bipolar affective disorder had a greater risk...

  2. [Artistic creativity and dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellal, François; Musacchio, Mariano

    2008-03-01

    Artistic creativity can be defined as the ability to produce both innovative and esthetic works. Though most dementias result in a loss of instrumental functions and a deterioration in artistic production, for some established artists, dementia, most often Alzheimer's disease, changed their style and technique but preserved their creativity and prolific artistic drive. Moreover, in some cases, mainly frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson's disease, and very occasionally strokes, the disease may favour the emergence of de novo artistic talent. This phenomenon has been conceptualized as a paradoxical facilitation, a disinhibition of brain areas devoted to visuospatial processing, greater freedom in a patient who becomes less bound by social conventions, enhancement of motivation and pleasure, etc. These neurological cases provide an opportunity to shed some light on the roots of artistic creation.

  3. Parkinson Disease and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ptacek, Sara; Kramberger, Milica G

    2016-09-01

    Dementia is a frequent complication of Parkinson disease (PD) with a yearly incidence of around 10% of patients with PD. Lewy body pathology is the most important factor in the development of Parkinson disease dementia (PDD) and there is evidence for a synergistic effect with β-amyloid. The clinical phenotype in PDD extends beyond the dysexecutive syndrome that is often present in early PD and encompasses deficits in recognition memory, attention, and visual perception. Sleep disturbances, hallucinations, neuroleptic sensitivity, and fluctuations are often present. This review provides an update on current knowledge of PDD including aspects of epidemiology, pathology, clinical presentation, management, and prognosis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. [Preventive strategies for dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Patrick; Schmicker, Marlen; Müller, Notger G

    2017-05-01

    In the context of the demographically induced increase in the prevalence of dementia and the simultaneous lack of causal pharmacological therapies, preventive approaches are gaining in importance. By reducing risk factors and with measures which induce neuroplasticity successful aging can be supported. This article summarizes the current developments in preventing dementia by modification of life style factors. The main focus lies on the impact of cognitive and physical activity on neuroprotection. A promising approach combines both activities within a dance training program. Further studies that meet the demanding criteria of a randomized clinical trial are urgently needed.

  5. Memantine for dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    Memantine (Ebixa--Lundbeck Ltd), an oral medicine, is available in the UK for treating "patients with moderately severe to severe Alzheimer's disease". It differs from other licensed dementia medicines in that it is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. The company has claimed that, with memantine therapy, "improvements in activities of daily living help patients to maintain a degree of independence and be easier to care for, potentially avoiding the need for nursing home care". We assess the efficacy of memantine for dementia and discuss its place in the management of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Interaction with the MAPT H1H1 Genotype Increases Dementia Risk in APOE ε4 Carriers in a Population of Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairani, P S; Aswathy, P M; Gopala, Srinivas; Verghese, Joe; Mathuranath, P S

    2016-01-01

    This study delineates the role of the interaction of apolipoprotein E (APOE) and MAPT alleles in contributing to disease risks of dementia in a southern Indian population. A sample of 419 patients comprising Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 156), mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 87), frontotemporal dementia (FTD; n = 127), vascular dementia (VD; n = 37), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB; n = 12) was analysed in comparison with a control group (n = 138). APOE genotyping and MAPT haplotyping were performed on all study subjects. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that variability on the APOE locus influenced the relative risk of dementia in the study population. The APOE ε4 allele increased the disease risk most significantly for AD (OR = 3.468, p India when compared to other dementia groups, while the transcriptional differences between MAPT haplotypes have a limited role in Indian dementia patients. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Montessori-based dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Janet

    2006-10-01

    Montessori-based Dementia Care is an approach used in Alzheimer's care that does not involve chemical or physical restraints. This program works by giving the elder with Alzheimer/Dementia a purpose by getting them involved. When staff/families care for a confused Alzheimer/Dementia patient, who is having behaviors, the Montessori program teaches them to look at what is causing the behavior. When assessing the elder to determine what is causing the behavior, the goal is to find the answer, but the answer cannot be dementia. The goal of the program is to bring meaning to the life of an Alzheimer/Dementia elder.

  8. Clinical Spectrum, Risk Factors, and Behavioral Abnormalities among Dementia Subtypes in a North Indian Population: A Hospital-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Kushwaha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: As variability in the clinical profile of dementia subtypes had been reported with regional differences across the world, we conducted a retrospective hospital-based study in a North Indian population. Methods: We retrieved patient records from 2007 to 2014 for details of clinical evaluation, diagnosis, neuroimaging, biochemical investigations, and follow-up of 1,876 patients with dementia (PwD, and the data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Of the total PwD, Alzheimer disease (AD accounted for 30% followed by vascular dementia (VaD 26%, mixed dementia (MD 21%, Parkinson-related dementia 11%, frontotemporal dementia (FTD 7%, and infective dementia 5%. Of all PwD excluding the infective group (n = 1,777, 63% were men, 39% were from rural areas, 87% had behavioral abnormalities along with cognitive deficits, and 73% had impaired ADLs. Among dementia subtypes, a positive family history, cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors, and behavioral abnormalities were found to be distributed. However, there existed a predominance of specific behavioral pattern in each subtype. The mean duration of follow-up varied from 2.9 ± 2.3 (VaD to 3.6 ± 2.1 (AD and greater than 30% were found to be stable on treatment (except in dementia with Lewy body. Conclusions: This large hospital-based study provides a distribution pattern and clinical spectrum of dementia subtypes in a North Indian population.

  9. Impact of Physical Activity on Cognitive Decline, Dementia, and Its Subtypes: Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris B. Guure

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of physical activity with dementia and its subtypes has remained controversial in the literature and has continued to be a subject of debate among researchers. A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies on the relationship between physical activity and the risk of cognitive decline, all-cause dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and vascular dementia among nondemented subjects are considered. A comprehensive literature search in all available databases was conducted up until April 2016. Well-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed with focus on prospective studies ≥ 12 months. The overall sample from all studies is 117410 with the highest follow-up of 28 years. The analyses are performed with both Bayesian parametric and nonparametric models. Our analysis reveals a protective effect for high physical activity on all-cause dementia, odds ratio of 0.79, 95% CI (0.69, 0.88, a higher and better protective effect for Alzheimer’s disease, odds ratio of 0.62, 95% CI (0.49, 0.75, cognitive decline odds ratio of 0.67, 95% CI (0.55, 0.78, and a nonprotective effect for vascular dementia of 0.92, 95% CI (0.62, 1.30. Our findings suggest that physical activity is more protective against Alzheimer’s disease than it is for all-cause dementia, vascular dementia, and cognitive decline.

  10. Aromatherapy for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Lene Thorgrimsen; Maayan, Nicola; Orrell, Martin; Spector, Aimee E; Buchan, Louise D; Soares-Weiser, Karla

    2014-02-25

    Complementary therapy has received great interest within the field of dementia treatment and the use of aromatherapy and essential oils is increasing. In a growing population where the majority of patients are treated by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs, the efficacy of treatment is short term and accompanied by negative side effects. Utilisation of complimentary therapies in dementia care settings presents as one of few options that are attractive to practitioners and families as patients often have reduced insight and ability to verbally communicate adverse reactions. Amongst the most distressing features of dementia are the behavioural and psychological symptoms. Addressing this facet has received particular interest in aromatherapy trials, with a shift in focus from reducing cognitive dysfunction to the reduction of behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia. To assess the efficacy of aromatherapy as an intervention for people with dementia. ALOIS, the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group Specialized Register, was searched on 26 November 2012 and 20 January 2013 using the terms: aromatherapy, lemon, lavender, rose, aroma, alternative therapies, complementary therapies, essential oils. All relevant randomised controlled trials were considered. A minimum length of a trial and requirements for follow-up were not included, and participants in included studies had a diagnosis of dementia of any type and severity. The review considered all trials using fragrance from plants defined as aromatherapy as an intervention with people with dementia and all relevant outcomes were considered. Titles and abstracts extracted by the searches were screened for their eligibility for potential inclusion in the review. For Burns 2011, continuous outcomes were estimated as the mean difference between groups and its 95% confidence interval using a fixed-effect model. For Ballard 2002, analysis of co-variance was used for all outcomes, with the

  11. Epidemiological pathology of dementia: attributable-risks at death in the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona E Matthews

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Dementia drug development aims to modulate pathological processes that cause clinical syndromes. Population data (epidemiological neuropathology will help to model and predict the potential impact of such therapies on dementia burden in older people. Presently this can only be explored through post mortem findings. We report the attributable risks (ARs for dementia at death for common age-related degenerative and vascular pathologies, and other factors, in the MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC CFAS.A multicentre, prospective, longitudinal study of older people in the UK was linked to a brain donation programme. Neuropathology of 456 consecutive brain donations assessed degenerative and vascular pathologies. Logistic regression modelling, with bootstrapping and sensitivity analyses, was used to estimate AR at death for dementia for specific pathologies and other factors. The main contributors to AR at death for dementia in MRC CFAS were age (18%, small brain (12%, neocortical neuritic plaques (8% and neurofibrillary tangles (11%, small vessel disease (12%, multiple vascular pathologies (9%, and hippocampal atrophy (10%. Other significant factors include cerebral amyloid angiopathy (7% and Lewy bodies (3%.Such AR estimates cannot be derived from the living population; rather they estimate the relative contribution of specific pathologies to dementia at death. We found that multiple pathologies determine the overall burden of dementia. The impact of therapy targeted to a specific pathology may be profound when the dementia is relatively "pure," but may be less impressive for the majority with mixed disease, and in terms of the population. These data justify a range of strategies, and combination therapies, to combat the degenerative and vascular determinants of cognitive decline and dementia. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  12. Is drug treatment for dementia followed up in primary care? A Swedish study of dementia clinics and referring primary care centres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Sonde

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: It is largely unknown how the medical treatment of patients diagnosed with dementia is followed up in primary care. Therefore, we studied patient medical records from two dementia clinics and from the referring primary care centres. METHODS: A retrospective study of 241 patients was conducted from April to October 2011 in north west Stockholm, Sweden. Over half (51.5% of the patients had Alzheimer's disease (AD, the remainder had mixed AD/vascular dementia (VaD. Eighty-four medical reports from primary care (35% of the study group were analysed at follow-up 18 months after diagnosis. RESULTS: All four dementia drugs available on the Swedish market (three cholinesterase inhibitors [donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine] and memantine were prescribed at the two dementia clinics. The most commonly used dementia drug was galantamine. There were differences between the two dementia clinics in preference and combination of drugs and of treatment given to male and female patients. At follow-up, 84% were still on dementia medication. Drug use was followed up by the general practitioners (GPs in two-thirds of the cases. Eighteen per cent of the GPs' medical records made no reference to the patient's dementia or treatment even though dementia drugs were included in the list of medications prescribed. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the Swedish guidelines for treatment of cognitive symptoms in AD are being followed in primary care. However, documentation of follow-up of drug treatment was sometimes insufficient, which calls for development of guidelines for complete medical records and medication lists.

  13. Prevalence of dementia in Al Kharga District, New Valley Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Tallawy, Hamdy N; Farghly, Wafaa M A; Shehata, Ghaydaa A; Rageh, Tarek A; Hakeem, Nabil Abdel; Abo-Elfetoh, Noha; Hegazy, Ahmed M; Rayan, Ibraheem; El-Moselhy, Essam A

    2012-01-01

    With aging, there is a parallel increase in the prevalence of dementia worldwide. The aim of this work is to determine the prevalence of dementia among the population of Al Kharga District, New Valley, Egypt. Screening of all subjects aged ≥50 years (n = 8,173 out of 62,583 inhabitants) was done through a door-to-door survey by 3 neurologists, using a short standardized Arabic screening test and a modified Mini-Mental State Examination. Suspected cases were subjected to full clinical examination, psychometric assessment using the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, Hachinski Ischemic Score, DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria, neuroimaging, and laboratory investigations, when indicated. The prevalence rate of dementia was 2.26% for the population aged ≥50 years. It increased steeply with age to a maximum of 18.48% for those aged ≥80 years. Alzheimer's disease (51.2%) was the most common subtype, followed by vascular dementia (28.7%), dementia due to general medical conditions (12.8%), and lastly dementia due to multiple etiologies (7.3%). Mild dementia was the commonest (53.7%). Dementia is prevalent in Egypt as elsewhere. Detection through a door-to-door survey is the best method in developing countries for early detection of mild cases. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Positron emission tomographic studies using C-11-glucose in normal aging and cerebrovascular dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujike, Takashi; Terashi, Akiro; Soeda, Toshiyuki; Kitamura, Shin; Kato, Toshiaki; Iio, Masaaki.

    1984-01-01

    Seven normal volunteers and 11 patients with cerebrovascular dementia were studied about the relations between effect of aging, severity of dementia, cerebral glucose metabolism and metabolic response to verbal stimuli by positron emission tomography (PET) using C-11-glucose. Regional distribution of glycogenic metabolites (RDGM: mg/100 g brain), which was a semi-quantitation of the pool of glycogenic metabolites mainly amino acids, were calculated. The RDGM values in elder normal subjects were significantly low compared with young normal subjects in frontal cortex (p < 0.05). The decline in frontal cortex metabolism could have been caused by the morphological changes in the course of aging. In temporal cortex, there was no significance between two groups. RDGM increased significantly respond to the verbal stimuli in frontal and temporal cortex both young and elder normal subjects. The RDGM values in vascular dementias were significantly low (p < 0.001) compared with elder normal subjects' in frontal and temporal cortex. Significant difference existed between mild and severe dementia in frontal cortex (p < 0.05). However, there was no significance between mild and severe dementias in temporal cortex. In mild dementias, RDGM increased significantly respond to the verbal stimuli in frontal and temporal cortex. In severe dementias, metabolic response to the verbal stimuli was less or lacking. Our results suggest that the cerebral metabolic functional reserve and the ability of the cerebral cortex to function respond to psychophysiologic stimulation are preserved in young and elder normal subjects and mild cerebrovascular dementias. (J.P.N.)

  15. Validation of Addenbrooke's cognitive examination for detecting early dementia in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hidenori; Terada, Seishi; Honda, Hajime; Ata, Toshie; Takeda, Naoya; Kishimoto, Yuki; Oshima, Etsuko; Ishihara, Takeshi; Kuroda, Shigetoshi

    2011-01-30

    There is a clear need for brief, but sensitive and specific, cognitive screening instruments for dementia. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the Japanese version of Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) in identifying early dementia in comparison with the conventional Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Standard tests for evaluating dementia screening tests were applied. A total of 201 subjects (Alzheimer's disease (AD)=65, frontotemporal dementia (FTD)=24, vascular dementia=26, dementia with Lewy bodies=11, mild cognitive impairment (MCI)=13, and controls=62) participated in this study. The reliability of the ACE was very good (alpha coefficient=0.82). In our patient series, the sensitivity for diagnosing dementia with an ACE score of ≤74 was 0.889 with a specificity of 0.987, and the sensitivity of an ACE score of ≤80 was 0.984 with a specificity of 0.867. The Japanese version of the ACE is a very accurate instrument for the detection of early dementia, and should be widely used in clinical practice. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Age of dementia diagnosis in community dwelling bilingual and monolingual Hispanic Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Deborah M; Gasquoine, Philip G; Weimer, Amy A

    2015-05-01

    Bilingualism has been reported to delay the age of retrospective report of first symptom in dementia. This study determined if the age of clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia occurred later for bilingual than monolingual, immigrant and U.S. born, Hispanic Americans. It involved a secondary analysis of the subset of 81 bi/monolingual dementia cases identified at yearly follow-up (1998 through 2008) using neuropsychological test results and objective diagnostic criteria from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging that involved a random sampling of community dwelling Hispanic Americans (N = 1789). Age of dementia diagnosis was analyzed in a 2 × 2 (bi/monolingualism × immigrant/U.S. born) ANOVA that space revealed both main effects and the interaction were non-significant. Mean age of dementia diagnosis was descriptively (but not significantly) higher in the monolingual (M = 81.10 years) than the bilingual (M = 79.31) group. Overall, bilingual dementia cases were significantly better educated than monolinguals, but U.S. born bilinguals and monolinguals did not differ significantly in education. Delays in dementia symptomatology pertaining to bilingualism are less likely to be found in studies: (a) that use age of clinical diagnosis vs. retrospective report of first dementia symptom as the dependent variable; and (b) involve clinical cases derived from community samples rather than referrals to specialist memory clinics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical features of delusional jealousy in elderly patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Mamoru; Sakamoto, Shinichi; Ikeda, Manabu

    2015-06-01

    Delusional jealousy is a psychotic syndrome characterized by a belief in the infidelity of one's spouse that reaches delusional intensity. Although delusional jealousy has been described in relation to organic psychosis, little is known concerning the actual role of delusional jealousy in dementia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical features of delusional jealousy and possible mechanisms whereby delusional jealousy arises in patients with dementia. We studied 208 consecutive outpatients with dementia (diagnosis based on DSM-III-R criteria; mean [SD] age of 77.0 [8.0] years; study period: September 2011-August 2012). Delusional jealousy was defined as a false belief derived from a pathological jealousy that makes the patient believe that his or her spouse is unfaithful. The prevalence of delusional jealousy was compared between Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and vascular dementia. Patients with and without delusional jealousy were compared in terms of general characteristics. In addition, each patient with delusional jealousy and their primary caregivers were interviewed about the clinical features of the syndrome. Of the 208 patients with dementia, 18 (8.7%) showed delusional jealousy. The prevalence of delusional jealousy in patients who had dementia with Lewy bodies (26.3%) was significantly higher than that in patients with Alzheimer's disease (5.5%) (P jealousy in regard to gender (P = 1.00), age (P = .81), educational attainment (P = .29), presence of other persons living with the couple (P = .22), and Mini-Mental State Examination score (P = .47). On the other hand, delusional jealousy was preceded by the onset of serious physical diseases in nearly half of the patients. Delusional jealousy resolved within 12 months after treatment in 15 of 18 patients (83%). Although delusional jealousy is a considerable problem in dementia, the prognosis of delusional jealousy in demented patients appears to be relatively benign

  18. Neuroimaging in dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkhof, Frederik [VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (NL). Dept. of Radiology and Image Analysis Center (IAC); Fox, Nick C. [UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom). Dementia Research Centre; VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bastos-Leite, Antonio J. [Porto Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Medical Imaging; Scheltens, Philip [VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Neurology and Alzheimer Center

    2011-07-01

    Against a background of an ever-increasing number of patients, new management options, and novel imaging modalities, neuroimaging is playing an increasingly important role in the diagnosis of dementia. This up-to-date, superbly illustrated book aims to provide a practical guide to the effective use of neuroimaging in the patient with cognitive decline. It sets out the key clinical and imaging features of the wide range of causes of dementia and directs the reader from clinical presentation to neuroimaging and on to an accurate diagnosis whenever possible. After an introductory chapter on the clinical background, the available ''toolbox'' of structural and functional neuroimaging techniques is reviewed in detail, including CT, MRI and advanced MR techniques, SPECT and PET, and image analysis methods. The imaging findings in normal ageing are then discussed, followed by a series of chapters that carefully present and analyze the key imaging findings in patients with dementias. A structured path of analysis follows the main presenting feature: disorders associated with primary gray matter loss, with white matter changes, with brain swelling, etc. Throughout, a practical approach is adopted, geared specifically to the needs of clinicians (neurologists, radiologists, psychiatrists, geriatricians) working in the field of dementia, for whom this book should prove an invaluable resource. (orig.)

  19. Radiologic diagnostics of dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essig, M.; Schoenberg, S.O.

    2003-01-01

    Dementia is one of the most common diseases in the elderly population and is getting more and more important with the ageing of the population. A radiologic structural examination with CT or MRI is meanwhile a standard procedure in the diagnostic work up of patients with dementia syndrome. Radiology enables an early diagnosis and a differential diagnosis between different causes of dementia. Because structural changes occur only late in the disease process, a more detailed structural analysis using volumetric techniques or the use of functional imaging techniques is mandatory. These days, structural imaging uses MRI which enables to detect early atrophic changes at the medial temporal lobe with focus on the amygdala hippocampal complex. These changes are also present in the normal ageing process. In patients with Alzheimer's disease, however, they are more rapid and more pronounced. The use of functional imaging methods such as perfusion MRI, diffusion MRI or fMRI allow new insights into the pathophysiologic changes of dementia. The article gives an overview of the current status of structural imaging and an outlook into the potential of functional imaging methods. Detailed results of structural and functional imaging are presented in other articles of this issue. (orig.) [de

  20. Dementia and driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, D; Neubauer, K; Boyle, M; Gerrard, J; Surmon, D; Wilcock, G K

    1992-04-01

    Many European countries test cars, but not their drivers, as they age. There is evidence to suggest that human factors are more important than vehicular factors as causes of motor crashes. The elderly also are involved in more accidents per distance travelled than middle-aged drivers. As the UK relies on self-certification of health by drivers over the age of 70 years, we examined the driving practices of patients with dementia attending a Memory Clinic. Nearly one-fifth of 329 patients with documented dementia continued to drive after the onset of dementia, and impaired driving ability was noted in two-thirds of these. Their families experienced great difficulty in persuading patients to stop driving, and had to invoke outside help in many cases. Neuropsychological tests did not help to identify those who drove badly while activity of daily living scores were related to driving ability. These findings suggest that many patients with dementia drive in an unsafe fashion after the onset of the illness. The present system of self-certification of health by the elderly for driver-licensing purposes needs to be reassessed.

  1. ABO Blood Group and Dementia Risk--A Scandinavian Record-Linkage Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil K Vasan

    Full Text Available Dementia includes a group of neuro-degenerative disorders characterized by varying degrees of cognitive impairment. Recent data indicates that blood group AB is associated with impaired cognition in elderly patients. To date there are no large-scale studies that have examined the relationship between ABO blood group and dementia-related disorders in detail.We used data from the SCANDAT2 database that contains information on over 1.6 million blood donors from 1968 in Sweden and 1981 from Denmark. The database was linked with health outcomes data from nationwide patient and cause of death registers to investigate the relationship between blood groups and risk of different types of dementia. The incident rate ratios were estimated using log-linear Poisson regression models.Among 1,598,294 donors followed over 24 million person-years of observation we ascertained 3,615 cases of Alzheimer's disease, 1,842 cases of vascular dementia, and 9,091 cases of unspecified dementia. Overall, our study showed no association between ABO blood group and risk of Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia or unspecified dementia. This was also true when analyses were restricted to donors aged 70 years or older except for a slight, but significantly decreased risk of all dementia combined in subjects with blood group A (IRR, 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-0.98, compared to those with blood group O.Our results provide no evidence that ABO blood group influences the risk of dementia.

  2. PET studies in dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herholz, K.

    2003-01-01

    Measurement of local cerebral glucose metabolism (lCMRGlc) by positron emission tomography (PET) and 18 F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) has become a standard technique during the past 20 years and is now available at many university hospitals in all highly developed countries. Many studies have documented a close relation between lCMRGlc and localized cognitive functions, such as language and visuoconstructive abilities. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by regional impairment of cerebral glucose metabolism in neocortical association areas (posterior cingulate, temporoparietal and frontal multimodal association cortex), whereas primary visual and sensorimotor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum are relatively well preserved. In a multicenter study comprising 10 PET centers (Network for Efficiency and Standardization of Dementia Diagnosis, NEST-DD) that employed an automated voxel-based analysis of FDG PET images, the distinction between controls and AD patients was 93% sensitive and 93% specific, and even in very mild dementia (at Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) 24 or higher) sensitivity was still 84% at 93% specificity. Significantly abnormal metabolism in mild cognitive deficit (MCI) indicates a high risk to develop dementia within the next two years. Reduced neocortical glucose metabolism can probably be detected with FDG PET in AD on average one year before onset of subjective cognitive impairment. In addition to glucose metabolism, specific tracers for dopamine synthesis ( 18 F-F-DOPA) and for ( 11 C-MP4A) are of interest for differentiation among dementia subtypes. Cortical acetylcholine esterase activity (AChE) activity is significantly lower in patients with AD or with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) than in age-matched normal controls. In LBD there is also impairment of dopamine synthesis, similar to Parkinson disease. (author) 115 refs

  3. Music perception in dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Jennifer M; Cohen, Miriam H; Slattery, Catherine F; Paterson, Ross W; Foulkes, Alexander J M; Schott, Jonathan M; Mummery, Catherine J; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2017-01-01

    Despite much recent interest in music and dementia, music perception has not been widely studied across dementia syndromes using an information processing approach. Here we addressed this issue in a cohort of 30 patients representing major dementia syndromes of typical Alzheimer’s disease (AD, n=16), logopenic aphasia (LPA, an Alzheimer variant syndrome; n=5) and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n=9) in relation to 19 healthy age-matched individuals. We designed a novel neuropsychological battery to assess perception of musical patterns in the dimensions of pitch and temporal information (requiring detection of notes that deviated from the established pattern based on local or global sequence features) and musical scene analysis (requiring detection of a familiar tune within polyphonic harmony). Performance on these tests was referenced to generic auditory (timbral) deviance detection and recognition of familiar tunes and adjusted for general auditory working memory performance. Relative to healthy controls, patients with AD and LPA had group-level deficits of global pitch (melody contour) processing while patients with PNFA as a group had deficits of local (interval) as well as global pitch processing. There was substantial individual variation within syndromic groups. No specific deficits of musical temporal processing, timbre processing, musical scene analysis or tune recognition were identified. The findings suggest that particular aspects of music perception such as pitch pattern analysis may open a window on the processing of information streams in major dementia syndromes. The potential selectivity of musical deficits for particular dementia syndromes and particular dimensions of processing warrants further systematic investigation. PMID:27802226

  4. PET studies in dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herholz, K. [Neurologische Universitaetsklinik and Max-Planck-Inst. fuer neurologische Forschung, Koeln (Germany)

    2003-04-01

    Measurement of local cerebral glucose metabolism (lCMRGlc) by positron emission tomography (PET) and {sup 18}F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) has become a standard technique during the past 20 years and is now available at many university hospitals in all highly developed countries. Many studies have documented a close relation between lCMRGlc and localized cognitive functions, such as language and visuoconstructive abilities. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by regional impairment of cerebral glucose metabolism in neocortical association areas (posterior cingulate, temporoparietal and frontal multimodal association cortex), whereas primary visual and sensorimotor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum are relatively well preserved. In a multicenter study comprising 10 PET centers (Network for Efficiency and Standardization of Dementia Diagnosis, NEST-DD) that employed an automated voxel-based analysis of FDG PET images, the distinction between controls and AD patients was 93% sensitive and 93% specific, and even in very mild dementia (at Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) 24 or higher) sensitivity was still 84% at 93% specificity. Significantly abnormal metabolism in mild cognitive deficit (MCI) indicates a high risk to develop dementia within the next two years. Reduced neocortical glucose metabolism can probably be detected with FDG PET in AD on average one year before onset of subjective cognitive impairment. In addition to glucose metabolism, specific tracers for dopamine synthesis ({sup 18}F-F-DOPA) and for ({sup 11}C-MP4A) are of interest for differentiation among dementia subtypes. Cortical acetylcholine esterase activity (AChE) activity is significantly lower in patients with AD or with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) than in age-matched normal controls. In LBD there is also impairment of dopamine synthesis, similar to Parkinson disease. (author) 115 refs.

  5. Frontotemporal Dementias: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkins Kirsten

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dementia is a clinical state characterized by loss of function in multiple cognitive domains. It is a costly disease in terms of both personal suffering and economic loss. Frontotemporal dementia (FTD is the term now preferred over Picks disease to describe the spectrum of non-Alzheimers dementias characterized by focal atrophy of the frontal and anterior temporal regions of the brain. The prevalence of FTD is considerable, though specific figures vary among different studies. It occurs usually in an age range of 35–75 and it is more common in individuals with a positive family history of dementia. The risk factors associated with this disorder include head injury and family history of FTD. Although there is some controversy regarding the further syndromatic subdivision of the different types of FTD, the three major clinical presentations of FTD include: 1 a frontal or behavioral variant (FvFTD, 2 a temporal, aphasic variant, also called Semantic dementia (SD, and 3 a progressive aphasia (PA. These different variants differ in their clinical presentation, cognitive deficits, and affected brain regions. Patients with FTD should have a neuropsychiatric assessment, neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging studies to confirm and clarify the diagnosis. Treatment for this entity consists of behavioral and pharmacological approaches. Medications such as serotonin reuptake inhibitors, antipsychotics, mood stabilizer and other novel treatments have been used in FTD with different rates of success. Further research should be directed at understanding and developing new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities to improve the patients' prognosis and quality of life.

  6. Music Perception in Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Hannah L; Clark, Camilla N; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Cohen, Miriam H; Slattery, Catherine F; Paterson, Ross W; Foulkes, Alexander J M; Schott, Jonathan M; Mummery, Catherine J; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2017-01-01

    Despite much recent interest in music and dementia, music perception has not been widely studied across dementia syndromes using an information processing approach. Here we addressed this issue in a cohort of 30 patients representing major dementia syndromes of typical Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 16), logopenic aphasia (LPA, an Alzheimer variant syndrome; n = 5), and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n = 9) in relation to 19 healthy age-matched individuals. We designed a novel neuropsychological battery to assess perception of musical patterns in the dimensions of pitch and temporal information (requiring detection of notes that deviated from the established pattern based on local or global sequence features) and musical scene analysis (requiring detection of a familiar tune within polyphonic harmony). Performance on these tests was referenced to generic auditory (timbral) deviance detection and recognition of familiar tunes and adjusted for general auditory working memory performance. Relative to healthy controls, patients with AD and LPA had group-level deficits of global pitch (melody contour) processing while patients with PNFA as a group had deficits of local (interval) as well as global pitch processing. There was substantial individual variation within syndromic groups. Taking working memory performance into account, no specific deficits of musical temporal processing, timbre processing, musical scene analysis, or tune recognition were identified. The findings suggest that particular aspects of music perception such as pitch pattern analysis may open a window on the processing of information streams in major dementia syndromes. The potential selectivity of musical deficits for particular dementia syndromes and particular dimensions of processing warrants further systematic investigation.

  7. Smoking, dementia and cognitive decline in the elderly, a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burch Lisa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nicotine may aid reaction time, learning and memory, but smoking increases cardiovascular risk. Cardiovascular risk factors have been linked to increased risk of dementia. A previous meta-analysis found that current smokers were at higher risk of subsequent dementia, Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and cognitive decline. Methods In order to update and examine this further a systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out using different search and inclusion criteria, database selection and more recent publications. Both reviews were restricted to those aged 65 and over. Results The review reported here found a significantly increased risk of Alzheimer's disease with current smoking and a likely but not significantly increased risk of vascular dementia, dementia unspecified and cognitive decline. Neither review found clear relationships with former smoking. Conclusion Current smoking increases risk of Alzheimer's disease and may increase risk of other dementias. This reinforces need for smoking cessation, particularly aged 65 and over. Nicotine alone needs further investigation.

  8. Notch signaling regulates platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β expression in vascular smooth muscle cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, S.; Hansson, E.M.; Tikka, S.; Lanner, F.; Sahlgren, C.; Farnebo, F.; Baumann, M.; Kalimo, H.; Lendahl, U.

    2008-01-01

    Notch signaling is critically important for proper architecture of the vascular system, and mutations in NOTCH3 are associated with CADASIL, a stroke and dementia syndrome with vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) dysfunction. In this report, we link Notch signaling to platelet-derived growth factor

  9. Dementia and legal competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-06-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task

  10. Complement activation in chromosome 13 dementias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostagno, A.; Revesz, T.; Lashley, T.

    2002-01-01

    Chromosome 13 dementias, familial British dementia (FBD) and familial Danish dementia (FDD), are associated with neurodegeneration and cerebrovascular amyloidosis, with striking neuropathological similarities to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite the structural differences among the amyloid subunits...

  11. Snoezelen for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, J C; Lai, C K; Chung, P M; French, H P

    2002-01-01

    Snoezelen, multi-sensory stimulation, provides sensory stimuli to stimulate the primary senses of sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell, through the use of lighting effects, tactile surfaces, meditative music and the odour of relaxing essential oils (Pinkney 1997). The clinical application of snoezelen has been extended from the field of learning disability to dementia care over the past decade. The rationale for its use lies in providing a sensory environment that places fewer demands on intellectual abilities but capitalizes on the residual sensorimotor abilities of people with dementia (e.g. Buettner 1999, Hope 1998). Practitioners are keen to use snoezelen in dementia care, and some encouraging results have been documented in the area of promoting adaptive behaviours (e.g. Baker, Long 1992, Spaull 1998). However, the clinical application of snoezelen often varies in form, nature, principles and procedures. Such variations not only make examination of the therapeutic values of Snoezelen difficult, but also impede the clinical development of snoezelen in dementia care. A systematic review of evidence for the efficacy of snoezelen in the care of people with dementia is therefore needed to inform future clinical applications and research directions. This review aims to examine the clinical efficacy of snoezelen for older people with dementia. "Snoezelen", "multi-sensory", "dement*", "Alzheimer*", "randomized control/single control/double control" were used as keywords to search seven electronic databases (e.g. MEDLINE, PsyLIT). The list of trials was compared with those identified from a search of the Specialized Register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group. All RCTs in which Snoezelen or multi-sensory programmes were used as an intervention for people with dementia were included in the review. Trial data included in the review were restricted to those involving people aged over 60 years suffering from any type of dementia, except one subject

  12. Increased Risk of Dementia in Patients with Tension-Type Headache: A Nationwide Retrospective Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Chi Yang

    Full Text Available The association between primary headaches, including tension-type headache (TTH as one of the most common primary headache disorders, and dementia remains controversial. In this nationwide, population-based, retrospective, cohort study, we explored the potential association between TTH and dementia and examined sex, age, and comorbidities as risk factors for dementia.Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD claims data, the sample included 13908 subjects aged ≥20 years with newly-diagnosed TTH in 2000-2006. The non-TTH group included 55632 randomly selected sex- and age-matched TTH-free individuals. All subjects were followed until dementia diagnosis, death, or the end of 2011. Patients with dementia, including vascular and non-vascular (including Alzheimer's subtypes, were identified using International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the risk of dementia and dementia-associated risk factors, such as migraine and other medical comorbidities.During the average follow-up of 8.14 years, the incidence density rates of dementia were 5.30 and 3.68/1,000 person-years in the TTH and non-TTH groups, respectively. Compared with the non-TTH group, the risks of dementia were 1.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-1.42 and 1.13 (95% CI, 1.01-1.27 times higher in the women and >65-year-old TTH group, respectively. TTH patients with comorbidities had a higher risk of dementia. TTH patients had a greater risk of non-vascular dementia (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.09-1.34 than the non-TTH group.TTH patients have a future risk of dementia, indicating a potentially linked disease pathophysiology that warrants further study. The association between TTH and dementia is greater in women, older adults, and with comorbidities. Clinicians should be aware of potential dementia comorbidity in TTH patients.

  13. Smart Homes Design for People with Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Amiribesheli, Mohsen; Bouchachia, Abdelhamid

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a user-centred approach for designing and developing smart homes for people with dementia. In contrast to most of the existing literature related to dementia, the present approach aims at tailoring the system to the specific needs of dementia using a scenario-based methodology. Scenarios are based on typical dementia symptoms which are collected from research literatures and validated by dementia caregivers. They portray the common behaviour of people with dementia. ...

  14. Frontotemporal dementia: An updated overview

    OpenAIRE

    Mohandas, E.; Rajmohan, V.

    2009-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a progressive neurodegenerative syndrome occurring between 45 and 65 years. The syndrome is also called frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). However, FTLD refers to a larger group of disorders FTD being one of its subgroups. The other subgroups of FTLD are progressive nonfluent aphasia (PFNA), and semantic dementia (SD). FTLD is characterized by atrophy of prefrontal and anterior temporal cortices. FTD occurs in 5-15% of patients with dementia and it is t...

  15. Dementia communication using empathic curiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Phil; Eden, John; Plant, Rachel

    Communication skills training materials in dementia care usually focus on reminiscence. This is important because talking about past events can help people with dementia to retain their sense of self. This article examines the use of an alternative set of communication skills known as empathic curiosity, which may help to promote meaningful communication in the here and now with people who are living with dementia.

  16. Depression as a risk factor for dementia and mild cognitive impairment: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Huang, Changquan; Zhao, Kexiang; Ma, Louyan; Qiu, Xuan; Zhang, Lei; Xiu, Yun; Chen, Lin; Lu, Wei; Huang, Chunxia; Tang, Yong; Xiao, Qian

    2013-05-01

    This study examined whether depression was a risk factor for onset of dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VD) and any dementia, and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) by using a quantitative meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. EMBASE and MEDLINE were searched for articles published up to February 2011. All studies that examined the relationship between depression and the onset of dementia or MCI were included. Pooled relative risk was calculated using fixed-effects models. Twelve studies met our inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. All subjects were without dementia or MCI at baseline. Four, two, five, and four studies compared the incidence of AD, VD, any dementia, and MCI between subjects with or without depression, respectively. After pooling all the studies, subjects with depression had higher incidence of AD (relative risk (RR):1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.29-2.14), VD (RR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.19-3.01), any dementia (RR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.31-2.83), and MCI (RR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.53-2.54) than those without depression. The quantitative meta-analysis showed that depression was a major risk factor for incidence of dementia (including AD, VD, and any dementia) and MCI. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Early AIDS dementia complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountz, J.M.; Speed, N.M.; Adams, K.; Schwartz, J.A.; Gross, M.D.; Ostrow, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    A frequent complication of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is AIDS dementia complex (ADC). The authors evaluated seven patients with AIDS (aged 28-55 years, all male) for ADC by psychiatric evaluation, neuropsychological testing, CT scanning, and IMP-SPECT. Six of seven patients exhibited cognitive or behavioral abnormalities. Neuropsychological testing showed general deficits but no cases of explicit dementia. SPECT showed marked abnormalities in two cases: posterior temporal-parietal diminution of tracer uptake in one case (posterior/anterior=0.81) and marked right/left subcortical asymmetry (1.17) in the other. In three additional cases there was asymmetric tracer uptake in the subcortical and parietal regions. CT findings were normal in all seven cases. The authors conclude that functional imaging with the use of IMP-SPECT may be a useful method to follow ADC progression and response to therapy

  18. Dementia, Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Docu Any Axelerad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Disordered arousal leads to a confusional state with an incoherent line of thought, temporal disorientation, poor recall, visual illusions, hallucinations and disordered behavior. With the exception of dementia with Lewy bodies, which is characterized by fluctuating confusion, other disorders causing dementia persist and deteriorate over months or years, and are not characterized by fluctuations or confusional episodes, except when other medical or environmental perturbations disrupt the arousal systems of the brain (e.g. intercurrent infection, anoxia. Sometimes, their hallucinations are different, with a religious tendency, and maybe we must insist with anamnesis related to previous religious beliefs, to see if it is possible to correlate some damaged area than cause hallucinations, are reliable with our faith.

  19. Association between Frailty and Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulmala, J; Nykänen, I; Mänty, Minna Regina

    2014-01-01

    dementia with Lewy bodies and 8 persons (1%) had some other type of dementia. Multivariate logistic regression models showed that frail persons were almost 8 times more likely to have cognitive impairment (OR 7.8, 95% CI 4.0-15.0), 8 times more likely to have some kind of dementia (OR 8.0, 95% CI 4.0...... of the participants was assessed using the Cardiovascular Health Study criteria. Cognitive function was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Clinically diagnosed dementia was assessed by specialists using diagnostic criteria. The associations between frailty and cognition were investigated using...

  20. Language and Dementia: Neuropsychological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempler, Daniel; Goral, Mira

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews recent evidence for the relationship between extralinguistic cognitive and language abilities in dementia. A survey of data from investigations of three dementia syndromes (Alzheimer's disease, semantic dementia and progressive nonfluent aphasia) reveals that, more often than not, deterioration of conceptual organization appears associated with lexical impairments, whereas impairments in executive function are associated with sentence- and discourse-level deficits. These connections between extralinguistic functions and language ability also emerge from the literature on cognitive reserve and bilingualism that investigates factors that delay the onset and possibly the progression of neuropsychological manifestation of dementia.

  1. Treatment of cardiovascular risk factors to prevent cognitive decline and dementia: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne A Ligthart

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Suzanne A Ligthart1, Eric P Moll van Charante1, Willem A Van Gool2, Edo Richard21Department of General Practice, 2Department of Neurology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsBackground: Over the last decade, evidence has accumulated that vascular risk factors increase the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD. So far, few randomized controlled trials have focused on lowering the vascular risk profile to prevent or postpone cognitive decline or dementia.Objective: To systematically perform a review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs evaluating drug treatment effects for cardiovascular risk factors on the incidence of dementia or cognitive decline.Selection criteria: RCTs studying the effect of treating hypertension, dyslipidemia, ­hyperhomocysteinemia, obesity, or diabetes mellitus (DM on cognitive decline or dementia, with a minimum follow-up of 1 year in elderly populations.Outcome measure: Cognitive decline or incident dementia.Main results: In the identified studies, dementia was never the primary outcome. Statins (2 studies and intensified control of type II DM (1 study appear to have no effect on prevention of cognitive decline. Studies on treatment of obesity are lacking, and the results of lowering homocysteine (6 studies are inconclusive. There is some evidence of a preventive effect of antihypertensive medication (6 studies, but results are inconsistent.Conclusion: The evidence of a preventive treatment effect aimed at vascular risk factors on cognitive decline and dementia in later life is scarce and mostly based on secondary outcome parameters. Several important sources of bias such as differential dropout may importantly affect interpretation of trial results.Keywords: cardiovascular risk factors, cognitive decline, dementia, prevention

  2. Insulin, cognition, and dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholerton, Brenna; Baker, Laura D.; Craft, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive disorders of aging represent a serious threat to the social and economic welfare of current society. It is now widely recognized that pathology related to such conditions, particularly Alzheimer’s disease, likely begins years or decades prior to the onset of clinical dementia symptoms. This revelation has led researchers to consider candidate mechanisms precipitating the cascade of neuropathological events that eventually lead to clinical Alzheimer’s disease. Insulin, a hormone with potent effects in the brain, has recently received a great deal of attention for its potential beneficial and protective role in cognitive function. Insulin resistance, which refers to the reduced sensitivity of target tissues to the favorable effects of insulin, is related to multiple chronic conditions known to impact cognition and increase dementia risk. With insulin resistance-associated conditions reaching epidemic proportions, the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and other cognitive disorders will continue to rise exponentially. Fortunately, these chronic insulin-related conditions are amenable to pharmacological intervention. As a result, novel therapeutic strategies that focus on increasing insulin sensitivity in the brain may be an important target for protecting or treating cognitive decline. The following review will highlight our current understanding of the role of insulin in brain, potential mechanisms underlying the link between insulin resistance and dementia, and current experimental therapeutic strategies aimed at improving cognitive function via modifying the brain’s insulin sensitivity. PMID:24070815

  3. Risk of Dementia Associated with Elevated Plasma Homocysteine in a Latin American Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inara J. Chacón

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between total homocysteine (tHcy and dementia risk remains controversial, as the association varies among populations and dementia subtypes. We studied a Venezuelan population that has high prevalence of both elevated tHcy and dementia. We tested the hypotheses that (1 elevated tHcy is associated with increased dementia risk, (2 the risk is greater for vascular dementia (VaD than for Alzheimer's disease (AD, and (3 a history of stroke may partly explain this association. 2100 participants (≥55 years old of the Maracaibo Aging Study underwent standardized neurological, neuropsychiatric, and cardiovascular assessments. Elevated tHcy was significantly associated with dementia, primarily VaD. When history of stroke and other confounding factors were taken into account, elevated tHcy remained a significant risk factor in older (>66 years, but not in younger (55–66 years subjects. Ongoing studies of this population may provide insight into the mechanism by which tHcy increases risk for dementia.

  4. Cognitive training for dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konta, Brigitte

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the HTA report is to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive training methods to treat cognitive disorders of dementia and other diseases with cognitive deficits. For this purpose, a systematic literature search was carried out first based on the DIMDI superbase retrieval. The identified publications were judged and selected by two independent, methodically competent experts. 33 publications were included in the report. Based on the studies for a normal cognitive development in old age a theory that healthy older people have a considerable capacity reserve for an improved performance in abstract abilities of thinking can be assumed. The first symptoms for older people at risk for dementia are a reduced cognitive capacity reserve. Cognitive training methods therefore focus abilities of abstract memory. Apart from types of dementia another two groups of diseases with cognitive deficits were included in the HTA report: cerebral lesions and schizophrenic psychoses. Studies with mild as well as forms of dementia heavy forms including the Alzheimer disease were included. The described training methods were very heterogeneous with regard to their contents, the temporal sequence and the outcome parameter. The studies were methodically partly contestable. Approximately a third of the studies of all publications could show improvements in the cognitive achievements by the training. Three studies concerning cognitive training methods in case of cerebral lesions were included. All three studies demonstrated a significant improvement in the training group in some outcome parameters. Special cognitive training methods were used for the treatment of cognitive deficits at schizophrenic psychoses. The neurocognitive training (NET, the "Cognitive Remediation Therapy" as well as the strategic training with coaching proved to be effective. The studies, however, were hardly comparable and very heterogeneous in detail. Summarising the cognitive training

  5. Bioprinting for vascular and vascularized tissue biofabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Pallab; Ayan, Bugra; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2017-03-15

    Bioprinting is a promising technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision. Bioprinting enables the deposition of various biologics including growth factors, cells, genes, neo-tissues and extra-cellular matrix-like hydrogels. Benefits of bioprinting have started to make a mark in the fields of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and pharmaceutics. Specifically, in the field of tissue engineering, the creation of vascularized tissue constructs has remained a principal challenge till date. However, given the myriad advantages over other biofabrication methods, it becomes organic to expect that bioprinting can provide a viable solution for the vascularization problem, and facilitate the clinical translation of tissue engineered constructs. This article provides a comprehensive account of bioprinting of vascular and vascularized tissue constructs. The review is structured as introducing the scope of bioprinting in tissue engineering applications, key vascular anatomical features and then a thorough coverage of 3D bioprinting using extrusion-, droplet- and laser-based bioprinting for fabrication of vascular tissue constructs. The review then provides the reader with the use of bioprinting for obtaining thick vascularized tissues using sacrificial bioink materials. Current challenges are discussed, a comparative evaluation of different bioprinting modalities is presented and future prospects are provided to the reader. Biofabrication of living tissues and organs at the clinically-relevant volumes vitally depends on the integration of vascular network. Despite the great progress in traditional biofabrication approaches, building perfusable hierarchical vascular network is a major challenge. Bioprinting is an emerging technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision

  6. [Dementia due to Endocrine Diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Akiko; Yoneda, Makoto

    2016-04-01

    Endocrine diseases affecting various organs, such as the pituitary gland, the thyroid, the parathyroid, the adrenal glands and the pancreas, occasionally cause dementia. While Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main cause of dementia in the elderly and is untreatable, dementia caused by endocrine diseases is treatable in most cases. However, patients with dementia associated with endocrine diseases show memory impairments similar to those found in AD, often leading to misdiagnoses. Patients with endocrine diseases often present with other characteristic systemic and neuropsychiatric symptoms caused by altered hormone levels. Such neuropsychiatric symptoms include involuntary movements, depression, seizures, and muscle weakness. In these cases, abnormalities in imaging and blood or urine tests are helpful in making a differential diagnosis. As delays in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients may cause irreversible brain damage, it is imperative for clinicians to carefully exclude the possibility of latent endocrine diseases when treating patients with dementia.

  7. Vascular Care in Patients With Alzheimer Disease With Cerebrovascular Lesions Slows Progression of White Matter Lesions on MRI The Evaluation of Vascular Care in Alzheimer's Disease (EVA) Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, Edo; Gouw, Alida A.; Scheltens, Philip; van Gool, Willem A.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose-White matter lesions (WMLs) and cerebral infarcts are common findings in Alzheimer disease and may contribute to dementia severity. WMLs and lacunar infarcts may provide a potential target for intervention strategies. This study assessed whether multicomponent vascular care in

  8. Healthy aging and dementia: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, David A

    2003-09-02

    The Nun Study is a longitudinal study of 678 Catholic sisters 75 to 107 years of age who are members of the School Sisters of Notre Dame congregation. Data collected for this study include early and middle-life risk factors from the convent archives, annual cognitive and physical function evaluations during old age, and postmortem neuropathologic evaluations of the participants' brains. The case histories presented include a centenarian who was a model of healthy aging, a 92-year-old with dementia and clinically significant Alzheimer disease neuropathology and vascular lesions, a cognitively and physically intact centenarian with almost no neuropathology, and an 85-year-old with well-preserved cognitive and physical function despite a genetic predisposition to Alzheimer disease and an abundance of Alzheimer disease lesions. These case histories provide examples of how healthy aging and dementia relate to the degree of pathology present in the brain and the level of resistance to the clinical expression of the neuropathology.

  9. Teaching Mands to Older Adults with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Chelsey R.; Baker, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-01

    Millions of Americans are diagnosed with dementia, and that number is only expected to rise. The diagnosis of dementia comes with impairments, especially in language. Furthermore, dementia-related functional declines appear to be moderated by environmental variables (Alzheimer's Association, "Alzheimer's & Dementia: The Journal of the…

  10. Beyond competence: advance directives in dementia research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.R. Jongsma (Karin); S. van de Vathorst (Suzanne)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractDementia is highly prevalent and incurable. The participation of dementia patients in clinical research is indispensable if we want to find an effective treatment for dementia. However, one of the primary challenges in dementia research is the patients’ gradual loss of the capacity to

  11. Animal models of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter aims to encourage scientists and others interested in the use of animal models of disease – specifically, in the study of dementia – to engage in ethical reflection. It opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. Three ethical approaches...... are here distinguished. These serve as points of orientation in the following discussion of four more specific ethical questions: Does animal species matter? How effective is disease modelling in delivering the benefits claimed for it? What can be done to minimize potential harm to animals in research? Who...... bears responsibility for the use of animals in disease models?...

  12. Coping with Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lisbeth Villemoes; Waldorff, Frans Boch; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2008-01-01

    -living with a spouse. The analysis revealed that the basic social psychological problem faced by patients with mild AD was their awareness of decline in personal dignity and value. Coping strategies used to meet these problems were adaptations to the altered situation in order to maintain a feeling of well......-being. The spouse appeared to be the most important social relation. The most significant worries of the patients were about communication in relation to their spouse, and about the reaction of the spouse to the consequences of the disease. Keywords coping; dementia; everyday life; patients’ perspective; social...

  13. Artistic creativity and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Zachary A; Miller, Bruce L

    2013-01-01

    Artistic ability and creativity are defining characteristics of human behavior. Behavioral neurology, as a specialty, believes that even the most complex behaviors can be modeled and understood as the summation of smaller cognitive functions. Literature from individuals with specific brain lesions has helped to map out these smaller regions of cognitive abilities. More recently, models based on neurodegenerative conditions, especially from the frontotemporal dementias, have allowed for greater nuanced investigations into the various functional anatomies necessary for artistic behavior and possibly the underlying networks that promote creativity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of dementia among population age over 45 years in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangtongkum, Suparus; Sucharitkul, Phongsakorn; Silprasert, Nutcharut; Inthrachak, Rudeethawinl

    2008-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of dementia in Thai people with age 45 years and above. This project used a cross sectional research design to study the prevalence of dementia in Chiang Mai. Door-to-door technique was assigned in condition with multi-stage probability random sampling to obtain subjects representing the population of Chiang Mai between Oct 2004 and Sep 2005. The researchers collected the data from the subjects aged 45 years and above. All subjects were located from every Amphurs of Chiang Mai. They were first screened with Thai Mini Mental State Examination (TMSE) and Thai Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The subjects whose TMSE was less than 24 were assessed and diagnosed by a neurologist. Subjects who were determined as having dementia might be laboratory analyzed and classified based on DSM-IV and NINDS-AIREN criteria. The authors enrolled 2,311 people and screened them with Batteries test. One thousand four hundred ninety two people qualified with 610 males and 882 females, whose mean age was 59.7 +/- 10.4 years. The authors found that among the 35 people with dementia, the mean age was 67.9 +/- 8.9 years (45-88 years). The prevalence of dementia among the study participants was 2.35%. In the present study, Alzheimer's disease was the most common type of dementia diagnosed (75.0%) and vascular dementia was the second most commonly diagnosed (12.5%). The prevalence of dementia in Chiang Mai was 2.35%, which does not differ from the previous study Alzheimer's disease was the most common type of dementia diagnosed.

  15. New possibility of traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine as treatment for behavioral and psychiatric symptoms in dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung FC

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fan-Chin Kung,1 Ryouhei Ishii,2 Hsing-Cheng Liu,3 Masatoshi Takeda21Yuli Hospital, DOH, Hualien, Taiwan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan; 3Department of General Psychiatry, Taipei City Psychiatric Center, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: Yokukansan, one of the Kampo prescriptions, is composed of seven herbaceous plants and was developed in China in the 16th century as a cure for restlessness and agitation in children. Yokukansan has also become a popular drug combination in Japan, especially for the behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD. Recent studies have shown that yokukansan might also be quite effective against BPSD occurring in association with other types of dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body disease, Parkinson's disease with dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and vascular dementia. Researchers have intensively investigated yokukansan, focusing on the pharmacological mechanisms against glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. This traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine holds potential promise for improving BPSD in elderly patients suffering from dementia.Keywords: yokukansan, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, Kampo, glutamate

  16. Type 2 Diabetes as a Risk Factor for Dementia in Women Compared With Men: A Pooled Analysis of 2.3 Million People Comprising More Than 100,000 Cases of Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Saion; Peters, Sanne A.E.; Woodward, Mark; Mejia Arango, Silvia; Batty, G. David; Beckett, Nigel; Beiser, Alexa; Borenstein, Amy R.; Crane, Paul K.; Haan, Mary; Hassing, Linda B.; Hayden, Kathleen M.; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Larson, Eric B.; Li, Chung-Yi; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Ohara, Tomoyuki; Peters, Ruth; Russ, Tom C.; Seshadri, Sudha; Strand, Bjørn H.; Walker, Rod; Xu, Weili

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Type 2 diabetes confers a greater excess risk of cardiovascular disease in women than in men. Diabetes is also a risk factor for dementia, but whether the association is similar in women and men remains unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of unpublished data to estimate the sex-specific relationship between women and men with diabetes with incident dementia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A systematic search identified studies published prior to November 2014 that had reported on the prospective association between diabetes and dementia. Study authors contributed unpublished sex-specific relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs on the association between diabetes and all dementia and its subtypes. Sex-specific RRs and the women-to-men ratio of RRs (RRRs) were pooled using random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS Study-level data from 14 studies, 2,310,330 individuals, and 102,174 dementia case patients were included. In multiple-adjusted analyses, diabetes was associated with a 60% increased risk of any dementia in both sexes (women: pooled RR 1.62 [95% CI 1.45–1.80]; men: pooled RR 1.58 [95% CI 1.38–1.81]). The diabetes-associated RRs for vascular dementia were 2.34 (95% CI 1.86–2.94) in women and 1.73 (95% CI 1.61–1.85) in men, and for nonvascular dementia, the RRs were 1.53 (95% CI 1.35–1.73) in women and 1.49 (95% CI 1.31–1.69) in men. Overall, women with diabetes had a 19% greater risk for the development of vascular dementia than men (multiple-adjusted RRR 1.19 [95% CI 1.08–1.30]; P dementia compared with those without diabetes. For vascular dementia, but not for nonvascular dementia, the additional risk is greater in women. PMID:26681727

  17. Interrogating personhood and dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Paul; Gilleard, Chris

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To interrogate the concept of personhood and its application to care practices for people with dementia. Method: We outline the work of Tom Kitwood on personhood and relate this to conceptualisations of personhood in metaphysics and in moral philosophy. Results: The philosophical concept of personhood has a long history. The metaphysical tradition examines the necessary and sufficient qualities that make up personhood such as agency, consciousness, identity, rationality and second-order reflexivity. Alternative viewpoints treat personhood as a matter of degree rather than as a superordinate category. Within moral philosophy personhood is treated as a moral status applicable to some or to all human beings. Conclusion: In the light of the multiple meanings attached to the term in both metaphysics and moral philosophy, personhood is a relatively unhelpful concept to act as the foundation for developing models and standards of care for people with dementia. Care, we suggest, should concentrate less on ambiguous and somewhat abstract terms such as personhood and focus instead on supporting people's existing capabilities, while minimising the harmful consequences of their incapacities. PMID:26708149

  18. Ocular Fundus Photography as a Tool to Study Stroke and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Carol Y; Chen, Christopher; Wong, Tien Y

    2015-10-01

    Although cerebral small vessel disease has been linked to stroke and dementia, due to limitations of current neuroimaging technology, direct in vivo visualization of changes in the cerebral small vessels (e.g., cerebral arteriolar narrowing, tortuous microvessels, blood-brain barrier damage, capillary microaneurysms) is difficult to achieve. As the retina and the brain share similar embryological origin, anatomical features, and physiologic properties with the cerebral small vessels, the retinal vessels offer a unique and easily accessible "window" to study the correlates and consequences of cerebral small vessel diseases in vivo. The retinal microvasculature can be visualized, quantified and monitored noninvasively using ocular fundus photography. Recent clinic- and population-based studies have demonstrated a close link between retinal vascular changes seen on fundus photography and stroke and dementia, suggesting that ocular fundus photography may provide insights to the contribution of microvascular disease to stroke and dementia. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on retinal vascular changes, such as retinopathy and changes in retinal vascular measures with stroke and dementia as well as subclinical makers of cerebral small vessel disease, and discuss the possible clinical implications of these findings in neurology. Studying pathologic changes of retinal blood vessels may be useful for understanding the etiology of various cerebrovascular conditions; hence, ocular fundus photography can be potentially translated into clinical practice. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Low education and lack of spousal relationship are associated with dementia in older adults with diabetes mellitus in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Abdulkareem J; Baiyewu, Olusegun; Bakari, Adamu G; Garko, Sani B; Jibril, Mohammed E-B; Suleiman, Aishatu M; Muktar, Haruna M; Amedu, Micheal A

    2018-05-01

    The relationship between dementia and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in older adults is well established in the literature. However, there have been few studies on this relationship in older adults living in low- and middle-income countries, and most demographic projections predict that older adult population will increase substantially in these regions by 2050. In this study, older adults with T2DM attending a tertiary health facility were examined and compared with community-dwelling older adults without T2DM. The participants were assessed using the Consortium to Establish Registry for Alzheimer's Disease, the Stick Design Test, the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale, and the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale. Additionally, all the participants had a physical examination, including assessment of glycated haemoglobin, fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, and HIV status. A consensus diagnosis of dementia was made based on the criteria for dementia in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, and the International Classification for Diseases, 10th edition. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 for Windows. This study included 224 diabetic patients and 116 controls. A total of 27 diabetic patients (12.1%) had dementia, 19 of whom were women. Of the 27 diabetic patients with dementia, 25 patients (92.6%) had Alzheimer's disease and 2 patients (7.4%) had mixed dementia (vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease). Only one person among the controls had Alzheimer's type dementia. Dementia in the diabetic patients was significantly associated with advancing age, female gender, education level, duration of diabetes, and absence of a spouse. Dementia is common in older adults with T2DM in this low-resource setting, and the risk factors for dementia were similar to those reported in earlier studies in Western societies. © 2018 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  20. Reminiscence therapy for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Bob; O'Philbin, Laura; Farrell, Emma M; Spector, Aimee E; Orrell, Martin

    2018-03-01

    This updated Cochrane Review of reminiscence therapy (RT) for dementia was first published in 1998, and last updated in 2005. RT involves the discussion of memories and past experiences with other people using tangible prompts such as photographs or music to evoke memories and stimulate conversation. RT is implemented widely in a range of settings using a variety of formats. To assess the effects of RT on people living with dementia and their carers, taking into account differences in its implementation, including setting (care home, community) and modality (group, individual). We searched ALOIS (the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group's Specialized Register) on 6 April 2017 using the search term 'reminiscence.' We included all randomised controlled trials of RT for dementia in which the duration of the intervention was at least four weeks (or six sessions) and that had a 'no treatment' or passive control group. Outcomes of interest were quality of life (QoL), cognition, communication, behaviour, mood and carer outcomes. Two authors (LOP and EF) independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Where necessary, we contacted study authors for additional information. We pooled data from all sufficiently similar studies reporting on each outcome. We undertook subgroup analysis by setting (community versus care home) and by modality (individual versus group). We used GRADE methods to assess the overall quality of evidence for each outcome. We included 22 studies involving 1972 people with dementia. Meta-analyses included data from 16 studies (1749 participants). Apart from six studies with risk of selection bias, the overall risk of bias in the studies was low.Overall, moderate quality evidence indicated RT did not have an important effect on QoL immediately after the intervention period compared with no treatment (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.12 to 0.33; I 2 = 59%; 8 studies; 1060 participants

  1. The Appropriate Use of Neuroimaging in the Diagnostic Work-Up of Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of dementia is challenging and requires both ruling out potentially treatable underlying causes and ruling in a diagnosis of dementia subtype to manage patients and suitably plan for the future. Objectives This analysis sought to determine the appropriate use of neuroimaging during the diagnostic work-up of dementia, including indications for neuroimaging and comparative accuracy of alternative technologies. Data Sources A literature search was performed using Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid Embase, the Wiley Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, for studies published between 2000 and 2013. Review Methods Data on diagnostic accuracy and impact on clinical decision making were abstracted from included studies. Quality of evidence was assessed using GRADE. Results The search yielded 5,374 citations and 15 studies were included. Approximately 10% of dementia cases are potentially treatable, though less than 1% reverse partially or fully. Neither prediction rules nor clinical indications reliably select the subset of patients who will likely benefit from neuroimaging. Clinical utility is highest in ambiguous cases or where dementia may be mixed, and lowest for clinically diagnosed Alzheimer disease or clinically excluded vascular dementia. There is a lack of evidence that MRI is superior to CT in detecting a vascular component to dementia. Accuracy of structural imaging is moderate to high for discriminating different types of dementia. Limitations There was significant heterogeneity in estimates of diagnostic accuracy, which often prohibited a statistical summary of findings. The quality of data reported by studies prohibited calculation of likelihood ratios in the present analysis. No studies from primary care were found; thus, generalizability beyond tertiary care settings may be limited. Conclusions A diagnosis of reversible dementia is rare. Imaging has the most

  2. Post-stroke dementia: the contribution of thalamus and basal ganglia changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marcos Antonio; Firbank, Michael J; Widdrington, Michelle; Blamire, Andrew M; Kalaria, Raj N; O'Brien, John T

    2012-04-01

    The neurobiological basis of increased risk of dementia in stroke patients is unclear, though there are several related pathological changes, including white matter hyperintensities (WMH), and medial temporal atrophy. Subcortical gray matter structures have also been implicated in dementia resulting from vascular pathology, particularly vascular dementia. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of changes in subcortical gray matter structures to post-stroke dementia (PSD). T1- and T2-weighted images and T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images were obtained on a 3-Tesla magnetic resonance (MR) system, in four groups aged over 75 years: post-stroke with dementia (PSD; 8), post-stroke no dementia (PSnoD; 33), Alzheimer's disease (AD; 26) and controls (30). Automated software was used to measure the volume of thalamus, putamen, caudate nucleus, and hippocampus as well as total WMH volume. The number of subcortical lacunes was also counted. The number of caudate lacunes was higher in the PSnoD group, compared with AD (p = 0.029) and controls (p = 0.019). The putamen volume was smaller in the stroke and AD groups, when compared with controls. In the whole stroke group, putamen lacunes were correlated with impairment in memory (Rey test; ρ = -0.365; p = 0.031), while WMH and hippocampal volume both correlated with global dysfunction. Our findings implicate a variety of neurobiological substrates of dementia, such as small vessel disease and Alzheimer pathology, which develop after stroke in an old older population, with a contribution from subcortical brain structures.

  3. Evaluation of the contribution of the importance of neuroimaging for the diagnostics of dementias - comparison to the psychological diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentschel, F.; Kreis, M.; Damian, M.; Syren, M.; Krumm, B.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: While psychology is accepted as a necessary component of the dementia diagnostics, the extended clinical diagnostics with neuroimaging is differently estimated. The goal of the study is the quantification of the individual contribution of the two different methods. Methods: Of 100 patient the diagnosis of entrance, the neurological, the psychological, and the final clinical diagnosis were documented. For both imaging and psychology the sensitivity, specificity, and the positive predictive value were computed. The diagnostic of each method was determined from the change of the final in relation to the initial clinical diagnosis. The neuroradiological investigation took place with MRI, the psychological examination used both usual power and special speed tests. Results: The extended clinical diagnostics led for 26% of the patients to the change of the clinical diagnosis. Imaging and psychology supplied different own but supplementing contributions. In the case of annihilation imaging contributed with 73.3%, psychology with 54.1% to the diagnosis of a neurodegenerative dementia, whereas the contributions to the diagnosis of a vascular dementia were 83.3% and 70.8%, respectively. However psychology diagnosed and quantified the dementia. The contribution of neuroimaging consisted in the differential diagnosis of the dementias organic causes of symptomatic clementias and vascular encephalopathy without dementia but with consequences for a secondary prophylaxis were additional information also. Conclusion: Psychology improves the diagnostic accuracy of dementias. Neuroimaging improves the differential diagnosis of dementias and supplies additional clinically relevant findings. In the qualified diagnostics and differential diagnostics of the dementias both methods are indispensable. (orig.) [de

  4. Functional brain imaging in the dementias: role in early detection, differential diagnosis, and longitudinal studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devous, M.D. Sr. [Nuclear Medicine Center and Department of Radiology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd., Dallas, TX (United States)

    2002-12-01

    This review considers the role of functional brain imaging techniques in the dementias. The substantial assistance that especially single-photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography can play in the initial diagnosis of dementia and in the differential diagnosis of the specific dementing disorder is discussed. These techniques alone essentially match the sensitivity and specificity of clinical diagnoses in distinguishing Alzheimer's dementia (AD) from age-matched controls, from frontal lobe dementia and vascular dementia, and even from Lewy body dementia. Newer analytic techniques such as voxel-based correlational analyses and discriminant function analyses enhance the power of such differential diagnoses. Functional brain imaging techniques can also significantly assist in patient screening for clinical trials. The correlation of the observed deficits with specific patterns of cognitive abnormalities permits enhanced patient management and treatment planning and improved longitudinal assessment of outcome. It is also noteworthy that the classic abnormalities of temporoparietal and posterior cingulate hypoperfusion or hypometabolism appear to be present prior to symptom onset. These abnormalities predict progression to AD in the presence of the earliest of symptoms, and are present even in cognitively normal but at-risk subjects, with a severity proportional to the risk status. Even greater predictive ability for progression to AD is obtained by combining measures of perfusion or metabolism with risk factors, tau protein levels, hippocampal N-Acetyl aspartate concentrations, or hippocampal volume measures. (orig.)

  5. Functional brain imaging in the dementias: role in early detection, differential diagnosis, and longitudinal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devous, M.D. Sr.

    2002-01-01

    This review considers the role of functional brain imaging techniques in the dementias. The substantial assistance that especially single-photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography can play in the initial diagnosis of dementia and in the differential diagnosis of the specific dementing disorder is discussed. These techniques alone essentially match the sensitivity and specificity of clinical diagnoses in distinguishing Alzheimer's dementia (AD) from age-matched controls, from frontal lobe dementia and vascular dementia, and even from Lewy body dementia. Newer analytic techniques such as voxel-based correlational analyses and discriminant function analyses enhance the power of such differential diagnoses. Functional brain imaging techniques can also significantly assist in patient screening for clinical trials. The correlation of the observed deficits with specific patterns of cognitive abnormalities permits enhanced patient management and treatment planning and improved longitudinal assessment of outcome. It is also noteworthy that the classic abnormalities of temporoparietal and posterior cingulate hypoperfusion or hypometabolism appear to be present prior to symptom onset. These abnormalities predict progression to AD in the presence of the earliest of symptoms, and are present even in cognitively normal but at-risk subjects, with a severity proportional to the risk status. Even greater predictive ability for progression to AD is obtained by combining measures of perfusion or metabolism with risk factors, tau protein levels, hippocampal N-Acetyl aspartate concentrations, or hippocampal volume measures. (orig.)

  6. Utility of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination--Revised for the diagnosis of dementia syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpening, Zoe; Cordato, Nicholas J; Hepner, Ilana J; Lucas, Sara K; Lindley, Richard I

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the utility of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination--Revised (ACE-R) as a screening tool for dementia. Prospective audit of 122 patients (82 with dementia, 40 with no dementia) referred to a Sydney cognition clinic. An ACE-R cut-off score of 84/100 provided an optimal balance of sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (0.85, 0.80 and 0.90, respectively) in identifying patients with dementia. In our sample, the ACE-R was a superior dementia screening tool to the Mini-Mental State Examination in patients with higher levels of education (≥ 10 years of formal schooling), but not in patients with lower levels of education. Patients misclassified by the instrument had evidence of high levels of education, focal executive dysfunction, medical comorbidities, significant vascular disease and polypharmacology. The ACE-R is a useful screening tool for detecting the presence of dementia in a cognition clinic setting. Caution may be warranted in some patient populations. © 2010 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2010 ACOTA.

  7. Clinical Correlates of Hachinski Ischemic Score and Vascular Factors in Cognitive Function of Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Ho Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between Hachinski ischemic score (HIS and vascular factors as well as between HIS and the cognitive function in elderly community. Demographic characteristics, such as sex, age, education, history of drinking and smoking, family history of dementia and stroke, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and dementia, were surveyed. Neurological examination was administered to every subject and HIS was checked by a neurologist. From a total of 392 participants aged 65 and over in a rural community, 348 completed the survey and were finally enrolled. Among the vascular factors, history of hypertension (P=0.008, history of stroke (P<0.001, family history of dementia (P=0.01, and history of cardiac diseases (P=0.012 showed a significant relationship with HIS. In the cognitive function tests, both Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Clinical Dementia Rating (Global and Sum of Boxes had a significant relationship with HIS. Our study suggested HIS may have an association with some vascular factors and cognitive scales in community dwelling elderly. In this study, the HIS seemed to contribute to the evaluation of the quantity of vascular factors and to the prediction of status of cognitive function.

  8. Diagnosis and management of dementia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-09-19

    Sep 19, 2007 ... Dementia is an acquired syndrome of memory decline with at least one other cognitive .... functions and memory retrieval are the .... behavioural problems.5 Cost-effectiveness of ... (For words not recalled, prompt with a cue.).

  9. The Italian Dementia National Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Di Fiandra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Italian Dementia National Plan was formulated in October 2014 by the Italian Ministry of Health in close cooperation with the regions, the National Institute of Health and the three major national associations of patients and carers. The main purpose of this strategy was to provide directive indications for promoting and improving interventions in the dementia field, not limiting to specialist and therapeutic actions, but particularly focusing on the support of patients and families throughout the pathways of care. Four main objectives are indicated: 1 promote health- and social-care interventions and policies; 2 create/strengthen the integrated network of services for dementia based on an integrated approach; 3 implement strategies for promoting appropriateness and quality of care; and 4 improve the quality of life of persons with dementia and their families by supporting empowerment and stigma reduction. These objectives and the pertaining actions are described in the present paper.

  10. Dementia due to metabolic causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poor judgment and losing the ability to recognize danger Using the wrong word, not pronouncing words correctly, ... disease and other dementias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  11. Dementia, Caregiving, and Controlling Frustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be calm can help you to gain cooperation. See FCA ʼ s fact sheet Caregiver’s Guide to ... cuidador para entender la conducta de los pacientes con demencia (Caregiver’s Guide to Understanding Dementia Behaviors) We ...

  12. Does lithium protect against dementia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Forman, Julie Lyng; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether treatment with lithium in patients with mania or bipolar disorder is associated with a decreased rate of subsequent dementia. METHODS: Linkage of register data on prescribed lithium in all patients discharged from psychiatric health care service with a diagnosis...... exposed to lithium (50.4%), 1,781 to anticonvulsants (36.7%), 4,280 to antidepressants (88.1%), and 3,901 to antipsychotics (80.3%) during the study period. A total of 216 patients received a diagnosis of dementia during follow-up (103.6/10,000 person-years). During the period following the second...... prescription of lithium, the rate of dementia was decreased compared to the period following the first prescription. In contrast, the rates of dementia during multiple prescription periods with anticonvulsants, antidepressants, or antipsychotics, respectively, were not significantly decreased compared...

  13. Robotherapy with Dementia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Martín

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Humanoids have increasingly become the focus of attention in robotics research in recent years, especially in service and personal assistance robotics. This paper presents the application developed for humanoid robots in the therapy of dementia patients as a cognitive stimulation tool. The behaviour of the robot during the therapy sessions is visually programmed in a session script that allows music to play, physical movements (dancing, exercises, etc., speech synthesis and interaction with the human monitor. The application includes the control software on board the robot and some tools like the visual script generator or a monitor to supervise the robot behaviour during the sessions. The robot application's impact on the patient's health has been studied. Experiments with real patients have been performed in collaboration with a centre of research in neurodegenerative diseases. Initial results show a slight or mild improvement in neuropsychiatric symptoms over other traditional therapy methods.

  14. Biomarkers of the Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikio Shoji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in biomarker studies on dementia are summarized here. CSF Aβ40, Aβ42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau are the most sensitive biomarkers for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD and prediction of onset of AD from mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Based on this progress, new diagnostic criteria for AD, MCI, and preclinical AD were proposed by National Institute of Aging (NIA and Alzheimer's Association in August 2010. In these new criteria, progress in biomarker identification and amyloid imaging studies in the past 10 years have added critical information. Huge contributions of basic and clinical studies have established clinical evidence supporting these markers. Based on this progress, essential therapy for cure of AD is urgently expected.

  15. Music therapy in dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDermott, Orii; Crellin, Nadia; Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2013-01-01

    Objective Recent reviews on music therapy for people with dementia have been limited to attempting to evaluate whether it is effective, but there is a need for a critical assessment of the literature to provide insight into the possible mechanisms of actions of music therapy. This systematic review......, five studies investigated hormonal and physiological changes, and five studies focused on social and relational aspects of music therapy. The musical interventions in the studies were diverse, but singing featured as an important medium for change. Conclusions Evidence for short-term improvement...... in mood and reduction in behavioural disturbance was consistent, but there were no high-quality longitudinal studies that demonstrated long-term benefits of music therapy. Future music therapy studies need to define a theoretical model, include better-focused outcome measures, and discuss how the findings...

  16. A review of ethical issues in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca A; Karlawish, Jason

    2015-10-01

    Dementia raises many ethical issues. The present review, taking note of the fact that the stages of dementia raise distinct ethical issues, focuses on three issues associated with stages of dementia's progression: (1) how the emergence of preclinical and asymptomatic but at-risk categories for dementia creates complex questions about preventive measures, risk disclosure, and protection from stigma and discrimination; (2) how despite efforts at dementia prevention, important research continues to investigate ways to alleviate clinical dementia's symptoms, and requires additional human subjects protections to ethically enroll persons with dementia; and (3) how in spite of research and prevention efforts, persons continue to need to live with dementia. This review highlights two major themes. First is how expanding the boundaries of dementias such as Alzheimer's to include asymptomatic but at-risk persons generate new ethical questions. One promising way to address these questions is to take an integrated approach to dementia ethics, which can include incorporating ethics-related data collection into the design of a dementia research study itself. Second is the interdisciplinary nature of ethical questions related to dementia, from health policy questions about insurance coverage for long-term care to political questions about voting, driving, and other civic rights and privileges to economic questions about balancing an employer's right to a safe and productive workforce with an employee's rights to avoid discrimination on the basis of their dementia risk. The review highlights these themes and emerging ethical issues in dementia.

  17. Dementia: sociological and philosophical constructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel H J

    2004-01-01

    This analysis presents a challenge to the biomedical view of dementia as a disease. This view is critiqued from two perspectives: those of sociology and philosophy. Because these domains inform the creation of the medical discourse, their analysis provides an important refinement to the apprehension of the phenomenon of dementia. From the work of Foucault, and in particular his analysis of the historical origins of modern medicine, the sociological construction of dementia is considered. Following this, the philosophical question of Being is discussed, considering particularly the positions of Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty. Lastly aspects of dementia nursing that are damaging to those relatives forced to take on the role of primary carer are isolated, in the context of Kitwood's view that it is possible to maintain personhood at the extremes of this condition. It is suggested that this critique of sociological and philosophical foundations of dementia might offer a way of approaching the dismantling of the self and revise current conceptions of dementia care for the better.

  18. Asymptomatic cervicocerebral atherosclerosis, intracranial vascular resistance and cognition: the AsIA-neuropsychology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Olóriz, Jorge; López-Cancio, Elena; Arenillas, Juan F; Hernández, María; Jiménez, Marta; Dorado, Laura; Barrios, Maite; Soriano-Raya, Juan José; Miralbell, Júlia; Cáceres, Cynthia; Forés, Rosa; Pera, Guillem; Dávalos, Antoni; Mataró, Maria

    2013-10-01

    Carotid atherosclerosis has emerged as a relevant contributor to cognitive impairment and dementia whereas the role of intracranial stenosis and vascular resistance in cognition remains unknown. This study aims to assess the association of asymptomatic cervicocerebral atherosclerosis and intracranial vascular resistance with cognitive performance in a large dementia-free population. The Barcelona-AsIA (Asymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis) Neuropsychology Study included 747 Caucasian subjects older than 50 with a moderate-high vascular risk (assessed by REGICOR score) and without history of neither symptomatic vascular disease nor dementia. Extracranial and transcranial color-coded duplex ultrasound examination was performed to assess carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), presence of carotid plaques (ECAD group), intracranial stenosis (ICAD group), and middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (MCA-PI) as a measure of intracranial vascular resistance. Neuropsychological assessment included tests in three cognitive domains: visuospatial skills and speed, verbal memory and verbal fluency. In univariate analyses, carotid IMT, ECAD and MCA-PI were associated with lower performance in almost all cognitive domains, and ICAD was associated with poor performance in some visuospatial and verbal cognitive tests. After adjustment for age, sex, vascular risk score, years of education and depressive symptoms, ECAD remained associated with poor performance in the three cognitive domains and elevated MCA-PI with worse performance in visuospatial skills and speed. Carotid plaques and increased intracranial vascular resistance are independently associated with low cognitive functioning in Caucasian stroke and dementia-free subjects. We failed to find an independent association of intracranial large vessel stenosis with cognitive performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Alcohol consumption and dementia risk: a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Huifu; Wan, Yu; Tan, Chenchen; Li, Jieqiong; Tan, Lan; Yu, Jin-Tai

    2017-01-01

    It is widely believed that light-to-moderate alcohol intake may protect against dementia while excessive drinking may instead increase the risk. Nonetheless, these findings need cautious interpretations due to varying methodologies and lack of standard definition, which hindered our transferring into preventative practice. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential dose–response association between alcohol consumption and risk of dementia. A systematic search was conducted in electronic databases to identify relevant studies. Risk estimates were combined using a random-effect model. Eleven studies with 73,330 participants and 4586 cases for all-cause dementia (ACD), five studies with 52,715 participants and 1267 cases for Alzheimer’s dementia (AD) and four studies with 49,535 participants and 542 cases for vascular dementia were included. We observed a nonlinear association between alcohol consumption and ACD risk (p_n_o_n_l_i_n_e_a_r_i_t_y < 0.05). The alcohol dose associated with lower risk of dementia was confined to at most 12.5 g/day, with the risk hitting bottom (RR ≈ 0.9) at roughly 6 g/day. Of note, the ACD risk seemed to be elevated (≈10%) when the dose surpasses certain levels: 23 drinks/week or 38 g/day. For the alcohol type, recommendation for wine is prioritized. The subgroup analysis further indicated that the effect of alcohol may be greater in younger adults (<60 years old) with regard to fighting against dementia. Modest alcohol consumption (≤12.5 g/day) is associated with a reduced risk of dementia with 6 g/day of alcohol conferring a lower risk than other levels while excessive drinking (≥38 g/day) may instead elevate the risk.

  20. Dissociation between implicit and explicit manifestations of awareness in early stage dementia: evidence from the emotional Stroop effect for dementia-related words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyr, Anthony; Clare, Linda; Nelis, Sharon M; Roberts, Judith L; Robinson, Julia U; Roth, Ilona; Markova, Ivana S; Woods, Robert T; Whitaker, Christopher J; Morris, Robin G

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether people with dementia (PwD), and carers of PwD, show a processing bias to dementia-related words in an emotional Stroop task, and if so, whether the presence of such a bias is related to level of explicit awareness of the condition. Seventy-nine people with early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular or mixed dementia, and their carers, completed an emotional Stroop task. Time taken to colour-name dementia-related and neutral words was compared within and between groups. Additionally, as a comparison, ratings of the awareness of the condition shown by PwD were made on the basis of a detailed interview with each PwD and his/her carer. PwD and carers showed the same level of increase in response times to salient compared to neutral words. In the PwD this effect was unrelated to the degree of awareness that they demonstrated regarding the condition. The emotional Stroop effect in response to dementia-related words in PwD indicates that preserved implicit awareness of the condition can be elicited even where there is reduced explicit awareness. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Influence of apolipoprotein E genotype on senile dementia of the Alzheimer and Lewy body types. Significance for etiological theories of Alzheimer's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, C. R.; Louwagie, J.; Rossau, R.; Vanmechelen, E.; Perry, R. H.; Perry, E. K.; Xuereb, J. H.; Roth, M.; Wischik, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with an increased frequency of the apolipoprotein E type epsilon 4 allele. To address both the disease and the allele specificity of this association, we have examined the apolipoprotein E allele distribution in 255 elderly persons including those with autopsy-confirmed AD, senile dementia of the Lewy body type (SDLT), vascular dementia, Parkinson's disease (PD) or Huntington's disease and in nondemented controls either with or without coronary complicat...

  2. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers reduced dementia risk in patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Yi-Chun; Huang, Kuang-Wei; Yen, Der-Jen; Hu, Chaur-Jong; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-10-01

    The effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) on dementia risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension remain unknown. We investigated the effects of ACEIs and ARBs on dementia risk in patients with type 2 DM and hypertension. We conducted a cohort study by using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. We included 2377 patients receiving ACEIs and 1780 patients receiving ARBs in the ACEI and ARB cohorts, respectively. We included a comparable number of patients not receiving ACEIs and ARBs as controls in the non-ACEI and non-ARB cohorts through propensity score matching. The effect of ACEIs and ARBs on dementia risk was estimated through multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression after adjustment for several confounding factors. During the 12-year follow-up period, compared with the non-ACEI cohort, all-cause dementia risk decreased by 26% in the ACEI cohort [hazard ratio (HR)=0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.56-0.96]. The all-cause dementia risk was nearly 40% lower in the ARB cohort than in the non-ARB cohort (HR=0.60, 95% CI=0.37-0.97). These drugs prevented the occurrence of vascular dementia (VD), however, this effect was nonsignificant for Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Treatment duration- and dosage-related protection effects on dementia occurrence were observed. ACEIs and ARBs may effectively prevent all-cause dementia, particularly VD, in patients with type 2 DM and hypertension. Moreover, compared with ACEIs, ARBs appear to be more advantageous in dementia prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Feelings of loneliness, but not social isolation, predict dementia onset: results from the Amsterdam Study of the Elderly (AMSTEL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holwerda, Tjalling Jan; Deeg, Dorly J H; Beekman, Aartjan T F; van Tilburg, Theo G; Stek, Max L; Jonker, Cees; Schoevers, Robert A

    2014-02-01

    Known risk factors for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias include medical conditions, genetic vulnerability, depression, demographic factors and mild cognitive impairment. The role of feelings of loneliness and social isolation in dementia is less well understood, and prospective studies including these risk factors are scarce. We tested the association between social isolation (living alone, unmarried, without social support), feelings of loneliness and incident dementia in a cohort study among 2173 non-demented community-living older persons. Participants were followed for 3 years when a diagnosis of dementia was assessed (Geriatric Mental State (GMS) Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy (AGECAT)). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between social isolation and feelings of loneliness and the risk of dementia, controlling for sociodemographic factors, medical conditions, depression, cognitive functioning and functional status. After adjustment for other risk factors, older persons with feelings of loneliness were more likely to develop dementia (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.56) than people without such feelings. Social isolation was not associated with a higher dementia risk in multivariate analysis. Feeling lonely rather than being alone is associated with an increased risk of clinical dementia in later life and can be considered a major risk factor that, independently of vascular disease, depression and other confounding factors, deserves clinical attention. Feelings of loneliness may signal a prodromal stage of dementia. A better understanding of the background of feeling lonely may help us to identify vulnerable persons and develop interventions to improve outcome in older persons at risk of dementia.

  4. Delaying Onset of Dementia: Are Two Languages Enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Freedman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an emerging literature suggesting that speaking two or more languages may significantly delay the onset of dementia. Although the mechanisms are unknown, it has been suggested that these may involve cognitive reserve, a concept that has been associated with factors such as higher levels of education, occupational status, social networks, and physical exercise. In the case of bilingualism, cognitive reserve may involve reorganization and strengthening of neural networks that enhance executive control. We review evidence for protective effects of bilingualism from a multicultural perspective involving studies in Toronto and Montreal, Canada, and Hyderabad, India. Reports from Toronto and Hyderabad showed a significant effect of speaking two or more languages in delaying onset of Alzheimer’s disease by up to 5 years, whereas the Montreal study showed a significant protective effect of speaking at least four languages and a protective effect of speaking at least two languages in immigrants. Although there were differences in results across studies, a common theme was the significant effect of language use history as one of the factors in determining the onset of Alzheimer’s disease. Moreover, the Hyderabad study extended the findings to frontotemporal dementia and vascular dementia.

  5. Delaying onset of dementia: are two languages enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Morris; Alladi, Suvarna; Chertkow, Howard; Bialystok, Ellen; Craik, Fergus I M; Phillips, Natalie A; Duggirala, Vasanta; Raju, Surampudi Bapi; Bak, Thomas H

    2014-01-01

    There is an emerging literature suggesting that speaking two or more languages may significantly delay the onset of dementia. Although the mechanisms are unknown, it has been suggested that these may involve cognitive reserve, a concept that has been associated with factors such as higher levels of education, occupational status, social networks, and physical exercise. In the case of bilingualism, cognitive reserve may involve reorganization and strengthening of neural networks that enhance executive control. We review evidence for protective effects of bilingualism from a multicultural perspective involving studies in Toronto and Montreal, Canada, and Hyderabad, India. Reports from Toronto and Hyderabad showed a significant effect of speaking two or more languages in delaying onset of Alzheimer's disease by up to 5 years, whereas the Montreal study showed a significant protective effect of speaking at least four languages and a protective effect of speaking at least two languages in immigrants. Although there were differences in results across studies, a common theme was the significant effect of language use history as one of the factors in determining the onset of Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, the Hyderabad study extended the findings to frontotemporal dementia and vascular dementia.

  6. Decreased Muscle Strength and Quality in Diabetes-Related Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Tsugawa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Diabetes-related dementia (DrD, a dementia subgroup associated with specific diabetes mellitus (DM-related metabolic abnormalities, is clinically and pathophysiologically different from Alzheimer disease (AD and vascular dementia. We determined whether skeletal muscle strength, quality, and mass decrease in individuals with DrD. Methods: We evaluated grip and knee extension strength, muscle mass, and gait speed in 106 patients with probable AD and without type 2 DM (AD[–DM] group, 74 patients with probable AD and with DM (AD[+DM] group, and 36 patients with DrD (DrD group. Muscle quality was defined as the ratio of muscle strength to muscle mass. Results: Both female and male subjects with DrD showed significantly decreased muscle strength and quality in the upper extremities compared with the subjects with AD[–DM] or AD[+DM]. Female subjects with DrD showed significantly decreased muscle quality in the lower extremities compared with the subjects with AD[–DM]. Both female and male subjects with DrD had a significantly lower gait speed compared with the subjects with AD[–DM]. However, there were no significant differences in muscle mass and the prevalence of sarcopenia between the groups. Conclusion: Subjects with DrD showed decreased muscle strength and quality, but not muscle mass, and had a low gait speed.

  7. miRNA expression profiles in cerebrospinal fluid and blood of patients with Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia - an exploratory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sofie Sølvsten; Hillig, Ann-Britt Nygaard; Christensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    . The purpose of this exploratory investigation was to analyze the expression of miRNAs in CSF and blood of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative disorders in order to identify potential miRNA biomarker candidates able to separate AD from other types of dementia. METHODS: CSF...... was collected by lumbar puncture performed on 10 patients diagnosed with AD and 10 patients diagnosed with either vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies. Blood samples were taken immediately after. Total RNA was extracted from cell free fractions of CSF and plasma...... significantly up-regulated and miR-194-5p was significantly down-regulated in AD patients compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Detection of miRNA expression profiles in blood and in particular CSF of patients diagnosed with different types of dementia is feasible and it seems that several expressional differences...

  8. Free Recall Episodic Memory Performance Predicts Dementia Ten Years prior to Clinical Diagnosis: Findings from the Betula Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl-Johan Boraxbekk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Early dementia diagnosis is a considerable challenge. The present study examined the predictive value of cognitive performance for a future clinical diagnosis of late-onset Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia in a random population sample. Methods: Cognitive performance was retrospectively compared between three groups of participants from the Betula longitudinal cohort. Group 1 developed dementia 11-22 years after baseline testing (n = 111 and group 2 after 1-10 years (n = 280; group 3 showed no deterioration towards dementia during the study period (n = 2,855. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the predictive value of tests reflecting episodic memory performance, semantic memory performance, visuospatial ability, and prospective memory performance. Results: Age- and education-corrected performance on two free recall episodic memory tests significantly predicted dementia 10 years prior to clinical diagnosis. Free recall performance also predicted dementia 11-22 years prior to diagnosis when controlling for education, but not when age was added to the model. Conclusion: The present results support the suggestion that two free recall-based tests of episodic memory function may be useful for detecting individuals at risk of developing dementia 10 years prior to clinical diagnosis.

  9. Development of a Late-Life Dementia Prediction Index with Supervised Machine Learning in the Population-Based CAIDE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkala, Timo; Hall, Anette; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Mattila, Jussi; Soininen, Hilkka; Ngandu, Tiia; Laatikainen, Tiina; Kivipelto, Miia; Solomon, Alina

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a late-life dementia prediction model using a novel validated supervised machine learning method, the Disease State Index (DSI), in the Finnish population-based CAIDE study. The CAIDE study was based on previous population-based midlife surveys. CAIDE participants were re-examined twice in late-life, and the first late-life re-examination was used as baseline for the present study. The main study population included 709 cognitively normal subjects at first re-examination who returned to the second re-examination up to 10 years later (incident dementia n = 39). An extended population (n = 1009, incident dementia 151) included non-participants/non-survivors (national registers data). DSI was used to develop a dementia index based on first re-examination assessments. Performance in predicting dementia was assessed as area under the ROC curve (AUC). AUCs for DSI were 0.79 and 0.75 for main and extended populations. Included predictors were cognition, vascular factors, age, subjective memory complaints, and APOE genotype. The supervised machine learning method performed well in identifying comprehensive profiles for predicting dementia development up to 10 years later. DSI could thus be useful for identifying individuals who are most at risk and may benefit from dementia prevention interventions.

  10. Accelerated Vascular Aging as a Paradigm for Hypertensive Vascular Disease: Prevention and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Matthias; Husmann, Marc; Meyer, Matthias R

    2016-05-01

    Aging is considered the most important nonmodifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death after age 28 years. Because of demographic changes the world population is expected to increase to 9 billion by the year 2050 and up to 12 billion by 2100, with several-fold increases among those 65 years of age and older. Healthy aging and prevention of aging-related diseases and associated health costs have become part of political agendas of governments around the world. Atherosclerotic vascular burden increases with age; accordingly, patients with progeria (premature aging) syndromes die from myocardial infarctions or stroke as teenagers or young adults. The incidence and prevalence of arterial hypertension also increases with age. Arterial hypertension-like diabetes and chronic renal failure-shares numerous pathologies and underlying mechanisms with the vascular aging process. In this article, we review how arterial hypertension resembles premature vascular aging, including the mechanisms by which arterial hypertension (as well as other risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, or chronic renal failure) accelerates the vascular aging process. We will also address the importance of cardiovascular risk factor control-including antihypertensive therapy-as a powerful intervention to interfere with premature vascular aging to reduce the age-associated prevalence of diseases such as myocardial infarction, heart failure, hypertensive nephropathy, and vascular dementia due to cerebrovascular disease. Finally, we will discuss the implementation of endothelial therapy, which aims at active patient participation to improve primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evidence of demyelination in mild cognitive impairment and dementia using a direct and specific magnetic resonance imaging measure of myelin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhrara, Mustapha; Reiter, David A; Bergeron, Christopher M; Zukley, Linda M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Resnick, Susan M; Spencer, Richard G

    2018-04-18

    We investigated brain demyelination in aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia using magnetic resonance imaging of myelin. Brains of young and old controls and old subjects with MCI, Alzheimer's disease, or vascular dementia were scanned using our recently developed myelin water fraction (MWF) mapping technique, which provides greatly improved accuracy over previous comparable methods. Maps of MWF, a direct and specific myelin measure, and relaxation times and magnetization transfer ratio, indirect and nonspecific measures, were constructed. MCI subjects showed decreased MWF compared with old controls. Demyelination was greater in Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia. As expected, decreased MWF was accompanied by decreased magnetization transfer ratio and increased relaxation times. The young subjects showed greater myelin content than the old subjects. We believe this to be the first demonstration of myelin loss in MCI, Alzheimer's disease, and vascular dementia using a method that provides a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging-based measure of myelin. Our findings add to the emerging evidence that myelination may represent an important biomarker for the pathology of MCI and dementia. This study supports the investigation of the role of myelination in MCI and dementia through use of this quantitative magnetic resonance imaging approach in clinical studies of disease progression, relationship of functional status to myelination status, and therapeutics. Furthermore, mapping MWF may permit myelin to serve as a therapeutic target in clinical trials. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Leisure activities and the risk of dementia in the elderly: results from the Three-City Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbaraly, T N; Portet, F; Fustinoni, S; Dartigues, J-F; Artero, S; Rouaud, O; Touchon, J; Ritchie, K; Berr, C

    2009-09-15

    There is accumulating evidence that involvement in leisure activities may be related to risk of dementia; however, there is no consensus concerning the underlying mechanism of this association. Hypothesizing that leisure activities may contribute to cognitive reserve (CR), we examined the association between leisure activities and risk of incident dementia and its subtypes within a general population sample, categorizing leisure activity as stimulating, passive, physical, and social. The possibility that these associations may be driven by other proxies of CR was also examined. Analyses were carried out on 5,698 dementia-free participants aged 65 and over included in the Three-City cohort study in Dijon and Montpellier (France) in 1999-2001. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated for incident dementia and its subtypes (mixed/vascular dementia and Alzheimer disease) in relation to category of leisure activity. Stimulating leisure activities were found to be significantly associated with a reduced risk of dementia (n = 161, HR = 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.31; 0.79) and Alzheimer disease (n = 105, HR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.21; 0.71) over the 4-year follow-up 1) independently of other proxies of CR, 2) after adjusting for vascular risk factors, depressive symptoms, and physical functioning, and 3) independently of other leisure activities. Furthermore, no significant association was found with other leisure activities and dementia after controlling for the potential confounders. Our findings support the hypothesis that cognitively stimulating leisure activities may delay the onset of dementia in community-dwelling elders.

  13. Comparative cardiovascular safety of dementia medications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Emil L; Peterson, Eric D; Holm, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    To compare the cardiovascular safety of currently marketed dementia medications in new users in the United States and Denmark.......To compare the cardiovascular safety of currently marketed dementia medications in new users in the United States and Denmark....

  14. Dementia - keeping safe in the home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000031.htm Dementia - keeping safe in the home To use the ... make sure the homes of people who have dementia are safe for them. Safety Tips for the ...

  15. White matter lesions and temporal lobe atrophy related to incidence of both dementia and major depression in 70-year-olds followed over 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, P; Olesen, P J; Simoni, M; Pantoni, L; Östling, S; Kern, S; Guo, X; Skoog, I

    2015-05-01

    A number of studies have suggested associations between dementia and depression in older adults. One reason could be that these disorders share structural correlates, such as white matter lesions (WMLs) and cortical atrophy. No study has examined whether these lesions precede both dementia and depression independently of each other in the general population. Whether WMLs and cortical atrophy on computed tomography predict dementia and depression was investigated in a population-based sample of 70-year-olds (n = 380) followed over 10 years. Exclusion criteria were dementia, major depression, history of stroke and a Mini-Mental State Examination score below 26 at baseline in 2000-2001. Dementia was diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, third edition, revised, and depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition. Primary outcomes included dementia and major depression at 10-year follow-up. Adjusted logistic regression models, including both WMLs and temporal lobe atrophy, showed that moderate to severe WMLs [odds ratio (OR) 3.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-12.76] and temporal lobe atrophy (OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.13-7.60) predicted dementia during a 10-year follow-up independently of major depression. Similarly, both moderate to severe WMLs (OR 3.84, 95% CI 1.25-11.76) and temporal lobe atrophy (OR 2.52, 95% CI 1.06-5.96) predicted depression even after controlling for incident dementia. White matter lesions and temporal lobe atrophy preceded 10-year incidence of both dementia and depression in 70-year-olds. Shared structural correlates could explain the reported associations between dementia and depression. These brain changes may represent independent and complementary pathways to dementia and depression. Strategies to slow progression of vascular pathology and neurodegeneration could indirectly prevent both dementia and depression in older adults. © 2015 EAN.

  16. Teaching Mands to Older Adults with Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Oleson, Chelsey R.; Baker, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-01

    Millions of Americans are diagnosed with dementia, and that number is only expected to rise. The diagnosis of dementia comes with impairments, especially in language. Furthermore, dementia-related functional declines appear to be moderated by environmental variables (Alzheimer’s Association, Alzheimer’s & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer’s Association 8:131–168 2012; American Psychiatric Association, 2000; Engelman et al., Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 32:107–110, 1999; Engelman ...

  17. Recognition of dementia in hospitalized older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Katie; Mezey, Mathy

    2008-01-01

    Many hospital patients with dementia have no documented dementia diagnosis. In some cases, this is because they have never been diagnosed. Recognition of Dementia in Hospitalized Older Adults proposes several approaches that hospital nurses can use to increase recognition of dementia. This article describes the Try This approaches, how to implement them, and how to incorporate them into a hospital's current admission procedures. For a free online video demonstrating the use of these approaches, go to http://links.lww.com/A216.

  18. Depression and the risk for dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2012-01-01

    Depression is associated with increased risk of subsequent development of dementia; however, the nature of the association is still poorly understood. The purpose of the review was based on recent studies to discuss whether depression is a prodromal state of dementia or an independent risk factor...... for dementia, as well as to discuss how the type of depression, the type of dementia, and antidepressant treatment influence the association....

  19. Vascular pathology: Cause or effect in Alzheimer disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius-Pérez, S; Tormos, A M; Pérez, S; Taléns-Visconti, R

    2018-03-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the main cortical neurodegenerative disease. The incidence of this disease increases with age, causing significant medical, social and economic problems, especially in countries with ageing populations. This review aims to highlight existing evidence of how vascular dysfunction may contribute to cognitive impairment in AD, as well as the therapeutic possibilities that might arise from this evidence. The vascular hypothesis emerged as an alternative to the amyloid cascade hypothesis as an explanation for the pathophysiology of AD. This hypothesis locates blood vessels as the origin for a variety of pathogenic pathways that lead to neuronal damage and dementia. Destruction of the organisation of the blood brain barrier, decreased cerebral blood flow, and the establishment of an inflammatory context would thus be responsible for any subsequent neuronal damage since these factors promote aggregation of β-amyloid peptide in the brain. The link between neurodegeneration and vascular dysfunction pathways has provided new drug targets and therapeutic approaches that will add to the treatments for AD. It is difficult to determine whether the vascular component in AD is the cause or the effect of the disease, but there is no doubt that vascular pathology has an important relationship with AD. Vascular dysfunction is likely to act synergistically with neurodegenerative changes in a cycle that exacerbates the cognitive impairment found in AD. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Dementia literacy in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Samantha M; Lautenschlager, Nicola T

    2015-09-01

    With the increasing aging population, it is predicted that there will also be a rise in the number of people with dementia. Although there is no definitive cure, early detection and access to treatment and services remains the cornerstone of management. Misinformation and poor knowledge about dementia may lead to delayed diagnosis. A study of dementia literacy was undertaken to explore current knowledge in a metropolitan city in Australia. A vignette describing an older person with symptoms of cognitive impairment was posted out to volunteers at the local hospital. The majority of participants surveyed correctly identified that the person in the vignette was suffering from symptoms of dementia or cognitive impairment. However, there was more variation with regard to types of treatment available and appropriate help-seeking behavior. Although people are able to identify symptoms of dementia when they are presented in a scenario, the reality is often not as clear. More education to improve knowledge with regard to this increasingly common disorder is required so that appropriate interventions can be made available. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Dementia and rural nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowell, S.F.; Davison, A.; Logan-Sinclair, P.; Sturt University, Dubbo, NSW; Greenough, R.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The rapid increase in dementia is directly related to the growing number of aged people in developed countries, such as Australia. This increase heightens the need for accurate dementia diagnosis to ensure treatment resources are appropriately allocated. However, current diagnostic methods are unable to determine specific dementia types limiting the effectiveness of many care plans. The lack of specialist resources in rural Australian communities presents nuclear medicine with an opportunity to make a significant impact on the management of this disease. This investigation aimed to identify how SPECT perfusion imaging could maximise its role in the management of dementia in a rural New South Wales setting. The study reviewed all Technetium 99m HMPAO SPECT brain studies over a three-year period. This included a medical record audit, review of all diagnostic imaging reports and an analysis of referral patterns. The results of this study provide compelling evidence that, even in a rural setting, brain SPECT, in conjunction with neuropsychological testing, offers high accuracy in determining the presence and type of dementia. In addition, the study found more than 30% of referrers had no training in SPECT, emphasising the importance of ensuring that brain SPECT reports, in a rural setting, educate and specify to referrers the significance and exact disease type found in the study. Copyright (2003) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  2. Vascular care in patients with Alzheimer disease with cerebrovascular lesions slows progression of white matter lesions on MRI: the evaluation of vascular care in Alzheimer's disease (EVA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Edo; Gouw, Alida A; Scheltens, Philip; van Gool, Willem A

    2010-03-01

    White matter lesions (WMLs) and cerebral infarcts are common findings in Alzheimer disease and may contribute to dementia severity. WMLs and lacunar infarcts may provide a potential target for intervention strategies. This study assessed whether multicomponent vascular care in patients with Alzheimer disease with cerebrovascular lesions slows progression of WMLs and prevents occurrence of new infarcts. A randomized controlled clinical trial, including 123 subjects, compared vascular care with standard care in patients with Alzheimer disease with cerebrovascular lesions on MRI. Progression of WMLs, lacunes, medial temporal lobe atrophy, and global cortical atrophy were semiquantitatively scored after 2-year follow-up. Sixty-five subjects (36 vascular care, 29 standard care) had a baseline and a follow-up MRI and in 58 subjects, a follow-up scan could not be obtained due to advanced dementia or death. Subjects in the vascular care group had less progression of WMLs as measured with the WML change score (1.4 versus 2.3, P=0.03). There was no difference in the number of new lacunes or change in global cortical atrophy or medial temporal lobe atrophy between the 2 groups. Vascular care in patients with Alzheimer disease with cerebrovascular lesions slows progression of WMLs. Treatment aimed at vascular risk factors in patients with early Alzheimer disease may be beneficial, possibly in an even earlier stage of the disease.

  3. Physical activity attenuates neuropsychiatric disturbances and caregiver burden in patients with dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Christofoletti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A significant benefit from physical activity has recently been described in some patients who suffer from neurodegenerative diseases. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of physical activity on neuropsychiatric disturbances in demented patients and on the mental burden of their caregivers. METHODS: Assisted by a public geriatric psychiatry clinical unit, we studied 59 patients with dementia. Patients were divided into three groups according to their diagnosis and level of physical activity. Data were assessed through a semi-structured interview. Patients were evaluated with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, the Mini-Sleep Questionnaire and the Baecke Questionnaire. The data were statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and linear regression, with the level of significance set at 5%. RESULTS: Patients with Alzheimer's or vascular dementia who engaged in physical activity had fewer neuropsychiatric symptoms than those who did not. When compared to the control group, the caregivers of patients with vascular dementia who engaged in physical activity had a reduced burden. CONCLUSION: The regular practice of physical activity seems to contribute to a reduction in neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia patients and to attenuate the burden of the caregivers of those patients.

  4. First TV ad for dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-10

    Last month, viewers saw the first-ever TV advertisement about providing care for people with dementia. Screened as part of Bupa's initiative, bringing the issue of dementia care 'out of the shadows,' the ad features Ernie visiting his sister June, who has dementia, in a Bupa care home and shows the personalised care being delivered by specially trained staff.

  5. Revisiting Regression in Autism: Heller's "Dementia Infantilis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Alexander; Schelinski, Stefanie; Volkmar, Fred; Pelphrey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Theodor Heller first described a severe regression of adaptive function in normally developing children, something he termed dementia infantilis, over one 100 years ago. Dementia infantilis is most closely related to the modern diagnosis, childhood disintegrative disorder. We translate Heller's paper, Uber Dementia Infantilis, and discuss…

  6. Relationship between parathyroid hormone and magnesium in sera of the dementia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torizumi, Kazutami; Aibata, Hirofumi; Yasui, Masayuki; Ueyoshi, Akitaka; Shimizu, Eiji; Okamoto, Yukiharu; Tuda, Tadaaki; Ota, Kiichiro

    1988-01-01

    The dementia patients with central nervous or neuro-cerebro vascular disorders seemed to be decreased serum Mg due to abnormal Mg uptake in diet. An increment of PTH level was paralled with a rise of serum Mg and hypomagnesemic group was shown to have a lower PTH level in these patients. Our results suggested that secondary hypoparathyroidism was likely to be induced by normo-calcemic hypomagnesemia. (author)

  7. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  8. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  9. Leisure activities, cognition and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Xin; Xu, Weili; Pei, Jin-Jing

    2012-03-01

    Accumulated evidence shows that leisure activities have a positive impact on cognitive function and dementia. This review aimed to systematically summarize the current evidence on this topic taking into account the limitations of the studies and biological plausibility for the underlying mechanisms linking cognition, dementia and leisure activities, with special attention on mental, physical and social activities. We included only longitudinal studies, with a follow-up time of at least 2 years, published in English from 1991 to March 2011 on leisure activities and cognition (n=29) or dementia (n=23) and provided some evidence from intervention studies on the topic. A protective effect of mental activity on cognitive function has been consistently reported in both observational and interventional studies. The association of mental activity with the risk of dementia was robust in observational studies but inconsistent in clinical trials. The protective effect of physical activity on the risk of cognitive decline and dementia has been reported in most observational studies, but has been less evident in interventional studies. Current evidence concerning the beneficial effect of other types of leisure activities on the risk of dementia is still limited and results are inconsistent. For future studies it is imperative that the assessment of leisure activities is standardized, for example, the frequency, intensity, duration and the type of activity; and also that the cognitive test batteries and the definition of cognitive decline are harmonized/standardized. Further, well designed studies with long follow-up times are necessary. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Imaging Brain Aging and Neurodegenerative disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dance movement therapy for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkou, Vicky; Meekums, Bonnie

    2017-02-03

    Dementia is a collective name for different degenerative brain syndromes which, according to Alzheimer's Disease International, affects approximately 35.6 million people worldwide. The latest NICE guideline for dementia highlights the value of diverse treatment options for the different stages and symptoms of dementia including non-pharmacological treatments. Relevant literature also argues for the value of interventions that acknowledge the complexity of the condition and address the person as a whole, including their physical, emotional, social and cognitive processes. At the same time, there is growing literature that highlights the capacity of the arts and embodied practices to address this complexity. Dance movement therapy is an embodied psychological intervention that can address complexity and thus, may be useful for people with dementia, but its effectiveness remains unclear. To assess the effects of dance movement therapy on behavioural, social, cognitive and emotional symptoms of people with dementia in comparison to no treatment, standard care or any other treatment. Also, to compare different forms of dance movement therapy (e.g. Laban-based dance movement therapy, Chacian dance movement therapy or Authentic Movement). Searches took place up to March 2016 through ALOIS, Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement's Specialized Register, which covers CENTRAL, a number of major healthcare databases and trial registers, and grey literature sources. We checked bibliographies of relevant studies and reviews, and contacted professional associations, educational programmes and experts from around the world. We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in any language, including cross-over design and cluster-RCTs for inclusion. Studies considered had to include people with dementia, in any age group and in any setting, with interventions delivered by a dance movement therapy practitioner who (i) had received formal training (ii) was a dance movement

  11. Using dolls for therapeutic purposes: A study on nursing home residents with severe dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarella, A; Borella, E; Faggian, S; Navuzzi, A; De Beni, R

    2018-04-19

    Among the psychosocial interventions intended to reduce the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), doll therapy (DT) is increasingly used in clinical practice. Few studies on DT have been based on empirical data obtained with an adequate procedure; however, none have assessed its efficacy using an active control group, and the scales used to assess changes in BPSD are usually unreliable. The aim of the present study was to measure the impact of DT on people with severe dementia with a reliable, commonly used scale for assessing their BPSD, and the related distress in formal caregivers. Effects of DT on the former's everyday abilities (ie, eating behavior) were also examined. Twenty-nine nursing home residents aged from 76 to 96 years old, with severe dementia (Alzheimer's or vascular dementia), took part in the experiment. They were randomly assigned to an experimental group that used dolls or an active control group that used hand warmers with sensory characteristics equivalent to the dolls. Benefits of DT on BPSD and related formal caregiver distress were examined with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. The effects of DT on eating behavior were examined with the Eating Behavior Scale. Only the DT group showed a reduction in BPSD scores and related caregiver distress. DT did not benefit eating behavior, however. This study suggests that DT is a promising approach for reducing BPSD in people with dementia, supporting evidence emerging from previous anecdotal studies. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Core outcome measures for interventions to prevent or slow the progress of dementia for people living with mild to moderate dementia: Systematic review and consensus recommendations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Webster

    Full Text Available There are no disease-modifying treatments for dementia. There is also no consensus on disease modifying outcomes. We aimed to produce the first evidence-based consensus on core outcome measures for trials of disease modification in mild-to-moderate dementia.We defined disease-modification interventions as those aiming to change the underlying pathology. We systematically searched electronic databases and previous systematic reviews for published and ongoing trials of disease-modifying treatments in mild-to-moderate dementia. We included 149/22,918 of the references found; with 81 outcome measures from 125 trials. Trials involved participants with Alzheimer's disease (AD alone (n = 111, or AD and mild cognitive impairment (n = 8 and three vascular dementia. We divided outcomes by the domain measured (cognition, activities of daily living, biological markers, neuropsychiatric symptoms, quality of life, global. We calculated the number of trials and of participants using each outcome. We detailed psychometric properties of each outcome. We sought the views of people living with dementia and family carers in three cities through Alzheimer's society focus groups. Attendees at a consensus conference (experts in dementia research, disease-modification and harmonisation measures decided on the core set of outcomes using these results. Recommended core outcomes were cognition as the fundamental deficit in dementia and to indicate disease modification, serial structural MRIs. Cognition should be measured by Mini Mental State Examination or Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale. MRIs would be optional for patients. We also made recommendations for measuring important, but non-core domains which may not change despite disease modification.Most trials were about AD. Specific instruments may be superseded. We searched one database for psychometric properties.This is the first review to identify the 81 outcome measures the research community

  13. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation: treatments for cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms in the neurodegenerative dementias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Two methods of non-invasive brain stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), have demonstrable positive effects on cognition and can ameliorate neuropsychiatric symptoms such as depression. Less is known about the efficacy of these approaches in common neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we evaluate the effects of TMS and tDCS upon cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms in the major dementias, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Parkinson’s disease with dementia (PDD), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), as well as the potential pre-dementia states of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods PubMed (until 7 February 2014) and PsycINFO (from 1967 to January Week 3 2014) databases were searched in a semi-systematic manner in order to identify relevant treatment studies. A total of 762 studies were identified and 32 studies (18 in the dementias and 14 in PD populations) were included. Results No studies were identified in patients with PDD, FTD or VaD. Of the dementias, 13 studies were conducted in patients with AD, one in DLB, and four in MCI. A total of 16 of the 18 studies showed improvements in at least one cognitive or neuropsychiatric outcome measure. Cognitive or neuropsychiatric improvements were observed in 12 of the 14 studies conducted in patients with PD. Conclusions Both TMS and tDCS may have potential as interventions for the treatment of symptoms associated with dementia and PD. These results are promising; however, available data were limited, particularly within VaD, PDD and FTD, and major challenges exist in order to maximise the efficacy and clinical utility of both techniques. In particular, stimulation parameters vary considerably between studies and are likely to subsequently impact upon treatment efficacy. PMID:25478032

  14. Cobalamin deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven F Werder

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Steven F Werder1,21Kansas University School of Medicine – Wichita, Wichita, KS, USA; 2Community Health Center of Southeast Kansas, Pittsburg, KS, USAIntroduction: Although consensus guidelines recommend checking serum B12 in patients with dementia, clinicians are often faced with various questions: (1 Which patients should be tested? (2 What test should be ordered? (3 How are inferences made from such testing? (4 In addition to serum B12, should other tests be ordered? (5 Is B12 deficiency compatible with dementia of the Alzheimer’s type? (6 What is to be expected from treatment? (7 How is B12 deficiency treated?Methods: On January 31st, 2009, a Medline search was performed revealing 1,627 citations related to cobalamin deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and dementia. After limiting the search terms, all abstracts and/or articles and other references were categorized into six major groups (general, biochemistry, manifestations, associations and risks, evaluation, and treatment and then reviewed in answering the above questions.Results: The six major groups above are described in detail. Seventy-five key studies, series, and clinical trials were identified. Evidence-based suggestions for patient management were developed.Discussion: Evidence is convincing that hyperhomocysteinemia, with or without hypovitaminosis B12, is a risk factor for dementia. In the absence of hyperhomocysteinemia, evidence is less convincing that hypovitaminosis B12 is a risk factor for dementia. B12 deficiency manifestations are variable and include abnormal psychiatric, neurological, gastrointestinal, and hematological findings. Radiological images of individuals with hyperhomocysteinemia frequently demonstrate leukoaraiosis. Assessing serum B12 and treatment of B12 deficiency is crucial for those cases in which pernicious anemia is suspected and may be useful for mild cognitive impairment and mild to moderate dementia. The serum B12 level is the standard initial test

  15. Does blood pressure lowering treatment prevents dementia or cognitive decline in patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigin, Valery; Ratnasabapathy, Yogini; Anderson, Craig

    2005-03-15

    There is increasing evidence that both hypertension and stroke play important roles in the development of cognitive decline and dementia. Despite five high-quality randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in this area to date, there remains uncertainty about the role of blood pressure lowering therapy in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia. It appears that lack of definitive results from these trials can be explained on the basis of (a) insufficient power to detect modest treatment effects; (b) measurement error in the diagnosis of dementia; (c) variations in the treatment effects between different types of antihypertensive agents; and (d) bias due to missing data, variation in baseline factors such as levels of blood pressure, and the inclusion of patients with cognitive impairment at entry. Preliminary meta-analysis of RCTs supports the hypothesis that blood pressure lowering may prevent dementia in high-risk patients, that is those with vascular disease. However, a meta-analysis of individual patient data (IPD) from these, and other relevant trials in patients with vascular disease, would provide much more reliable data. If the hypothesis were confirmed, it would certainly be of considerable importance not only in terms of our understanding of the aetiology of dementia, but also in promoting blood pressure lowering strategies for broader public health good.

  16. Quantification of microangiopathic lesions in brain parenchyma and age-adjusted mean scores for the diagnostic separation of normal from pathological values in senile dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentschel, F.; Kreis, M.; Damian, M.; Krumm, B.; Froelich, F.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: to quantify microangiopathic lesions in the cerebral white matter and to develop age-corrected cut-off values for separating normal from dementia-related pathological lesions. Materials and methods: in a memory clinic, 338 patients were investigated neuropsychiatrically by a psychological test battery and by MRI. Using a FLAIR sequence and a newly developed rating scale, white matter lesions (WMLs) were quantified with respect to localization, number and intensity, and these ratings were condensed into a score. The WML scores were correlated with the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and clinical dementia rating (CDR) score in dementia patients. A non-linear smoothing procedure was used to calculate age-related mean values and confidence intervals, separate for cognitively intact subjects and dementia patients. Results: the WML scores correlated highly significantly with age in cognitively intact subjects and with psychometric scores in dementia patients. Age-adjusted WML scores of cognitively intact subjects were significantly different from those of dementia patients with respect to the whole brain as well as to the frontal lobe. Mean value and confidence intervals adjusted for age significantly separated dementia patients from cognitively intact subjects over an age range of 54 through 84 years. Conclusion: a rating scale for the quantification of WML was validated and age-adjusted mean values with their confidence intervals for a diagnostically relevant age range were developed. This allows an easy to handle, fast and reliable diagnosis of the vascular component in senile dementia. (orig.)

  17. Vascular Access in Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, Ganesh; Keller, Marc S.

    2011-01-01

    Establishment of stable vascular access is one of the essential and most challenging procedures in a pediatric hospital. Many clinical specialties provide vascular service in a pediatric hospital. At the top of the “expert procedural pyramid” is the pediatric interventional radiologist, who is best suited and trained to deliver this service. Growing awareness regarding the safety and high success rate of vascular access using image guidance has led to increased demand from clinicians to provide around-the-clock vascular access service by pediatric interventional radiologists. Hence, the success of a vascular access program, with the pediatric interventional radiologist as the key provider, is challenging, and a coordinated multidisciplinary team effort is essential for success. However, there are few dedicated pediatric interventional radiologists across the globe, and also only a couple of training programs exist for pediatric interventions. This article gives an overview of the technical aspects of pediatric vascular access and provides useful tips for obtaining vascular access in children safely and successfully using image guidance.

  18. Pediatric vascular access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, James S.

    2006-01-01

    Pediatric interventional radiologists are ideally suited to provide vascular access services to children because of inherent safety advantages and higher success from using image-guided techniques. The performance of vascular access procedures has become routine at many adult interventional radiology practices, but this service is not as widely developed at pediatric institutions. Although interventional radiologists at some children's hospitals offer full-service vascular access, there is little or none at others. Developing and maintaining a pediatric vascular access service is a challenge. Interventionalists skilled in performing such procedures are limited at pediatric institutions, and institutional support from clerical staff, nursing staff, and technologists might not be sufficiently available to fulfill the needs of such a service. There must also be a strong commitment by all members of the team to support such a demanding service. There is a slippery slope of expected services that becomes steeper and steeper as the vascular access service grows. This review is intended primarily as general education for pediatric radiologists learning vascular access techniques. Additionally, the pediatric or adult interventional radiologist seeking to expand services might find helpful tips. The article also provides education for the diagnostic radiologist who routinely interprets radiographs containing vascular access devices. (orig.)

  19. Everyday conversation in dementia: a review of the literature to inform research and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keady, John; Sage, Karen; Wilkinson, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background There has been increasing interest in dementia care in recent years, including how practitioners, service providers and society in general can help individuals to live well with the condition. An important aspect to this is provision of advice to ensure conversation partners effectively support the person with dementia in conversation. Aims To provide a descriptive review of the literature examining everyday conversation in dementia in order to inform practice and research. Methods & Procedures This review used a method specifically developed for reviewing conversation analytic and related literature. A range of databases were searched using key words and explicitly described inclusion criteria leading to a final corpus of 50 titles. Using this qualitative methodology, each paper was examined and data extracted. The contribution of each of these is described and the implications for practice and research are outlined. Main Contribution This review examined studies into conversation in Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and Lewy body dementia, grouping these into: early influential studies; work drawing on positioning theory; studies using social and linguistic approaches; collaborative storytelling; formulaic language; studies specifically using conversation analysis; and conversation as a target for individualized therapy. In addition, more recent work examining primary progressive aphasia and behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia was explored. Overall, this review indicates that research examining conversation in natural settings provides a rich source of data to explore not just the challenges within conversation for those taking part, but also the skills retained by the person with dementia. An important aspect of this understanding is the notion that these skills relate not only to information exchange but also aspects of social interaction. The role of others in scaffolding the conversation abilities of the person with dementia

  20. Everyday conversation in dementia: a review of the literature to inform research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindell, Jacqueline; Keady, John; Sage, Karen; Wilkinson, Ray

    2017-07-01

    There has been increasing interest in dementia care in recent years, including how practitioners, service providers and society in general can help individuals to live well with the condition. An important aspect to this is provision of advice to ensure conversation partners effectively support the person with dementia in conversation. To provide a descriptive review of the literature examining everyday conversation in dementia in order to inform practice and research. This review used a method specifically developed for reviewing conversation analytic and related literature. A range of databases were searched using key words and explicitly described inclusion criteria leading to a final corpus of 50 titles. Using this qualitative methodology, each paper was examined and data extracted. The contribution of each of these is described and the implications for practice and research are outlined. This review examined studies into conversation in Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and Lewy body dementia, grouping these into: early influential studies; work drawing on positioning theory; studies using social and linguistic approaches; collaborative storytelling; formulaic language; studies specifically using conversation analysis; and conversation as a target for individualized therapy. In addition, more recent work examining primary progressive aphasia and behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia was explored. Overall, this review indicates that research examining conversation in natural settings provides a rich source of data to explore not just the challenges within conversation for those taking part, but also the skills retained by the person with dementia. An important aspect of this understanding is the notion that these skills relate not only to information exchange but also aspects of social interaction. The role of others in scaffolding the conversation abilities of the person with dementia and the potential of this for developing interventions are

  1. Arsenic toxicity induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia: Pharmacological interdiction by histone deacetylase and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Bhupesh; Sharma, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic toxicity has been reported to damage all the major organs including the brain and vasculature. Dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are posing greater risk to the world population as it is now increasing at a faster rate. We have investigated the role of sodium butyrate, a selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and aminoguanidine, a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor in pharmacological interdiction of arsenic toxicity induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and dementia in rats. Arsenic toxicity was done by administering arsenic drinking water to rats. Morris water-maze (MWM) test was used for assessment of learning and memory. Endothelial function was assessed using student physiograph. Oxidative stress (aortic superoxide anion, serum and brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species, brain glutathione) and nitric oxide levels (serum nitrite/nitrate) were also measured. Arsenic treated rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, learning and memory, reduction in serum nitrite/nitrate and brain GSH levels along with increase in serum and brain TBARS. Sodium butyrate as well as aminoguanidine significantly convalesce arsenic induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial function, and alterations in various biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that arsenic induces endothelial dysfunction and dementia, whereas, sodium butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor as well as aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor may be considered as potential agents for the management of arsenic induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia. - Highlights: • As has induced endothelial dysfunction (Edf) and vascular dementia (VaD). • As has increased oxidative stress, AChE activity and decreased serum NO. • Inhibitors of HDAC and iNOS have attenuated As induced Edf and VaD. • Both the inhibitors have attenuated As induced biochemical changes. • Inhibitor of HDAC and iNOS has shown good potential in

  2. Arsenic toxicity induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia: Pharmacological interdiction by histone deacetylase and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Bhupesh, E-mail: drbhupeshresearch@gmail.com; Sharma, P.M.

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic toxicity has been reported to damage all the major organs including the brain and vasculature. Dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are posing greater risk to the world population as it is now increasing at a faster rate. We have investigated the role of sodium butyrate, a selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and aminoguanidine, a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor in pharmacological interdiction of arsenic toxicity induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and dementia in rats. Arsenic toxicity was done by administering arsenic drinking water to rats. Morris water-maze (MWM) test was used for assessment of learning and memory. Endothelial function was assessed using student physiograph. Oxidative stress (aortic superoxide anion, serum and brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species, brain glutathione) and nitric oxide levels (serum nitrite/nitrate) were also measured. Arsenic treated rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, learning and memory, reduction in serum nitrite/nitrate and brain GSH levels along with increase in serum and brain TBARS. Sodium butyrate as well as aminoguanidine significantly convalesce arsenic induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial function, and alterations in various biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that arsenic induces endothelial dysfunction and dementia, whereas, sodium butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor as well as aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor may be considered as potential agents for the management of arsenic induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia. - Highlights: • As has induced endothelial dysfunction (Edf) and vascular dementia (VaD). • As has increased oxidative stress, AChE activity and decreased serum NO. • Inhibitors of HDAC and iNOS have attenuated As induced Edf and VaD. • Both the inhibitors have attenuated As induced biochemical changes. • Inhibitor of HDAC and iNOS has shown good potential

  3. Vascular malformations in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reith, W.; Shamdeen, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    Vascular malformations are the cause of nearly all non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in children beyond the neonatal stage. Therefore, any child presenting with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage should be evaluated for child abuse and for vascular malformations. Intracerebral malformations of the cerebral vasculature include vein of Galen malformations, arteriovenous malformation (AVM), cavernomas, dural arteriovenous fistulas, venous anomalies (DVA), and capillary teleangiectasies. Although a few familial vascular malformation have been reported, the majority are sporadic. Clinical symptoms, diagnostic and therapeutic options are discussed. (orig.) [de

  4. COTARD SYNDROME IN SEMANTIC DEMENTIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Mario F.; Ramírez-Bermúdez, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Background Semantic dementia is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of meaning of words or concepts. semantic dementia can offer potential insights into the mechanisms of content-specific delusions. Objective The authors present a rare case of semantic dementia with Cotard syndrome, a delusion characterized by nihilism or self-negation. Method The semantic deficits and other features of semantic dementia were evaluated in relation to the patient's Cotard syndrome. Results Mrs. A developed the delusional belief that she was wasting and dying. This occurred after she lost knowledge for her somatic discomforts and sensations and for the organs that were the source of these sensations. Her nihilistic beliefs appeared to emerge from her misunderstanding of her somatic sensations. Conclusion This unique patient suggests that a mechanism for Cotard syndrome is difficulty interpreting the nature and source of internal pains and sensations. We propose that loss of semantic knowledge about one's own body may lead to the delusion of nihilism or death. PMID:22054629

  5. Advanced dementia pain management protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro-Lorite, Mercedes; Canalias-Reverter, Montserrat

    Pain management in advanced dementia is complex because of neurological deficits present in these patients, and nurses are directly responsible for providing interventions for the evaluation, management and relief of pain for people suffering from this health problem. In order to facilitate and help decision-makers, pain experts recommend the use of standardized protocols to guide pain management, but in Spain, comprehensive pain management protocols have not yet been developed for advanced dementia. This article reflects the need for an integrated management of pain in advanced dementia. From the review and analysis of the most current and relevant studies in the literature, we performed an approximation of the scales for the determination of pain in these patients, with the observational scale PAINAD being the most recommended for the hospital setting. In addition, we provide an overview for comprehensive management of pain in advanced dementia through the conceptual framework «a hierarchy of pain assessment techniques by McCaffery and Pasero» for the development and implementation of standardized protocols, including a four-phase cyclical process (evaluation, planning/performance, revaluation and recording), which can facilitate the correct management of pain in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. AIDS dementia complex: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portegies, P.

    1994-01-01

    AIDS dementia complex (ADC) is a constellation of cognitive, motor, and behavioral dysfunctions frequently observed in persons with AIDS. Estimates of its prevalence vary. ADC may occur at any stage of AIDS but is usually associated with later stages of disease. Its severity varies among patients

  7. Caffeine, Diabetes, Cognition, and Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biessels, Geert Jan

    2010-01-01

    People with diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of cognitive dysfunction. This review explores the relation between caffeine intake, diabetes, cognition and dementia, focusing on type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Epidemiological studies on caffeine/coffee intake and T2DM risk are reviewed. Next, the

  8. [Depression: A predictor of dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deví Bastida, Josep; Puig Pomés, Núria; Jofre Font, Susanna; Fetscher Eickhoff, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Many studies suggest that in 10-25% of cases of Alzheimer's, the most common dementia in our society, can be prevented with the elimination of some risk factors. Barnes and Yaffe found that one-third of Alzheimer's cases are attributable to depression, but in the scientific literature it is not clear if it has a real causal effect on the development of dementia. The purpose of this study is to analyse the scientific evidence on the hypothesis that depression increases the risk of developing dementia. A systematic review and a meta-analysis were performed on the scientific literature published up until the present day, searching articles that were published between 1990 and 2014. Ten of the studies found met the selection criteria -similar to a) size and characteristics of the sample (origin, age…), b) process of gathering data c) method of studying the relationship (within and/or between group comparison), and d) statistical analysis of the results- and the previously established quality. The value of odds ratio varied from 1.72 to 3.59, and the hazard ratio from 1,72 to 5.44. This indicates that the subjects with a history of depression have a higher risk of developing dementia than others who did not suffer depression. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Frontotemporal dementia and its subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, Raffaele; Hernandez, Dena G; Nalls, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a complex disorder characterised by a broad range of clinical manifestations, differential pathological signatures, and genetic variability. Mutations in three genes-MAPT, GRN, and C9orf72-have been associated with FTD. We sought to identify novel gene...

  10. Vascular Parkinsonism and cognitive impairment: literature review, Brazilian studies and case vignettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Cardoso Vale

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Vascular Parkinsonism (VP is a form of secondary Parkinsonism resulting from cerebrovascular disease. Estimates of the frequency of VP vary greatly worldwide; 3% to 6% of all cases of Parkinsonism are found to have a vascular etiology. In a Brazilian community-based study on Parkinsonism, 15.1% of all cases were classified as VP, the third most common form, with a prevalence of 1.1% in an elderly cohort. Another Brazilian survey found a prevalence of 2.3% of VP in the elderly. VP is usually the result of conventional vascular risk factors, particularly hypertension, leading to strategic infarcts of subcortical gray matter nuclei, diffuse white matter ischaemic lesions and less commonly, large vessel infarcts. Patients with VP tend to be older and present with gait difficulties, symmetrical predominant lower-body involvement, poor levodopa responsiveness, postural instability, falls, cognitive impairment and dementia, corticospinal findings, urinary incontinence and pseudobulbar palsy. This article intends to provide physicians with an insight on the practical issues of VP, a disease potentially confounded with vascular dementia, idiopathic Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and other secondary causes of Parkinsonism.

  11. Uterine Vascular Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126

  12. Magnetic resonance vascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axel, L

    1989-01-01

    The basis principles of MRI are reviewed in order to understand how blood flow effects arise in conventional imaging. Then some of the ways these effects have ben used in MRI techniques specifically designed for vascular imaging, are considered. (author)

  13. Obesity and cognitive decline: role of inflammation and vascular changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason C.D. Nguyen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity in middle age is increasing markedly, and in parallel the prevalence of metabolic disorders including cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes is also rising. Numerous studies have demonstrated that both obesity and metabolic disorders are associated with poorer cognitive performance, cognitive decline, and dementia. In this review we discuss the effects of obesity on cognitive performance, including both clinical and preclinical observations, and discuss some of the potential mechanisms involved, namely inflammation and vascular and metabolic alterations.

  14. Dementia and the gender trouble?: Theorising dementia, gendered subjectivity and embodiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Linn J

    2018-06-01

    Despite person-centred approaches increasingly focusing on looking at the person in dementia instead of the pathology, the role of gender in dementia has been little explored. This article discusses how pervasive discourses on a loss of self and dementia as abject are interwoven with a de-gendering of persons with dementia. The cultural anxiety that dementia evokes in terms of loss of bodily and cognitive control could also be linked to a failure to normatively and intelligibly express gender when living with dementia. As a way to sustain personhood for people with dementia and challenge discourses on people with dementia as 'non-people', person-centred approaches have emphasised the collaborative work of carers, relatives and persons with dementia. Often implicitly, this also involves a 're-gendering' of persons with dementia where gendered biographies and pasts are upheld and gendered embodied selfhood is maintained through, for example, dress, hair and other aspects of appearance. This re-gendering could be of great significance for people with dementia to become intelligible as persons. Still, dementia studies must further consider non-normative expressions of gender and involve feminist theorising on gender as a power asymmetry since some embodiments and selves are more likely to be sustained in dementia than others. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The impact of MRI combined with visual rating scales on the clinical diagnosis of dementia: a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhagen, Martijn V.; Guit, Gerard L. [Spaarne Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Haarlem (Netherlands); Hafkamp, Gerrit Jan; Kalisvaart, Kees [Spaarne Gasthuis, Department of Geriatrics, Haarlem (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    Dementia is foremost a clinical diagnosis. However, in diagnosing dementia, it is advocated to perform at least one neuroimaging study. This has two purposes: to rule out potential reversible dementia (PRD), and to help determine the dementia subtype. Our first goal was to establish if MRI combined with visual rating scales changes the clinical diagnosis. The second goal was to demonstrate if MRI contributes to a geriatrician's confidence in the diagnosis. The dementia subtype was determined prior to and after MRI. Scoring scales used were: global cortical atrophy (GCA), medial temporal atrophy (MTA), and white matter hyperintensity measured according to the Fazekas scale. The confidence level of the geriatrician was determined using a visual analogue scale. One hundred and thirty-five patients were included. After MRI, the diagnosis changed in 23.7 % (CI 17.0 %-31.1 %) of patients. Change was due to vascular aetiology in 13.3 % of patients. PRD was found in 2.2 % of all patients. The confidence level in the diagnosis increased significantly after MRI (p = 0.001). MRI, combined with visual rating scales, has a significant impact on dementia subtype diagnosis and on a geriatrician's confidence in the final diagnosis. (orig.)

  16. The impact of MRI combined with visual rating scales on the clinical diagnosis of dementia: a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, Martijn V.; Guit, Gerard L.; Hafkamp, Gerrit Jan; Kalisvaart, Kees

    2016-01-01

    Dementia is foremost a clinical diagnosis. However, in diagnosing dementia, it is advocated to perform at least one neuroimaging study. This has two purposes: to rule out potential reversible dementia (PRD), and to help determine the dementia subtype. Our first goal was to establish if MRI combined with visual rating scales changes the clinical diagnosis. The second goal was to demonstrate if MRI contributes to a geriatrician's confidence in the diagnosis. The dementia subtype was determined prior to and after MRI. Scoring scales used were: global cortical atrophy (GCA), medial temporal atrophy (MTA), and white matter hyperintensity measured according to the Fazekas scale. The confidence level of the geriatrician was determined using a visual analogue scale. One hundred and thirty-five patients were included. After MRI, the diagnosis changed in 23.7 % (CI 17.0 %-31.1 %) of patients. Change was due to vascular aetiology in 13.3 % of patients. PRD was found in 2.2 % of all patients. The confidence level in the diagnosis increased significantly after MRI (p = 0.001). MRI, combined with visual rating scales, has a significant impact on dementia subtype diagnosis and on a geriatrician's confidence in the final diagnosis. (orig.)

  17. Depression and the risk for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2012-11-01

    Depression is associated with increased risk of subsequent development of dementia; however, the nature of the association is still poorly understood. The purpose of the review was based on recent studies to discuss whether depression is a prodromal state of dementia or an independent risk factor for dementia, as well as to discuss how the type of depression, the type of dementia, and antidepressant treatment influence the association. Findings from recent studies suggest that some forms of depressive illness, for example early-onset depression before age 65 years and recurrent depression, may constitute long-term risk factors for development of dementia, whereas the onset of more recent depressive symptoms may reflect a prodromal phase of dementia. It is not clear whether specific subtypes of depression correspond to specific types of dementia. Recent studies suggest that long-term treatment with antidepressants may decrease the risk of developing some types of dementia, depending on the type of depressive disorder. This review has shown that the type of depression and dementia, as well as the effect of drug treatment, has to be considered to improve knowledge on the association between depression and dementia.

  18. Care Management to Promote Treatment Adherence in Patients with Cognitive Impairment and Vascular Risk Factors: A Demonstration Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, L M; Hanson, A; Robinson, G; Lowy, E; Craft, S

    2018-01-01

    Dementia prevention is highly important. Improved control of vascular risk factors has the potential to decrease dementia risk, but may be difficult. Therefore, we developed and piloted a care management protocol for Veterans at risk for dementia. We enrolled 32 Veterans with diabetes and hypertension, at least one of which was poorly controlled, and cognitive impairment. Participants were randomly assigned to a 6-month care management intervention or to usual care. At enrollment, 6-months and 12-months, we assessed cognitive performance, mood, and diabetes and hypertension control. At follow-up, diastolic blood pressure was lower in intervention participants at 6 months (p=.041) and 12 months (p=.022); hemoglobin A1c, global mental status and mood did not differ between groups. Recall of a distractor list (p=.006) and logical memory long-delay recall (p=.036) were better at 6 months in the intervention group (p=.006). Care management may contribute to improved control of dementia risk factors.

  19. Chinese Medicine Patterns in Patients with Post-Stroke Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nou-Ying Tang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A stroke often results in post-stroke dementia, a rapid decline in memory and intelligence causing dysfunctions in daily life. The Chinese medicine doctor uses 4 examinations of inspection, listening, smelling, and feeling to determine the Chinese medicine pattern (CMP. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the CMP in patients with post-stroke dementia. A total of 101 stroke patients were examined, consistent with the DSM IV diagnostic criteria of the American Psychiatric Association, as well as the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Association International pour Ia Recherche et I’Enseignement en Neurosciences vascular dementia diagnostic criteria of post-stroke dementia. Results: 100 patients (99.0% were KEDP (kidney essence deficiency pattern, shèn jīng kuī xū zhèng, 腎精虧虛證, 83 patients were AHLYP (ascendant hyperactivity of liver yang pattern, gān yáng shàng kàng zhèng, 肝陽上亢證, 83 patients were QBDP (qi-blood deficiency pattern, qì xuè kuī xū zhèng, 氣血虧虛證, 81 patients were SBOCP (static blood obstructing the collaterals pattern, yū xuè zǔ luò zhèng, 瘀血阻絡證, 72 patients were BSTRP (bowels stagnation turbidity retention pattern, fǔ zhì zhuó liú zhèng, 腑滯濁留證, 50 patients were FHIEP (fire heat interior excess pattern, huǒ rè nèi sheng zhèng, 火熱內盛證, and 39 participants (38.6% were PTOOP (phlegm turbidity obstructing the orifices pattern, tán zhuó zǔ qiào zhèng, 痰濁阻竅證; one to 31 patients have at least 2 CMPs simultaneously. In conclusion, the most CMP is KEDP CMP in the post-stroke dementia patients, and one patient may have one or at least 2 CMPs simultaneously.

  20. Chinese medicine patterns in patients with post-stroke dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Nou-Ying; Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Liu, Hsu-Jan; Li, Tsai-Chung; Liu, Jui-Chen; Chen, Ping-Kun; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2012-04-01

    A stroke often results in post-stroke dementia, a rapid decline in memory and intelligence causing dysfunctions in daily life. The Chinese medicine doctor uses 4 examinations of inspection, listening, smelling, and feeling to determine the Chinese medicine pattern (CMP). Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the CMP in patients with post-stroke dementia. A total of 101 stroke patients were examined, consistent with the DSM IV diagnostic criteria of the American Psychiatric Association, as well as the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Association International pour Ia Recherche et I'Enseignement en Neurosciences vascular dementia diagnostic criteria of post-stroke dementia. 100 patients (99.0%) were KEDP (kidney essence deficiency pattern, shèn jīng kuī xū zhèng, ), 83 patients were AHLYP (ascendant hyperactivity of liver yang pattern, gān yáng shàng kàng zhèng, ), 83 patients were QBDP (qi-blood deficiency pattern, qì xuè kuī xū zhèng, ), 81 patients were SBOCP (static blood obstructing the collaterals pattern, yū xuè zǔ luò zhèng, ), 72 patients were BSTRP (bowels stagnation turbidity retention pattern, fǔ zhì zhuó liú zhèng, ), 50 patients were FHIEP (fire heat interior excess pattern, huǒ rè nèi sheng zhèng, ), and 39 participants (38.6%) were PTOOP (phlegm turbidity obstructing the orifices pattern, tán zhuó zǔ qiào zhèng, ); one to 31 patients have at least 2 CMPs simultaneously. In conclusion, the most CMP is KEDP CMP in the post-stroke dementia patients, and one patient may have one or at least 2 CMPs simultaneously.

  1. First translational 'Think Tank' on cerebrovascular disease, cognitive impairment and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Frank C; Gustafson, Deborah; Crystal, Howard A; Moreno, Herman; Adamski, Mateusz G; Arai, Ken; Baird, Alison E; Balucani, Clotilde; Brickman, Adam M; Cechetto, David; Gorelick, Philip; Biessels, Geert Jan; Kiliaan, Amanda; Launer, Lenore; Schneider, Julie; Sorond, Farzaneh A; Whitmer, Rachel; Wright, Clinton; Zhang, Zheng Gang

    2016-02-13

    As the human population continues to age, an increasing number of people will exhibit significant deficits in cognitive function and dementia. It is now recognized that cerebrovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases all play major roles in the evolution of cognitive impairment and dementia. Thus with our more recent recognition of these relationships and our need to understand and more positively impact on this world health problem, "The Leo and Anne Albert Charitable Trust" (Gene Pranzo, Trustee with significant support from Susan Brogan, Meeting Planner) provided generous support for this inaugural international workshop that was held from April 13-16, 2015 at the beautiful Ritz Carlton Golf Resort in North Naples, Florida. Researchers from SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY organized the event by selecting the present group of translationally inclined preclinical, clinical and population scientists focused on cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk and its progression to vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and dementia. Participants at the workshop addressed important issues related to aging, cognition and dementia by: (1) sharing new data, information and perspectives that intersect vascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, (2) discussing gaps in translating population risk, clinical and preclinical information to the progression of cognitive loss, and (3) debating new approaches and methods to fill these gaps that can translate into future therapeutic interventions. Participants agreed on topics for group discussion prior to the meeting and focused on specific translational goals that included promoting better understanding of dementia mechanisms, the identification of potential therapeutic targets for intervention, and discussed/debated the potential utility of diagnostic/prognostic markers. Below summarizes the new data-presentations, concepts, novel directions and specific discussion topics addressed by this international

  2. Leisure activities, apolipoprotein E e4 status, and the risk of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Ying; Weng, Pei-Hsuan; Chen, Jen-Hau; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Lew-Ting, Chih-Yin; Chen, Ta-Fu; Sun, Yu; Wen, Li-Li; Yip, Ping-Keung; Chu, Yi-Min; Chen, Yen-Ching

    2015-12-01

    Leisure activities have been associated with a decreased risk of dementia. However, to date, no study has explored how apolipoprotein E (ApoE) e4 status or vascular risk factors modified the association between leisure activities and dementia risks. This case-control study recruited patients (age ≥ 60 years) with Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 292) and vascular dementia (VaD; n = 144) and healthy controls (n = 506) from three teaching hospitals in Taiwan between 2007 and 2010. Information on patient's leisure activities were obtained through a questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess the association of leisure activities and ApoE e4 status with the risk of dementia. High-frequency physical activity was associated with a decreased risk of AD [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.45], and the results become more evident among ApoE e4 carriers with AD (AOR = 0.30) and VaD (AOR = 0.26). Similar findings were observed for cognitive (AOR = 0.42) and social activities (AOR = 0.55) for AD. High-frequency physical, cognitive, and social activities were associated with a decreased risk of VaD (AOR = 0.29-0.60). Physical and social activities significantly interacted with each other on the risk of VaD (pinteraction = 0.04). Physical activity consistently protects against AD and VaD. Significant interactions were identified across different types of leisure activities in lowering dementia risk. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Day-to-Day Blood Pressure Variability and Risk of Dementia in a General Japanese Elderly Population: The Hisayama Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Emi; Ohara, Tomoyuki; Sakata, Satoko; Fukuhara, Masayo; Hata, Jun; Yoshida, Daigo; Shibata, Mao; Ohtsubo, Toshio; Kitazono, Takanari; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Ninomiya, Toshiharu

    2017-08-08

    Several observational studies have reported that higher visit-to-visit blood pressure variability is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia. However, no studies have investigated the association of day-to-day blood pressure variability assessed by home blood pressure measurement with the development of dementia. A total of 1674 community-dwelling Japanese elderly without dementia, ≥60 years of age, were followed up for 5 years (2007-2012). Home blood pressure was measured 3 times every morning for a median of 28 days. Day-to-day systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure variabilities, calculated as coefficients of variation (CoV) of home SBP and diastolic blood pressure, were categorized into quartiles. The hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals of the CoV levels of home blood pressure on the development of all-cause dementia, vascular dementia (VaD), and Alzheimer disease (AD) were computed with a Cox proportional hazards model. During the follow-up, 194 subjects developed all-cause dementia; of these, 47 had VaD and 134 had AD. The age- and sex-adjusted incidences of all-cause dementia, VaD, and AD increased significantly with increasing CoV levels of home SBP (all P for trend dementia, VaD, and AD were significantly higher in those in the fourth quartile (hazard ratio=2.27, 95% confidence interval=1.45-3.55, P dementia; hazard ratio=2.79, 95% confidence interval=1.04-7.51, P =0.03 for VaD; hazard ratio=2.22, 95% confidence interval=1.31-3.75, P dementia and AD. There was no interaction between home SBP levels and CoV levels of home SBP on the risk of each subtype of dementia. Our findings suggest that increased day-to-day blood pressure variability is, independently of average home blood pressure, a significant risk factor for the development of all-cause dementia, VaD, and AD in the general elderly Japanese population. © 2017 The Authors.

  4. White matter hypoperfusion and damage in dementia: post-mortem assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Seth; Miners, J Scott

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging has revealed a range of white matter abnormalities that are common in dementia, some that predict cognitive decline. The abnormalities may result from structural diseases of the cerebral vasculature, such as arteriolosclerosis and amyloid angiopathy, but can also be caused by nonstructural vascular abnormalities (eg, of vascular contractility or permeability), neurovascular instability or extracranial cardiac or vascular disease. Conventional histopathological assessment of the white matter has tended to conflate morphological vascular abnormalities with changes that reflect altered interstitial fluid dynamics or white matter ischemic damage, even though the latter may be of extracranial or nonstructural etiology. However, histopathology is being supplemented by biochemical approaches, including the measurement of proteins involved in the molecular responses to brain ischemia, myelin proteins differentially susceptible to ischemic damage, vessel-associated proteins that allow rapid measurement of microvessel density, markers of blood-brain barrier dysfunction and axonal injury, and mediators of white matter damage. By combining neuroimaging with histopathology and biochemical analysis, we can provide reproducible, quantitative data on the severity of white matter damage, and information on its etiology and pathogenesis. Together these have the potential to inform and improve treatment, particularly in forms of dementia to which white matter hypoperfusion makes a significant contribution. © 2014 International Society of Neuropathology.

  5. Dementia and cognitive disorder identified at a forensic psychiatric examination - a study from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Anette; Kristiansson, Marianne; Björkstén, Karin Sparring

    2017-09-18

    Few studies have addressed the relationship between dementia and crime. We conducted a study of persons who got a primary or secondary diagnosis of dementia or cognitive disorder in a forensic psychiatric examination. In Sweden, annually about 500 forensic psychiatric examinations are carried out. All cases from 2008 to 2010 with the diagnoses dementia or cognitive disorder were selected from the database of the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine. Out of 1471 cases, there were 54 cases of dementia or cognitive disorder. Case files were scrutinized and 17 cases of dementia and 4 cases of cognitive disorder likely to get a dementia diagnosis in a clinical setting were identified and further studied. There were 18 men and 3 women; Median age 66 (n = 21; Range 35-77) years of age. Eleven men but no women had a previous criminal record. There were a total of 38 crimes, mostly violent, committed by the 21 persons. The crimes were of impulsive rather that pre-meditated character. According to the forensic psychiatric diagnoses, dementia was caused by cerebrovascular disorder (n = 4), alcohol or substance abuse (n = 3), cerebral haemorrhage and alcohol (n = 1), head trauma and alcohol (n = 2), Alzheimer's disease (n = 2), Parkinson's disease (n = 1), herpes encephalitis (n = 1) and unspecified (3). Out of four persons diagnosed with cognitive disorder, one also had delusional disorder and another one psychotic disorder and alcohol dependence. An alcohol-related diagnosis was established in ten cases. There were only two cases of Dementia of Alzheimer's type, one of whom also had alcohol intoxication. None was diagnosed with a personality disorder. All but one had a history of somatic or psychiatric comorbidity like head traumas, stroke, other cardio-vascular disorders, epilepsy, depression, psychotic disorders and suicide attempts. In this very ill group, the suggested verdict was probation in one case and different forms of care in the remaining

  6. Ascertainment bias in dementias: a secondary to tertiary centre analysis in Central Italy and conceptual review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanni, L; Bontempo, G; Borrelli, I; Bifolchetti, S; Buongarzone, M P; Carlesi, N; Carolei, A; Ciccocioppo, F; Colangelo, U; Colonna, G; Desiderio, M; Ferretti, S; Fiorelli, L; D'Alessio, O; D'Amico, A; D'Amico, M C; De Lucia, R; Del Re, L; Di Blasio, F; Di Giacomo, R; Di Iorio, A; Di Santo, E; Di Giuseppe, M; Felice, N; Litterio, P; Gabriele, A; Mancino, E; Manzoli, L; Maruotti, V; Mearelli, S; Molino, G; Monaco, D; Nuccetelli, F; Onofrj, M; Perfetti, B; Sacchet, C; Sensi, F; Sensi, S; Sucapane, P; Taylor, J P; Thomas, A; Viola, P; Viola, S; Zito, M; Zhuzhuni, H

    2013-06-01

    Ascertainment bias (AB) indicates a bias of an evaluation centre in estimating the prevalence/incidence of a disease due to the specific expertise of the centre. The aim of our study was to evaluate classification of different types of dementia in new cases appearing in secondary and tertiary centres, in order to evidence possible occurrence of AB in the various (secondary to tertiary) dementia centres. To assess the mechanism of AB, the rates of new cases of the different forms of dementia reported by different centres were compared. The centres involved in the study were 11 hospital-based centres including a tertiary centre, located in the University Department of Clinical Neurology. The tertiary centre is endowed with state-of-the-art diagnostic facilities and its scientific production is prominently focused on dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) thus suggesting the possible occurrence of a bias. Four main categories of dementia were identified: Alzheimer's disease (AD), DLB, fronto-temporal dementia (FTD), vascular dementia (VaD), with other forms in a category apart. The classification rate of new cases of dementia in the tertiary centre was compared with rates reported by secondary centres and rates of recoding were calculated during a follow-up of 2 years. The study classified 2,042 newly diagnosed cases of dementia in a population of 1,370,000 inhabitants of which 315,000 were older than 65. AD was categorized in 48-52 % of cases, DLB in 25-28 %, FTD in 2-4 % and VaD in 17-28 %. During the 2-year follow-up the diagnosis was re-classified in 40 patients (3 %). The rate of recoding was 5 % in the tertiary centre, 2-8 % in referrals from secondary to tertiary centre, 2-10 % in recodings performed in secondary centres and addressed to tertiary centre. Recoding or percentages of new cases of AD or DLB were not different in the comparison between secondary or between secondary and tertiary centres. FTD and VaD were instead significantly recoded. The results

  7. The accuracy of family physicians' dementia diagnoses at different stages of dementia: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Dungen, Pim; van Marwijk, Harm W. M.; van der Horst, Henriëtte E.; Moll van Charante, Eric P.; Macneil Vroomen, Janet; van de Ven, Peter M.; van Hout, Hein P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Optimising care for dementia patients and their informal carers is imperative in light of the impending dementia epidemic. An important aspect of care is accurate recognition and diagnosis of dementia. The aim of this review was to estimate family physicians' diagnostic accuracy at the

  8. The accuracy of family physicians' dementia diagnoses at different stages of dementia: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Dungen, P.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; van der Horst, H.E.; van Charante, E.P.M.; Vroomen, J.M.; van de Ven, P.M.; van Hout, H.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Optimising care for dementia patients and their informal carers is imperative in light of the impending dementia epidemic. An important aspect of care is accurate recognition and diagnosis of dementia. The aim of this review was to estimate family physicians' diagnostic accuracy at the

  9. Dementia quality of life instrument - construct and concurrent validity in patients with mild to moderate dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voigt-Radloff, S.; Leonhart, R.; Schutzwohl, M.; Jurjanz, L.; Reuster, T.; Gerner, A.; Marschner, K.; van Nes, F.A.; Graff, M.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Holthoff, V.; Hull, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: To translate the Dementia quality of life instrument (DQoL) into German and assess its construct and concurrent validity in community-dwelling people with mild to moderate dementia. Methods: Dementia quality of life instrument data of two pooled samples (n=287) were analysed

  10. A Dementia Case Presenting with Psychotic Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ozdemir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a progressive clinical syndrome in which affected areas of brain function may be affected, such as memory, language, abstract thinking, problem solving and attention. Psychotic symptoms include auditory and visual hallucinations and delusions, which usually occur in the dementia. In this paper, a dementia case presenting with psychotic symptoms is presented. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 482-486

  11. Depression and Risk of Developing Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Byers, Amy L.; Yaffe, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Depression is highly common throughout the life course and dementia is common in late life. The literature suggests an association between depression and dementia, and growing evidence implies that timing of depression may be important to defining the nature of the association. In particular, earlier-life depression or depressive symptoms consistently have been shown to be associated with a 2-fold or greater increase in risk of dementia. In contrast, studies of late-life depression have been ...

  12. Does Bilingualism Delay the Development of Dementia?

    OpenAIRE

    Amy L Atkinson

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that bilingualism (where individuals speak two languages) may delay the development of dementia. However, much of the research is inconclusive. Some researchers have reported that bilingualism delays the onset and diagnosis of dementia, whilst other studies have found weak or even detrimental effects. This paper reviews a series of nine empirical studies, published up until March 2016, which investigated whether bilingualism significantly delays the onset of dementia. Th...

  13. Dance for Individuals With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapum, Jennifer L; Bar, Rachel J

    2016-03-01

    The movement and music associated with dance plays an important role in many individuals' lives and can become imprinted upon the body and mind. Dance is thus closely associated with memory because of these deep connections. Without conscious thought, dance has the potential to be initiated as individuals age. In the current article, the authors share narrative reflections about their experiences with, and the potential of, dance as an intervention for aging populations diagnosed with dementia-related diseases. They draw upon their experiences in working with the aging population and a dance program currently being developed by Canada's National Ballet School and Baycrest Health Sciences for individuals with dementia-related diseases in long-term care. The current article is structured as dialogue between the authors because it mimics dance as a dialogical encounter between movement and music, and/or between individuals. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Clinical significance of periventricular high intensity lesions on magnetic resonance imaging in dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaieda, Makoto

    1991-01-01

    In this study, vascular dementia (VD, 31 cases), senile dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT, 36 cases) and mixed type dementia (14 cases) were studied by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Diagnosis of dementia was made according to DSM-III and Hachinski's ischemic score. The areas of periventricular high intensity lesions (PVH) and those of brain parenchyma were measured by digitizer which was connected to a computer. The PVH score was obtained by dividing the areas of PVH by those of brain parenchyma at the level of the body of the lateral ventricle. A multiple variable analysis was applied to the PVH scores and risk factors for dementia using Hayashi's quantification method I. The multiple correlation coefficient between the PVH and the risk factors was 0.685. The most significant correlation was found between Hachinski's ischemic score and the PVH score (partial correlation coefficient: 0.58). Significant correlations were also found between ADL and the PVH score (0.25), as well as between the Hasegawa dementia score and the PVH score (0.24). Using the student T test, it was shown that the large PVH group was significantly correlated to poor ADL, whereas the small PVH group was not. The large PVH group in VD showed lower Hasegawa score than the small PVH group. On the other hand, there was no such correlation in DAT. PVH with prolongation of T2 could exist in various pathological states irrespective of their causes. Diffuse PVH tended to be frequently observed in VD together with poor ADL. It was therefore thought that brain ischemia was the main cause of PVH. (author)

  15. Differential Diagnosis of Dementia with High Levels of Cerebrospinal Fluid Tau Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeon, Lou; Paquet, Claire; Bombois, Stephanie; Quillard-Muraine, Muriel; Martinaud, Olivier; Bourre, Bertrand; Lefaucheur, Romain; Nicolas, Gaël; Dumurgier, Julien; Gerardin, Emmanuel; Jan, Mary; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Peoc'h, Katell; Hugon, Jacques; Pasquier, Florence; Maltête, David; Hannequin, Didier; Wallon, David

    2016-01-01

    Total Tau concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is widely used as a biomarker in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative process primarily in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A particularly high Tau level may indicate AD but may also be associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). In such situations little is known about the distribution of differential diagnoses. Our study aimed to describe the different diagnoses encountered in clinical practice for patients with dementia and CSF Tau levels over 1000 pg/ml. We studied the p-Tau/Tau ratio to specify its ability to distinguish AD from CJD. Patients (n = 202) with CSF Tau levels over 1000 pg/ml were recruited in three memory clinics in France. All diagnoses were made using the same diagnostic procedure and criteria. Patients were diagnosed with AD (n = 148, 73.2%), mixed dementia (n = 38, 18.8%), CJD, vascular dementia (n = 4, 2.0% for each), Lewy body dementia, and frontotemporal dementia (n = 3, 1.5% for each). Dispersion of CSF Tau levels clearly showed an overlap between all diagnoses. Using the p-Tau/Tau ratio suggestive of CJD (<0.075), all CJD patients were correctly categorized and only two AD patients were miscategorized. This ratio was highly associated with CJD compared to AD (p < 0.0001). Our study showed that in clinical practice, extremely high CSF Tau levels are mainly related to diagnosis of AD. CJD patients represent a minority. Our results support a sequential interpretation algorithm for CSF biomarkers in dementia. High CSF Tau levels should alert clinicians to check the p-Tau/Tau ratio to consider a probable diagnosis of CJD.

  16. Clinical significance of periventricular high intensity lesions on magnetic resonance imaging in dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaieda, Makoto [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-04-01

    In this study, vascular dementia (VD, 31 cases), senile dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT, 36 cases) and mixed type dementia (14 cases) were studied by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Diagnosis of dementia was made according to DSM-III and Hachinski's ischemic score. The areas of periventricular high intensity lesions (PVH) and those of brain parenchyma were measured by digitizer which was connected to a computer. The PVH score was obtained by dividing the areas of PVH by those of brain parenchyma at the level of the body of the lateral ventricle. A multiple variable analysis was applied to the PVH scores and risk factors for dementia using Hayashi's quantification method I. The multiple correlation coefficient between the PVH and the risk factors was 0.685. The most significant correlation was found between Hachinski's ischemic score and the PVH score (partial correlation coefficient: 0.58). Significant correlations were also found between ADL and the PVH score (0.25), as well as between the Hasegawa dementia score and the PVH score (0.24). Using the student T test, it was shown that the large PVH group was significantly correlated to poor ADL, whereas the small PVH group was not. The large PVH group in VD showed lower Hasegawa score than the small PVH group. On the other hand, there was no such correlation in DAT. PVH with prolongation of T2 could exist in various pathological states irrespective of their causes. Diffuse PVH tended to be frequently observed in VD together with poor ADL. It was therefore thought that brain ischemia was the main cause of PVH. (author).

  17. Diagnostic Accuracy of Cerebrospinal Fluid Amyloid-β Isoforms for Early and Differential Dementia Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyfs, Hanne; Van Broeck, Bianca; Timmers, Maarten; Fransen, Erik; Sleegers, Kristel; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; De Deyn, Peter P; Streffer, Johannes R; Mercken, Marc; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2015-01-01

    Overlapping cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers (CSF) levels between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and non-AD patients decrease differential diagnostic accuracy of the AD core CSF biomarkers. Amyloid-β (Aβ) isoforms might improve the AD versus non-AD differential diagnosis. To determine the added diagnostic value of Aβ isoforms, Aβ(1-37), Aβ(1-38), and Aβ(1-40), as compared to the AD CSF biomarkers Aβ(1-42), T-tau, and P-tau(181P). CSF from patients with dementia due to AD (n = 50), non-AD dementias (n = 50), mild cognitive impairment due to AD (n = 50) and non-demented controls (n = 50) was analyzed with a prototype multiplex assay using MSD detection technology. The non-AD group consisted of frontotemporal dementia (FTD; n = 17), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB; n = 17), and vascular dementia (n = 16). Aβ(1-37) and Aβ(1-38) increased accuracy to differentiate AD from FTD or DLB. Aβ(1-37), Aβ(1-38), and Aβ(1-40) levels correlated with Mini-Mental State Examination scores and disease duration in dementia due to AD. The Aβ(1-42)/Aβ(1-40) ratio improved diagnostic performance of Aβ(1-42) in most differential diagnostic situations. Aβ(1-42) levels were lower in APOE ε4 carriers compared to non-carriers. Aβ isoforms help to differentiate AD from FTD and DLB. Aβ isoforms increase diagnostic performance of Aβ(1-42). In contrast to Aβ1-42, Aβ isoforms seem to be correlated with disease severity in AD. Adding the Aβ isoforms to the current biomarker panel could enhance diagnostic accuracy.

  18. Survival times with and without tube feeding in patients with dementia or psychiatric diseases in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Keiko; Hirayama, Keisuke; Hirao, Akihiko; Kondo, Keiko; Hayashi, Hideki; Kadota, Koichi; Asaba, Hiroyuki; Ishizu, Hideki; Nakata, Kenji; Kurisu, Kairi; Oshima, Etsuko; Yokota, Osamu; Yamada, Norihito; Terada, Seishi

    2017-11-01

    It is widely supposed that there has been no evidence of increased survival in patients with advanced dementia receiving enteral tube feeding. However, more than a few studies have reported no harmful outcome from tube feeding in dementia patients compared to in patients without dementia. This was a retrospective study. Nine psychiatric hospitals in Okayama Prefecture participated in this survey. All inpatients fulfilling the entry criteria were evaluated. All subjects suffered from difficulty with oral intake. Attending physicians thought that the patients could not live without long-term artificial nutrition. The physicians decided whether to make use of long-term artificial nutrition between January 2012 and December 2014. We evaluated 185 patients. Their mean age was 76.6 ± 11.4 years. Of all subjects, patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (n = 78) formed the biggest group, schizophrenia patients (n = 44) the second, and those with vascular dementia (n = 30) the third. The median survival times were 711 days for patients with tube feeding and 61 days for patients without tube feeding. In a comparison different types of tube feeding, median survival times were 611 days for patients with a nasogastric tube and more than 1000 days for those with a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube. Patients with tube feeding survived longer than those without tube feeding, even among dementia patients. This study suggests that enteral nutrition for patients with dementia prolongs survival. Additionally, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube feeding may be safer than nasogastric tube feeding among patients in psychiatric hospitals. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  19. Framing Confusion: Dementia, Society, and History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, Jesse F

    2017-07-01

    This essay will briefly sketch historical changes in the framing of dementia since the late nineteenth century. In broad terms, this period has seen a shift from viewing dementia as a pathological variant of normal aging to viewing it as a distinct disease. Although this broad reframing of dementia was clearly positive in raising awareness and funding for research, it had some negative aspects that should be considered. Caregiving came to seem less important than research aimed at a cure, and the stigma surrounding dementia has, if anything, increased. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Adult dementia: history, biopsy, pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torack, R M

    1979-05-01

    The historical events in the evolution of Alzheimer's disease are reviewed, including the initial description by Alois Alzheimer and the subsequent controversy regarding the nosological specificity of this entity. The similarity of senile dementia and Alzheimer's disease is emphasized. The basis for the modern concept of Alzheimer's disease as premature or accelerated aging is included in the review. The pathological correlates of the major categories of adult dementia have been described. The traditional criteria of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques have been re-evaluated using the current insight into these changes afforded by electron microscopy and biochemistry. The significance of amyloid has been described because it occurs within the senile plaque and also as the essential component of congophilic angiopathy. The new information regarding neuronal cell counts and the loss of choline acetyltransferase has been evaluated in terms of an indication of a pathogenic mechanism of Alzheimer's disease. The current understanding of normal pressure hydrocephalus, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and multi-infarct dementia has been described. Brain biopsy in dementia has been described as having diagnostic, research, pathogenic, and prognostic value. The precautions involving the performance and handling of the biopsy have been stressed, particularly because these procedures involve conditions of possible slow virus etiology. The polemic for Alzheimer's disease as aging or slow virus infection has been summarized. At this time a consideration seems justified that Alzheimer's disease is an age-related, slow virus disease due to a hitherto unknown immune defect. Aging as an etiological agent must be clarified before Alzheimer's disease, in any form, can be considered to be an inevitable consequence of longevity.

  1. Social robots in advanced dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell eValentí Soler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Testing the effect of the experimental robot-based therapeutic sessions for patients with dementia in: a controlled study of parallel groups of nursing home patients comparing the effects of therapy sessions utilizing a humanoid robot (NAO, an animal-shaped robot (PARO, or a trained dog (DOG, with conventional therapy (CONTROL on symptoms of dementia; and an experience for patients who attend a day care center, comparing symptom prevalence and severity before and after sessions utilizing NAO and PARO. Methods: In the nursing home, patients were randomly assigned by blocks, based on dementia severity, to one of the 3 therapeutic groups to compare: CONTROL, PARO and NAO (phase 1 and CONTROL, PARO and DOG (phase 2. In the day care center, all patients received therapy with NAO (phase 1 and PARO (phase 2. Therapy sessions were held 2 days/week for 3 months. Evaluation at baseline and follow-up was carried out by blind raters using: the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS, the Severe Mini Mental State Examination (sMMSE, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI, the Apathy Scale for Institutionalized Patients with Dementia Nursing Home version (APADEM-NH, the Apathy Inventory (AI and the Quality of Life Scale (QUALID. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics and non parametric tests performed by a blinded investigator. Results: In the nursing home, 101 patients (phase 1 and 110 patients (phase 2 were included. There were no significant differences at baseline. The relevant changes at follow-up were: (phase 1 patients in the robot groups showed an improvement in apathy; patients in NAO group showed a decline in cognition as measured by the MMSE scores, but not the sMMSE; the robot groups showed no significant changes between them; (phase 2 QUALID scores increased in the PARO group. In the day care center, 20 patients (phase 1 and 17 patients (phase 2 were included. The main findings were: (phase 1 imp

  2. Dementia pugilistica 1a. parte

    OpenAIRE

    OTERO SILICEO, ENRIQUE; PADILLA RUBIO, JOEL

    2004-01-01

    Sports is considered a synonym for body and mind health. However, the so called contaet sports, the main example being boxing, more or less go beyond this definition. Contemporary boxing is a spetacle, who is a continuation of historical fights of gladiators. For many years, several complications and head alterations have been related to boxing involving both the face and the skull. And, because of their outcome, some of the most important alterations are neuropsychiatric such as dementia pug...

  3. Association between air pollutants and dementia risk in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun-Chun; Lin, Yuan-Chien; Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chen, Jen-Hau; Chen, Ta-Fu; Sun, Yu; Wen, Li-Li; Yip, Ping-Keung; Chu, Yi-Min; Chen, Yen-Ching

    2015-06-01

    The aging rate in Taiwan is the second highest in the world. As the population ages quickly, the prevalence of dementia increases rapidly. There are some studies that have explored the association between air pollution and cognitive decline, but the association between air pollution and dementia has not been directly evaluated. This was a case-control study comprising 249 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, 125 vascular dementia (VaD) patients, and 497 controls from three teaching hospitals in northern Taiwan from 2007 to 2010. Data of particulate matter Bayesian maximum entropy was used to estimate the individual exposure level of air pollutants, which was then tertiled for analysis. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals between the association of PM10 and ozone exposure with AD and VaD risk. The highest tertile of PM10 (≥49.23 μg/m(3)) or ozone (≥21.56 ppb) exposure was associated with increased AD risk (highest vs. lowest tertile of PM10: AOR = 4.17; highest vs. lowest tertile of ozone: AOR = 2.00). Similar finding was observed for VaD. The association with AD and VaD risk remained for the highest tertile PM10 exposure after stratification by APOE ɛ4 status and gender. Long-term exposure to the highest tertile of PM10 or ozone was significantly associated with an increased risk of AD and VaD.

  4. Rights in mind: Thinking differently about dementia and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Tom; Zeilig, Hannah; Mittler, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to argue for the utility of a relational model of disability, as a way of conceptualizing dementia. We explore whether dementia should be considered as a disability, and whether people with dementia might consider themselves as disabled people. We review examples of, and issues raised by, the political activism of people with dementia. We consider how language constructs dementia negatively. We discuss how the environment influences the experience of dementia. In conclusion, we show that a relational model of dementia lays the basis for a human rights approach to the condition, based on collaborative partnerships between people with dementia and people from other disability communities.

  5. Renal Failure in Dementia with Lewy Bodies Presenting as Catatonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Catatonia, originally described by Karl Kahlbaum in 1874, may be regarded as a set of clinical features found in a subtype of schizophrenia, but the syndrome may also stem from organic causes including vascular parkinsonism, brain masses, globus pallidus lesions, metabolic derangements, and pharmacologic agents, especially first generation antipsychotics. Catatonia may include paratonia, waxy flexibility (cerea flexibilitas), stupor, mutism, echolalia, and catalepsy (abnormal posturing). A case of catatonia as a result of acute renal failure in a patient with dementia with Lewy bodies is described. This patient recovered after intravenous fluid administration and reinstitution of the atypical dopamine receptor blocking agent quetiapine, but benzodiazepines and amantadine are additional possible treatments. Recognition of organic causes of catatonia leads to timely treatment and resolution of the syndrome. PMID:23466522

  6. Renal Failure in Dementia with Lewy Bodies Presenting as Catatonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Fekete

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catatonia, originally described by Karl Kahlbaum in 1874, may be regarded as a set of clinical features found in a subtype of schizophrenia, but the syndrome may also stem from organic causes including vascular parkinsonism, brain masses, globus pallidus lesions, metabolic derangements, and pharmacologic agents, especially first generation antipsychotics. Catatonia may include paratonia, waxy flexibility (cerea flexibilitas, stupor, mutism, echolalia, and catalepsy (abnormal posturing. A case of catatonia as a result of acute renal failure in a patient with dementia with Lewy bodies is described. This patient recovered after intravenous fluid administration and reinstitution of the atypical dopamine receptor blocking agent quetiapine, but benzodiazepines and amantadine are additional possible treatments. Recognition of organic causes of catatonia leads to timely treatment and resolution of the syndrome.

  7. Stereotypic behaviors in degenerative dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prioni, S; Fetoni, V; Barocco, F; Redaelli, V; Falcone, C; Soliveri, P; Tagliavini, F; Scaglioni, A; Caffarra, P; Concari, L; Gardini, S; Girotti, F

    2012-11-01

    Stereotypies are simple or complex involuntary/unvoluntary behaviors, common in fronto-temporal dementia (FTD), but not studied in other types of degenerative dementias. The aim was to investigate stereotypy frequency and type in patients with FTD, Alzheimer's disease (AD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD) in a multicenter observational study; and to investigate the relation of stereotypies to cognitive, behavioral and motor impairment. One hundred fifty-five consecutive outpatients (45 AD, 40 FTD, 35 PSP and 35 PDD) were studied in four hospitals in northern Italy. Stereotypies were examined by the five-domain Stereotypy Rating Inventory. Cognition was examined by the Mini Mental State and Frontal Assessment Battery, neuropsychiatric symptoms by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, and motor impairment and invalidity by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III, and activities of daily living. Stereotypies were present in all groups. FTD and PDD had the greatest frequency of one-domain stereotypies; FTD also had the greatest frequency of two-or-more domain stereotypies; movement stereotypies were the most common stereotypies in all groups. AD patients had fewer stereotypies than the other groups. Stereotypies are not exclusive to FTD, but are also fairly common in PSP and PDD, though less so in AD. Stereotypies may be underpinned by dysfunctional striato-frontal circuits, known to be damaged in PSP and PDD, as well as FTD.

  8. [Dementias: diagnostic contribution of imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, E; Martínez-Granados, B; Marti-Bonmati, L; Martínez-Bisbal, M C; Gil, A; Blasco, C; Celda, B

    2007-06-01

    The objective is analyze the complementarity between 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the global diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) or vascular dementia (VD). We studied 168 patients with cognitive impairment from AD, VD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and major depression. All patients were evaluated by brain MR imaging and MRS using two sample volumes localized at right medial temporal gyrus and posterior parietal gyrus. Metabolites analyzed were N-acetylaspartate (NAA), myo-Inositol (mI), Choline (Cho) and creatine (Cr), as standard references for obtaining the Co/Cr, mI/Cr and NAA/Cr ratios. Imaging and spectroscopy alterations were graded from 0 to 4 and the average of both was used to draw ROC and SROC curves. Area under ROC curve (Az) was used as a measure of discriminative ability. Combination of MR imaging and MRS significantly improved AD diagnosis (Global Az: 0.722 vs. MR imaging Az: 0.624; p: 0.003). However, the combination of MR imaging and MRS did not improve VD diagnosis. SROC curve obtained for the diagnosis of global dementia was Az: 0.6658 with 0.67 sensitivity and 0.65 specificity. Combination of both MR techniques significantly improved AD diagnosis versus MR imaging alone. More studies are needed to enhance VD classification. Metabolic data found by MRS can be useful to differentiate cognitive impairment

  9. Overview of vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisset, G.S. III

    1998-01-01

    Vascular disease in the pediatric population is a poorly understood process which is often underestimated in its incidence. The common beginnings of such ubiquitous diseases as atherosclerosis manifest themselves at a cellular level shortly after birth. Other common systemic disorders, including congestive heart failure and sepsis, are also intricately associated with dysfunctional vasculature. Progress in the understanding of normal and pathophysiologic processes within the vascular system begins with the 'control center' - the endothelial cell. The purpose of this review is to consolidate a body of knowledge on the processes that occur at the cellular level within the blood vessel wall, and to simplify the understanding of how imbalances in these physiologic parameters result in vascular disease. (orig.)

  10. Effects of animal-assisted therapy on behavioral and/or psychological symptoms in dementia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Lena; Engström, Gabriella

    2012-12-01

    Recently, interest in nonpharmaceutical interventions in dementia care has increased. Animal-assisted therapy has been shown to be one promising intervention but more knowledge is needed. The present article reports on a pilot study involving an 84-year-old woman with vascular dementia who was systematically trained with a therapy dog team for 8 weeks. A quasi-experimental longitudinal interventional design with pre-post measures was used. Data were collected on 3 occasions. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Some effects on the woman's ability to walk and move were identified. In addition, some effects in the woman's cognitive state were observed. Physical, psychological, and/or social training with certified therapy dog teams can have effects on behavioral and psychological symptoms in people living with dementia. Further research is needed.

  11. Dementia, preclinical studies in neurodegeneration and its potential for translational medicine in SouthAmerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Patricia Cardona Gomez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Latin-American people with dementia will increase in a 368% in 2050, higher than USA and Europe. In addition, to sporadic dementia type Alzheimer and vascular dementia progression after Cerebrovascular disease, the statistics are increased in Colombia by specific populations affected with pure neurodegenerative and vascular dementias like autosomical dominant familial Alzheimer´s disease and CADASIL. In spite of the enormous human and economical effort and investment, neither sporadic nor genetic kinds of dementia progression have been prevented or blocked yet. Currently, exist several animal models that partially solve the understanding of the neurodegenerative etiopathogenesis and its treatment. However, when the potential therapies are translated to humans, those do not work or present a limited action. Main difficulties are the diverse comorbility associated to the cause and/or several affected brain regions, reducing the efficacy of some therapies which are limited to a tissue-specific action or modulating a kind of neurotransmission. Global investigation suggests that a general prevention could be achieved with the improvement in the quality of lifestyle, including healthy diet, physical and mental activity, and avoiding mechanical or chemical pro-inflammatory events in an early stage in the most of non-communicable diseases. In this review, we present some molecular targets and preclinical studies in animal models to propose strategies that could be useful in a future translation to prevent or block neurodegeneration: One is gene therapy silencing pathogenic genes in critical brain areas where excitotoxicity arise and spread. Another is to take advantage of the natural source and its wide biodiversity of natural products some of them identified by the blocking and prevention of neurodegeneration. On the other side, the casuistic of pure dementias in the Latin-American region give an exceptional opportunity to understand the pathogenesis

  12. 99mTc-Hexamethyl Propyleneamine Oxime Brain Perfusion Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography in Characterization of Dementia: An Initial Experience in Indian Clinical Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santra, Amburanjan; Sinha, Gaurav Kumar; Neogi, Rajarshi; Thukral, Ramesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing health burden in developing countries due to recent trends of increasing incidence of neurodegenerative diseases. To reduce the healthcare cost and effective management of dementia illness, early diagnosis, accurate differentiation and their progression assessment is becoming crucially important. We are utilizing 99m Tc-d, l-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to characterize dementia on the basis of perfusion patterns and observed significant improvement in their management. Eleven patients (median age of 60 years range of 53-83 years) with clinical suspicion of dementia underwent 99m Tc-HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT. SPECT-computed tomography acquisition done, data are reconstructed, reviewed in three view and further processed in “neurogam” to get voxel based analysis and the comparison with age based normal database and surface mapping. Final diagnosis was done with clinical correlation. Four patients are diagnosed as Alzheimer's disease, two as frontotemporal dementia, one as dementia of Lewy bodies, two as vascular dementia and two as pseudodementia. All imaging findings are well-correlated with clinical background. Brain perfusion SPECT with HMPAO was very helpful to us in characterizing the patients of dementia by its perfusion pattern

  13. A continuum of executive function deficits in early subcortical vascular cognitive impairment: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Felipe Kenji; Amado, Patricia; Alves, Gilberto Sousa; Laks, Jerson; Engelhardt, Eliasz

    2017-01-01

    Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment (SVCI) is a clinical continuum of vascular-related cognitive impairment, including Vascular Mild Cognitive Impairment (VaMCI) and Vascular Dementia. Deficits in Executive Function (EF) are hallmarks of the disorder, but the best methods to assess this function have yet to be determined. The insidious and almost predictable course of SVCI and the multidimensional concept of EF suggest that a temporal dissociation of impairments in EF domains exists early in the disorder. This study aims to review and analyze data from the literature about performance of VaMCI patients on the most used EF tests through a meta-analytic approach. Medline, Web of Knowledge and PsycINFO were searched, using the terms: "vascular mild cognitive impairment" OR "vascular cognitive impairment no dementia" OR "vascular mild neurocognitive disorder" AND "dysexecutive" OR "executive function". Meta-analyses were conducted for each of the selected tests, using random-effect models. Systematic review showed major discrepancies among the results of the studies included. Meta-analyses evidenced poorer performance on the Trail-Making Test part B and the Stroop color test by VaMCI patients compared to controls. A continuum of EF impairments has been proposed in SVCI. Early deficits appear to occur in cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control.

  14. Cortical Cerebral Microinfarcts on 3 Tesla MRI in Patients with Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Doeschka A; van Veluw, Susanne J; Koek, Huiberdina L; Exalto, Lieza G; Biessels, Geert Jan

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral microinfarcts (CMIs) are small ischemic lesions that are a common neuropathological finding in patients with stroke or dementia. CMIs in the cortex can now be detected in vivo on 3 Tesla MRI. To determine the occurrence of CMIs and associated clinical features in patients with possible vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). 182 memory-clinic patients (mean age 71.4±10.6, 55% male) with vascular injury on brain MRI (i.e., possible VCI) underwent a standardized work-up including 3 Tesla MRI and cognitive assessment. A control group consisted of 70 cognitively normal subjects (mean age 70.6±4.7, 60% male). Cortical CMIs and other neuroimaging markers of vascular brain injury were rated according to established criteria. Occurrence of CMIs was higher (20%) in patients compared to controls (10%). Among patients, the presence of CMIs was associated with male sex, history of stroke, infarcts, and white matter hyperintensities. CMI presence was also associated with a diagnosis of vascular dementia and reduced performance in multiple cognitive domains. CMIs on 3 Tesla MRI are common in patients with possible VCI and co-occur with imaging markers of small and large vessel disease, likely reflecting a heterogeneous etiology. CMIs are associated with worse cognitive performance, independent of other markers of vascular brain injury.

  15. Comparative study of CT scan findings and intellectual function between Parkinson's disease and vascular Parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indo, Toshikatsu

    1986-01-01

    Comparative study of CT scan findings and intellectual function between 64 cases with Parkinson's disease and 25 cases with vascular Parkinsonism was carried out. The rate of abnormality of CT scan findings, either ventricular dilatation or widening of sulci, in vascular Parkinsonism was strikingly high compared with Parkinson's disease. Patients could be divided into three groups according to the degree of overall abnormalities of CT scan findings (group A: markedly abnormal, group B: mildly abnormal, group C: normal). Incidences of group A were 9.4 % in Parkinson's disease and 52 % in vascular Parkinsonism, whereas those of group C were 56 % in the former and 28 % in the latter. All patients of group A were over 65 years of age in Parkinson's disease, but one-third of patients in group A were under 59 years of age in vascular Parkinsonism. Moreover, in vascular Parkinsonism, the level of disability was directly proportional to the abnormality of CT scan findings. The rate of predementia and dementia classified by Hasegawa's intelligence scale was 12.5 % in Parkinson's disease and 48 % in vascular Parkinsonism. No difference was found between the mean values of intelligence scale and background factors in Parkinson's disease. On the other hand, the mean value was significantly low in proportion to the poverty of L-dopa effect in vascular Parkinsonism. From these results, the abnormality of CT scan findings and intellectual impairment were probably related to the cerebral pathological process in vascular Parkinsonism, but these relationship was absent in Parkinson's disease. (author)

  16. Comparative study of CT scan findings and intellectual function between Parkinson's disease and vascular Parkinsonism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indo, Toshikatsu

    1986-01-01

    Comparative study of CT scan findings and intellectual function between 64 cases with Parkinson's disease and 25 cases with vascular Parkinsonism was carried out. The rate of abnormality of CT scan findings, either ventricular dilatation or widening of sulci, in vascular Parkinsonism was strikingly high compared with Parkinson's disease. Patients could be divided into three groups according to the degree of overall abnormalities of CT scan findings (group A: markedly abnormal, group B: mildly abnormal, group C: normal). Incidences of group A were 9.4 % in Parkinson's disease and 52 % in vascular Parkinsonism, whereas those of group C were 56 % in the former and 28 % in the latter. All patients of group A were over 65 years of age in Parkinson's disease, but one-third of patients in group A were under 59 years of age in vascular Parkinsonism. Moreover, in vascular Parkinsonism, the level of disability was directly proportional to the abnormality of CT scan findings. The rate of predementia and dementia classified by Hasegawa's intelligence scale was 12.5 % in Parkinson's disease and 48 % in vascular Parkinsonism. No difference was found between the mean values of intelligence scale and background factors in Parkinson's disease. On the other hand, the mean value was significantly low in proportion to the poverty of L-dopa effect in vascular Parkinsonism. From these results, the abnormality of CT scan findings and intellectual impairment were probably related to the cerebral pathological process in vascular Parkinsonism, but these relationship was absent in Parkinson's disease.

  17. Association between advanced glycation end-products and functional performance in Alzheimer's disease and mixed dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenth, Hans; Zuidema, Sytse U; Krijnen, Wim P; Bautmans, Ivan; van der Schans, Cees; Hobbelen, Hans

    2017-09-01

    People with Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience, in addition to the progressive loss of cognitive functions, a decline in functional performance such as mobility impairment and disability in activities of daily living (ADL). Functional decline in dementia is mainly linked to the progressive brain pathology. Peripheral biomechanical changes by advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) have been suggested but have yet to be thoroughly studied. A multi-center, longitudinal, one-year follow-up cohort study was conducted in 144 people with early stage AD or mixed Alzheimer's/Vascular dementia. Linear mixed model analyses was used to study associations between AGE-levels (AGE reader) and mobility (Timed Up and Go), and ADL (Groningen Activity Restriction Scale and Barthel index), respectively. A significant association between AGE levels and mobility (β = 3.57, 95%CI: 1.43-5.73) was revealed; however, no significant association between AGE levels and ADL was found. Over a one-year time span, mean AGE levels significantly increased, and mobility and ADL performance decreased. Change in AGE levels was not significantly correlated with change in mobility. This study indicates that high AGE levels could be a contributing factor to impaired mobility but lacks evidence for an association with ADL decline in people with early stage AD or mixed dementia. Future research is necessary on the reduction of functional decline in dementia regarding the effectiveness of interventions such as physical activity programs and dietary advice possibly in combination with pharmacologic strategies targeting AGE accumulation.

  18. Translational Assays for Assessment of Cognition in Rodent Models of Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, A; Tyebji, S; Hannan, A J; Burrows, E L

    2016-11-01

    Cognitive dysfunction appears as a core feature of dementia, which includes its most prevalent form, Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and other brain disorders. AD alone affects more than 45 million people worldwide, with growing prevalence in aging populations. There is no cure, and therapeutic options remain limited. Gene-edited and transgenic animal models, expressing disease-specific gene mutations, illuminate pathogenic mechanisms leading to cognitive decline in AD and other forms of dementia. To date, cognitive tests in AD mouse models have not been directly relevant to the clinical presentation of AD, providing challenges for translation of findings to the clinic. Touchscreen testing in mice has enabled the assessment of specific cognitive domains in mice that are directly relevant to impairments described in human AD patients. In this review, we provide context for how cognitive decline is measured in the clinic, describe traditional methods for assessing cognition in mice, and outline novel approaches, including the use of the touchscreen platform for cognitive testing. We highlight the limitations of traditional memory-testing paradigms in mice, particularly their capacity for direct translation into cognitive testing of patients. While it is not possible to expect direct translation in testing methodologies, we can aim to develop tests that engage similar neural substrates in both humans and mice. Ultimately, that would enable us to better predict efficacy across species and therefore improve the chances that a treatment that works in mice will also work in the clinic.

  19. 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT in patients with Alzheimer's disease and multiinfraction dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klisarova, A.; Tranulov, G.; Deleva, N.; Kaprelian, A.; Terzieva, M.; Ivanov, B.

    2002-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and multiinfarktion dementia (MD) are the commonest causes giving rise to progressive cognitive function deficit in adult individuals. It is the purpose of the study to evaluate 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT in making the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and multiinfarction dementia in patients presenting progressive cognitive disorders. Twenty patients with symptoms of dementia divided up in two groups (10 suspected for AD, and 10 with evidence of MD) are subjected to 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT. To assay the scintigraphic images semi-quantitative perfusion indices are introduced. Bilateral hypoperfusion zones in the temporoparietal and temporal regions are detected in nine AD patients. In 4 of them in advanced stage of the disease hypoperfusion zones are found in the frontal lobe. In 8/10 MD patients vascular dependent hypoperfusion areas are located along the course of vessels. The perfusion indices implemented in practice contribute to the semi-quantitative evaluation of hypoperfusion areas and precise assessment of the scintigraphic findings. 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT is an atraumatic, noninvasive technique, taken to be the method of choice in making the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and multiinfarction dementia in routine clinical practice. (authors)

  20. A cross-sectional study on thyroid status in North Indian elderly outpatients with dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several population based studies have demonstrated an association between hypo-or hyperthyroidism and dementia in last two decades. As a consequence, thyroid stimulating hormone has become part of the screening laboratory test for dementia. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between thyroid function and Alzheimer′s disease (AD and vascular dementia (VaD and to determine the risk of AD and VaD in clinically euthyroid patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional hospital based study was carried out in subjects diagnosed with AD/VaD and were assessed for thyroid status as routine screening test. Results: Free T3, free T4 and TSH were studied in 114 AD patients (mean age: 65 years, 35 VaD patients (mean age: 62 years and 105 control subjects (mean age: 62 years. In AD group, TSH levels were significantly lower than controls (P = 0.00 and for each unit increase in TSH level, the odds of having dementia decreased by 37.1%. No such relation was seen in VaD. Conclusion: The results suggest a consistent association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and AD.

  1. Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2015-01-01

    people around the world. Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias affect neurocognition and associated functioning, including memory, thinking, behavior, and activities of daily living. Agitation in later stages of dementia is the most significant symptom contributing to patient distress and caregiver...

  2. Opening up the DNA methylome of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Morales, R; Esteller, M

    2017-04-01

    Dementia is a complex clinical condition characterized by several cognitive impairments that interfere with patient independence in executing everyday tasks. Various neurodegenerative disorders have dementia in common among their clinical manifestations. In addition, these diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and frontotemporal dementia, share molecular alterations at the neuropathological level. In recent years, the field of neuroepigenetics has expanded massively and it is now clear that epigenetic processes, such as DNA methylation, are mechanisms involved in both normal and pathological brain function. Despite the persistent methodological and conceptual caveats, it has been reported that several genes fundamental to the development of neurodegenerative disorders are deregulated by aberrant methylation patterns of their promoters, and even common epigenetic signatures for some dementia-associated pathologies have bee