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Sample records for demand sluggish nr

  1. Outlook for Japanese economy and energy demand in fiscal year 2015. Will decline in oil price benefit sluggish Japanese economy after tax increase?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Akira; Ikarii, Ryohei; Iwata, Sohei; Wang, In-Ha; Tomokawa, K.; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Ito, Kokichi

    2015-01-01

    Although prompt economic recovery was expected, after tax increase in April 2014, not so much progress has been made as anticipated. One of the reasons for this is the increase in energy cost due to the decline in LNG price following that of oil price from an international point of view, and the electric rate hike resulted from the delay in restart of nuclear power plant from a domestic point of view, and so on. In this article, the outlook for the Japanese economy and the energy demand in the fiscal year 2015 and the influences of various factors were evaluated. For this evaluation, the values set as the primary premises for the standard scenario were: (1) world economy, (2) CIF prices for importing oil, LNG, and coal, (3) exchange rates, (4) nuclear power generation, (5) electricity demand, and (6) temperature. Then, the influences of following items on economy and energy demand were analyzed: (1) macro economy, (2) production activity, (3) domestic supply of primary energy, (4) final energy consumption, (5) sales amount of electricity and composition of electrical sources, (6) sales amount of city gas, (7) sales amount of fuel oil and LNG, (8) renewable energy power generation, (9) restart rate of nuclear power plant, and so on. (S.K.)

  2. Sluggish growth of World energy demand in 2011. Sharp demand decrease in most OECD countries, largely compensated by a healthy Chinese market. Enerdata analyses the trends in energy demand, based on its 2011 data for G20 countries, May 24, 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the energy consumption in 2011 of major countries by Enerdata, based on our global energy database. The energy consumption growth in the G20 slowed down to 2% in 2011, after the strong increase of 2010. The economic crisis is largely responsible for this slow growth. For several years now, the world energy demand is characterized by the bullish Chinese and Indian markets, while developed countries struggle with stagnant economies, high oil prices, resulting in stable or decreasing energy consumption. (authors)

  3. Ozone exposure and stomatal sluggishness in different plant physiognomic classes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paoletti, Elena, E-mail: e.paoletti@ipp.cnr.i [IPP-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Grulke, Nancy E. [US Forest Service, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Gas exchange responses to static and variable light were tested in three species: snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, two cultivars), California black oak (Quercus kelloggii), and blue oak (Q. douglasii). The effects of 1-month (snap beans) and 2-month (oaks) O{sub 3} (ozone) exposure (70 ppb over 8 h per day in open-top chambers) were investigated. A delay in stomatal responses (i.e., 'sluggish' responses) to variable light was found to be both an effect of O{sub 3} exposure and a reason for increased O{sub 3} sensitivity in snap bean cultivars, as it implied higher O{sub 3} uptake during times of disequilibrium. Sluggishness increased the time to open (thus limiting CO{sub 2} uptake) and close stomata (thus increasing transpirational water loss) after abrupt changes in light level. Similar responses were shown by snap beans and oaks, suggesting that O{sub 3}-induced stomatal sluggishness is a common trait among different plant physiognomic classes. - Sluggish stomatal responses are suggested to be both an effect of O{sub 3} exposure and a reason of increased O{sub 3} sensitivity in plants.

  4. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure, ADHD, and Sluggish Cognitive Tempo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Diana M.; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Roesch, Scott C.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure often meet criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD research has examined subtype differences in symptomology, including sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT). This construct is defined by behavioral symptoms including, hypoactivity and daydreaming, and has been linked to increased internalizing behaviors. The current study examined if similar findings are displayed in children with prenatal alcohol exposure. Methods As part of a multisite study, caregivers of 272 children (8–16y) completed the SCT scale and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Four groups were included: alcohol-exposed children with ADHD (ALC+; n=75), alcohol-exposed children without ADHD (ALC−; n=35), non-exposed children with ADHD (ADHD; n=60), and non-exposed children without ADHD (CON; n=102). SCT and CBCL scores were analyzed using 2 (exposure) × 2 (ADHD) ANOVAs. Pearson correlations measured the relations between SCT, CBCL, and FSIQ. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) examined if SCT items could accurately classify groups. Results Analyses revealed significant main effects of Exposure and ADHD on SCT, internalizing, and externalizing scores, and significant interaction effects on SCT and internalizing scores. SCT significantly correlated with internalizing, externalizing, and attention ratings in all groups and with FSIQ in ALC+. DFA indicated that specific SCT items could distinguish ALC− from CON. Conclusions Alcohol-exposed children exhibited elevated SCT scores. Elevations were related to increased parent ratings of internalizing and externalizing behaviors and attention. These findings occurred in alcohol-exposed children regardless of ADHD symptoms and specific SCT items proved useful in distinguishing exposed children suggesting clinical utility for this measure in further defining the neurobehavioral profile related to prenatal alcohol exposure. PMID:22817778

  5. Topical review: sluggish cognitive tempo: research findings and relevance for pediatric psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P

    2013-11-01

    To summarize recent research on sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) and consider the potential relevance of SCT for the field of pediatric psychology. Literature review. Recent empirical evidence shows SCT symptoms consisting of sluggish/sleepy and daydreamy behaviors to be distinct from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. SCT is associated with psychosocial functioning in children and adolescents, including internalizing symptoms, social withdrawal, and, possibly, academic impairment. The recent findings reviewed suggest that SCT is an important construct for pediatric psychologists to be aware of and may also be directly useful for the research and practice of pediatric psychology.

  6. Sleep Difficulties are Associated with Parent Report of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriakin, Taylor A; Mahone, E Mark; Jacobson, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is considered both a behavioral symptom of and a contributor to functional difficulties in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The construct of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) has also been linked to ADHD; however, little is known regarding the effects of sleep specifically on SCT symptoms. This study examined the association between parent-reported sleep disturbance and parent- and teacher-reported SCT, while controlling for the effects of ADHD and mood symptoms. Participants included 746 clinically referred children (65% male, age range: 5-18 years) with both parent and teacher ratings assessing symptoms of ADHD, mood symptoms (depression, anxiety), and SCT. Parents/caregivers also rated their child's sleep problems with regard to 4 core concerns: falling asleep, sleep restlessness, difficulty waking, and breathing difficulties. The SCT scale included three empirically derived subscales: sleepy/sluggish, low initiation/persistence, and daydreamy. After accounting for age, medication status, ADHD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and anxiety, sleep problems accounted for a small but significant proportion of additional variance in the prediction of parent-reported sleepy/sluggish SCT. Difficulty waking showed the strongest associations with parent-reported SCT. There were no significant relationships found between parent-reported sleep difficulties and teacher-reported SCT. Some elements of sluggishness and lethargy inherent to the SCT construct may be associated with sleep difficulties, even after accounting for ADHD and mood symptoms; however, these associations are not consistent across SCT subscales and sleep problem domains.

  7. Sluggish Cognitive Tempo among Young Adolescents with ADHD: Relations to Mental Health, Academic, and Social Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P.; Langberg, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the role of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) in relation to externalizing and internalizing mental health problems, academic functioning, and social functioning among young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: In all, 57 youth ages 10 to 14 participated in the study. Parents…

  8. Dimensions and Correlates of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Sluggish Cognitive Tempo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Annie A.; Marceaux, Janice; Mrug, Sylvie; Patterson, Cryshelle; Hodgens, Bart

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) in relation to ADHD symptoms, clinical diagnosis, and multiple aspects of adjustment in a clinical sample. Parent and teacher reports were gathered for 322 children and adolescents evaluated for behavioral, emotional, and/or learning problems at a university clinic. Confirmatory factor…

  9. Evaluating the Utility of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo in Discriminating among "DSM-IV" ADHD Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Kelly M.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate how the inclusion of 3 Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnostic criteria influences the external validity of the ADHD subtypes. The sample comprised 228 children (166 boys, 62 girls) ranging in age from 5-18 years who were referred to…

  10. Influence of Eurycoma longifolia on the copulatory activity of sexually sluggish and impotent male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoli, P; Zavatti, M; Montanari, C; Baraldi, M

    2009-11-12

    The root of Eurycoma longifolia Jack, native to South East Asia, has long been used as a male aphrodisiac remedy to treat sexual disorders. In the study we evaluated the influence of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on sexual behavior (including both motivation and copulatory performance) of sexually sluggish and impotent male rats. The root powder of the plant was orally administered to adult Sprague-Dawley male rats, classified as sexually sluggish or impotent taking in account their behavior in pre-experimental tests. Groups of 8 animals each were submitted to three different types of treatment: (1) acute at 3 dose levels (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg); (2) subacute (daily for 6 days) at the dose of 500 mg/kg and (3) subchronic (daily for 12 days) at the same dose (500 mg/kg). Mount, intromission and ejaculation latencies and post-ejaculatory interval were recorded during the mating test in order to evaluate sexual performance. In addition the partner preference test was used to assess sexual motivation. Testosterone serum levels were measured in subacutely treated rats and compared with the values of controls receiving vehicle. Concerning the copulatory activity of sexually sluggish rats, both acute (dosed at 500 and 1000 mg/kg) and subacute treatments with the root powder significantly reduced ejaculation latencies, increasing also the percentage of mounting and ejaculating animals; in addition the subacute administration reduced post-ejaculatory interval. In impotent rats both subacute and subchronic treatments increased the percentage of mounting and ejaculating rats. The motivational behavior of sluggish rats during the partner preference test was not affected by the treatments. Testosterone serum levels were increased in rats subacutely treated in comparison with controls. Eurycoma longifolia root improved sexual performance but not motivation in sluggish rats after acute or subacute administration. The effect could be mainly ascribed to increased testosterone levels.

  11. Pharmaceutical Industry in Vietnam: Sluggish Sector in a Growing Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelino, Antonio; Khanh, Do Ta; An Ha, Nguyen; Pham, Tuan

    2017-08-29

    Vietnam is a fast growing economy in the Asian region with a significantly high population (over 92 million in 2015). Although still expanding (about 1.1% on average during 2000-2015), the Vietnamese population is considered to be entering the ageing stage at a very high rate. The rapid expansion of the middle-income urban class and the ageing people ratio have dramatically pushed up the demand for healthcare goods, particularly in terms of pharmaceutical products. Since the early 1990s the government has addressed the necessities of rising demand for healthcare products by formulating a series of policies aimed at promoting the development of the pharmaceutical industry. However, the implementation of such policies does not seem to have been completely efficient given that the country still needs to import up to 90% of its pharmaceutical consumption. This paper aims to explore the development of the pharmaceutical industry during the years 1990-2015 and to identify a series of weaknesses in the government promotion of the industry. Future developments will also be discussed on how the Vietnamese pharmaceutical industry could increase its participation in the regional supply chain, which is currently being dominated by big players like India and China.

  12. Pharmaceutical Industry in Vietnam: Sluggish Sector in a Growing Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Angelino

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam is a fast growing economy in the Asian region with a significantly high population (over 92 million in 2015. Although still expanding (about 1.1% on average during 2000–2015, the Vietnamese population is considered to be entering the ageing stage at a very high rate. The rapid expansion of the middle-income urban class and the ageing people ratio have dramatically pushed up the demand for healthcare goods, particularly in terms of pharmaceutical products. Since the early 1990s the government has addressed the necessities of rising demand for healthcare products by formulating a series of policies aimed at promoting the development of the pharmaceutical industry. However, the implementation of such policies does not seem to have been completely efficient given that the country still needs to import up to 90% of its pharmaceutical consumption. This paper aims to explore the development of the pharmaceutical industry during the years 1990–2015 and to identify a series of weaknesses in the government promotion of the industry. Future developments will also be discussed on how the Vietnamese pharmaceutical industry could increase its participation in the regional supply chain, which is currently being dominated by big players like India and China.

  13. Pharmaceutical Industry in Vietnam: Sluggish Sector in a Growing Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelino, Antonio; Khanh, Do Ta; An Ha, Nguyen; Pham, Tuan

    2017-01-01

    Vietnam is a fast growing economy in the Asian region with a significantly high population (over 92 million in 2015). Although still expanding (about 1.1% on average during 2000–2015), the Vietnamese population is considered to be entering the ageing stage at a very high rate. The rapid expansion of the middle-income urban class and the ageing people ratio have dramatically pushed up the demand for healthcare goods, particularly in terms of pharmaceutical products. Since the early 1990s the government has addressed the necessities of rising demand for healthcare products by formulating a series of policies aimed at promoting the development of the pharmaceutical industry. However, the implementation of such policies does not seem to have been completely efficient given that the country still needs to import up to 90% of its pharmaceutical consumption. This paper aims to explore the development of the pharmaceutical industry during the years 1990–2015 and to identify a series of weaknesses in the government promotion of the industry. Future developments will also be discussed on how the Vietnamese pharmaceutical industry could increase its participation in the regional supply chain, which is currently being dominated by big players like India and China. PMID:28850083

  14. Effects of NR1 splicing on NR1/NR3B-type excitatory glycine receptors

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    Orth Angela

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs are the most complex of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs. Subunits of this subfamily assemble into heteromers, which – depending on the subunit combination – may display very different pharmacological and electrophysiological properties. The least studied members of the NMDAR family, the NR3 subunits, have been reported to assemble with NR1 to form excitatory glycine receptors in heterologous expression systems. The heterogeneity of NMDARs in vivo is in part conferred to the receptors by splicing of the NR1 subunit, especially with regard to proton sensitivity. Results Here, we have investigated whether the NR3B subunit is capable of assembly with each of the eight functional NR1 splice variants, and whether the resulting receptors share the unique functional properties described for NR1-1a/NR3. We provide evidence that functional excitatory glycine receptors formed regardless of the NR1 isoform, and their pharmacological profile matched the one reported for NR1-1a/NR3: glycine alone fully activated the receptors, which were insensitive to glutamate and block by Mg2+. Surprisingly, amplitudes of agonist-induced currents showed little dependency on the C-terminally spliced NR1 variants in NR1/NR3B diheteromers. Even more strikingly, NR3B conferred proton sensitivity also to receptors containing NR1b variants – possibly via disturbing the "proton shield" of NR1b splice variants. Conclusion While functional assembly could be demonstrated for all combinations, not all of the specific interactions seen for NR1 isoforms with coexpressed NR2 subunits could be corroborated for NR1 assembly with NR3. Rather, NR3 abates trafficking effects mediated by the NR1 C terminus as well as the N-terminally mediated proton insensitivity. Thus, this study establishes that NR3B overrides important NR1 splice variant-specific receptor properties in NR1/NR3B excitatory glycine receptors.

  15. Effect of Sugar Transport Inactivation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae on Sluggish and Stuck Enological Fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Sluggish and stuck (i.e., very delayed or incomplete) fermentations have been often observed in wine making. Some of them appeared to be associated with insufficient levels of yeast nutrients such as assimilable nitrogen. In these conditions, sugar transport catabolite inactivation, which is triggered by the protein synthesis arrest, may account in part for the inhibition of fermentation. Moreover, this mechanism of inhibition may explain the failure of added ammoniacal nitrogen to nitrogen-limited musts to restore or elevate rate of fermentation after the early yeast growth phase. PMID:16347895

  16. Sexual arousal in sexually sluggish old male rats after oral administration of Eurycoma longifolia Jack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Hooi Hoon; Lee, Kheng Leng; Kiyoshi, Matsumoto

    2004-01-01

    Eurycoma longifolia Jack commonly known as Tongkat Ali in Malaysia, has been used in Malaysia to increase male virility and sexual prowess. The objective of this study is to evaluate sexual arousal in sexually sluggish old male rats, 24 months old and retired breeders, receiving 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg of various fractions of E. longifolia Jack, twice daily, for 10 days. Control rats received 3 ml/kg of normal saline. The aphrodisiac effect was monitored by the act of yawning and stretching because yawning, either alone or associated with stretching, is considered an ancestral vestige surviving throughout evolution that promotes sexual arousal. The results showed that 800 mg/kg of E. longifolia Jack increased yawning by 50% and stretching by 16.7% in sexually sluggish old male rats, by 676-719% and 31-336%, respectively, in sexually active male rats, and by 22-44% and 75-100%, respectively, in middle aged, 9 months old and retired breeders. We conclude that the results of this study support the folk use of this plant as an aphrodisiac.

  17. Pay Attention!: Sluggish Multisensory Attentional Shifting as a Core Deficit in Developmental Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Margaret B

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a background on the neurocognitive aspects of the reading process and review neuroscientific studies of individuals with developmental dyslexia, which provide evidence for amodal processing deficits. Hari, Renvall, and Tanskanen (2001) propose amodal sluggish attentional shifting (SAS) as a causal factor for temporal processing deficits in dyslexia. Undergirding this theory is the notion that when dyslexics are faced with rapid sequences of stimuli, their automatic attentional systems fail to disengage efficiently, which leads to difficulty when moving from one item to the next (Lallier et al., ). This results in atypical perception of rapid stimulus sequences. Until recently, the SAS theory, particularly the examination of amodal attentional deficits, was studied solely through the use of behavioural measures (Facoetti et al., ; Facoetti, Lorusso, Cattaneo, Galli, & Molteni, ). This paper examines evidence within the literature that provides a basis for further exploration of amodal SAS as an underlying deficit in developmental dyslexia. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. On microalgal settlements and the sluggish development of marine biofouling in Port Blair waters, Andamans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eashwar, M; Nallathambi, T; Kuberaraj, K

    2008-01-01

    Settlement of microalgae was investigated on Perspex, aluminium and zinc coupons immersed in Port Blair Bay waters for over 3 months. Commencement of fouling was exceptionally slow, and few microalgae were found until 14 days. Settlement occurred thereafter, and 47 microalgal species contributed to the fouling. The dominant forms belonged to the genera Navicula and Nitzschia, whereas Coscinodiscus eccentricus, Gyrosigma balticum and Trichodesmium erythraeum also accounted for high proportions of the settlements. The dominance of Nitzschia sigma was particularly marked on zinc coupons, suggesting an ability by the organism to resist toxicity. Settlement of both centric and pennate diatoms was observed in the early and mid periods, and absolute dominance of the pennate diatoms subsequently. The fouling mass was low even after 103 days, and it is speculated that strong ultraviolet radiation might be the prime reason for the sluggish development of marine biofouling in these oceanic island waters.

  19. Sluggish vagal brake reactivity to physical exercise challenge in children with selective mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, Keri J; Connolly, Sucheta D; Padilla, Wendy O; Wrzosek, Marika I; Graczyk, Patricia A; Porges, Stephen W

    2012-02-01

    Cardiovascular response patterns to laboratory-based social and physical exercise challenges were evaluated in 69 children and adolescents, 20 with selective mutism (SM), to identify possible neurophysiological mechanisms that may mediate the behavioral features of SM. Results suggest that SM is associated with a dampened response of the vagal brake to physical exercise that is manifested as reduced reactivity in heart rate and respiration. Polyvagal theory proposes that the regulation of the vagal brake is a neurophysiological component of an integrated social engagement system that includes the neural regulation of the laryngeal and pharyngeal muscles. Within this theoretical framework, sluggish vagal brake reactivity may parallel an inability to recruit efficiently the structures involved in speech. Thus, the findings suggest that dampened autonomic reactivity during mobilization behaviors may be a biomarker of SM that can be assessed independent of the social stimuli that elicit mutism.

  20. The Association Between Blood Alcohol Content and Cheerfulness, Focus Distraction, and Sluggishness Among Young Adults Attending High School Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Rod, Morten Hulvej; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine

    2014-01-01

    The belief that alcohol makes you cheerful is one of the main reasons for engaging in high-risk drinking, especially among young adults. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between blood alcohol content (BAC) and cheerfulness, focus distraction, and sluggishness among students...

  1. Sluggish Upstroke of Signal-Averaged QRS Complex. An Arrhythmogenic Sign in Patients with Anteroseptal Myocardial Infarction

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    Masafumi Kanemura, MD

    2005-01-01

    We conclude that there is a much more sluggish upstroke in the signal-averaged initial QRS complex in anteroseptal MI patients with VT, suggesting that the local conduction delay at the ventricular septum plays an important role in the mechanism of VT in these patients.

  2. Does Emotion Dysregulation Mediate the Association Between Sluggish Cognitive Tempo and College Students' Social Impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Andrew J; Becker, Stephen P; Luebbe, Aaron M

    2016-09-01

    Studies demonstrate an association between sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) and social impairment, although no studies have tested possible mechanisms of this association. This study aimed to (a) examine SCT in relation to college students' social functioning; (b) test if SCT is significantly associated with emotion dysregulation beyond depressive, anxious, and ADHD symptoms; and (c) test if emotion dysregulation mediates the association between SCT symptoms and social impairment. College students (N = 158) completed measures of psychopathology symptoms, emotion dysregulation, and social functioning. Participants with elevated SCT (12%) had higher ADHD, depressive, and anxious symptoms in addition to poorer emotion regulation and social adjustment than participants without elevated SCT. Above and beyond other psychopathologies, SCT was significantly associated with social impairment but not general interpersonal functioning. SCT was also associated with emotion dysregulation, even after accounting for the expectedly strong association between depression and emotion dysregulation. Further analyses supported emotion dysregulation as a mediator of the association between SCT and social impairment. These findings are important for theoretical models of SCT and underscore the need for additional, longitudinal research. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. External Validity of ADHD Inattention and Sluggish Cognitive Tempo Dimensions in Spanish Children With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenollar Cortés, Javier; Servera, Mateu; Becker, Stephen P; Burns, G Leonard

    2017-06-01

    Few studies have examined whether separate dimensions of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT)-inconsistent alertness and slowness-have different external correlates from each other as well as symptoms of ADHD inattention (ADHD-IN). Participants were 131 Spanish children (ages 6-16; 72% boys) diagnosed with ADHD. In regression analyses, ADHD-IN was positively associated with hyperactivity/impulsivity, conduct problems, defiance/aggression, anxiety, peer relations problems, and learning problems. SCT-inconsistent alertness was positively associated with hyperactivity/impulsivity and peer relations problems. In contrast, SCT-slowness was negatively associated with hyperactivity/impulsivity and conduct problems and positively associated with depression and learning problems. Results were consistent after controlling for depression, medication status, and sex. The findings support SCT to be a construct with two dimensions that have unique correlates relative to each other as well as ADHD-IN. Future research on SCT should separate these dimensions of SCT to provide a better understanding of the construct.

  4. Sluggish cognitive tempo in abnormal child psychology: an historical overview and introduction to the special section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Marshall, Stephen A; McBurnett, Keith

    2014-01-01

    There has recently been a resurgence of interest in Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) as an important construct in the field of abnormal child psychology. Characterized by drowsiness, daydreaming, lethargy, mental confusion, and slowed thinking/behavior, SCT has primarily been studied as a feature of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and namely the predominately inattentive subtype/presentation. Although SCT is strongly associated with ADHD inattention, research increasingly supports the possibility that SCT is distinct from ADHD or perhaps a different mental health condition altogether, with unique relations to child and adolescent psychosocial adjustment. This introductory article to the Special Section on SCT provides an historical overview of the SCT construct and briefly describes the contributions of the eight empirical papers included in the Special Section. Given the emerging importance of SCT for abnormal psychology and clinical science, there is a clear need for additional studies that examine (1) the measurement, structure, and multidimensional nature of SCT, (2) SCT as statistically distinct from not only ADHD-inattention but also other psychopathologies (particularly depression and anxiety), (3) genetic and environmental contributions to the development of SCT symptoms, and (4) functional impairments associated with SCT. This Special Section brings together papers to advance the current knowledge related to these issues as well as to spur research in this exciting and expanding area of abnormal psychology.

  5. Evaluation of the aphrodisiac activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in sexually sluggish male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surender; Nair, Vinod; Gupta, Yogendra K

    2012-01-01

    To study the effect of acute and repeated dose administration of lyophilized aqueous extract of the dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris (LAET) on sexual function in sexually sluggish male albino rats. Aphrodisiac activity of the test drug was evaluated in terms of exhibited sexual behavior. In order to assess the effect of chronic T. terrestris exposure on the hypothalamus--pituitary--gonadal axis, testosterone level estimation and sperm count were carried out. Twenty-eight-day oral toxicity studies were carried out to evaluate the long-term effects of the LAET administration on different body systems. A dose-dependent improvement in sexual behavior was observed with the LAET treatment as characterized by an increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency, and penile erection index, as well as a decrease in mount latency, intromission latency, and ejaculatory latency. The enhancement of sexual behavior was more prominent on chronic administration of LAET. Chronic administration of LAET produced a significant increase in serum testosterone levels with no significant effect on the sperm count. No overt body system dysfunctions were observed in 28-day oral toxicity study. Findings of the present study validate the traditional use of T. terrestris as a sexual enhancer in the management of sexual dysfunction in males.

  6. A common origin for ridge-and-trough terrain on icy satellites by sluggish lid convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Amy C.; Hammond, Noah P.

    2015-12-01

    Ridge-and-trough terrain is a common landform on outer Solar System icy satellites. Examples include Ganymede's grooved terrain, Europa's gray bands, Miranda's coronae, and several terrains on Enceladus. The conditions associated with the formation of each of these terrains are similar: heat flows of order tens to a hundred milliwatts per meter squared, and deformation rates of order 10-16-10-12 s-1. Our prior work shows that the conditions associated with the formation of these terrains on Ganymede and the south pole of Enceladus are consistent with vigorous solid-state ice convection in a shell with a weak surface. We show that sluggish lid convection, an intermediate regime between the isoviscous and stagnant lid regimes, can create the heat flow and deformation rates appropriate for ridge and trough formation on a number of satellites, regardless of the ice shell thickness. For convection to deform their surfaces, the ice shells must have yield stresses similar in magnitude to the daily tidal stresses. Tidal and convective stresses deform the surface, and the spatial pattern of tidal cracking controls the locations of ridge-and-trough terrain.

  7. Evaluation of the aphrodisiac activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in sexually sluggish male albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surender; Nair, Vinod; Gupta, Yogendra K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effect of acute and repeated dose administration of lyophilized aqueous extract of the dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris (LAET) on sexual function in sexually sluggish male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Aphrodisiac activity of the test drug was evaluated in terms of exhibited sexual behavior. In order to assess the effect of chronic T. terrestris exposure on the hypothalamus--pituitary--gonadal axis, testosterone level estimation and sperm count were carried out. Twenty-eight-day oral toxicity studies were carried out to evaluate the long-term effects of the LAET administration on different body systems. Results: A dose-dependent improvement in sexual behavior was observed with the LAET treatment as characterized by an increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency, and penile erection index, as well as a decrease in mount latency, intromission latency, and ejaculatory latency. The enhancement of sexual behavior was more prominent on chronic administration of LAET. Chronic administration of LAET produced a significant increase in serum testosterone levels with no significant effect on the sperm count. No overt body system dysfunctions were observed in 28-day oral toxicity study. Conclusions: Findings of the present study validate the traditional use of T. terrestris as a sexual enhancer in the management of sexual dysfunction in males. PMID:22368416

  8. Cognitive and personality peculiarities in children sluggish cognitive tempo and ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agris A.R.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the review of data obtained by foreign investigators and concerning a set of symptoms united by the umbrella term “sluggish cognitive tempo” (SCT. At present this complex of symptoms is regarded as typical for children with either attention deficit without hyperactivity or as a subtype of attention deficit syndrome. ChildrenwithSCT often look inhibited, they tend to plunge into their own flow of thoughts and imaginations during the work, feel drowsiness in day time.Accordingtotheempiricaldata the decrease in information processing speed, sustained attention and selective attention are typical for this category of children. A number of studies also indicatein them the deficit of visual information processing and a lack of some components regulating the executive function. A number of studies disclose the expressed inclination of children with SCT to anxiety and depressive disorders as well as to poor social contacts and maladaptation. There exists a hypothesisthat a significant deficit of motivation is typical for children with this kind of impairment. Yet, the diagnostic status of this symptom group as well as itsneuro-cognitive and emotion-personality peculiarities haven’t been found so far and need further investigating.

  9. Whole-tree water use efficiency is decreased by ambient ozone and not affected by O3-induced stomatal sluggishness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutomo Hoshika

    Full Text Available Steady-state and dynamic gas exchange responses to ozone visible injury were investigated in an ozone-sensitive poplar clone under field conditions. The results were translated into whole tree water loss and carbon assimilation by comparing trees exposed to ambient ozone and trees treated with the ozone-protectant ethylenediurea (EDU. Steady-state stomatal conductance and photosynthesis linearly decreased with increasing ozone visible injury. Dynamic responses simulated by severing of a leaf revealed that stomatal sluggishness increased until a threshold of 5% injury and was then fairly constant. Sluggishness resulted from longer time to respond to the closing signal and slower rate of closing. Changes in photosynthesis were driven by the dynamics of stomata. Whole-tree carbon assimilation and water loss were lower in trees exposed to ambient O(3 than in trees protected by EDU, both under steady-state and dynamic conditions. Although stomatal sluggishness is expected to increase water loss, lower stomatal conductance and premature leaf shedding of injured leaves aggravated O(3 effects on whole tree carbon gain, while compensating for water loss. On average, WUE of trees exposed to ambient ozone was 2-4% lower than that of EDU-protected control trees in September and 6-8% lower in October.

  10. Longitudinal Correlates of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo and ADHD-Inattention Symptom Dimensions with Spanish Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servera, Mateu; Bernad, Maria Del Mar; Carrillo, Jesus M; Collado, Susana; Burns, G Leonard

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to examine the longitudinal correlates of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-Inattention (IN) dimensions with mothers' and fathers' ratings of Spanish children. Mothers and fathers rated SCT, ADHD-IN, ADHD-hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), depression, academic impairment, and social impairment on 3 occasions (twice in first-grade year [6-week separation] and once in the second-grade year [12 months after the first assessment]) in Spanish children (758, 746, and 718 children at the 3 time-points with approximately 55% boys). The results showed that (a) higher levels of SCT from earlier assessments predicted higher levels of depression, academic impairment, and social impairment at Assessment 3 after controlling for ADHD-IN at earlier assessments; (b) higher levels of ADHD-IN from earlier assessments predicted higher levels of depression, academic impairment, and social impairment at Assessment 3 after controlling for SCT at earlier assessments; (c) higher levels of ADHD-IN from earlier assessments predicted higher levels of ADHD-HI and ODD at Assessment 3 after controlling for SCT from earlier assessments; and (d) higher levels of SCT from earlier assessments either showed no unique relationship with ADHD-HI and ODD or predicted lower levels of ADHD-HI and ODD at Assessment 3 after controlling for ADHD-IN from earlier assessments. Initial evidence is provided of SCT's unique longitudinal relationships with depression and academic/social impairment and different longitudinal relationships with ADHD-HI and ODD relative to ADHD-IN, thus adding to a growing body of research underscoring the importance of SCT as distinct from ADHD-IN.

  11. Olfactory discrimination and incentive value of non copulating and sexually sluggish male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gasperín-Estrada, G P; Camacho, F J; Paredes, R G

    2008-03-18

    Some apparently healthy male rats fail to copulate despite being tested on repeated occasions with receptive females and are called non copulating (NC) rats. NC rats sniff and lick the female genitals, and show normal erectile and ejaculatory functions and hormonal levels. Sexually sluggish (S) male rats take a long time to ejaculate or sometimes they don't achieve ejaculation when tested repeatedly with receptive females. The aim of the present study was to determine if NC and S males can discriminate sexually relevant olfactory cues such as urine from estrous or anestrous female and urine from sexually experienced males. We also tested odors like amyl acetate and mint using an olfactory discrimination test. In a second experiment we evaluated if a sexually receptive female has a preference for a copulating (C) male, for a NC male, or for a S male in a sexual incentive motivation test. This would let us determine if a NC and an S male are equally attractive than a C male to a sexually receptive female. The olfactory test revealed that C, NC and S males have the same ability to discriminate sexually relevant odors. As well, all males clearly discriminate non sexual odors like amyl acetate and mint suggesting that NC and S male rats do not have alterations in their olfactory system. With respect to the sexual incentive motivation test, females spend the same time in the incentive zone of the NC and C males. As well, females spent the same time in the incentive zone of S and C males. These results demonstrate that NC, S and C males are equally attractive to receptive females.

  12. Sluggish cognitive tempo and its neurocognitive, social and emotive correlates: a systematic review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Anna Katharina; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Groen, Yvonne; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Since the elimination of items associated with Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) during the transition from DSM-III to DSM-IV from the diagnostic criteria of Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), interest in SCT and its associated cognitive as well as emotional and social consequences is on the increase. The current review discusses recent findings on SCT in clinical as well as community based ADHD populations. The focus is further on clinical correlates of SCT in populations different from ADHD, SCT's genetic background, SCT's association with internalizing and other behavioral comorbidities, as well as SCT's association with social functioning and its treatment efficacy. A systematic review of empirical studies on SCT in ADHD and other pathologies in PsycInfo, SocIndex, Web of Science and PubMed using the key terms "Sluggish Cognitive Tempo", "Cognitive Tempo", "Sluggish Tempo" was performed. Thirty-two out of 63 studies met inclusion criteria and are discussed in the current review. From the current literature, it can be concluded that SCT is a psychometrically valid construct with additive value in the clinical field of ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), internalizing disorders and neuro-rehabilitation. The taxonomy of SCT has been shown to be far from consistent across studies; however, the impact of SCT on individuals' functioning (e.g., academic achievement, social interactions) seems remarkable. SCT has been shown to share some of the genes with ADHD, however, related most strongly to non-shared environmental factors. Future research should focus on the identification of adequate SCT measurement to promote symptom tailored treatment and increase studies on SCT in populations different from ADHD.

  13. Demand Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Elliot E. Combs

    2017-01-01

    Price elasticity shows the responsiveness of demand to changes in price. Negative price elasticity of demand (PED) signifies the inverse relationship between price and demand. According to the equation, PED is -1.19 for widgets, which means that an increase in price of $1 would result in a contraction of demand of $1.19. Since the change in price corresponds with a more than proportionate change in demand, PED is said to be elastic. As a result, an increase in price would discourage consumers...

  14. Demand Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    . This retooling addresses several shortcomings. First, the imperfect correlation of demands reconciles the sales variation observed in and across destinations. Second, since demands for the firm's output are correlated across destinations, a firm can use previously realized demands to forecast unknown demands...... in untested destinations. The option to forecast demands causes firms to delay exporting in order to gather more information about foreign demand. Third, since uncertainty is resolved after entry, many firms enter a destination and then exit after learning that they cannot profit. This prediction reconciles......This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of uncertainty resolution found in productivity heterogeneity models...

  15. The neurocognitive nature of children with ADHD comorbid sluggish cognitive tempo: Might SCT be a disorder of vigilance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytunca, Muharrem Burak; Inci, Sevim Berrin; Ipci, Melis; Kardas, Burcu; Bolat, Gul Unsel; Ercan, Eyup Sabri

    2018-03-21

    Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) refers to a clinical construct including several symptoms such as sluggishness, absentmindedness, low energy. In the present study, we compared neurocognitive laboratory outcomes of ADHD children with or without SCT. The CNS Vital Signs Battery was utilized to measure neurocognitive measure of the participants. The SCT+ADHD group comprised of 42 subjects, ADHD group was 41 subjects and control group was 24 subjects. The cognitive flexibility score was found to be more severely impaired in ADHD children with SCT in comparison to the ADHD-only. Additionally, greater deficits in the Shifting Attention Test (p = 0.014) and the Continuous Performance Test (reaction time score, p SCT+ADHD group relative to ADHD group. Processing speed, visual/auditory memory, psychomotor speed and reaction time were not found to more impaired in those comorbid with SCT. Impairments in the cognitive flexibility and more specifically shifting attention and continuous performance may be indicative of vigilance and orientation problems rather than executive functions for the SCT construct. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Sluggishness of Early-Stage Face Processing (N170 is Correlated with Negative and General Psychiatric Symptoms in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjun Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia exhibit consistent abnormalities in face-evoked N170. However, the relation between face-specific N170 abnormalities in schizophrenic patients and schizophrenia clinical characters, which probably based on common neural mechanisms, is still rarely discovered. Using event-related potentials (ERPs recording in both schizophrenic patients and healthy controls, the amplitude and latency of N170 were recorded when participants were passively watching face and non-face (table pictures. The results showed a face-specific N170 latency sluggishness in schizophrenic patients, i.e., the N170 latencies of schizophrenic patients were significantly longer than those of healthy controls under both upright face and inverted face conditions. Importantly, the face-related N170 latencies of the left temporo-occipital electrodes (P7 and PO7 were positively correlated with negative symptoms and general psychiatric symptoms. Besides the analysis of latencies, the N170 amplitudes became weaker in schizophrenic patients under both inverted face and inverted table conditions, with a left hemisphere dominant. More interestingly, the FIEs (the difference of N170 amplitudes between upright and inverted faces were absent in schizophrenic patients, which suggested the abnormality of holistic face processing. These results above revealed a marked symptom-relevant neural sluggishness of face-specific processing in schizophrenic patients, supporting the demyelinating hypothesis of schizophrenia.

  17. The whole blood oxygen binding properties of a large but presumably sluggish polar elasmobranch, the Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    Australian and New Zealand Society for Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry. Auckland, N.Z., December 2012. Herbert, N.A.1, Skov, p.V.l, Tirsgaard, B.z and Steffensen, J.F. Z Only a few species of elasmobranch live in cold polar waters and the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) is the m......Australian and New Zealand Society for Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry. Auckland, N.Z., December 2012. Herbert, N.A.1, Skov, p.V.l, Tirsgaard, B.z and Steffensen, J.F. Z Only a few species of elasmobranch live in cold polar waters and the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus......) is the most notable example. These extremely large and long-lived sharks are thought to be sluggish but their active hunting lifestyle has recently been questioned by the finding of mobile prey species in their stomach (i.e. squid, fish and seal). The whole blood oxygen binding property of S. microcephalus...

  18. Sleep, Internalizing Problems, and Social Withdrawal: Unique Associations in Clinic-Referred Youth With Elevated Sluggish Cognitive Tempo Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondon, Ana T; Hilton, Dane C; Jarrett, Matthew A; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2018-02-01

    We compared clinic-referred youth with ADHD + sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT; n = 34), ADHD Only ( n = 108), and SCT Only ( n = 22) on demographics, co-occurring symptomatology, comorbid diagnoses, and social functioning. In total, 164 youth (age = 6-17 years, M = 9.97) and their parent(s) presented to an outpatient clinic for a psychoeducational assessment. Between-group analyses and regressions were used to examine study variables. SCT groups were older and exhibited more parent-reported internalizing problems, externalizing problems, sleep problems, and social withdrawal on the Child Behavior Checklist. No significant differences emerged between groups on the Teacher Report Form. Regression analyses involving multiple covariates revealed that SCT symptoms were uniquely related to social withdrawal but not general social problems. Based on parent report, SCT symptoms have a unique relationship with internalizing problems, sleep problems, and social withdrawal. Future research should explore correlates of SCT in youth using multiple informants.

  19. Demanding Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2010-01-01

    It was the kind of crisis most universities dread. In November 2006, a group of minority student leaders at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) threatened to sue the university if administrators did not heed demands that included providing more funding for multicultural student groups. This article discusses how this threat…

  20. Spinal cord NR1 serine phosphorylation and NR2B subunit suppression following peripheral inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Valle-Pinero Arseima Y

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal cord N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors are intimately involved in the development and maintenance of central sensitization. However, the mechanisms mediating the altered function of the NMDA receptors are not well understood. In this study the role of phosphorylation of NR1 splice variants and NR2 subunits was examined following hind paw inflammation in rats. We further examined the level of expression of these proteins following the injury. Results Lumbar spinal cord NR1 subunits were found to be phosphorylated on serine residues within two hours of the induction of hind paw inflammation with carrageenan. The enhanced NR1 serine phosphorylation reversed within six hours. No phosphorylation on NR1 threonine or tyrosine residues was observed. Likewise, no NR2 subunit phosphorylation was observed on serine, threonine or tyrosine residues. An analysis of NR1 and NR2 protein expression demonstrated no change in the levels of NR1 splice variants or NR2A following the inflammation. However, spinal cord NR2B expression was depressed by the hind paw inflammation. The expression of NR2B remained depressed for more than one week following initiation of the inflammation. Conclusion These data suggest that NR1 serine phosphorylation leads to an initial increase in NMDA receptor activity in the spinal cord following peripheral injury. The suppression of NR2B expression suggests compensation for the enhanced nociceptive activity. These data indicate that spinal cord NMDA receptors are highly dynamic in the development, maintenance and recovery from central sensitization following an injury. Thus, chronic pain therapies targeted to NMDA receptors should be designed for the exact configuration of NMDA receptor subunits and post-translational modifications present during specific stages of the disease.

  1. Evaluation of the Interplay Between Homework Motivation and Sluggish Cognitive Tempo in Youth With ADHD: Associations With Homework Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zoe R; Breaux, Rosanna P; Green, Cathrin D; Langberg, Joshua M

    2018-03-01

    This study evaluated which Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) factors (i.e., Slow, Sleepy, Daydreamer) are most strongly associated with homework motivation, and whether homework motivation mediates the path between SCT and academic impairment. Participants were 285 middle school students (boys 209) in Grades 6 to 8 (ages 10-15 years) who were comprehensively diagnosed with ADHD. Parent- and self-report of SCT Slow behaviors predicted homework motivation above and beyond symptoms of ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety, depression, and intelligence. The mediation models tested were multi-informant and cross-rater (parent-report of SCT to self-report of motivation to teacher-report of homework problems), and suggest that low motivation may help explain the associations between SCT and functional impairment. SCT and motivation are significantly associated constructs. Clinically, youth with ADHD and comorbid SCT may be more likely to present with low motivation, placing them at risk for academic failure. The manuscript discusses potential clinical implications of these findings.

  2. The association between sluggish cognitive tempo and academic functioning in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langberg, Joshua M; Becker, Stephen P; Dvorsky, Melissa R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relation between Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) and academic functioning in a sample of 52 adolescents (40 males, 12 females) with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; M age = 13.75). This study builds on prior work by utilizing an empirically-based and psychometrically validated measure of SCT, collecting ratings of SCT from both parents and teachers, and examining associations with multiple domains of academic functioning from both the parent and teacher perspective as well as grade point average (GPA). Both SCT and DSM-IV symptoms of inattention were significantly correlated with domains of academic functioning. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the parent-rated SCT Slow subscale predicted overall academic functioning, organizational skills impairment, and homework problems above and beyond ADHD symptoms and child and demographic characteristics known to be associated with academics, including intelligence, academic achievement, and family income. The teacher-rated SCT Low Initiation/Persistence subscale also predicted homework problems and was the only SCT variable to predict school grades above and beyond ADHD symptoms and relevant covariates. Both the SCT Slow and Low Initiation/Persistence subscales include items related to youth seeming apathetic, unmotivated, and lacking initiative, behaviors that are strongly related to ADHD symptoms of inattention but not currently captured by the DSM-IV. Implications of these findings towards supporting the external validity of the SCT construct are discussed along with potential implications for intervention.

  3. In demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, B. [Bridgestone Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    The paper explains how good relationships can help alleviate potential tyre shortages. Demand for large dump truck tyres (largely for China) has increased by 50% within 12 months. Bridgestone's manufacturing plants are operating at maximum capacity. The company supplies tyres to all vehicles at Scottish Coal's opencast coal mines. Its Tyre Management System (TMS) supplied free of charge to customers helps maximise tyre life and minimise downtime from data on pressure, tread and general conditions fed into the hand-held TMS computer. 3 photos.

  4. Cloning and phylogenetic analysis of NMDA receptor subunits NR1, NR2A and NR2B in Xenopus laevis tadpoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C Ewald

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs play an important role in many aspects of nervous system function such as synaptic plasticity and neuronal development. NMDARs are heteromers consisting of an obligate NR1 and most commonly one or two kinds of NR2 subunits. While the receptors have been well characterized in some vertebrate and invertebrate systems, information about NMDARs in Xenopus laevis brain is incomplete. Here we provide biochemical evidence that the NR1, NR2A and NR2B subunits of NMDARs are expressed in the central nervous system of X. laevis tadpoles. The NR1-4a/b splice variants appear to be the predominant isoforms while the NR1-3a/b variants appear to be expressed at low levels. We cloned the X. laevis NR2A and NR2B subunits and provide a detailed annotation of their functional domains in comparison with NR2A and NR2B proteins from 10 and 13 other species, respectively. Both NR2A and NR2B proteins are remarkably well conserved between species, consistent with the importance of NMDARs in nervous system function.

  5. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder dimensions and sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms in relation to college students' sleep functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Luebbe, Aaron M; Langberg, Joshua M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined separate inattentive, hyperactive, and impulsive dimensions of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms, in relation to college students' sleep functioning. Participants were 288 college students (ages 17-24; 65 % female; 90 % non-Hispanic White; 12 % self-reported having an ADHD diagnoses) who completed measures of ADHD/SCT symptoms and sleep functioning. Participants reported obtaining an average of 6.8 h of sleep per night (only 26 % reported obtaining ≥8 h of sleep) and having a sleep onset latency of 25 min. 63 % were classified as "poor sleepers," and poor sleepers had higher rates of ADHD and SCT symptoms than "good sleepers". Path analysis controlling for ADHD status and psychiatric medication use was used to determine associations between psychopathology and sleep functioning domains. Above and beyond covariates and other psychopathologies, hyperactivity (but not impulsivity) was significantly associated with poorer sleep quality, longer sleep latency, shorter sleep duration, and more use of sleep medications. SCT symptoms (but not inattention) were significantly associated with poorer sleep quality and increased nighttime sleep disturbance (e.g., having bad dreams, waking up in the middle of the night, feeling too cold or too hot). Both inattention and SCT were associated with greater daytime dysfunction. Regression analyses demonstrated that hyperactivity predicted sleep quality above and beyond the influence of daytime dysfunction, and inattention and SCT predicted daytime dysfunction above and beyond sleep quality. Further studies are needed to examine the interrelations of nighttime sleep functioning, ADHD/SCT, and daytime dysfunction, as well to elucidate mechanisms contributing to related functional impairments.

  6. The Child Concentration Inventory (CCI): Initial validation of a child self-report measure of sluggish cognitive tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Luebbe, Aaron M; Joyce, Ann Marie

    2015-09-01

    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is characterized by excessive daydreaming, mental confusion, slowness, and low motivation. Several teacher- and parent-report measures of SCT have recently been developed but a child self-report measure of SCT does not yet exist despite clear links between SCT and internalizing psychopathology (for which self-report is often desired). This study examined the initial reliability and validity of the Child Concentration Inventory (CCI), a child self-report measure of SCT symptoms, in a school-based sample of 124 children (ages 8-13; 55% female). Children completed the CCI and measures of academic/social functioning, emotion regulation, and self-esteem. Teachers completed measures of psychopathology symptoms (including SCT) and academic/social functioning. Although exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) supported a 3-factor model of the CCI (consisting of slow, sleepy, and daydreamer scales closely resembling the factor structure of the parent-report version of this measure), bifactor modeling and omega reliability indices indicated that the CCI is best conceptualized as unidimensional. CCI scores were significantly correlated with teacher-rated SCT and were statistically distinct from teacher-rated ADHD and child-rated anxiety/depression. After controlling for sex, grade, and other psychopathology symptoms, the CCI total score was significantly associated with poorer child-reported academic/social functioning and self-worth in addition to increased loneliness and emotion dysregulation. Child ratings on the CCI were moderately to strongly correlated with poorer teacher-rated academic/social functioning but these associations were reduced to nonsignificance after controlling for demographics and other psychopathology symptoms. Findings provide preliminary support for the CCI, and future directions include replication with adolescents and clinical samples in order to further examine the CCI's factor structure, reliability, validity

  7. Mis toimub "Objektis nr 2011"? / Elli Kalju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalju, Elli

    2011-01-01

    Tallinnas Vabaduse väljakul 27.02.-20.03.2011 paiknevast installatsioonist "Objekt nr. 2011", kus alati keegi sees istub. Kultuuritegelased vahetuvad iga tunni järel, järjekorda oodatakse Tallinna Kunsihoones asuvas staabis

  8. Change of energy demand and future of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takei, Mitsuo; Suzuki, Toshiharu.

    1985-01-01

    The energy demand in Japan showed very sluggish trend since the first oil crisis, especially after the second oil crisis, the growth of primary energy consumption showed the tendency of decrease. Its temporary increase from 1983 to 1984 was the phenomenon caused by the superposition of transitory factors. The structural change occurred in the energy consumption in Japan since 1973, and the change of input/output structure in the industries consuming much energy has become the most important factor of changing energy demand. The trend of energy demand for the future depends on to what stage the change of input/output structure continues. The electric power demand in Japan does not seem to show large growth hereafter. The recent trend of electric power demand works to reduce the expansion of nuclear power, and the trend of loading pattern in electric power is to impose severe condition on the economy of LWRs. The use of FBRs at the beginning of 21st century becomes difficult gradually. Not only unit cost but also loading pattern and the composition of electric power sources must be taken in consideration when nuclear power generation is scrutinized. (Kako, I.)

  9. The Internal, External, and Diagnostic Validity of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo: A Meta-Analysis and Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P.; Leopold, Daniel R.; Burns, G. Leonard; Jarrett, Matthew A.; Langberg, Joshua M.; Marshall, Stephen A.; McBurnett, Keith; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Willcutt, Erik G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To conduct the first meta-analysis evaluating the internal and external validity of the sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) construct as related to or distinct from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and as associated with functional impairment and neuropsychological functioning. Method Electronic databases were searched through September 2015 for studies examining the factor structure and/or correlates of SCT in children or adults. The search procedures identified 73 papers. The core SCT behaviors included across studies, as well as factor loadings and reliability estimates, were reviewed to evaluate internal validity. Pooled correlation effect sizes using random effects models were used to evaluate SCT in relation to external validity domains (i.e., demographics, other psychopathologies, functional impairment, and neuropsychological functioning). Results Strong support was found for the internal validity of the SCT construct. Specifically, across factor analytic studies including over 19,000 individuals, 13 SCT items loaded consistently on an SCT factor as opposed to an ADHD factor. Findings also support the reliability (i.e., internal consistency, test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability) of SCT. In terms of external validity, there is some indication that SCT may increase with age (r = 0.11) and be associated with lower socioeconomic status (r = 0.10). Modest (potentially negligible) support was found for SCT symptoms being higher in males than females in children (r = 0.05) but not adults. SCT is more strongly associated with ADHD inattention (r = 0.63 in children, r = 0.72 in adults) than with ADHD hyperactivity-impulsivity (r = 0.32 in children, r = 0.46 in adults), and it likewise appears that SCT is more strongly associated with internalizing symptoms than with externalizing symptoms. SCT is associated with significant global, social, and academic impairment (rs = 0.38–0.44). Effects for neuropsychological functioning are mixed

  10. Qualified and Unqualified (N-R C mental health nursing staff - minor differences in sources of stress and burnout. A European multi-centre study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Peter

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unqualified/non-registered caregivers (N-R Cs will continue to play important roles in the mental health services. This study compares levels of burnout and sources of stress among qualified and N-R Cs working in acute mental health care. Methods A total of 196 nursing staff - 124 qualified staff (mainly nurses and 72 N-R Cs with a variety of different educational backgrounds - working in acute wards or community mental teams from 5 European countries filled out the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, the Mental Health Professional Scale (MHPSS and the Psychosocial Work Environment and Stress Questionnaire (PWSQ. Results (a The univariate differences were generally small and restricted to a few variables. Only Social relations (N-R Cs being less satisfied at Work demands (nurses reporting higher demands were different at the .05 level. (b The absolute scores both groups was highest on variables that measured feelings of not being able to influence a work situation characterised by great demands and insufficient resources. Routines and educational programs for dealing with stress should be available on a routine basis. (c Multivariate analyses identified three extreme groups: (i a small group dominated by unqualified staff with high depersonalization, (ii a large group that was low on depersonalisation and high on work demands with a majority of qualified staff, and (iii a small N-R C-dominated group (low depersonalization, low work demands with high scores on professional self-doubt. In contrast to (ii the small and N-R C-dominated groups in (i and (iii reflected mainly centre-dependent problems. Conclusion The differences in burnout and sources of stress between the two groups were generally small. With the exception of high work demands the main differences between the two groups appeared to be centre-dependent. High work demands characterized primarily qualified staff. The main implication of the study is that no special

  11. Synaptic NR2A- but not NR2B-containing NMDA receptors increase with blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Von Engelhardt

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available NMDA receptors are key molecules involved in physiological and pathophysiological brain processes such as plasticity and excitotoxicity. Neuronal activity regulates NMDA receptor levels in the cell membrane. However, little is known on which time scale this regulation occurs and whether the two main diheteromeric NMDA receptor subtypes in forebrain, NR1/NR2A and NR1/NR2B, are regulated in a similar fashion. As these differ considerably in their electrophysiological properties, the NR2A/NR2B ratio affects the neurons’ reaction to NMDA receptor activation. Here we provide evidence that the basal turnover rate in the cell membrane of NR2A- and NR2B-containing receptors is comparable. However, the level of the NR2A subtype in the cell membrane is highly regulated by NMDA receptor activity, resulting in a several-fold increased insertion of new receptors after blocking NMDA receptors for 8 hours. Blocking AMPA receptors also increases the delivery of NR2A-containing receptors to the cell membrane. In contrast, the amount of NR2B-containing receptors in the cell membrane is not affected by ionotropic glutamate receptor block. Moreover, electrophysiological analysis of synaptic currents in hippocampal cultures and CA1 neurons of hippocampal slices revealed that after 8 hours of NMDA receptor blockade the NMDA EPSCs increase as a result of augmented NMDA receptor-mediated currents. In conclusion, synaptic NR2A- but not NR2B-containing receptors are dynamically regulated, enabling neurons to change their NR2A/NR2B ratio within a time scale of hours.

  12. Analysis list: Nr3c1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Nr3c1 Adipocyte,Blood,Breast,Embryo,Embryonic fibroblast,Liver,Neural + mm9 http://...dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Nr3c1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Nr3c1.5.tsv http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Nr3c1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscie...ncedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Nr3c1.Adipocyte.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp.../kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Nr3c1.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Nr3c1.Breast.tsv,http:

  13. Potentiation of glycine-gated NR1/NR3A NMDA receptors relieves Ca2+-dependent outward rectification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Madry

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycine has diverse functions within the mammalian central nervous system. It inhibits postsynaptic neurons via strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors (GlyRs and enhances neuronal excitation through co-activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors. Classical Ca2+-permeable NMDA receptors are composed of glycine-binding NR1 and glutamate-binding NR2 subunits, and hence require both glutamate and glycine for efficient activation. In contrast, recombinant receptors composed of NR1 and the glycine binding NR3A and/or NR3B subunits lack glutamate binding sites and can be activated by glycine alone. Therefore these receptors are also named excitatory glycine receptors. Co-application of antagonists of the NR1 glycine-binding site or of the divalent cation Zn2+ markedly enhances the glycine responses of these receptors. To gain further insight into the properties of these glycine-gated NMDA receptors, we investigated their current-voltage (I-V dependence. Whole-cell current-voltage relations of glycine currents recorded from NR1/NR3B and NR1/NR3A/NR3B expressing oocytes were found to be linear under our recording conditions. In contrast, NR1/NR3A receptors displayed a strong outwardly rectifying I-V relation. Interestingly, the voltage-dependent inward current block was abolished in the presence of NR1 antagonists, Zn2+ or a combination of both. Further analysis revealed that Ca2+ (1.8 mM present in our recording solutions was responsible for the voltage-dependent inhibition of ion flux through NR1/NR3A receptors. Since physiological concentrations of the divalent cation Mg2+ did not affect the I-V dependence, our data suggest that relief of the voltage-dependent Ca2+ block of NR1/NR3A receptors by Zn2+ may be important for the regulation of excitatory glycinergic transmission, according to the Mg2+-block of conventional NR1/NR2 NMDA receptors.

  14. Analysis list: NR1H3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NR1H3 Adipocyte,Blood + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target.../NR1H3.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/NR1H3.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscienced...bc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/NR1H3.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/NR1H3.Adipocyte....tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/NR1H3.Blood.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/Adipocyte.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/Blood.gml ...

  15. The nuclear receptor NR2E1/TLX controls senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusche, Benjamin; Pemberton, Helen; Alonso, Marta M.; Chandler, Hollie; Brookes, Sharon; Parrinello, Simona; Peters, Gordon; Gil, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear receptor NR2E1 (also known as TLX or tailless) controls the self-renewal of neural stem cells (NSCs) and has been implied as an oncogene which initiates brain tumours including glioblastomas. Despite NR2E1 regulating targets like p21CIP1 or PTEN we still lack a full explanation for its role in NSC self-renewal and tumorigenesis. We know that Polycomb repressive complexes (PRC) also control stem cell self-renewal and tumorigenesis, but so far, no formal connection has been established between NR2E1 and PRCs. In a screen for transcription factors regulating the expression of the Polycomb protein CBX7, we identified NR2E1 as one of its more prominent regulators. NR2E1 binds at the CBX7 promoter, inducing its expression. Notably CBX7 represses NR2E1 as part of a regulatory loop. Ectopic NR2E1 expression inhibits cellular senescence, extending cellular lifespan in fibroblasts via CBX7-mediated regulation of p16INK4a and direct repression of p21CIP1. In addition NR2E1 expression also counteracts oncogene-induced senescence (OIS). The importance of NR2E1 to restrain senescence is highlighted through the process of knocking down its expression, which causes premature senescence in human fibroblasts and epithelial cells. We also confirmed that NR2E1 regulates CBX7 and restrains senescence in NSCs. Finally, we observed that the expression of NR2E1 directly correlates with that of CBX7 in human glioblastoma multiforme. Overall we identified control of senescence and regulation of Polycomb action as two possible mechanisms that can join those so far invoked to explain the role of NR2E1 in control of NSC self-renewal and cancer. PMID:25328137

  16. On-Demand Telemetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AFRC has previously investigated the use of Network Based Telemetry. We will be building on that research to enable On-Demand Telemetry. On-Demand Telemetry is a way...

  17. Attraction of Euwallacea nr. fornicatus to lures containing quercivorol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euwallacea nr. fornicatus is an exotic ambrosia beetle that vectors fungal Fusarium spp. to avocados. Two field trials testing potential attractants to trap Euwallacea spp. were conducted in south Florida. Quercivorol + Ultra High Release Ethanol (URH) was the more powerful attractant for E. nr. for...

  18. Electricity demand forecasting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanalingam, K.

    1994-01-01

    Electricity demand forecasting plays an important role in power generation. The two areas of data that have to be forecasted in a power system are peak demand which determines the capacity (MW) of the plant required and annual energy demand (GWH). Methods used in electricity demand forecasting include time trend analysis and econometric methods. In forecasting, identification of manpower demand, identification of key planning factors, decision on planning horizon, differentiation between prediction and projection (i.e. development of different scenarios) and choosing from different forecasting techniques are important

  19. RESTAURANT Nr 1 (building 501 - Meyrin site)

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    OPENING TIMES in JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2004 Customers are kindly requested to note the modified opening times of restaurant nr. 1 and the adjoining newspaper stand from Monday, January 5 to Sunday February 29, 2004: Kiosquefrom Monday to Friday07:30 - 17:00 hrs Restaurant from Monday to FridaySaturday / Sunday 07:00 - 23:00 hrs08:00 - 21:00 hrs Hot meals will be served between 11:30 and 14:00 hrs, then from 18:00 to 19:30 hrs. Restaurant Supervisory Committee

  20. >RESTAURANT Nr 1 (building 501 - Meyrin site)

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Customers are kindly requested to note the modified opening times of restaurant nr. 1 and the adjoining newspaper stand from Monday, January 5 to Sunday February 29, 2004: - Kiosque from Monday to Friday 07:30 - 17:00 hrs - Restaurant from Monday to Friday Saturday / Sunday 07:00 - 23:00 hrs08:00 - 21:00 hrs Hot meals will be served between 11:30 and 14:00 hrs, then from 18:00 to 19:30 hrs. Restaurant Supervisory Committee

  1. ADHD Dimensions and Sluggish Cognitive Tempo Symptoms in Relation to Self-Report and Laboratory Measures of Neuropsychological Functioning in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Matthew A; Rapport, Hannah F; Rondon, Ana T; Becker, Stephen P

    2017-06-01

    This study examined ADHD and sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms in relation to self-report and laboratory measures of neuropsychological functioning in college students. College students ( N = 298, aged 17-25, 72% female) completed self-reports of ADHD, SCT, depression, sleep, functional impairment, and executive functioning (EF). Participants also completed a visual working memory task, a Stroop test, and the Conners' Continuous Performance Test-II (CPT-II). ADHD inattentive and SCT symptoms were strong predictors of self-reported EF, with inattention the strongest predictor of Time Management and Motivation and SCT the strongest predictor of Self-Organization/Problem Solving. SCT (but not inattention) was associated with Emotion Regulation. No relationships were found between self-reported symptoms and laboratory task performance. Between-group analyses were largely consistent with regression analyses. Self-reported ADHD and SCT symptoms are strongly associated with college students' self-reported EF, but relationships with laboratory task measures of neuropsychological functioning are limited.

  2. Electricity demand in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atakhanova, Zauresh; Howie, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Properties of electricity demand in transition economies have not been sufficiently well researched mostly due to data limitations. However, information on the properties of electricity demand is necessary for policy makers to evaluate effects of price changes on different consumers and obtain demand forecasts for capacity planning. This study estimates Kazakhstan's aggregate demand for electricity as well as electricity demand in the industrial, service, and residential sectors using regional data. Firstly, our results show that price elasticity of demand in all sectors is low. This fact suggests that there is considerable room for price increases necessary to finance generation and distribution system upgrading. Secondly, we find that income elasticity of demand in the aggregate and all sectoral models is less than unity. Of the three sectors, electricity demand in the residential sector has the lowest income elasticity. This result indicates that policy initiatives to secure affordability of electricity consumption to lower income residential consumers may be required. Finally, our forecast shows that electricity demand may grow at either 3% or 5% per year depending on rates of economic growth and government policy regarding price increases and promotion of efficiency. We find that planned supply increases would be sufficient to cover growing demand only if real electricity prices start to increase toward long-run cost-recovery levels and policy measures are implemented to maintain the current high growth of electricity efficiency

  3. Cloning and expression of the human N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR3A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Maria; Nilsson, Anna; Froelich-Fabre, Susanne

    2002-01-01

    Native N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are heteromeric assemblies of four or five subunits. The NMDA receptor subunits, NR1, NR2A, NR2B, NR2C, and NR2D have been cloned in several species, including man. The NR3A subunit, which in rodents is predominantly expressed during early development......, seems to function by reducing the NMDA receptor response. The human homologue to the rat NR3A, however, had not been cloned. In order to study the functions of the human NR3A (hNR3A), we have cloned and sequenced the hNR3A. It was found to share 88% of the DNA sequence with the rat gene, corresponding...

  4. Innovation and Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    2007-01-01

    the demand-side of markets in the simplest possible way. This strategy has allowed a gradual increase in the sophistication of supply-side aspects of economic evolution, but the one-sided focus on supply is facing diminishing returns. Therefore, demand-side aspects of economic evolution have in recent years...... received increased attention. The present paper argues that the new emphasis on demand-side factors is quite crucial for a deepened understanding of economic evolution. The major reasons are the following: First, demand represents the core force of selection that gives direction to the evolutionary process....... Second, firms' innovative activities relate, directly or indirectly, to the structure of expected and actual demand. Third, the demand side represents the most obvious way of turning to the much-needed analysis of macro-evolutionary change of the economic system....

  5. PERFECT DEMAND ILLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Yu. Sulimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to technique «Perfect demand illusion», which allows to strengthen the competitive advantageof retailers. Also in the paper spells out the golden rules of visual merchandising.The definition of the method «Demand illusion», formulated the conditions of its functioning, and is determined by the mainhypothesis of the existence of this method.Furthermore, given the definition of the «Perfect demand illusion», and describes its additional conditions. Also spells out the advantages of the «Perfect demandillusion», before the «Demand illusion».

  6. Divers of Passenger Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    -Overview drivers of passenger demand -Driver 1: Economic growth in developing countries -Driver 2: International business travel in developed countries -Driver 3: International leisure travel in developed countries

  7. The USA Nr Inventory: Dominant Sources and Primary Transport Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, R. D.; Clark, C.; Sobota, D. J.; Compton, J.; Cooter, E. J.; Schwede, D. B.; Bash, J. O.; Rea, A.; Dobrowolski, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Efforts to mitigate the deleterious effects of excess reactive nitrogen (Nr) on human health and ecosystem goods and service while ensuring food, biofuel, and fiber availability, is one of the most pressing environmental management challenges of this century. Effective management of Nr requires up to date inventories that quantitatively characterize the sources, transport, and transformation of Nr through the environment. The inherent complexity of the nitrogen cycle, however, through multiple exchange points across air, water, and terrestrial media, renders such inventories difficult to compile and manage. Previous Nr Inventories are for 2002 and 2007, and used data sources that have since been improved. Thus, this recent inventory will substantially advance the methodology across many sectors of the inventory (e.g. deposition and biological fixation in crops and natural systems) and create a recent snapshot that is sorely needed for policy planning and trends analysis. Here we use a simple mass balance approach to estimate the input-output budgets for all United States Geologic Survey Hydrologic Unit Code-8 watersheds. We focus on a recent year (i.e. 2012) to update the Nr Inventory, but apply the analytical approach for multiple years where possible to assess trends through time. We also compare various sector estimates using multiple methodologies. Assembling datasets that account for new Nr inputs into watersheds (e.g., atmospheric NOy deposition, food imports, biologic N fixation) and internal fluxes of recycled Nr (e.g., manure, Nr emmissions/volatilization) provide an unprecedented, data driven computation of N flux. Input-output budgets will offer insight into 1) the dominant sources of Nr in a watershed (e.g., food imports, atmospheric N deposition, or fertilizer), 2) the primary loss pathways for Nr (e.g., crop N harvest, volatilization/emissions), and 3) what watersheds are net sources versus sinks of Nr. These insights will provide needed clarity for

  8. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  9. Causality in demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Jensen, Frank; Setälä, Jari

    2011-01-01

    to fish demand. On the German market for farmed trout and substitutes, it is found that supply sources, i.e. aquaculture and fishery, are not the only determinant of causality. Storing, tightness of management and aggregation level of integrated markets might also be important. The methodological......This article focuses on causality in demand. A methodology where causality is imposed and tested within an empirical co-integrated demand model, not prespecified, is suggested. The methodology allows different causality of different products within the same demand system. The methodology is applied...... implication is that more explicit focus on causality in demand analyses provides improved information. The results suggest that frozen trout forms part of a large European whitefish market, where prices of fresh trout are formed on a relatively separate market. Redfish is a substitute on both markets...

  10. Advancing the Multi-Informant Assessment of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo: Child Self-Report in Relation to Parent and Teacher Ratings of SCT and Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Belén; Servera, Mateu; Burns, G Leonard; Becker, Stephen P

    2018-04-27

    Despite increasing interest in sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) in children and advancements in its measurement, little research has examined child self-reported SCT. Child self-report of SCT is important for the multi-informant assessment of SCT. The current study used a large, school-based sample of children and a multi-informant design to examine child self-reported SCT using the Child Concentration Inventory - Version 2 (CCI-2) which was recently revised based on meta-analytic findings and parallels the item content of validated parent and teacher rating scales. The study involved 2142 unique children (ages 8-13 years, 50.51% males). Children (n = 1980) completed measures of SCT, loneliness, and preference for solitude. Mothers (n = 1648), fathers (n = 1358), and teachers (n = 1773) completed measures of SCT, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-IN (ADHD-IN), academic impairment, social impairment, and conflicted shyness. Children's self-reported SCT demonstrated good reliability with the 15 SCT symptoms showing moderate to strong loadings on the SCT factor. The child self-report SCT factor also showed moderate convergent validity with mother, father, and teacher ratings of children's SCT. In addition, higher child-reported SCT predicted greater mother, father, and teacher ratings of children's academic impairment even after controlling for mother, father, and teacher ratings of children's SCT and ADHD-IN. Higher child-rated SCT also predicted greater mother ratings of children's social impairment after controlling for mother ratings of children's SCT and ADHD-IN. The present study provides initial empirical support for the reliability and validity of child-reported SCT as part of the multi-informant assessment of SCT. A key direction for future research includes evaluating the unique contributions of different informants and their utility within specific contexts to guide evidence-based recommendations for assessing SCT.

  11. Bifactor latent structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and first-order latent structure of sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, SoYean; Burns, G Leonard; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Becker, Stephen P

    2016-08-01

    The objective was to determine if the latent structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms is best explained by a general disruptive behavior factor along with specific inattention (IN), hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), and ODD factors (a bifactor model) whereas the latent structure of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms is best explained by a first-order factor independent of the bifactor model of ADHD/ODD. Parents' (n = 703) and teachers' (n = 366) ratings of SCT, ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI, and ODD symptoms on the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory (CADBI) in a community sample of children (ages 5-13; 55% girls) were used to evaluate 4 models of symptom organization. Results indicated that a bifactor model of ADHD/ODD symptoms, in conjunction with a separate first-order SCT factor, was the best model for both parent and teacher ratings. The first-order SCT factor showed discriminant validity with the general disruptive behavior and specific IN factors in the bifactor model. In addition, higher scores on the SCT factor predicted greater academic and social impairment, even after controlling for the general disruptive behavior and 3 specific factors. Consistent with predictions from the trait-impulsivity etiological model of externalizing liability, a single, general disruptive behavior factor accounted for nearly all common variance in ADHD/ODD symptoms, whereas SCT symptoms represented a factor different from the general disruptive behavior and specific IN factor. These results provide additional support for distinguishing between SCT and ADHD-IN. The study also demonstrates how etiological models can be used to predict specific latent structures of symptom organization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Sluggish cognitive tempo and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) inattention in the home and school contexts: Parent and teacher invariance and cross-setting validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, G Leonard; Becker, Stephen P; Servera, Mateu; Bernad, Maria Del Mar; García-Banda, Gloria

    2017-02-01

    This study examined whether sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) inattention (IN) symptoms demonstrated cross-setting invariance and unique associations with symptom and impairment dimensions across settings (i.e., home SCT and ADHD-IN uniquely predicting school symptom and impairment dimensions, and vice versa). Mothers, fathers, primary teachers, and secondary teachers rated SCT, ADHD-IN, ADHD-hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety, depression, academic impairment, social impairment, and peer rejection dimensions for 585 Spanish 3rd-grade children (53% boys). Within-setting (i.e., mothers, fathers; primary, secondary teachers) and cross-settings (i.e., home, school) invariance was found for both SCT and ADHD-IN. From home to school, higher levels of home SCT predicted lower levels of school ADHD-HI and higher levels of school academic impairment after controlling for home ADHD-IN, whereas higher levels of home ADHD-IN predicted higher levels of school ADHD-HI, ODD, anxiety, depression, academic impairment, and peer rejection after controlling for home SCT. From school to home, higher levels of school SCT predicted lower levels of home ADHD-HI and ODD and higher levels of home anxiety, depression, academic impairment, and social impairment after controlling for school ADHD-IN, whereas higher levels of school ADHD-IN predicted higher levels of home ADHD-HI, ODD, and academic impairment after controlling for school SCT. Although SCT at home and school was able to uniquely predict symptom and impairment dimensions in the other setting, SCT at school was a better predictor than ADHD-IN at school of psychopathology and impairment at home. Findings provide additional support for SCT's validity relative to ADHD-IN. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Sluggish Cognitive Tempo in Children Referred to a Pediatric Sleep Disorders Center: Examining Possible Overlap with Sleep Problems and Associations with Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P.; Garner, Annie A.; Byars, Kelly C.

    2016-01-01

    Research supports the distinctness of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) (e.g., mental confusion and slowed behavior/thinking) from other psychopathologies. However, the relation between SCT and sleep functioning has not been adequately studied. We examined the association between SCT and sleep functioning in 325 children (62% male) ages 6-10 years referred to a pulmonary-based, accredited Sleep Disorders Center. Correlations between caregiver ratings of SCT, other psychopathologies (i.e., inattention/hyperactivity, oppositionality, depression, anxiety), sleep functioning (both behavioral and organic symptoms), as well as sleep disorder diagnoses, were examined. Unique effects of SCT and other psychopathologies on sleep problem severity controlling for child demographics were assessed using regressions. Regression analyses were also conducted to examine the unique effects of SCT on impairment (i.e., academic difficulties, parenting stress, and other psychopathologies) controlling for child demographics, sleep problem severity, and other psychopathology symptoms. SCT was weakly to moderately correlated with most measures of sleep (rs=.07-.39) and moderately to strongly correlated with measures of daytime sleepiness (rs=.33 and .53). SCT was uniquely associated with greater sleep functioning severity and impairment in academic functioning. SCT was also uniquely associated with higher levels of depression and inattention/hyperactivity, but not anxiety, and negatively associated with oppositionality. Finally, SCT symptoms were uniquely associated with greater parent-child dysfunctional interaction. Findings demonstrate that SCT is related to, but not redundant with, sleep problems and daytime sleepiness specifically. Further, SCT remained associated with several domains of functional impairment in sleep-disordered children after controlling for clinically-relevant variables, highlighting the potential value in assessing SCT symptoms in children with sleep problems. PMID

  14. Sluggish cognitive tempo is associated with academic functioning and internalizing symptoms in college students with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Langberg, Joshua M; Luebbe, Aaron M; Dvorsky, Melissa R; Flannery, Andrew J

    2014-04-01

    The purposes of the present studies were to (a) examine the factor structure of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in college students and (b) examine the associations between SCT and academic functioning and internalizing symptoms in college students with and without ADHD. In Study 1, a confirmatory factor analysis of the Barkley Adult ADHD Rating Scale-IV (BAARS-IV) was conducted in a sample of 768 college students (aged 17-34 years, 68% female). In Study 2, we examined the relation of SCT to academic functioning and internalizing symptoms in a sample of 72 college students rigorously diagnosed with ADHD (aged 17-35 years, 44% female). Study 1 results supported the factor structure of the BAARS-IV, with the optimal model comprising 4 correlated but distinct factors: SCT, Inattention, Hyperactivity, and Impulsivity. After controlling for correlated demographic variables and ADHD symptoms, SCT was significantly related to academic impairment (including grade point average), anxiety, and depression. In Study 2, SCT again contributed unique variance to internalizing symptoms and academic impairment after controlling for correlated participant characteristics (i.e., sex, age, race, parent education level, family income, ADHD medication use, and mental health service utilization) and ADHD symptom severity. These results fill an important gap in the literature by (a) confirming SCT to be distinct from ADHD in emerging adulthood, (b) demonstrating SCT to be strongly linked to college student adjustment, and (c) providing support for the hypothesis that SCT is associated with psychosocial functioning in both individuals with and without ADHD. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Asian oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesharaki, F.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined global oil market development and the role of Asian demand. It discussed plateau change versus cyclical movement in the global oil market; supply and demand issues of OPEC and non-OPEC oil; if high oil prices reduce demand; and the Asian oil picture in the global context. Asian oil demand has accounted for about 50 per cent of the global incremental oil market growth. The presentation provided data charts in graphical format on global and Asia-Pacific incremental oil demand from 1990-2005; Asia oil demand growth for selected nations; real GDP growth in selected Asian countries; and, Asia-Pacific oil production and net import requirements. It also included charts in petroleum product demand for Asia-Pacific, China, India, Japan, and South Korea. Other data charts included key indicators for China's petroleum sector; China crude production and net oil import requirements; China's imports and the share of the Middle East; China's oil exports and imports; China's crude imports by source for 2004; China's imports of main oil products for 2004; India's refining capacity; India's product balance for net-imports and net-exports; and India's trade pattern of oil products. tabs., figs

  16. Marianna Kaadi "Auk nr 8" linastub Põhja-Ameerikas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Marianna Kaadi dokumentaalfilmi "Auk nr 8" Põhja-Ameerika esilinastus toimub Full Frame filmifestivalil Durhamis, Põhja- Carolinas. Film on valitud ka Kanadas Torontos toimuva Hot Docs filmifestivali võistlusprogrammi

  17. Uranium supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    This report covers the period 1983 to 1995. It draws together the industry's latest views on future trends in supply and demand, and sets them in their historical context. It devotes less discussion than its predecessors to the technical influences underpinning the Institute's supply and demand forecasts, and more to the factors which influence the market behaviour of the industry's various participants. As the last decade has clearly shown, these latter influences can easily be overlooked when undue attention is given to physical imbalances between supply and demand. (author)

  18. On energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.

    1977-01-01

    Since the energy crisis, a number of energy plans have been proposed, and almost all of these envisage some kind of energy demand adaptations or conservation measures, hoping thus to escape the anticipated problems of energy supply. However, there seems to be no clear explanation of the basis on which our foreseeable future energy problems could be eased. And in fact, a first attempt at a more exact definition of energy demand and its interaction with other objectives, such as economic ones, shows that it is a highly complex concept which we still hardly understand. The article explains in some detail why it is so difficult to understand energy demand

  19. Biochemical contents of the ovary and hepatopancreas of Uca longisignalis and Uca nr. minaxContenido bioquímico del ovario y hepatopáncreas de Uca longisignalis y Uca nr. minax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara E. Hasek

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available P align=justify>Biochemical composition of ovary and hepatopancreas tissues in wild populations of Uca longisignalis and Uca nr. minax were monitored during the reproductive season. Total lipid (concentration and content, C (carbon, N (nitrogen, and C:N ratios of the ovary and hepatopancreas were quantified over the course of ovarian maturation. Ovary lipid and C concentration varied significantly over the course of ovarian maturation for both species, but there was no relationship between lipid concentration or hepatopancreas content and the stage of ovarian development in females. Hepatopancreatic lipid and C concentration did not differ between sexes of U. nr. minax. Lipid demands of ovarian maturation thus appear to be met in large part by increased dietary intake and not purely by translocating lipid stores from the hepatopancreas. In both Uca longisignalis and U. nr. minax, the color of the hepatopancreas may be used as an indicator of the lipid and C levels of the hepatopancreas. Cadmium-yellow and lemon-yellow hepatopancreas tissues had the highest lipid concentrations. No evidence could be found to demonstrate depletion of lipid or C concentrations in the hepatopancreas concomitant with ovarian maturation.

  20. Innovation and Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    2007-01-01

    Economic evolution is an immensely complex phenomenon, so there is an obvious need of simplifying the way we handle this phenomenon. Since Nelson and Winter's pioneering formalisation of the Schumpeterian vision of innovation-driven evolution, the major simplification has been obtained by modelling...... the demand-side of markets in the simplest possible way. This strategy has allowed a gradual increase in the sophistication of supply-side aspects of economic evolution, but the one-sided focus on supply is facing diminishing returns. Therefore, demand-side aspects of economic evolution have in recent years....... Second, firms' innovative activities relate, directly or indirectly, to the structure of expected and actual demand. Third, the demand side represents the most obvious way of turning to the much-needed analysis of macro-evolutionary change of the economic system....

  1. Pressure vessels dossier restoration according to NR-13 requirements; Enquadramento de vasos de pressao a norma NR-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Jose L. [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Osorio C. [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Pressure vessels are static pressurized equipment typical in oil industry facilities. In TRANSPETRO terminals and stations as well as in the whole PETROBRAS, these equipment can be found in the form of condenser accumulators, separators, heat exchangers, storage spheres and others. Because they work sustaining pressure and, many times flammable fluids, pressure vessels have a reasonable potential for hazard. For this reason, the NR-13 regulation was created. It deals with the safety in maintenance, operation and inspection of pressure vessels and boilers. During the compliance to the NR- 13 rules, a problem usually found is the lack of documents for different reasons. In this case, the NR-13 obligates the owner to recreate the vessel documentation under the responsibility of a chartered professional. This paper presents a case study where NR-13 rules were conformed by tasks involving documentation reconstruction based on information collected by means of inspection and tests performed on the field. (author)

  2. Effective closed form mathematical approach to determine kinetic constants of NR vulcanized with sulphur and accelerators at different concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milani, Gabriele, E-mail: milani@stru.polimi.it, E-mail: gabriele.milani@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Hanel, Thomas; Donetti, Raffaella [Pirelli Tyre, Via Alberto e Piero Pirelli 25, 20126 Milan (Italy); Milani, Federico [CHEMCO Consultant, Via J.F. Kennedy 2, 45030 Occhiobello (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    The basic reaction scheme due to Han and co-workers for NR vulcanized with sulphur is adopted and modified taking into account the single contributions of the different accelerators, focusing in particular on some experimental data ad hoc obtained at Pirelli’s laboratories, where NR was vulcanized at different temperatures (from 150 to 180 °C) and concentrations of sulphur, using TBBS and DPG in the mixture as co-agents. Typically, the chain reactions are initiated by the formation of macro-compounds that are responsible of the formation of the unmatured crosslinked polymer. This first reaction depends on the reciprocal concentrations of all components and their chemical nature. In presence of two accelerators, it was considered that the reactions between each single accelerator and the NR raw material occur in parallel, making the reasonable assumption that there are no mutual reactions between the two accelerators. From the kinetic scheme adopted, a closed form solution was found for the crosslink density, with the only limitation that the induction period is excluded from computations. Even kinetic constants are evaluated in closed form, avoiding a numerically demanding least-squares best fitting on rheometer experimental data. Two series of experiments available, relying into rheometer curves at different temperatures and different concentrations of sulphur and accelerator, are utilized to evaluate the fitting capabilities of the mathematical model. Very good agreement between numerical output and experimental data is experienced in all cases analysed.

  3. The expression of nr0b1 and nr5a4 during gonad development and sex change in protandrous black porgy fish, Acanthopagrus schlegeli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guan-Chung; Tomy, Sherly; Chang, Ching-Fong

    2008-02-01

    Protandrous black porgy fish, Acanthopagrus schlegeli, have a striking life cycle, with a mono-male sex differentiation at the juvenile stage and male-to-female sex change at 3 yr of age. We report for the first time integrative molecular data on these interesting phenomena. Sex differentiation occurred between 4 and 5 mo of age. Testicular nr5a4 transcripts increased to high levels during sex differentiation (5 mo old), whereas nr0b1 (Dax-1) did not increase until the age of 8 mo. High nr5a4 and nr0b1 expression in testicular tissue, in contrast to low nr5a4 and high nr0b1 expression in ovarian tissue, were found in the male phase of 0(+)- to 2-yr-old fish (before sex change). Increased nr5a4, decreased nr0b1, and increased cyp19a1a were found in the ovarian tissues undergoing development from primary oocytes to vitellogenic oocytes during the natural sex change in 2(+)-yr-old fish. Removal of testicular tissue in 1(+)-yr-old fish resulted in both increased ovarian nr5a4 and genes in the steroidogenic pathway and decreased nr0b1 together with the appearance of vitellogenic oocytes. Ovary developed into the active stage with the increased expression of star and steroidogenic enzymes, including aromatase, in concordance with the decreased expression of nr0b1 in the testis-excised fish. Long-term estradiol (E2) administration resulted in early sex change, but the ovaries were mainly with primary oocytes. Low nr5a4, high nr0b1, and low steroidogenic enzymes, including cyp19a1a expression, were also observed in these E2-fed ovarian tissues. Thus, nr5a4 but not nr0b1 was associated with male sex differentiation. Testicular development required cooperative functions of both nr5a4 and nr0b1. The present study suggests that nr5a4 and nr0b1 have an antagonistic interaction for the oocyte development. Testicular tissue exerted inhibitory effects on ovarian development. It is probable that nr0b1 regulates the timing of vitellogenic development and sex change in black porgy.

  4. Sluggish electrons in liquid iodine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, Jan

    1974-01-01

    Gepaard gaande met ionisatie blijken een groot aantal stoffen in vloeibaar jodium op te kunnen lossen. Sommige eigenschappen van het verkregen mengsel - hoog geleidingsvermogen, negatieve temperatuurafhankelijkheid van de geteiding - doen vermoeden dat het afgestane electron zich niet als een

  5. Expression of NR1 subunit of NMDA receptor and PSD-93/95 in rat hippocampus affected by NR1/NR2 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrajová, M.; Bubeníková-Valešová, V.; Klaschka, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 9, Suppl.1 (2010), S147 ISSN 1744-859X. [International Congress on Neurobiology and Clinical Psychopharmacology and European Psychiatric Association Conference on Treatment Guidance /1./. 19.11.2009-22.11.2009, Thessaloniki] R&D Projects: GA ČR GD309/09/H072; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : schizophrenia * animal model * NMDA receptor * aODN-NR1/NR2 * PPI Subject RIV: FL - Psychiatry, Sexuology

  6. UK Nuclear Workforce Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John

    2017-01-01

    UK Nuclear Sites: DECOMMISSIONING - 26 Magnox Reactors, 2 Fast Reactors; OPERATIONAL - 14 AGRs, 1 PWR; 9.6 GWe Total Capacity. Nuclear Workforce Demand • Total workforce demand is expected to grow from ~88,000 in 2017 to ~101,000 in 2021 • Average “inflow” is ~7,000 FTEs per annum • 22% of the workforce is female (28% in civil, 12% in defence) • 81% generic skills, 18% nuclear skills, 1% subject matter experts • 3300 trainees total in SLCs and Defence Enterprise (16% graduate trainees) • At peak demand on Civils Construction, over 4,000 workers will be required on each nuclear new build site • Manufacturing workforce is expected to rise from around 4,000 in 2014 to 8,500 at the peak of onsite activity in 2025

  7. Education on Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Lis; Hende, Merete

    2015-01-01

    Dette notat beskriver nogle af resultaterne fra programmet "Education on Demand' i projektet Det erhvervsrettede Uddannelseslaboratorium. Programmet har haft fokus på udfordringer og forandringsbehov i uddannelsesinstitutioner og -systemet. Herunder har det beskæftiget sig særligt med de to temat......Dette notat beskriver nogle af resultaterne fra programmet "Education on Demand' i projektet Det erhvervsrettede Uddannelseslaboratorium. Programmet har haft fokus på udfordringer og forandringsbehov i uddannelsesinstitutioner og -systemet. Herunder har det beskæftiget sig særligt med de...

  8. Demand Modelling in Telecommunications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chvalina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the existing possibilities for using Standard Statistical Methods and Artificial Intelligence Methods for a short-term forecast and simulation of demand in the field of telecommunications. The most widespread methods are based on Time Series Analysis. Nowadays, approaches based on Artificial Intelligence Methods, including Neural Networks, are booming. Separate approaches will be used in the study of Demand Modelling in Telecommunications, and the results of these models will be compared with actual guaranteed values. Then we will examine the quality of Neural Network models. 

  9. DemandStat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    DemandStat is an accurate and up-to-date international statistics database dedicated to energy demand, with an unrivaled level of details for powerful market analysis. It provides detailed consumption statistics (30 sectors) on all energies, detailed 2003 data and historical annual data since 1970, frequent data revision and update (2 updates options), 150 data sources gathered and expertized, all data on a single database Consistent and homogeneous statistics, in line with all major data providers (IEA, Eurostat, ADB, OLADE, etc), no ruptures in time-series with easy request building and data analysis and reactive support from data experts. (A.L.B.)

  10. Oil supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rech, O.

    2006-01-01

    The year 2004 saw a change in the oil market paradigm that was confirmed in 2005. Despite a calmer geopolitical context, prices continued to rise vigorously. Driven by world demand, they remain high as a result of the saturation of production and refining capacity. The market is still seeking its new equilibrium. (author)

  11. Oil supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rech, O.

    2004-01-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  12. Oil supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusiaux, D.

    2004-01-01

    Following the military intervention in Iraq, it is taking longer than expected for Iraqi exports to make a comeback on the market. Demand is sustained by economic growth in China and in the United States. OPEC is modulating production to prevent inventory build-up. Prices have stayed high despite increased production by non-OPEC countries, especially Russia. (author)

  13. DEMAND AND PRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VĂDUVA MARIA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Studying the consumer’s behavior by the ordinal approach of utility with the help of indifference curves allows us to deduce the two “movement laws of demand” in this chapter: the demand for a “normal” good is decreasing function of its price and an increasing function of income. We will use the elasticity concept to measure the intensity of the relation that is established between the demand, on the one hand, and prices or income, on the other hand: elasticity – price, direct and crossed, and elasticity – income. We can classify the goods in many categories, depending on the values that this elasticity takes. The demand elasticity can be determined depending on price and income. It reflects the proportion in which the demand for different products changes with the modification of the consumers’ income, the other factors remaining constant. The elasticity compared to the income is a demonstration of legality from the consumer’s sphere, which determines a certain hierarchy of the needs of each population category in a certain level of income. The movement of prices orients both the options and decisions of producers, namely the most useful productions and the most efficient investments, as well as the consumers’ options and decisions on the most advantageous buying of goods and services that they need. The prices appear as a “signal system” coordinating and making coherence the economic agents’ decisions – producers, consumers and population.

  14. Demands for School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley-Levine, Jill

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the ways that graduate courses in teacher leadership influenced the ways that teachers described the nature of leadership and their role as educational leaders. Using Foster's (1989) four demands for school leaders as a theoretical framework, participants' perceptions are examined to determine how teachers synthesized their…

  15. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2004-07-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  16. Textbook Factor Demand Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joe C.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that teachers and textbook graphics follow the same basic pattern in illustrating changes in demand curves when product prices increase. Asserts that the use of computer graphics will enable teachers to be more precise in their graphic presentation of price elasticity. (CFR)

  17. Sterically demanding iminopyridine ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irrgang, Torsten; Keller, Sandra; Maisel, Heidi; Kretschmer, Winfried; Kempe, Rhett

    Two sterically demanding iminopyridine ligands, (2,6-diisopropylphenyl)[6-(2,4,6-triisopropylphenyl)pyridin-2-ylmeth- ylene]amine and (2,6-diisopropylphenyl)]6-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)pyridin-2-ylmethylene]amine, were prepared by a two-step process: first, condensation of 6-bromopyridine-2-carbaldehyde

  18. Analysis of NR3A receptor subunits in human native NMDA receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Anna; Eriksson, Maria; Muly, E Chris

    2007-01-01

    NR3A, representing the third class of NMDA receptor subunits, was first studied in rats, demonstrating ubiquitous expression in the developing central nervous system (CNS), but in the adult mainly expressed in spinal cord and some forebrain nuclei. Subsequent studies showed that rodent and non-human...... primate NR3A expression differs. We have studied the distribution of NR3A in the human CNS and show a widespread distribution of NR3A protein in adult human brain. NR3A mRNA and protein were found in all regions of the cerebral cortex, and also in the subcortical forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain. Only...... very low levels of NR3A mRNA and protein could be detected in homogenized adult human spinal cord, and in situ hybridization showed that expression was limited to ventral motoneurons. We found that NR3A is associated with NR1, NR2A and NR2B in adult human CNS, suggesting the existence of native NR1-NR2...

  19. Demand scenarios, worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Center for Technology, Policy and Industrial Development and the MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Existing methods are inadequate for developing aggregate (regional and global) and long-term (several decades) passenger transport demand scenarios, since they are mainly based on simple extensions of current patterns rather than causal relationships that account for the competition among transport modes (aircraft, automobiles, buses and trains) to provide transport services. The demand scenario presented in this paper is based on two empirically proven invariances of human behavior. First, transport accounts for 10 to 15 percent of household total expenditures for those owning an automobile, and around 5 percent for non-motorized households on average (travel money budget). Second, the mean time spent traveling is approximately one hour per capita per day (travel time budget). These two budgets constraints determine the dynamics of the scenario: rising income increases per capita expenditure on travel which, in turn, increase demand for mobility. Limited travel time constraints travelers to shift to faster transport systems. The scenario is initiated with the first integrated historical data set on traffic volume in 11 world regions and the globe from 1960 to 1990 for all major modes of motorized transport. World average per capita traffic volume, which was 1,800 kilometers in 1960 and 4,2090 in 1990, is estimated to rise to 7,900 kilometers in 2020 - given a modest average increase in Gross World Product of 1.9% per year. Higher economic growth rates in Asian regions result in an increase in regional per capita traffic volume up to a factor of 5.3 from 1990 levels. Modal splits continue shifting to more flexible and faster modes of transport. At one point, passenger cars can no longer satisfy the increasing demand for speed (i.e. rising mobility within a fixed time budget). In North America it is estimated that the absolute traffic volume of automobiles will gradually decline starting in the 2010s. (author) 13 figs., 6 tabs., 35 refs.

  20. Ontario demand response scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, I.H.

    2005-09-01

    Strategies for demand management in Ontario were examined via 2 scenarios for a commercial/institutional building with a normal summertime peak load of 300 kW between 14:00 and 18:00 during a period of high electricity demand and high electricity prices. The first scenario involved the deployment of a 150 kW on-site generator fuelled by either diesel or natural gas. The second scenario involved curtailing load by 60 kW during the same periods. Costs and benefits of both scenarios were evaluated for 3 groups: consumers, system operators and society. Benefits included electricity cost savings, deferred transmission capacity development, lower system prices for electricity, as well as environmental changes, economic development, and a greater sense of corporate social responsibility. It was noted that while significant benefits were observed for all 3 groups, they were not substantial enough to encourage action, as the savings arising from deferred generation capacity development do not accrue to individual players. The largest potential benefit was identified as lower prices, spread across all users of electricity in Ontario. It was recommended that representative bodies cooperate so that the system-wide benefits can be reaped. It was noted that if 10 municipal utilities were able to have 250 commercial or institutional customers engaged in distributed response, then a total peak demand reduction of 375 MW could be achieved, representing more than 25 per cent of Ontario's target for energy conservation. It was concluded that demand response often involves the investment of capital and new on-site procedures, which may affect reactions to various incentives. 78 refs., 10 tabs., 5 figs

  1. Supply and demand perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trienekens, Pieter

    1999-01-01

    The outlook for the European gas market is one of steady growth. This growth will manifest itself in all regions and in all sectors of the market, but most strongly in the power generating sector. To meet future demand, it is necessary to bring gas to Western Europe from remote sources in Russia, North Africa and Norway. These new gas supplies require heavy investments in production and transportation, which can only be undertaken on the basis of long-term take-or-pay contracts. Famous examples of such contracts are the development of the Troll field, the Yamal-Europe pipeline connection, and the bringing on stream of Nigerian LNG for Europe. Tensions are likely to arise between the nature of these long-term gas contracts and the dynamic nature of demand in the gas market, and more specifically in the main growth market, the power sector. The presentation further elaborates on the tensions underlying supply and demand in the years to come

  2. ELECTRICITY DEMAND AND ELECTRICITY VALUE

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Lim; Glenn Jenkins

    2000-01-01

    The estimation of the demand for electricity is important in the appraisal of power projects because it often affects the benefits of the projects. For projects that involve a decision about the timing of investment- when to install new capacity to meet the demand- the precision of the electricity demand forecast can be critical. For others, when electric tariff policy is involved, it is essential to relate the demand for electricity with tariffs through the use of an electricity demand model...

  3. Co-Application of Corticosterone and Growth Hormone Upregulates NR2B Protein and Increases the NR2B:NR2A Ratio and Synaptic Transmission in the Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada S. Mahmoud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This in vitro study aimed to investigate the possible mechanism underlying the protective effect of growth hormone (GH on hippocampal function during periods of heightened glucocorticoid exposure. Methods: This study was conducted between January and June 2005 at the Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Marshall University, in Huntington, West Virginia, USA. The effects of the co-application of GH and corticosterone (CORT were tested at different concentrations on the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs of the hippocampal slices of rats in two different age groups. Changes in the protein expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR subunits NR1, NR2B and NR2A were measured in hippocampal brain slices treated with either artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF, low doses of CORT alone or both CORT and GH for three hours. Results: The co-application of CORT and GH was found to have an additive effect on hippocampal synaptic transmission compared to either drug alone. Furthermore, the combined use of low concentrations of GH and CORT was found to have significantly higher effects on the enhancement of fEPSPs in older rats compared to young ones. Both GH and CORT enhanced the protein expression of the NR2A subunit. Simultaneous exposure to low concentrations of GH and CORT significantly enhanced NR2B expression and increased the NR2B:NR2A ratio. In contrast, perfusion with CORT alone caused significant suppression in the NR1 and NR2B protein expression and a decrease in the NR2B:NR2A ratio. Conclusion: These results suggest that NMDARs provide a potential target for mediating the GH potential protective effect against stress and age-related memory and cognitive impairment.

  4. Molecular mechanism of ligand recognition by NR3 subtype glutamate receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Yongneng; Harrison, Chris B.; Freddolino, Peter L.; Schulten, Klaus; Mayer, Mark L. (UIUC); (NIH)

    2008-10-27

    NR3 subtype glutamate receptors have a unique developmental expression profile, but are the least well-characterized members of the NMDA receptor gene family, which have key roles in synaptic plasticity and brain development. Using ligand binding assays, crystallographic analysis, and all atom MD simulations, we investigate mechanisms underlying the binding by NR3A and NR3B of glycine and D-serine, which are candidate neurotransmitters for NMDA receptors containing NR3 subunits. The ligand binding domains of both NR3 subunits adopt a similar extent of domain closure as found in the corresponding NR1 complexes, but have a unique loop 1 structure distinct from that in all other glutamate receptor ion channels. Within their ligand binding pockets, NR3A and NR3B have strikingly different hydrogen bonding networks and solvent structures from those found in NR1, and fail to undergo a conformational rearrangement observed in NR1 upon binding the partial agonist ACPC. MD simulations revealed numerous interdomain contacts, which stabilize the agonist-bound closed-cleft conformation, and a novel twisting motion for the loop 1 helix that is unique in NR3 subunits.

  5. Psychopathology and tobacco demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Aston, Elizabeth R; Zvolensky, Michael J; Abrantes, Ana M; Metrik, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Behavioral economic measurement of the relative value of tobacco (Cigarette Purchase Task; CPT) is used to examine individual differences in motivation for tobacco under certain contexts. Smokers with psychopathology, relative to those without, may demonstrate stronger demand for tobacco following a period of smoking deprivation, which could account for disparate rates of smoking and cessation among this subgroup. Participants (n=111) were community-recruited adult daily smokers who completed the CPT after a deprivation period of approximately 60min. Presence of psychopathology was assessed via clinical interview; 40.5% (n=45) of the sample met criteria for past-year psychological diagnosis. Specifically, 31.5% (n=35) had an emotional disorder (anxiety/depressive disorder), 17.1% (n=19) had a substance use disorder, and 19.1% of the sample had more than one disorder. Smokers with any psychopathology showed significantly higher intensity (demand at unrestricted cost; $0) and O max (peak expenditure for a drug) relative to smokers with no psychopathology. Intensity was significantly higher among smokers with an emotional disorder compared to those without. Smokers with a substance use disorder showed significantly higher intensity and O max , and lower elasticity, reflecting greater insensitivity to price increases. Having≥2 disorders was associated with higher intensity relative to having 1 or no disorders. Findings suggest that presence of psychopathology may be associated with greater and more persistent motivation to smoke. Future work is needed to explore the mechanism linking psychopathology to tobacco demand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Road infrastructure and demand induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Hovgesen, Henrik Harder; Lahrmann, Harry

    2006-01-01

    a long screenline is used to measure the development in aggregate demand in selected corridors. The paper analyses demand induction by establishing time series of aggregate demand that is compared with the national traffic index. Significant trend breaks in the association between aggregate demand...... in the corridors and the national index, following the opening of motorways or bridges, indicates demand induction by infrastructure expansion in a number of instances. Lack of significant trend breaks following opening year is found in peripheral areas where major population centres are missing. This indicates...... the necessity of some latent demand within suitable travel range for new infrastructure elements to produce significant amounts of induced demand. Estimates of demand induction as a percentage of the realised demand five years after opening are between 10% and 67% for new motorway sections depending...

  7. Demand response in energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skytte, K.; Birk Mortensen, J.

    2004-11-01

    Improving the ability of energy demand to respond to wholesale prices during critical periods of the spot market can reduce the total costs of reliably meeting demand, and the level and volatility of the prices. This fact has lead to a growing interest in the short-run demand response. There has especially been a growing interest in the electricity market where peak-load periods with high spot prices and occasional local blackouts have recently been seen. Market concentration at the supply side can result in even higher peak-load prices. Demand response by shifting demand from peak to base-load periods can counteract the market power in the peak-load. However, demand response has so far been modest since the current short-term price elasticity seems to be small. This is also the case for related markets, for example, green certificates where the demand is determined as a percentage of the power demand, or for heat and natural gas markets. This raises a number of interesting research issues: 1) Demand response in different energy markets, 2) Estimation of price elasticity and flexibility, 3) Stimulation of demand response, 4) Regulation, policy and modelling aspects, 5) Demand response and market power at the supply side, 6) Energy security of supply, 7) Demand response in forward, spot, ancillary service, balance and capacity markets, 8) Demand response in deviated markets, e.g., emission, futures, and green certificate markets, 9) Value of increased demand response, 10) Flexible households. (BA)

  8. Video on demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John R.; Kerner, Martin

    1994-11-01

    Video on demand (VOD) is expected to be the first of many Video Dial Tone (VDT) services that will bring broadband connections to residential customers. Significant research is being undertaken to identify cost effective broadband access technologies. However, much less effort has been expended on video servers and backbone architectures. In this publication we highlight what we believe are the issues relevant to obtaining a critical understanding of the VDT architecture. These issues are shared between the video server and its storage elements, and the placement of key architectural elements (transport, storage and switching) within the network. In particular, it will be argued that establishing a balance between centralized and distributed storage of movies plays a key role in optimizing the backbone network. It also places new requirements on server architecture. Intuitively, storing copies of popular movies close to the users (e.g. in the central office) reduces demand on the network, while hauling movies from a central storage location (e.g. the VIP site) potentially increases utilization of storage resources and hence the number of movies in the system and the resulting cost of storage.

  9. Fast biodegradation of toxic bisphenol a by Pseudomonas aeruginosa NR.22 (Ps.NR.22) isolated from Malaysian local lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Him, Nik Raikhan Nik; Zainuddin, Mohammad Fiqri; Basha, Anuar Zain Anuar

    2017-12-01

    The paper focused on microbial degradation of Bisphenol A (BPA) as a safe and fast method to reduce BPA contamination in water. BPA is found in waste water, sea water and home water pipeline and it is nondegradable pollutant. Biodegradation is suggested to be practical solution for large volume of BPA. Biodegradation plays an important role and the effect of low concentration significantly decreased the degradation rate. Pseudomonas aeruginosa NR.22 (Ps.NR.22) which has been isolated from a lake at Seksyen 2, Shah Alam, was used. In Malaysia, Ps.NR.22 isolation agar is used for the BPA degradation process. It was stained with Gram negative-rod shaped bacteria that confirmed to carry a 16S rRNA gene. BPA as a sole carbon has been tested at various concentrations. The research showed that BPA was degraded at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm and the bacteria growth rate was excellent in 20 ppm BPA. Degradation of BPA was carried out for 9 hours to 18 hours and the maximum degradation was recorded at 9 hours. The value of the highest peak of growth at 540 nm was 2.0617 using 20 ppm BPA. This novel Pseudomonas aeruginosa NR.22 has great potential to be used in waste water treatment.

  10. Demand for male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Emily; Bishai, David

    2012-10-01

    The biological basis for male contraception was established decades ago, but despite promising breakthroughs and the financial burden men increasingly bear due to better enforcement of child support policies, no viable alternative to the condom has been brought to market. Men who wish to control their fertility must rely on female compliance with contraceptives, barrier methods, vasectomy or abstinence. Over the last 10 years, the pharmaceutical industry has abandoned most of its investment in the field, leaving only nonprofit organisations and public entities pursuing male contraception. Leading explanations are uncertain forecasts of market demand pitted against the need for critical investments to demonstrate the safety of existing candidate products. This paper explores the developments and challenges in male contraception research. We produce preliminary estimates of potential market size for a safe and effective male contraceptive based on available data to estimate the potential market for a novel male method.

  11. PROOF on Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malzacher, Peter; Manafov, Anar

    2010-01-01

    PROOF on Demand (PoD) is a set of utilities, which allows starting a PROOF cluster at user request, on any resource management system. It provides a plug-in based system, which allows to use different job submission frontends, such as LSF or gLite WMS. Main components of PoD are the PROOFAgent and the PAConsole. PROOFAgent provides the communication layer between the PROOF master on the local machine and the PROOF workers on the remote resources, possibly behind a firewall. PAConsole provides a user-friendly GUI, which is used to setup, manage, and shutdown the dynamic PROOF cluster. Installation is simple and doesn't require administrator privileges, and all the processes run in user space. PoD gives users, who don't have a centrally-administrated static PROOF cluster at their institute, the possibility to enjoy the full power of interactive analysis with PROOF.

  12. Animating the Ethical Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Jensen, Thessa; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenge of attaining ethical user stances during the design process of products and services and proposes animation-based sketching as a design method, which supports elaborating and examining different ethical stances towards the user. The discussion is qualified...... by an empirical study of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) in a Triple Helix constellation. Using a three-week long innovation workshop, U- CrAc, involving 16 Danish companies and organisations and 142 students as empirical data, we discuss how animation-based sketching can explore not yet existing user...... dispositions, as well as create an incentive for ethical conduct in development and innovation processes. The ethical fulcrum evolves around Løgstrup’s Ethical Demand and his notion of spontaneous life manifestations. From this, three ethical stances are developed; apathy, sympathy and empathy. By exploring...

  13. NR2A- and NR2B-Containing NMDA Receptors in the Prelimbic Medial Prefrontal Cortex Differentially Mediate Trace, Delay, and Contextual Fear Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, Marieke R.; Kwapis, Janine L.; Helmstetter, Fred J.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of "N"-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) in the prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex (PL mPFC) is necessary for the acquisition of both trace and contextual fear memories, but it is not known how specific NR2 subunits support each association. The NR2B subunit confers unique properties to the NMDAR and may differentially…

  14. Roussel. Sinfonien Nr. 3 g-Moll op. 42 und Nr. 4 A-Dur op. 5, Neeme Järvi / Christoph Schlüren

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schlüren, Christoph

    1995-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Roussel. Sinfonien Nr. 3 g-Moll op. 42 und Nr. 4 A-Dur op. 53, Bacchus et Ariane op. 43 (Zweite Orchestersuite). Sinfonietta für Streichorchester d-Moll op. 52. Detroit Symphony Orchester, N. Järvi". Chandos/Koch CD 7007(WD: 70'10") DDD

  15. Environment-quality demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfini, M.G.; Leenhouts, H.P.

    1988-12-01

    In the framework of the Environment Quality Requirements (MKE) project a model has been designed in which environment-quality demands have been defined and quantified, and a measuring strategy has been developed. In the model it is required for the quality of the environment that the radionuclide concentration in the various environment compartiments remains limited in order to keep the effective dose equivalence for the 'reference man' under a certain reference level. In order to be able to determine the maximum nuclide concentration it is necessary to quantify the relation between the concentration in the environment and the dose for the people. The quantitative relation between concentration and dose has been established on the base of parameters (Derived Activity Limits (DAL's) which have to be calculated for each environment compartiment, each nuclide and each exposure pathway. This model has been described and, as example, the DAL's have been calculated for the compartiment air (for which the two exposure pathways inhalation and direct radiation were considered). For the other environment compartiments a similar elaboration is needed. The feasibility of application of the MKE-model in the actual practice of measurements in the environment and examination of dose for the population depends upon the possibility for performing nuclide specific measurements in all environment compartiments, the level of the dose resulting from the contamination of the environment and the related accurateness of the measurements

  16. The NR-6: A new brief measure of nature relatedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth K. Nisbet

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The construct of (disconnection with nature or 'nature relatedness' has become increasingly useful in the study of environmental behaviour as well as psychological health and well-being. Strong nature relatedness is associated with greater happiness and ecologically sustainable behaviour. A number of scales reliably assess individual differences in nature relatedness, but some circumstances may necessitate a brief measure. We developed a short-form version of the nature relatedness scale (NR-6, comprised of 6 items from the 'self' and 'experience' dimensions, and tested the new scale's predictive ability across multiple samples and with longitudinal data in students, community members, and business people. The new NR-6 scale demonstrated good internal consistency, temporal stability, and predicted happiness, environmental concern, and nature contact. This new brief measure of connectedness may have advantages where time and space are limited and the research context requires an assessment of connectedness elements rather than environmental attitudes.

  17. NR4A2 is regulated by gastrin and influences cellular responses of gastric adenocarcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Misund

    Full Text Available The peptide hormone gastrin is known to play a role in differentiation, growth and apoptosis of cells in the gastric mucosa. In this study we demonstrate that gastrin induces Nuclear Receptor 4A2 (NR4A2 expression in the adenocarcinoma cell lines AR42J and AGS-GR, which both possess the gastrin/CCK2 receptor. In vivo, NR4A2 is strongly expressed in the gastrin responsive neuroendocrine ECL cells in normal mucosa, whereas gastric adenocarcinoma tissue reveals a more diffuse and variable expression in tumor cells. We show that NR4A2 is a primary early transient gastrin induced gene in adenocarcinoma cell lines, and that NR4A2 expression is negatively regulated by inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER and zinc finger protein 36, C3H1 type-like 1 (Zfp36l1, suggesting that these gastrin regulated proteins exert a negative feedback control of NR4A2 activated responses. FRAP analyses indicate that gastrin also modifies the nucleus-cytosol shuttling of NR4A2, with more NR4A2 localized to cytoplasm upon gastrin treatment. Knock-down experiments with siRNA targeting NR4A2 increase migration of gastrin treated adenocarcinoma AGS-GR cells, while ectopically expressed NR4A2 increases apoptosis and hampers gastrin induced invasion, indicating a tumor suppressor function of NR4A2. Collectively, our results uncover a role of NR4A2 in gastric adenocarcinoma cells, and suggest that both the level and the localization of NR4A2 protein are of importance regarding the cellular responses of these cells.

  18. On the role of NR3A in human NMDA receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Maria; Nilsson, Anna; Samuelsson, Helena

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper we describe our on-going project investigating the functional roles of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit NR3A. We find that NR3A mRNA is abundant both in embryonic and adult human brain, in contrast to the almost non-existing expression in adult rodent brain...... binding site, with similar affinity as the glycine binding site of NR1 subunits. This suggests that NR3A may replace one of the two NR1 subunits in native NMDA receptors. Cloning of hNR3A showed a human-specific polyproline-sequence in the intracellular C-terminus, that may bind to SH3-domains. We...... interaction assays, binding of PSD-95 to hNR3A could no be demonstrated either in vitro or in vivo. To identify intracellular signaling pathways for NR3A-containing NMDA receptors, we screened for proteins interacting with hNR3A and identified three proteins: plectin, CARP-1 and GPS2. The possible...

  19. Blood compatibility assessment of graft copolymer (NR-g-DMAA) tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razzak, M.T.; Otsuhata, Kazushige; Tabata, Yoneho; Ohashi, Fumio; Takeuchi, Atsuki

    1992-01-01

    Graft copolymer (NR-g-DMAA) tubes have been prepared using simultaneous radiation induced grafting of N,N-dimethyl-acrylamide, (DMAA) onto natural rubber (NR) tubes. The blood compatibility of the NR-g-DMAA tubes was assessed with three methods, namely in vitro test, ex vivo once through test and ex vivo loops test. In the case of the in vitro test, a simple whole blood contacting procedure has been employed. The ex vivo once through test involves the exposing of NR-g-DMAA tubes with once through flow of fresh canine blood and then it was inspected for any evidence of clot. In the case of ex vivo loops test, the NR-g-DMAA tube was implanted at external jugular vein of a mongrel canine and the blood flow in the NR-g-DMAA tube was detected with an ultrasonic flow meter. It was found that the blood compatibility of NR-g-DMAA tubes is improved significantly with the increasing degree of grafting. All the NR-g-DMAA tubes having a degree of grafting of about 30 wt% or more exhibit good blood compatibility. It was found that the blood compatibility of the NR-g-DMAA tube is better than that of a medical grade silicon rubber (SiR) tube. (Author)

  20. Information Demand Pattern for Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Stamer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern organizations face the challenge of having to manage an increasing amount of information. The resulting information overload leads more and more to problems in decision making with potentially negative economic consequences. Decision-makers and knowledge intensive workers are especially affected. To address this problem, information demand patterns were proposed which capture organizational knowledge about the information demand of single roles. This work extends the concept of information demand patterns from single roles to teams. Using the knowledge intensive field of project management, the paper shows how to apply the concept of information demand patterns for a whole team. The contributions of this work are (1 the methodical approach to develop information demand patterns for teams, (2 an actual information demand pattern for a steering committee in the context of project management, (3 reflections on the differences between role patterns and team patterns.

  1. Job demands-resources model

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, Arnold; Demerouti, Eva

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract* The question of what causes job stress and what motivates people has received a lot of research attention during the past five decades. In this paper, we discuss Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory, which represents an extension of the Job Demands-Resources model (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007; Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001) and is inspired by job design and job stress theories. JD-R theory explains how job demands and resources have unique and multiplicative e...

  2. Promotion and Fast Food Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy J. Richards; Luis Padilla

    2009-01-01

    Many believe that fast food promotion is a significant cause of the obesity epidemic in North America. Industry members argue that promotion only reallocates brand shares and does not increase overall demand. We study the effect of fast food promotion on market share and total demand by estimating a discrete / continuous model of fast food restaurant choice and food expenditure that explicitly accounts for both spatial and temporal determinants of demand. Estimates are obtained using a unique...

  3. Global energy demand outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatcher, S.R.

    1999-01-01

    Perhaps the most compelling issue the world will face in the next century is the quality of life of the increasing populations of the poorer regions of the world. Energy is the key to generating wealth and protecting the environment. Today, most of the energy generated comes from fossil fuels and there should be enough for an increase in consumption over the next half century. However, this is likely to be impacted by the Kyoto Protocol on carbon dioxide emissions. Various authoritative studies lead to a global energy demand projection of between 850 to 1070 EJ per year in the mid-21 st century, which is nearly three times as much as the world uses today. The studies further indicate that, unless there is a major thrust by governments to create incentives and/or to levy heavy taxes, the use of fossil fuels will continue to increase and there will be a major increase in carbon dioxide emissions globally. Most of the increase will come from the newly industrializing countries which do not have the technology or financial resources to install non-carbon energy sources such as nuclear power, and the new renewable energy technologies. The real issue for the nuclear industry is investment cost. Developing countries, in particular will have difficulty in raising capital for energy projects with a high installed cost and will have difficulties in raising large blocks of capital. A reduction in investment costs of the order of 50% with a short construction schedule is in order if nuclear power is to compete and contribute significantly to energy supply and the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. Current nuclear power plants and methods are simply not suited to the production of plants that will compete in this situation. Mass production designs are needed to get the benefits of cost reduction. Water cooled reactors are well demonstrated and positioned to achieve the cost reduction necessary but only via some radical thinking on the part of the designers. The reactors of

  4. North American oil demand outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    An understanding of the relationship of economic growth and potential petroleum product demand is needed to forecast the potential for North American oil demand growth as well as knowledge of world supply and price. The bullish expectations for economic growth in the US and Canada auger well for North American refiners and marketeers. The growth in world economic output forecast, however, means a larger oil demand and an increase in OPEC's pricing power. Such price increases could depress North American oil demand growth. (author)

  5. Reduced levels of NR1 and NR2A with depression-like behavior in different brain regions in prenatally stressed juvenile offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongli Sun

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a time of continued brain maturation, particularly in limbic and cortical regions, which undoubtedly plays a role in the physiological and emotional changes. Juvenile rats repeatedly exposed to prenatal stress (PS exhibit behavioral features often observed in neuropsychiatric disorders including depression. However, to date the underlying neurological mechanisms are still unclear. In the current study, juvenile offspring rats whose mothers were exposed to PS were evaluated for depression-related behaviors in open field and sucrose preference test. NMDA receptor subunits NR1 and NR2A in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and striatum were assayed by western blotting. The results indicated that PS resulted in several behavioral anomalies in the OFT and sucrose preference test. Moreover, reduced levels of NMDA receptor subunits NR1 and NR2A in the hippocampus, and NR1 in prefrontal cortex and striatum of prenatally stressed juvenile offspring were found. Treatment with MK-801 to pregnant dams could prevent all those changes in the juvenile offspring. Collectivity, these data support the argument that PS to pregnant dams could induce depression-like behavior, which may be involved with abnormal expression of NR1 and NR2A in specific brain regions, and MK-801 may have antidepressant-like effects on the juvenile offspring.

  6. Ovlivňují anti-NR2A/anti-NR2B oligodeoxynukleotidy hipokampální expresi proteinu NR1 podjednotky NMDA receptoru u dospělého potkana - pilotní studie.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrajová, M.; Tejkalová, H.; Klaschka, Jan; Šťastný, F.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 12, Suppl. 3 (2008), s. 81-83 ISSN 1212-6845 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Program:1M Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : animální model schizofrenie * hypofunkce NMDA receptor u * oligodeoxynukleotidy pro NMDA -NR1/NR2 podjednotky * prepulzní inhibice akustického úleku Subject RIV: FL - Psychiatry, Sexuology

  7. Guidelines for forecasting energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonino, T.

    1976-11-01

    Four methodologies for forecasting energy demand are reviewed here after considering the role of energy in the economy and the analysis of energy use in different economic sectors. The special case of Israel is considered throughout, and some forecasts for energy demands in the year 2000 are presented. An energy supply mix that may be considered feasible is proposed. (author)

  8. Job demands-resources model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Bakker (Arnold); E. Demerouti (Eva)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract* The question of what causes job stress and what motivates people has received a lot of research attention during the past five decades. In this paper, we discuss Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory, which represents an extension of the Job Demands-Resources model (Bakker &

  9. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Togeby, Mikael; Østergaard, Jacob

    This report summaries the research outcomes of the project ‘Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve (DFR)’, which has received the support from Energinet.dk’s PSO program, Grant no. 2005-2-6380. The objective of this project is to investigate the technology of using electricity demands for providing...

  10. Amygdala Infusions of an NR2B-Selective or an NR2A-Preferring NMDA Receptor Antagonist Differentially Influence Fear Conditioning and Expression in the Fear-Potentiated Startle Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David L.; Davis, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Within the amygdala, most N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors consist of NR1 subunits in combination with either NR2A or NR2B subunits. Because the particular subunit composition greatly influences the receptors' properties, we investigated the contribution of both subtypes to fear conditioning and expression. To do so, we infused the…

  11. Are demand forecasting techniques applicable to libraries?

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar, M. S.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the nature and limitations of demand forecasting, discuses plausible methods of forecasting demand for information, suggests some useful hints for demand forecasting and concludes by emphasizing unified approach to demand forecasting.

  12. Absence of NR2E1 mutations in patients with aniridia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corso-Díaz, Ximena; Borrie, Adrienne E; Bonaguro, Russell

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear receptor 2E1 (NR2E1) is a transcription factor with many roles during eye development and thus may be responsible for the occurrence of certain congenital eye disorders in humans. To test this hypothesis, we screened NR2E1 for candidate mutations in patients with aniridia and other...

  13. Host range expansion and increased damage potential of Euwallacea nr. fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosia beetles in the Euwallacea nr. fornicatus complex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) vector Fusarium spp. fungi pathogenic to susceptible hosts, including avocado. The Florida avocado production area in Miami-Dade County was surveyed for E. nr. fornicatus upon observations of initial damage in 2016...

  14. Tubin: Sinfonie nr. 11 (ergänzt von Kaljo Raid) / Christoph Schlüren

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schlüren, Christoph

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Tubin: Sinfonie nr. 11 (ergänzt von Kaljo Raid); Pärt: Nekrolog op. 5, Sinfonie nr. 1; Tüür: Searching for Roots, Insula deserta, Zeitraum. Königliches Philharmonisches Orchester Stockholm, Paavo Järvi". Virgin/EMI CD 5 45212 2 (WD:71'34") DDD

  15. Impaired Discrimination Learning in Mice Lacking the NMDA Receptor NR2A Subunit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigman, Jonathan L.; Feyder, Michael; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.; Mishina, Masayoshi; Holmes, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) mediate certain forms of synaptic plasticity and learning. We used a touchscreen system to assess NR2A subunit knockout mice (KO) for (1) pairwise visual discrimination and reversal learning and (2) acquisition and extinction of an instrumental response requiring no pairwise discrimination. NR2A KO mice…

  16. Characterisation of the human NMDA receptor subunit NR3A glycine binding site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, A; Duan, J; Mo-Boquist, L-L

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we characterise the binding site of the human N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit NR3A. Saturation radioligand binding of the NMDA receptor agonists [(3)H]-glycine and [(3)H]-glutamate showed that only glycine binds to human NR3A (hNR3A) with high affinity (K(d)=535nM (277......-793nM)). Eight amino acids, which correspond to amino acids that are critical for ligand binding to other NMDA receptor subunits, situated within the S1S2 predicted ligand binding domain of hNR3A were mutated, which resulted in complete or near complete loss of [(3)H]-glycine binding to hNR3A. The NMDA...

  17. Consumer demand and quality assurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Wognum, Nel; Trienekens, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Consumers differ in their demands, and this mau have implications for the type of supply chain governance that is most suitable for serving them. We present a segmentation of pork consumers in the EU based on their food-related lifestyles and demand for different pork products. We then present...... an inventory of pork chain governance and quality management systems, also resulting from a pan-European study, and attempt to match types of chains to consumer segments, arguing that the type of quality demanded by the consumers has implications especially for the quality management system governing the chain...

  18. Coal: Demand up - prices down

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior, M.

    1993-01-01

    1992 was a year in which demand for traded coal moved upward in the steam-coal sector though it remained stagnant for metallurgical coal. Both Australia and South Africa exported record volumes and new extrants to the market came from Indonesia and Venezuela. Despite this upward movement in demand, coal prices slipped relentlessly downward to the point where at the year-end, significant mine closures were occurring throughout the world. The main question for 1993 is how long can the producers go on hurting before the prices start to move up? The overall world demand for steam coal is discussed

  19. Molecular pathways: the role of NR4A orphan nuclear receptors in cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohan, Helen M

    2012-06-15

    Nuclear receptors are of integral importance in carcinogenesis. Manipulation of classic ligand-activated nuclear receptors, such as estrogen receptor blockade in breast cancer, is an important established cancer therapy. Orphan nuclear receptors, such as nuclear family 4 subgroup A (NR4A) receptors, have no known natural ligand(s). These elusive receptors are increasingly recognized as molecular switches in cell survival and a molecular link between inflammation and cancer. NR4A receptors act as transcription factors, altering expression of downstream genes in apoptosis (Fas-ligand, TRAIL), proliferation, DNA repair, metabolism, cell migration, inflammation (interleukin-8), and angiogenesis (VEGF). NR4A receptors are modulated by multiple cell-signaling pathways, including protein kinase A\\/CREB, NF-κB, phosphoinositide 3-kinase\\/AKT, c-jun-NH(2)-kinase, Wnt, and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. NR4A receptor effects are context and tissue specific, influenced by their levels of expression, posttranslational modification, and interaction with other transcription factors (RXR, PPAR-Υ). The subcellular location of NR4A "nuclear receptors" is also important functionally; novel roles have been described in the cytoplasm where NR4A proteins act both indirectly and directly on the mitochondria to promote apoptosis via Bcl-2. NR4A receptors are implicated in a wide variety of malignancies, including breast, lung, colon, bladder, and prostate cancer; glioblastoma multiforme; sarcoma; and acute and\\/or chronic myeloid leukemia. NR4A receptors modulate response to conventional chemotherapy and represent an exciting frontier for chemotherapeutic intervention, as novel agents targeting NR4A receptors have now been developed. This review provides a concise clinical overview of current knowledge of NR4A signaling in cancer and the potential for therapeutic manipulation.

  20. Voltage Controlled Dynamic Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2013-01-01

    Future power system is expected to be characterized by increased penetration of intermittent sources. Random and rapid fluctuations in demands together with intermittency in generation impose new challenges for power balancing in the existing system. Conventional techniques of balancing by large...... central or dispersed generations might not be sufficient for future scenario. One of the effective methods to cope with this scenario is to enable demand response. This paper proposes a dynamic voltage regulation based demand response technique to be applied in low voltage (LV) distribution feeders....... An adaptive dynamic model has been developed to determine composite voltage dependency of an aggregated load on feeder level. Following the demand dispatch or control signal, optimum voltage setting at the LV substation is determined based on the voltage dependency of the load. Furthermore, a new technique...

  1. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  2. Television Advertising and Soda Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Rigoberto A.; Liu, Yizao; Zhu, Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effects of television advertising on consumer demand for carbonated soft drinks using a random coefficients logit model (BLP) with household and advertising data from seven U.S. cities over a three year period. We find that advertising decreases the price elasticity of demand, indicating that advertising plays predominantly a persuasive, therefore anti-competitive role in this market. Further results show that brand spillover effects are significant and that measuring ...

  3. The Money in Circulation Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Kožel

    2000-01-01

    The paper discusses the main determinants of money-in-circulation demand in the Czech economy from 1996 to 1999. The volume of intended transactions (approximated by retail revenue from sales), the opportunity cost of holding cash (approximated by interest rate) and the expected rate of inflation are identified as the factors that most importantly account for the development of cash demand. A simple regression model was estimated in order to quantify the relationships among the aforementioned...

  4. Balancing supply and demand resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, J.; Saleeby, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    This article deals with using demand-side management (DSM) resources as an effective means of balancing supply and demand as a part of least-cost planning. The authors present a more sophisticated application of the load forecast adjustment method that reduces the number of DSM programs that need to be evaluated and provides blocks large enough to eliminate resolution problems in production costing models

  5. Interaction of ApoA-IV with NR4A1 and NR1D1 Represses G6Pase and PEPCK Transcription: Nuclear Receptor-Mediated Downregulation of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis in Mice and a Human Hepatocyte Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Xu, Min; Wang, Fei; Ji, Yong; DavidsoN, W Sean; Li, Zongfang; Tso, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that the nuclear receptor, NR1D1, is a cofactor in ApoA-IV-mediated downregulation of gluconeogenesis. Nuclear receptor, NR4A1, is involved in the transcriptional regulation of various genes involved in inflammation, apoptosis, and glucose metabolism. We investigated whether NR4A1 influences the effect of ApoA-IV on hepatic glucose metabolism. Our in situ proximity ligation assays and coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicated that ApoA-IV colocalized with NR4A1 in human liver (HepG2) and kidney (HEK-293) cell lines. The chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments and luciferase reporter assays indicated that the ApoA-IV and NR4A1 colocalized at the RORα response element of the human G6Pase promoter, reducing its transcriptional activity. Our RNA interference experiments showed that knocking down the expression of NR4A1 in primary mouse hepatocytes treated with ApoA-IV increased the expression of NR1D1, G6Pase, and PEPCK, and that knocking down NR1D1 expression increased the level of NR4A1. We also found that ApoA-IV induced the expression of endogenous NR4A1 in both cultured primary mouse hepatocytes and in the mouse liver, and decreased glucose production in primary mouse hepatocytes. Our findings showed that ApoA-IV colocalizes with NR4A1, which suppresses G6Pase and PEPCK gene expression at the transcriptional level, reducing hepatic glucose output and lowering blood glucose. The ApoA-IV-induced increase in NR4A1 expression in hepatocytes mediates further repression of gluconeogenesis. Our findings suggest that NR1D1 and NR4A1 serve similar or complementary functions in the ApoA-IV-mediated regulation of gluconeogenesis.

  6. Blockade of NR2A-Containing NMDA Receptors Induces Tau Phosphorylation in Rat Hippocampal Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Allyson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Physiological activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA subtype of glutamate receptors has been proposed to play a key role in both neuronal cell function and dysfunction. In the present study, we used selective NMDA receptor antagonists to investigate the involvement of NR2A and NR2B subunits in the modulatory effect of basal NMDA receptor activity on the phosphorylation of Tau proteins. We observed, in acute hippocampal slice preparations, that blockade of NR2A-containing NMDA receptors by the NR2A antagonist NVP-AAM077 provoked the hyperphosphorylation of a residue located in the proline-rich domain of Tau (i.e., Ser199. This effect seemed to be Ser199 specific as there was no increase in phosphorylation at Ser262 and Ser409 residues located in the microtubule-binding and C-terminal domains of Tau proteins, respectively. From a mechanistic perspective, our study revealed that blockade of NR2A-containing receptors influences Tau phosphorylation probably by increasing calcium influx into neurons, which seems to rely on accumulation of new NR1/NR2B receptors in neuronal membranes and could involve the cyclin-dependent kinase 5 pathway.

  7. Energy supply and demand in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, E. D.

    1978-01-01

    The author expresses his views on future energy demand on the west coast of the United States and how that energy demand translates into demand for major fuels. He identifies the major uncertainties in determining what future demands may be. The major supply options that are available to meet projected demands and the policy implications that flow from these options are discussed.

  8. WATER DEMAND PREDICTION USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With increase in population growth, industrial development and economic activities over the years, water demand could not be met in a water distribution network. Thus, water demand forecasting becomes necessary at the demand nodes. This paper presents Hourly water demand prediction at the demand nodes of a water ...

  9. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence

  10. Supplies should match growing demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmusen, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    The natural gas industry is currently enjoying healthy growth prospects. Not only is the demand for natural gas steadily growing; the outlook for increasing gas reserves is promising as well. The success of natural gas in the marketplace reflects, on one hand, continuous attention paid to public and customer requirements and, on the other hand, the ability of the gas industry to direct technological developments toward the increasing public demand for gas at competitive market prices supplied in a reliable, safe and environmentally friendly manner. In the past, the gas industry has been involved in the development of technologies for everything from gas production to the end user and from borehole to burner tip, and the author believes that the industry must continue or even increase its emphasis on technology in the future in order to capture new market opportunities. He explains this by looking at the supply side, the demand side and the structural side of the business

  11. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  12. Climate change and energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hengeveld, H.G.

    1991-01-01

    Climate and weather events affect energy demand in most economic sectors. Linear relationships exist between consumption and heating degree days, and peak electricity demand increases significantly during heat waves. The relative magnitudes of demand changes for a two times carbon dioxide concentration scenario are tabulated, illustrating heating degree days and cooling degree days for 5 Prairie locations. Irrigation, water management, crop seeding and harvesting and weed control are examples of climate-dependent agricultural activities involving significant energy use. The variability of summer season liquid fuel use in the agricultural sector in the Prairie provinces from 1984-1989 shows a relationship between agricultural energy use and regional climate fluctuations. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  13. Fundamental Travel Demand Model Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Instances of transportation models are abundant and detailed "how to" instruction is available in the form of transportation software help documentation. The purpose of this paper is to look at the fundamental inputs required to build a transportation model by developing an example passenger travel demand model. The example model reduces the scale to a manageable size for the purpose of illustrating the data collection and analysis required before the first step of the model begins. This aspect of the model development would not reasonably be discussed in software help documentation (it is assumed the model developer comes prepared). Recommendations are derived from the example passenger travel demand model to suggest future work regarding the data collection and analysis required for a freight travel demand model.

  14. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  15. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence

  16. Study of rheological, viscoelastic and vulcanization behavior of sponge EPDM/NR blended nano- composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, M Arshad; Shahid, M; Ahmed, Riaz; Yahya, A G

    2014-01-01

    In this research paper the effect of blending ratio of natural rubber (NR) with Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) were investigated. Different samples of EPDM/NR ratio were prepared to study the variation of NR in EPDM on rheology, curing characteristics, tangent δ, and viscosity variation during vulcanization of sponge nano composites.The main aim of present research is to develop elastomeric based sponge composites with the blending ratio of base elastomers along with the carbon nano particles for high energy absorbing and damping applications. The curing characteristics, rheology and viscoelastic nature of the composite is remarkably influenced with the progressive blending ratio of the base elastomeric matrix

  17. Study of rheological, viscoelastic and vulcanization behavior of sponge EPDM/NR blended nano-composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, M. A.; Shahid, M.; Ahmed, R.; Yahya, A. G.

    2013-01-01

    In this research paper the effect of blending ratio of natural rubber (NR) with Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) were investigated. Different samples of EPDM/NR ratio were prepared to study the variation of NR in EPDM on rheology, curing characteristics, tangent d, and viscosity variation during vulcanization of sponge nano composites. The main aim of present research is to develop elastomeric based sponge composites with the blending ratio of base elastomers along with the carbon nano particles for high energy absorbing and damping applications. The curing characteristics, rheology and viscoelastic nature of the composite is remarkably influenced with the progressive blending ratio of the base elastomeric matrix. (author)

  18. Demand Response in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob; Knudsen, Jesper Viese; Annaswamy, Anuradha M.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, moves toward higher integration of Renewable Energy Resources have called for fundamental changes in both the planning and operation of the overall power grid. One such change is the incorporation of Demand Response (DR), the process by which consumers can adjust their demand...... in a flexible manner. This paper presents a survey of various aspects of DR including the different types of participants, as well as the underlying challenges and the overall potential of DR when it comes to large-scale implementations. Benefits of DR as reported in the literature for performance metrics...

  19. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new...... balancing measure, which has a high potential and can provide many advantages. Firstly, the background of the research is reviewed, including conventional power system reserves and the electricity demand side potentials. Subsequently, the control logics and corresponding design considerations for the DFR...

  20. Credit demand in Mozambican manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byiers, Bruce; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses two industrial firm surveys to identify the key determinants of credit demand in Mozambican manufacturing. We construct five different measures of being credit constrained and estimate desired debt demand. Besides firm size and ownership structure, we find evidence that general...... manager education and business association membership are associated with whether a firm is credit constrained or not. Using our preferred measure of credit constraint suggests that around 43 per cent of the firms surveyed are constrained, and these enterprises would almost triple their debt burden...

  1. Postsynaptic density protein 95-regulated NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and interactions of Fyn with NR2B in levodopa-induced dyskinesia rat models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ba M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Maowen Ba,1,* Min Kong,2,* Guozhao Ma3 1Department of Neurology, Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai City, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Neurology, Yantaishan Hospital, Yantai City, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Neurology, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, Shandong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Context: Abnormality in interactions between N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptor and its signaling molecules occurs in the lesioned striatum in Parkinson’s disease (PD and levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID. It was reported that Fyn-mediated NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation, can enhance NMDA receptor function. Postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95, one of the synapse-associated proteins, regulates interactions between receptor and downstream-signaling molecules. In light of the relationship between PSD-95, NR2B, and Fyn kinases, does PSD-95 contribute to the overactivity of NMDA receptor function induced by dopaminergic treatment? To further prove the possibility, the effects of regulating the PSD-95 expression on the augmented NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and on the interactions of Fyn and NR2B in LID rat models were evaluated.Methods: In the present study, parkinsonian rat models were established by injecting 6-hydroxydopamine. Subsequently, valid PD rats were treated with levodopa (50 mg/kg/day with benserazide 12.5 mg/kg/day, twice daily intraperitoneally for 22 days to create LID rat models. Then, the effect of pretreatment with an intrastriatal injection of the PSD-95mRNA antisense oligonucleotides (PSD-95 ASO on the rotational response to levodopa challenge was assessed. The effects of pretreatment with an intrastriatal injection of PSD-95 ASO on the augmented NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and interactions of Fyn with NR2B in the LID rat models were detected by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. Results: Levodopa

  2. EIA projections of coal supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Contents of this report include: EIA projections of coal supply and demand which covers forecasted coal supply and transportation, forecasted coal demand by consuming sector, and forecasted coal demand by the electric utility sector; and policy discussion

  3. Consumer surplus and CES demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Raa, Thijs

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the consumer surplus formula for constant elasticity of substitution (CES) demands. The formula is used to compare the monopoly and optimum provisions of product variety. It is shown that a monopolist under-provides variety. This result is contrasted with Lambertini’s analysis

  4. Uranium. Resources, production and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The events characterising the world uranium market in the last several years illustrate the persistent uncertainly faced by uranium producers and consumers worldwide. With world nuclear capacity expanding and uranium production satisfying only about 60 per cent of demand, uranium stockpiles continue to be depleted at a high rate. The uncertainty related to the remaining levels of world uranium stockpiles and to the amount of surplus defence material that will be entering the market makes it difficult to determine when a closer balance between uranium supply and demand will be reached. Information in this report provides insights into changes expected in uranium supply and demand until well into the next century. The 'Red Book', jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is the foremost reference on uranium. This world report is based on official information from 59 countries and includes compilations of statistics on resources, exploration, production and demand as of 1 January 1997. It provides substantial new information from all of the major uranium producing centres in Africa, Australia, Eastern Europe, North America and the New Independent States, including the first-ever official reports on uranium production in Estonia, Mongolia, the Russian Federation and Uzbekistan. It also contains an international expert analysis of industry statistics and worldwide projections of nuclear energy growth, uranium requirements and uranium supply

  5. The Cognitive Demands of Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrance, Mark; Jeffery, Gaynor

    1999-01-01

    Writing is a complex activity that places demands on cognitive resources. This volume presents original theory and research exploring the ways in which the sub-components of the writing process (generating and organizing content, producing grammatical sentences, etc.) differ in their cognitive

  6. Projecting Electricity Demand in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, Donna J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, David B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Markel, Tony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marnay, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the development of end-use electricity projections and load curves that were developed for the Renewable Electricity (RE) Futures Study (hereafter RE Futures), which explored the prospect of higher percentages (30% - 90%) of total electricity generation that could be supplied by renewable sources in the United States. As input to RE Futures, two projections of electricity demand were produced representing reasonable upper and lower bounds of electricity demand out to 2050. The electric sector models used in RE Futures required underlying load profiles, so RE Futures also produced load profile data in two formats: 8760 hourly data for the year 2050 for the GridView model, and in 2-year increments for 17 time slices as input to the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model. The process for developing demand projections and load profiles involved three steps: discussion regarding the scenario approach and general assumptions, literature reviews to determine readily available data, and development of the demand curves and load profiles.

  7. Employer Demands from Business Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Stephen; Dutton, Matthew; McQuaid, Ronald; Richard, Alec

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on research carried out with employers to determine demand for business and management skills in the Scottish workforce. Design/methodology/approach: The research used a questionnaire in which employers were interviewed (either telephone or face to face), completed themselves and returned by e-mail,…

  8. Traffic forecasts ignoring induced demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter; Nicolaisen, Morten Skou; Strand, Arvid

    2012-01-01

    in the assessments of environmental impacts as well as the economic viability of proposed road projects, especially in situations where there is a latent demand for more road capacity. This has been illustrated in the present paper by an assessment of travel time savings, environmental impacts and the economic...

  9. The moral demands of affluence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderholm, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    in favor of the view that affluent individuals are justified in spending monetary resources on themselves at a level that lies well above what Peter Singer finds justified. The proposition I defend is that the premises leading to Cullity’s conclusion about the moderate, and not extremely demanding, nature...

  10. Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davies, Molly [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Eliseeva, Ekaterina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faulkner, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hong, Tienzen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sullivan, Douglas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling.

  11. Demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davies, Molly [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Eliseeva, Ekaterina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faulkner, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hong, Tienzen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sullivan, Douglas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-06

    This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling.

  12. Demand as frequency controlled reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.

    2008-09-15

    Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation

  13. Kalinnikov: Sinfonie Nr.2 A-Dur, Ouvertüre Zar Boris / Hanspeter Krellmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krellmann, Hanspeter

    1990-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Kalinnikov: Sinfonie Nr.2 A-Dur, Ouvertüre Zar Boris, Die Zeder und die Palme. Scottish National Orchestra, Neeme Järvi" (AD: 1989) Chandos / Koch Records CD 8805 (WD: 59'40") DDD

  14. The LANL C-NR counting room and fission product yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackman, Kevin Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-21

    This PowerPoint presentation focused on the following areas: LANL C-NR counting room; Fission product yields; Los Alamos Neutron wheel experiments; Recent experiments ad NCERC; and Post-detonation nuclear forensics

  15. Cyclic benzamidines as orally efficacious NR2B-selective NMDA receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kevin T; Claiborne, Christopher F; McCauley, John A; Libby, Brian E; Claremon, David A; Bednar, Rodney A; Mosser, Scott D; Gaul, Stanley L; Connolly, Thomas M; Condra, Cindra L; Bednar, Bohumil; Stump, Gary L; Lynch, Joseph J; Koblan, Kenneth S; Liverton, Nigel J

    2007-07-15

    A novel series of cyclic benzamidines was synthesized and shown to exhibit NR2B-subtype selective NMDA antagonist activity. Compound 29 is orally active in a carrageenan-induced rat hyperalgesia model of pain.

  16. The alchemy of demand response: turning demand into supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochlin, Cliff

    2009-11-15

    Paying customers to refrain from purchasing products they want seems to run counter to the normal operation of markets. Demand response should be interpreted not as a supply-side resource but as a secondary market that attempts to correct the misallocation of electricity among electric users caused by regulated average rate tariffs. In a world with costless metering, the DR solution results in inefficiency as measured by deadweight losses. (author)

  17. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response. International Experiences and Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ghatikar, Girish [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ni, Chun Chun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dudley, Junqiao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Martin, Phil [Enernoc, Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Wikler, Greg

    2012-06-01

    Demand response (DR) is a load management tool which provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional supply-side solutions to address the growing demand during times of peak electrical load. According to the US Department of Energy (DOE), demand response reflects “changes in electric usage by end-use customers from their normal consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of high wholesale market prices or when system reliability is jeopardized.” 1 The California Energy Commission (CEC) defines DR as “a reduction in customers’ electricity consumption over a given time interval relative to what would otherwise occur in response to a price signal, other financial incentives, or a reliability signal.” 2 This latter definition is perhaps most reflective of how DR is understood and implemented today in countries such as the US, Canada, and Australia where DR is primarily a dispatchable resource responding to signals from utilities, grid operators, and/or load aggregators (or DR providers).

  18. Wide spectrum of NR5A1-related phenotypes in 46,XY and 46,XX individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenice, Sorahia; Machado, Aline Zamboni; Ferreira, Frederico Moraes; Ferraz-de-Souza, Bruno; Lerario, Antonio Marcondes; Lin, Lin; Nishi, Mirian Yumie; Gomes, Nathalia Lisboa; da Silva, Thatiana Evelin; Silva, Rosana Barbosa; Correa, Rafaela Vieira; Montenegro, Luciana Ribeiro; Narciso, Amanda; Costa, Elaine Maria Frade; Achermann, John C; Mendonca, Berenice Bilharinho

    2016-12-01

    Steroidogenic factor 1 (NR5A1, SF-1, Ad4BP) is a transcriptional regulator of genes involved in adrenal and gonadal development and function. Mutations in NR5A1 have been among the most frequently identified genetic causes of gonadal development disorders and are associated with a wide phenotypic spectrum. In 46,XY individuals, NR5A1-related phenotypes may range from disorders of sex development (DSD) to oligo/azoospermia, and in 46,XX individuals, from 46,XX ovotesticular and testicular DSD to primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). The most common 46,XY phenotype is atypical or female external genitalia with clitoromegaly, palpable gonads, and absence of Müllerian derivatives. Notably, an undervirilized external genitalia is frequently seen at birth, while spontaneous virilization may occur later, at puberty. In 46,XX individuals, NR5A1 mutations are a rare genetic cause of POI, manifesting as primary or secondary amenorrhea, infertility, hypoestrogenism, and elevated gonadotropin levels. Mothers and sisters of 46,XY DSD patients carrying heterozygous NR5A1 mutations may develop POI, and therefore require appropriate counseling. Moreover, the recurrent heterozygous p.Arg92Trp NR5A1 mutation is associated with variable degrees of testis development in 46,XX patients. A clear genotype-phenotype correlation is not seen in patients bearing NR5A1 mutations, suggesting that genetic modifiers, such as pathogenic variants in other testis/ovarian-determining genes, may contribute to the phenotypic expression. Here, we review the published literature on NR5A1-related disease, and discuss our findings at a single tertiary center in Brazil, including ten novel NR5A1 mutations identified in 46,XY DSD patients. The ever-expanding phenotypic range associated with NR5A1 variants in XY and XX individuals confirms its pivotal role in reproductive biology, and should alert clinicians to the possibility of NR5A1 defects in a variety of phenotypes presenting with gonadal dysfunction

  19. Dynamic aperture of NR-2000 in the work regime with a small radiation emittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelinskij, A.Yu.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kononenko, S.G.; Tarasenko, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    NR-2000 is an electron storage ring installation with 6-pole magnets compensating its chromatism. The results of NR-2000 dynamic aperture numerical modelling in 6-dimension space are given. Perturbation of the equilibrium orbit and that of magnetic field up to the third order of magnitude were taken into consideration. Calculations were made according to DeCA programme. 7 refs.; 5 figs. (author)

  20. Exprese NR1 podjednotky NMDA receptoru v animálním modelu schizofrenie

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šťastný, František; Kozmiková, I.; Klaschka, Jan; Peková, S.; Tejkalová, H.; Vrajová, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 10, Suppl. 3 (2006), s. 12-15 ISSN 1211-7579 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517; GA MZd NF7626; GA MZd NR8797 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : schizofrenie * NMDA receptor * exprese NR1 podjednotky * animální model * kyselina chinolinová * prepulzní inhibice akustického úletu Subject RIV: FL - Psychiatry, Sexuology

  1. Demand chain management - The evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ericsson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of Supply Chain Management (SCM and Demand Chain Management (DCM are among the new and debated topics concerning logistics in the literature. The question considered in this paper is: “Are these concepts needed or will they just add to the confusion?” Lasting business concepts have always evolved in close interaction between business and academia. Different approaches start out in business and they are then, more or less si- multaneously, aligned, integrated, systemised and structured in academia. In this way a terminology (or language is provided that helps in further diffusion of the concepts. There is a lack of consensus on the definition of the concept of SCM. This may be one of the major reasons for the difficulty in advancing the science and measuring the results of implementation in business. Relationships in SCM span from rather loose coalitions to highly structured virtual network integrations. DCM is a highly organised chain in which the key is mutual interdependence and partnership. The purpose is to create a distinctive competence for the chain as a whole that helps to identify and satisfy customer needs and wishes. The classical research concerning vertical marketing systems is very helpful in systemising the rather unstructured discussions in current SCM research. The trend lies in increasing competition between channels rather than between companies, which in turn leads to the creation of channels with a high degree of partnership and mutual interdependence between members. These types of channels are known as organised vertical marketing systems in the classic marketing channel research. The behaviour in these types of channels, as well as the formal and informal structures, roles in the network, power and dependence relations, etc. are well covered topics in the literature. The concept of vertical marketing systems lies behind the definition of demand chains and demand chain management proposed in this paper. A

  2. iNR-Drug: Predicting the Interaction of Drugs with Nuclear Receptors in Cellular Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Nong Fan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptors (NRs are closely associated with various major diseases such as cancer, diabetes, inflammatory disease, and osteoporosis. Therefore, NRs have become a frequent target for drug development. During the process of developing drugs against these diseases by targeting NRs, we are often facing a problem: Given a NR and chemical compound, can we identify whether they are really in interaction with each other in a cell? To address this problem, a predictor called “iNR-Drug” was developed. In the predictor, the drug compound concerned was formulated by a 256-D (dimensional vector derived from its molecular fingerprint, and the NR by a 500-D vector formed by incorporating its sequential evolution information and physicochemical features into the general form of pseudo amino acid composition, and the prediction engine was operated by the SVM (support vector machine algorithm. Compared with the existing prediction methods in this area, iNR-Drug not only can yield a higher success rate, but is also featured by a user-friendly web-server established at http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iNR-Drug/, which is particularly useful for most experimental scientists to obtain their desired data in a timely manner. It is anticipated that the iNR-Drug server may become a useful high throughput tool for both basic research and drug development, and that the current approach may be easily extended to study the interactions of drug with other targets as well.

  3. iNR-Drug: predicting the interaction of drugs with nuclear receptors in cellular networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yue-Nong; Xiao, Xuan; Min, Jian-Liang; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2014-03-19

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are closely associated with various major diseases such as cancer, diabetes, inflammatory disease, and osteoporosis. Therefore, NRs have become a frequent target for drug development. During the process of developing drugs against these diseases by targeting NRs, we are often facing a problem: Given a NR and chemical compound, can we identify whether they are really in interaction with each other in a cell? To address this problem, a predictor called "iNR-Drug" was developed. In the predictor, the drug compound concerned was formulated by a 256-D (dimensional) vector derived from its molecular fingerprint, and the NR by a 500-D vector formed by incorporating its sequential evolution information and physicochemical features into the general form of pseudo amino acid composition, and the prediction engine was operated by the SVM (support vector machine) algorithm. Compared with the existing prediction methods in this area, iNR-Drug not only can yield a higher success rate, but is also featured by a user-friendly web-server established at http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iNR-Drug/, which is particularly useful for most experimental scientists to obtain their desired data in a timely manner. It is anticipated that the iNR-Drug server may become a useful high throughput tool for both basic research and drug development, and that the current approach may be easily extended to study the interactions of drug with other targets as well.

  4. Advertising media and cigarette demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Rajeev K

    2011-01-01

    Using state-level panel data for the USA spanning three decades, this research estimates the demand for cigarettes. The main contribution lies in studying the effects of cigarette advertising disaggregated across five qualitatively different groups. Results show cigarette demand to be near unit elastic, the income effects to be generally insignificant and border price effects and habit effects to be significant. Regarding advertising effects, aggregate cigarette advertising has a negative effect on smoking. Important differences across advertising media emerge when cigarette advertising is disaggregated. The effects of public entertainment and Internet cigarette advertising are stronger than those of other media. Anti-smoking messages accompanying print cigarette advertising seem relatively more effective. Implications for smoking control policy are discussed.

  5. Enrichment demand boosts SWU prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The enrichment market is picking up significantly on very brisk demand. US utilities, which normally purchase material nine months to a year ahead of time, are already hitting the market to fill their 1996 requirements. In June, two non-US utilities, one European entity and a US utility bought SWUs, the entity in an off-market deal. But that doesn't tell the whole story. Three other US utilities entered the market during the month. Meanwhile, we count 13 more utilities getting ready to hit the market for more than 4 million SWUs. Why the surge in demand? Utilities, uncertain of the role to be played by the new US Enrichment Corp. and seeking to take advantage of low interest rates, are implementing buy and hold strategies. As a result, the upper end of NUKEM's SWU price range inched up to $78. The lower end dipped to $67 based on the European deal

  6. Uranium Resources, production and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Periodic assessments of world uranium supply and demand have been conducted by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since the mid 1960s. Published every two years, the report URANIUM RESOURCES, PRODUCTION AND DEMAND, commonly referred to as the RED BOOK, has become an essential reference document for nuclear planners and policy makers in the international nuclear community. The latest Red Book, published in 1988, was based on data collected mainly in early 1987. Most of the data for 1987 were therefore provisional. The STATISTICAL UPDATE 1988 provides updated 1987 data collected in 1988 and provisional data for 1988. The publication, which covers OECD Countries and gives Secretariat estimates for the rest of the World Outside Centrally Planned Economies (WOCA), is being issued every second year, between publications of more complete Red Books

  7. DataBase on Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparicio, R Gaspar; Gomez, D; Wojcik, D; Coz, I Coterillo

    2012-01-01

    At CERN a number of key database applications are running on user-managed MySQL database services. The database on demand project was born out of an idea to provide the CERN user community with an environment to develop and run database services outside of the actual centralised Oracle based database services. The Database on Demand (DBoD) empowers the user to perform certain actions that had been traditionally done by database administrators, DBA's, providing an enterprise platform for database applications. It also allows the CERN user community to run different database engines, e.g. presently open community version of MySQL and single instance Oracle database server. This article describes a technology approach to face this challenge, a service level agreement, the SLA that the project provides, and an evolution of possible scenarios.

  8. Market demands to Danish pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    2001-01-01

    . The study focuses on the development on the most important markets for Danish pork. The countries are Denmark, Japan, UK, Germany, Italy, France, USA, Russia and South Korea. The primary purpose is to identify market demands of importance to the Danish pork sector in order to maintain and strengthen its......Danish farmers produce more than 20 million slaughtering pigs every year and most of them are exported to markets all over the world. From a historical point of view, the United Kingdom has been the groundbreaking export market, but today Danish pork is exported to more than 100 countries...... position on its markets. It is expected that results of the analysis will be part of superior strategic decisions for the Danish pork sector as regards future Danish pork export markets. The market demands to be identified will therefore be evaluated in relation to resources and competences within the line...

  9. Demand controlled ventilation; Behovsstyrt ventilasjon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Henning Holm

    2006-07-01

    The terms CAV and VAV have been known terms for many years in the ventilation business. The terms are also included in building regulations, but the time is now right to focus on demand controlled ventilation (DCV). The new building regulations and the accompanying energy framework underline the need for a more nuanced thinking when it comes to controlling ventilation systems. Descriptions and further details of the ventilation systems are provided (ml)

  10. Disruptive innovation: the demand side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havighurst, Clark C

    2008-01-01

    The notion of disruptive innovation provides a welcome framework for considering the prospects for low-cost alternatives in American medicine. Such innovations as have been seen, however, are largely the result of demand by patients paying their own bills because they have high-deductible coverage or are uninsured. Many other cost-saving innovations are discouraged by financing systems that are themselves largely immune to competition from disruptive innovators.

  11. Alcohol demand and risk preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Dhaval; Saffer, Henry

    2008-12-01

    Both economists and psychologists have studied the concept of risk preference. Economists categorize individuals as more or less risk-tolerant based on the marginal utility of income. Psychologists categorize individuals' propensity towards risk based on harm avoidance, novelty seeking and reward dependence traits. The two concepts of risk are related, although the instruments used for empirical measurement are quite different. Psychologists have found risk preference to be an important determinant of alcohol consumption; however economists have not included risk preference in studies of alcohol demand. This is the first study to examine the effect of risk preference on alcohol consumption in the context of a demand function. The specifications employ multiple waves from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), which permit the estimation of age-specific models based on nationally representative samples. Both of these data sets include a unique and consistent survey instrument designed to directly measure risk preference in accordance with the economist's definition. This study estimates the direct impact of risk preference on alcohol demand and also explores how risk preference affects the price elasticity of demand. The empirical results indicate that risk preference has a significant negative effect on alcohol consumption, with the prevalence and consumption among risk-tolerant individuals being 6-8% higher. Furthermore, the tax elasticity is similar across both risk-averse and risk-tolerant individuals. This suggests that tax policies are as equally effective in deterring alcohol consumption among those who have a higher versus a lower propensity for alcohol use.

  12. Uranium resources, production and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power-generating capacity will continue to expand, albeit at a slower pace than during the past fifteen years. This expansion must be matched by an adequately increasing supply of uranium. This report compares uranium supply and demand data in free market countries with the nuclear industry's natural uranium requirements up to the year 2000. It also reviews the status of uranium exploration, resources and production in 46 countries

  13. NMDAR NR2A and NR2B specific PKC-dependent regulation of mGluR is defective in the Fragile X Syndrome mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Tue G.; Toft, Anna Karina; Lundbye, Camilla Johanne

    ). Similar results were observed when mature KO slices were preincubated with the protein kinase C activator (PMA), or inactivator (chelerythrine), suggesting that NMDAR activation leads to PKC regulation of mGluR-LTD. Surprisingly, preincubation WT with the NR2B specific NMDAR inhibitor CP-101.......606 completely blocked DHPG-induced LTD. This blockage was reversed by either preincubation with PMA or by co-application of the NR2A antagonist TCN-201. In contrast, application of TCN-201 alone had no apparent effects. Our data suggest a model where NMDARs regulate mGluR-LTD through regulation of PKC...

  14. Demand for radiotherapy in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A; Borrás, J M; López-Torrecilla, J; Algara, M; Palacios-Eito, A; Gómez-Caamaño, A; Olay, L; Lara, P C

    2017-02-01

    Assessing the demand for radiotherapy in Spain based on existing evidence to estimate the human resources and equipment needed so that every person in Spain has access to high-quality radiotherapy when they need it. We used data from the European Cancer Observatory on the estimated incidence of cancer in Spain in 2012, along with the evidence-based indications for radiotherapy developed by the Australian CCORE project, to obtain an optimal radiotherapy utilisation proportion (OUP) for each tumour. About 50.5 % of new cancers in Spain require radiotherapy at least once over the course of the disease. Additional demand for these services comes from reradiation therapy and non-melanoma skin cancer. Approximately, 25-30 % of cancer patients with an indication for radiotherapy do not receive it due to factors that include access, patient preference, familiarity with the treatment among physicians, and especially resource shortages, all of which contribute to its underutilisation. Radiotherapy is underused in Spain. The increasing incidence of cancer expected over the next decade and the greater frequency of reradiations necessitate the incorporation of radiotherapy demand into need-based calculations for cancer services planning.

  15. Automation of energy demand forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Sanzad

    Automation of energy demand forecasting saves time and effort by searching automatically for an appropriate model in a candidate model space without manual intervention. This thesis introduces a search-based approach that improves the performance of the model searching process for econometrics models. Further improvements in the accuracy of the energy demand forecasting are achieved by integrating nonlinear transformations within the models. This thesis introduces machine learning techniques that are capable of modeling such nonlinearity. Algorithms for learning domain knowledge from time series data using the machine learning methods are also presented. The novel search based approach and the machine learning models are tested with synthetic data as well as with natural gas and electricity demand signals. Experimental results show that the model searching technique is capable of finding an appropriate forecasting model. Further experimental results demonstrate an improved forecasting accuracy achieved by using the novel machine learning techniques introduced in this thesis. This thesis presents an analysis of how the machine learning techniques learn domain knowledge. The learned domain knowledge is used to improve the forecast accuracy.

  16. Demands from the school inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Norberto Matos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available From the implementation of public policies on school inclusion, mainly those directed to the target audience of special education, the number of students with special educational needs in common classes has increased. This fact has helped to compose the picture in schools where the limitations and contradictions of the Brazilian educational system have appeared. Educational actors and authors are challenged to build knowledge able of responding to demands of daily school, concerning living and learning in diversity. Whereas this inclusive process is new in the schools, the study aimed to analyze the demands of teachers from the school inclusion. The research was qualitative and exploratory, and six teachers, their students with special educational needs and three professionals in the Nucleus of Inclusive Education from the Municipal Department of Education took in it. Technique of participant observation, field diary, semi-structured interview and questionnaire were used for data collection, while analysis of content was used for discussion of the data. The results indicate that there are achievements and contradictions in the reality of schools that themselves propose inclusive; advances and limitations resulting from the municipal politics; that the model of performance of the group of special education, in the context analyzed, may be revised or expanded; and that the teachers has demands with regard to public policy, training, and the psychologist.

  17. PREDICTING DEMAND FOR COTTON YARNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALAS-MOLINA Francisco

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Predicting demand for fashion products is crucial for textile manufacturers. In an attempt to both avoid out-of-stocks and minimize holding costs, different forecasting techniques are used by production managers. Both linear and non-linear time-series analysis techniques are suitable options for forecasting purposes. However, demand for fashion products presents a number of particular characteristics such as short life-cycles, short selling seasons, high impulse purchasing, high volatility, low predictability, tremendous product variety and a high number of stock-keeping-units. In this paper, we focus on predicting demand for cotton yarns using a non-linear forecasting technique that has been fruitfully used in many areas, namely, random forests. To this end, we first identify a number of explanatory variables to be used as a key input to forecasting using random forests. We consider explanatory variables usually labeled either as causal variables, when some correlation is expected between them and the forecasted variable, or as time-series features, when extracted from time-related attributes such as seasonality. Next, we evaluate the predictive power of each variable by means of out-of-sample accuracy measurement. We experiment on a real data set from a textile company in Spain. The numerical results show that simple time-series features present more predictive ability than other more sophisticated explanatory variables.

  18. 46 CFR 169.689 - Demand loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Demand loads. 169.689 Section 169.689 Shipping COAST... Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.689 Demand loads. Demand loads must meet § 111.60-7 of this chapter except that smaller demand loads for motor feeders are...

  19. Smallish foreign direct investment, sluggish growth: Can ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Edgard Rodriguez. GGP One-pager series. Since the 1990s, foreign direct investment (FDI) has been on the rise worldwide. By 2008, the world's FDI flows amounted to about $1.7 trillion (although they are expected to go below $1.2 trillion in 2009 during the economic downturn). Some key characteristics of this investment ...

  20. Smallish foreign direct investment, sluggish growth: Can ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-08

    Dec 8, 2010 ... Some key characteristics of this investment remain in place: Most of the investment goes to the developed world (almost 70%) with the balance going to developing countries, mainly the fast-growing economies of East Asia. In 2008, South America received less than 8% (or $91 billion) of the world's total, ...

  1. NR2F6 Expression Correlates with Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis and Poor Prognosis in Early-Stage Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhao Niu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an abnormal expression of nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group F member 6 (NR2F6 in human cancers such as breast cancer, colon cancer, and acute myelogenous leukemia. However, its clinical significance in cervical cancer has not been established. We explored NR2F6 expression and its clinicopathological significance in early-stage cervical cancer. Methods: NR2F6 expression in cervical cancer cell lines and cervical cancer tissues was determined by Western blotting, real-time PCR, and immunochemistry (IHC. NR2F6 expression in 189 human early-stage cervical cancer tissue samples was evaluated using IHC. The relevance between NR2F6 expression and early-stage cervical cancer prognosis and clinicopathological features was determined. Results: There was marked NR2F6 mRNA and protein overexpression in the cervical cancer cells and clinical tissues compared with an immortalized squamous cell line and adjacent noncancerous cervical tissues, respectively. In the 189 cervical cancer samples, NR2F6 expression was positively related to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO stage (p = 0.006, squamous cell carcinoma antigen (p = 0.006, vital status (p < 0.001, tumor recurrence (p = 0.001, chemotherapy (p = 0.039, and lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001. Overall and disease-free survival was shorter in patients with early-stage cervical cancer and higher NR2F6 levels than in patients with lower levels of NR2F6. Univariate and multivariate analysis determined that NR2F6 was an independent prognostic factor of survival in early-stage cervical cancer. Conclusions: Taken together, our findings suggest that high NR2F6 expression predicts pelvic lymph node metastasis, tumor recurrence and poor prognosis in early-stage cervical cancer. NR2F6 might be a novel prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target of cervical cancer.

  2. Generating Water Demand Scenarios Using Scaling Laws

    OpenAIRE

    Vertommen, I.; Magini, R.; Cunha, M. da Conceição

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses uncertainty inherent to water demand and proposes an approach to generate demand scenarios and calculate their probability of occurrence. Nodal water demands are modelled as correlated stochastic variables. The parameters which characterize demand vary with spatial and temporal aggregation levels. Scaling laws allow the definition of these parameters for different users and sampling rates. Different scenarios are generated by considering different combinations of demands ...

  3. Fluxes of total reactive atmospheric nitrogen (ΣNr using eddy covariance above arable land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe R. Flechard

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The amount and timing of reactive nitrogen exchange between agricultural land and the atmosphere play a key role in evaluating ecosystem productivity and in addressing atmospheric nitrogen budgets and transport. With the recent development of the Total Reactive Atmospheric Nitrogen Converter (TRANC apparatus, a methodology has been provided for continuous measurement of the sum of all airborne nitrogen containing species (ΣNr allowing for diurnal and seasonal investigations. We present ΣNr concentration and net flux data from an 11-month field campaign conducted at an arable field using the TRANC system within an eddy-covariance setup. Clear diurnal patterns of both ΣNr concentrations and fluxes with significant dependencies on atmospheric stability and stomatal regulation were observed in the growing season. TRANC data were compared with monthly-averaged concentrations and dry deposition rates of selected Nr compounds using DELTA denuders and ensemble-averages of four inferential models, respectively. Similar seasonal trends were found for Nr concentrations from DELTA and TRANC measurements with values from the latter being considerably higher than those of DELTA denuders. The variability of the difference between these two systems could be explained by seasonally changing source locations of NOx contributions to the TRANC signal. As soil and vegetation Nr emissions to the atmosphere are generally not treated by inferential (dry deposition models, TRANC data showed lower monthly deposition rates than those obtained from inferential modelling. Net ΣNr exchange was almost neutral (~0.072 kg N ha−1 at the end of the observation period. However, during most parts of the year, slight but permanent net ΣNr deposition was found. Our measurements demonstrate that fertilizer addition followed by substantial ΣNr emissions plays a crucial role in a site's annual atmospheric nitrogen budget. As long-term Nr measurements with high temporal

  4. The orphan nuclear receptor NR4A2 is part of a p53?microRNA-34 network

    OpenAIRE

    Beard, Jordan A.; Tenga, Alexa; Hills, Justin; Hoyer, Jessica D.; Cherian, Milu T.; Wang, Yong-Dong; Chen, Taosheng

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 2 (NR4A2) is an orphan nuclear receptor that is over-expressed in cancer and promotes cell proliferation, migration, transformation, and chemoresistance. Increased expression and function of NR4A2 have been attributed to various signaling pathways, but little is known about microRNA (miRNA) regulation of NR4A2 in cancer. To investigate the posttranscriptional regulation of NR4A2, we used a 3? untranslated region (UTR) reporter screen and identified ...

  5. Targeting the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B for treating or preventing age-related memory decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deheng; Jacobs, Stephanie A; Tsien, Joe Z

    2014-10-01

    Age-related memory loss is believed to be a result of reduced synaptic plasticity, including changes in the NR2 subunit composition of the NMDA receptor. It is known that endogenous NR2B subunits decrease as the brain ages, whereas transgenic upregulation of NR2B enhances synaptic plasticity and learning and memory in several animal species. Accumulating evidence suggests that elevated brain magnesium levels, via dietary supplementation, can boost NR2B in the brain, consequently reversing memory deficits and enhancing cognitive abilities. This review highlights the convergent molecular mechanisms via the NR2B pathway as a useful strategy for treating age-related memory loss. A dietary approach, via oral intake of a novel compound, magnesium L-threonate (MgT), to boost NR2B expression in the brain is highlighted. Direct upregulation of the NR2B subunit expression can enhance synaptic plasticity and memory functions in a broad range of behavioral tasks in rodents. Other upregulation approaches, such as targeting the NR2B transporter or surface recycling pathway via cyclin-dependent kinase 5, are highly effective in improving memory functions. A dietary supplemental approach by optimally elevating the [Mg²⁺] in the brain is surprisingly effective in upregulating NR2B expression and improving memories in preclinical studies. MgT is currently under clinical trials.

  6. Upregulation of protein phosphatase 2A and NR3A-pleiotropic effect of simvastatin on ischemic stroke rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minxia Zhu

    Full Text Available Ca(2+ influxes are regulated by the functional state of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs. Dephosphorylation of NMDARs subunits decreases Ca(2+ influxes. NR3, a novel subunit of NMDARs, also decreases Ca(2+ influxes by forming new NMDARs with NR1 and NR2. It is meaningful to uncover whether protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A and NR3A play a role in the protective effect of Simvastatin on ischemic stroke. In the present study, the Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with Simvastatin for 7 days before middle cerebral artery occlusion was performed to mimic ischemic stroke. The results showed that Simvastatin decreased brain ischemic infarct area significantly while increasing the expression levels of PP2A and NR3A, thus dephosphorylating the serine sites of NR1 (ser896 and ser897 along with increased enzymatic activities of PP2A. The protein levels of NR3A decreased as the enzymatic activities of PP2A were inhibited by okadaic acid. The results indicated that Simvastatin could protect the cerebrum from ischemic injury through a signaling mechanism involving elevated levels of PP2A and NR3A, and that PP2A might involve in the regulatory mechanism of NR3A expression.

  7. Physical demands during folk dancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigaeus, E; Kilbom, A

    1980-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the aerobic demands during one of the most popular and demanding Swedish folk dances the "hambo". Six men and six women, ranging in age from 22 to 32, participated. Their physical work capacity was investigated on a bicycle ergometer and a treadmill, using two to three submaximal and one maximal loads. All subjects were moderately well-trained and their average maximal oxygen uptake on the treadmill were 2.5 and 3.7 l/min (42.8 and 53.2 ml/kg . min-1) for women and men, respectively. When dancing the "hambo" the heart rate was telemetered, and the Douglas bag technique was used for measurements of pulmonary ventilation and oxygen uptake. The physical demand during "hambo" dancing was high in all subjects. Oxygen uptake was 38.5 and 37.3 ml/kg . min-1 and heart rate 179 and 172 in women and men, respectively. Women used 90% and men 70% of their maximal aerobic power obtained on the treadmill. The pulmonary ventilation and respiratory quotient of the female subjects were lower when dancing as compared to running, possibly because of voluntary restriction of the movements of the thoracic cage. Some popular Scandinavian folk dances are performed at a speed and with an activity pattern resembling the "hambo", while others are performed at a slower pace. The exercise intensity used in "hambo" is more than sufficient to induce training effects in the average individual provided that the dancing is performed at the frequency and for length of time usually recommended for physical training. For older or less fit people dances with a slow pace can be used for training purposes.

  8. Credit, Money, and Aggregate Demand.

    OpenAIRE

    Bernanke, Ben S; Blinder, Alan S

    1988-01-01

    Standard models of aggregate demand treat money and credit asymmetrically; money is given a special status, while loans, bonds, and other debt instruments are lumped together in a "bond market" and suppressed by Walras' Law. This makes bank liabilities central to the monetary transmission mechanism, while giving no role to bank assets. We show how to modify a textbook IS-UI model so as to permit a more balanced treatment. As in Tobin (1969) and Brunner-Meltzer (1972), the key assumption is th...

  9. LPG world supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Ch.

    2008-01-01

    Over the course of this decade, the global LPG market has moved from being tight, where supply barely exceeded non-price sensitive demand, to the current market situation where supply growth has outstripped demand growth to such an extent that current fundamentals suggest that considerable length will prevail in the market over the near term. As is the case for many other energy commodity markets, the LPG industry has experienced a considerable transformation over the last five years with many new LPG supply projects coming on-stream and demand growth in many developing markets slowing in response to higher energy prices. The near term challenge for LPG producers will be securing outlets for output as the market becomes increasingly oversupplied. With expanding LPG supply and a worldwide tightness in the naphtha market, it is expected that petrochemical consumers will favor relatively low priced LPG over naphtha and the resulting increase in LPG cracking rates will go some way to reducing the expected supply surplus. However, the timing of several new LPG supply projects and the start-up of LPG-based petrochemical plants in the Middle-East are expected to impact global LPG trade and pricing over the next few years. Thus, at this point in time, the global LPG market has a high degree of uncertainty with questions remaining over the impact of high energy (and LPG) prices on traditional and developing market demand, the timing of new supply projects and the combined effect of these two factors on international LPG prices. World LPG production has been rising in nearly every region of the world over the last few years and totaled about 229 million tons in 2007, which is some 30 million tons per year higher than in 2000. The exception is North America which accounts for the largest share of global LPG supply at about 24% but production there has remained relatively flat in recent years. Strong LPG production growth in the Middle-East which contributed to about 19% of

  10. World oil supply and demand'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Apart from a collapse of oil and gas consumption in the CIS, a strong increase in demand in the newly industrialized countries and an upward trend in the OECD countries are observed. Non-Opec supply continued to grow, with a production decline in Usa and Russia but a record production level in the North Sea and a remarkable revival in South America (Colombia, Argentina) and Africa (Congo, Angola). In Opec countries, the trend goes from supply control to development of production capacity. Situations in Saudi Arabia, Iran and Iraq are detailed

  11. Growing energy demand - environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rama Rao, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists can bring information, insights, and analytical skills to bear on matters of public concern. Often they can help the public and its representatives to understand the likely causes of events (such as natural and technological disasters) and to estimate the possible effects of projected policies. Often they can testify to what is not possible. Even so, scientists can seldom bring definitive answers to matters of public debate. Some issues are too complex to fit within the current scope of science, or there may be little reliable information available, or the values involved may lie outside of science. Scientists and technologists strive to find an answer to the growing energy demand

  12. Uranium, resources, production and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The thirteenth edition of the report looks at recent developments and their impact on the short term (i.e. to the year 2005) and presents a longer term (to 2030) analysis of supply possibilities in the context of a range of requirement scenarios. It presents results of a 1989 review of uranium supply and demand in the World Outside Centrally Planned Economies Areas. It contains updated information on uranium exploration activities, resources and production for over 40 countries including a few CPEs, covering the period 1987 and 1988

  13. Distribution, Pest Status and Fungal Associates of Euwallacea nr. fornicatus in Florida Avocado Groves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Carrillo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Members of a complex of cryptic species, that correspond morphologically to the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea fornicatus (Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, were recently found attacking avocado (Persea americana Mill. in Israel and California. In early 2016, an outbreak of another member of this species complex was detected infesting approximately 1500 avocado trees in an avocado orchard at Homestead, Florida. An area-wide survey was conducted in commercial avocado groves of Miami-Dade County, Florida to determine the distribution and abundance of E. nr. fornicatus, to identify different populations of E. nr. fornicatus and their fungal associates, and to assess the extent of damage to avocado trees. Ewallacea nr. fornicatus were captured in 31 of the 33 sampled sites. A sample of 35 beetles from six different locations was identified as E. nr. fornicatus sp. #2, which is genetically distinct from the species causing damage in California and Israel. Eleven fungal associates were identified: an unknown Fusarium sp., AF-8, AF-6, Graphium euwallaceae, Acremonium sp. Acremonium morum, Acremonium masseei, Elaphocordyceps sp. and three yeast species. The unknown Fusarium isolates were the most abundant and frequently found fungus species associated with adult beetles and lesions surrounding the beetle galleries. In addition to fungal associates, three bacteria species were found associated with adult E. nr. fornicatus. Visual inspections detected significant damage in only two orchards. A large number of beetles were captured in locations with no apparent damage on the avocado trees suggesting that E. nr. fornicatus are associated with other host(s outside the groves or with dead trees or branches inside the groves. More research is needed to determine the potential threat E. nr. fornicatus and its fungal associates pose to the avocado industry and agricultural and natural ecosystems in Florida.

  14. Effect of NMDA NR2B antagonist on neuropathic pain in two spinal cord injury models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngkyung; Cho, Hwi-young; Ahn, Young Ju; Kim, Junesun; Yoon, Young Wook

    2012-05-01

    N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are thought to play an important role in the processes of central sensitization and pathogenesis of neuropathic pain, particularly after spinal cord injury (SCI). NMDA antagonists effectively reduce neuropathic pain, but serious side effects prevent their use as therapeutic drugs. NMDA NR2B antagonists have been reported to effectively reduce inflammatory and neuropathic pain. In this study, we investigated the effects of NR2B antagonists on neuropathic pain and the expression of NR2B in the spinal cord in 2 SCI models. SCI was induced at T12 by a New York University impactor (contusion) or by sectioning of the lateral half of the spinal cord (hemisection). Ifenprodil (100, 200, 500, 1000nmol) and Ro25-6981 (20, 50, 100, 200nmol) were intrathecally injected and behavioral tests were conducted. Ifenprodil increased the paw withdrawal threshold in both models but also produced mild motor depression at higher doses. Ro25-6981 increased the mechanical nociceptive threshold in a dose-dependent manner without motor depression. NR2B expression was significantly increased on both sides at the spinal segments of L1-2 and L4-5 in the hemisection model but did not change in the contusion model. Increased expression of NR2B in the hemisection model was reduced by intrathecal ifenprodil. These results suggest that intrathecal NMDA NR2B antagonist increased the mechanical nociceptive threshold after SCI without motor depression. A selective subtype of NMDA receptor, such as NR2B, may be a more selective target for pain control because NMDA receptors play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of chronic pain. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Pharmacological isolation of postsynaptic currents mediated by NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Xiaoyan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract NMDA receptors (NMDARs are involved in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity associated with a variety of brain functions, from memory formation to chronic pain. Subunit-selective antagonists for NMDARs provide powerful tools to dissect NMDAR functions in neuronal activities. Recently developed antagonist for NR2A-containing receptors, NVP-AAM007, triggered debates on its selectivity and involvement of the NMDAR subunits in bi-directional synaptic plasticity. Here, we re-examined the pharmacological properties of NMDARs in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC using NVP-AAM007 as well as ifenprodil, a selective antagonist for NR2B-containing NMDARs. By alternating sequence of drug application and examining different concentrations of NVP-AAM007, we found that the presence of NVP-AAM007 did not significantly affect the effect of ifenprodil on NMDAR-mediated EPSCs. These results suggest that NVP-AAM007 shows great preference for NR2A subunit and could be used as a selective antagonist for NR2A-containing NMDARs in the ACC.

  16. Controlling energy demand. What history?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beers, Marloes; Bonhomme, Noel; Bouvier, Yves; Pautard, Eric; Fevrier, Patrick; Lanthier, Pierre; Goyens, Valerie; Desama, Claude; Beltran, Alain

    2012-01-01

    this special dossier of the historical annals of electricity collection takes stock of the post 1970's history of energy demand control in industrialized countries: Abatement of energy dependence, the European Communities program of rational use of energy in the 1970's (Marloes Beers); The G7 and the energy cost: the limits of dialogue between industrialized countries - 1975-1985 (Noel Bonhomme); Saving more to consume more. The ambiguity of EDF's communication during the 'energy saving' era (Yves Bouvier); From rationing to energy saving certificates, 4 decades of electricity demand control in France and in the UK (eric Pautard); The French agency of environment and energy mastery (ADEME): between energy control and sustainable development (Patrick Fevrier); Hydro-Quebec and efficiency in household energy consumption, from 1990 to the present day (Pierre Lanthier); Control of energy consumption since the 1970's, the policy of rational use of energy in Walloon region - Belgium (Valerie Goyens); Electricity distribution in the new energy paradigm (Claude Desama); Conclusion (Alain Beltran)

  17. Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffner, Grayson

    2009-02-01

    While there is general agreement that demand response (DR) is a valued component in a utility resource plan, there is a lack of consensus regarding how to value DR. Establishing the value of DR is a prerequisite to determining how much and what types of DR should be implemented, to which customers DR should be targeted, and a key determinant that drives the development of economically viable DR consumer technology. Most approaches for quantifying the value of DR focus on changes in utility system revenue requirements based on resource plans with and without DR. This ''utility centric'' approach does not assign any value to DR impacts that lower energy and capacity prices, improve reliability, lower system and network operating costs, produce better air quality, and provide improved customer choice and control. Proper valuation of these benefits requires a different basis for monetization. The review concludes that no single methodology today adequately captures the wide range of benefits and value potentially attributed to DR. To provide a more comprehensive valuation approach, current methods such as the Standard Practice Method (SPM) will most likely have to be supplemented with one or more alternative benefit-valuation approaches. This report provides an updated perspective on the DR valuation framework. It includes an introduction and four chapters that address the key elements of demand response valuation, a comprehensive literature review, and specific research recommendations.

  18. Identification of NR4A2 as a transcriptional activator of IL-8 expression in human inflammatory arthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aherne, Carol M

    2009-10-01

    Expression of the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A2 is controlled by pro-inflammatory mediators, suggesting that NR4A2 may contribute to pathological processes in the inflammatory lesion. This study identifies the chemoattractant protein, interleukin 8 (IL-8\\/CXCL8), as a molecular target of NR4A2 in human inflammatory arthritis and examines the mechanism through which NR4A2 modulates IL-8 expression. In TNF-alpha-activated human synoviocyte cells, enhanced expression of IL-8 mRNA and protein correspond to temporal changes in NR4A2 transcription and nuclear distribution. Ectopic expression of NR4A2 leads to robust changes in endogenous IL-8 mRNA levels and co-treatment with TNF-alpha results in significant (p<0.001) secretion of IL-8 protein. Transcriptional effects of NR4A2 on the human IL-8 promoter are enhanced in the presence of TNF-alpha, suggesting molecular crosstalk between TNF-alpha signalling and NR4A2. A dominant negative IkappaB kinase antagonizes the combined effects of NR4A2 and TNF-alpha on IL-8 promoter activity. Co-expression of NR4A2 and the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB enhances IL-8 transcription and functional studies indicate that transactivation occurs independently of NR4A2 binding to DNA or heterodimerization with additional nuclear receptors. The IL-8 minimal promoter region is sufficient to support NR4A2 and NF-kappaB\\/p65 co-operative activity and NR4A2 can interact with NF-kappaB\\/p65 on a 39bp sequence within this region. In patients treated with methotrexate for active inflammatory arthritis, a reduction in NR4A2 synovial tissue levels correlate significantly (n=10, r=0.73, p=0.002) with changes in IL-8 expression. Collectively, these data delineate an important role for NR4A2 in modulating IL-8 expression and reveal novel transcriptional responses to TNF-alpha in human inflammatory joint disease.

  19. Pilot scale experiments on radiation vulcanization of NR latex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridwan, M.

    The potential of irradiated latex as raw material of commercial use is under testing on pilot plant scale in Indonesia which has 225 kCi Co-60 irradiation facility and can irradiate 1000 tonnes of centrifuged latex per annum. The facility was jointly designed by BATAN of Indonesia and JAERI of Japan and was jointly financed by UNDP/IAEA, Government of Japan and Government of Indonesia under UNDP/IAEA Regional Cooperative Agreement Project on Industrial Application of Isotopes and Radiation Technology. The facility is a water pool type and can accomodate 400 kCi Co-60. The Co-60 rack has two shapes, plate and cylindrical shapes. The plate shape source is used for natural rubber latex irradiation and the cylindrical one is used for other irradiation services. The vulcanization system consists of three major components : emulsification unit ( height : 650 mm, diameter 500 mm ), mixing unit ( height : 1900mm, diameter 1200 mm ) and vulcanization reactor ( height : 1800 mm, diameter 1300 mm ). The first two components are located outside shielded room while the third one-in irradiation room. The radiation vulcanization process is a much simpler energy saving process comparedto the conventional thermal process which has two vulcanization steps before and after dipping. The physical and mechanical properties of irradiated NR Latex are comparable to those of sulfur vulcanized, and depend on many factors such as irradiation dose, sensitizer content, dry rubber content and storage time.

  20. Pilot scale experiments on radiation vulcanization of NR latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridwan, M.

    1985-01-01

    The potential of irradiated latex as raw material of commercial use is under testing on pilot plant scale in Indonesia which has 225 kCi Co-60 irradiation facility and can irradiate 1000 tonnes of centrifuged latex per annum. The facility was jointly designed by BATAN of Indonesia and JAERI of Japan and was jointly financed by UNDP/IAEA, Government of Japan and Government of Indonesia under UNDP/IAEA Regional Cooperative Agreement Project on Industrial Application of Isotopes and Radiation Technology. The facility is a water pool type and can accommodate 400 kCi Co-60. The Co-60 rack has two shapes, plate and cylindrical shapes. The plate shape source is used for natural rubber latex irradiation and the cylindrical one is used for other irradiation services. The vulcanization system consists of three major components: emulsification unit, mixing unit and vulcanization reactor. The first two components are located outside shielded room while the third one in irradiation room. The radiation vulcanization process is a much simpler energy saving process compared to the conventional thermal process which has two vulcanization steps before and after dipping. The physical and mechanical properties of irradiated NR latex are comparable to those of sulfur vulcanized. (author)

  1. Both NR2A and NR2B Subunits of the NMDA Receptor Are Critical for Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression in the Lateral Amygdala of Horizontal Slices of Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Tobias; Albrecht, Doris; Gebhardt, Christine

    2009-01-01

    The lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) is implicated in emotional and social behaviors. We recently showed that in horizontal brain slices, activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) is a requirement for persistent synaptic alterations in the LA, such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). In the LA, NR2A- and NR2B-type NMDRs…

  2. Stenhammer, Wilhelm. sinfonien Nr. 1 F-Dur und Nr. 2 g-Moll op. 34, Excelsior! op. 13, Serenade F-Dur op. 31. Sinfonieorchester Göteborg, Neeme Järvi / Andreas K. W. Meyer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meyer, Andreas K. W.

    1995-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Stenhammer, Wilhelm. sinfonien Nr. 1 F-Dur und Nr. 2 g-Moll op. 34, Excelsior! op. 13, Serenade F-Dur op. 31. Sinfonieorchester Göteborg, Neeme Järvi". DG 2 CD 445857-2 (WD: 138'37")

  3. Prospects for European labour demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, R M

    1988-07-01

    The impact of economic and technological trends upon the level and structure of labor demand is examined, exploring the methods used to model the labor market and making special reference to demography and technology. Evidence on recent and prospective changes in labor demand is reviewed for France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the UK. The models used to explore future employment scenarios usually fail to incorporate the linkages required to fully analyze the various demographic-economic interactions. Further, this is not generally viewed as a limitation, given the time frame of most employment projections and their preoccupation with changes in the structure of labor demand. Medium-term multisectoral models tend to pay more attention to both demographic and technical change, but the treatment of both aspects is limited. The projections provide a framework for considering how both socioeconomic behavior and policy might change to achieve different outcomes. The greater a model's behavioral content, as expressed in its relationships between different variables, the greater the insight obtainable from simulation exercises. The 1st half of the 1970s was characterized by a reduction in German employment, representing the severest of European reactions to the oil crisis. The 2nd half of the decade recorded rapid growth in Italy and the Netherlands. The 1980s started with marked declines in Germany and the UK. Overall, the net gains of the 1970s were lost in the recession following the 2nd oil crisis. In none of the 5 countries studied does any realistic prospect emerge of achieving full employment before 2000. The most optimistic outcome is that unemployment will decline only slowly, it at all. The growth of both new forms and areas of employment will not compensate sufficiently for the loss of jobs elsewhere and the growth of labor supply. The industrial sector will continue to experience change in favor of the service sector but at a slower rate than during

  4. The role of NR4A transcription factors in memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Josh D; Abel, Ted

    2011-04-25

    In various physiological contexts, Nr4a genes are transcribed in response to external stimuli as part of an immediate early response that initiates a cascade of gene expression ultimately leading to distinct physiological outcomes in each of these contexts. The signaling pathway that initiates Nr4a gene expression in most of these contexts consists of elevated intracellular cAMP activating PKA, which in turn leads to phosphorylation of CREB and new gene synthesis. This cAMP-PKA-CREB pathway is a central molecular pathway in the formation of a long-term memory. Indeed, learning induces Nr4a family gene expression, and long-term memory formation requires at least two waves of transcription after learning, suggesting that NR4A nuclear receptors may contribute to the second of these waves of gene expression. In this article, we review insights gained in other physiological contexts regarding Nr4a function and regulation, and highlight how these lessons can be applied to the study of memory formation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Driving demand for broadband networks and services

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Raul L

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the reasons why various groups around the world choose not to adopt broadband services and evaluates strategies to stimulate the demand that will lead to increased broadband use. It introduces readers to the benefits of higher adoption rates while examining the progress that developed and emerging countries have made in stimulating broadband demand. By relying on concepts such as a supply and demand gap, broadband price elasticity, and demand promotion, this book explains differences between the fixed and mobile broadband demand gap, introducing the notions of substitution and complementarity between both platforms. Building on these concepts, ‘Driving Demand for Broadband Networks and Services’ offers a set of best practices and recommendations aimed at promoting broadband demand.  The broadband demand gap is defined as individuals and households that could buy a broadband subscription because they live in areas served by telecommunications carriers but do not do so because of either ...

  6. Mobility on Demand Operational Concept Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-10

    This operational concept report provides an overview of the Mobility on Demand (MOD) concept and its evolution, description of the MOD ecosystem in a supply and demand framework, and its stakeholders and enablers. Leveraging the MOD ecosystem framewo...

  7. Demands Set Upon Modern Cartographic Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Frangeš

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Scientific cartography has the task to develop and research new methods of cartographic visualization. General demands are set upon modern cartographic visualization, which encompasses digital cartography and computer graphics: legibility, clearness, accuracy, plainness and aesthetics. In this paper, it is explained in detail what demands should be met in order to satisfy the general demands set. In order to satisfy the demand of legibility, one should respect conditions of minimal sizes, appropriate graphical density and better differentiation of known features. Demand of clearness needs to be met by fulfilling conditions of simplicity, contrasting quality and layer arrangement of cartographic representation. Accuracy, as the demand on cartographic visualization, can be divided into positioning accuracy and accuracy signs. For fulfilling the demand of plainness, the conditions of symbolism, traditionalism and hierarchic organization should be met. Demand of aesthetics will be met if the conditions of beauty and harmony are fulfilled.

  8. Managing Demands for Social Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, Cecilie

    pressure on the biotech research organizations that find themselves in a jumble of demands to engage themselves with society. Mccarthy and Kelty, for instance, quote a nano-technologist for saying that he is afraid of “too much responsibility” (2010: 407). Based on a laboratory ethnography, this paper...... explores how two research organizations in the field of synthetic biology strategically manoeuvre among the many discourses on scientific responsibility. One of the labs defines itself through user-inspired science and focuses on the development of ‘products’ that benefit abstract stakeholders such as ‘the...... general public’ or ‘the troops’. The other lab has many diffuse ‘side-activities’ with bio-hackers, government and policy groups, but partly seems to engage in order to stay ahead of policy-makers and protect their core activity, which they find to be ‘basic research’. The paper finally argues...

  9. Uranium, resources, production and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Periodic assessments of world uranium supply have been conducted by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since the mid 1960s. Published every two years, the report Uranium resources, production and demand, commonly referred to as the red book, has become an essential reference document for nuclear planners and policy makers in the international nuclear community. The latest red book, published in 1986, was based on data collected mainly in early 1985. Most of the data for 1985 were therefore provisional. The statistical update 1986 provides updated 1985 data collected in 1986 and provisional data for 1986. This is the first time such an annual update of key Red Book statistical data has been prepared. This year it covers only OECD countries with a secretariat estimate for the rest of Woca

  10. Transport gasoline demand in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltony, M.N.

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides an estimate of household gasoline demand in Canada by applying a detailed model to pool time-series (1969-1988) and cross-sectional provincial data. The model recognises three major behavioural changes that households can make in response to gasoline price changes: drive fewer miles, purchase fewer cars, and buy more fuel-efficient vehicles. In the model, fuel economy is treated in considerable detail. The two components of the fuel economy of new cars sold-the technical fuel efficiency of various classes of cars and the distribution of new car sales according to their interior volume rather than their weight - are estimated as functions of economic variables. Car manufacturers are assumed to improve the technical fuel economy according to their expectation of consumer's response to future changes in gasoline prices and general economic conditions. (author)

  11. Price elasticity of demand: An overlooked concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    An all-too-common mistake in analyzing the uranium market is to assume that demand for uranium is driven only by the design and operational parameters of nuclear power plants. Because it is generally accepted that demand for uranium is inelastic, not much attention has been given to how prices can indirectly affect demand. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the factors that are most sensitive to uranium prices, and to show how they alter uranium demand

  12. Endogenous Money Supply and Money Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Woon Gyu Choi; Seonghwan Oh

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the behavior of money demand by explicitly accounting for the money supply endogeneity arising from endogenous monetary policy and financial innovations. Our theoretical analysis indicates that money supply factors matter in the money demand function when the money supply partially responds to money demand. Our empirical results with U.S. data provide strong evidence for the relevance of the policy stance to the demand for MI under a regime in which monetary policy is subs...

  13. Empirical heuristics for improving Intermittent Demand Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Petropoulos, Fotios; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Spithourakis, George; Assimakopoulos, Vassilios

    2013-01-01

    Purpose– Intermittent demand appears sporadically, with some time periods not even displaying any demand at all. Even so, such patterns constitute considerable proportions of the total stock in many industrial settings. Forecasting intermittent demand is a rather difficult task but of critical importance for corresponding cost savings. The current study aims to examine the empirical outcomes of three heuristics towards the modification of established intermittent demand forecasting approaches...

  14. THE ACCOUNTANT INFORMATION. DEMAND AND OFFER

    OpenAIRE

    Irina CHIRITA; Ioana ZAHEU

    2008-01-01

    The present paper is trying to correlate what Demand and Offer mean, from the economical point of view, which in the end tends towards the demand and offer of the accountant information. The objective of the demand and offer of accountant information is to promo te an efficient financial communication, objective that might be reached through the confrontation of the informational offer with the user’s demand. The information given by the enterprises are the basis of numerous economical and po...

  15. Demand side management of electric car charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finn, P.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Connolly, David

    2012-01-01

    in terms of distributed energy storage and flexible load. This paper examines how optimising the charging cycles of an electriccar using DSM (DemandSideManagement) based on a number of criteria could be used to achieve financial savings, increased demand on renewable energy, reduce demand on thermal...... generation plant, and reduce peak load demand. The results demonstrate that significant gains can be achieved using currently available market data which highlights the point that DSM can be implemented without any further technological advents....

  16. Water demand management in Mediterranean regions

    OpenAIRE

    Giulio Querini; Salvo Creaco

    2005-01-01

    Water sustainability needs a balance between demand and availability: 1) Water demand management: demand may be managed by suppliers and regulations responsible persons, using measures like invoicing, consumptions measurement and users education in water conservation measures; 2) Augmentation of water supply: availibility may be augmented by infrastructural measures, waste water reuse, non-conventional resources and losses reduction. Water Demand Management is about achieving a reduction in t...

  17. NR2B-containing NMDA receptors promote neural progenitor cell proliferation through CaMKIV/CREB pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mei, E-mail: limeihit@163.com [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Department of Pharmacology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Zhang, Dong-Qing; Wang, Xiang-Zhen [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou (China); Xu, Tie-Jun, E-mail: xztjxu@163.com [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Department of Pharmacology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China)

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} The NR2B component of the NMDARs is important for the NSPC proliferation. {yields} pCaMKIV and pCREB exist in NSPCs. {yields} The CaMKIV/CREB pathway mediates NSPC proliferation. -- Abstract: Accumulating evidence indicates the involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in regulating neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) proliferation. Functional properties of NMDARs can be markedly influenced by incorporating the regulatory subunit NR2B. Here, we aim to analyze the effect of NR2B-containing NMDARs on the proliferation of hippocampal NSPCs and to explore the mechanism responsible for this effect. NSPCs were shown to express NMDAR subunits NR1 and NR2B. The NR2B selective antagonist, Ro 25-6981, prevented the NMDA-induced increase in cell proliferation. Moreover, we demonstrated that the phosphorylation levels of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) were increased by NMDA treatment, whereas Ro 25-6981 decreased them. The role that NR2B-containing NMDARs plays in NSPC proliferation was abolished when CREB phosphorylation was attenuated by CaMKIV silencing. These results suggest that NR2B-containing NMDARs have a positive role in regulating NSPC proliferation, which may be mediated through CaMKIV phosphorylation and subsequent induction of CREB activation.

  18. NR1I2 polymorphisms are related to tacrolimus dose-adjusted exposure and BK viremia in adult kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barraclough, Katherine A; Isbel, Nicole M; Lee, Katie J

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pregnane X, encoded by the gene NR112, is a nuclear receptor whose primary role is to promote the detoxification and clearance of drugs and other foreign compounds from the body. AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze associations between NR1I2 polymorphisms, immunosuppressant drug...

  19. Limited contribution of NR5A1 (SF-1) mutations in women with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, F.; de With, L.M.; Duran, KJ; Kloosterman, W.P.; Goverde, A.J.; Lambalk, C.B.; Laven, J.S.E.; Fauser, B.C.J.M.; Giltay, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the significance of NR5A1 mutations in a large, well-phenotyped cohort of women with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). Mutations in the NR5A1 gene (SF-1) were previously described in disorders of sexual development and adrenal insufficiency. Recently, a high frequency of

  20. 7 CFR 981.21 - Trade demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade demand. 981.21 Section 981.21 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.21 Trade demand. Trade demand means the quantity of almonds..., bakery, ice cream, and nut salting trades will acquire from all handlers during a crop year for...

  1. 7 CFR 987.11 - Trade demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade demand. 987.11 Section 987.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.11 Trade demand. Trade demand means...

  2. 31 CFR 29.511 - Demand letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Demand letters. 29.511 Section 29.511... Overpayments § 29.511 Demand letters. Except as provided in § 29.516(e), before starting collection action to recover an overpayment, the Benefits Administrator must send a demand letter that informs the debtor in...

  3. 7 CFR 3560.709 - Demand letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demand letter. 3560.709 Section 3560.709 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Unauthorized Assistance § 3560.709 Demand letter. (a) If a... repayment schedule, the Agency will send the borrower a demand letter specifying: (1) The amount of...

  4. Distinct expression of synaptic NR2A and NR2B in the central nervous system and impaired morphine tolerance and physical dependence in mice deficient in postsynaptic density-93 protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johns Roger A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Postsynaptic density (PSD-93, a neuronal scaffolding protein, binds to and clusters N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR subunits NR2A and NR2B at cellular membranes in vitro. However, the roles of PSD-93 in synaptic NR2A and NR2B targeting in the central nervous system and NMDAR-dependent physiologic and pathologic processes are still unclear. We report here that PSD-93 deficiency significantly decreased the amount of NR2A and NR2B in the synaptosomal membrane fractions derived from spinal cord dorsal horn and forebrain cortex but did not change their levels in the total soluble fraction from either region. However, PSD-93 deficiency did not markedly change the amounts of NR2A and NR2B in either synaptosomal or total soluble fractions from cerebellum. In mice deficient in PSD-93, morphine dose-dependent curve failed to shift significantly rightward as it did in wild type (WT mice after acute and chronic morphine challenge. Unlike WT mice, PSD-93 knockout mice also showed marked losses of NMDAR-dependent morphine analgesic tolerance and associated abnormal sensitivity in response to mechanical, noxious thermal, and formalin-induced inflammatory stimuli after repeated morphine injection. In addition, PSD-93 knockout mice displayed dramatic loss of jumping activity, a typical NMDAR-mediated morphine withdrawal abstinence behavior. These findings indicate that impaired NMDAR-dependent neuronal plasticity following repeated morphine injection in PSD-93 knockout mice is attributed to PSD-93 deletion-induced alterations of synaptic NR2A and NR2B expression in dorsal horn and forebrain cortex neurons. The selective effect of PSD-93 deletion on synaptic NMDAR expression in these two major pain-related regions might provide the better strategies for the prevention and treatment of opioid tolerance and physical dependence.

  5. Iterative use of nuclear receptor Nr5a2 regulates multiple stages of liver and pancreas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, Sahar; Weeks, Olivia; Talbot, Jared C; Hedgepeth, John W; Wucherpfennig, Julia; Schatzman-Bone, Stephanie; Swinburne, Ian; Cortes, Mauricio; Alexa, Kristen; Megason, Sean; North, Trista E; Amacher, Sharon L; Goessling, Wolfram

    2016-10-01

    The stepwise progression of common endoderm progenitors into differentiated liver and pancreas organs is regulated by a dynamic array of signals that are not well understood. The nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, member 2 gene nr5a2, also known as Liver receptor homolog-1 (Lrh-1) is expressed in several tissues including the developing liver and pancreas. Here, we interrogate the role of Nr5a2 at multiple developmental stages using genetic and chemical approaches and uncover novel pleiotropic requirements during zebrafish liver and pancreas development. Zygotic loss of nr5a2 in a targeted genetic null mutant disrupted the development of the exocrine pancreas and liver, while leaving the endocrine pancreas intact. Loss of nr5a2 abrogated exocrine pancreas markers such as trypsin, while pancreas progenitors marked by ptf1a or pdx1 remained unaffected, suggesting a role for Nr5a2 in regulating pancreatic acinar cell differentiation. In the developing liver, Nr5a2 regulates hepatic progenitor outgrowth and differentiation, as nr5a2 mutants exhibited reduced hepatoblast markers hnf4α and prox1 as well as differentiated hepatocyte marker fabp10a. Through the first in vivo use of Nr5a2 chemical antagonist Cpd3, the iterative requirement for Nr5a2 for exocrine pancreas and liver differentiation was temporally elucidated: chemical inhibition of Nr5a2 function during hepatopancreas progenitor specification was sufficient to disrupt exocrine pancreas formation and enhance the size of the embryonic liver, suggesting that Nr5a2 regulates hepatic vs. pancreatic progenitor fate choice. Chemical inhibition of Nr5a2 at a later time during pancreas and liver differentiation was sufficient to block the formation of mature acinar cells and hepatocytes. These findings define critical iterative and pleiotropic roles for Nr5a2 at distinct stages of pancreas and liver organogenesis, and provide novel perspectives for interpreting the role of Nr5a2 in disease. Copyright © 2016

  6. Microstructure, molecular weight and thermal behavior of natural rubber (NR) from mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Expedito Flavio dos; Feitosa, Judith P.A.; Ricardo, Nagila M.P.S.

    2001-01-01

    The natural rubber (NR) from Hancornia speciosa contains characteristics that turns it a good alternative in elastomers supply. The NMR and IR spectra showed that the rubber of mangabeira is composed fundamentally by poly(1,4-cis-isoprene). The rubber molecular weight obtained by GPC and viscometry was 2,0x10 6 and 1,3x10 6 g/mol, respectively, in good agreement with the values determined for seringueira and manicoba NR. The glass transition temperature obtained by DSC (Tg = - 65 deg C) showed the mangabeira rubber is ideal to be utilized in regions of cold climate without compromising its mechanical properties. The rubber has also good thermal stability up to 213 deg C, as indicated by TG curves. This results indicated that the mangabeira NR can be effectively used in vulcanized articles or to be added to asphalt. (author)

  7. Measuring inaccuracy in travel demand forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2005-01-01

    Project promoters, forecasters, and managers sometimes object to two things in measuring inaccuracy in travel demand forecasting: (1)using the forecast made at the time of making the decision to build as the basis for measuring inaccuracy and (2)using traffic during the first year of operations...... in travel demand forecasts are likely to be conservatively biased, i.e., accuracy in travel demand forecasts estimated from such samples would likely be higher than accuracy in travel demand forecasts in the project population. This bias must be taken into account when interpreting the results from...... statistical analyses of inaccuracy in travel demand forecasting....

  8. Pharmacological Activators of the NR4A Nuclear Receptors Enhance LTP in a CREB/CBP-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridi, Morgan S; Hawk, Joshua D; Chatterjee, Snehajyoti; Safe, Stephen; Abel, Ted

    2017-05-01

    Nr4a nuclear receptors contribute to long-term memory formation and are required for long-term memory enhancement by a class of broad-acting drugs known as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate these genes and identifying ways to increase their activity may provide novel therapeutic approaches for ameliorating cognitive dysfunction. In the present study, we find that Nr4a gene expression after learning requires the cAMP-response element binding (CREB) interaction domain of the histone acetyltransferase CREB-binding protein (CBP). These gene expression deficits emerge at a time after learning marked by promoter histone acetylation in wild-type mice. Further, mutation of the CREB-CBP interaction domain reduces Nr4a promoter acetylation after learning. As memory enhancement by HDAC inhibitors requires CREB-CBP interaction and Nr4a gene function, these data support the notion that the balance of histone acetylation at the Nr4a promoters is critical for memory formation. NR4A ligands have recently been described, but the effect of these drugs on synaptic plasticity or memory has not been investigated. We find that the 'C-DIM' NR4A ligands, para-phenyl substituted di-indolylmethane compounds, enhance long-term contextual fear memory and increase the duration of long-term potentiation (LTP), a form of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. LTP enhancement by these drugs is eliminated in mice expressing a dominant negative form of NR4A and attenuated in mice with mutation of the CREB-CBP interaction domain. These data define the molecular connection between histone acetylation and Nr4a gene expression after learning. In addition, they suggest that NR4A-activating C-DIM compounds may serve as a potent and selective means to enhance memory and synaptic plasticity.

  9. Exploring Demand Charge Savings from Commercial Solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gagnon, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-31

    Commercial retail electricity rates commonly include a demand charge component, based on some measure of the customer’s peak demand. Customer-sited solar PV can potentially reduce demand charges, but the magnitude of these savings can be difficult to predict, given variations in demand charge designs, customer loads, and PV generation profiles. Moreover, depending on the circumstances, demand charges from solar may or may not align well with associated utility cost savings. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are collaborating in a series of studies to understand how solar PV can reduce demand charge levels for a variety of customer types and demand charges designs. Previous work focused on residential customs with solar. This study, instead, focuses on commercial customers and seeks to understand the extent and conditions under which rooftop can solar reduce commercial demand charges. To answer these questions, we simulate demand charge savings for a broad range of commercial customer types, demand charge designs, locations, and PV system characteristics. This particular analysis does not include storage, but a subsequent analysis in this series will evaluate demand charge savings for commercial customers with solar and storage.

  10. Demands of immigration among Chinese immigrant nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Amy X; Griffin, Mary T Quinn; Capitulo, Katie L; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the demands of immigration among Chinese nurses that have immigrated to the USA. The relationship between the demands of immigration and length of stay in the USA was investigated also. A descriptive correlational study design was used. A convenience sample of 128 nurses was recruited. A self-administered survey was conducted using the demands of immigration scale developed by Aroian, along with a demographic questionnaire. The results showed Chinese immigrant nurses have high demands of immigration. There were significant negative relationships between the demands of immigration and length of stay in the USA. Immigration demands decreased as length of stay increased but remained high even for those who had been in the USA for > 5 years. This information is vital to health-care agencies designing and implementing adaptation programmes targeting these demands to facilitate Chinese nurses' adaptation process. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Stability of Money Demand Function in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Sarwar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The role, which money demand function plays in monetary policy formulation has attracted a lot of research studies to analyze this macroeconomic phenomenon. In the wake of current global and local economic and political upheavals, it is imperative to revisit the stability of money demand function. The study used the time series data and applied latest econometric techniques to find out the long run and short run money demand relationship. Moreover, all the three official monetary aggregates were used for finding out the most stable monetary demand relationship, which could provide correct signals for monetary policy formulation. The study found that broader monetary aggregate (M2 was the proper aggregate, which provided stable money demand function for Pakistan. The real GDP was positively related to the demand for real balances, while opportunity cost of money was negatively related. The study found that the role of financial innovation, in explaining the demand for money warrants attention in formulating monetary policy.

  12. Crucial market demands and company competencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    More and more, it is acknowledged that a company's success depends on it being capable of complying with the market's demands and wishes. It is, however, not always obvious, how the individual company will be able to meet the market's demands. A recent MAPP study has investigated this topic...... and identified a number of central market demands, which Danish food companies are faced with. Moreover, the study has identified which competencies are required to meet these demands and have also looked at howsuccessful companies structure some of these competencies. The study takes its point of departure...... in a literature review of MAPP's research. Results show that there are 27 central market demands, retail and consumer demands that Danish companies ought to be able to live up to. The study has also identified which competencies food companies must possess to be able to meet market's demands. Results from three...

  13. Phase topology of a NR/BR elastomer blend with active filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plavšić Milenko B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The relations between the structure and mechanical properties of a polymer blend of natural (NR and polybutadiene (BR rubber (i.e. a NR/BR blend with the weight ratio of the components 70/30 filled with active carbon black were analysed. The properties of the individual phases in the blend were resolved by modeling the stress-strain relationship according to the Bauer procedure for high extensions. The obtained results indicated that BR is the dispersed phase, having a higher modulus, which was also confirmed by the much better fit of the experimental data to the series type of phase coupling according to the Takanayagy theory.

  14. Nuclear Knowledge - Demand or Pride?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeca, S.C.; Valeca, M.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Nowadays, the increasing energy demand and the decreasing 'classical' resources is a reality. In this context, sustainable development and economical growth is mandatory for each country. Nuclear energy becomes more and more attractive in order to solve those problems. During last years, nuclear knowledge management became an interesting topic in dedicated debates, due to the uniqueness of nuclear Industry. With five decades of operational experience in commercial power production, the nuclear power industry is mature and represents the first high technology enterprise of the twentieth century. There is a constant expectation that fission reactor technologies of today will 'soon' be superseded by more advanced designs, new concepts like Generation IV, fusion reactors, etc. Nuclear industry is highly regulated and politicized and strong anti-nuclear lobbies led to stagnation. The presentation underlines the key activity areas of the nuclear knowledge: - providing guidance for policy formulation and implementation of nuclear knowledge management; - strengthening the contribution of nuclear knowledge in solving development problems; - facilitating knowledge creation and utilization; - implementing effective knowledge management systems; - preserving and maintaining nuclear knowledge; - securing sustainable human resources for the nuclear sector; - enhancing nuclear education and training. Knowledge management in nuclear life cycle should cover all stages involved, namely: - design and engineering; - procurement; - manufacturing; - construction and commissioning; - operation and maintenance- refurbishment and decommissioning. In this context, Romania must change the Nuclear Educational System in order to face the requirements raised by Bologna Process and nuclear development. Possible solutions to attain this goal are illustrated in this presentation. (authors)

  15. World uranium supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The role of nuclear energy is under increasing scrutiny and uncertainty. None the less, there will be an increasing need for expansion of uranium supply to fuel committed reactors. Longer-term demand projections are very uncertain. Improved knowledge of the extent of world resources and their availability and economics is needed to support planning for reactor development, especially for breeder reactors, and for fuel-cycle development, especially enrichment, and reprocessing and recycle of uranium and plutonium. Efforts to date to estimate world uranium resources have been very useful but have largely reflected the state of available knowledge for the lower cost resources in regions that have received considerable exploration efforts. The IUREP evaluation of world resources provides an initial speculative estimate of world resources, including areas not previously appraised. Projections of long-range supply from the estimated resources suggest that the high-growth nuclear cases using once-through cycle may not be supportable for very long. However, additional effort is needed to appraise and report more completely and consistently on world resources, the production levels attainable from these resources, and the economic and price characteristics of such production. (author)

  16. Chinese energy demand falls back

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smil, V.

    1977-10-01

    China's growth in energy demand and production declined in 1976, partly because of difficulty of sustaining a rapid 5.4 percent growth and partly because of the disruptions caused by a major earthquake and the deaths of Mao Tse-Tung and Chou En-Lai. The earthquake, which damaged all mines, the power station, refineries, and transportation lines in the Tangshan area, has had serious economic consequences. The failure to back up a growing coal industry with adequate investments and mechanization was recognized in 1975 and prompted a 10-year modernization program. Progress has been made with new mine shafts, pulverizing equipment, and the use of small mines for local industries. Oil and gas production increased after the discovery of new fields and the use of new technology in the hydrocarbon industries. Ports and terminal facilities to handle large tankers will increase China's oil export traffic. Electricity generation increased with new power facilities, although China's dependence on human and animal power is still a major factor. Changes in energy consumption patterns are developing, but industry still represents 50 percent and transportation less than 10 percent. (DCK)

  17. BATMAN: MOS Spectroscopy on Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, E.; Zamkotsian, F.; Moschetti, M.; Spano, P.; Boschin, W.; Cosentino, R.; Ghedina, A.; González, M.; Pérez, H.; Lanzoni, P.; Ramarijaona, H.; Riva, M.; Zerbi, F.; Nicastro, L.; Valenziano, L.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Coretti, I.; Cirami, R.

    2016-10-01

    Multi-Object Spectrographs (MOS) are the major instruments for studying primary galaxies and remote and faint objects. Current object selection systems are limited and/or difficult to implement in next generation MOS for space and ground-based telescopes. A promising solution is the use of MOEMS devices such as micromirror arrays, which allow the remote control of the multi-slit configuration in real time. TNG is hosting a novelty project for real-time, on-demand MOS masks based on MOEMS programmable slits. We are developing a 2048×1080 Digital-Micromirror-Device-based (DMD) MOS instrument to be mounted on the Galileo telescope, called BATMAN. It is a two-arm instrument designed for providing in parallel imaging and spectroscopic capabilities. With a field of view of 6.8×3.6 arcmin and a plate scale of 0.2 arcsec per micromirror, this astronomical setup can be used to investigate the formation and evolution of galaxies. The wavelength range is in the visible and the spectral resolution is R=560 for a 1 arcsec object, and the two arms will have 2k × 4k CCD detectors. ROBIN, a BATMAN demonstrator, has been designed, realized and integrated. We plan to have BATMAN first light by mid-2016.

  18. Resource Demand Scenarios for the Major Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshkaki, Ayman; Graedel, T E; Ciacci, Luca; Reck, Barbara K

    2018-03-06

    The growth in metal use in the past few decades raises concern that supplies may be insufficient to meet demands in the future. From the perspective of historical and current use data for seven major metals-iron, manganese, aluminum, copper, nickel, zinc, and lead-we have generated several scenarios of potential metal demand from 2010 to 2050 under alternative patterns of global development. We have also compared those demands with various assessments of potential supply to midcentury. Five conclusions emerge: (1) The calculated demand for each of the seven metals doubles or triples relative to 2010 levels by midcentury; (2) The largest demand increases relate to a scenario in which increasingly equitable values and institutions prevail throughout the world; (3) The metal recycling flows in the scenarios meet only a modest fraction of future metals demand for the next few decades; (4) In the case of copper, zinc, and perhaps lead, supply may be unlikely to meet demand by about midcentury under the current use patterns of the respective metals; (5) Increased rates of demand for metals imply substantial new energy provisioning, leading to increases in overall global energy demand of 21-37%. These results imply that extensive technological transformations and governmental initiatives could be needed over the next several decades in order that regional and global development and associated metal demand are not to be constrained by limited metal supply.

  19. Emerging food demand behaviors in Malaysia: Incorporating quality effects in demand analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Tey, (John) Yeong-Sheng; Shamsudin, Mad Nasir; Mohamed, Zainalabidin; Abdullah, Amin Mahir; Radam, Alias

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the focus is on analyzing food demand behaviors in Malaysia. To be more specific, this study intends to estimate demand elasticities for twelve food categories with incorporation of food quality effects in the demand analyses. This study analyses the data from the Household Expenditure Survey 2004/2005 by Linear Approximate Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS) and unit value function. The estimated expenditure elasticities indicate that there will be growing demand for all the ...

  20. Overexpression of the NR2A subunit in the forebrain impairs long-term social recognition and non-social olfactory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, S A; Tsien, J Z

    2014-04-01

    Animals must recognize and remember conspecifics and potential mates, and distinguish these animals from potential heterospecific competitors and predators. Despite its necessity, aged animals are known to exhibit impaired social recognition memory. As the brain ages, the ratio of NR2A:NR2B in the brain increases over time and has been postulated to underlie the cognitive decline observed during the aging process. Here, we test the hypothesis that an increased NR2A:NR2B subunit ratio underlies long-term social recognition memory. Using transgenic overexpression of NR2A in the forebrain regions, we investigated the ability of these mice to learn and remember male and female conspecifics, mice of another strain and animals of another rodent species, the rat. Furthermore, due to the importance of olfaction in social recognition, we tested the olfactory memory in the NR2A transgenic mice. Our series of behavioral experiments revealed significant impairments in the NR2A transgenic mice in long-term social memory of both male and female conspecifics. Additionally, the NR2A transgenic mice are unable to recognize mice of another strain or rats. The NR2A transgenic mice also exhibited long-term memory impairments in the olfactory recognition task. Taken together, our results provide evidence that an increased NR2A:NR2B ratio in the forebrain leads to reduced long-term memory function, including the ethologically important memories such as social recognition and olfactory memory.

  1. Demand forecast model based on CRM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuancui; Chen, Lichao

    2006-11-01

    With interiorizing day by day management thought that regarding customer as the centre, forecasting customer demand becomes more and more important. In the demand forecast of customer relationship management, the traditional forecast methods have very great limitation because much uncertainty of the demand, these all require new modeling to meet the demands of development. In this paper, the notion is that forecasting the demand according to characteristics of the potential customer, then modeling by it. The model first depicts customer adopting uniform multiple indexes. Secondly, the model acquires characteristic customers on the basis of data warehouse and the technology of data mining. The last, there get the most similar characteristic customer by their comparing and forecast the demands of new customer by the most similar characteristic customer.

  2. Demand Response on domestic thermostatically controlled loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam

    Electricity has become an inevitable part of human life in present day world. In the past two centuries, the electric power system has undergone a lot of changes. Due to the awareness about the adverse impact of the fossil fuels, the power industry is adopting green and sustainable energy sources...... with renewable energy sources, the production cannot be adjusted to match the demand due to the fluctuating nature of the renewable energy sources. Therefore, the demand has to be adjusted to match the power production. The concept of adjusting the demand to match the production is called demand response...... prediction strategy is developed to predict the refrigerator temperature and to estimate the flexibility available for demand response activation. A field experiment with refrigerators is conducted to study secondary frequency control using demand response activation on TCLs. The response time and the ramp...

  3. Food safety information and food demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Sinne; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze how news about food-related health risks affects consumers’ demands for safe food products. Design/methodology/approach – By identifying structural breaks in an econometrically estimated demand model, news with permanent impact on demand...... induces a permanent increase in the demand for pasteurized eggs, while more moderate negative news influences demand temporarily and to a lesser extent. There is, however, considerable variation in the response to food safety news across socio-demographic groups of consumers. Research limitations....../implications – The study has focused on the demand for raw eggs. Responses to food safety news may differ across foods. Furthermore, the study abstracts from possible cross-effects of safety news concerning other foods. Practical implications – The findings may be utilized for optimization of the timing and targeting...

  4. Influence of acetone extract from natural rubber on the structure and interface interaction in NR/silica composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tiwen; Jia, Zhixin; Wu, Lianghui; Chen, Yongjun; Luo, Yuanfang; Jia, Demin; Peng, Zheng

    2017-11-01

    It is well known that the coupling reagents as the additional modifiers were often used to improve the reinforcement effect of silica filled natural rubber. Actually, the commercial raw NR is a mixture consisting of polyisoprene and non-isoprene, where the latter one might have impact on the properties of NR/silica composites as an inartificial modifier inside. Thus, investigating the effect of non-isoprene compounds on the structure and properties of NR/silica composites is a novel approach to disclose the peculiarity of NR, which is meaningful to the assessment of NR quality. In this paper, the influences of acetone extract (AE) from natural rubber on the structure and mechanical properties of NR/silica composites were studied. Then the interfacial interactions between AE and silica were also illustrated through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetic analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results demonstrated the existence of hydrogen bond between silica and AE, also the covalent bond induced by esterification reaction between sbnd COOH and Sisbnd OH, which resulted in an increase of constrained regions around silica surface leading to the promotions on mechanical and dynamical properties of NR/silica composites significantly.

  5. Behavioral analysis of NR2C knockout mouse reveals deficit in acquisition of conditioned fear and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Brandon G; Gupta, Subhash C; Stairs, Dustin J; Buonanno, Andres; Dravid, Shashank M

    2011-05-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors play an important role in excitatory neurotransmission and mediate synaptic plasticity associated with learning and memory. NMDA receptors are composed of two NR1 and two NR2 subunits and the identity of the NR2 subunit confers unique electrophysiologic and pharmacologic properties to the receptor. The precise role of NR2C-containing receptors in vivo is poorly understood. We have performed a battery of behavioral tests on NR2C knockout/nβ-galactosidase knock-in mice and found no difference in spontaneous activity, basal anxiety, forced-swim immobility, novel object recognition, pain sensitivity and reference memory in comparison to wildtype counterparts. However, NR2C knockout mice were found to exhibit deficits in fear acquisition and working memory compared to wildtype mice. Deficit in fear acquisition correlated with lack of fear conditioning-induced plasticity at the thalamo-amygdala synapse. These findings suggest a unique role of NR2C-containing receptors in associative and executive learning representing a novel therapeutic target for deficits in cognition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A role of periaqueductal grey NR2B-containing NMDA receptor in mediating persistent inflammatory pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Qi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG is a structure known for its roles in pain transmission and modulation. Noxious stimuli potentiate the glutamate synaptic transmission and enhance glutamate NMDA receptor expression in the PAG. However, little is known about roles of NMDA receptor subunits in the PAG in processing the persistent inflammatory pain. The present study was undertaken to investigate NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG and their modulation to the peripheral painful inflammation. Noxious stimuli induced by hind-paw injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA caused up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG, while NR2A-containing NMDA receptors were not altered. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that NMDA receptor mediated mEPSCs were increased significantly in the PAG synapse during the chronic phases of inflammatory pain in mice. PAG local infusion of Ro 25-6981, an NR2B antagonist, notably prolonged the paw withdrawal latency to thermal radian heat stimuli bilaterally in rats. Hyperoside (Hyp, one of the flavonoids compound isolated from Rhododendron ponticum L., significantly reversed up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG and exhibited analgesic activities against persistent inflammatory stimuli in mice. Our findings provide strong evidence that up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG involves in the modulation to the peripheral persistent inflammatory pain.

  7. Determinação do teor de NR/SBR em misturas: associação de dados DTG e FT-IR Determination of NR/SBR content in blends: combining DTG and FT-IR data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita C. L. Dutra

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Misturas contendo teor conhecido de borracha natural (NR e copolímero de butadieno e estireno (SBR foram preparadas nos laboratórios do CTA e do IFOCA como amostras de referência para a elaboração de uma curva analítica, visando à determinação do teor de NR e SBR por análise pirólise/FT-IR. Termogravimetria foi usada para determinar o teor real de NR e SBR nas misturas por meio da razão entre as alturas dos picos da curva derivada (DTG. As bandas FT-IR escolhidas na região MIR foram 885 cm-1 (A1 para NR e 699 cm-1 (A2 para SBR. Os valores de absorvância relativa (A1/A2 versus a relação NR/SBR, obtida a partir dos dados fornecidos pela análise DTG, foram usados para construir uma curva com uma boa correlação linear (R=0,998, a qual possibilita determinar os teores de NR e SBR em misturas onde os componentes têm a mesma composição química.Blends with known contents of natural rubber (NR and butadiene-styrene copolymer (SBR were prepared at CTA and IFOCA laboratories as sample references for producing an analytical curve to determine the contents of NR and SBR via pyrolysis/FT-IR analysis. Thermogravimetry was used to quantify the real content of NR and SBR in the blends through the ratio between the intensity of the peaks in the derivative curve (DTG. The FT-IR analytical bands chosen at MIR region were 885 cm-1 (A1 for NR and 699 cm-1 (A2 for SBR. Values of relative absorbance (A1/A2 versus the NR/SBR contents data obtained from DTG analysis were used to construct an analytical curve with a good linear correlation (R=0.998 which allows one to determine contents of NR and SBR in blends of similar composition.

  8. Comprehensive areal model of residential heating demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmer, R.G. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Data sources and methodology for modeling annual residential heating demands are described. A small areal basis is chosen, census tract or minor civil division, to permit estimation of demand densities and economic evaluation of community district heating systems. The demand model is specified for the entire nation in order to provide general applicability and to permit validation with other published fuel consumption estimates for 1970.

  9. Modelling the Demand for Money in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Qayyum, Abdul

    2005-01-01

    The study estimates the dynamic demand for money (M2) function in Pakistan by employing cointegration analysis and error correction mechanism. The parameters of preferred model are found to be super-exogenous for the relevant class of interventions. It is found that the rate of inflation is an important determinant of money demand in Pakistan. The analysis reveals that the rates of interest, market rate, and bond yield are important for the long-run money demand behaviour. Since the preferred...

  10. PSD95 suppresses dendritic arbor development in mature hippocampal neurons by occluding the clustering of NR2B-NMDA receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando J Bustos

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence indicates that the NMDA receptor (NMDAR subunits NR2A and NR2B are critical mediators of synaptic plasticity and dendritogenesis; however, how they differentially regulate these processes is unclear. Here we investigate the roles of the NR2A and NR2B subunits, and of their scaffolding proteins PSD-95 and SAP102, in remodeling the dendritic architecture of developing hippocampal neurons (2-25 DIV. Analysis of the dendritic architecture and the temporal and spatial expression patterns of the NMDARs and anchoring proteins in immature cultures revealed a strong positive correlation between synaptic expression of the NR2B subunit and dendritogenesis. With maturation, the pruning of dendritic branches was paralleled by a strong reduction in overall and synaptic expression of NR2B, and a significant elevation in synaptic expression of NR2A and PSD95. Using constructs that alter the synaptic composition, we found that either over-expression of NR2B or knock-down of PSD95 by shRNA-PSD95 augmented dendritogenesis in immature neurons. Reactivation of dendritogenesis could also be achieved in mature cultured neurons, but required both manipulations simultaneously, and was accompanied by increased dendritic clustering of NR2B. Our results indicate that the developmental increase in synaptic expression of PSD95 obstructs the synaptic clustering of NR2B-NMDARs, and thereby restricts reactivation of dendritic branching. Experiments with shRNA-PSD95 and chimeric NR2A/NR2B constructs further revealed that C-terminus of the NR2B subunit (tail was sufficient to induce robust dendritic branching in mature hippocampal neurons, and suggest that the NR2B tail is important in recruiting calcium-dependent signaling proteins and scaffolding proteins necessary for dendritogenesis.

  11. 75 FR 2929 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 13614-NR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... volunteer tax return preparers receive quality training and tools, form 13614-NR ensures they consistently... displays a valid OMB control number. Books or records relating to a collection of information must be.... Generally, tax returns and tax return information are confidential, as required by 26 U.S.C. 6103. Request...

  12. SRC Inhibition Reduces NR2B Surface Expression and Synaptic Plasticity in the Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinai, Laleh; Duffy, Steven; Roder, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The Src protein tyrosine kinase plays a central role in the regulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity by regulating NMDAR subunit 2B (NR2B) surface expression. In the amygdala, NMDA-dependent synaptic plasticity resulting from convergent somatosensory and auditory inputs contributes to emotional memory; however, the role of Src…

  13. WEEKLY BULLETIN PUBLICATION Jeûne genevois - Weekly Bulletin nr 37/2000

    CERN Multimedia

    Section Media & Publications; Tél. 73830; Media & Publication Section; ETT Division; Tel. 73830

    2000-01-01

    As Thursday 7 September is a Holiday (Jeûne genevois), material for publication in Weekly Bulletin nr 37/2000, to appear on Friday 8 September and covering the week of Monday 11 September, should reach us one day earlier than usual, I.E. by noon on Monday 4 September. Thank for your understanding.

  14. Schostakowitsch: Sinfonie Nr. 12 op. 112 (Das Jahr 1917) / Hans-Christian Dadelsen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Dadelsen, Hans-Christian

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Schostakowitsch: Sinfonie Nr. 12 op. 112 (Das Jahr 1917). Hamlet-Suite op. 32a. Das goldene Zeitalter [The Age of Gold] (Suite) op. 22a. Göteborger Symphoniker, Neeme Järvi". DG CD 431 688-2 (WD:77'21") DDD

  15. Behavioral assays for evaluating host preferences of Euwallacea nr. fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, the exotic ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea nr. fornicatus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) was first discovered in Florida avocado groves. Introduction of its symbiotic Fusarium spp. fungi into galleries in the xylem tissue results in Fusarium-dieback disease. Unlike most ambros...

  16. miR-27b inhibits gastric cancer metastasis by targeting NR2F2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhao Feng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Increasing attention is focused on the down-regulation of miRNAs in cancer process. Nuclear receptor subfamily 2 (NR2F2, also known as COUP-TFII is involved in the development of many types of cancers, but its role in gastric cancer remains elusive. In this experiment, oncomine and Kaplan-meier database revealed that NR2F2 was up-regulated in gastric cancer and that the high NR2F2 expression contributed to poor survival. MicroRNA-27b was targeted and down-regulated by NR2F2 in human gastric cancer tissues and cells. The ectopic expression of miR-27b inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Assays suggested that the overexpression of miR-27b could promote MGC-803 cells’ migration and invasion and retard their metastasis to the liver. In addition, down-regulation of miR-27b enhanced GES-1 cells’ proliferation and metastasis in vitro. These findings reveal that miR-27b is a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer and a biomarker for improving patients’ survival.

  17. Mahler: Sinfonie Nr. 8 Es-Dur (Sinfonie der Tausend) / Norbert Rüdell

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rüdell, Norbert

    1995-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Mahler: Sinfonie Nr. 8 Es-Dur (Sinfonie der Tausend). Estonian Boys' Choir, Brunnsbo Children's Choir, Gothenburg Opera Chorus, Royal Stockholm Philharmonic Choir, Gothenburg Symphony Chorus, Gothenburg Opera Chorus, Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. BIS/Disco-Center CD 700 (WD:72'18")

  18. Barber: Sinfonie Nr. 1, Op. 9, Neeme Järvi / Bernhard Uske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uske, Bernhard

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Barber: Sinfonie Nr. 1, Op. 9. Ouvertüre School for Scandal, Op. 5; Beach: Sinfonie e-Moll, Op. 32, "Gaelic". Detroit Symphony Orchestra /Neeme Järvi". Chandes cassette ABTD 1550; CD CHAN 8958 (72 minutes)

  19. Passage nr. 47: Det encyklopædiske

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    I Passage nr. 47 underkastes det svært bestemmelige encyklopædiske felt en nærmere undersøgelse. Med en række artikler, der gransker det encyklopædiske lige fra senantikkens eklektiske genbrug til informationssamfundets overflod af såvel nyttige som ubrugelige oplysninger, og som griber feltet an...

  20. Development of radiotracers for imaging NR2B subtype NMDA receptors with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labas, R.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to develop new radioactive tracers for imaging NR2B subtype NMDA receptors with positron emission tomography. Several compounds including 4-(4-fluoro-benzyl)piperidine and presenting interesting in vivo biological properties were the object of a labelling with a positrons emitter atom ( 11 C or 18 F)

  1. Net-Ready Key Performance Parameter (NR-KPP) Implementation Guidebook. Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    Information Enterprise Architecture ( DIEA ) business rules and principles, and DISR policies. DoDAF views produced throughout the NR-KPP development process...of Defense DoDAF Department of Defense Architecture Framework DIEA DoD Information Enterprise Architecture DISA Defense Information Systems Agency

  2. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-NR-2 Operable Unit. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This qualitative risk assessment provides information about the 100- NR-2 Groundwater Operable Unit of the Hanford reservation. Topics discussed in this report are: data evaluation; human health risk assessment overview; ecological evaluations; summary of uncertainty; results of both the ecological and human health evaluations; toxicity assessment; risk characterization; and a summary of contaminants of potential concern

  3. Demand flexibility from residential heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2014-01-01

    with high thermal time constant, heat pumps (HP) can offer a great deal of flexibility in the future intelligent grids especially to compensate fluctuating generation. However, the HP flexibility is highly dependent on thermal demand profile, namely hot water and space heating demand. This paper proposes...... price based scheduling followed by a demand dispatch based central control and a local voltage based adaptive control, to realize HP demand flexibility. Two-step control architecture, namely local primary control encompassed by the central coordinative control, is proposed to implement...... the aforementioned control techniques. Results show that HP flexibility can contribute significantly to both the local network and system level balancing....

  4. Money Demand Features in CEE Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina-Ioana MERA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a stable relationship between money demand and its determinants is important for the efficiency of monetary policy. In this paper we carried a preliminary analysis on the variables that can influence money demand in five Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Romania in order to determine which characteristics define the evolution of money demand and its determinants, and how volatile they are. The results indicate a number of similarities in terms of monetary development and also suggest that some additional variables that may influence money demand in this specific sample.

  5. NR2 subunits and NMDA receptors on lamina II inhibitory and excitatory interneurons of the mouse dorsal horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacDermott Amy B

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NMDA receptors expressed by spinal cord neurons in the superficial dorsal horn are involved in the development of chronic pain associated with inflammation and nerve injury. The superficial dorsal horn has a complex and still poorly understood circuitry that is mainly populated by inhibitory and excitatory interneurons. Little is known about how NMDA receptor subunit composition, and therefore pharmacology and voltage dependence, varies with neuronal cell type. NMDA receptors are typically composed of two NR1 subunits and two of four NR2 subunits, NR2A-2D. We took advantage of the differences in Mg2+ sensitivity of the NMDA receptor subtypes together with subtype preferring antagonists to identify the NR2 subunit composition of NMDA receptors expressed on lamina II inhibitory and excitatory interneurons. To distinguish between excitatory and inhibitory interneurons, we used transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein driven by the GAD67 promoter. Results Analysis of conductance ratio and selective antagonists showed that lamina II GABAergic interneurons express both the NR2A/B containing Mg2+ sensitive receptors and the NR2C/D containing NMDA receptors with less Mg2+ sensitivity. In contrast, excitatory lamina II interneurons express primarily NR2A/B containing receptors. Despite this clear difference in NMDA receptor subunit expression in the two neuronal populations, focally stimulated synaptic input is mediated exclusively by NR2A and 2B containing receptors in both neuronal populations. Conclusions Stronger expression of NMDA receptors with NR2C/D subunits by inhibitory interneurons compared to excitatory interneurons may provide a mechanism to selectively increase activity of inhibitory neurons during intense excitatory drive that can provide inhibitory feedback.

  6. HCV core protein promotes hepatocyte proliferation and chemoresistance by inhibiting NR4A1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Yongsheng; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of HCV core protein on the proliferation of hepatocytes and hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC), the influence of HCV core protein on HCC apoptosis induced by the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin, and the mechanism through which HCV core protein acts as a potential oncoprotein in HCV-related HCC by measuring the levels of NR4A1 and Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3), which are associated with tumor suppression and chemotherapy resistance. In the present study, PcDNA3.1-core and RUNX3 siRNA were transfected into LO2 and HepG2 cells using Lipofectamine 2000. LO2-core, HepG2-core, LO2-RUNX3 low and control cells were treated with different concentrations of cisplatin for 72 h, and cell proliferation and apoptosis were assayed using the CellTiter 96 ® Aqueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay Kit. Western blot and real time PCR analyses were used to detect NR4A1, RUNX3, smad7, Cyclin D1 and BAX. Confocal microscopy was used to determine the levels of NR4A1 in HepG2 and HepG2-core cells. The growth rate of HepG2-core cells was considerably greater than that of HepG2 cells. HCV core protein increased the expression of cyclin D1 and decreased the expressions of NR4A1 and RUNX3. In LO2 – RUNX3 low , the rate of cell proliferation and the level of cisplatin resistance were the same as in the LO2 -core. These results suggest that HCV core protein decreases the sensitivity of hepatocytes to cisplatin by inhibiting the expression of NR4A1 and promoting the expression of smad7, which negatively regulates the TGF-β pathway. This effect results in down regulation of RUNX3, a target of the TGF-β pathway. Taken together, these findings indicate that in hepatocytes, HCV core protein increases drug resistance and inhibits cell apoptosis by inhibiting the expressions of NR4A1 and RUNX3. - Highlights: • HCV core protein inhibits HepG2 cell sensitivity to cisplatin. • Core expression in HepG2 decreases expression of NR4A1.

  7. HCV core protein promotes hepatocyte proliferation and chemoresistance by inhibiting NR4A1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Yongsheng, E-mail: yongshengtanwhu@126.com; Li, Yan, E-mail: liyansd2@163.com

    2015-10-23

    This study investigated the effect of HCV core protein on the proliferation of hepatocytes and hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC), the influence of HCV core protein on HCC apoptosis induced by the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin, and the mechanism through which HCV core protein acts as a potential oncoprotein in HCV-related HCC by measuring the levels of NR4A1 and Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3), which are associated with tumor suppression and chemotherapy resistance. In the present study, PcDNA3.1-core and RUNX3 siRNA were transfected into LO2 and HepG2 cells using Lipofectamine 2000. LO2-core, HepG2-core, LO2-RUNX3 {sup low} and control cells were treated with different concentrations of cisplatin for 72 h, and cell proliferation and apoptosis were assayed using the CellTiter 96{sup ®}Aqueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay Kit. Western blot and real time PCR analyses were used to detect NR4A1, RUNX3, smad7, Cyclin D1 and BAX. Confocal microscopy was used to determine the levels of NR4A1 in HepG2 and HepG2-core cells. The growth rate of HepG2-core cells was considerably greater than that of HepG2 cells. HCV core protein increased the expression of cyclin D1 and decreased the expressions of NR4A1 and RUNX3. In LO2 – RUNX3 {sup low}, the rate of cell proliferation and the level of cisplatin resistance were the same as in the LO2 -core. These results suggest that HCV core protein decreases the sensitivity of hepatocytes to cisplatin by inhibiting the expression of NR4A1 and promoting the expression of smad7, which negatively regulates the TGF-β pathway. This effect results in down regulation of RUNX3, a target of the TGF-β pathway. Taken together, these findings indicate that in hepatocytes, HCV core protein increases drug resistance and inhibits cell apoptosis by inhibiting the expressions of NR4A1 and RUNX3. - Highlights: • HCV core protein inhibits HepG2 cell sensitivity to cisplatin. • Core expression in HepG2 decreases

  8. Uso de una conantokina y anticuerpos policlonales para identificar la subunidad NR2B del receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Lareo,†

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Proponer una metodología de identificación de la subunidad NR2B, mediante el uso de conantokina G, así como una adecuada extracción de la subunidad NR2B. Materiales y métodos. Se ensayaron dos metodologías para la extracción de la subunidad NR2B de cerebro de rata adulta, la primera buscó la extracción de la subunidad a partir de la membrana mediante la utilización del detergente deoxicolato de sodio y la segunda, garantizó primero la solubilización y eliminación de proteínas citoplasmáticas para luego realizar la extracción de la subunidad mediante el uso del mismo detergente, a partir del pellet generado en la centrifugación del extracto obtenido. Adicionalmente se biotiniló la conantokina G para evaluar su eficiencia en la identificación de la subunidad y comparar los resultados con los obtenidos por metodologías tradicionales como DOT-BLOT, WESTERN-BLOT, ELISA e Inmunohistoquímica. Resultados. La segunda metodología mostró mayor extracción de NR2B por lo que se seleccionó para la realización de los extractos posteriores. Los ensayos de identificación con la conantokina biotinilada evidenciaron interferencia en el reconocimiento, haciéndose necesaria la identificación de la presencia de la subunidad NR2B mediante el uso de anticuerpos policlonales en los ensayos mencionados. Conclusiones. Se propone que hay un impedimento de tipo estérico en el marcaje de la conantokina con la biotina lo que no favorece la interacción de este péptido con la subunidad.

  9. Drivers of U.S. mineral demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznopek, John L.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The word 'demand' has different meanings for different people. To some, it means their 'wants and needs,' to others it is what they consume. Yet, when considering economics, demand refers to the specific amounts of goods or services that individuals will purchase at various prices. Demand is measured over a given time period. It is determined by a number of factors including income, tastes, and the price of complementary and substitute goods. In this paper, the term consumption is used fairly synonymously with the term demand. Most mineral commodities, like iron ore, copper, zinc, and gravel, are intermediate goods, which means that they are used in the production of other goods, called final goods. Demand for intermediate goods is called derived demand because such demand is derived from the demand for final goods. When demand increases for a commodity, generally the price rises. With everything else held constant, this increases the profits for those who provide this commodity. Normally, this would increase profits of existing producers and attract new producers to the market. When demand for a commodity decreases, generally the price falls. Normally, this would cause profits to fall and, as a consequence, the least efficient firms may be forced from the industry. Demand changes for specific materials as final goods or production techniques are reengineered while maintaining or improving product performance, for example, the use of aluminum in the place of copper in long distance electrical transmission lines or plastic replacing steel in automobile bumpers. Substitution contributes to efficient material usage by utilizing cheaper or technically superior materials. In this way, it may also alleviate materials scarcity. If a material becomes relatively scarce (and thus more expensive), a more abundant (and less expensive) material generally replaces it (Wagner and others, 2003, p. 91).

  10. Ethanol demand in Brazil: Regional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Luciano Charlita de; Kaneko, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    Successive studies attempting to clarify national aspects of ethanol demand have assisted policy makers and producers in defining strategies, but little information is available on the dynamic of regional ethanol markets. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of ethanol demand at the regional level taking into account the peculiarities of the developed center-south and the developing north-northeast regions. Regional ethanol demand is evaluated based on a set of market variables that include ethanol price, consumer's income, vehicle stock and prices of substitute fuels; i.e., gasoline and natural gas. A panel cointegration analysis with monthly observations from January 2003 to April 2010 is employed to estimate the long-run demand elasticity. The results reveal that the demand for ethanol in Brazil differs between regions. While in the center-south region the price elasticity for both ethanol and alternative fuels is high, consumption in the north-northeast is more sensitive to changes in the stock of the ethanol-powered fleet and income. These, among other evidences, suggest that the pattern of ethanol demand in the center-south region most closely resembles that in developed nations, while the pattern of demand in the north-northeast most closely resembles that in developing nations. - Research highlights: → Article consists of a first insight on regional demand for ethanol in Brazil. → It proposes a model with multiple fuels, i.e., hydrous ethanol, gasohol and natural gas. → Results evidence that figures for regional demand for ethanol differ amongst regions and with values reported for national demand. → Elasticities for the center-south keep similarities to patterns for fuel demand in developed nations while coefficients for the north-northeast are aligned to patterns on developing countries.

  11. 7 CFR 984.22 - Trade demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade demand. 984.22 Section 984.22 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.22 Trade demand. (a) Inshell. The quantity of merchantable inshell walnuts that the trade will acquire from all handlers during a marketing year for distribution in the...

  12. Simple utility functions with Giffen demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Norman

    2007-01-01

    Simple utility functions with the Giffen property are presented: locally, the demand curve for a good is upward sloping. The utility functions represent continuous, monotone, convex preferences......Simple utility functions with the Giffen property are presented: locally, the demand curve for a good is upward sloping. The utility functions represent continuous, monotone, convex preferences...

  13. Teaching Aggregate Demand and Supply Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Graeme

    2010-01-01

    The author analyzes the inflation-targeting model that underlies recent textbook expositions of the aggregate demand-aggregate supply approach used in introductory courses in macroeconomics. He shows how numerical simulations of a model with inflation inertia can be used as a tool to help students understand adjustments in response to demand and…

  14. Water Demand Management Policy Brief No

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Bob Stanley

    Water Demand Management. Policy Brief No.2. Fair share: Water Demand Management can help provide fair access to water for the poor. Water Policy. Brief no.2. The Millennium Development Goals identify lack of clean water supply as a key factor in the lives of the poor. Eighty percent of poor people questioned in 20 ...

  15. 12 CFR 404.27 - Demand requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... production of records is requested to be taken and/or produced. A copy of the affidavit or written statement... of Current and Former Ex-Im Bank Personnel and for Production of Ex-Im Bank Records § 404.27 Demand requirements. A party's demand for testimony and/or production of records by Ex-Im Bank personnel regarding...

  16. Improving Water Demand Management Addressing Socioeconomic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Efforts to conserve water by improving water demand management policies in the Middle East and North Africa are often slowed or even thwarted by a lack of political consensus and support for water demand management from key powerful stakeholders with vested interest in the status quo. This policy brief based on ...

  17. Demand for wildlife hunting in British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, L.; Kooten, van G.C.; Voss, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    We present estimates of the demand for hunting licenses by residents and nonresidents in British Columbia for the period 19712000. We obtain estimates of both short-run and long-run price elasticities and discuss their revenue implications for future fee increases. We find the demand by nonresidents

  18. Cost and Demand Characteristics of Telecom Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    1997-01-01

    The Chapter presents the general characteristics of the cost and demand profiles for telecommunication services and identifies the barriers towards a free competitive market for telecommunication services related to these characteristics.......The Chapter presents the general characteristics of the cost and demand profiles for telecommunication services and identifies the barriers towards a free competitive market for telecommunication services related to these characteristics....

  19. A Novel Technique to Enhance Demand Responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farashbashi-Astaneh, Seyed-Mostafa; Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new pricing approach is proposed to increase demand responsiveness. The proposed approach considers two well-known demand side management techniques, namely peak shaving and valley filling. This is done by incentivising consumers by magnifying price difference between peak and off...

  20. Lighting Systems Control for Demand Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husen, S.A.; Pandharipande, A.; Tolhuizen, L.M.G.; Wang, Y.; Zhao, M.

    2012-01-01

    Lighting is a major part of energy consumption in buildings. Lighting systems will thus be one of the important component systems of a smart grid for dynamic load management services like demand response.In the scenario considered in this paper, under a demand response request, lighting systems in a

  1. Evaluation of the MEDLARS Demand Search Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, F.W.

    A detailed analysis was made by the National Library of Medicine of the performance of the Medical Literature and Analysis System (MEDLARS) in relation to 300 actual "demand search" requests made to the systems in 1966 and 1967. The objectives of the study were : (1) to study the demand search requirements of MEDLARS users, (2) to…

  2. P. Electricity demand, substitution and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This report discusses the demand for electricity in New Zealand, the accuracy of demand predictions, and whether some other form of energy could be substituted for electricity. It then discusses past and possible future electricity generation in New Zealand by geothermal steam and hydro power and the resources of gas and coal that could be made available for electricity generation

  3. Intermittent demand : Linking forecasting to inventory obsolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, Ruud H.; Syntetos, Aris A.; Babai, M. Zied

    2011-01-01

    The standard method to forecast intermittent demand is that by Croston. This method is available in ERP-type solutions such as SAP and specialised forecasting software packages (e.g. Forecast Pro), and often applied in practice. It uses exponential smoothing to separately update the estimated demand

  4. Information management - Assessing the demand for information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, William H.

    1991-01-01

    Information demand is defined in terms of both information content (what information) and form (when, how, and where it is needed). Providing the information richness required for flight crews to be informed without overwhelming their information processing capabilities will require a great deal of automated intelligence. It is seen that the essence of this intelligence is comprehending and capturing the demand for information.

  5. Reporting, Recording, and Transferring Contingency Demand Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Bernard

    2000-01-01

    .... In this report, we develop a standard set of procedures for reporting and recording demand data at the contingency location and transferring contingency demand data to the home base - ensuring proper level allocation and valid worldwide peacetime operating stock (POS) and readiness spares package (RSP) requirements.

  6. Pathological Demand Avoidance: Exploring the Behavioural Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Nions, Elizabeth; Viding, Essi; Greven, Corina U; Ronald, Angelica; Happé, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    "Pathological Demand Avoidance" is a term increasingly used by practitioners in the United Kingdom. It was coined to describe a profile of obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests, with a tendency to resort to "socially manipulative" behaviour, including outrageous or embarrassing acts. Pathological demand…

  7. Performance demand and sexual arousal in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, E.; Everaerd, W.; van Aanhold, M. T.; Rebel, M.

    1993-01-01

    Up to now, no experimental studies have inquired into the possible role of performance demand in female sexuality. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of performance demand on sexual arousal in functional women, using explicit instructions. Forty-eight female subjects were

  8. Job demands, health perception and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.; Koopmans, P.C.; de Graaf, J.H.; van Zandbergen, J.W.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background Investigation of the relations between job demands, health and sickness absence is required to design a strategy for the prevention of absence and disability. Aim To study the relationships between (physical and psychological) job demands, health perception and sickness absence. Methods

  9. Improving Water Demand Management Addressing Socioeconomic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-01-20

    Jan 20, 2012 ... Efforts to conserve water by improving water demand management policies in the Middle East and North Africa are often slowed or even thwarted by a lack of political consensus and support for water demand management from key powerful stakeholders with vested interest in the status quo. This policy ...

  10. Improving Water Demand Management by Addressing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Efforts to conserve water by improving water demand management policies in the Middle East and. North Africa are often slowed or even thwarted by a lack of political consensus and support for water demand management from key powerful stakeholders with vested interest in the status quo. This policy brief based on ...

  11. Water Demand Management Policy Brief No

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Bob Stanley

    Water demand management ― WDM ― can be hard to define. More an issue of policy than of technology, it is about managing and moderating our demands for good quality fresh water. It is less a matter of piping and pumps and more a tool for changing the ways we use water and the rates at which we use it. In practice ...

  12. The balance of supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmayan, P.

    1981-01-01

    The Supply and Demand Committee of the Uranium Institute was established to monitor continuously information and developments bearing on the uranium market and to publish from time to time reports giving its views on the supply and demand outlook. The last Uranium Institute supply and demand report was compiled at the beginning of 1979. Its main conclusions were that from 1979 to 1990 the flexibilities of the market were such as to offer adequate scope to producers and consumers of uranium to ensure a balance between supply and demand. Is that conclusion still valid one and a half years later. Some of the Supply and Demand Committee's more recent estimates are reported under the headings: reactor orders and cancellations; revised Institute forecasts of nuclear capacity; uranium supply; main implications of the new forecasts. (U.K.)

  13. Option value of electricity demand response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sezgen, Osman; Goldman, C.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley CA 94720 (United States); Krishnarao, P. [Citigroup Energy Inc., 1301 Fannin St, Houston, TX 77002 (United States)

    2007-02-15

    As electricity markets deregulate and energy tariffs increasingly expose customers to commodity price volatility, it is difficult for energy consumers to assess the economic value of investments in technologies that manage electricity demand in response to changing energy prices. The key uncertainties in evaluating the economics of demand-response technologies are the level and volatility of future wholesale energy prices. In this paper, we demonstrate that financial engineering methodologies originally developed for pricing equity and commodity derivatives (e.g., futures, swaps, options) can be used to estimate the value of demand-response technologies. We adapt models used to value energy options and assets to value three common demand-response strategies: load curtailment, load shifting or displacement, and short-term fuel substitution-specifically, distributed generation. These option models represent an improvement to traditional discounted cash flow methods for assessing the relative merits of demand-side technology investments in restructured electricity markets. (author)

  14. Uranium 2009 resources, production and demand

    CERN Document Server

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

    2010-01-01

    With several countries currently building nuclear power plants and planning the construction of more to meet long-term increases in electricity demand, uranium resources, production and demand remain topics of notable interest. In response to the projected growth in demand for uranium and declining inventories, the uranium industry – the first critical link in the fuel supply chain for nuclear reactors – is boosting production and developing plans for further increases in the near future. Strong market conditions will, however, be necessary to trigger the investments required to meet projected demand. The "Red Book", jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is a recognised world reference on uranium. It is based on information compiled in 40 countries, including those that are major producers and consumers of uranium. This 23rd edition provides a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as of 1 January 2009, as well as data on global ur...

  15. Cointegration and the demand for gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskara Rao, B.; Rao, Gyaneshwar

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, there has been a worldwide upsurge in the price of energy and in particular of gasoline. Therefore, demand functions for energy and its components like gasoline have received much attention. However, since confidence in the estimated demand functions is important for use in policy and forecasting, following [Amarawickrama, H.A., Hunt, L.C., 2008. Electricity demand for Sri Lanka: A time series analysis. Energy Economics 33, 724-739], this paper estimates the demand for gasoline is estimated with five alternative time series techniques with data from Fiji. Estimates with these alternative techniques are very close, and thus increase our confidence in them. We found that gasoline demand is both price and income inelastic.

  16. The UFE Prospective scenarios for energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    After an overview of the French energy consumption in 2011 (final energy consumption, distribution of CO 2 emissions related to energy consumption), this Power Point presentation proposes graphs and figures illustrating UFE's prospective scenarios for energy demand. The objective is to foresee energy demand in 2050, to study the impact of possible actions on energy demand, and to assess the impact on greenhouse gas emissions. Hypotheses relate to demographic evolution, economic growth, energy intensity evolution, energy efficiency, and use transfers. Factors of evolution of energy demand are discussed: relationship between demography and energy consumption, new uses of electricity (notably with TICs), relationship between energy intensity and economic growth. Actions on demand are discussed. The results of different scenarios of technical evolution are presented

  17. Communication technologies for demand side management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uuspaeae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The scope of this research is data communications for electric utilities, specifically for the purposes of Demand Side Management (DSM). Demand Side Management has the objective to change the customer`s end use of energy in a manner that benefits both the customer and the utility. For example, peak demand may be reduced, and the peak demand may be relocated to off peak periods. Thus additional investments in generation and network may be avoided. A number of Demand Side Management functions can be implemented if a communication system is available between the Electric Utility and the Customer. The total communication capacity that is needed, will depend on several factors, such as the functions that are chosen for DSM, and on the number and type of customers. Some functions may be handled with one-way communications, while some other functions need to have two-way communication

  18. Option value of electricity demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezgen, Osman; Goldman, C.A.; Krishnarao, P.

    2007-01-01

    As electricity markets deregulate and energy tariffs increasingly expose customers to commodity price volatility, it is difficult for energy consumers to assess the economic value of investments in technologies that manage electricity demand in response to changing energy prices. The key uncertainties in evaluating the economics of demand-response technologies are the level and volatility of future wholesale energy prices. In this paper, we demonstrate that financial engineering methodologies originally developed for pricing equity and commodity derivatives (e.g., futures, swaps, options) can be used to estimate the value of demand-response technologies. We adapt models used to value energy options and assets to value three common demand-response strategies: load curtailment, load shifting or displacement, and short-term fuel substitution-specifically, distributed generation. These option models represent an improvement to traditional discounted cash flow methods for assessing the relative merits of demand-side technology investments in restructured electricity markets. (author)

  19. Province gets serious about demand management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2003-01-01

    Directives from the Minister to the Ontario Energy Board to review options for demand-side management and demand reduction activities, and discussion papers describing the policy framework needed to implement demand management, are indications of renewed interest by the provincial government in demand-side management of Ontario's electric power supply. This renewed interest comes on the hills of a 5.5 per cent increase in electricity use, a 33 per cent increase in imports, and consumption records broken in 10 of the last 12 months. A 117-page study was released in April by Navigant Consulting, entitled 'Demand response blueprint for Ontario' which estimates that if the Ontario market had 250 MW of additional demand response, customers providing the demand response would have saved $20 million by reducing their demand when HOEP was greater than $120/MWh, while other customers would have saved $170 million due to lower HOEP, and would have enjoyed greater reliability as a result of the increase in reserve margins. Other than price signals to induce customers to save, the Navigant report suggest paying customers not to consume during peak periods. The report estimates that such a policy could generate a total demand response of 350 MW and a $235 million reduction in revenue to generators. The Navigan report also includes a large number of detailed analysis and recommendations. One among them is for the extensive use of interval meters for customers with loads over 200 kW. The report tends to be critical of the recent price freeze ordered by the Ontario government, claiming that the freeze could increase consumption, making prices more volatile and increasing the cost to the government even more. Successful demand response programs from California, New York and the New England states are cited as examples for Ontario to emulate

  20. Strategies for Demand Response in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, David S.; Kiliccote, Sila; Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann

    2006-06-20

    This paper describes strategies that can be used in commercial buildings to temporarily reduce electric load in response to electric grid emergencies in which supplies are limited or in response to high prices that would be incurred if these strategies were not employed. The demand response strategies discussed herein are based on the results of three years of automated demand response field tests in which 28 commercial facilities with an occupied area totaling over 11 million ft{sup 2} were tested. Although the demand response events in the field tests were initiated remotely and performed automatically, the strategies used could also be initiated by on-site building operators and performed manually, if desired. While energy efficiency measures can be used during normal building operations, demand response measures are transient; they are employed to produce a temporary reduction in demand. Demand response strategies achieve reductions in electric demand by temporarily reducing the level of service in facilities. Heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting are the systems most commonly adjusted for demand response in commercial buildings. The goal of demand response strategies is to meet the electric shed savings targets while minimizing any negative impacts on the occupants of the buildings or the processes that they perform. Occupant complaints were minimal in the field tests. In some cases, ''reductions'' in service level actually improved occupant comfort or productivity. In other cases, permanent improvements in efficiency were discovered through the planning and implementation of ''temporary'' demand response strategies. The DR strategies that are available to a given facility are based on factors such as the type of HVAC, lighting and energy management and control systems (EMCS) installed at the site.

  1. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

    2010-01-29

    This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

  2. Stalin Coctail: Schostakowitsch Kammersinfonie Nr. 2 (aus Streichquartett Nr. 3 op. 73). Pärt, Arvo: Collage über das Thema B-A-C-H / Susanne Benda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Benda, Susanne

    1995-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Stalin Coctail: Schostakowitsch Kammersinfonie Nr. 2 (aus Streichquartett Nr. 3 op. 73). Pärt, Arvo: Collage über das Thema B-A-C-H. Cantus in memoriam B. Britten. Denisov Variationen über Haydns Kanon Tod ist ein langer Schlaf. Schtschedrin Stalin Coctail. Moskauer Virtuosen, Vladimir Spivakov. RCA/BMG-Ariola CD 09026 68061 2 (WD: 67'33")

  3. Vliv hipokampální aplikace Nr1/Nr2 antisense oligodeoxynukleotidů na expresi proteinů postsynaptické denzity a na prepulzní inhibici

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrajová, M.; Klaschka, Jan; Tejkalová, H.; Bubeníková-Valešová, V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 15, Suppl. 2 (2011), s. 11-14 ISSN 1211-7579 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : NMDA receptor * PSD proteins * antisense oligodeoxynucleotides for NMDA-NR1/NR2 subunits * prepulse inhibition Subject RIV: FL - Psychiatry, Sexuology http://www.tigis.cz/images/stories/psychiatrie/2011/s2/03_vrajova_cns_2-11.pdf

  4. Key Amino Acid Residues within the Third Membrane Domains of NR1 and NR2 Subunits Contribute to the Regulation of the Surface Delivery of N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaniaková, Martina; Krausová, Barbora; Vyklický, Vojtěch; Kořínek, Miloslav; Lichnerová, Katarina; Vyklický ml., Ladislav; Horák, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 287, č. 31 (2012), s. 26423-26434 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/0075; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1464 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : NMDA receptor * NR1 * NR2 Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.651, year: 2012

  5. Estimation of Forest Products Demand as an Intermediary Function

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, A.E.

    1984-01-01

    In this article the problem of demand forecasting is discussed from a quantitative point of view. It is shown that an intermediate demand approach is preferable to the common final demand procedures of forest product demand studies.

  6. Car sharing demand estimation and urban transport demand modelling using stated preference techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Catalano, Mario; Lo Casto, Barbara; Migliore, Marco

    2008-01-01

    The research deals with the use of the stated preference technique (SP) and transport demand modelling to analyse travel mode choice behaviour for commuting urban trips in Palermo, Italy. The principal aim of the study was the calibration of a demand model to forecast the modal split of the urban transport demand, allowing for the possibility of using innovative transport systems like car sharing and car pooling. In order to estimate the demand model parameters, a specific survey was carried ...

  7. Water Data Analysis 393937093090901 TURKEY CREEK NR SUMNER MO, FULBRIGHT RD NEAR SWAN LAKE NWR-2013-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — WATER MONITORING STATION ANALYSIS – CALENDAR YEAR 2013 to 2016 SITE NUMBER: 393937093090901 SITE NAME: Turkey Creek nr Sumner MO, Fulbright Rd COOPERATION: Swan Lake...

  8. Deriving local demand for stumpage from estimates of regional supply and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent P. Connaughton; Gerard A. Majerus; David H. Jackson

    1989-01-01

    The local (Forest-level or local-area) demand for stumpage can be derived from estimates of regional supply and demand. The derivation of local demand is justified when the local timber economy is similar to the regional timber economy; a simple regression of local on nonlocal prices can be used as an empirical test of similarity between local and regional economies....

  9. Towards a more demand oriented health care: analyzing demand for local primary health care .

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.H. de; Zwaanswijk, M.; Zantinge, E.M.; Verhaak, P.F.M.

    2007-01-01

    One of the goals of the current health care reform in the Netherlands is to strengthen demand orientation. Community based primary health care provision should be tuned to local demand. Information on local demand is missing, however. Research goal is to provide local decision makers (patient

  10. Dynamic inventory rationing strategies for inventory systems with two demand classes, Poisson demand and backordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, Ruud H.; Haneveld, Willem K. Klein

    2008-01-01

    We study inventory systems with two demand classes (critical and non-critical), Poisson demand and backordering. We analyze dynamic rationing strategies where the number of items reserved for critical demand depends on the remaining time until the next order arrives. Different from results in the

  11. Wide spectrum of NR5A1‐related phenotypes in 46,XY and 46,XX individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenice, Sorahia; Machado, Aline Zamboni; Ferreira, Frederico Moraes; Ferraz‐de‐Souza, Bruno; Lerario, Antonio Marcondes; Lin, Lin; Nishi, Mirian Yumie; Gomes, Nathalia Lisboa; da Silva, Thatiana Evelin; Silva, Rosana Barbosa; Correa, Rafaela Vieira; Montenegro, Luciana Ribeiro; Narciso, Amanda; Costa, Elaine Maria Frade; Achermann, John C

    2016-01-01

    Steroidogenic factor 1 (NR5A1, SF‐1, Ad4BP) is a transcriptional regulator of genes involved in adrenal and gonadal development and function. Mutations in NR5A1 have been among the most frequently identified genetic causes of gonadal development disorders and are associated with a wide phenotypic spectrum. In 46,XY individuals, NR5A1‐related phenotypes may range from disorders of sex development (DSD) to oligo/azoospermia, and in 46,XX individuals, from 46,XX ovotesticular and testicular DSD to primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). The most common 46,XY phenotype is atypical or female external genitalia with clitoromegaly, palpable gonads, and absence of Müllerian derivatives. Notably, an undervirilized external genitalia is frequently seen at birth, while spontaneous virilization may occur later, at puberty. In 46,XX individuals, NR5A1 mutations are a rare genetic cause of POI, manifesting as primary or secondary amenorrhea, infertility, hypoestrogenism, and elevated gonadotropin levels. Mothers and sisters of 46,XY DSD patients carrying heterozygous NR5A1 mutations may develop POI, and therefore require appropriate counseling. Moreover, the recurrent heterozygous p.Arg92Trp NR5A1 mutation is associated with variable degrees of testis development in 46,XX patients. A clear genotype‐phenotype correlation is not seen in patients bearing NR5A1 mutations, suggesting that genetic modifiers, such as pathogenic variants in other testis/ovarian‐determining genes, may contribute to the phenotypic expression. Here, we review the published literature on NR5A1‐related disease, and discuss our findings at a single tertiary center in Brazil, including ten novel NR5A1 mutations identified in 46,XY DSD patients. The ever‐expanding phenotypic range associated with NR5A1 variants in XY and XX individuals confirms its pivotal role in reproductive biology, and should alert clinicians to the possibility of NR5A1 defects in a variety of phenotypes presenting with gonadal

  12. Physical demand of seven closed agility drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Mark; Rosalie, Simon; Netto, Kevin

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to quantify the demand of seven generic, closed agility drills. Twenty males with experience in invasion sports volunteered to participate in this study. They performed seven, closed agility drills over a standardised 30-m distance. Physical demand measures of peak velocity, total foot contacts, peak impacts, completion time, and maximum heart rate were obtained via the use of wearable sensor technologies. A subjective rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was also obtained. All measures, with the exception of maximum heart rates and RPE were able to delineate drills in terms of physical and physiological demand. The findings of this study exemplify the differences in demand of agility-type movements. Drill demand was dictated by the type of agility movement initiated with the increase in repetitiveness of a given movement type also contributing to increased demand. Findings from this study suggest agility drills can be manipulated to vary physical and physiological demand. This allows for the optimal application of training principles such as overload, progression, and periodisation.

  13. Bovine NR1I3 gene polymorphisms and its association with feed efficiency traits in Nellore cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Pâmela A.; Gomes, Rodrigo C.; Santana, Miguel H.A.; Silva, Saulo L.; Leme, Paulo R.; Mudadu, Maurício A.; Regitano, Luciana C.A.; Meirelles, Flávio V.; Ferraz, José B.S.; Fukumasu, Heidge

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Nuclear receptor 1 family I member 3 (NR1I3), also known as the Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR), was initially characterized as a key regulator of xenobiotic metabolism. However, recent biochemical and structural data suggest that NR1I3 is activated in response to metabolic and nutritional stress in a ligand-independent manner. Thus, we prospected the Bovine NR1I3 gene for polymorphisms and studied their association with feed efficiency traits in Nellore cattle. First, 155 purebred Nellore bulls were individually measured for Residual Feed Intake (RFI) and the 25 best (High Feed Efficiency group, HFE) and the 25 worst animals (Low Feed Efficiency group, LFE) were selected for DNA extraction. The entire Bovine NR1I3 gene was amplified and polymorphisms were identified by sequencing. Then, one SNP different between HFE and LFE groups was genotyped in all the 155 animals and in another 288 animals totalizing 443 Nellore bulls genotyped for association of NR1I3 SNPs with feed efficiency traits. We found 24 SNPs in the NR1I3 gene and choose a statistically different SNP between HFE and LFE groups for further analysis. Genotyping of the 155 animals showed a significant association within SNP and RFI (p = 0.04), Residual Intake and BW Gain (p = 0.04) and Dry Matter Intake (p = 0.01). This SNP is located in the 5′flanking promoter region of NR1I3 gene and different alleles alter the binding site for predicted transcriptional factors as HNF4alpha, CREM and c-MYB, leading us to conclude that NR1I3 expression and regulation might be important to feed efficiency. PMID:25606404

  14. Activation of nuclear receptor NR5A2 increases Glut4 expression and glucose metabolism in muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolado-Carrancio, A. [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Cantabria, IDIVAL, Santander (Spain); Riancho, J.A. [Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital U.M. Valdecilla-IDIVAL, University of Cantabria, RETICEF, Santander (Spain); Sainz, J. [Institute of Biomedicine and Biotechnology of Cantabria (IBBTEC), CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Rodríguez-Rey, J.C., E-mail: rodriguj@unican.es [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Cantabria, IDIVAL, Santander (Spain)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • NR5A2 expression in C2C12 is associated with myotube differentiation. • DLPC induces an increase in GLUT4 levels and glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. • In high glucose conditions the activation of NR5A2 inhibits fatty acids oxidation. - Abstract: NR5A2 is a nuclear receptor which regulates the expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, pluripotency maintenance and cell differentiation. It has been recently shown that DLPC, a NR5A2 ligand, prevents liver steatosis and improves insulin sensitivity in mouse models of insulin resistance, an effect that has been associated with changes in glucose and fatty acids metabolism in liver. Because skeletal muscle is a major tissue in clearing glucose from blood, we studied the effect of the activation of NR5A2 on muscle metabolism by using cultures of C2C12, a mouse-derived cell line widely used as a model of skeletal muscle. Treatment of C2C12 with DLPC resulted in increased levels of expression of GLUT4 and also of several genes related to glycolysis and glycogen metabolism. These changes were accompanied by an increased glucose uptake. In addition, the activation of NR5A2 produced a reduction in the oxidation of fatty acids, an effect which disappeared in low-glucose conditions. Our results suggest that NR5A2, mostly by enhancing glucose uptake, switches muscle cells into a state of glucose preference. The increased use of glucose by muscle might constitute another mechanism by which NR5A2 improves blood glucose levels and restores insulin sensitivity.

  15. Autonomous Demand Response for Primary Frequency Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, Matt [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Trudnowski, Daniel J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mattix, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dagle, Jeffery E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The research documented within this report examines the use of autonomous demand response to provide primary frequency response in an interconnected power grid. The work builds on previous studies in several key areas: it uses a large realistic model (i.e., the interconnection of the western United States and Canada); it establishes a set of metrics that can be used to assess the effectiveness of autonomous demand response; and it independently adjusts various parameters associated with using autonomous demand response to assess effectiveness and to examine possible threats or vulnerabilities associated with the technology.

  16. Four methodologies to improve healthcare demand forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, M J; Tucker, S L

    2001-05-01

    Forecasting demand for health services is an important step in managerial decision making for all healthcare organizations. This task, which often is assumed by financial managers, first requires the compilation and examination of historical information. Although many quantitative forecasting methods exist, four common methods of forecasting are percent adjustment, 12-month moving average, trendline, and seasonalized forecast. These four methods are all based upon the organization's recent historical demand. Healthcare financial managers who want to project demand for healthcare services in their facility should understand the advantages and disadvantages of each method and then select the method that will best meet the organization's needs.

  17. Active connectors for microfluidic drops on demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galas, Jean-Christophe; Studer, Vincent [Laboratoire de Neurobiologie, ESPCI-CNRS UMR 7637, 10 rue Vauquelin 75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Bartolo, Denis [PMMH-ESPCI-CNRS UMR 7636-Universite Paris 6-Universite Paris 7, 10 rue Vauquelin 75231 Paris cedex 05 (France)], E-mail: jean-christophe.galas@espci.fr, E-mail: denis.bartolo@espci.fr, E-mail: vincent.studer@espci.fr

    2009-07-15

    We introduce a simple and versatile microfluidic drop-on-demand solution that enables independent and dynamical control of both the drop size and the drop production rate. To do so, we combine a standard microfluidic T-junction and a novel active switching component that connects the microfluidic channel to the macroscopic liquid reservoirs. Firstly, we explain how to make this simple but accurate drop-on-demand device. Secondly, we carefully characterize its dynamic response and its range of operations. Finally, we show how to generate complex two-dimensional drop patterns dynamically in single or multiple synchronized drop-on-demand devices.

  18. Video-on-demand over satellite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, K

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available in online catalogue) Delivery channel (Telecommunications link) Customer (Set-top-box) On-demand selection 1. Pseudo video-on-demand, where requested movies start playing only at a certain time; and 2. Time-shifted video-on-demand where multiple... in the following table. Table 2: User-item ratings matrix StarWars Batman Harry Potter Matrix Atlantis Whispers Ann   Howard    Dan   Rob    Mary    Jenny  ? ? ? ? ? If we know that Jenny likes StarWars, what else might she like? Batman...

  19. Astaxanthin Suppresses MPP+-Induced Oxidative Damage in PC12 Cells through a Sp1/NR1 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Chen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate astaxanthin (ATX neuroprotection, and its mechanism, on a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridine ion (MPP+-induced cell model of Parkinson’s disease. Methods: Mature, differentiated PC12 cells treated with MPP+ were used as an in vitro cell model. The MTT assay was used to investigate cell viability after ATX treatment, and western blot analysis was used to observe Sp1 (activated transcription factor 1 and NR1 (NMDA receptor subunit 1 protein expression, real-time PCR was used to monitor Sp1 and NR1 mRNA, and cell immunofluorescence was used to determine the location of Sp1 and NR1 protein and the nuclear translocation of Sp1. Results: PC12 cell viability was significantly reduced by MPP+ treatment. The expression of Sp1 and NR1 mRNA and protein were increased compared with the control (p < 0.01. Following co-treatment with ATX and MPP+, cell viability was significantly increased, and Sp1 and NR1 mRNA and protein were decreased, compared with the MPP+ groups (p < 0.01. In addition, mithracycin A protected PC12 cells from oxidative stress caused by MPP+ by specifically inhibiting the expression of Sp1. Moreover, cell immunofluorescence revealed that ATX could suppress Sp1 nuclear transfer. Conclusion: ATX inhibited oxidative stress induced by MPP+ in PC12 cells, via the SP1/NR1 signaling pathway.

  20. Preliminary study of semi-refined carrageenan (SRC) as secondary gelling agent in natural rubber (NR) latex foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhazariah, S.; Azura, A. R.; Azahari, B.; Sivakumar, R.

    2017-12-01

    Semi-refined carrageenan (SRC) product is considerably cheaper and easier to produce as a natural polysaccharide, which was utilized in food and other product application. However, the application in latex is limited. The aim of this work is to evaluate the SRC produced from low industrial grade seaweed (LIGS) in the latex foam application. The FTIR spectra showed the SRC produced as kappa type carrageenan with lower sulfur content compared to native LIGS. NR latex foam is produced by using the Dunlop method with some modifications. The effect of SRC loading as a secondary gelling agent in NR latex foam is investigated. The density and morphology of the NR latex foam with the addition of the SRC are analyzed. NR latex foam density increased with SRC loading and peaked at 1.8 phr SRC. The addition of SRC has induced the bigger cell size compared to the cell size of the control NR latex foam, as shown in the optical micrograph. It can be concluded that SRC LIGS could be acted as secondary gelling agent in NR latex foam.

  1. The NMDA Receptor NR1 C1 Region Bound to Calmodulin: Structural Insights into Functional Differences between Homologous Domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ataman, Zeynep Akyol; Gakhar, Lokesh; Sorensen, Brenda R.; Hell, Johannes W.; Shea, Madeline A. (Iowa)

    2008-09-17

    Calmodulin (CaM) regulates tetrameric N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) by binding tightly to the C0 and C1 regions of its NR1 subunit. A crystal structure (2HQW; 1.96 {angstrom}) of calcium-saturated CaM bound to NR1C1 (peptide spanning 875-898) showed that NR1 S890, whose phosphorylation regulates membrane localization, was solvent protected, whereas the endoplasmic reticulum retention motif was solvent exposed. NR1 F880 filled the CaM C-domain pocket, whereas T886 was closest to the N-domain pocket. This 1-7 pattern was most similar to that in the CaM-MARCKS complex. Comparison of CaM-ligand wrap-around conformations identified a core tetrad of CaM C-domain residues (FLMM{sub C}) that contacted all ligands consistently. An identical tetrad of N-domain residues (FLMM{sub N}) made variable sets of contacts with ligands. This CaM-NR1C1 structure provides a foundation for designing mutants to test the role of CaM in NR1 trafficking as well as insights into how the homologous CaM domains have different roles in molecular recognition.

  2. Investigating Comparative Advantages of Advance Demand Information in Presence of Heterogeneous Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Bisheng; Larsen, Christian

    to that there are different customer classes with distinct demand behaviour. It is assumed that the inventory system is operated by a base stock policy and there two customer classes that must be served from the inventory. One customer class, Class 1, do not provide any advance demand information at all, while the other......The paper studies aspects of advance demand information and heterogeneous demand in a mathematical model of an inventory system. The concept advance demand information is that customers ahead in time of actual demand place their orders. The concept heterogeneous demand refers......, Class 2 does. There are given mathematical expressions of the service measure order fill rate offered to each class. The aim is to do an investigation of the magnitude of discrepancy in service between these two customer classes....

  3. Market design for rapid demand response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt; Tamirat, Tseganesh Wubale

    it simple to involve the endusers in advance and to activate demand response immediately. The collective solution is analyzed and economic simulations are conducted for the case of Kenya. Kenya has been su ering from unreliable electricity supply for many years and companies and households have learned......We suggest a market design for rapid demand response in electricity markets. The solution consists of remotely controlled switches, meters, forecasting models as well as a flexible auction market to set prices and select endusers job by job. The auction market motivates truth-telling and makes...... to adjust by investments in backup generators. We focus on turning the many private backup generators into a demand response system. The economic simulation focuses on possible distortion introduced by various ways of splitting the generated surplus from the demand response system. An auction run instantly...

  4. Eliciting Demand Information through Cheap Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisell, Lars; Lagerlöf, Johan N. M.

    2008-01-01

    A uniform pricing rule may enable the communication of demand information from buyer to seller in situations where this would not have been possible if the seller could price discriminate. Importantly, such a rule can benefit both buyer and seller....

  5. Future internet concepts for demand management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Madhoo, H

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available research and experimental initiative linked to the Future Internet (TRESCIMO) which facilitates the validity of using these technologies as base for energy demand management. The initiative utilises a philosophy of informing customers about their energy...

  6. Natural gas demand prospects in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young-Jin Kwon

    1997-01-01

    Korea s natural gas demand has increase enormously since 1986. Natural gas demand in Korea will approach to 29 million tonnes by the year 2010, from little over 9 million tonnes in 1996. This rapid expansion of natural gas demand is largely due to regulations for environmental protection by the government as well as consumers preference to natural gas over other sources of energy. Especially industrial use of gas will expand faster than other use of gas, although it will not be as high as that in European and North America countries. To meet the enormous increase in demand, Korean government and Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS) are undertaking expansion of capacities of natural gas supply facilities, and are seeking diversification of import sources, including participation in major gas projects, to secure the import sources on more reliable grounds. (Author). 5 tabs

  7. Demand response in a market environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Emil Mahler

    This thesis addresses the design, deployment and benefits of demand response in a market environment. Demand response is consumption that can be controlled by an external stimulus in the power system. Flexible consumption is a useful tool for absorbing volatile power from renewable sources like...... wind power and photovoltaics, and dealing with decentralised activity like electric vehicle charging. Without flexible consumption or other new technologies like storage, there will be several occasions of surplus or deficit of generation to meet the demand of the future, sometimes expected...... and sometimes not, that will lead to power system failure. The type of demand response investigated is consumption controlled by indirect means, like an electricity price. Initially, algorithms responding to real-time electricity prices are researched and benchmarked according to comfort and cost. After...

  8. Policy analysis of electricity demand flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Jonas

    The large-scale development of variable renewable energy sources, like wind and solar power, increases the demand for flexibility in power systems. At the same time, their electricity production replaces that of conventional power plants – the traditional suppliers of flexibility, and consequently...... include a clear commitment to develop an "intelligent" energy system that utilises the flexibility potential of the demand side, a coherent policy strategy covering all aspects of the flexibility challenge has not yet been defined. By use of economic models and concepts of policy analysis, this thesis...... flexibility on the demand side. Its potential could be substantial and technical solutions are available. Still, demand flexibility is largely unutilised and establishing an enabling policy and regulatory framework has been identified as one of the major challenges. While the latest Danish energy policies...

  9. Hawaiian Electric Company Demand Response Roadmap Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Roger [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-12

    The objective of this project was to develop a “roadmap” to guide the Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) demand response (DR) planning and implementation in support of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) 70% clean energy goal by 2030.

  10. Demand forecasting and information platform in tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Jiang, Qi-Jie

    2017-05-01

    Information asymmetry and the bullwhip effect have been serious problems in the tourism supply chain. Based on platform theory, this paper established a mathematical model to explore the inner mechanism of a platform's influence on stakeholders' ability to forecast demand in tourism. Results showed that the variance of stakeholders' demand predictions with a platform was smaller than the variance without a platform, which meant that a platform would improve predictions of demand for stakeholders. The higher information-processing ability of the platform also had other effects on demand forecasting. Research on the inner logic of the platform's influence on stakeholders has important theoretical and realistic value. This area is worthy of further study.

  11. Predicting Wartime Demand for Aircraft Spares

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slay, F

    1997-01-01

    .... This simple observation raised suspicions that parts fail on the basis of sorties flown, not hours flown, even though Air Force planning systems forecast demands on the basis of projected flying hours...

  12. Modelling energy demand of Croatian industry sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medić, Zlatko Bačelić; Pukšec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2014-01-01

    Industry represents one of the most interesting sectors when analysing Croatian final energy demand. Croatian industry represents 20% of nation's GDP and employs 25% of total labour force making it a significant subject for the economy. Today, with around 60 PJ of final energy demand...... it is the third most energy intensive sector in Croatia after transport and households. Implementing mechanisms that would lead to improvements in energy efficiency in this sector seems relevant. Through this paper, long-term energy demand projections for Croatian industry will be shown. The central point...... for development of the model will be parameters influencing the industry in Croatia. Energy demand predictions in this paper are based upon bottom-up approach model. IED model produces results which can be compared to Croatian National Energy Strategy. One of the conclusions shown in this paper is significant...

  13. Demand controlled ventilation in a bathroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Topp, Claus

    2008-01-01

    consumption during periods where the demand for ventilation is low and poor indoor climate during periods where the demand for ventilation is high. Controlling the ventilation rate by demand can improve the energy performance of the ventilation system and the indoor climate. This paper compares the indoor...... climate and energy consumption of a Constant Air Volume (CAV) system and a Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV) system for two different bathroom designs. The air change rate of the CAV system corresponded to 0.5h-1. The ventilation rate of the DCV system was controlled by occupancy and by the relative....... The indoor climate and the energy consumption were estimated based on a simplified calculation of the variation of the water content within the bathroom during a day. The results showed that the DCV system controlled by occupancy and relative humidity had an improved energy performance and an improved indoor...

  14. The World Demand for Catfish Pangasius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien; Roth, Eva; Nielsen, Max

    2014-01-01

    in filleted form. The demand system includes seven equations representing for most important markets that are ASEAN & EAST ASIA, NORTH AMERICA, OCEANIA, RUSIAN & EASTERN EU, SOUTH & CENTRAL AMERICA, WESTERN EU, and ROW (rest of the world) markets. The monthly data are updating from January 2007 to March 2014....... Direct elasticity including own- and cross- price elasticity and income elasticity are calculated to show how consumers from different markets of the world prefer for the Pangasius catfish. We found that catfish products have big room of market demand, indicated by absolute values of own price......In this paper we present a world demand system for Pangasius catfish products. We use solely exporting data from Vietnam for estimating a non-linear Almost Ideal Demand System because Vietnam accounts for more than 90% catfish export value of the world and the products exported are mostly...

  15. Future United States Domestic Water Demand

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Population projections, estimated per capita consumption rate, and estimated total annual water demand to 2100 for four future projections based off the IPCC SRES...

  16. Uranium resources, production and demand 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This book is the Japanese edition of 'Uranium Resources, Production and Demand, 1993' published by OECD/NEA-IAEA in 1994. It contains data on uranium exploration activities, resources and production for about 50 countries. (K.I.)

  17. Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ookie Ma, Kerry Cheung

    2016-03-01

    Demand response and energy storage resources present potentially important sources of bulk power system services that can aid in integrating variable renewable generation. While renewable integration studies have evaluated many of the challenges associated with deploying large amounts of variable wind and solar generation technologies, integration analyses have not yet fully incorporated demand response and energy storage resources. This report represents an initial effort in analyzing the potential integration value of demand response and energy storage, focusing on the western United States. It evaluates two major aspects of increased deployment of demand response and energy storage: (1) Their operational value in providing bulk power system services and (2) Market and regulatory issues, including potential barriers to deployment.

  18. Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Hejazi, Mohamad I. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Edmonds, James A. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Clarke, Leon E. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Kyle, G. Page [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Davies, Evan [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Wise, Marshall A. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Calvin, Katherine V. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of two alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which taxes terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which only taxes fossil fuel and industrial emissions but places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to almost triple demand for water for agricultural systems across the century even in the absence of climate policy. In general policies to mitigate climate change increase agricultural demands for water still further, though the largest changes occur in the second half of the century, under both policy regimes. The two policies examined profoundly affected both the sources and magnitudes of the increase in irrigation water demands. The largest increases in agricultural irrigation water demand occurred in scenarios where only fossil fuel emissions were priced (but not land-use change emission) and were primarily driven by rapid expansion in bioenergy production. In these scenarios water demands were large relative to present-day total available water, calling into question whether it would be physically possible to produce the associated biomass energy. We explored the potential of improved

  19. Energy demand seen as an open perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, L.

    1990-01-01

    In the course assessments of the potentials of conserving energy it has become clear that the major problems in such attempts do not come from the field of science or technology, but rather from the economy and the society. The chapter on prognostic assessment of energy demand therefore discusses the procedures in the Federal Republic of Germany and prognoses of energy demand and supply in their context, which is made up of ecological, economic, political and sociological factors. (DG) [de

  20. Labour Demand and Exchange Rate Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Udo Broll; Sabine Hansen

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess under what conditions exchange rate volatility exerts a positive effect on a firm's labour demand. As the exchange rate volatility increases, so does the value of the export option provided the firm under study is flexible. Flexibility is important because it gives the firm option value. Higher volatility increases the potential gains from trade and may increase the demand for labour. This may explain part of the mixed empirical findings regarding the ef...

  1. The Demand for Rental Homes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skak, Morten

    2007-01-01

    development, and gives some indications of the future demand for rental housing in Denmark. The results indicate a future stagnant rental demand kept up by an increasing share of persons of old age and young persons undergoing education, and thus a rising homeownership rate. It is believed that the structural...... traits found on the Danish housing market and the technique employed for prediction are of interest to housing researchers in other countries....

  2. Water Demand Under Alternative Price Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Sheila Olmstead; W. Michael Hanemann; Robert N. Stavins

    2007-01-01

    We estimate the price elasticity of water demand with household-level data, structurally modeling the piecewise-linear budget constraints imposed by increasing-block pricing. We develop a mathematical expression for the unconditional price elasticity of demand under increasing-block prices and compare conditional and unconditional elasticities analytically and empirically. We test the hypothesis that price elasticity may depend on price structure, beyond technical differences in elasticity co...

  3. Does responsive pricing smooth demand shocks?

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal, Courty; Mario, Pagliero

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a unique pricing experiment, we investigate Vickrey’s conjecture that responsive pricing can be used to smooth both predictable and unpredictable demand shocks. Our evidence shows that increasing the responsiveness of price to demand conditions reduces the magnitude of deviations in capacity utilization rates from a pre-determined target level. A 10 percent increase in price variability leads to a decrease in the variability of capacity utilization rates between...

  4. NAD+Intermediates: The Biology and Therapeutic Potential of NMN and NR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Jun; Baur, Joseph A; Imai, Shin-Ichiro

    2017-12-14

    Research on the biology of NAD + has been gaining momentum, providing many critical insights into the pathogenesis of age-associated functional decline and diseases. In particular, two key NAD + intermediates, nicotinamide riboside (NR) and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), have been extensively studied over the past several years. Supplementing these NAD + intermediates has shown preventive and therapeutic effects, ameliorating age-associated pathophysiologies and disease conditions. Although the pharmacokinetics and metabolic fates of NMN and NR are still under intensive investigation, these NAD + intermediates can exhibit distinct behavior, and their fates appear to depend on the tissue distribution and expression levels of NAD + biosynthetic enzymes, nucleotidases, and presumptive transporters for each. A comprehensive concept that connects NAD + metabolism to the control of aging and longevity in mammals has been proposed, and the stage is now set to test whether these exciting preclinical results can be translated to improve human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bacterial endosymbionts in field-collected samples of Trialeurodes sp. nr. abutiloneus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass, Bodil N; Mozes-Daube, Netta; Iasur-Kruh, Lilach; Bondy, Elizabeth C; Kelly, Suzanne E; Hunter, Martha S; Zchori-Fein, Einat

    2014-01-01

    Facultative bacterial endosymbionts are common, influential associates of arthropods, yet their movement among host species has not been well documented. Plant-mediated transmission of Rickettsia has been shown for the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Bemisia tabaci in USA cotton fields harbors the secondary symbionts Rickettsia and Hamiltonella, and co-occurs with Trialeurodes sp. nr. abutiloneus whiteflies. To determine whether symbionts may be shared, the microbial diversity of these whiteflies on cotton across the USA was analyzed. Trialeurodes sp. nr. abutiloneus bore Portiera, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Arsenophonus and Wolbachia. No Rickettsia or Hamiltonella were detected. These results provide no evidence for horizontal transmission of symbionts between these whitefly genera. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. NR4A orphan nuclear receptors in glucose homeostasis: a minireview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, A F; Rouillard, C; Buteau, J

    2013-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a disorder characterized by insulin resistance and a relative deficit in insulin secretion, both of which result in elevated blood glucose. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of diabetes could lead to the development of new therapeutic approaches. An ever-growing body of evidence suggests that members of the NR4A family of nuclear receptors could play a pivotal role in glucose homeostasis. This review aims to present and discuss advances so far in the evaluation of the potential role of NR4A in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and the development of type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. An open-label, non-randomized study of the pharmacokinetics of the nutritional supplement nicotinamide riboside (NR and its effects on blood NAD+ levels in healthy volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia E Airhart

    Full Text Available The co-primary objectives of this study were to determine the human pharmacokinetics (PK of oral NR and the effect of NR on whole blood nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ levels.Though mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the development and progression of heart failure, no mitochondria-targeted therapies have been translated into clinical practice. Recent murine studies have reported associations between imbalances in the NADH/NAD+ ratio with mitochondrial dysfunction in multiple tissues, including myocardium. Moreover, an NAD+ precursor, nicotinamide mononucleotide, improved cardiac function, while another NAD+ precursor, nicotinamide riboside (NR, improved mitochondrial function in muscle, liver and brown adipose. Thus, PK studies of NR in humans is critical for future clinical trials.In this non-randomized, open-label PK study of 8 healthy volunteers, 250 mg NR was orally administered on Days 1 and 2, then uptitrated to peak dose of 1000 mg twice daily on Days 7 and 8. On the morning of Day 9, subjects completed a 24-hour PK study after receiving 1000 mg NR at t = 0. Whole-blood levels of NR, clinical blood chemistry, and NAD+ levels were analyzed.Oral NR was well tolerated with no adverse events. Significant increases comparing baseline to mean concentrations at steady state (Cave,ss were observed for both NR (p = 0.03 and NAD+ (p = 0.001; the latter increased by 100%. Absolute changes from baseline to Day 9 in NR and NAD+ levels correlated highly (R2 = 0.72, p = 0.008.Because NR increases circulating NAD+ in humans, NR may have potential as a therapy in patients with mitochondrial dysfunction due to genetic and/or acquired diseases.

  8. An open-label, non-randomized study of the pharmacokinetics of the nutritional supplement nicotinamide riboside (NR) and its effects on blood NAD+ levels in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airhart, Sophia E; Shireman, Laura M; Risler, Linda J; Anderson, Gail D; Nagana Gowda, G A; Raftery, Daniel; Tian, Rong; Shen, Danny D; O'Brien, Kevin D

    2017-01-01

    The co-primary objectives of this study were to determine the human pharmacokinetics (PK) of oral NR and the effect of NR on whole blood nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels. Though mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the development and progression of heart failure, no mitochondria-targeted therapies have been translated into clinical practice. Recent murine studies have reported associations between imbalances in the NADH/NAD+ ratio with mitochondrial dysfunction in multiple tissues, including myocardium. Moreover, an NAD+ precursor, nicotinamide mononucleotide, improved cardiac function, while another NAD+ precursor, nicotinamide riboside (NR), improved mitochondrial function in muscle, liver and brown adipose. Thus, PK studies of NR in humans is critical for future clinical trials. In this non-randomized, open-label PK study of 8 healthy volunteers, 250 mg NR was orally administered on Days 1 and 2, then uptitrated to peak dose of 1000 mg twice daily on Days 7 and 8. On the morning of Day 9, subjects completed a 24-hour PK study after receiving 1000 mg NR at t = 0. Whole-blood levels of NR, clinical blood chemistry, and NAD+ levels were analyzed. Oral NR was well tolerated with no adverse events. Significant increases comparing baseline to mean concentrations at steady state (Cave,ss) were observed for both NR (p = 0.03) and NAD+ (p = 0.001); the latter increased by 100%. Absolute changes from baseline to Day 9 in NR and NAD+ levels correlated highly (R2 = 0.72, p = 0.008). Because NR increases circulating NAD+ in humans, NR may have potential as a therapy in patients with mitochondrial dysfunction due to genetic and/or acquired diseases.

  9. Uranium 2009: Resources, Production and Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    With several countries currently building nuclear power plants and planning the construction of more to meet long-term increases in electricity demand, uranium resources, production and demand remain topics of notable interest. In response to the projected growth in demand for uranium and declining inventories, the uranium industry - the first critical link in the fuel supply chain for nuclear reactors - is boosting production and developing plans for further increases in the near future. Strong market conditions will, however, be necessary to trigger the investments required to meet projected demand. The 'Red Book', jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is a recognised world reference on uranium. It is based on information compiled in 40 countries, including those that are major producers and consumers of uranium. This 23. edition provides a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as of 1 January 2009, as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantive new information from major uranium production centres around the world, as well as from countries developing production centres for the first time. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2035 are also featured, along with an analysis of long-term uranium supply and demand issues

  10. Canonical realizations of the Lie algebra sp(2n,R)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havlicek, M.; Lassner, W.

    1975-01-01

    The generators of the Lie algebra of the symplectic group sp(2n,R) are, rezcurently, realied by means of polynomials in the quantum canonical variables qsub(i) and psub(i), i=1,...,d(2n-d);d=1,...,n. These realisations are skew-hermitean, the Casimir operators are realised by constant multiples of identity element and they depend on d free real parameters

  11. Homology modeling of NR2B modulatory domain of NMDA receptor and analysis of ifenprodil binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Luciana; Cosconati, Sandro; Steinbrecher, Thomas; Limongelli, Vittorio; Bertamino, Alessia; Novellino, Ettore; Case, David A

    2007-10-01

    NMDA receptors are glutamate-gated ion channels (iGluRs) that are involved in several important physiological functions such as neuronal development, synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. Among iGluRs, NMDA receptors have been perhaps the most actively investigated for their role in chronic neurodegeneration such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. Recent studies have shown that the NTD of subunit NR2B modulates ion channel gating through the binding of allosteric modulators such as the prototypical compound ifenprodil. In the present paper, the construction of a three-dimensional model for the NR2B modulatory domain is described and docking calculations allow, for the first time, definition of the ifenprodil binding pose at an atomic level and fully explain all the available structure-activity relationships. Moreover, in an attempt to add further insight into the ifenprodil mechanism of action, as it is not completely clear if it binds and stabilizes an open or a closed conformation of the NR2B modulatory domain, a matter, which is fundamental for the rational design of NMDA antagonists, MD simulations followed by an MM-PBSA analysis were performed. These calculations reveal that the closed conformation of the R1-R2 domain, rather than the open, constitutes the high affinity binding site for ifenprodil and that a profound stabilization of the closed conformation upon ifenprodil binding occurs. Thus, for a rational design and/or for virtual screening experiments, the closed conformation of the R1-R2 domain should be taken into account and our 3D model can provide valuable hints for the design of NR2B-selective antagonists.

  12. The network and properties of the NR/SBR vulcanizate modified by electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jing; Wen, Shipeng; Du, Yishi; Li, Ning; Zhang, Liqun; Yang, Yusheng; Liu, Li

    2013-11-01

    A natural rubber/styrene butadiene rubber (NR/SBR) vulcanizate filled with carbon black was modified by high-energy electron beam (EB) irradiation in this work. The crosslinked structure was studied by a special chemical probe method. The influence of EB irradiation on mechanical properties, filler network, and dynamic properties including abrasion resistance, rolling resistance, and wet skid resistance was also investigated. The results revealed that the crosslink structure significantly changed after EB treatment, indicating that the amount of poly- and di-sulfide crosslinked bonds decreased and that of mono-sulfide bonds increased. The polymer-filler interaction was enhanced after EB irradiation. An EB dose of 600 kGy reduced the abrasion loss of the NR/SBR vulcanizate, and one of 300 kGy reduced the rolling resistance by 11.4%. Meanwhile, EB doses below 200 kGy had no obvious effect on the wet skid resistance. This EB-modified NR/SBR vulcanizate can be used to prepare high-performance tires with good abrasion resistance and low rolling resistance.

  13. Expression of NR1I3 in mouse lung tumors induced by the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumasu, H.; Cordeiro, Y.G.; Rochetti, A.L.; Barra, C.N.; Sámora, T.S.; Strefezzi, R.F. [Laboratório de Oncologia Comparada e Translacional, Departmento de Medicina Veterinária, Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos, Universidade de São Paulo, Pirassununga, SP (Brazil); Dagli, M.L.Z. [Laboratório de Oncologia Experimental e Comparada, Departmento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-13

    Nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3 (NR1I3) is reported to be a possible novel therapeutic target for some cancers, including lung, brain and hematopoietic tumors. Here, we characterized expression of NR1I3 in a mouse model of lung carcinogenesis induced by 4-(methylnitrosamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), the most potent tobacco carcinogen. Lung tumors were collected from mice treated with NNK (400 mg/kg) and euthanized after 52 weeks. Benign and malignant lesions were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded for histology and immunohistochemistry, with samples snap-frozen for mRNA analysis. Immunohistochemically, we found that most macrophages and type I and II pneumocytes expressed NR1I3, whereas fibroblasts and endothelial cells were NR1I3{sup −}. Compared with benign lesions, malignant lesions had less NR1I3{sup +} tumor cells. Gene expression analysis also showed an inverse correlation between NR1I3 mRNA expression and tumor size (P=0.0061), suggesting that bigger tumors expressed less NR1I3 transcripts, in accordance with our immunohistochemical NR1I3 tests. Our results indicate that NR1I3 expression decreased during progression of malignant lung tumors induced by NNK in mice.

  14. Epigenetic silencing of the NR4A3 tumor suppressor, by aberrant JAK/STAT signaling, predicts prognosis in gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chung-Min; Chang, Liang-Yu; Lin, Shu-Hui; Chou, Jian-Liang; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yen; Zeng, Li-Han; Chuang, Sheng-Yu; Wang, Hsiao-Wen; Dittner, Claudia; Lin, Cheng-Yu; Lin, Jora M. J.; Huang, Yao-Ting; Ng, Enders K. W.; Cheng, Alfred S. L.; Wu, Shu-Fen; Lin, Jiayuh; Yeh, Kun-Tu; Chan, Michael W. Y.

    2016-08-01

    While aberrant JAK/STAT signaling is crucial to the development of gastric cancer (GC), its effects on epigenetic alterations of its transcriptional targets remains unclear. In this study, by expression microarrays coupled with bioinformatic analyses, we identified a putative STAT3 target gene, NR4A3 that was downregulated in MKN28 GC daughter cells overexpressing a constitutively activated STAT3 mutant (S16), as compared to an empty vector control (C9). Bisulphite pyrosequencing and demethylation treatment showed that NR4A3 was epigenetically silenced by promoter DNA methylation in S16 and other GC cell lines including AGS cells, showing constitutive activation of STAT3. Subsequent experiments revealed that NR4A3 promoter binding by STAT3 might repress its transcription. Long-term depletion of STAT3 derepressed NR4A3 expression, by promoter demethylation, in AGS GC cells. NR4A3 re-expression in GC cell lines sensitized the cells to cisplatin, and inhibited tumor growth in vitro and in vivo, in an animal model. Clinically, GC patients with high NR4A3 methylation, or lower NR4A3 protein expression, had significantly shorter overall survival. Intriguingly, STAT3 activation significantly associated only with NR4A3 methylation in low-stage patient samples. Taken together, aberrant JAK/STAT3 signaling epigenetically silences a potential tumor suppressor, NR4A3, in gastric cancer, plausibly representing a reliable biomarker for gastric cancer prognosis.

  15. nr0b1 (DAX1) mutation in zebrafish causes female-to-male sex reversal through abnormal gonadal proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sijie; Zhang, Hefei; Wang, Fenghua; Zhang, Wei; Peng, Gang

    2016-09-15

    Sex determinations are diverse in vertebrates. Although many sex-determining genes and pathways are conserved, the mechanistic roles of these genes and pathways in the genetic sex determination are not well understood. DAX1 (encoded by the NR0B1 gene) is a vertebrate specific orphan nuclear receptor that regulates gonadal development and sexual determination. In human, duplication of the NR0B1 gene leads to male-to-female sex reversal. In mice, Nr0b1 shows both pro-testis and anti-testis functions. We generated inheritable nr0b1 mutation in the zebrafish and found the nr0b1 mutation caused homozygous mutants to develop as fertile males due to female-to-male sex reversal. The nr0b1 mutation did not increase Caspase-3 labeling nor tp53 expression in the developing gonads. Introduction of a tp53 mutation into the nr0b1 mutant did not rescue the sex-reversal phenotype. Further examination revealed reduction in cell proliferation and abnormal somatic cell differentiation in the nr0b1 mutant gonads at the undifferentiated and bi-potential ovary stages. Together, our results suggest nr0b1 regulates somatic cell differentiation and cell proliferation to ensure normal sex development in the zebrafish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Demand-oriented and demand-driven health care: the development of a typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijckmans, Madeleine; Garretsen, Henk; van de Goor, Ien; Bongers, Inge

    2007-09-01

    In most European countries, there is an increasing demand for demand-oriented and demand-driven approaches in the development of health care policy and the organization of health care services. Both approaches, in which the main focus is on 'the demand', are seen as counterparts of the supply-oriented approach, that has 'the supply' as point of departure. However, there is much confusion about the definition of the concepts. To identify the different views, and to examine to what extent there is consensus in the Netherlands about the concepts of demand-orientation and demand-driven care, a Delphi study was done among 26 experts; scientists, health care insurance companies, health care suppliers, the government, independent advisory bodies and client interest groups. The study resulted in a typology. The similarities and differences between the two concepts were demonstrated in five dimensions; responsibility, control, need-determination, formal embedment of vision in organization and choice. Furthermore, the typology was used to identify existing types of services as being either demand-oriented or demand-driven services. The typology provides an understanding of the similarities and differences between the two concepts, and appears to be a useful tool in identifying services to the extent that they are demand oriented or demand driven.

  17. Optimalization activity of ZnO NR/TiO2 NR-P3HT as an active layer based on hybrid bulk heterojunction on dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saputri, Liya Nikmatul Maula Zulfa; Ramelan, Ari Handono; Hanif, Qonita Awliya; Hasanah, Yesi Ihdina Fityatal; Prajanira, Lau Bekti; Wahyuningsih, Sayekti

    2016-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with metal inorganic and conjugated organic polymer mixture, ZnO NR/TiO 2 NR-P3HT as an active layer based on hybrid bulk heterojunction has been studied. The hybrid material was used to optimize DSSC performs for better efficiency than only TiO 2 as an electrode. Synthesis of TiO 2 nanorods (NR) was conducted by ball milling 1000 rpm for 4 hours and strong base reaction by hydrothermal process at 120 °C overnight. And the ZnO NR was synthesized from Zn(NO 3 ) 2 .4H 2 O precusor by hydrotermal process at 90 °C for 5 hours and calcined on various temperature s of 400, 600, and 800 °C. ZnO NR was coated into an Tndium Tin Oxide (TTO) glass to collecting electron s effectively, where TiO 2 NR were incorporated with poly(3 -hexylthiophene) (P3HT) on various concentration s of 5, 10, 15 mg/mL to obtain a larger surface area. Material characterization were performed by X -Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Uv-Vis spectrophotometer. For an application of DSSC were measured by T-V Keithley Multimeter and the efficiency of DSSC at various P3HT’s concentrations of 5, 10, 15 mg/mL were 7.44 × 10 −3 , 0.0114, 0.0104, respectively. The maximum efficiency of DSSC was showed when TiO 2 NR-P3HT’s concentration was 10 mg/mL.

  18. Optimalization activity of ZnO NR/TiO2 NR-P3HT as an active layer based on hybrid bulk heterojunction on dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saputri, Liya Nikmatul Maula Zulfa; Ramelan, Ari Handono; Hanif, Qonita Awliya; Hasanah, Yesi Ihdina Fityatal; Prajanira, Lau Bekti; Wahyuningsih, Sayekti, E-mail: sayektiw@mipa.uns.ac.id [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sebelas Maret University, Ir.Sutami 36A Kentingan Surakarta 57/26, Central Java (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with metal inorganic and conjugated organic polymer mixture, ZnO NR/TiO{sub 2} NR-P3HT as an active layer based on hybrid bulk heterojunction has been studied. The hybrid material was used to optimize DSSC performs for better efficiency than only TiO{sub 2} as an electrode. Synthesis of TiO{sub 2} nanorods (NR) was conducted by ball milling 1000 rpm for 4 hours and strong base reaction by hydrothermal process at 120 °C overnight. And the ZnO NR was synthesized from Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O precusor by hydrotermal process at 90 °C for 5 hours and calcined on various temperature s of 400, 600, and 800 °C. ZnO NR was coated into an Tndium Tin Oxide (TTO) glass to collecting electron s effectively, where TiO{sup 2} NR were incorporated with poly(3 -hexylthiophene) (P3HT) on various concentration s of 5, 10, 15 mg/mL to obtain a larger surface area. Material characterization were performed by X -Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Uv-Vis spectrophotometer. For an application of DSSC were measured by T-V Keithley Multimeter and the efficiency of DSSC at various P3HT’s concentrations of 5, 10, 15 mg/mL were 7.44 × 10{sup −3}, 0.0114, 0.0104, respectively. The maximum efficiency of DSSC was showed when TiO{sup 2} NR-P3HT’s concentration was 10 mg/mL.

  19. Modelling of demand response and market power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristoffersen, B.B.; Donslund, B.; Boerre Eriksen, P.

    2004-01-01

    Demand-side flexibility and demand response to high prices are prerequisites for the proper functioning of the Nordic power market. If the consumers are unwilling to respond to high prices, the market may fail the clearing, and this may result in unwanted forced demand disconnections. Being the TSO of Western Denmark, Eltra is responsible of both security of supply and the design of the power market within its area. On this basis, Eltra has developed a new mathematical model tool for analysing the Nordic wholesale market. The model is named MARS (MARket Simulation). The model is able to handle hydropower and thermal production, nuclear power and wind power. Production, demand and exchanges modelled on an hourly basis are new important features of the model. The model uses the same principles as Nord Pool (The Nordic Power Exchange), including the division of the Nordic countries into price areas. On the demand side, price elasticity is taken into account and described by a Cobb-Douglas function. Apart from simulating perfect competition markets, particular attention has been given to modelling imperfect market conditions, i.e. exercise of market power on the supply side. Market power is simulated by using game theory, including the Nash equilibrium concept. The paper gives a short description of the MARS model. Besides, focus is on the application of the model in order to illustrate the importance of demand response in the Nordic market. Simulations with different values of demand elasticity are compared. Calculations are carried out for perfect competition and for the situation in which market power is exercised by the large power producers in the Nordic countries (oligopoly). (au)

  20. Forecasting Ontario's blood supply and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drackley, Adam; Newbold, K Bruce; Paez, Antonio; Heddle, Nancy

    2012-02-01

    Given an aging population that requires increased medical care, an increasing number of deferrals from the donor pool, and a growing immigrant population that typically has lower donation rates, the purpose of this article is to forecast Ontario's blood supply and demand. We calculate age- and sex-specific donation and demand rates for blood supply based on 2008 data and project demand between 2008 and 2036 based on these rates and using population data from the Ontario Ministry of Finance. Results indicate that blood demand will outpace supply as early as 2012. For instance, while the total number of donations made by older cohorts is expected to increase in the coming years, the number of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in the 70+ age group is forecasted grow from approximately 53% of all RBC transfusions in 2008 (209,515) in 2008 to 68% (546,996) by 2036. A series of alternate scenarios, including projections based on a 2% increase in supply per year and increased use of apheresis technology, delays supply shortfalls, but does not eliminate them without active management and/or multiple methods to increase supply and decrease demand. Predictions show that demand for blood products will outpace supply in the near future given current age- and sex-specific supply and demand rates. However, we note that the careful management of the blood supply by Canadian Blood Services, along with new medical techniques and the recruitment of new donors to the system, will remove future concerns. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  1. Exploring energy consumption and demand in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Ying; Xia, Yan

    2012-01-01

    China has been experiencing industrialization and urbanization since reform and opening of its economy in 1978. Energy consumption in the country has featured issues such as a coal-dominated energy mix, low energy efficiency and high emissions. Thus, it is of great importance to explore the factors driving the increase in energy consumption in the past two decades and estimate the potential for decreasing energy demands in the future. In this paper a hybrid energy input–output model is used to decompose driving factors to identify how these factors impact changes in energy intensity. A modified RAS approach is applied to project energy requirements in a BAU scenario and an alternative scenario. The results show that energy input mix, industry structure and technology improvements have major influences on energy demand. Energy demand in China will continue to increase at a rapid rate if the economy develops as in the past decades, and is projected to reach 4.7 billion tce in 2020. However, the huge potential for a decrease cannot be neglected, since growth could be better by adjusting the energy mix and industrial structure and enhancing technology improvements. The total energy demand could be less than 4.0 billion tce in 2020. -- Highlights: ► In this paper a hybrid energy input–output model is used to decompose driving factors to China’s energy intensity change. ► A modified RAS approach is applied to project energy requirements in China. ► The results show that energy input mix, industry structure and technology improvements have major influences on energy demand. ► Energy demand in China will reach 4.7 billion ton in 2020 if the economy develops as in the past decades. ► There is a huge potential for a decrease of energy demand by adjusting the energy mix and industrial structure and enhancing technology improvements.

  2. Modelling curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soloninko K.S.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors research the issue of functional properties of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand. Settlement of the problem, and its connection with important scientific and practical tasks. According to its nature, the market economy is unstable and is in constant movement. Economy has an effective instrument for explanation of changes in economic environment; this tool is called the modelling of economic processes. The modelling of economic processes depends first and foremost on the building of economic model which is the base for the formalization of economic process, that is, the building of mathematical model. The effective means for formalization of economic process is the creation of the model of hypothetic or imaginary economy. The building of demand model is significant for the market of goods and services. The problem includes the receiving (as the result of modelling definite functional properties of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand according to which one can determine their mathematical model. Another problem lies in obtaining majorant properties of curves of joint demand on the market of goods and services. Analysis of the latest researches and publications. Many domestic and foreign scientists dedicated their studies to the researches and building of the models of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand. In spite of considerable work of the scientists, such problems as functional properties of the curves and their practical use in modelling. The purpose of the article is to describe functional properties of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand on the market of goods and services on the base of modelling of their building. Scientific novelty and practical value. The theoretical regulations (for functional properties of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand received as a result of the present research, that is convexity, give extra practical possibilities in a microeconomic

  3. Demand elasticity of oil in Barbados

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Alvon

    2011-01-01

    The importation of oil is a significant component of Barbados' imports, rising from 7% of imports in 1998 to over 20% in 2009. This increase has impacted greatly on the level of foreign reserves. As a price-taker, relying entirely on imported oil for our energy needs could prove a continuous drain on the economy. With a view to formulating an appropriate energy policy for Barbados, this paper analyses the demand for oil using monthly data from 1998 to 2009. The paper estimates the elasticities of demand for oil by employing single equation cointegration approach and comparing the results with countries that rely heavily on imported oil and whose policy objective are to alter their energy structure to rely less on imported oil. The results show that the demand for oil imports is price inelastic in the long run. The consumption of oil is responsive to past consumption, prices, income, electricity consumption and the number of appliances imported in the short-run. A policy framework to reduce the use of oil for electricity consumption via alternative energy sources should be considered and the taxation of oil imports given its elasticity is a good source of revenue. - Highlights: → Demand for oil is price inelastic in the long-run (-0.552). → The relationship between oil demand and income is insignificant in the long run. → As electricity consumption increases by 1%, the demand for oil rises by 1.43%. → Need to determine if investments in alternative sources can offset demand for oil. → Investment in alternative resources may be required before gains are realised.

  4. Refrigerated Warehouse Demand Response Strategy Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Doug [VaCom Technologies, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Castillo, Rafael [VaCom Technologies, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Larson, Kyle [VaCom Technologies, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Dobbs, Brian [VaCom Technologies, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Olsen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This guide summarizes demand response measures that can be implemented in refrigerated warehouses. In an appendix, it also addresses related energy efficiency opportunities. Reducing overall grid demand during peak periods and energy consumption has benefits for facility operators, grid operators, utility companies, and society. State wide demand response potential for the refrigerated warehouse sector in California is estimated to be over 22.1 Megawatts. Two categories of demand response strategies are described in this guide: load shifting and load shedding. Load shifting can be accomplished via pre-cooling, capacity limiting, and battery charger load management. Load shedding can be achieved by lighting reduction, demand defrost and defrost termination, infiltration reduction, and shutting down miscellaneous equipment. Estimation of the costs and benefits of demand response participation yields simple payback periods of 2-4 years. To improve demand response performance, it’s suggested to install air curtains and another form of infiltration barrier, such as a rollup door, for the passageways. Further modifications to increase efficiency of the refrigeration unit are also analyzed. A larger condenser can maintain the minimum saturated condensing temperature (SCT) for more hours of the day. Lowering the SCT reduces the compressor lift, which results in an overall increase in refrigeration system capacity and energy efficiency. Another way of saving energy in refrigerated warehouses is eliminating the use of under-floor resistance heaters. A more energy efficient alternative to resistance heaters is to utilize the heat that is being rejected from the condenser through a heat exchanger. These energy efficiency measures improve efficiency either by reducing the required electric energy input for the refrigeration system, by helping to curtail the refrigeration load on the system, or by reducing both the load and required energy input.

  5. Demanding Patient or Demanding Encounter?: A Case Study of a Cancer Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Clare Louise; Henderson, Stuart; MacArthur, Kelly R; Dohan, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the sociological relevance of demanding encounters between doctors and patients. Borrowing from Potter and McKinlay's (2005) reconceptualization of the doctor-patient relationship, we suggest an analytic shift away from `demanding patients' toward `demanding encounters'. Such a shift places provider-patient conflict within a broader sociocultural context, emphasizing constraints facing both doctor and patient as they interact in a clinical setting. Specifically, through an ethnographic study of doctor-patient interactions at the oncology clinic of a US University Hospital, we examine the respective influences of new information technologies and patient consumerism in the production of demanding encounters in oncology. Findings suggest that these interconnected socio-cultural realities, in tandem with patient tendencies to challenge physician judgment or expertise, play a role in demanding encounters. We conclude by considering the implications of demanding encounters for doctors, patients and healthcare organizations. PMID:19619924

  6. A mollusk VDR/PXR/CAR-like (NR1J) nuclear receptor provides insight into ancient detoxification mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruzeiro, Catarina; Lopes-Marques, Mónica; Ruivo, Raquel; Rodrigues-Oliveira, Nádia; Santos, Miguel M.; Rocha, Maria João; Rocha, Eduardo; Castro, L. Filipe C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A nuclear receptor orthologue of the NR1J group is isolated from a mollusc. • The molluscan NR1J transactivates gene expression upon exposure to okadaic acid but not a pesticide, esfenvarelate and triclosan. • Lineage specific gene duplications and gene loss have occurred in the NR1J of protostomes with likely impacts on detoxification mechanisms. - Abstract: The origin and diversification of the metazoan endocrine systems represents a fundamental research issue in biology. Nuclear receptors are critical components of these systems. A particular group named VDR/PXR/CAR (NR1I/J) is central in the mediation of detoxification responses. While orthologues have been thoroughly characterized in vertebrates, a sparse representation is currently available for invertebrates. Here, we provide the first isolation and characterization of a lophotrochozoan protostome VDR/PXR/CAR nuclear receptor (NR1J), in the estuarine bivalve the peppery furrow shell (Scrobicularia plana). Using a reporter gene assay, we evaluated the xenobiotic receptor plasticity comparing the human PXR with the S. plana NR1Jβ. Our results show that the molluscan receptor responds to a natural toxin (okadaic acid) in a similar fashion to that reported for other invertebrates. In contrast, the pesticide esfenvalerate displayed a unique response, since it down regulated transactivation at higher concentrations, while for triclosan no response was observed. Additionally, we uncovered lineage specific gene duplications and gene loss in the gene group encoding NRs in protostomes with likely impacts on the complexity of detoxification mechanisms across different phyla. Our findings pave the way for the development of multi-specific sensor tools to screen xenobiotic compounds acting via the NR1I/J group.

  7. Involvement of nitrate reductase (NR) in osmotic stress-induced NO generation of Arabidopsis thaliana L. roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbert, Zsuzsanna; Ortega, Leandro; Erdei, László

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is undoubtedly a potential signal molecule in diverse developmental processes and stress responses. Despite our extensive knowledge about the role of NO in physiological and stress responses, the source of this gaseous molecule is still unresolved. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of nitrate reductase (NR) as the source of NO accumulation in the root system of wild-type and NR-deficient nia1, nia2 mutant Arabidopsis plants under osmotic stress conditions induced by a polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) treatment. Reduction of primary root (PR) length was detected as the effect of osmotic stress in wild-type and NR-deficient plants. We found that osmotic stress-induced lateral root (LR) initiation in wild-type, but not in NR-mutant plants. High levels of NO formation occurred in roots of Col-1 plants as the effect of PEG treatment. The mammalian nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) had no effect on LR initiation or NO generation, while tungstate, an NR inhibitor, inhibited the later phase of osmotic stress-induced NO accumulation and slightly decreased the LR development. In nia1, nia2 roots, the PEG treatment induced the first phase of NO production, but later NO production was inhibited. We conclude that the first phase of PEG-induced NO generation is not dependent on NOS-like or NR activity. It is also suggested that the activity of NR in roots is required for the later phase of osmotic stress-induced NO formation.

  8. Enhanced Expression of NR2B Subunits of NMDA Receptors in the Inherited Glaucomatous DBA/2J Mouse Retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Dan Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available DBA/2J mouse has been used as a model for spontaneous secondary glaucoma. Here, we investigated changes in expression of NMDA receptor (NMDAR subunits and Cdk5/p35/NMDAR signaling in retinas of DBA/2J mice using Western blot technique. The protein levels of NR1 and NR2A subunits in retinas of DBA/2J mice at all ages (6–12 months were not different from those in age-matched C57BL/6 mice. In contrast, the protein levels of NR2B subunits, in addition to age-dependent change, significantly increased with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP in DBA/2J mice at 6 and 9 months as compared with age-matched controls. Moreover, expression of Cdk5, p35 and ratio of p-NR2AS1232/NR2A progressively increased with time in both strains, suggestive of activated Cdk5/p35 signaling pathway. However, the changes in these proteins were in the same levels in both strain mice, except a significant increase of p35 proteins at 6 months in DBA/2J mice. Meanwhile, the protein levels of Brn-3a, a retinal ganglion cell (RGC maker, remarkably decreased at 9–12 months in DBA/2J mice, which was in parallel with the changes of NR2B expression. Our results suggest that elevated IOP-induced increase in expression of NR2B subunits of NMDARs may be involved in RGC degeneration of DBA/2J mice.

  9. Kalirin Binds the NR2B Subunit of the NMDA Receptor, Altering Its Synaptic Localization and Function

    KAUST Repository

    Kiraly, D. D.

    2011-08-31

    The ability of dendritic spines to change size and shape rapidly is critical in modulating synaptic strength; these morphological changes are dependent upon rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. Kalirin-7 (Kal7), a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor localized to the postsynaptic density (PSD), modulates dendritic spine morphology in vitro and in vivo. Kal7 activates Rac and interacts with several PSD proteins, including PSD-95, DISC-1, AF-6, and Arf6. Mice genetically lacking Kal7 (Kal7KO) exhibit deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) as well as behavioral abnormalities in models of addiction and learning. Purified PSDs from Kal7KO mice contain diminished levels of NR2B, an NMDA receptor subunit that plays a critical role in LTP induction. Here we demonstrate that Kal7KO animals have decreased levels of NR2B-dependent NMDA receptor currents in cortical pyramidal neurons as well as a specific deficit in cell surface expression of NR2B. Additionally, we demonstrate that the genotypic differences in conditioned place preference and passive avoidance learning seen in Kal7KO mice are abrogated when animals are treated with an NR2B-specific antagonist during conditioning. Finally, we identify a stable interaction between the pleckstrin homology domain of Kal7 and the juxtamembrane region of NR2B preceding its cytosolic C-terminal domain. Binding of NR2B to a protein that modulates the actin cytoskeleton is important, as NMDA receptors require actin integrity for synaptic localization and function. These studies demonstrate a novel and functionally important interaction between the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor and Kalirin, proteins known to be essential for normal synaptic plasticity.

  10. A mollusk VDR/PXR/CAR-like (NR1J) nuclear receptor provides insight into ancient detoxification mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruzeiro, Catarina, E-mail: catarinarcruzeiro@hotmail.com [ICBAS - Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U. Porto - University of Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Lopes-Marques, Mónica, E-mail: monicaslm@hotmail.com [ICBAS - Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U. Porto - University of Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Ruivo, Raquel, E-mail: ruivo.raquel@gmail.com [CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Rodrigues-Oliveira, Nádia, E-mail: nadia.oliveira@ciimar.up.pt [CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Santos, Miguel M., E-mail: santos@ciimar.up.pt [CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); FCUP - Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, U. Porto (Portugal); Rocha, Maria João, E-mail: mjsrocha@netcabo.pt [ICBAS - Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U. Porto - University of Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Rocha, Eduardo, E-mail: erocha@icbas.up.pt [ICBAS - Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U. Porto - University of Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Castro, L. Filipe C., E-mail: filipe.castro@ciimar.up.pt [CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); FCUP - Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, U. Porto (Portugal)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • A nuclear receptor orthologue of the NR1J group is isolated from a mollusc. • The molluscan NR1J transactivates gene expression upon exposure to okadaic acid but not a pesticide, esfenvarelate and triclosan. • Lineage specific gene duplications and gene loss have occurred in the NR1J of protostomes with likely impacts on detoxification mechanisms. - Abstract: The origin and diversification of the metazoan endocrine systems represents a fundamental research issue in biology. Nuclear receptors are critical components of these systems. A particular group named VDR/PXR/CAR (NR1I/J) is central in the mediation of detoxification responses. While orthologues have been thoroughly characterized in vertebrates, a sparse representation is currently available for invertebrates. Here, we provide the first isolation and characterization of a lophotrochozoan protostome VDR/PXR/CAR nuclear receptor (NR1J), in the estuarine bivalve the peppery furrow shell (Scrobicularia plana). Using a reporter gene assay, we evaluated the xenobiotic receptor plasticity comparing the human PXR with the S. plana NR1Jβ. Our results show that the molluscan receptor responds to a natural toxin (okadaic acid) in a similar fashion to that reported for other invertebrates. In contrast, the pesticide esfenvalerate displayed a unique response, since it down regulated transactivation at higher concentrations, while for triclosan no response was observed. Additionally, we uncovered lineage specific gene duplications and gene loss in the gene group encoding NRs in protostomes with likely impacts on the complexity of detoxification mechanisms across different phyla. Our findings pave the way for the development of multi-specific sensor tools to screen xenobiotic compounds acting via the NR1I/J group.

  11. A FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRIGEMINAL ASTROGLIAL ACTIVATION AND NR1 EXPRESSION IN A RAT MODEL OF TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT INFLAMMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuxing; Song, Li; Tan, Yonghui; Ma, Yuxin; Tian, Yinghong; Jin, Xu; Lim, Grewo; Zhang, Shuzhuo; Chen, Lucy; Mao, Jianren

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the hypothesis that glial activation would regulate the expression of the NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Sp5C) after temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation. Methods Inflammation of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) was produced in rats by injecting 50μl complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into unilateral TMJ space. Sham control rats received incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) injection. Mechanical nociception in the affected and non-affected TMJ site was tested by using a digital algometer. Fractalkine, fluorocitrate, and/or MK801 were intracisternally administrated to examine the relationship between astroglial activation and NR1 upregulation. Results CFA TMJ injection resulted in persistent ipsilateral mechanical hyperalgesia 1, 3 and 5 days after CFA injection. The inflammation also induced significant upregulation of CX3CR1 and GFAP beginning on day 1, and of NR1 beginning on day 3, within the ipsilateral Sp5C. Intracisternal administration of fluorocitrate for 5 days blocked the development of mechanical hyperalgesia as well as the upregulation of GFAP and NR1 in the Sp5C. Conversely, intracisternal injection of fractalkine for 5 days exacerbated the expression of NR1 in Sp5C and mechanical hyperalgesia induced by TMJ inflammation. Moreover, once daily intracisternal fractalkine administration for five days in naïve rats induced the upregulation of NR1 and mechanical hyperalgesia. Conclusions These results suggest that astroglial activation contributes to the mechanism of TMJ pain through the regulation of NR1 expression in Sp5C. PMID:23110394

  12. Uranium 1999. Resources, production and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, the world uranium market has been characterised by an imbalance between demand and supply and persistently depressed uranium prices. World uranium production currently satisfies between 55 and 60 per cent of the total reactor-related requirements, while the rest of the demand is met by secondary sources including the conversion of excess defence material and stockpiles, primarily from Eastern Europe. Although the future availability of these secondary sources remains unclear, projected low-cost production capability is expected to satisfy a considerable part of demand through to 2015. Information in this report provides insights into changes expected in uranium supply and demand over the next 15 years. The 'Red Book', jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is the foremost world reference on uranium. It is based on official information from 49 countries and includes compilations of statistics on resources, exploration, production and demand as of 1 January 1999. It provides substantial new information from all of the major uranium producing centres in Africa, Australia, Eastern Europe, North America and the New Independent States. It also contains an international expert analysis of industry statistics and world-wide projections of nuclear energy growth, uranium requirements and uranium supply. (authors)

  13. Enabling technologies for demand management: Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Roderick A.

    2008-01-01

    Rising transport demand is likely to be the biggest hurdle to reducing our greenhouse gas emissions. Globally and nationally, transport is consuming an ever increasing share of our total energy use. Furthermore, the bulk of energy used in transport comes from the burning of petroleum products. This brief paper summarises options arising from the two routes to reduce energy demand in transport: improved and more efficient use of existing and possible new transport modes, and the reduction of transport demand. In both areas, the prospects in the immediate and longer-term future are hedged with difficulties. Automobiles and aircraft have improved considerably in recent decades, but future improvements are likely to be incremental. The introduction of hydrogen as a fuel is appealing, but there are technical problems to be solved. Active reduction of demand for transport will require a decoupling of the link between demand and growth in gross domestic product. Globally, this will be very difficult to achieve. Various modes of public transport exist that are efficient in terms of their energy use per passenger kilometre. But they need large investments to make them more attractive than the automobile. However, population concentration in mega-cities, allied with congestion, will make such innovation essential. Policy measures can be assisted in their implementation by new technology, but will remain politically problematic

  14. [Cigarette taxes and demand in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Norman; Llorente, Blanca; Deaza, Javier

    2016-10-01

    Estimate price and income elasticities of aggregate demand for cigarettes in Colombia, by controlling for structural market changes since the late 1990s, to identify policy opportunities for taxes that could improve public health and increase tax revenues. Measurement of aggregate demand for cigarettes using gross income reported on value-added tax returns submitted to Colombia's National Tax and Customs Office (DIAN is the acronym in Spanish) by the tobacco product manufacturing industry, subtracting exports. A quarterly time series was obtained for the period 1994-2014. The econometric estimation using two-stage least squares controls for price endogeneity and uses a set of dummy variables to control for structural changes in the market and in its regulation. Demand is, from a statistical standpoint, sensitive to price and to income. Price elasticity of demand is -0.78 and income elasticity is 0.61. Inelastic demand implies that it is possible, through cigarette excise taxes, to meet public health targets and increase revenues simultaneously. The results also suggest that the considerable increase in household income in Colombia in the first decade of the 21st century increased purchasing power, which, lacking an accompanying tax increase, promoted cigarette consumption, with negative effects on public health, and wasted an opportunity to increase tax revenues.

  15. Data model for Demand Side Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Vasilica OPREA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Demand Side Management (DSM is a portfolio of measures to improve the energy system mainly at the consumption level. In this paper we propose a data model for DSM stating from the optimization methods approach in SMARTRADE project from different perspectives of several entities that include: Transmission System Operator (TSO/Distribution System Operators (DSOs perspectives in case of security/reliability concerns: minimum amount of load (or generation shedding; aggregators perspective in case of demand or generation shedding request: Which demand (or generators should be shed?; consumers perspective: load shifting (time-of-use (ToU tariffs and optimum contract strategies with the aggregators (also known as balancing responsible parties- BRP for load shedding.

  16. Supply-demand controls the futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses the futures market of petroleum and explains how futures operate. The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate that oil futures markets does no determine energy prices - it merely reflects the prices recorded through trades made in an open marketplace. A futures contract is an agreement between a buyer and a seller at a price that seems fair to both. High demand from buyers can push prices up; low demand or a willingness to sell pushes prices down. As a result, supply and demand control the futures exchange and not vice-versa. The paper goes on to explain some basic principals of the futures market including the differences between hedging and speculating on prices and marketing strategy

  17. Coping with unexpected oil demand movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    Continuous upward revisions to world oil demand projections for 2003 and 2004 are compared with the downward revisions that took place in 1998 and 1999, following the 1997 Asian economic crisis. Demand leads supply, in the current case, resulting in a time-lag in the whole supply chain, while supply led demand half a decade ago, with the OECD's commercial stocks reaching record highs. Recent months have seen a reversal of the longstanding inverse relationship between the United States of America's commercial crude oil stock levels and crude prices, and they are now moving in parallel. The fact that the US market is now adequately or even well supplied means that factors other than inventory levels are causing the present high prices. These factors are briefly outlined. OPEC is doing everything it can to maintain market stability, with prices at levels acceptable to producers and consumers. The agreement reached in Beirut on 3 June is the latest example of this. (Author)

  18. International Oil Supplies and Demands. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world`s dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group`s thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  19. Uranium 2014 resources, production and demand

    CERN Document Server

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

    2014-01-01

    Published every other year, Uranium Resources, Production, and Demand, or the "Red Book" as it is commonly known, is jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is the recognised world reference on uranium and is based on official information received from 43 countries. It presents the results of a thorough review of world uranium supplies and demand and provides a statistical profile of the world uranium industry in the areas of exploration, resource estimates, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantial new information from all major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Central Asia, Eastern Europe and North America. Long-term projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements are provided as well as a discussion of long-term uranium supply and demand issues. This edition focuses on recent price and production increases that could signal major changes in the industry.

  20. Uranium 2011 resources, production and demand

    CERN Document Server

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, questions are being raised about the future of the uranium market, including as regards the number of reactors expected to be built in the coming years, the amount of uranium required to meet forward demand, the adequacy of identified uranium resources to meet that demand and the ability of the sector to meet reactor requirements in a challenging investment climate. This 24th edition of the “Red Book”, a recognised world reference on uranium jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, provides analyses and information from 42 producing and consuming countries in order to address these and other questions. It offers a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It also provides substantive new information on established uranium production centres around the world and in countri...

  1. Uranium 2007 resources, production and demand

    CERN Document Server

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

    2008-01-01

    Based on official information received from 40 countries, Uranium 2007 provides a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as of 1st January 2007, as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantive new information from major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Central Asia, Eastern Europe and North America. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2030 are also featured, along with an analysis of long-term uranium supply and demand issues. It finds that with rising demand and declining inventories, uranium prices have increased dramatically in recent years. As a result, the uranium industry is undergoing a significant revival, bringing to an end a period of over 20 years of underinvestment.

  2. Uranium 2005 Resources, Production and Demand

    CERN Document Server

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris. Nuclear Energy Agency

    2006-01-01

    Published every other year, Uranium Resources, Production, and Demand, or the "Red Book" as it is commonly known, is jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is the recognised world reference on uranium and is based on official information received from 43 countries. This 21st edition presents the results of a thorough review of world uranium supplies and demand as of 1st January 2005 and provides a statistical profile of the world uranium industry in the areas of exploration, resource estimates, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantial new information from all major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Central Asia, Eastern Europe and North America. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2025 are provided as well as a discussion of long-term uranium supply and demand issues. This edition focuses on recent price and production increases that could signal major c...

  3. International Oil Supplies and Demands. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world`s dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group`s thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  4. Probabilistic Quantification of Potentially Flexible Residential Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouzelis, Konstantinos; Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    The balancing of power systems with high penetration of renewable energy is a serious challenge to be faced in the near future. One of the possible solutions, recently capturing a lot of attention, is demand response. Demand response can only be achieved by power consumers holding loads which allow...... them to modify their normal power consumption pattern, namely flexible consumers. However flexibility, despite being constantly mentioned, is usually not properly defined and even rarer quantified. This manuscript introduces a methodology to identify and quantify potentially flexible demand...... of residential consumers. The procedure is based on non-flexible consumer clustering and subsequent statistical analysis. Consequently, the power consumption pattern of a flexible consumer is compared to a 3D probability distribution created by the previously referred methodology. The results show a strong...

  5. Demand Side Management in the Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso

    application, a portion of the electricity demand (or production) is flexible, and can eventually be used to support the system stability. Such practice is called Demand-side Management (DSM), and flexible units are called Distributed Energy Resources (DERs), if they only produce energy, or Demand Side......The global effort towards a decarbonised energy sector led to an increased share of renewable energies in the energy mix of most industrialised countries. Production from renewable resources as wind and solar is intrinsically intermittent, and often installed at medium and low voltage grid. This......, together with the growing urbanisation, the in- creasing popularity of electricity-based climate control systems and electricity-based private transportation, challenges the distribution systems operators to run the low voltage grids with small safety margins. Depending on the customer and the specific...

  6. FOOD DEMAND PATTERNS IN GHANAIAN URBAN HOUSEHOLDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard SAKYIAMAH

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysed food consumption patterns in Ghanaian urban households by comparing food commodity budget shares and estimating price and expenditure elasticities for eleven food commodity groups across different income groups. The Linear Approximation Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS was applied to the data. Demand for most of the food commodity groups was found to be elastic. The study concluded that generally, across income groups, food commodities respond negatively to changes in food prices and that cereals/bread, roots/tubers, vegetables, meat and fish will remain an important component of urban household food expenditure. Generally, household demographic characteristics such as age, gender and household size had significant effects on urban food demand patterns.

  7. Future demand scenarios of Bangladesh power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Md. Alam Hossain; Boie, Wulf; Denich, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    Data on the future electricity demand is an essential requirement for planning the expansion of a power system. The purpose of this study is to provide a general overview of electricity consumption in Bangladesh, forecast sector-wise electricity demand up to 2035 considering the base year 2005, and compare the results with official projections. The Long-range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) model with three scenarios, namely low gross domestic product (GDP) growth, average GDP growth and high GDP growth, is applied in this study. In the low to high GDP growth scenarios, the extent of industrial restructuring and technical advancement is gradually increased. The findings have significant implications with respect to energy conservation and economic development. The study also compares the projected per capita electricity consumption in Bangladesh with the historical growth in several other developing countries. Such an evaluation can create awareness among the planners of power system expansion in Bangladesh to meet the high future demand.

  8. Owning, letting and demanding second homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloze, Gintautas; Skak, Morten

    An increasing number of households consume housing beyond the primary home as owners of a second home. Economic studies of second homeownership are still very scarce, and the present empirical study fills this gap to some extent. It is based on Danish survey data combined with administrative...... register data and presents estimations of the probability of owning a second home, the decision to let the second home and the number of let weeks per year. Also income elasticities for primary and second housing demand are estimated. We find a conventional monotonic increase in demand elasticities...... for primary housing demand for non-owners of second homes; however, owners of second homes have the highest income elasticity in the middle income group....

  9. The demand of guava in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Alonso-Cifuentes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, no systematic work have been carried out to determine the demand for fruits beyond descriptive analysis of per capita consumption according to different individual socioeconomic characteristics and much less for a specific product such as guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae. This paper estimates the relationship between guava prices and the demand of guava in Colombia. We found that guava consumption is not affected by its price and its demand is highly correlated to income. While socio-economic characteristics such as income, education and household head labor affect the decision-making for consuming guava, other characteristics such as race and the number of household members determine the quantity of guava consumed in a Colombian household.

  10. Reliability Demands in FTTH Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2004-01-01

    In this paper reliability and bandwidth demands of existing, new and expected classes of applications running over Fiber To The Home (FTTH) networks to private users and small enterprises are analyzed and discussed. Certain applications such as home security and telemedicine are likely to require...... high levels of reliability in the sense that the demands for network availability are high; even short times without connectivity are unacceptable. To satisfy these demands, physical redundancy in the networks is needed. It seems to be the case that - at least in the short term - most reliability...... redundancy by fiber will be requested, either due to reliability-critical bandwidth-critical applications or due to the general dependency on network connections. The paper is ended by a discussion and suggestions for further research. In particular, further research in combined wired/wireless networks...

  11. Rainwater harvesting systems for low demanding applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches Fernandes, Luís F; Terêncio, Daniela P S; Pacheco, Fernando A L

    2015-10-01

    A rainwater harvesting system (RHS) was designed for a waste treatment facility located near the town of Mirandela (northern Portugal), to be used in the washing of vehicles and other equipment, the cleaning of outside concrete or asphalt floors, and the watering of green areas. Water tank volumes representing 100% efficiency (Vr) were calculated by the Ripple method with different results depending on two consumption scenarios adopted for irrigation. The RHS design was based on a precipitation record spanning a rather long period (3 decades). The calculated storage capacities fulfilled the water demand even when prolonged droughts occurred during that timeframe. However, because the drought events have been rather scarce the Vr values were considered oversized and replaced by optimal volumes. Notwithstanding the new volumes were solely half of the original Vr values, the projected RHS efficiency remained very high (around 90%) while the probability of system failure (efficiency<100%) stayed very low (in the order of 5%). In both scenarios, the economic savings related to the optimization of Vr were noteworthy, while the investment's return periods decreased substantially from the original to the optimized solutions. A high efficiency with a low storage capacity is typical of low demanding applications of rainwater harvesting, where water availability (Vw) largely exceeds water demand (Cw), that is to say where demand fractions (Cw/Vw) are very low. Based on the results of a literature review covering an ample geographic distribution and describing a very large number of demand fraction scenarios, a Cw/Vw=0.8 was defined as the threshold to generally distinguish the low from the high demanding RHS applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Demand Response as a System Reliability Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Lewis, Nancy Jo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Watson, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Auslander, David [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Paprotny, Igor [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Makarov, Yuri [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-12-31

    The Demand Response as a System Reliability Resource project consists of six technical tasks: • Task 2.1. Test Plan and Conduct Tests: Contingency Reserves Demand Response (DR) Demonstration—a pioneering demonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can provide an important electricity system reliability resource known as contingency reserve. • Task 2.2. Participation in Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) IntelliGrid—technical assistance to the EPRI IntelliGrid team in developing use cases and other high-level requirements for the architecture. • Task 2.3. Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) Planning for Demand Response Technology Development—technical support to the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program on five topics: Sub-task 1. PIER Smart Grid RD&D Planning Document; Sub-task 2. System Dynamics of Programmable Controllable Thermostats; Sub-task 3. California Independent System Operator (California ISO) DR Use Cases; Sub-task 4. California ISO Telemetry Requirements; and Sub-task 5. Design of a Building Load Data Storage Platform. • Task 2.4. Time Value of Demand Response—research that will enable California ISO to take better account of the speed of the resources that it deploys to ensure compliance with reliability rules for frequency control. • Task 2.5. System Integration and Market Research: Southern California Edison (SCE)—research and technical support for efforts led by SCE to conduct demand response pilot demonstrations to provide a contingency reserve service (known as non-spinning reserve) through a targeted sub-population of aggregated residential and small commercial customers enrolled in SCE’s traditional air conditioning (AC) load cycling program, the Summer Discount Plan. • Task 2.6. Demonstrate Demand Response Technologies: Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E)—research and technical support for efforts led by PG&E to conduct a demand response pilot demonstration to provide non

  13. Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-01-03

    The objective of this scoping study is: (1) to identify current market drivers and technology trends that can improve the demand responsiveness of commercial building lighting systems and (2) to quantify the energy, demand and environmental benefits of implementing lighting demand response and energy-saving controls strategies Statewide. Lighting systems in California commercial buildings consume 30 GWh. Lighting systems in commercial buildings often waste energy and unnecessarily stress the electrical grid because lighting controls, especially dimming, are not widely used. But dimmable lighting equipment, especially the dimming ballast, costs more than non-dimming lighting and is expensive to retrofit into existing buildings because of the cost of adding control wiring. Advances in lighting industry capabilities coupled with the pervasiveness of the Internet and wireless technologies have led to new opportunities to realize significant energy saving and reliable demand reduction using intelligent lighting controls. Manufacturers are starting to produce electronic equipment--lighting-application specific controllers (LAS controllers)--that are wirelessly accessible and can control dimmable or multilevel lighting systems obeying different industry-accepted protocols. Some companies make controllers that are inexpensive to install in existing buildings and allow the power consumed by bi-level lighting circuits to be selectively reduced during demand response curtailments. By intelligently limiting the demand from bi-level lighting in California commercial buildings, the utilities would now have an enormous 1 GW demand shed capability at hand. By adding occupancy and light sensors to the remotely controllable lighting circuits, automatic controls could harvest an additional 1 BkWh/yr savings above and beyond the savings that have already been achieved. The lighting industry's adoption of DALI as the principal wired digital control protocol for dimming ballasts

  14. The demand for electricity in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beenstock, M.; Goldin, E.; Nabot, D.

    1999-01-01

    Quarterly data for Israel are used to compare and contrast three dynamic econometric methodologies for estimating the demand for electricity by households and industrial companies. These are the Dynamic Regression Model and two approaches to cointegration (OLS and Maximum Likelihood). Since we find evidence of seasonal unit roots in the data we also test for seasonal cointegration. We find that the scale elasticities are similar in all three approaches but the OLS price elasticities are considerably lower. Moreover, OLS suggests non-cointegration. The paper concludes by stochastically simulating the DRMs to calculate upside-risk in electricity demand. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  15. Capacity and Entry Deterrence under Demand Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poddar, Sougata

    of output and, more importently, not knowing which state of demand is going to realize, and knowing that there is a potential entrant, the incumbent firm can influence the outcome of the game by changing its initial condition. To that end, I study how the impact of the distribution of uncertainty deeply......I consider a two period model with an incumbent firm and a potential entrant each of whom produces a homogeneous good. There is a demand uncertainty: it can be high or low and it realizes in the second period. The question I ask: How by choosing capacity at an earlier period of actual production...

  16. Uranium 1990 resources, production and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Periodic assessments of world uranium supply and demand have been conducted by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since the mid 1960s. Published every two years, the report URANIUM RESOURCES, PRODUCTION AND DEMAND, commonly referred to as the RED BOOK, has become an essential reference document for nuclear planners and policy makers in the international nuclear community. The latest Red Book, published in 1990, was based on data collected mainly in early 1989. Most of the data for 1989 were therefore provisional. The STATISTICAL UPDATE 1990 provides updated 1989 data collected in 1990 and provisional for 1990 [fr

  17. Pgc-1α and Nr4a1 Are Target Genes of Circadian Melatonin and Dopamine Release in Murine Retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Stefanie; Wolloscheck, Tanja; Kelleher, Debra K; Wolfrum, Uwe; Sargsyan, S Anna; Iuvone, P Michael; Baba, Kenkichi; Tosini, Gianluca; Spessert, Rainer

    2015-09-01

    The neurohormones melatonin and dopamine mediate clock-dependent/circadian regulation of inner retinal neurons and photoreceptor cells and in this way promote their functional adaptation to time of day and their survival. To fulfill this function they act on melatonin receptor type 1 (MT1 receptors) and dopamine D4 receptors (D4 receptors), respectively. The aim of the present study was to screen transcriptional regulators important for retinal physiology and/or pathology (Dbp, Egr-1, Fos, Nr1d1, Nr2e3, Nr4a1, Pgc-1α, Rorβ) for circadian regulation and dependence on melatonin signaling/MT1 receptors or dopamine signaling/D4 receptors. This was done by gene profiling using quantitative polymerase chain reaction in mice deficient in MT1 or D4 receptors. The data obtained determined Pgc-1α and Nr4a1 as transcriptional targets of circadian melatonin and dopamine signaling, respectively. The results suggest that Pgc-1α and Nr4a1 represent candidate genes for linking circadian neurohormone release with functional adaptation and healthiness of retina and photoreceptor cells.

  18. Diminution of the NMDA receptor NR2B subunit in cortical and subcortical areas of WAG/Rij rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Fariba; Soleimani, Mansoureh; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi; Jafarian, Maryam; Mohamadpour, Maliheh; Kazemi, Hadi; Joghataei, Mohammad-Taghi; Gorji, Ali

    2013-12-01

    Modulation of glutamatergic NMDA receptors affects the synchronization of spike discharges in in WAG/Rij rats, a valid genetic animal model of absence epilepsy. In this study, we describe the alteration of NR2B subunit of NMDA receptors expression in WAG/Rij rats in different somatosensory cortical layers and in hippocampal CA1 area. Experimental groups were divided into four groups of six rats of both WAG/Rij and Wistar strains with 2 and 6 months of age. The distribution of NR2B receptors was assessed by immunohistochemical staining in WAG/Rij and compared with age-matched Wistar rats. The expression of NR2B subunit was significantly decreased in different somatosensory cortical layers in 2- and 6-month-old WAG/Rij rats. In addition, the distribution of NR2B in hippocampal CA1 area was lower in 6-month-old WAG/Rij compared with age-matched Wistar rats. The reduction of NR2B receptors in different brain areas points to disturbance of glutamate receptors expression in cortical and subcortical areas in WAG/Rij rats. An altered subunit assembly of NMDA receptors may underlie cortical hyperexcitability in absence epilepsy. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Do demanding conditions help or hurt self-regulation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, S.L.; Jostmann, N.B.; Baumann, N.

    2012-01-01

    Although everyday life is often demanding, it remains unclear how demanding conditions impact self-regulation. Some theories suggest that demanding conditions impair self-regulation, by undermining autonomy, interfering with skilled performance and working memory, and depleting energy resources.

  20. Investigating Comparative Advantages of Advance Demand Information in Presence of Heterogeneous Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Bisheng; Larsen, Christian

    to that there are different customer classes with distinct demand behaviour. It is assumed that the inventory system is operated by a base stock policy and there two customer classes that must be served from the inventory. One customer class, Class 1, do not provide any advance demand information at all, while the other...

  1. Demanding Dynamics - Demand articulation of intermediary organisations in emerging pharmaceutical innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, W.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    User involvement in emerging technological fields is carried by so-called demand articulation processes. These demand articulation processes are interactive learning processes in which stakeholders try to address what they perceive as important characteristics of, and to unravel preferences for an

  2. Indications for a changing electricity demand pattern : The temperature dependence of electricity demand in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekkenberg, M.; Benders, R. M. J.; Moll, H. C.; Uiterkamp, A. J. M. Schoot

    This study assesses the electricity demand pattern in the relatively temperate climate of the Netherlands (latitude 52 degrees 30'N). Daily electricity demand and average temperature during the period from 1970 until 2007 are investigated for possible trends in the temperature dependence of

  3. Ad libitum or demand/semi-demand feeding versus scheduled interval feeding for preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Felicia M; Tosh, Karen; McGuire, William

    2010-02-17

    Scheduled interval feeding of prescribed enteral volumes is current standard practice for preterm infants. However, feeding preterm infants in response to their hunger and satiation cues (ad libitum or demand/semi demand) rather than at scheduled intervals might help in the establishment of independent oral feeding, increase nutrient intake and growth rates, and allow earlier hospital discharge. To assess the effect of a policy of feeding preterm infants on an ad libitum or demand/semi-demand basis versus feeding prescribed volumes at scheduled intervals on growth rates and the time to hospital discharge. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. This included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2009), MEDLINE (1966 to Oct 2009), EMBASE (1980 to Oct 2009), CINAHL (1982 to Oct 2009), conference proceedings, and previous reviews. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials (including cluster randomised trials) that compared a policy of feeding preterm infants on an ad libitum or demand/semi-demand basis versus feeding at scheduled intervals. We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two review authors. We found eight randomised controlled trials that compared ad libitum or demand/semi-demand regimens with scheduled interval regimes in preterm infants in the transition phase from intragastric tube to oral feeding. The trials were generally small and of variable methodological quality. The duration of the intervention and the duration of data collection and follow-up in most of the trials was not likely to have allowed detection of measurable effects on growth. Three trials reported that feeding preterm infants using an ad libitum or demand/semi-demand feeding regimen allowed earlier discharge from hospital (by about two to four days) but other trials did not confirm this

  4. Quantitative work demands, emotional demands, and cognitive stress symptoms in surgery nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, Achim; Grebner, Simone; Leitner, Monika; Hirschmüller, Anja; Kubosch, Eva Johanna; Baur, Heiner

    2017-06-01

    In surgery, cognitive stress symptoms, including problems in concentrating, deciding, memorising, and reflecting are risks to patient safety. Recent evidence points to social stressors as antecedents of cognitive stress symptoms in surgery personnel. The current study tests whether cognitive stress symptoms are positively associated with emotional abuse, emotional- and task-related demands and resources in surgery work. Forty-eight surgery nurses from two hospitals filled out the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire in its German version. Task-related and emotional demands were positively related to cognitive stress symptoms. In a stepwise, multiple, linear regression of cognitive stress symptoms on task-related and emotional demands, emotional abuse and emotional demands were unique predictors (p < .05). Efforts to increase patient safety should address emotional abuse, emotional demands, and, therefore, communication and cooperation team climate in surgery personnel.

  5. An analytical approach to activating demand elasticity with a demand response mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clastres, Cedric; Khalfallah, Haikel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate analytically the conditions under which activating the elasticity of consumer demand could benefit social welfare. We have developed an analytical equilibrium model to quantify the effect of deploying demand response on social welfare and energy trade. The novelty of this research is that it demonstrates the existence of an optimal area for the price signal in which demand response enhances social welfare. This optimal area is negatively correlated to the degree of competitiveness of generation technologies and the market size of the system. In particular, it should be noted that the value of un-served energy or energy reduction which the producers could lose from such a demand response scheme would limit its effectiveness. This constraint is even greater if energy trade between countries is limited. Finally, we have demonstrated scope for more aggressive demand response, when only considering the impact in terms of consumer surplus. (authors)

  6. Education and the Demand for Emancipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarpenes, Ove

    2014-01-01

    This paper puts forward the hypothesis that in recent decades, pupils of schools in the western world have been given a new form of individuality. This construction has been nourished by both the demand for emancipation as it was expressed in the critical sociology of education (and pedagogy) and by the neoliberal turn in education policy. It…

  7. Estimating Reduced Consumption for Dynamic Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelmis, Charalampos [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Aman, Saima [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Saeed, Muhammad Rizwan [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Frincu, Marc [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Prasanna, Viktor K. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-01-30

    Growing demand is straining our existing electricity generation facilities and requires active participation of the utility and the consumers to achieve energy sustainability. One of the most effective and widely used ways to achieve this goal in the smart grid is demand response (DR), whereby consumers reduce their electricity consumption in response to a request sent from the utility whenever it anticipates a peak in demand. To successfully plan and implement demand response, the utility requires reliable estimate of reduced consumption during DR. This also helps in optimal selection of consumers and curtailment strategies during DR. While much work has been done on predicting normal consumption, reduced consumption prediction is an open problem that is under-studied. In this paper, we introduce and formalize the problem of reduced consumption prediction, and discuss the challenges associated with it. We also describe computational methods that use historical DR data as well as pre-DR conditions to make such predictions. Our experiments are conducted in the real-world setting of a university campus microgrid, and our preliminary results set the foundation for more detailed modeling.

  8. Uranium 2007: resources, production and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    With several countries building nuclear power plants and many more considering the use of nuclear power to produce electricity in order to meet rising demand, the uranium industry has become the focus of considerable attention. In response to rising demand and declining inventories, uranium prices have increased dramatically in recent years. As a result, the uranium industry is undergoing a significant revival, bringing to an end a period of over 20 years of under investment. The ''Red Book'', jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is a recognised world reference on uranium. It is based on official information received from 40 countries. This 22. edition provides a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as of 1. January 2007, as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantive new information from major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Central Asia, Eastern Europe and North America. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2030 are also featured, along with an analysis of long-term uranium supply and demand issues. (author)

  9. Job Demand in the Cosmetology Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudner, Lawrence M.; Deutermann, William V., Jr.

    In order to determine job demand in the cosmetology industry, a survey was made of a nationally representative stratified random sample of 1,454 beauty salons, barber shops, and unisex salons in July 1991. Salon owners were asked about 1990 and their plans for the future. Survey results were supplemented with information about the industry…

  10. DEMAND FOR ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL FROZEN VEGETABLES

    OpenAIRE

    Glaser, Lewrene K.; Thompson, Gary D.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we examine retail sales of organic and conventional frozen vegetables (broccoli, green beans, green peas, and sweet corn) using supermarket scanner data. Descriptive analysis includes comparisons of sales volume, prices, and market shares. Price and expenditure elasticities are estimated using the almost ideal demands system (AIDS).

  11. Radiopharmacy - clinical reality and selected research demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoer, G.

    2001-01-01

    My presentation aims at focusing on clinical reality of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET in three major medical specialities and to touch some of the demands in clinical PET research out of the sight of my view. Using of FDG in nuclear medicine is reviewed. (author)

  12. Global sustainable timber supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince

    2010-01-01

    Industrial timber use has provided timber revenue that has helped make timber supply and demand more sustainable in the leading timber producing regions of the world. Sustainable development implies not consuming more resources today than we can replace tomorrow, but sustainable forest management implies more than merely a non-declining supply of timber. Forests as a...

  13. Analyses of demand response in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller Andersen, F.; Grenaa Jensen, S.; Larsen, Helge V.; Meibom, P.; Ravn, H.; Skytte, K.; Togeby, M.

    2006-10-01

    Due to characteristics of the power system, costs of producing electricity vary considerably over short time intervals. Yet, many consumers do not experience corresponding variations in the price they pay for consuming electricity. The topic of this report is: are consumers willing and able to respond to short-term variations in electricity prices, and if so, what is the social benefit of consumers doing so? Taking Denmark and the Nord Pool market as a case, the report focuses on what is known as short-term consumer flexibility or demand response in the electricity market. With focus on market efficiency, efficient allocation of resources and security of supply, the report describes demand response from a micro-economic perspective and provides empirical observations and case studies. The report aims at evaluating benefits from demand response. However, only elements contributing to an overall value are presented. In addition, the analyses are limited to benefits for society, and costs of obtaining demand response are not considered. (au)

  14. Supply based on demand dynamical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Asaf; Sabuco, Juan; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.

    2018-04-01

    We propose and numerically analyze a simple dynamical model that describes the firm behaviors under uncertainty of demand. Iterating this simple model and varying some parameter values, we observe a wide variety of market dynamics such as equilibria, periodic, and chaotic behaviors. Interestingly, the model is also able to reproduce market collapses.

  15. Use of demand response in electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Sri Niwas; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Demand response (DR) can provide sufficient measure, if implemented successfully, to provide economic, secure and stable supply to the customers even under the variability of the generated output from renewable energy source such as wind and solar. However, there are several issues to be analyzed...

  16. Optimal transport on supply-demand networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Han; Wang, Bing-Hong; Zhao, Li-Chao; Zhou, Changsong; Zhou, Tao

    2010-06-01

    In the literature, transport networks are usually treated as homogeneous networks, that is, every node has the same function, simultaneously providing and requiring resources. However, some real networks, such as power grids and supply chain networks, show a far different scenario in which nodes are classified into two categories: supply nodes provide some kinds of services, while demand nodes require them. In this paper, we propose a general transport model for these supply-demand networks, associated with a criterion to quantify their transport capacities. In a supply-demand network with heterogeneous degree distribution, its transport capacity strongly depends on the locations of supply nodes. We therefore design a simulated annealing algorithm to find the near optimal configuration of supply nodes, which remarkably enhances the transport capacity compared with a random configuration and outperforms the degree target algorithm, the betweenness target algorithm, and the greedy method. This work provides a start point for systematically analyzing and optimizing transport dynamics on supply-demand networks.

  17. Electorally unstable by supply or demand?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Carina Saxlund

    2013-01-01

    , it is argued and demonstrated that strategic voting plays an independent role in inducing vote switching. Secondly, the analysis shows that demand-side factors—such as socio-economic cleavages and organizations—do not predict voter stability, whereas supply-side factors—such as the party system, government...

  18. Modelling global container freight transport demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.A.; Ivanova, O.; Halim, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to discuss methods and techniques for a quantitative and descriptive analysis of future container transport demand at a global level. Information on future container transport flows is useful for various purposes. It is instrumental for the assessment of returns of

  19. Challenges facing the implementation of water demand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gauteng Province is the industrial heartland of South Africa and is one of the few large urbanised areas in the world that is not located adjacent to a major source of water. The demand for water in Gauteng outstripped the local resource of the Vaal. River many years ago with the result that the area relies heavily on large ...

  20. Strategic Disclosure of Demand Information by Duopolists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jos; Pollak, Andreas

    We study the strategic disclosure of demand information and product-market strategies of duopolists. In a setting where firms may fail to receive information, we show that firms selectively disclose information in equilibrium in order to influence their competitor's product-market strategy...

  1. Reliability Demands in FTTH Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2005-01-01

    In this paper reliability and bandwidth demands of existing, new and expected classes of applications running over Fiber To The Home (FTTH) networks to private users and small enterprises are analysed and discussed. Certain applications such as home security and telemedicine are likely to require...

  2. Demand side management using profile steering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, Marco Egbertus Theodorus; Toersche, Hermen; Hoogsteen, Gerwin; van der Klauw, Thijs; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2015-01-01

    Many Demand Side Management (DSM) approaches use energy prices as steering signals. This paper shows that such steering signals may result in power quality problems and high losses. As an alternative, this paper proposes to use desired (e.g., flat) power profiles as steering signals and presents an

  3. Electric demand and the antinuclear movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studness, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The author feels that, with electric demand growth of 4.5 to 5% per year expected, it will be only a matter of time before stepping-up the stream of utility capacity additions becomes an important issue. If demand grows 4.5% per year instead of 2.8% as projected by NERC, demand will be 10% higher and peak reserve margins about 12 percentage points lower than envisioned by the NERC projections after five years. By 1988 or 1989, little or no excess capacity will remain, and the utilities will be faced with adding twice as much capacity annually as now planned to avoid service deterioration. As questions about the adequacy of current utility capacity plans and concerns about service quality move toward center stage, the antinuclear movement should find it increasingly difficult to garner the broad support it now enjoys. Capacity represented by any uncompleted nuclear plants will appear increasingly beneficial, and those who do not have strong antinuclear sentiments should become increasingly hesitant about lending support to the movement. Accordingly, electric demand growth in due course can be expected to drain marginal supporters from the antinuclear movement and thereby erode the movement's vitality

  4. [Supply and demand in home health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Patrícia Pinto; de Sena, Roseni Rosângela; Seixas, Clarissa Terenzi; de Castro, Edna Aparecida Barbosa; Andrade, Angélica Mônica; Silva, Yara Cardoso

    2016-03-01

    The changes in the demographic and epidemiologic profiles of the Brazilian population and the need to rethink the health care model have led many countries like Brazil to consider Home Care (HC) as a care strategy. However, there is a gap between the supply of HC services, the demand for care and the health needs manifested by the population. Thus, this article analyzes scientific output regarding the status of the relation between supply, demand and the needs related to home health care. This work is based on an integrative review of the literature in the following databases: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Latin America and the Caribbean Literature on Health and Science (Lilacs), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline) and Web of Science. Despite the fact that few articles refer to the issue in question, there is evidence indicating that health demands and needs are seldom taken into account either in a quantitative or qualitative approach when developing the organization of HC services. The analysis would indicate that there is a national and international deficit in the supply of HC services considering the demand for health care and needs currently prevailing.

  5. Differentiated Levels of Nursing Work Force Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovner, Christine T.; Schore, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    Baccalaureate-prepared registered nurses (RNs) in hospitals appear to have more differentiated roles than nurses in nursing homes or ambulatory care. If employers believe that it is more cost-effective to shift responsibilities from physicians to RNs, demand for nurses with bachelor's degrees will increase. (SK)

  6. Demand sensing in e-business

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Accurate assessment of demand and market shares is critical for many businesses and public organizations. Examples of its .... entiation in service policies that offers a cost-effective compromise between marketing and operations. ...... work on single alternative selected on utility-maximization principle. In the cases with ...

  7. Demand Side Management for Multiple Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molderink, Albert; Bakker, Vincent; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    Steering a heterogeneous set of devices in a Smart Grid using cost functions: Demand Side Management (DSM) is an important element in smart grids. DSM is already in operation for large consumers, but thorough research is required into DSM on a building level within the distribution grid.

  8. Product variety and the demand for children

    OpenAIRE

    Weisdorf, Jacob; Guzmán, Ricardo Andrés

    2009-01-01

    Why does the rate of population growth decline in the face of economic growth? This study shows that growing product variety, along with more expensive children, induce a permanent reduction in the demand for children, and a continuous rise in income and consumption.

  9. Demand sensing in e-business

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we identify various models from the optimization and econometrics literature that can potentially help sense customer demand in the e-business era. While modelling reality is a difficult task, many of these models come close to modelling the customer's decision-making process. We provide a brief overview of ...

  10. UK money demand 1873-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Heino Bohn

    2007-01-01

    This paper performs a multivariate cointegration analysis of UK money demand 1873-2001, and illustrates how a long-run time series analysis may be conducted on a data set characterized by turbulent episodes and institutional changes. We suggest accounting for the effects of the two world wars...

  11. Measurement of biological oxygen demand sandy beaches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurements of biological oxygen demand in a sandy beach using conventional in situ techniques are compared with laboratory measurements of interstitial oxygen changes in intact cores. Oxygen uptake as measured in the laboratory was approximately three times that measured in the field despite the fact that the.

  12. Economic characteristics of demand in Namibia's marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sample of 626 anglers was surveyed with a questionnaire to determine the expenditures, consumer surpluses and elasticities of demand associated with the Namibian recreational marine shore fishery in 1998. Two entirely different methods of valuation, the travel cost method and contingent valuation, were applied.

  13. Nuclear accidents, consumers' perspectives and demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alevritou-Goulielmou, H.

    2005-01-01

    The public's reaction to life threatening situations is determined by a variety of factors. In the case of nuclear accidents, the panic experienced by citizens may be reasonably justified. This paper briefly describes the parameters that cause panic reactions from a consumer's point of view and summarizes citizen's demands concerning nuclear crisis management

  14. Delivering Training for Highly Demanding Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Andrew Lawrence; Coulson-Thomas, Yvette May; Coulson-Thomas, Colin Joseph; Ashurst, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a lack of research covering the training requirements of organisations implementing highly demanding information systems (HDISs). The aim of this paper is to help in the understanding of appropriate training requirements for such systems. Design/methodology/approach: This research investigates the training delivery within a…

  15. Building energy demand aggregation and simulation tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gianniou, Panagiota; Heller, Alfred; Rode, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    , which is based on monthly quasi-steady state calculations, using a visual parametric programming language (Grasshopper) coupled with a 3D design interface (Rhinoceros). The estimated heat demand of the examined houses from both simulation tools is compared to actual measured data of heat consumption...

  16. Demand chain management — The implementation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lot about logistics, supply and demand chain management and he has read theories and case stories about strategy development and change management. But the question is how to implement the theories, concepts and models in “real life”? Steve knows that the rate of successful implementations of the (SCM) concept is ...

  17. Technology and skill demand in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Acevedo, Gladys

    2002-01-01

    The author investigates the effects of technology on the employment and wages of differently skilled Mexican manufacturing workers using firm panel data from 1992-99. She analyzes the relationship between technology and skill demand. Findings support the skill-biased technical change hypothesis. She then examines the temporal relationship of technology adoption to firm productivity and wor...

  18. China's rising hydropower demand challenges water sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, J.; Zhao, D.; Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Guan, D.

    2015-01-01

    Demand for hydropower is increasing, yet the water footprints (WFs) of reservoirs and hydropower, and their contributions to water scarcity, are poorly understood. Here, we calculate reservoir WFs (freshwater that evaporates from reservoirs) and hydropower WFs (the WF of hydroelectricity) in China

  19. Demand and Supply in Information Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Lizzie; Cronin, Blaise

    1988-01-01

    Describes the reduced employment opportunities for library and information science professionals in the United Kingdom as a result of financial constraints and restructuring in the public and private sectors. The need to train students in skills required by employers to meet employment demands is discussed. (40 references) (CLB)

  20. Industrial water demand management and cleaner production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Processes and systems using water today are being subjected to increasingly stringent environmental regulations on effluents and there is growing demand for fresh water. In Morocco, consumption of water by industries is estimated in 1994 at 1 billion m3, the drinking water constitutes 4%. Water used in the food and drink ...

  1. Price Elasticity of Alcohol Demand in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh

    2017-05-01

    Using a household survey conducted in 2014, this study estimates price elasticity of demand (PED) for beer, country liquor and spirits in India. Ordinary least-square models were used to estimate the responsiveness in alcohol demand due to price change. A large number of control variables were included to adjust for potential confounding in the model. Inter-district variation in alcohol consumption is adjusted for by including district fixed effects. Alcohol prices are negatively associated with demand for alcoholic beverages. The PED ranged from -0.14 for spirits to -0.46 for country liquor. Low level of education was positively associated with spirits consumption. The magnitude of elasticity varied by rural-urban, education and gender. Results indicate that a policy mix of price controls and awareness campaigns would be most effective in tackling the adverse effects of harmful drinking in India. The demand for beer, country liquor and spirits is negatively associated with its own price. The elasticity estimates ranged from -0.14 for spirits to -0.44 for country liquor. The elasticity estimates varied by rural-urban, gender and by education levels of the drinkers. © The Author 2017. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved

  2. PULP DEMAND IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Santos Cruz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing the international pulp market, taking into account themain exporting countries and importing regions, with the objective of estimating, for each market, theown-price and cross-price elasticity in relation to the demand of the pulp, differentiated for country oforigin. The model considers that imports are differentiated by origin; therefore they are not perfect substitutes. The demand from Europe, North America and the Rest of the World for the pulp from theUnited States,Canada, Sweden, Finland, Portugal and Brazil was inelastic. The Asian demand for thissome pulp was elastic. Europe and the Rest of the World showed negative cross-price elasticity, i. e.,and the imported pulp from other countries are complementary products. North America and Asiashowed positive crow-price elasticity, i. e., they consider the pulp produced in other countries assubstitute products. The net effect of the variation on the price of pulp in a country h, over the amountof pulp that goes to the region i depends on the matching of values related to the elasticity ofsubstitution and the price elasticity of the total demand.

  3. Economic consequences of increased bioenergy demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnston, C.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2014-01-01

    Although wind, hydro and solar are the most discussed sources of renewable energy, countries will need to rely much more on biomass if they are to meet renewable energy targets. In this study, a global forest trade model is used to examine the global effects of expanded demand for wood pellets fired

  4. French petroleum demand stable since thirteen years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvot, M.

    2005-01-01

    The French union of petroleum industries (Ufip) has presented a globally satisfactory status of the French petroleum situation. However, the refining capacities are not always well adapted to the evolution of the demand and the production of diesel fuels remains insufficient while France exports gasoline. Short paper. (J.S.)

  5. World energy demands and coal reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Kovács

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the expected increase in the world’s population and taking the estimated improvement in both technology and living standards into account, the paper forecasts energy demands. In 2000, actual energy consumption was 380-400 EJ.year-1, the forecast for the year 2050 is 600-1,050 EJ.year-1, while for the year 2100 it is 900-3,600 EJ.year-1. On the basis of the expected shares of the different fuels (coal, mineral oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, renewable energies, it can be assumed that in 2050 coal demand will be between 122-200 EJ.year-1 while the total coal demand for the 45 years ahead is estimated to be 5,500-6,900 EJ.year-1. This rate of demand basically involves an approximately 2 % increase every year.On the basis of data in relevant literature, the world’s coal reserves are: the industrial coal reserve is 800-1,000 · 109 tons, the geological stock is 5-15 1012 tons and the expected stock is 8-35 1012 tons. The world’s industrial coal reserve (which is economically exploitable at the present technological level guarantees supply for 200 years while the detected geological stock guarantees supply for a round 1,000 years.

  6. Challenges facing the implementation of water demand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gauteng Province is the industrial heartland of South Africa and is one of the few large urbanised areas in the world that is not located adjacent to a major source of water. The demand for water in Gauteng outstripped the local resource of the Vaal River many years ago with the result that the area relies heavily on large ...

  7. Causality relationship between energy demand and economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to examine the causal relationship between electricity demand and economic growth in Nigeria using data for 1970 – 2003. The study uses the Johansen cointegration VAR approach. The ADF and Phillips – Perron test statistics were used to test for stationarity of the data. It was found that the data were ...

  8. Uranium 2011: Resources, Production and Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, questions are being raised about the future of the uranium market, including as regards the number of reactors expected to be built in the coming years, the amount of uranium required to meet forward demand, the adequacy of identified uranium resources to meet that demand and the ability of the sector to meet reactor requirements in a challenging investment climate. This 24. edition of the 'Red Book', a recognised world reference on uranium jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, provides analyses and information from 42 producing and consuming countries in order to address these and other questions. It offers a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It also provides substantive new information on established uranium production centres around the world and in countries developing production centres for the first time. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related requirements through 2035, incorporating policy changes following the Fukushima accident, are also featured, along with an analysis of long-term uranium supply and demand issues

  9. Water Demand Management Policy Brief No

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Bob Stanley

    Water demand management (WDM) programs have been widely implemented across the MENA region and elsewhere, with varying degrees of success. The criteria below are intended to help policymakers determine how best to develop institutions with the capacity and capability to design, implement and monitor WDM ...

  10. Demand management implementation in Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaboriboon, Y.

    1995-12-31

    The need to apply transportation system management, to developing countries is urgent. Attempts to alleviate severe traffic congestion in their metropolises have so far failed to provide adequate solutions. The countries are faced with many difficulties because of the lack of sufficient financial resources together with their complex internal administrative and political problems. They are incapable of providing sufficient road space to cope with the escalating demand in private automobiles. This has led to excessive delays in urban traveling, environmental pollution problems, decline of road-based public transit services and deterioration of the quality of life in these metropolises. Demand management, in use for decades in the Western world, has also been recognized in Singapore`s famous area licensing scheme (ALS) making other Southeast Asian Metropolises aware of its advantages as an alternative in solving their chaotic traffic problems. However, realization is far different from implementation and still many metropolises are not able to apply the technique. Singapore and Thailand, two leaders among many other Southeast Asian regions in economics, tourism, trade and industry handle their problems far differently, especially the traffic congestion problem. While a number of demand management schemes have been implemented successfully in Singapore since 1975, Bangkok is still struggling to implement such measures to alleviate severe traffic congestion problems. This article intends to high light the successful practices and unsuccessful attempts of demand management techniques applied in Singapore and Bangkok.

  11. Decomposing energy demand across BRIIC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adetutu, Morakinyo O.; Glass, Anthony J.; Weyman-Jones, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    Energy plays an important role within the production technology of fast emerging economies, such that firms' reaction to changes in energy prices provides useful information on factor productivity and factor intensity, as well as the likely outcome of energy policy initiatives, among other things. Drawing on duality theory, this paper decomposes changes in energy demand into substitution and output effects using annual sector-level production data for Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia and China (BRIIC) for the period 1995–2009. Unlike previous studies, this study analyzed the economic properties of the underlying production technology. Results indicate that changes in energy demand are strongly dominated by substitution effects. More importantly, an intriguing finding that emerges from our analysis is the role of economies of scale and factor accumulation, as opposed to technical progress, in giving rise to the growth performance of sampled economies. - Highlights: • The analysis examines the structure and channels of changes in energy demand across productive sectors in BRIIC countries during 1995–2009. • We evaluate substitution and output effects as well as the nature of firm productivity across these countries. • Changes in energy demand arising from changes in (relative) price of energy is strongly dominated by substitution effects. • The main drivers of economic performance and energy use over the sample period are economies of scale and factor accumulation.

  12. Integrative proteomic analysis of the NMDA NR1 knockdown mouse model reveals effects on central and peripheral pathways associated with schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Wesseling (Hendrik); P.C. Guest (Paul); C.-M. Lee (Chi-Ming); E.H.F. Wong (Erik); H. Rahmoune (Hassan); S. Bahn (Sabine)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Over the last decade, the transgenic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) NR1-knockdown mouse (NR1neo-/-) has been investigated as a glutamate hypofunction model for schizophrenia. Recent research has now revealed that the model also recapitulates cognitive and negative

  13. A unique 970kb microdeletion in 9q33.3, including the NR5A1 gene in a 46,XY female

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Silfhout, Anneke; Boot, Annemieke M.; Dijkhuizen, Trijnie; Hoek, Annemieke; Nijman, Rien; Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M. A.

    2009-01-01

    We report on a female patient with XY sex reversal with clitoromegaly, neonatal male testosterone and AMH levels, and a normal urine steroid profile. Array CGH revealed a de novo microdeletion of chromosome 9q33.3, including the NR5A1 gene. NR5A1 encodes for the steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) and

  14. Blending of NR/BR/EPDM by reactive processing for tire sidewall applications: Part I - Preparation, cure characteristics and mechanical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahakaro, Kannika; Naskar, N.; Naskar, Nityananda; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Datta, Rabin

    2007-01-01

    EPDM incorporated into blends of natural rubber/butadiene rubber (NR/BR) improves ozone resistance. In this work, the inferior mechanical properties of NR/BR/EPDM blends generally obtained by conventional straight mixing are overcome by utilizing a reactive processing technique. The entire amount of

  15. QTL list: Nr Roots 2006 [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available orrhizal) plant ... P38M48 LG_09 ... 3.79 ... 10.1007/s00122-010-1501-8 21222096 ... QT63208 Allium cepa Amaryllidaceae Nr Roots 2006 Nr Roots Number of stem-borne roots per AM (arbuscular myc

  16. QTL list: Nr Roots 2007 [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available orrhizal) plant ... P31M33 LG_09 ... 3.74 ... 10.1007/s00122-010-1501-8 21222096 ... QT63209 Allium cepa Amaryllidaceae Nr Roots 2007 Nr Roots Number of stem-borne roots per AM (arbuscular myc

  17. Proposal for inclusion of the risk based inspection technique in Regulatory Standard NR 13; Proposta de inclusao da tecnica de inspecao baseada em risco na Norma Regulamentadora NR 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteves, Vinicius Teixeira; Lima, Marco Aurelio Oliveira [Det Norske Veritas Ltda. (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In Brazil, the Regulatory Standard n. 13 (NR 13) establishes requirements for the inspection of boilers and pressure vessels which has main objective of preventing accidents with these types of equipment. Additionally, it has the Risk-Based Inspection (RBI) technique as an effective way to manage the mechanical integrity of various types of static mechanical equipment by through an inspection planning based on the risk factor. In this study, it is being proposed to include the RBI technique, in the NR 13, for the planning and definition of periods for the safety inspection of boilers and pressure vessels in order to promote an increase in the operational safety in process industries in Brazil. In this study it was carried out a critical analysis of NR 13 and RBI, and beyond that a bibliographic research of various international documents that relate the operational safety of pressurized equipment with the inspection activity, and the acceptability of RBI by governments, agencies and organizations around the world. It is considered that the inclusion and formal acceptance of RBI technique in the NR 13 must be accompanied by a rigorous control to avoid the 'trivialization' of its use and ensure the implementation rational, efficient and reliable. Finally, it was developed and suggested basic elements and minimum requirements to be inserted in the NR 13, to be attended, in order mandatory, by the companies that choose the implementation and use of the RBI technique as a tool for the planning of safety inspection of boilers and pressure vessels. It is concluded that the formal acceptance of the RBI technique in the NR 13 could aggregate much value to this standard, with regard to the prevention of accidents involving boilers or pressure vessels, and provide a technological jump to the companies that make use of RBI technique in Brazil. (author)

  18. Vaccine supply, demand, and policy: a primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzumdar, Jagannath M; Cline, Richard R

    2009-01-01

    To provide an overview of supply and demand issues in the vaccine industry and the policy options that have been implemented to resolve these issues. Medline, Policy File, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts were searched to locate academic journal articles. Other sources reviewed included texts on the topics of vaccine history and policy, government agency reports, and reports from independent think tanks. Keywords included vaccines, immunizations, supply, demand, and policy. Search criteria were limited to English language and human studies. Articles pertaining to vaccine demand, supply, and public policy were selected and reviewed for inclusion. By the authors. Vaccines are biologic medications, therefore making their development and production more difficult and costly compared with "small-molecule" drugs. Research and development costs for vaccines can exceed $800 million, and development may require 10 years or more. Strict manufacturing regulations and facility upgrades add to these costs. Policy options to increase and stabilize the supply of vaccines include those aimed at increasing supply, such as government subsidies for basic vaccine research, liability protection for manufacturers, and fast-track approval for new vaccines. Options to increase vaccine demand include advance purchase commitments, government stockpiles, and government financing for select populations. High development costs and multiple barriers to entry have led to a decline in the number of vaccine manufacturers. Although a number of vaccine policies have met with mixed success in increasing the supply of and demand for vaccines, a variety of concerns remain, including developing vaccines for complex pathogens and increasing immunization rates with available vaccines. New policy innovations such as advance market commitments and Medicare Part D vaccine coverage have been implemented and may aid in resolving some of the problems in the vaccine industry.

  19. Demand response in Indian electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, Md Zakaria; Maere d'Aertrycke, Gauthier de; Smeers, Yves

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines a methodology for implementing cost of service regulation in retail market for electricity in India when wholesale market is liberalised and operates through an hourly spot market. As in a developing country context political considerations make tariff levels more important than supply security, satisfying the earmarked level of demand takes a back seat. Retail market regulators are often forced by politicians to keep the retail tariff at suboptimal level. This imposes budget constraint on distribution companies to procure electricity that it requires to meet the earmarked level of demand. This is the way demand response is introduced in the system and has its impact on spot market prices. We model such a situation of not being able to serve the earmarked demand as disutility to the regulator which has to be minimised and we compute associated equilibrium. This results in systematic mechanism for cutting loads. We find that even a small cut in ability of the distribution companies to procure electricity from the spot market has profound impact on the prices in the spot market. - Highlights: ► Modelling the impact of retail tariff in different states on spot prices of electricity in India. ► Retail tariffs are usually fixed below appropriate levels by states due to political reasons. ► Due to revenue constraint distribution utility withdraws demand from spot market in peak hours. ► This adversely affects the scarcity rent of generators and subsequently future investment. ► We show possibility of strategic behaviour among state level regulators in setting retail tariff.

  20. Electricity demand savings from distributed solar photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glassmire, John; Komor, Paul; Lilienthal, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Due largely to recent dramatic cost reductions, photovoltaics (PVs) are poised to make a significant contribution to electricity supply. In particular, distributed applications of PV on rooftops, brownfields, and other similar applications – hold great technical potential. In order for this potential to be realized, however, PV must be “cost-effective”—that is, it must be sufficiently financially appealing to attract large amounts of investment capital. Electricity costs for most commercial and industrial end-users come in two forms: consumption (kWh) and demand (kW). Although rates vary, for a typical larger commercial or industrial user, demand charges account for about ∼40% of total electricity costs. This paper uses a case study of PV on a large university campus to reveal that even very large PV installations will often provide very small demand reductions. As a result, it will be very difficult for PV to demonstrate cost-effectiveness for large commercial customers, even if PV costs continue to drop. If policymakers would like PV to play a significant role in electricity generation – for economic development, carbon reduction, or other reasons – then rate structures will need significant adjustment, or improved distributed storage technologies will be needed. - Highlights: ► Demand charges typically account for ∼40% of total electricity costs for larger electricity users. ► Distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems provide minimal demand charge reductions. ► As a result, PVs are not a financially viable alternative to centralized electricity. ► Electricity rate structures will need changes for PV to be a major electricity source.

  1. Water demands in Kansas, 1944-84

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The State of Kansas has administered water rights according to an appropriations doctrine since 1945. Water rights are issued by the Kansas State Board of Agriculture, Division of Water Resources, for eight categories of beneficial use. Water rights data and limited information on reported water use are stored on a computerized State data base; the U.S. Geological Survey cooperates with the State on maintenance of this system. This report analyzes trends in appropriations from 1944-84 for surface and groundwater for three major categories of use: irrigation, public supply, and industry. Demands for water, represented by these appropriations, are compared for three geographic areas within the State. These areas correspond to general patterns of water availability, population, and enterprises. As of 1984, 87% of the water appropriated for the three major types of use was for irrigation; most of this demand was for groundwater in the western one-third of the State. Seventy-five percent of the water demands in the central one-third of Kansas were met by groundwater; appropriations for irrigation represent the largest demand on water supplies in this area but must compete with appropriations for public supply and industry. Demands for surface water have increased substantially only in the eastern part of the State for industrial use and public supplies. The most prominent trends in water rights permit activity were related to climatic fluctuations, particularly the drought of the 1950's, legislative changes in the 1970 's requiring permits, and growth of urban populations in the central and eastern areas of the State. Analysis of trends in water appropriations can be useful in understanding the water issues facing Kansas in the future. (Author 's abstract)

  2. Modelling and forecasting Turkish residential electricity demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilaver, Zafer; Hunt, Lester C

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the relationship between Turkish residential electricity consumption, household total final consumption expenditure and residential electricity prices by applying the structural time series model to annual data over the period from 1960 to 2008. Household total final consumption expenditure, real energy prices and an underlying energy demand trend are found to be important drivers of Turkish residential electricity demand with the estimated short run and the long run total final consumption expenditure elasticities being 0.38 and 1.57, respectively, and the estimated short run and long run price elasticities being -0.09 and -0.38, respectively. Moreover, the estimated underlying energy demand trend, (which, as far as is known, has not been investigated before for the Turkish residential sector) should be of some benefit to Turkish decision makers in terms of energy planning. It provides information about the impact of past policies, the influence of technical progress, the impacts of changes in consumer behaviour and the effects of changes in economic structure. Furthermore, based on the estimated equation, and different forecast assumptions, it is predicted that Turkish residential electricity demand will be somewhere between 48 and 80 TWh by 2020 compared to 40 TWh in 2008. - Research highlights: → Estimated short run and long run expenditure elasticities of 0.38 and 1.57, respectively. → Estimated short run and long run price elasticities of -0.09 and -0.38, respectively. → Estimated UEDT has increasing (i.e. energy using) and decreasing (i.e. energy saving) periods. → Predicted Turkish residential electricity demand between 48 and 80 TWh in 2020.

  3. NR2A and NR2B receptor gene variations modify age at onset in Huntington disease in a sex-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arning, Larissa; Saft, Carsten; Wieczorek, Stefan; Andrich, Jürgen; Kraus, Peter H; Epplen, Jörg T

    2007-09-01

    In addition to the pathogenetic CAG repeat expansion other genetic factors play a significant role in determining age at onset (AO) in Huntington disease (HD), e.g. variations in the NR2A and NR2B glutamate receptor subunit genes (GRIN2A, GRIN2B). In order to expand these findings we fine-mapped a larger HD patient panel (n = 250) using densely spaced markers flanking the originally associated SNPs in GRIN2A and GRIN2B. In GRIN2A association fine-mapping based on eight additional SNPs confirmed intron 2 as the region of strongest association. In GRIN2B fine-mapping with seven additional SNPs consolidated C2664T as causal genetic variation. Gender stratification of patients revealed differences in the variability in AO attributable to the CAG repeat number and highly significant differences in the AO association with the C2664T and rs8057394/ rs2650427 variations. Addition of the corresponding genotype variations to the effect of CAG repeat lengths resulted in a significant increase of the R2 values only in females. The sex-specific effect for C2664T is underscored by differences in the genotype and allele frequencies observed for female versus male HD patients (P = 0.01) caused by decreased CC frequency in females. Overall, female HD patients homozygous for the CC genotype tended to have later AO compared to the other two genotypes. Stratification of the results by presumed menopausal status demonstrated that the significant findings were predominantly observed in pre-menopausal patients. We speculate that altered hormone levels herald protective effects of this genotype. Together, GRIN2A and GRIN2B genotype variations explain 7.2% additional variance in AO for HD.

  4. Stochastic model of forecasting spare parts demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan S. Milojević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available If demand is known for the whole planning period (complete information, then this type of demand or a supply system is deterministic. In the simplest cases, the demand per time unit is constant. If demand levels change over time following a precisely determined and pre-known principle, this type of demand is also classified as deterministic. This quality of demand is very rare. In most cases demand is the product of a process, for example TMS maintenance, whose progression cannot be predicted due to a number of factors influencing the process and causing random demand changes. In this case, a supply system must function according to the complete information and with a certain degree of uncertainty. In cases when demand may be defined by some of the laws of the probability theory, we are talking about stochastic demand and a stochastic supply system. Demand can be described by mathematical expectation, mathematical expectation and standard deviation, probability distribution or as a random process. However, there is usually a need for the most complex description, i.e. the complex random process because both intensity of demand and the probability distribution change during the observed intervals. The level of temporal (dynamic series is traditionally considered as a complex phenomenon consisting of four components: - basic tendency of phenomenon development - cyclical impact (long-term, 'ancient' - seasonal effects - random fluctuations. The basic tendency of phenomenon development means a long-term evolution of phenomena. A function that expresses the trajectory of changes of the basic tendency of a phenomenon development in the form of the equation is called a trend. Often, the trend involves time regression; i.e. the coefficients of the proposed functions are often determined by the least squares method. To roughly determine the coefficients of the proposed function, the sum of three and three-point methods are also used. After checking the

  5. NR2A-Containing NMDARs in the Prefrontal Cortex Are Required for Working Memory and Associated with Age-Related Cognitive Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuail, Joseph A; Beas, B Sofia; Kelly, Kyle B; Simpson, Kailey L; Frazier, Charles J; Setlow, Barry; Bizon, Jennifer L

    2016-12-14

    Working memory, the ability to temporarily maintain representational knowledge, is a foundational cognitive process that can become compromised in aging and neuropsychiatric disease. NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation in prefrontal cortex (PFC) is necessary for the pyramidal neuron activity believed to enable working memory; however, the distinct biophysical properties and localization of NMDARs containing NR2A and NR2B subunits suggest unique roles for NMDAR subtypes in PFC neural activity and working memory. Experiments herein show that working memory depends on NR2A- but not NR2B-NMDARs in PFC of rats and that NR2A-NMDARs mediate the majority of evoked NMDAR currents on layer 2/3 PFC pyramidal neurons. Moreover, attenuated expression of the NR2A but not the NR2B subunit in PFC associates with naturally occurring working memory impairment in aged rats. Finally, NMDAR currents and working memory are enhanced in aged rats by promoting activation of the NR2A-enriched synaptic pool of PFC NMDARs. These results implicate NR2A-NMDARs in normal working memory and suggest novel treatment strategies for improving working memory in cognitive disorders. Working memory, the ability to hold information "in mind," requires persistent activity of pyramidal neurons in prefrontal cortex (PFC) mediated by NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation. NMDAR loss in PFC may account for working memory impairments in aging and psychiatric disease. Our studies demonstrate that NMDARs containing the NR2A subunit, but not the NR2B subunit, are required for working memory and that loss of NR2A predicts severity of age-related working memory impairment. The importance of NR2A to working memory is likely due its abundant contribution to pyramidal neuron activity and location at synaptic sites in PFC. This information is useful in designing new therapies to treat working memory impairments by enhancing the function of NR2A-containing NMDARs. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/3612537-12$15.00/0.

  6. Hyperactivity, startle reactivity and cell-proliferation deficits are resistant to chronic lithium treatment in adult Nr2e1(frc/frc) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, B K Y; Hossain, S M; Trinh, E; Ottmann, G A; Budaghzadeh, S; Zheng, Q Y; Simpson, E M

    2010-10-01

    The NR2E1 region on Chromosome 6q21-22 has been repeatedly linked to bipolar disorder (BP) and NR2E1 has been associated with BP, and more specifically bipolar I disorder (BPI). In addition, patient sequencing has shown an enrichment of rare candidate-regulatory variants. Interestingly, mice carrying either spontaneous (Nr2e1(frc) ) or targeted (Tlx(-) ) deletions of Nr2e1 (here collectively known as Nr2e1-null) show similar neurological and behavioral anomalies, including hypoplasia of the cerebrum, reduced neural stem cell proliferation, extreme aggression and deficits in fear conditioning; these are the traits that have been observed in some patients with BP. Thus, NR2E1 is a positional and functional candidate for a role in BP. However, no Nr2e1-null mice have been fully evaluated for behaviors used to model BP in rodents or pharmacological responses to drugs effective in treating BP symptoms. In this study we examine Nr2e1(frc/frc) mice, homozygous for the spontaneous deletion, for abnormalities in activity, learning and information processing, and cell proliferation; these are the phenotypes that are either affected in patients with BP or commonly assessed in rodent models of BP. The effect of lithium, a drug used to treat BP, was also evaluated for its ability to attenuate Nr2e1(frc/frc) behavioral and neural stem cell-proliferation phenotypes. We show for the first time that Nr2e1-null mice exhibit extreme hyperactivity in the open field as early as postnatal day 18 and in the home cage, deficits in open-field habituation and passive avoidance, and surprisingly, an absence of acoustic startle. We observed a reduction in neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation in Nr2e1(frc/frc) mice, similar to that seen in other Nr2e1-null strains. These behavioral and cell-proliferation phenotypes were resistant to chronic-adult-lithium treatment. Thus, Nr2e1(frc/frc) mice exhibit behavioral traits used to model BP in rodents, but our results do not support Nr2e1(frc

  7. Avaliação do cumprimento da NR-18 em função do porte de obra residencial e proposta de lista de verificação da NR-18

    OpenAIRE

    Costella, Marcelo Fabiano; Junges, Franciele Cristina; Pilz, Silvio Edmundo

    2014-01-01

    O presente trabalho investiga as reais condições dos ambientes de trabalho da indústria da construção, tendo em vista os problemas relacionados à segurança do trabalho nos canteiros de obras. Formulou-se a hipótese de haver discrepância no grau de cumprimento da NR-18 em obras de diferentes portes (pequena, média e grande). Baseado em uma lista de verificação do grau de cumprimento dos requisitos da NR-18, foram avaliados 115 canteiros de obra na cidade de Chapecó - SC. Para cada item da list...

  8. Influence of different curing systems on the physico-mechanical properties and stability of SBR and NR rubbers

    CERN Document Server

    Basfar, A A; Mofti, S

    2002-01-01

    The physical properties of radiation, sulfur and peroxide-cured styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and natural rubber (NR) were compared. The dependence of the mechanical properties of the radiation-vulcanized SBR and NR on the coagent concentration and radiation dose was studied. The effect of thermal aging on the mechanical properties of the different rubber formulations was discussed. The radiation-cured formulations of SBR have superior mechanical properties and thermal stability compared with those of the chemically vulcanized compounds. Whereas, the radiation-cured formulations of NR have similar mechanical properties but superior thermal stability (based on the % change in E after thermal aging), when compared with those of the sulfur-vulcanized compounds and slightly better than those of the peroxide-vulcanized compounds.

  9. The nuclear receptor NR4A1 induces a form of cell death dependent on autophagy in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Bouzas-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available The control of cell death is a biological process essential for proper development, and for preventing devastating pathologies like cancer and neurodegeneration. On the other hand, autophagy regulation is essential for protein and organelle degradation, and its dysfunction is associated with overlapping pathologies like cancer and neurodegeneration, but also for microbial infection and aging. In the present report we show that two evolutionarily unrelated receptors--Neurokinin 1 Receptor (NK(1R, a G-protein coupled receptor, and Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R, a tyrosine kinase receptor--both induce non-apoptotic cell death with autophagic features and requiring the activity of the autophagic core machinery proteins PI3K-III, Beclin-1 and Atg7. Remarkably, this form of cell death occurs in apoptosis-competent cells. The signal transduction pathways engaged by these receptors both converged on the activation of the nuclear receptor NR4A1, which has previously been shown to play a critical role in some paradigms of apoptosis and in NK(1R-induced cell death. The activity of NR4A1 was necessary for IGF1R-induced cell death, as well as for a canonical model of cell death by autophagy induced by the presence of a pan-caspase inhibitor, suggesting that NR4A1 is a general modulator of this kind of cell death. During cell death by autophagy, NR4A1 was transcriptionally competent, even though a fraction of it was present in the cytoplasm. Interestingly, NR4A1 interacts with the tumor suppressor p53 but not with Beclin-1 complex. Therefore the mechanism to promote cell death by autophagy might involve regulation of gene expression, as well as protein interactions. Understanding the molecular basis of autophagy and cell death mediation by NR4A1, should provide novel insights and targets for therapeutic intervention.

  10. Caffeine increases Nr1i3 expression and potentiates the effects of its ligand, TCPOBOP, in mice liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidge Fukumasu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is one of the world's most consumed substances. It is present in coffee, green tea and guarana, among others. The xenobiotic-sensing nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3 (Nr1i3, also known as the Constitutive Androstane Receptor (Car is a key regulator of drug metabolism and excretion. No consistent description of caffeine effects on this receptor has been described. Thus, to unravel the effects of caffeine on this receptor, we performed experiments in mice. First, C57Bl/6 mice that were treated daily with caffeine (50 mg/kg for 15 days presented a slight but significant increase in Nr1i3 and Cyp2b10 gene expression. A second experiment was then performed to verify the effects of caffeine on TCPOBOP (1,4-bis-[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy]benzene, 3,3′,5,5′-tetrachloro-1,4-bis(pyridyloxybenzene, the most potent agonist known for mice Nr1i3. Interestingly, caffeine potentiated TCPOBOP pleiotropic effects in mice liver, such as hepatomegaly, hepatotoxicity, hepatocyte proliferation and loss of cell-to-cell communication through gap junctions. In addition, caffeine plus TCPOBOP treatment increased liver gene expression of Nr1i3 and Cyp2b10 comparing with only caffeine or TCPOBOP treatments. Together, these results indicate that caffeine increases the expression of Nr1i3 in mice liver, although at this point it is not possible to determine if Nr1i3 directly or indirectly mediates this effect.

  11. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Apatite Investigation at the 100-NR-2 Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-03-28

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by staff working on the 100-NR-2 Apatite Project. The U.S. Department of Energy, Fluor Hanford, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Washington Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at 100-N would include apatite sequestration as the primary treatment, followed by a secondary treatment. The scope of this project covers the technical support needed before, during, and after treatment of the targeted subsurface environment using a new high-concentration formulation.

  12. Investigation of associations between NR1D1, RORA and RORB genes and bipolar disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Chieh Lai

    Full Text Available Several genes that are involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms are implicated in the susceptibility to bipolar disorder (BD. The current study aimed to investigate the relationships between genetic variants in NR1D1 RORA, and RORB genes and BD in the Han Chinese population. We conducted a case-control genetic association study with two samples of BD patients and healthy controls. Sample I consisted of 280 BD patients and 200 controls. Sample II consisted of 448 BD patients and 1770 healthy controls. 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the NR1D1, RORA, and RORB genes were genotyped using GoldenGate VeraCode assays in sample I, and 492 markers in the three genes were genotyped using Affymetrix Genome-Wide CHB Array in sample II. Single marker and gene-based association analyses were performed using PLINK. A combined p-value for the joining effects of all markers within a gene was calculated using the rank truncated product method. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR method was also applied to test gene-gene interactions in sample I. All markers were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.001. In sample I, the associations with BD were observed for rs4774388 in RORA (OR = 1.53, empirical p-value, P = 0.024, and rs1327836 in RORB (OR = 1.75, P = 0.003. In Sample II, there were 45 SNPs showed associations with BD, and the most significant marker in RORA was rs11639084 (OR = 0.69, P = 0.002, and in RORB was rs17611535 (OR = 3.15, P = 0.027. A combined p-value of 1.6×10-6, 0.7, and 1.0 was obtained for RORA, RORB and NR1D1, respectively, indicting a strong association for RORA with the risk of developing BD. A four way interaction was found among markers in NR1D1, RORA, and RORB with the testing accuracy 53.25% and a cross-validation consistency of 8 out of 10. In sample II, 45 markers had empirical p-values less than 0.05. The most significant markers in RORA and RORB genes were rs11639084 (OR = 0.69, P = 0.002, and rs17611535 (OR = 3

  13. Dietetics supply and demand: 2010-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Roderick S; Williams, James H; Papneja, Jesleen; Sen, Namrata; Hogan, Paul

    2012-03-01

    The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, in conjunction with the Commission on Dietetic Registration (CDR), invited The Lewin Group to undertake an analysis of the dietetics workforce. The purpose of the workforce study was to develop a model that can project the supply and demand for both registered dietitians (RDs) and dietetic technicians, registered (DTRs) (collectively referred to as CDR-credentialed dietetics practitioners) as the result of various key drivers of change. The research team was asked to quantify key market factors where possible and to project likely paths for the evolution of workforce supply and demand, as well as to assess the implications of the findings. This article drew on the survey research conducted by Readex Research and futurist organizations such as Signature i and Trend Spot Consulting. Furthermore, members of the Dietetics Workforce Demand Task Force were a source of institutional and clinical information relevant to the credentialed dietetics workforce--including their opinions and judgment of the current state of the health care market for dietetic services, its future state, and factors affecting it, which were useful and were integrated with the objective sources of data. The model is flexible and accommodates the variation in how RDs and DTRs function in diverse practice areas. For purposes of this study and model, the dietetics workforce is composed of RDs and DTRs. This report presents the results of this workforce study and the methodology used to calculate the projected dietetics workforce supply and demand. The projections are based on historical trends and estimated future changes. Key findings of the study included the following: • The average age of all CDR-credentialed dietetics practitioners in baseline supply (2010) is 44 years; approximately 96% are women. • Approximately 55% of CDR-credentialed dietetics practitioners work in clinical dietetics. • The annual growth rate of supply of CDR

  14. Indonesia’s Electricity Demand Dynamic Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistio, J.; Wirabhuana, A.; Wiratama, M. G.

    2017-06-01

    Electricity Systems modelling is one of the emerging area in the Global Energy policy studies recently. System Dynamics approach and Computer Simulation has become one the common methods used in energy systems planning and evaluation in many conditions. On the other hand, Indonesia experiencing several major issues in Electricity system such as fossil fuel domination, demand - supply imbalances, distribution inefficiency, and bio-devastation. This paper aims to explain the development of System Dynamics modelling approaches and computer simulation techniques in representing and predicting electricity demand in Indonesia. In addition, this paper also described the typical characteristics and relationship of commercial business sector, industrial sector, and family / domestic sector as electricity subsystems in Indonesia. Moreover, it will be also present direct structure, behavioural, and statistical test as model validation approach and ended by conclusions.

  15. Forecasting the Demand for Information Security Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Alexandrovich Malyuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During the formation of information society the problem of determining the demand for IS personnel (DfISP, consisting of IS specialists and IS practitioners, is of particular relevance at present. The goal of the paper is to calculate the demand for IS specialists (DfISS. To achieve it we used the informal heuristic methods and introduced some important indicators for DfISP forecast. As a validation of the conceptual approach proposed we show how to apply it on the regional level of one country on one real-world example. All the reasoning and calculations can be narrowed down to the DfISS forecasting within one corporation or IS professionals of a specific profile.

  16. Energy demand and life quality in America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitalnik, J.

    2004-01-01

    Being considered an intermediate growth among projections of technological development expressive or of development restricted by ecological considerations, in the next 50 years, the demand of primary energy in the countries of the American continent arrived to value sufficiently high to allow to consent at levels of quality of life but next to those enjoyed at the moment in developed countries. There will be an expansion substantial of electric power demand that rots to require the installation, in countries of Latin America and Caribbean, of power plants with total capacity of the order of 400 GW until half-filled of century. The resource to the nuclear source was accentuated starting from the decade of 2020 and an enormous challenge for the governments of the region it will be the one of driving the construction of about 2.300 MW/year nuclear power plants between 2020 and 2050. (Author)

  17. Price Sensitivity of Demand for Prescription Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skipper, Lars; Simonsen, Marianne; Skipper, Niels

    This paper investigates price sensitivity of demand for prescription drugs using drug purchase records for at 20% random sample of the Danish population. We identify price responsiveness by exploiting exogenous variation in prices caused by kinked reimbursement schemes and implement a regression...... kink design. Thus, within a unifying framework we uncover price sensitivity for different subpopulations and types of drugs. The results suggest low average price responsiveness with corresponding price elasticities ranging from -0.08 to -0.25, implying that demand is inelastic. Individuals with lower...... education and income are, however, more responsive to the price. Also, essential drugs that prevent deterioration in health and prolong life have lower associated average price sensitivity....

  18. TECHNOLOGICAL SCENARIOS TO THE DEMAND FOR SUGARCANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Franco Paes Leme Barbosa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available From the first decade of the 2000s, it is clear that there is an increase in discussions involving sustainability, including the bioenergy issue, to which Brazil has drawn the attention due to advances in the ethanol industry. Advances in engine technology reflected new opportunities for this industry and, according to the Ten-Year Energy Plan for 2019 developed by the Ministry of Mines and Energy, there is an expected increase in demand for ethanol of 90% by 2019 (Brazil, 2010. However, new technologies for the conversion and use of sugarcane and the complex context of this industry add uncertainties to this sector. Aiming to discuss and include the uncertainties on the agenda of this industry, this study proposes to elaborate and discuss prospective scenarios to the demand for sugarcane. Four scenarios with different perspectives of technological advance and market development were elaborated and discussed in the conclusion.

  19. Forecasting residential electricity demand in provincial China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hua; Liu, Yanan; Gao, Yixuan; Hao, Yu; Ma, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Kan

    2017-03-01

    In China, more than 80% electricity comes from coal which dominates the CO2 emissions. Residential electricity demand forecasting plays a significant role in electricity infrastructure planning and energy policy designing, but it is challenging to make an accurate forecast for developing countries. This paper forecasts the provincial residential electricity consumption of China in the 13th Five-Year-Plan (2016-2020) period using panel data. To overcome the limitations of widely used predication models with unreliably prior knowledge on function forms, a robust piecewise linear model in reduced form is utilized to capture the non-deterministic relationship between income and residential electricity consumption. The forecast results suggest that the growth rates of developed provinces will slow down, while the less developed will be still in fast growing. The national residential electricity demand will increase at 6.6% annually during 2016-2020, and populous provinces such as Guangdong will be the main contributors to the increments.

  20. Balancing the Demands of Education and Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Sørensen, Jan Kahr

    value of a good set of academic qualifications does not entirely measure up to this, the insistence from the outside world on the importance of completing one’s education is manifest and associated with significant personal concerns, lower examinations results, stress, drop-out and mental breakdown......Balancing the Demands of Education and Training – A Qualitative Study on Young Male Football Talents’ Dual Careers. M. K. Christensena and J. K. Sørensenb a Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark b Department of Public Health – Sport Science, Aarhus...... University Workshop: Negotiating Athlete Identity in Career Transitions Abstract: Today’s young semi-professional football players are expected to continue their education while honing their talents as footballers. This means they must balance the contradictory demands that come from coming from the fields...