WorldWideScience

Sample records for demand response options

  1. Energy efficiency options for the New England Demand Response Initiative (NEDRI) -- Framing paper No.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, Jeff

    2002-05-01

    In response to direction from the Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control (DPUC) in Docket 99-09-30, the Connecticut Light and Power Company (CL&P) has assessed the role of third parties (e.g., ESCOs) in its current energy efficiency programs as well as additional opportunities for third parties to participate in future programs. In addition to working with consultants to the Energy Conservation Management Board, CL&P asked an independent consultant to develop a descriptive framework (i.e., typology) that summarizes alternative approaches to using third parties in ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs. For each approach, experiences of energy efficiency program administrators (EEA) in other states are summarized, major policy objectives and goals that motivated regulators or EEAs to pursue that option are identified, and lessons learned (e.g., strengths and weaknesses) are summarized. Existing program offerings of CL&P are then classified using this typology in order to characterize the current situation in Connecticut and the potential implications for Connecticut's energy efficiency programs are discussed.

  2. Automated Demand Response and Commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the results from the second season of research to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve the electric grid reliability and manage electricity costs. Fully-Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. We refer to this as Auto-DR. The evaluation of the control and communications must be properly configured and pass through a set of test stages: Readiness, Approval, Price Client/Price Server Communication, Internet Gateway/Internet Relay Communication, Control of Equipment, and DR Shed Effectiveness. New commissioning tests are needed for such systems to improve connecting demand responsive building systems to the electric grid demand response systems.

  3. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

    2010-01-29

    This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

  4. Demand Response in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob; Knudsen, Jesper Viese; Annaswamy, Anuradha M.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, moves toward higher integration of Renewable Energy Resources have called for fundamental changes in both the planning and operation of the overall power grid. One such change is the incorporation of Demand Response (DR), the process by which consumers can adjust their demand i...

  5. Saving Electricity and Demand Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki

    A lot of people lost their lives in the tremendous earthquake in Tohoku region on March 11. A large capacity of electric power plants in TEPCO area was also damaged and large scale power shortage in this summer is predicted. In this situation, electricity customers are making great effort to save electricity to avoid planned outage. Customers take actions not only by their selves but also by some customers' cooperative movements. All actions taken actually are based on responses to request form the government or voluntary decision. On the other hand, demand response based on a financial stimulus is not observed as an actual behavior. Saving electricity by this demand response only discussed in the newspapers. In this commentary, the events regarding electricity-saving measure after this disaster are described and the discussions on demand response, especially a raise in power rate, are put into shapes in the context of this electricity supply-demand gap.

  6. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  7. Benefits and challenges of electrical demand response: A critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    Advances in IT, control and forecasting capabilities have made demand response a viable, and potentially attractive, option to increase power system flexibility. This paper presents a critical review of the literature in the field of demand response, providing an overview of the benefits and chal......Advances in IT, control and forecasting capabilities have made demand response a viable, and potentially attractive, option to increase power system flexibility. This paper presents a critical review of the literature in the field of demand response, providing an overview of the benefits...... and challenges of demand response. These benefits include the ability to balance fluctuations in renewable generation and consequently facilitate higher penetrations of renewable resources on the power system, an increase in economic efficiency through the implementation of real-time pricing, and a reduction...

  8. Does Knowledge Contribute to the Acceptance of Demand Response?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salla Annala

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available More flexible demand side would benefit the electricity markets, networks and sustainable power generation in many ways. The success of demand response programs, however, relies on consumer acceptance. This paper reviews previous studies about acceptability of different kinds of residential demand response programs. Furthermore, it discusses whether consumers who are more aware of the principles and benefits of demand response have more positive attitudes towards demand response programs. The results of the literature review and two survey studies suggest that price and security of supply are currently bigger motives to change consumption behaviour than environmental issues and that the savings expected to trigger any action (and to lead to lasting change in behaviour may be relatively high. Therefore, the framing of demand response programs goals may affect the acceptance. Additionally, consumers seem to prefer simple price structures that remain constant for a long time to more dynamic options.

  9. Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffner, Grayson

    2009-02-01

    While there is general agreement that demand response (DR) is a valued component in a utility resource plan, there is a lack of consensus regarding how to value DR. Establishing the value of DR is a prerequisite to determining how much and what types of DR should be implemented, to which customers DR should be targeted, and a key determinant that drives the development of economically viable DR consumer technology. Most approaches for quantifying the value of DR focus on changes in utility system revenue requirements based on resource plans with and without DR. This ''utility centric'' approach does not assign any value to DR impacts that lower energy and capacity prices, improve reliability, lower system and network operating costs, produce better air quality, and provide improved customer choice and control. Proper valuation of these benefits requires a different basis for monetization. The review concludes that no single methodology today adequately captures the wide range of benefits and value potentially attributed to DR. To provide a more comprehensive valuation approach, current methods such as the Standard Practice Method (SPM) will most likely have to be supplemented with one or more alternative benefit-valuation approaches. This report provides an updated perspective on the DR valuation framework. It includes an introduction and four chapters that address the key elements of demand response valuation, a comprehensive literature review, and specific research recommendations.

  10. Reconciling biofuels, sustainability and commodities demand. Pitfalls and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uslu, A.; Bole, T.; Londo, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Pelkmans, L. [VITO, Mol (Belgium); Berndes, G. [Chalmers University, Gothenburg (Sweden); Prieler, S.; Fischer, G. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis IIASA, Laxenburg (Austria); Cueste Cabal, H. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    increase crop prices. Furthermore, land use change both through converting natural land to produce 1st generation biofuels, and by displacing existing agricultural activities to other areas, may drastically impact the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction of biofuels production and use. However, there are ways to reduce negative impacts. Even though shifting to second generation (2nd generation) biofuels appears to be one of the best solutions in terms of decreasing the pressure on agricultural commodity markets and improving GHG performances of biofuels, a mix of 1st and 2nd generation biofuels will be the likely future. In this respect, strategies to increase agricultural productivity, especially in developing countries where yields presently are low, stands out as one of the most important requirements. Food security and agricultural productivity improvements have been addressed as part of the millennium development goals (MDG's). But policy-driven biofuel production that impacts global agricultural markets should also become part of the policy framework that supports agricultural productivity increase in the world regions that are likely to be impacted most with increased biofuel demand. 2nd generation biofuels can decrease some of the pressure on agriculture commodities if they are produced from residues and crops cultivated on marginal lands. They are in addition expected to provide a substantial contribution to reducing GHG emissions. However, those technologies are still at demonstration stage and bringing them to the market requires policy measures that take into account their risk profiles and create a favourable and stable investment climate. A set of policy options, for instance combinations of high investment subsidies with soft loans, tax exemptions, and favourable crediting in relation to biofuel targets, can help overcome the initial investment barriers and enable larger volumes of 2nd generation biofuel penetration into the market. Lignocellulosic

  11. Rates and technologies for mass-market demand response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herter, Karen; Levy, Roger; Wilson, John; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2002-07-21

    Demand response programs are often quickly and poorly crafted in reaction to an energy crisis and disappear once the crisis subsides, ensuring that the electricity system will be unprepared when the next crisis hits. In this paper, we propose to eliminate the event-driven nature of demand response programs by considering demand responsiveness a component of the utility obligation to serve. As such, demand response can be required as a condition of service, and the offering of demand response rates becomes a requirement of utilities as an element of customer service. Using this foundation, we explore the costs and benefits of a smart thermostat-based demand response system capable of two types of programs: (1) a mandatory, system-operator controlled, contingency program, and (2) a voluntary, customer controlled, bill management program with rate-based incentives. Any demand response program based on this system could consist of either or both of these components. Ideally, these programs would be bundled, providing automatic load management through customer-programmed price response, plus up to 10 GW of emergency load shedding capability in California. Finally, we discuss options for and barriers to implementation of such a program in California.

  12. Voltage Controlled Dynamic Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2013-01-01

    . An adaptive dynamic model has been developed to determine composite voltage dependency of an aggregated load on feeder level. Following the demand dispatch or control signal, optimum voltage setting at the LV substation is determined based on the voltage dependency of the load. Furthermore, a new technique...

  13. Lighting Systems Control for Demand Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husen, S.A.; Pandharipande, A.; Tolhuizen, L.M.G.; Wang, Y.; Zhao, M.

    2012-01-01

    Lighting is a major part of energy consumption in buildings. Lighting systems will thus be one of the important component systems of a smart grid for dynamic load management services like demand response.In the scenario considered in this paper, under a demand response request, lighting systems in a

  14. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response. International Experiences and Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ghatikar, Girish [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ni, Chun Chun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dudley, Junqiao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Martin, Phil [Enernoc, Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Wikler, Greg

    2012-06-01

    Demand response (DR) is a load management tool which provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional supply-side solutions to address the growing demand during times of peak electrical load. According to the US Department of Energy (DOE), demand response reflects “changes in electric usage by end-use customers from their normal consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of high wholesale market prices or when system reliability is jeopardized.” 1 The California Energy Commission (CEC) defines DR as “a reduction in customers’ electricity consumption over a given time interval relative to what would otherwise occur in response to a price signal, other financial incentives, or a reliability signal.” 2 This latter definition is perhaps most reflective of how DR is understood and implemented today in countries such as the US, Canada, and Australia where DR is primarily a dispatchable resource responding to signals from utilities, grid operators, and/or load aggregators (or DR providers).

  15. Free energy option and its relevance to improve domestic energy demands in southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Eterigho Emetere

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to seek an energy option that would benefit the growing energy demands. Domestic energy demands in southern Nigeria had increased greatly due to failing power programs and seasonal migrations. The fossil fuel option is gradually fading away due to environmental pollution and recent dynamic cost. The renewable energy option had been celebrated with little success in the coastal area of southern Nigeria. At the moment, the renewable energy option is very expensive with little guarantee on its efficiency with time. The data set used for this study was obtained from the Davis weather installation in Covenant University. The free energy option was considered. The cost and its environmental implication for domestic use were comparatively discussed alongside other energy options — using the Life cycle cost analysis. It was found out that free energy option is more affordable and efficient for domestic use.

  16. Unlocking the potential for efficiency and demand response throughadvanced metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Roger; Herter, Karen; Wilson, John

    2004-06-30

    Reliance on the standard cumulative kilowatt-hour meter substantially compromises energy efficiency and demand response programs. Without advanced metering, utilities cannot support time-differentiated rates or collect the detailed customer usage information necessary to (1)educate the customer to the economic value of efficiency and demand response options, or (2) distribute load management incentives proportional to customer contribution. These deficiencies prevent the customer feedback mechanisms that would otherwise encourage economically sound demand-side investments and behaviors. Thus, the inability to collect or properly price electricity usage handicaps the success of almost all efficiency and demand response options. Historically, implementation of the advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) necessary for the successful efficiency and demand response programs has been prevented by inadequate cost-benefit analyses. A recent California effort has produced an expanded cost-effectiveness methodology for AMI that introduces previously excluded benefits. In addition to utility-centric costs and benefits, the new model includes qualitative and quantitative costs and benefits that accrue to both customers and society.

  17. A Novel Technique to Enhance Demand Responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farashbashi-Astaneh, Seyed-Mostafa; Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new pricing approach is proposed to increase demand responsiveness. The proposed approach considers two well-known demand side management techniques, namely peak shaving and valley filling. This is done by incentivising consumers by magnifying price difference between peak and off...

  18. Assessment of Sustainability of Urban Water Supply and Demand Management Options: A Comprehensive Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kumudu Rathnayaka; Hector Malano; Meenakshi Arora

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation framework that can assess a wide range of water supply and demand management policy options in terms of economic, social, environmental, risk-based, and functional performance is crucial to ascertain their level of sustainability. However, such a detailed, generic, and holistic policy evaluation framework is not found in the literature. This paper reviews studies to evaluate water supply and/or demand management options conducted during 2000–2016. Primarily, the pap...

  19. Optimal Order Strategy in Uncertain Demands with Free Shipping Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Chun Meng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Free shipping with conditions has become one of the most effective marketing tools; more and more companies especially e-business companies prefer to offer free shipping to buyers whenever their orders exceed the minimum quantity specified by them. But in practice, the demands of buyers are uncertain, which are affected by weather, season, and many other factors. Firstly, we model the centralization ordering problem of retailers who face stochastic demands when suppliers offer free shipping, in which limited distributional information such as known mean, support, and some deviation measures of the random data is needed only. Then, based on the linear decision rule mainly for stochastic programming, we analyze the optimal order strategies of retailers and discuss the approximate solution. Further, we present the core allocation between all retailers via dual and cooperative game theory. The existence of core shows that each retailer is pleased to cooperate with others in the centralization problem. Finally, a numerical example is implemented to discuss how uncertain data and parameters affect the optimal solution.

  20. Hawaiian Electric Company Demand Response Roadmap Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Roger [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-12

    The objective of this project was to develop a “roadmap” to guide the Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) demand response (DR) planning and implementation in support of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) 70% clean energy goal by 2030.

  1. Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ookie Ma, Kerry Cheung

    2016-03-01

    Demand response and energy storage resources present potentially important sources of bulk power system services that can aid in integrating variable renewable generation. While renewable integration studies have evaluated many of the challenges associated with deploying large amounts of variable wind and solar generation technologies, integration analyses have not yet fully incorporated demand response and energy storage resources. This report represents an initial effort in analyzing the potential integration value of demand response and energy storage, focusing on the western United States. It evaluates two major aspects of increased deployment of demand response and energy storage: (1) Their operational value in providing bulk power system services and (2) Market and regulatory issues, including potential barriers to deployment.

  2. Rates and technologies for mass-market demand response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herter, Karen; Levy, Roger; Wilson, John; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2002-07-21

    Demand response programs are often quickly and poorlycrafted in reaction to an energy crisis and disappear once the crisissubsides, ensuring that the electricity system will be unprepared whenthe next crisis hits. In this paper, we propose to eliminate theevent-driven nature of demand response programs by considering demandresponsiveness a component of the utility obligation to serve. As such,demand response can be required as a condition of service, and theoffering of demand response rates becomes a requirement of utilities asan element of customer service. Using this foundation, we explore thecosts and benefits of a smart thermostat-based demand response systemcapable of two types of programs: (1) a mandatory, system-operatorcontrolled, contingency program, and (2) a voluntary, customercontrolled, bill management program with rate-based incentives. Anydemand response program based on this system could consist of either orboth of these components. Ideally, these programs would be bundled,providing automatic load management through customer-programmed priceresponse, plus up to 10 GW of emergency load shedding capability inCalifornia. Finally, we discuss options for and barriers toimplementation of such a program in California.

  3. Demand response in a market environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Emil Mahler

    pricing and to classify different types of customers. The proposed models are then embedded into new fiveminute electricity markets for system balancing and local congestion management. New market tools for exploiting and maintaining a degree of control over demand are developed, and the value of DR using...... indirect control is determined in terms of social welfare. This thesis is written in the context of Danish and European power systems because the data used - and the data-driven models subsequently created - come from and were developed for the EcoGrid EU project. The demand forecasting models......This thesis addresses the design, deployment and benefits of demand response in a market environment. Demand response is consumption that can be controlled by an external stimulus in the power system. Flexible consumption is a useful tool for absorbing volatile power from renewable sources like...

  4. Refrigerated Warehouse Demand Response Strategy Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Doug [VaCom Technologies, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Castillo, Rafael [VaCom Technologies, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Larson, Kyle [VaCom Technologies, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Dobbs, Brian [VaCom Technologies, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Olsen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This guide summarizes demand response measures that can be implemented in refrigerated warehouses. In an appendix, it also addresses related energy efficiency opportunities. Reducing overall grid demand during peak periods and energy consumption has benefits for facility operators, grid operators, utility companies, and society. State wide demand response potential for the refrigerated warehouse sector in California is estimated to be over 22.1 Megawatts. Two categories of demand response strategies are described in this guide: load shifting and load shedding. Load shifting can be accomplished via pre-cooling, capacity limiting, and battery charger load management. Load shedding can be achieved by lighting reduction, demand defrost and defrost termination, infiltration reduction, and shutting down miscellaneous equipment. Estimation of the costs and benefits of demand response participation yields simple payback periods of 2-4 years. To improve demand response performance, it’s suggested to install air curtains and another form of infiltration barrier, such as a rollup door, for the passageways. Further modifications to increase efficiency of the refrigeration unit are also analyzed. A larger condenser can maintain the minimum saturated condensing temperature (SCT) for more hours of the day. Lowering the SCT reduces the compressor lift, which results in an overall increase in refrigeration system capacity and energy efficiency. Another way of saving energy in refrigerated warehouses is eliminating the use of under-floor resistance heaters. A more energy efficient alternative to resistance heaters is to utilize the heat that is being rejected from the condenser through a heat exchanger. These energy efficiency measures improve efficiency either by reducing the required electric energy input for the refrigeration system, by helping to curtail the refrigeration load on the system, or by reducing both the load and required energy input.

  5. Wireless Demand Response Controls for HVAC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federspiel, Clifford

    2009-06-30

    The objectives of this scoping study were to develop and test control software and wireless hardware that could enable closed-loop, zone-temperature-based demand response in buildings that have either pneumatic controls or legacy digital controls that cannot be used as part of a demand response automation system. We designed a SOAP client that is compatible with the Demand Response Automation Server (DRAS) being used by the IOUs in California for their CPP program, design the DR control software, investigated the use of cellular routers for connecting to the DRAS, and tested the wireless DR system with an emulator running a calibrated model of a working building. The results show that the wireless DR system can shed approximately 1.5 Watts per design CFM on the design day in a hot, inland climate in California while keeping temperatures within the limits of ASHRAE Standard 55: Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy.

  6. Demand Response on domestic thermostatically controlled loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam

    . In general, the electricity consumers are classified as industrial, commercial and domestic. In this dissertation, only the thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) in the domestic segment are considered for the demand response study. The study is funded by Danish Council for Strategic Research (DCSR......, with respect to different power reduction levels, are analysed. Finally, the impact of demand response activation on the TCLs aggregated power is studied in terms of error in power limit, ramping rates and peak overshoot in different control scenarios. Lastly, the advantage and disadvantage of the different...

  7. Demand Response as a System Reliability Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Lewis, Nancy Jo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Watson, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Auslander, David [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Paprotny, Igor [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Makarov, Yuri [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-12-31

    The Demand Response as a System Reliability Resource project consists of six technical tasks: • Task 2.1. Test Plan and Conduct Tests: Contingency Reserves Demand Response (DR) Demonstration—a pioneering demonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can provide an important electricity system reliability resource known as contingency reserve. • Task 2.2. Participation in Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) IntelliGrid—technical assistance to the EPRI IntelliGrid team in developing use cases and other high-level requirements for the architecture. • Task 2.3. Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) Planning for Demand Response Technology Development—technical support to the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program on five topics: Sub-task 1. PIER Smart Grid RD&D Planning Document; Sub-task 2. System Dynamics of Programmable Controllable Thermostats; Sub-task 3. California Independent System Operator (California ISO) DR Use Cases; Sub-task 4. California ISO Telemetry Requirements; and Sub-task 5. Design of a Building Load Data Storage Platform. • Task 2.4. Time Value of Demand Response—research that will enable California ISO to take better account of the speed of the resources that it deploys to ensure compliance with reliability rules for frequency control. • Task 2.5. System Integration and Market Research: Southern California Edison (SCE)—research and technical support for efforts led by SCE to conduct demand response pilot demonstrations to provide a contingency reserve service (known as non-spinning reserve) through a targeted sub-population of aggregated residential and small commercial customers enrolled in SCE’s traditional air conditioning (AC) load cycling program, the Summer Discount Plan. • Task 2.6. Demonstrate Demand Response Technologies: Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E)—research and technical support for efforts led by PG&E to conduct a demand response pilot demonstration to provide non

  8. A Dexterous Optional Randomized Response Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarray, Tanveer A.; Singh, Housila P.; Yan, Zaizai

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses the problem of estimating the proportion Pi[subscript S] of the population belonging to a sensitive group using optional randomized response technique in stratified sampling based on Mangat model that has proportional and Neyman allocation and larger gain in efficiency. Numerically, it is found that the suggested model is…

  9. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: OPTIONAL OR REGULATORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA IRINA IONESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the collateral activity developed and the economic background of the present author I took the approach of a topic that includes aspects from both fields, namely “Corporate Social responsibility- optional or regulatory”. Through the paper I will try to summarize the pros and cons of regulation, mandatory of corporate social responsibility and to review, present the ways in which countries with advanced economies in European Union and the EU itself have addressed this issue.

  10. Market design for rapid demand response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt; Tamirat, Tseganesh Wubale

    the nature of the demand response system and reveals that a simple markup contract between the Aggregator and the TSO is sufficiently flexible and little distorting. The simulation also provide a the less intuitive result, that the auction motivates the TSO to o er a high markup contract to the Aggregator...

  11. Market design for rapid demand response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt; Tamirat, Tseganesh Wubale

    the nature of the demand response system and reveals that a simple markup contract between the Aggregator and the TSO is sufficiently flexible and little distorting. The simulation also provide a the less intuitive result, that the auction motivates the TSO to o er a high markup contract to the Aggregator...

  12. Estimating Reduced Consumption for Dynamic Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelmis, Charalampos [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Aman, Saima [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Saeed, Muhammad Rizwan [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Frincu, Marc [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Prasanna, Viktor K. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-01-30

    Growing demand is straining our existing electricity generation facilities and requires active participation of the utility and the consumers to achieve energy sustainability. One of the most effective and widely used ways to achieve this goal in the smart grid is demand response (DR), whereby consumers reduce their electricity consumption in response to a request sent from the utility whenever it anticipates a peak in demand. To successfully plan and implement demand response, the utility requires reliable estimate of reduced consumption during DR. This also helps in optimal selection of consumers and curtailment strategies during DR. While much work has been done on predicting normal consumption, reduced consumption prediction is an open problem that is under-studied. In this paper, we introduce and formalize the problem of reduced consumption prediction, and discuss the challenges associated with it. We also describe computational methods that use historical DR data as well as pre-DR conditions to make such predictions. Our experiments are conducted in the real-world setting of a university campus microgrid, and our preliminary results set the foundation for more detailed modeling.

  13. Assessment of Sustainability of Urban Water Supply and Demand Management Options: A Comprehensive Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumudu Rathnayaka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive evaluation framework that can assess a wide range of water supply and demand management policy options in terms of economic, social, environmental, risk-based, and functional performance is crucial to ascertain their level of sustainability. However, such a detailed, generic, and holistic policy evaluation framework is not found in the literature. This paper reviews studies to evaluate water supply and/or demand management options conducted during 2000–2016. Primarily, the paper reviews the evaluation criteria used by different studies for decision making given their significant difference and the importance of a comprehensive set of criteria to complete a rigorous evaluation. In addition, a comprehensive set of water supply and demand management options are not considered together for a comparative assessment to prioritise best options for a certain area and time. Further, performance of these options needs to be evaluated for a range of uncertainties arising from changes of spatial and temporal variables of the system. While this paper highlights the important aspects that need to be included in a comprehensive policy evaluation framework, available studies collectively present a rich set of information to support it.

  14. Taxonomy for Modeling Demand Response Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Daniel; Kiliccote, Sila; Sohn, Michael; Dunn, Laura; Piette, Mary, A

    2014-08-01

    Demand response resources are an important component of modern grid management strategies. Accurate characterizations of DR resources are needed to develop systems of optimally managed grid operations and to plan future investments in generation, transmission, and distribution. The DOE Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study (DRESIS) project researched the degree to which demand response (DR) and energy storage can provide grid flexibility and stability in the Western Interconnection. In this work, DR resources were integrated with traditional generators in grid forecasting tools, specifically a production cost model of the Western Interconnection. As part of this study, LBNL developed a modeling framework for characterizing resource availability and response attributes of DR resources consistent with the governing architecture of the simulation modeling platform. In this report, we identify and describe the following response attributes required to accurately characterize DR resources: allowable response frequency, maximum response duration, minimum time needed to achieve load changes, necessary pre- or re-charging of integrated energy storage, costs of enablement, magnitude of controlled resources, and alignment of availability. We describe a framework for modeling these response attributes, and apply this framework to characterize 13 DR resources including residential, commercial, and industrial end-uses. We group these end-uses into three broad categories based on their response capabilities, and define a taxonomy for classifying DR resources within these categories. The three categories of resources exhibit different capabilities and differ in value to the grid. Results from the production cost model of the Western Interconnection illustrate that minor differences in resource attributes can have significant impact on grid utilization of DR resources. The implications of these findings will be explored in future DR valuation studies.

  15. Demand Response For Power System Reliability: FAQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL

    2006-12-01

    Demand response is the most underutilized power system reliability resource in North America. Technological advances now make it possible to tap this resource to both reduce costs and improve. Misconceptions concerning response capabilities tend to force loads to provide responses that they are less able to provide and often prohibit them from providing the most valuable reliability services. Fortunately this is beginning to change with some ISOs making more extensive use of load response. This report is structured as a series of short questions and answers that address load response capabilities and power system reliability needs. Its objective is to further the use of responsive load as a bulk power system reliability resource in providing the fastest and most valuable ancillary services.

  16. A Many-Objective Analysis of Supply and Demand Management Options for the Thames Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huskova, I.; Matrosov, E.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Harou, J. J.; Reed, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    In this study we link water basin simulation and many-objective evolutionary optimization to evaluate tradeoffs for the water stressed Thames water supply system in South East England which includes the city of London. We consider both infrastructure additions and demand management options to satisfy the future supply/demand balance, in order to develop management alternatives that can meet a range of fiscal and performance constraints under future supply and demand trajectories. The suite of new infrastructure options includes a new reservoir, water transfers, conjunctive use of groundwater, wastewater reuse and brackish groundwater desalination. Additionally, demand management options include leakage reduction, compulsory metering and the introduction of seasonal tariffs. Infrastructure options are evaluated using quantitative performance measures that minimize costs and energy use while maximizing engineering, social and environmental performance, subject to supply reliability constraints set by the local water utility and the Environment Agency regulator. Pareto approximate trade-off curves show the tradeoffs between engineering, cost, social and environmental performance measures. We use interactive visual analytics to show the performance of solutions across a broad range of performance measures and interrogate the impact of the infrastructure portfolios on the performance measures. Using an optimization—simulation framework enables the consideration of non-linear and rule-based phenomena, which are frequently useful or necessary to accurately describe how real water systems are managed. Results suggest that a diverse portfolio of supply-side and demand side options can aid water management in the UK. The Thames basin is modeled using a generalized computationally efficient open-source water resource simulator, Interactive River-Aquifer Simulation-2010 (IRAS-2010). The IRAS-2010 Thames system model is linked via a C++ wrapper to the Epsilon Dominance

  17. Demand-based water options for arsenic mitigation: an experience from rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, B A; Hoque, M M; Ahmed, T; Islam, S; Azad, A K; Ali, N; Hossain, M; Hossain, M S

    2004-01-01

    A supply of safe drinking water is a recognized global concern. The arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh and other countries has furthered this concern. Lack of appropriate water options is one of the main barriers to the supply of safe drinking water for 30-60 million people who are exposed to the risk of drinking arsenic-contaminated water in Bangladesh. This paper describes the experience from a water supply programme for arsenic mitigation based on demand and participation of 30,000 rural people in Srinagar, a subdistrict of Bangladesh. About 85% of the 912 tubewell water samples tested had an arsenic content higher than 0.05 mg/l. The project promoted 11 options including groundwater, surface-water and rainwater-harvesting household-based options as well as community managed technologies. Most people, particularly women, wanted piped water, and hand-operated deep tubewells were also requested. Four cluster-based motorized piped water systems, 20 home-based arsenic-removal options (two types) and an arsenic-removal filter plant were installed. The public contributed about 49, 25 and 20% of the installation costs of piped water, home-based options and filter options, respectively, and 100% of all operation and maintenance costs. The household options and filter plant were abandoned within a few weeks. Reportedly, those options required too much attention, discharged small volumes of water at low rates, were difficult to maintain, and discharged poor-quality water. The proportion of families (54%) that drank arsenic-contaminated water during the final survey was significantly lower than in the baseline survey (87%). For arsenic-affected areas, it is recommended that a cluster-based piped water system be given proper consideration when selecting appropriate water options rather than household-based options or the development of new low-cost options.

  18. Demand-responsive public transportation re-scheduling for adjusting to the joint leisure activity demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Gkiotsalitis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fixed daily trips such as trips to work/school have fixed departure/arrival times and destination points. The recurrent nature of fixed activities facilitates individuals on making more well-informed decisions about the transport mode selection. On the contrary, selecting a transportation mode for non-recurrent leisure trips, which can account for up to 60% of trips in some cities (Transport for London, 2014, is a more complex task due to the fact that individuals have little knowledge about the alternative modal options. In this paper, we try to improve the operations of demand-responsive public transportation systems by increasing their service quality and their ridership related to joint-leisure-trips via timetable rescheduling. First, we model the public transport service re-scheduling problem considering operational regulations and the quality of service. Then, a sequential heuristic method is introduced for re-scheduling the timetables of demand-responsive public transport modes in near-real time and accommodating the joint leisure activity demand without deteriorating the quality of service. The public transport re-scheduling for increasing the joint leisure activity ridership was tested in a case study using user-generated data from social media in Stockholm and the General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS data from Sweden focusing especially on central bus lines 1 and 4.

  19. Grid Integration of Aggregated Demand Response, Part 2: Modeling Demand Response in a Production Cost Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummon, Marissa [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olsen, Daniel J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Matson, Nance [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rose, Cody [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dudley, Junqiao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goli, Sasank [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ma, Ookie [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report is one of a series stemming from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study. This study is a multi-national-laboratory effort to assess the potential value of demand response (DR) and energy storage to electricity systems with different penetration levels of variable renewable resources and to improve our understanding of associatedmarkets and institutions. This report implements DR resources in the commercial production cost model PLEXOS.

  20. Institutional Response and Option of the Meteorological Law Underlying the Multiple Interests Demand%多元利益诉求下气象法的制度回应与选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓丹; 庞章军

    2011-01-01

    Multiple interests demand emerged in the process of meteorological interests division. Meteoro- logical services are gradually shifting from a single form of public weather services to diversified forms of weath- er services. Public weather services, specialized weather services and commercial weather services are competitive based on complementarities, and public weather services are less competitive. The evolving market of meteorological services requires the timely response of Meteorological Law so as to coordinate a variety of meteorological interests demand and serve as a reasonable system for the equitable utilization of meteorological resources and development of meteorological services. As for the system design, it should be improved by putting empha sis on clear definition between public and private interests of meteorological services, legitimating design of specialized weather services and commercial weather services, and mechanism of priority of public weather services and the marketing system.%在气象利益分化的过程中,产生了多元利益诉求,气象服务也正逐步从单一的公益气象服务向多样化的气象服务转变。公益气象服务、专业气象服务和商业气象服务之间是互补基础上的竞争关系,且公益气象服务在竞争中往往处于劣势,缺乏竞争力。正在逐步形成的气象服务市场要求气象法必须及时做出回应,通过合理的制度设计来协调各种气象利益诉求,为实现气象资源利用公平、提高气象服务绩效提供可靠的制度保障。在制度设计上,应着重从气象公益与私益的明确界定、专业气象服务与商业气象服务的合法化设计、气象公益倾斜保护机制的构筑和市场竞争机制的引入等方面加以完善。

  1. Detailed Modeling and Response of Demand Response Enabled Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyakaranam, Bharat; Fuller, Jason C.

    2014-04-14

    Proper modeling of end use loads is very important in order to predict their behavior, and how they interact with the power system, including voltage and temperature dependencies, power system and load control functions, and the complex interactions that occur between devices in such an interconnected system. This paper develops multi-state time variant residential appliance models with demand response enabled capabilities in the GridLAB-DTM simulation environment. These models represent not only the baseline instantaneous power demand and energy consumption, but the control systems developed by GE Appliances to enable response to demand response signals and the change in behavior of the appliance in response to the signal. These DR enabled appliances are simulated to estimate their capability to reduce peak demand and energy consumption.

  2. Smart Demand Response Based on Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingang Lai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart homes (SHs are crucial parts for demand response management (DRM of smart grid (SG. The aim of SHs based demand response (DR is to provide a flexible two-way energy feedback whilst (or shortly after the consumption occurs. It can potentially persuade end-users to achieve energy saving and cooperate with the electricity producer or supplier to maintain balance between the electricity supply and demand through the method of peak shaving and valley filling. However, existing solutions are challenged by the lack of consideration between the wide application of fiber power cable to the home (FPCTTH and related users’ behaviors. Based on the new network infrastructure, the design and development of smart DR systems based on SHs are related with not only functionalities as security, convenience, and comfort, but also energy savings. A new multirouting protocol based on Kruskal’s algorithm is designed for the reliability and safety of the SHs distribution network. The benefits of FPCTTH-based SHs are summarized at the end of the paper.

  3. Demand Response in the West: Lessons for States and Provinces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas C. Larson; Matt Lowry; Sharon Irwin

    2004-06-29

    OAK-B135 This paper is submitted in fulfillment of DOE Grant No. DE-FG03-015F22369 on the experience of western states/provinces with demand response (DR) in the electricity sector. Demand-side resources are often overlooked as a viable option for meeting load growth and addressing the challenges posed by the region's aging transmission system. Western states should work together with utilities and grid operators to facilitate the further deployment of DR programs which can provide benefits in the form of decreased grid congestion, improved system reliability, market efficiency, price stabilization, hedging against volatile fuel prices and reduced environmental impacts of energy production. This report describes the various types of DR programs; provides a survey of DR programs currently in place in the West; considers the benefits, drawbacks and barriers to DR; and presents lessons learned and recommendations for states/provinces.

  4. The Cobweb Effect in Balancing Markets with Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Emil Mahler; Pinson, Pierre; Wang, Jianhui

    2015-01-01

    structure and measurements from the EcoGrid EU demonstration, where five minute electricity pricing is sent to 1900 houses. A new tool for quantifying volatility is presented, and the causes for volatility are investigated. A key outcome of this study shows that increases in social welfare due to DR appear......Integration of renewable energy sources (RES) like wind into the power system is a high priority in many countries, but it becomes increasingly difficult as renewables reach a significant share of generation. Demand response (DR) can potentially mitigate some of these difficulties, but the best way...... to control and integrate DR into the power system remains an open question. Integration into existing electricity markets is one option, but dynamic pricing with DR has been observed to be unstable, resulting in oscillations in supply and demand. This socalled Cobweb effect is presented here using the market...

  5. Home Network Technologies and Automating Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McParland, Charles

    2009-12-01

    Over the past several years, interest in large-scale control of peak energy demand and total consumption has increased. While motivated by a number of factors, this interest has primarily been spurred on the demand side by the increasing cost of energy and, on the supply side by the limited ability of utilities to build sufficient electricity generation capacity to meet unrestrained future demand. To address peak electricity use Demand Response (DR) systems are being proposed to motivate reductions in electricity use through the use of price incentives. DR systems are also be design to shift or curtail energy demand at critical times when the generation, transmission, and distribution systems (i.e. the 'grid') are threatened with instabilities. To be effectively deployed on a large-scale, these proposed DR systems need to be automated. Automation will require robust and efficient data communications infrastructures across geographically dispersed markets. The present availability of widespread Internet connectivity and inexpensive, reliable computing hardware combined with the growing confidence in the capabilities of distributed, application-level communications protocols suggests that now is the time for designing and deploying practical systems. Centralized computer systems that are capable of providing continuous signals to automate customers reduction of power demand, are known as Demand Response Automation Servers (DRAS). The deployment of prototype DRAS systems has already begun - with most initial deployments targeting large commercial and industrial (C & I) customers. An examination of the current overall energy consumption by economic sector shows that the C & I market is responsible for roughly half of all energy consumption in the US. On a per customer basis, large C & I customers clearly have the most to offer - and to gain - by participating in DR programs to reduce peak demand. And, by concentrating on a small number of relatively

  6. Optimal Demand Response with Energy Storage Management

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Longbo; Walrand, Jean; Ramchandran, Kannan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of optimal demand response and energy storage management for a power consuming entity. The entity's objective is to find an optimal control policy for deciding how much load to consume, how much power to purchase from/sell to the power grid, and how to use the finite capacity energy storage device and renewable energy, to minimize his average cost, being the disutility due to load- shedding and cost for purchasing power. Due to the coupling effect of the...

  7. Optimal Demand Response with Energy Storage Management

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Longbo; Ramchandran, Kannan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of optimal demand response and energy storage management for a power consuming entity. The entity's objective is to find an optimal control policy for deciding how much load to consume, how much power to purchase from/sell to the power grid, and how to use the finite capacity energy storage device and renewable energy, to minimize his average cost, being the disutility due to load- shedding and cost for purchasing power. Due to the coupling effect of the finite size energy storage, such problems are challenging and are typically tackled using dynamic programming, which is often complex in computation and requires substantial statistical information of the system dynamics. We instead develop a low-complexity algorithm called Demand Response with Energy Storage Management (DR-ESM). DR-ESM does not require any statistical knowledge of the system dynamics, including the renewable energy and the power prices. It only requires the entity to solve a small convex optimization pr...

  8. The cognitive demands of hypnotic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyzenbeek, Miriam; Bryant, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    This study tests the proposal that hypnotic responding is effortless. The authors compared the responses of high and low hypnotizable participants (N = 70) in and out of hypnosis on a dual-task paradigm in which they were required to maintain hypnotic blindness during presentation of visual stimuli of varying salience intensities while simultaneously completing a secondary task. Whereas high hypnotizable participants in both hypnosis and wake conditions reported comparable levels of conviction in the hallucination suggestion, hypnotized highs performed poorer on the secondary task when the stimulus was present. Performance on the secondary task deteriorated when the visual stimulus was intensified. These findings contradict the notion that hypnotic response is not demanding on cognitive resources and suggest that increased effort is required to resolve the extent of conflict between reality and suggestion.

  9. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Heffner, Grayson; Goldman, Charles

    2009-01-30

    In 2007, the Southwest Power Pool (SPP) formed the Customer Response Task Force (CRTF) to identify barriers to deploying demand response (DR) resources in wholesale markets and develop policies to overcome these barriers. One of the initiatives of this Task Force was to develop more detailed information on existing retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs, program rules, and utility operating practices. This report describes the results of a comprehensive survey conducted by LBNL in support of the Customer Response Task Force and discusses policy implications for integrating legacy retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs into wholesale markets in the SPP region. LBNL conducted a detailed survey of existing DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs administered by SPP's member utilities. Survey respondents were asked to provide information on advance notice requirements to customers, operational triggers used to call events (e.g. system emergencies, market conditions, local emergencies), use of these DR resources to meet planning reserves requirements, DR resource availability (e.g. seasonal, annual), participant incentive structures, and monitoring and verification (M&V) protocols. Nearly all of the 30 load-serving entities in SPP responded to the survey. Of this group, fourteen SPP member utilities administer 36 DR programs, five dynamic pricing tariffs, and six voluntary customer response initiatives. These existing DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs have a peak demand reduction potential of 1,552 MW. Other major findings of this study are: o About 81percent of available DR is from interruptible rate tariffs offered to large commercial and industrial customers, while direct load control (DLC) programs account for ~;;14percent. o Arkansas accounts for ~;;50percent of the DR resources in the SPP footprint; these DR resources are primarily managed by cooperatives. o Publicly-owned cooperatives accounted for 54percent of the existing DR resources

  10. Use of demand response in electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Sri Niwas; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    before DR implementation. This paper critically examines the present practices of the DR in the various electricity markets existing in the world including Europe. The prospect of DR in various market levels such as day-ahead (spot) market, hour-ahead market, real time/regulating market and ancillary......Demand response (DR) can provide sufficient measure, if implemented successfully, to provide economic, secure and stable supply to the customers even under the variability of the generated output from renewable energy source such as wind and solar. However, there are several issues to be analyzed...... market is analyzed. This paper also addresses the key issues and challenges in the implementation of DR in the electricity markets....

  11. Loads as a Resource: Frequency Responsive Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalsi, Karanjit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Tess L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Marinovici, Laurentiu D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elizondo, Marcelo A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lian, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-30

    Demand-side frequency control can complement traditional generator controls to maintain the stability of large electric systems in the face of rising uncertainty and variability associated with renewable energy resources. This report presents a hierarchical frequency-based load control strategy that uses a supervisor to flexibly adjust control gains that a population of end-use loads respond to in a decentralized manner to help meet the NERC BAL-003-1 frequency response standard at both the area level and interconnection level. The load model is calibrated and used to model populations of frequency-responsive water heaters in a PowerWorld simulation of the U.S. Western Interconnection (WECC). The proposed design is implemented and demonstrated on physical water heaters in a laboratory setting. A significant fraction of the required frequency response in the WECC could be supplied by electric water heaters alone at penetration levels of less than 15%, while contributing to NERC requirements at the interconnection and area levels.

  12. Loads as a Resource: Frequency Responsive Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalsi, Karanjit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hansen, Jacob [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fuller, Jason C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Marinovici, Laurentiu D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elizondo, Marcelo A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Tess L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lian, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sun, Yannan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Current power grid operation predominantly relies on scheduling and regulating generation resources to supply loads and balance load changes. Due to the inherent intermittency of renewable energy, more flexible and fast ramping capacity is required to compensate for the uncertainty and variability introduced by renewable energy resources. With the advancement of information technologies, power system end-use loads are becoming more agile and can participate in provision of balancing energy and other grid services. The use of demand response can greatly reduce the required generation reserve in a clean and environmentally friendly way. In this report, a new frequency responsive load (FRL) controller was proposed based on the GFA controller, which can respond to both over and under-frequency events. A supervisory control was introduced to coordinate the autonomous response from FRLs in order to overcome the issues of excessive system response due to high penetration of FRLs. The effectiveness of the proposed FRL controller was demonstrated by large-scale simulation studies on the WECC system. Specifically, the FRLs were deployed in the WECC system at different penetration levels to analyze the performance of the proposed strategy both with and without supervisory level control. While both methods have their own advantages, the case without supervisory control could lead to system-wide instability depending on the size of the contingency and the number of FRLs deployed in the system. In addition, the voltage impacts of this controller on distribution system were also carefully investigated. Finally, a preliminary measurement and verification approach was also developed.

  13. Loads as a Resource: Frequency Responsive Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalsi, Karanjit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lian, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Marinovici, Laurentiu D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elizondo, Marcelo A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moya, Christian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-10-08

    Frequency control plays an important role in preserving the power balance of a multi-machine power system. Generators modify their power output when a non-zero frequency deviation is presented in order to restore power balance across the network. However, with plans for large-scale penetration of renewable energy resources, performing primary frequency control using only supply-side resources becomes not only prohibitively expensive, but also technically difficult. Frequency control from the demand side or load control presents a novel and viable way for providing the desired frequency response. Loads can measure frequency locally and change their power consumption after a non-zero frequency deviation is presented in order to achieve power balance between generation and consumption. The specific objectives of this project are to: •Provide a framework to facilitate large-scale deployment of frequency responsive end-use devices •Systematically design decentralized frequency-based load control strategies for enhanced stability performance •Ensure applicability over wide range of operating conditions while accounting for unpredictable end-use behavior and physical device constraints •Test and validate control strategy using large-scale simulations and field demonstrations •Create a level-playing field for smart grid assets with conventional generators

  14. Automated Demand Response Opportunities in Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Lisa; Song, Katherine; Lekov, Alex; McKane, Aimee

    2008-11-19

    Wastewater treatment is an energy intensive process which, together with water treatment, comprises about three percent of U.S. annual energy use. Yet, since wastewater treatment facilities are often peripheral to major electricity-using industries, they are frequently an overlooked area for automated demand response opportunities. Demand response is a set of actions taken to reduce electric loads when contingencies, such as emergencies or congestion, occur that threaten supply-demand balance, and/or market conditions occur that raise electric supply costs. Demand response programs are designed to improve the reliability of the electric grid and to lower the use of electricity during peak times to reduce the total system costs. Open automated demand response is a set of continuous, open communication signals and systems provided over the Internet to allow facilities to automate their demand response activities without the need for manual actions. Automated demand response strategies can be implemented as an enhanced use of upgraded equipment and facility control strategies installed as energy efficiency measures. Conversely, installation of controls to support automated demand response may result in improved energy efficiency through real-time access to operational data. This paper argues that the implementation of energy efficiency opportunities in wastewater treatment facilities creates a base for achieving successful demand reductions. This paper characterizes energy use and the state of demand response readiness in wastewater treatment facilities and outlines automated demand response opportunities.

  15. The impact of residential demand response on the costs of a fossil-free system reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Jonas; Balyk, Olexandr; Hevia Koch, Pablo Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve a better understanding of the system value of residential demand response, we study the potential impact of flexible demand on the costs of system reserves in a fossil-free electricity supply. Comparing these costs with traditional means of regulation our analysis aims...... to contribute to determining the least-cost options for regulation in a fossil-free power system. We extend an existing energy system model with demand response and reserve modelling and analyse the impact for the case of Denmark in 2035 to reflect a system based on renewable resources for electricity...

  16. Demand Response With Micro-CHP Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, M.; Negenborn, R.R.; De Schutter, B.

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing application of distributed energy resources and novel information technologies in the electricity infrastructure, innovative possibilities to incorporate the demand side more actively in power system operation are enabled. A promising, controllable, residential distributed

  17. Demand Response With Micro-CHP Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, M.; Negenborn, R.R.; De Schutter, B.

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing application of distributed energy resources and novel information technologies in the electricity infrastructure, innovative possibilities to incorporate the demand side more actively in power system operation are enabled. A promising, controllable, residential distributed genera

  18. Demand Response Resource Quantification with Detailed Building Energy Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, Elaine; Horsey, Henry; Merket, Noel; Stoll, Brady; Nag, Ambarish

    2017-04-03

    Demand response is a broad suite of technologies that enables changes in electrical load operations in support of power system reliability and efficiency. Although demand response is not a new concept, there is new appetite for comprehensively evaluating its technical potential in the context of renewable energy integration. The complexity of demand response makes this task difficult -- we present new methods for capturing the heterogeneity of potential responses from buildings, their time-varying nature, and metrics such as thermal comfort that help quantify likely acceptability of specific demand response actions. Computed with an automated software framework, the methods are scalable.

  19. 76 FR 16657 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... periods of balancing needs,\\53\\ and that, moreover, contracts with demand response providers limit the... 2005, Public Law 109-58, Sec. 1252(f), 119 Stat. 594, 965 (2005) (``It is the policy of the United... option is well-established in finance theory as the value of the resource (LMP) minus the ``strike...

  20. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Pumping water for agricultural irrigation represents a significant share of California’s annual electricity use and peak demand. It also represents a large source of potential flexibility, as farms possess a form of storage in their wetted soil. By carefully modifying their irrigation schedules, growers can participate in demand response without adverse effects on their crops. This report describes the potential for participation in demand response and automated demand response by agricultural irrigators in California, as well as barriers to widespread participation. The report first describes the magnitude, timing, location, purpose, and manner of energy use in California. Typical on-­farm controls are discussed, as well as common impediments to participation in demand response and automated demand response programs. Case studies of demand response programs in California and across the country are reviewed, and their results along with overall California demand estimates are used to estimate statewide demand response potential. Finally, recommendations are made for future research that can enhance the understanding of demand response potential in this industry.

  1. Open Automated Demand Response Communications in Demand Response for Wholesale Ancillary Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan; Hernandez, John; Chiu, Albert; Sezgen, Osman; Goodin, John

    2009-11-06

    The Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) is conducting a pilot program to investigate the technical feasibility of bidding certain demand response (DR) resources into the California Independent System Operator's (CAISO) day-ahead market for ancillary services nonspinning reserve. Three facilities, a retail store, a local government office building, and a bakery, are recruited into the pilot program. For each facility, hourly demand, and load curtailment potential are forecasted two days ahead and submitted to the CAISO the day before the operation as an available resource. These DR resources are optimized against all other generation resources in the CAISO ancillary service. Each facility is equipped with four-second real time telemetry equipment to ensure resource accountability and visibility to CAISO operators. When CAISO requests DR resources, PG&E's OpenADR (Open Automated DR) communications infrastructure is utilized to deliver DR signals to the facilities energy management and control systems (EMCS). The pre-programmed DR strategies are triggered without a human in the loop. This paper describes the automated system architecture and the flow of information to trigger and monitor the performance of the DR events. We outline the DR strategies at each of the participating facilities. At one site a real time electric measurement feedback loop is implemented to assure the delivery of CAISO dispatched demand reductions. Finally, we present results from each of the facilities and discuss findings.

  2. Demand-side mitigation options of the agricultural sector: potential, barriers and ways forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunelle Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the potential and barriers of demand-side mitigation options in the agricultural sector based on the recent academic literature and on a survey conducted on a sample of 788 respondents living in France. The mitigation potential of such measures as reducing losses in the food supply chain and shifting diets toward less animal products is estimated to be particularly high, higher, in particular, than supply-side mitigation options. However, to ensure that these measures do not entail a reduction in protein intake, these estimations should consider both caloric and protein units, and take into account the digestibility differentials between protein sources. Our survey shows that people are relatively reluctant to eat more sustainably, preferring to reduce their emissions in other areas such as housing or equipment. This relative reluctance is mainly due to individual perceptions linked to health concerns, taste or habits. Some obstacles could easily be overcome through well-designed policies aiming to, for example, advertise a lower consumption of red meat for health benefits. National governments are, however, rather inactive on this topic, leaving the initiative to the civil society.

  3. Progress toward Producing Demand-Response-Ready Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Sastry, Chellury

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes several historical and ongoing efforts to make small electrical demand-side devices like home appliances more responsive to the dynamic needs of electric power grids. Whereas the utility community often reserves the word demand response for infrequent 2 to 6 hour curtailments that reduce total electrical system peak load, other beneficial responses and ancillary services that may be provided by responsive electrical demand are of interest. Historically, demand responses from the demand side have been obtained by applying external, retrofitted, controlled switches to existing electrical demand. This report is directed instead toward those manufactured products, including appliances, that are able to provide demand responses as soon as they are purchased and that require few, or no, after-market modifications to make them responsive to needs of power grids. Efforts to be summarized include Open Automated Demand Response, the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturer standard CHA 1, a simple interface being developed by the U-SNAP Alliance, various emerging autonomous responses, and the recent PinBus interface that was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  4. Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellington, Andre

    2014-03-31

    The Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (Interoperability Project) was awarded to Con Edison in 2009. The objective of the project was to develop and demonstrate methodologies to enhance the ability of customer sited Demand Response resources to integrate more effectively with electric delivery companies and regional transmission organizations.

  5. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wray, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-30

    Previous research over a period of six years has identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response (DR), automated demand response (Auto-­DR), and Energy Efficiency (EE) measures. This report summarizes that work, including the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy used and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and automated demand response opportunities. Furthermore, this report summarizes the DR potential of three wastewater treatment facilities. In particular, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has collected data at these facilities from control systems, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. The collected data were then used to generate a summary of wastewater power demand, factors affecting that demand, and demand response capabilities. These case studies show that facilities that have implemented energy efficiency measures and that have centralized control systems are well suited to shed or shift electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. In summary, municipal wastewater treatment energy demand in California is large, and energy-­intensive equipment offers significant potential for automated demand response. In particular, large load reductions were achieved by targeting effluent pumps and centrifuges. One of the limiting factors to implementing demand response is the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration at an earlier stage of the process. Another limiting factor is that cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities, limit a facility’s potential to participate in other DR activities.

  6. Opportunities and Challenges of Demand Response in Active Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponnaganti, Pavani; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    In power systems the installed generation capacity must exceed the annual peak demand, even though some capacity is kept idle most of the time. However, if it is uneconomical or not feasible to augment a sufficient capacity, the demand might exceed the available capacity. This mandates the system...... operator to shed the load in order to maintain security of the system. With the advent of advanced smart metering infrastructure, communication between system operator and end-use customers makes it possible to adjust/curtail/shift the demand with respect to the state of the system. The response...... of the demand commonly termed as Demand Response (DR) can be attained either by incentive-based or price-based. With the help of DR, the renewable energy generation capacity can be increased by tuning the demand to match the variable and unpredictable power from renewable generation. It can also bring other...

  7. Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across Western Interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkadi, Nasr E [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Ma, Ookie [United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2013-11-01

    Demand response (DR) has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study. The developed framework utilizes a number of different informational resources, algorithms, and real-world measurements to perform a bottom-up approach in the development of a new database with representation of the potential demand response resource in the industrial sector across the U.S. This tool houses statistical values of energy and demand response (DR) potential by industrial plant and geospatially locates the information for aggregation for different territories without proprietary information. This report will discuss this framework and the analyzed quantities of demand response for Western Interconnect (WI) in support of evaluation of the cost production modeling with power grid modeling efforts of demand response.

  8. Open Automated Demand Response Communications Specification (Version 1.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish; Kiliccote, Sila; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan; Palensky, Peter; McParland, Charles

    2009-02-28

    The development of the Open Automated Demand Response Communications Specification, also known as OpenADR or Open Auto-DR, began in 2002 following the California electricity crisis. The work has been carried out by the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC), which is managed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This specification describes an open standards-based communications data model designed to facilitate sending and receiving demand response price and reliability signals from a utility or Independent System Operator to electric customers. OpenADR is one element of the Smart Grid information and communications technologies that are being developed to improve optimization between electric supply and demand. The intention of the open automated demand response communications data model is to provide interoperable signals to building and industrial control systems that are preprogrammed to take action based on a demand response signal, enabling a demand response event to be fully automated, with no manual intervention. The OpenADR specification is a flexible infrastructure to facilitate common information exchange between the utility or Independent System Operator and end-use participants. The concept of an open specification is intended to allow anyone to implement the signaling systems, the automation server or the automation clients.

  9. System proportions fluid-flow in response to demand signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Control system provides proportioned fluid flow rates in response to demand signals. It compares a digital signal, representing a flow demand, with a reference signal to yield a control voltage to one or more solenoid valves connected to orifices of a predetermined size.

  10. Role of Storage and Demand Response, Greening the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document, part of a Greening the Grid toolkit, examines storage and demand response as means to match renewable energy supply with demand.

  11. Economic Dispatch of Demand Response Balancing through Asymmetric Block Offers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    load to provide a response to the power system and the subsequent need to recover. The conventional system dispatch algorithm is altered to facilitate the dispatch of demand response units alongside generating units using the proposed offer structure. The value of demand response is assessed through...... case studies that dispatch flexible supermarket refrigeration loads for the provision of regulating power. The demand resource is described by a set of asymmetric blocks, and a set of four blocks offers is shown to offer cost savings for the procurement of regulating power in excess of 20......%. For comparative purposes, the cost savings achievable with a fully observable and controllable demand response resource are evaluated, using a time series model of the refrigeration loads. The fully modeled resource offers greater savings; however the difference is small and potentially insufficient to justify...

  12. Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatikar, Girish; Piette, Mary Ann; Fujita, Sydny; McKane, Aimee; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Radspieler, Anthony; Mares, K.C.; Shroyer, Dave

    2009-12-30

    This study examines data center characteristics, loads, control systems, and technologies to identify demand response (DR) and automated DR (Open Auto-DR) opportunities and challenges. The study was performed in collaboration with technology experts, industrial partners, and data center facility managers and existing research on commercial and industrial DR was collected and analyzed. The results suggest that data centers, with significant and rapidly growing energy use, have significant DR potential. Because data centers are highly automated, they are excellent candidates for Open Auto-DR. 'Non-mission-critical' data centers are the most likely candidates for early adoption of DR. Data center site infrastructure DR strategies have been well studied for other commercial buildings; however, DR strategies for information technology (IT) infrastructure have not been studied extensively. The largest opportunity for DR or load reduction in data centers is in the use of virtualization to reduce IT equipment energy use, which correspondingly reduces facility cooling loads. DR strategies could also be deployed for data center lighting, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. Additional studies and demonstrations are needed to quantify benefits to data centers of participating in DR and to address concerns about DR's possible impact on data center performance or quality of service and equipment life span.

  13. Price Responsive Demand in New York Wholesale Electricity Market using OpenADR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joyce Jihyun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    In New York State, the default electricity pricing for large customers is Mandatory Hourly Pricing (MHP), which is charged based on zonal day-ahead market price for energy. With MHP, retail customers can adjust their building load to an economically optimal level according to hourly electricity prices. Yet, many customers seek alternative pricing options such as fixed rates through retail access for their electricity supply. Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) is an XML (eXtensible Markup Language) based information exchange model that communicates price and reliability information. It allows customers to evaluate hourly prices and provide demand response in an automated fashion to minimize electricity costs. This document shows how OpenADR can support MHP and facilitate price responsive demand for large commercial customers in New York City.

  14. On the demand for prescription drugs: heterogeneity in price responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, Niels

    2013-07-01

    This paper estimates the price elasticity of demand for prescription drugs using an exogenous shift in consumer co-payment caused by a reform in the Danish subsidy scheme for the general public. Using purchasing records for the entire Danish population, I show that the average price response for the most commonly used drug yields demand elasticities in the range of -0.36 to -0.5. The reform is shown to affect women, the elderly, and immigrants the most. Furthermore, this paper shows significant heterogeneity in the price response over different types of antibiotics, suggesting that the price elasticity of demand varies considerably even across relatively similar drugs.

  15. Low-Carbon Warehousing: Examining Impacts of Building and Intra-Logistics Design Options on Energy Demand and the CO2 Emissions of Logistics Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Freis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Logistics centers contribute to CO2 emissions in the building and logistics sector and therefore share a responsibility to decarbonize not only the supply chain. Synergy effects in both building and intra-logistics should be considered as suitable levers to lower energy demand and related CO2 emissions. This research develops firs t with a systemic approach an integrated analytical model for energy calculation and reference building models for different types of logistics centers to provide basic knowledge and a methodological framework for planners and managers to aid in the selection of different intra-logistics and building design options for optimum energy efficiency. It then determines the energy demand in reference building models and performs parameter studies to examine interrelations and impacts of design options for intra-logistics, building technology, and building skin on energy demand. It combines these to optimized reference building models to show the extent to which energy and CO2 emission savings can be reached. The results show that it is possible to significantly lower CO2 emissions. However, there are clear differences between the different types of logistics centers and the impacts of different design options.

  16. Blood banks meet the paradox of Gabriel's Horn: what are the options to maintain supply as demand decreases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, N; Yazer, M; Land, K; Chesneau, S; Caulfield, J

    2016-06-01

    Blood services worldwide have observed a decline in the demand for red blood cells (RBC). Despite this general decline, the demand profile has changed significantly with the demand for O D negative RBCs being maintained; whereas B D positive and AB D positive RBC demand has been reduced. In 2015, the blood type O D negative was seen in 6·3% of the combined first time donors among the five American Blood Centres involved in this study and 7·4% of first time Australian donors in 2014/2015, whereas O D negative distributions accounted for 10·5% of all red cell units issued by the American centres and 13·9% by the Australian centres. Inventory can therefore be of sufficient overall quantity but may not be adequate for the demand for units with specific blood types. Recruitment of new donors may need to become more targeted and/or financial or inventory control measures could also be required to ensure inventory matches demand. Blood Services will need to consider the available options in order to ensure that sufficiency of supply is secure and the donor panel is optimised to meet the new demand paradigm. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  17. Providing Reliability Services through Demand Response: A Prelimnary Evaluation of the Demand Response Capabilities of Alcoa Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Kueck, John D [ORNL; Todd, Duane [Alcoa; Caulfield, Michael [Alcoa; Helms, Brian [Alcoa

    2009-02-01

    Demand response is the largest underutilized reliability resource in North America. Historic demand response programs have focused on reducing overall electricity consumption (increasing efficiency) and shaving peaks but have not typically been used for immediate reliability response. Many of these programs have been successful but demand response remains a limited resource. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) report, 'Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering' (FERC 2006) found that only five percent of customers are on some form of demand response program. Collectively they represent an estimated 37,000 MW of response potential. These programs reduce overall energy consumption, lower green house gas emissions by allowing fossil fuel generators to operate at increased efficiency and reduce stress on the power system during periods of peak loading. As the country continues to restructure energy markets with sophisticated marginal cost models that attempt to minimize total energy costs, the ability of demand response to create meaningful shifts in the supply and demand equations is critical to creating a sustainable and balanced economic response to energy issues. Restructured energy market prices are set by the cost of the next incremental unit of energy, so that as additional generation is brought into the market, the cost for the entire market increases. The benefit of demand response is that it reduces overall demand and shifts the entire market to a lower pricing level. This can be very effective in mitigating price volatility or scarcity pricing as the power system responds to changing demand schedules, loss of large generators, or loss of transmission. As a global producer of alumina, primary aluminum, and fabricated aluminum products, Alcoa Inc., has the capability to provide demand response services through its manufacturing facilities and uniquely through its aluminum smelting facilities. For a typical aluminum smelter

  18. Coordination by Option Contracts in a Retailer-Led Supply Chain with Demand Update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaolong; LIU Liwen

    2008-01-01

    This research examines how to use an option contract to coordinate a retailer-led supply chain where the market information can be updated.Based on Stackelberg game theory,we build a mode with one supplier and one retailer in which the retailer designs contracts to coordinate the supplier's production in a two-mode production environment.This focuses on an option contract that consists of two option prices and one exercise price.By theoretical analysis and numerical example,we find that such a contract can coordi-nate the supplier and retailer to act in the best interest of the channel.The optimal pricing conditions are given as follows: First,option prices should be negatively correlated to the exercise pdce and should be in a relevant range.Second,the first-period option price should be no greater than the second-period price and should be linearly correlated to the second-period option price when the latter is beyond some threshold.The results show that such option contracts can arbitrarily allocate the extra system profit between the two parties so that each party is in a win-win situation.

  19. Demand response scheme based on lottery-like rebates

    KAUST Repository

    Schwartz, Galina A.

    2014-08-24

    In this paper, we develop a novel mechanism for reducing volatility of residential demand for electricity. We construct a reward-based (rebate) mechanism that provides consumers with incentives to shift their demand to off-peak time. In contrast to most other mechanisms proposed in the literature, the key feature of our mechanism is its modest requirements on user preferences, i.e., it does not require exact knowledge of user responsiveness to rewards for shifting their demand from the peak to the off-peak time. Specifically, our mechanism utilizes a probabilistic reward structure for users who shift their demand to the off-peak time, and is robust to incomplete information about user demand and/or risk preferences. We approach the problem from the public good perspective, and demonstrate that the mechanism can be implemented via lottery-like schemes. Our mechanism permits to reduce the distribution losses, and thus improve efficiency of electricity distribution. Finally, the mechanism can be readily incorporated into the emerging demand response schemes (e.g., the time-of-day pricing, and critical peak pricing schemes), and has security and privacy-preserving properties.

  20. Control for large scale demand response of thermostatic loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Totu, Luminita Cristiana; Leth, John; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    Demand response is an important Smart Grid concept that aims at facilitating the integration of volatile energy resources into the electricity grid. This paper considers a residential demand response scenario and specifically looks into the problem of managing a large number thermostatbased...... appliances with on/off operation. The objective is to reduce the consumption peak of a group of loads composed of both flexible and inflexible units. The power flexible units are the thermostat-based appliances. We discuss a centralized, model predictive approach and a distributed structure with a randomized...

  1. Evaluation of Representative Smart Grid Investment Project Technologies: Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Bonebrake, Christopher A.

    2012-02-14

    This document is one of a series of reports estimating the benefits of deploying technologies similar to those implemented on the Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) projects. Four technical reports cover the various types of technologies deployed in the SGIG projects, distribution automation, demand response, energy storage, and renewables integration. A fifth report in the series examines the benefits of deploying these technologies on a national level. This technical report examines the impacts of a limited number of demand response technologies and implementations deployed in the SGIG projects.

  2. A Dynamic Market Mechanism for Markets with Shiftable Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob; Knudsen, Jesper Viese; Kiani, Arman

    2014-01-01

    renewables, this mechanism accommodates both consumers with a shiftable Demand Response and an adjustable Demand Response. The overall market mechanism is evaluated in a Day Ahead Market and is shown in a numerical example to result in a reduction of the cost of electricity for the consumer, as well......In this paper, we propose a dynamic market mechanism that converges to the desired market equilibrium. Both locational marginal prices and the schedules for generation and consumption are determined through a negotiation process between the key market players. In addition to incorporating...

  3. Open Automated Demand Response for Small Commerical Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudley, June Han; Piette, Mary Ann; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan

    2009-05-01

    This report characterizes small commercial buildings by market segments, systems and end-uses; develops a framework for identifying demand response (DR) enabling technologies and communication means; and reports on the design and development of a low-cost OpenADR enabling technology that delivers demand reductions as a percentage of the total predicted building peak electric demand. The results show that small offices, restaurants and retail buildings are the major contributors making up over one third of the small commercial peak demand. The majority of the small commercial buildings in California are located in southern inland areas and the central valley. Single-zone packaged units with manual and programmable thermostat controls make up the majority of heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems for small commercial buildings with less than 200 kW peak electric demand. Fluorescent tubes with magnetic ballast and manual controls dominate this customer group's lighting systems. There are various ways, each with its pros and cons for a particular application, to communicate with these systems and three methods to enable automated DR in small commercial buildings using the Open Automated Demand Response (or OpenADR) communications infrastructure. Development of DR strategies must consider building characteristics, such as weather sensitivity and load variability, as well as system design (i.e. under-sizing, under-lighting, over-sizing, etc). Finally, field tests show that requesting demand reductions as a percentage of the total building predicted peak electric demand is feasible using the OpenADR infrastructure.

  4. Is Solar Power The Best Energy Option To Meet Our Future Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samyak Shami

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Currently about 65 of global electricity generation now is fossil fuel-based spewing 13 giga tonnes of CO2 . With mass production and innovations in technology the prices of renewable energy sources have plummeted to such levels where have become a welcoming option even without the subsidies.China has installed nearly 100 gigawatts GW of wind power and plans to double it within the next five years while Britain is also in offshore wind power in a big way. However oil continues to be the most valued fuel source as almost all of it is consumed in internal combustion IC engines mostly for transport and some for captive power plants. Biofuels and hydrogen fuel cells may be used as alternatives to petrol but biofuels which include ethanol hamper the performance of a vehicle.The production cost of solar power panels has come down so much that they are competing with the coal-based power even without the subsidy. The solar powered lanterns made up of a few light-emitting diodes are bringing light and enhancing the quality of life in the worlds poorest regions which are also located in the equatorial region. The US Department of Energys target is to produce 27 of Americas electricity using solar power by 2050 up from less than 1 today. In Australia solar power panels most of them on rooftops cater to almost 10 of the demand. About 25 households of South Australia have solar power followed by Queensland 22 and Western Australia 18.Modern innovations in solar cells show enormous capabilities for them to be used extensively on windows buildings even cell phones or any device that has a clear surface. Similar strides have been made in concentrated solar power. The Solar power however has limitations too. It can not generate power during night or when sky is overcast. Excessive power generated by solar panels has led to a crisis in Germany and elsewhere to the extent that generating companies in addition to selling were also paying back the managers

  5. Demand Response an Alternative Solution to Prevent Load Shedding Triggering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mollah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates an alternative solution to prevent Load Shedding (LS triggering during underfrequency and proposes a new technique to restore the frequency during emergency events. Demand response (DR is considered as one of the most promising Smart Grid concepts that can be used to support the peak demand, whereas, LS is an existing last resort method during emergency grid situations. Both schemes aim to balance the load and generation in real-time and restore the frequency very quickly. This paper incorporates integrating Incentive based Demand Response (IDR with spinning reserve for smaller underfrequency events to manage the system peak demand. It also introduces a new frequency band for an Emergency Demand Response (EDR as an alternative inexpensive solution that can replace costly spinning reserves and help to prevent LS. An energy index factor is used to identify the consumption pattern of consumers to enable them to participate in IDR. An illustrative example of the performance of the proposed scheme on a modified 15 bus test system is shown. Simulation results on different scenarios confirm that the proposed method is effective to improve the frequency restoration process along with enabling participation of new services.

  6. Data-driven Demand Response Characterization and Quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Ray, Guillaume; Pinson, Pierre; Larsen, Emil Mahler

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of load behavior in demand response (DR) schemes is important to evaluate the performance of participants. Very few real-world experiments have been carried out and quantification and characterization of the response is a difficult task. Nevertheless it will be a necessary tool for portf......Analysis of load behavior in demand response (DR) schemes is important to evaluate the performance of participants. Very few real-world experiments have been carried out and quantification and characterization of the response is a difficult task. Nevertheless it will be a necessary tool...... on the average values and standard deviation of the contribution regroups households with the same average response. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is used to characterize different DR delivery profiles....

  7. A demand-based management option to address boat congestion at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-04

    Jul 4, 2015 ... type of overcrowding is a recreational demand-side issue, which requires a ..... detection of preference variation in terms of both random het- erogeneity and ..... SCARPA R, THIENE M and TRAIN K (2008) Utility in willingness.

  8. Load Reduction, Demand Response and Energy Efficient Technologies and Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Paul A.; Parker, Graham B.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2008-11-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Electricity (OE) to recommend load reduction and grid integration strategies, and identify additional demand response (energy efficiency/conservation opportunities) and strategies at the Forest City Housing (FCH) redevelopment at Pearl Harbor and the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) at Kaneohe Bay. The goal was to provide FCH staff a path forward to manage their electricity load and thus reduce costs at these FCH family housing developments. The initial focus of the work was at the MCBH given the MCBH has a demand-ratchet tariff, relatively high demand (~18 MW) and a commensurate high blended electricity rate (26 cents/kWh). The peak demand for MCBH occurs in July-August. And, on average, family housing at MCBH contributes ~36% to the MCBH total energy consumption. Thus, a significant load reduction in family housing can have a considerable impact on the overall site load. Based on a site visit to the MCBH and meetings with MCBH installation, FCH, and Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) staff, recommended actions (including a "smart grid" recommendation) that can be undertaken by FCH to manage and reduce peak-demand in family housing are made. Recommendations are also made to reduce overall energy consumption, and thus reduce demand in FCH family housing.

  9. Analyses of demand response in Denmark[Electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller Andersen, F.; Grenaa Jensen, S.; Larsen, Helge V.; Meibom, P.; Ravn, H.; Skytte, K.; Togeby, M.

    2006-10-15

    Due to characteristics of the power system, costs of producing electricity vary considerably over short time intervals. Yet, many consumers do not experience corresponding variations in the price they pay for consuming electricity. The topic of this report is: are consumers willing and able to respond to short-term variations in electricity prices, and if so, what is the social benefit of consumers doing so? Taking Denmark and the Nord Pool market as a case, the report focuses on what is known as short-term consumer flexibility or demand response in the electricity market. With focus on market efficiency, efficient allocation of resources and security of supply, the report describes demand response from a micro-economic perspective and provides empirical observations and case studies. The report aims at evaluating benefits from demand response. However, only elements contributing to an overall value are presented. In addition, the analyses are limited to benefits for society, and costs of obtaining demand response are not considered. (au)

  10. Analyses of demand response in Denmark[Electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller Andersen, F.; Grenaa Jensen, S.; Larsen, Helge V.; Meibom, P.; Ravn, H.; Skytte, K.; Togeby, M.

    2006-10-15

    Due to characteristics of the power system, costs of producing electricity vary considerably over short time intervals. Yet, many consumers do not experience corresponding variations in the price they pay for consuming electricity. The topic of this report is: are consumers willing and able to respond to short-term variations in electricity prices, and if so, what is the social benefit of consumers doing so? Taking Denmark and the Nord Pool market as a case, the report focuses on what is known as short-term consumer flexibility or demand response in the electricity market. With focus on market efficiency, efficient allocation of resources and security of supply, the report describes demand response from a micro-economic perspective and provides empirical observations and case studies. The report aims at evaluating benefits from demand response. However, only elements contributing to an overall value are presented. In addition, the analyses are limited to benefits for society, and costs of obtaining demand response are not considered. (au)

  11. Hydrogen-Fuel Infrastructure Investment with Endogenous Demand : A Real Options Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Kool, C.J.M.; Engelen, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explicitly incorporate the impact that realized investment in new infrastructure has on adoption speed in a real options framework for investment decisions and analyze the consequences of this dependence for optimal investment. For the adoption diffusion process, we use a modified

  12. Demand Response Availability Profiles for California in the Year 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Piette, Mary Ann [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Demand response (DR) is being considered as a valuable resource for keeping the electrical grid stable and efficient, and deferring upgrades to generation, transmission, and distribution systems. However, simulations to determine how much infrastructure upgrades can be deferred are necessary in order to plan optimally. Production cost modeling is a technique, which simulates the dispatch of generators to meet demand and reserves in each hour of the year, at minimal cost. By integrating demand response resources into a production cost model (PCM), their value to the grid can be estimated and used to inform operations and infrastructure planning. DR availability profiles and constraints for 13 end-uses in California for the year 2020 were developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and integrated into a production cost model by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), for the California Energy Commission’s Value of Energy Storage and Demand Response for Renewable Integration in California Study. This report summarizes the process for developing the DR availability profiles for California, and their aggregate capabilities. While LBNL provided potential DR hourly profiles for regulation product in the ancillary services market and five-minute load following product in the energy market for LLNL’s study, additional results in contingency reserves and an assumed flexible product are also defined. These additional products are included in the analysis for managing high ramps associated with renewable generation and capacity products and they are also presented in this report.

  13. Household demand for insecticide-treated bednets in Tanzania and policy options for increasing uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Chris D; Hanson, Kara G; Marchant, Tanya J; Mulligan, Jo-Ann; Mponda, Hadji

    2011-03-01

    There has been considerable controversy about the most appropriate means of delivering insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to prevent malaria. Household demand for ITNs is a key factor influencing the choice of delivery strategy, but evidence to date about price and income elasticities comes either from studies of hypothetical willingness to pay or small-scale policy experiments. This study estimates the price and income elasticities of demand for ITNs using nationally representative household survey data and actual consumer choices, in the context of a national scheme to provide vouchers for subsidized nets to pregnant women in Tanzania. Under this distribution system, the estimated price elasticity of demand for subsidized ITNs equals -0.12 and the income elasticity estimates range from zero to 0.47, depending on household socio-economic status. The model also shows a substantial decline in short-term ITN purchases for women whose household received a free ITN. These findings suggest that if the Tanzanian government continues to use a mixed public-private model to distribute ITNs, increasing the consumer subsidy alone will not dramatically improve ITN coverage. A concerted effort is required including an increase in the subsidy amount, attention to income growth for poor households, increases in women's and girls' education levels, and expansion of the retail ITN distribution network. Use of a catch-up campaign to distribute free ITNs would increase coverage but raises questions about the effect of households' long-term purchase decisions for ITNs.

  14. 10 CFR 9.203 - Procedure where response to demand is required prior to receiving instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure where response to demand is required prior to... or Disclosure in Response to Subpoenas or Demands of Courts or Other Authorities § 9.203 Procedure where response to demand is required prior to receiving instructions. If a response to the demand...

  15. The Role of Demand Response in Default Service Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Neenan, Bernie

    2005-11-09

    Dynamic retail pricing, especially real-time pricing (RTP), has been widely heralded as a panacea for providing much-needed demand response in electricity markets. However, in designing default service for competitive retail markets, demand response has been an afterthought, and in some cases not given any weight at all. But that may be changing, as states that initiated customer choice in the past 5-7 years reach an important juncture in retail market design. Most states with retail choice established an initial transitional period during which utilities were required to offer a default or standard offer generation service, often at a capped or otherwise administratively-determined rate. Many retail choice states have reached the end of their transitional period, and several have adopted or are actively considering an RTP-type default service for large commercial and industrial (C&I) customers. In most cases, the primary reason for adopting RTP as the default service has been to advance policy objectives related to the development of competitive retail markets. However, if attention is paid in its design and implementation, default RTP service can also provide a solid foundation for developing price responsive demand, creating an important link between wholesale and retail market transactions. This article, which draws from a lengthier report, describes experience to date with RTP as a default service, focusing on its role as an instrument for cultivating price responsive demand.1 As of summer 2005, default service RTP was in place or approved for future implementation in five U.S. states: New Jersey, Maryland, Pennsylvania, New York, and Illinois. For each of these states, we conducted a detailed review of the regulatory proceedings leading to adoption of default RTP and interviewed regulatory staff and utilities in these states, as well as eight competitive retail suppliers active in these markets.

  16. Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Jin, X.; Earle, L.

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses.The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

  17. Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jin, X. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses. The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

  18. Examining demand response, renewable energy and efficiencies to meet growing electricity needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot, N.; Eldridge, M.; Shipley, A.M.; Laitner, J.S.; Nadel, S. [American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, DC (United States); Silverstein, A. [A. Silverstein Consultant (United States); Hedman, B. [Energy and Environmental Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Sloan, M. [Virtus Energy Research Associates, Inc. Austin, TX (United States)

    2007-04-15

    While Texas has already taken steps to improve its renewable energy portfolio (RPS), and its energy efficiency improvement program (EEIP), the level of savings that utilities can achieve through the EEIP can be greatly increased. This report estimated the size of energy efficiency and renewable energy resources in Texas, and suggested a range of policy options that might be adopted to further extend EEIP. Current forecasts suggest that peak demand in Texas will increase by 2.3 per cent annually from 2007-2012, a level of growth which is threatening the state's ability to maintain grid reliability at reasonable cost. Almost 70 per cent of installed generating capacity is fuelled by natural gas in Texas. Recent polling has suggested that over 70 per cent of Texans are willing support increased spending on energy efficiency. Demand response measures that may be implemented in the state include incentive-based programs that pay users to reduce their electricity consumption during specific times and pricing programs, where customers are given a price signal and are expected to moderate their electricity usage. By 2023, the widespread availability of time-varying retail electric rates and complementary communications and control methods will permanently change the nature of electricity demand in the state. At present, the integrated utilities in Texas offer a variety of direct load control and time-of-use, curtailable, and interruptible rates. However, with the advent of retail competition now available as a result of the structural unbundling of investor-owned utilities, there is less demand response available in Texas. It was concluded that energy efficiency, demand response, and renewable energy resources can meet the increasing demand for electricity in Texas over the next 15 years. 4 figs.

  19. Demand Profile Study of Battery Electric Vehicle under Different Charging Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Yang, Guang Ya; Træholt, Chresten

    2012-01-01

    An increased research on electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) deals with their flexible use in electric power grids. Several research projects on smart grids and electric mobility are now looking into realistic models representing the behavior of an EV during charging......, including nonlinearities. In this work, modeling, simulation and testing of the demand profile of a battery-EV are conducted. Realistic work conditions for a lithium-ion EV battery and battery charger are considered as the base for the modeling. Simulation results show that EV charging generates different...

  20. A Distributed Intelligent Automated Demand Response Building Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auslander, David; Culler, David; Wright, Paul; Lu, Yan; Piette, Mary

    2013-12-30

    The goal of the 2.5 year Distributed Intelligent Automated Demand Response (DIADR) project was to reduce peak electricity load of Sutardja Dai Hall at UC Berkeley by 30% while maintaining a healthy, comfortable, and productive environment for the occupants. We sought to bring together both central and distributed control to provide “deep” demand response1 at the appliance level of the building as well as typical lighting and HVAC applications. This project brought together Siemens Corporate Research and Siemens Building Technology (the building has a Siemens Apogee Building Automation System (BAS)), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (leveraging their Open Automated Demand Response (openADR), Auto-­Demand Response, and building modeling expertise), and UC Berkeley (related demand response research including distributed wireless control, and grid-­to-­building gateway development). Sutardja Dai Hall houses the Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society (CITRIS), which fosters collaboration among industry and faculty and students of four UC campuses (Berkeley, Davis, Merced, and Santa Cruz). The 141,000 square foot building, occupied in 2009, includes typical office spaces and a nanofabrication laboratory. Heating is provided by a district heating system (steam from campus as a byproduct of the campus cogeneration plant); cooling is provided by one of two chillers: a more typical electric centrifugal compressor chiller designed for the cool months (Nov-­ March) and a steam absorption chiller for use in the warm months (April-­October). Lighting in the open office areas is provided by direct-­indirect luminaries with Building Management System-­based scheduling for open areas, and occupancy sensors for private office areas. For the purposes of this project, we focused on the office portion of the building. Annual energy consumption is approximately 8053 MWh; the office portion is estimated as 1924 MWh. The maximum peak load

  1. A Distributed Intelligent Automated Demand Response Building Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auslander, David [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Culler, David [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wright, Paul [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Yan [Siemens Corporate Research Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Piette, Mary [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-31

    The goal of the 2.5 year Distributed Intelligent Automated Demand Response (DIADR) project was to reduce peak electricity load of Sutardja Dai Hall at UC Berkeley by 30% while maintaining a healthy, comfortable, and productive environment for the occupants. We sought to bring together both central and distributed control to provide “deep” demand response1 at the appliance level of the building as well as typical lighting and HVAC applications. This project brought together Siemens Corporate Research and Siemens Building Technology (the building has a Siemens Apogee Building Automation System (BAS)), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (leveraging their Open Automated Demand Response (openADR), Auto-­Demand Response, and building modeling expertise), and UC Berkeley (related demand response research including distributed wireless control, and grid-­to-­building gateway development). Sutardja Dai Hall houses the Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society (CITRIS), which fosters collaboration among industry and faculty and students of four UC campuses (Berkeley, Davis, Merced, and Santa Cruz). The 141,000 square foot building, occupied in 2009, includes typical office spaces and a nanofabrication laboratory. Heating is provided by a district heating system (steam from campus as a byproduct of the campus cogeneration plant); cooling is provided by one of two chillers: a more typical electric centrifugal compressor chiller designed for the cool months (Nov-­ March) and a steam absorption chiller for use in the warm months (April-­October). Lighting in the open office areas is provided by direct-­indirect luminaries with Building Management System-­based scheduling for open areas, and occupancy sensors for private office areas. For the purposes of this project, we focused on the office portion of the building. Annual energy consumption is approximately 8053 MWh; the office portion is estimated as 1924 MWh. The maximum peak load

  2. Optimal Demand Response of Smart Home with PV Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Rong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand response (DR is used mainly to help to schedule a customer’s power utilization based on the electricity price that is announced by the power distribution company so that both demand and supply can optimally benefit. The work proposes a users’ load model and the interior point method for optimal scheduling with elastic power utilization to minimize power price. The interior point method has the advantages of rapid convergence and robustness. Customers can not only use PV generators and battery sets as backup power sources, but also benefit from green energy. As revealed by the results herein, the use of elastic power utilization time intervals enables customers to pay less power price.

  3. Automated Dynamic Demand Response Implementation on a Micro-grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuppannagari, Sanmukh R.; Kannan, Rajgopal; Chelmis, Charalampos; Prasanna, Viktor K.

    2016-11-16

    In this paper, we describe a system for real-time automated Dynamic and Sustainable Demand Response with sparse data consumption prediction implemented on the University of Southern California campus microgrid. Supply side approaches to resolving energy supply-load imbalance do not work at high levels of renewable energy penetration. Dynamic Demand Response (D2R) is a widely used demand-side technique to dynamically adjust electricity consumption during peak load periods. Our D2R system consists of accurate machine learning based energy consumption forecasting models that work with sparse data coupled with fast and sustainable load curtailment optimization algorithms that provide the ability to dynamically adapt to changing supply-load imbalances in near real-time. Our Sustainable DR (SDR) algorithms attempt to distribute customer curtailment evenly across sub-intervals during a DR event and avoid expensive demand peaks during a few sub-intervals. It also ensures that each customer is penalized fairly in order to achieve the targeted curtailment. We develop near linear-time constant-factor approximation algorithms along with Polynomial Time Approximation Schemes (PTAS) for SDR curtailment that minimizes the curtailment error defined as the difference between the target and achieved curtailment values. Our SDR curtailment problem is formulated as an Integer Linear Program that optimally matches customers to curtailment strategies during a DR event while also explicitly accounting for customer strategy switching overhead as a constraint. We demonstrate the results of our D2R system using real data from experiments performed on the USC smartgrid and show that 1) our prediction algorithms can very accurately predict energy consumption even with noisy or missing data and 2) our curtailment algorithms deliver DR with extremely low curtailment errors in the 0.01-0.05 kWh range.

  4. Northwest Open Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Dudley, Junqiao

    2010-03-17

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) demonstrated and evaluated open automated demand response (OpenADR) communication infrastructure to reduce winter morning and summer afternoon peak electricity demand in commercial buildings the Seattle area. LBNL performed this demonstration for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) in the Seattle City Light (SCL) service territory at five sites: Seattle Municipal Tower, Seattle University, McKinstry, and two Target stores. This report describes the process and results of the demonstration. OpenADR is an information exchange model that uses a client-server architecture to automate demand-response (DR) programs. These field tests evaluated the feasibility of deploying fully automated DR during both winter and summer peak periods. DR savings were evaluated for several building systems and control strategies. This project studied DR during hot summer afternoons and cold winter mornings, both periods when electricity demand is typically high. This is the DRRC project team's first experience using automation for year-round DR resources and evaluating the flexibility of commercial buildings end-use loads to participate in DR in dual-peaking climates. The lessons learned contribute to understanding end-use loads that are suitable for dispatch at different times of the year. The project was funded by BPA and SCL. BPA is a U.S. Department of Energy agency headquartered in Portland, Oregon and serving the Pacific Northwest. BPA operates an electricity transmission system and markets wholesale electrical power at cost from federal dams, one non-federal nuclear plant, and other non-federal hydroelectric and wind energy generation facilities. Created by the citizens of Seattle in 1902, SCL is the second-largest municipal utility in America. SCL purchases approximately 40% of its electricity and the majority of its transmission from BPA through a preference contract. SCL also

  5. Modeling and prioritizing demand response programs in power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalami, H.A.; Moghaddam, M. Parsa; Yousefi, G.R. [Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-04-15

    One of the responsibilities of power market regulator is setting rules for selecting and prioritizing demand response (DR) programs. There are many different alternatives of DR programs for improving load profile characteristics and achieving customers' satisfaction. Regulator should find the optimal solution which reflects the perspectives of each DR stakeholder. Multi Attribute Decision Making (MADM) is a proper method for handling such optimization problems. In this paper, an extended responsive load economic model is developed. The model is based on price elasticity and customer benefit function. Prioritizing of DR programs can be realized by means of Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method. Considerations of ISO/utility/customer regarding the weighting of attributes are encountered by entropy method. An Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used for selecting the most effective DR program. Numerical studies are conducted on the load curve of the Iranian power grid in 2007. (author)

  6. Chance-constrained optimization of demand response to price signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorini, Gianluca Fabio; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Household-based demand response is expected to play an increasing role in supporting the large scale integration of renewable energy generation in existing power systems and electricity markets. While the direct control of the consumption level of households is envisaged as a possibility, a credi......Household-based demand response is expected to play an increasing role in supporting the large scale integration of renewable energy generation in existing power systems and electricity markets. While the direct control of the consumption level of households is envisaged as a possibility......, a credible alternative is that of indirect control based on price signals to be sent to these end-consumers. A methodology is described here allowing to estimate in advance the potential response of flexible end-consumers to price variations, subsequently embedded in an optimal price-signal generator...... within a recursive least squares (RLS) framework using data measurable at the grid level, in an adaptive fashion. Optimal price signals are generated by embedding the FIR models within a chance-constrained optimization framework. The objective is to keep the price signal as unchanged as possible from...

  7. Demand response, behind-the-meter generation and air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiyue; Zhang, K Max

    2015-02-03

    We investigated the implications of behind-the-meter (BTM) generation participating in demand response (DR) programs. Specifically, we evaluated the impacts of NOx emissions from BTM generators enrolled in the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO)'s reliability-based DR programs. Through analyzing the DR program enrollment data, DR event records, ozone air quality monitoring data, and emission characteristics of the generators, we found that the emissions from BTM generators very likely contribute to exceedingly high ozone concentrations in the Northeast Corridor region, and very likely account for a substantial fraction of total NOx emissions from electricity generation. In addition, a companion study showed that the emissions from BTM generators could also form near-source particulate matter (PM) hotspots. The important policy implications are that the absence of up-to-date regulations on BTM generators may offset the current efforts to reduce the emissions from peaking power plants, and that there is a need to quantify the environmental impacts of DR programs in designing sound policies related to demand-side resources. Furthermore, we proposed the concept of "Green" DR resources, referring to those that not only provide power systems reliability services, but also have verifiable environmental benefits or minimal negative environmental impacts. We argue that Green DR resources that are able to maintain resource adequacy and reduce emissions at the same time are key to achieving the cobenefits of power system reliability and protecting public health during periods with peak electricity demand.

  8. Demand Response Resources for Energy and Ancillary Services (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummon, M.

    2014-04-01

    Demand response (DR) resources present a potentially important source of grid flexibility particularly on future systems with high penetrations of variable wind an solar power generation. However, DR in grid models is limited by data availability and modeling complexity. This presentation focuses on the co-optimization of DR resources to provide energy and ancillary services in a production cost model of the Colorado test system. We assume each DR resource can provide energy services by either shedding load or shifting its use between different times, as well as operating

  9. Demand Intensity, Market Parameters and Policy Responses towards Demand and Supply of Private Supplementary Tutoring in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Percy Lai Yin

    2010-01-01

    Based on some longitudinal studies of private tutoring in twelve cities, towns, municipalities and provinces of China, the paper endeavours to depict demand intensity, articulate market parameters and reflect on policy responses towards the demand-supply mechanism of the vast shadowy educational phenomena at primary and secondary levels. Such…

  10. A Successful Case Study of Small Business Energy Efficiency and Demand Response with Communicating Thermostats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herter, Karen; Wayland, Seth; Rasin, Josh

    2009-08-12

    This report documents a field study of 78 small commercial customers in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District service territory who volunteered for an integrated energy-efficiency/demand-response (EE-DR) program in the summer of 2008. The original objective for the pilot was to provide a better understanding of demand response issues in the small commercial sector. Early findings justified a focus on offering small businesses (1) help with the energy efficiency of their buildings in exchange for occasional load shed, and (2) a portfolio of options to meet the needs of a diverse customer sector. To meet these expressed needs, the research pilot provided on-site energy efficiency advice and offered participants several program options, including the choice of either a dynamic rate or monthly payment for air-conditioning setpoint control. Overall results show that pilot participants had energy savings of 20%, and the potential for an additional 14% to 20% load drop during a 100 F demand response event. In addition to the efficiency-related bill savings, participants on the dynamic rate saved an estimated 5% on their energy costs compared to the standard rate. About 80% of participants said that the program met or surpassed their expectations, and three-quarters said they would probably or definitely participate again without the $120 participation incentive. These results provide evidence that energy efficiency programs, dynamic rates and load control programs can be used concurrently and effectively in the small business sector, and that communicating thermostats are a reliable tool for providing air-conditioning load shed and enhancing the ability of customers on dynamic rates to respond to intermittent price events.

  11. Small Business Demand Response with Communicating Thermostats: SMUD's Summer Solutions Research Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herter, Karen; Wayland, Seth; Rasin, Josh

    2009-09-25

    This report documents a field study of 78 small commercial customers in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District service territory who volunteered for an integrated energy-efficiency/demand-response (EE-DR) program in the summer of 2008. The original objective for the pilot was to provide a better understanding of demand response issues in the small commercial sector. Early findings justified a focus on offering small businesses (1) help with the energy efficiency of their buildings in exchange for occasional load shed, and (2) a portfolio of options to meet the needs of a diverse customer sector. To meet these expressed needs, the research pilot provided on-site energy efficiency advice and offered participants several program options, including the choice of either a dynamic rate or monthly payment for air-conditioning setpoint control. An analysis of hourly load data indicates that the offices and retail stores in our sample provided significant demand response, while the restaurants did not. Thermostat data provides further evidence that restaurants attempted to precool and reduce AC service during event hours, but were unable to because their air-conditioning units were undersized. On a 100 F reference day, load impacts of all participants during events averaged 14%, while load impacts of office and retail buildings (excluding restaurants) reached 20%. Overall, pilot participants including restaurants had 2007-2008 summer energy savings of 20% and bill savings of 30%. About 80% of participants said that the program met or surpassed their expectations, and three-quarters said they would probably or definitely participate again without the $120 participation incentive. These results provide evidence that energy efficiency programs, dynamic rates and load control programs can be used concurrently and effectively in the small business sector, and that communicating thermostats are a reliable tool for providing air-conditioning load shed and enhancing the ability

  12. Role of Standard Demand Response Signals for Advanced Automated Aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Kiliccote, Sila

    2011-11-18

    Emerging standards such as OpenADR enable Demand Response (DR) Resources to interact directly with Utilities and Independent System Operators to allow their facility automation equipment to respond to a variety of DR signals ranging from day ahead to real time ancillary services. In addition, there are Aggregators in today’s markets who are capable of bringing together collections of aggregated DR assets and selling them to the grid as a single resource. However, in most cases these aggregated resources are not automated and when they are, they typically use proprietary technologies. There is a need for a framework for dealing with aggregated resources that supports the following requirements: • Allows demand-side resources to participate in multiple DR markets ranging from wholesale ancillary services to retail tariffs without being completely committed to a single entity like an Aggregator; • Allow aggregated groups of demand-side resources to be formed in an ad hoc fashion to address specific grid-side issues and support the optimization of the collective response of an aggregated group along a number of different dimensions. This is important in order to taylor the aggregated performance envelope to the needs to of the grid; • Allow aggregated groups to be formed in a hierarchical fashion so that each group can participate in variety of markets from wholesale ancillary services to distribution level retail tariffs. This paper explores the issues of aggregated groups of DR resources as described above especially within the context of emerging smart grid standards and the role they will play in both the management and interaction of various grid-side entities with those resources.

  13. Demand Response Performance of GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-07-01

    This report describes a project to evaluate and document the DR performance of HPWH as compared to ERWH for two primary types of DR events: peak curtailments and balancing reserves. The experiments were conducted with GE second-generation “Brillion”-enabled GeoSpring hybrid water heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes, with one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Standard” electric resistance mode to represent the baseline and one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Heat Pump” mode to provide the comparison to heat pump-only demand response. It is expected that “Hybrid” DR performance, which would engage both the heat pump and electric elements, could be interpolated from these two experimental extremes. Signals were sent simultaneously to the two water heaters in the side-by-side PNNL Lab Homes under highly controlled, simulated occupancy conditions. This report presents the results of the evaluation, which documents the demand-response capability of the GE GeoSpring HPWH for peak load reduction and regulation services. The sections describe the experimental protocol and test apparatus used to collect data, present the baselining procedure, discuss the results of the simulated DR events for the HPWH and ERWH, and synthesize key conclusions based on the collected data.

  14. Demand Response in U.S. Electricity Markets: Empirical Evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Kathan, David

    2009-06-01

    Empirical evidence concerning demand response (DR) resources is needed in order to establish baseline conditions, develop standardized methods to assess DR availability and performance, and to build confidence among policymakers, utilities, system operators, and stakeholders that DR resources do offer a viable, cost-effective alternative to supply-side investments. This paper summarizes the existing contribution of DR resources in U.S. electric power markets. In 2008, customers enrolled in existing wholesale and retail DR programs were capable of providing ~;;38,000 MW of potential peak load reductions in the United States. Participants in organized wholesale market DR programs, though, have historically overestimated their likely performance during declared curtailments events, but appear to be getting better as they and their agents gain experience. In places with less developed organized wholesale market DR programs, utilities are learning how to create more flexible DR resources by adapting legacy load management programs to fit into existing wholesale market constructs. Overall, the development of open and organized wholesale markets coupled with direct policy support by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has facilitated new entry by curtailment service providers, which has likely expanded the demand response industry and led to product and service innovation.

  15. Transactive Control of Commercial Buildings for Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, He; Corbin, Charles D.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Pratt, Robert G.

    2017-01-01

    Transactive control is a type of distributed control strategy that uses market mechanism to engage self-interested responsive loads to achieve power balance in the electrical power grid. In this paper, we propose a transactive control approach of commercial building Heating, Ventilation, and Air- Conditioning (HVAC) systems for demand response. We first describe the system models, and identify their model parameters using data collected from Systems Engineering Building (SEB) located on our Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus. We next present a transactive control market structure for commercial building HVAC system, and describe its agent bidding and market clearing strategies. Several case studies are performed in a simulation environment using Building Control Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB) and calibrated SEB EnergyPlus model. We show that the proposed transactive control approach is very effective at peak clipping, load shifting, and strategic conservation for commercial building HVAC systems.

  16. 12 CFR 602.23 - Responses to demands served on FCA employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responses to demands served on FCA employees....23 Responses to demands served on FCA employees. (a) An employee served with a demand or a subpoena... documents described in the demand, and all relevant facts. (b) When the Chairman does not allow testimony...

  17. Measuring the price responsiveness of gasoline demand: economic shape restrictions and nonparametric demand estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Blundell, Richard; Horowitz, Joel L.; Parey, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a new method for estimating a demand function and the welfare consequences of price changes. The method is applied to gasoline demand in the U.S. and is applicable to other goods. The method uses shape restrictions derived from economic theory to improve the precision of a nonparametric estimate of the demand function. Using data from the U.S. National Household Travel Survey, we show that the restrictions are consistent with the data on gasoline demand and remove the anom...

  18. Direct versus Facility Centric Load Control for Automated Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Ed; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-11-06

    Direct load control (DLC) refers to the scenario where third party entities outside the home or facility are responsible for deciding how and when specific customer loads will be controlled in response to Demand Response (DR) events on the electric grid. Examples of third parties responsible for performing DLC may be Utilities, Independent System Operators (ISO), Aggregators, or third party control companies. DLC can be contrasted with facility centric load control (FCLC) where the decisions for how loads are controlled are made entirely within the facility or enterprise control systems. In FCLC the facility owner has more freedom of choice in how to respond to DR events on the grid. Both approaches are in use today in automation of DR and both will continue to be used in future market segments including industrial, commercial and residential facilities. This paper will present a framework which can be used to differentiate between DLC and FCLC based upon where decisions are made on how specific loads are controlled in response to DR events. This differentiation is then used to compare and contrast the differences between DLC and FCLC to identify the impact each has on:(1)Utility/ISO and third party systems for managing demand response, (2)Facility systems for implementing load control, (3)Communications networks for interacting with the facility and (4)Facility operators and managers. Finally a survey of some of the existing DR related specifications and communications standards is given and their applicability to DLC or FCLC. In general FCLC adds more cost and responsibilities to the facilities whereas DLC represents higher costs and complexity for the Utility/ISO. This difference is primarily due to where the DR Logic is implemented and the consequences that creates. DLC may be more certain than FCLC because it is more predictable - however as more loads have the capability to respond to DR signals, people may prefer to have their own control of end-use loads

  19. 46 CFR Appendix E to Subpart C of... - Optional Rider for Additional NVOCC Financial Responsibility (Optional Rider to Form FMC-48...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Optional Rider for Additional NVOCC Financial Responsibility (Optional Rider to Form FMC-48) E Appendix E to Subpart C of Part 515 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME... Part 515—Optional Rider for Additional NVOCC Financial Responsibility (Optional Rider to Form...

  20. Opportunities, Barriers and Actions for Industrial Demand Response in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee T.; Piette, Mary Ann; Faulkner, David; Ghatikar, Girish; Radspieler Jr., Anthony; Adesola, Bunmi; Murtishaw, Scott; Kiliccote, Sila

    2008-01-31

    In 2006 the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) formed an Industrial Demand Response Team to investigate opportunities and barriers to implementation of Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) systems in California industries. Auto-DR is an open, interoperable communications and technology platform designed to: Provide customers with automated, electronic price and reliability signals; Provide customers with capability to automate customized DR strategies; Automate DR, providing utilities with dispatchable operational capability similar to conventional generation resources. This research began with a review of previous Auto-DR research on the commercial sector. Implementing Auto-DR in industry presents a number of challenges, both practical and perceived. Some of these include: the variation in loads and processes across and within sectors, resource-dependent loading patterns that are driven by outside factors such as customer orders or time-critical processing (e.g. tomato canning), the perceived lack of control inherent in the term 'Auto-DR', and aversion to risk, especially unscheduled downtime. While industry has demonstrated a willingness to temporarily provide large sheds and shifts to maintain grid reliability and be a good corporate citizen, the drivers for widespread Auto-DR will likely differ. Ultimately, most industrial facilities will balance the real and perceived risks associated with Auto-DR against the potential for economic gain through favorable pricing or incentives. Auto-DR, as with any ongoing industrial activity, will need to function effectively within market structures. The goal of the industrial research is to facilitate deployment of industrial Auto-DR that is economically attractive and technologically feasible. Automation will make DR: More visible by providing greater transparency through two-way end-to-end communication of DR signals from end-use customers; More repeatable, reliable, and persistent because the automated

  1. Distributed control system for demand response by servers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Joseph Edward

    Within the broad topical designation of smart grid, research in demand response, or demand-side management, focuses on investigating possibilities for electrically powered devices to adapt their power consumption patterns to better match generation and more efficiently integrate intermittent renewable energy sources, especially wind. Devices such as battery chargers, heating and cooling systems, and computers can be controlled to change the time, duration, and magnitude of their power consumption while still meeting workload constraints such as deadlines and rate of throughput. This thesis presents a system by which a computer server, or multiple servers in a data center, can estimate the power imbalance on the electrical grid and use that information to dynamically change the power consumption as a service to the grid. Implementation on a testbed demonstrates the system with a hypothetical but realistic usage case scenario of an online video streaming service in which there are workloads with deadlines (high-priority) and workloads without deadlines (low-priority). The testbed is implemented with real servers, estimates the power imbalance from the grid frequency with real-time measurements of the live outlet, and uses a distributed, real-time algorithm to dynamically adjust the power consumption of the servers based on the frequency estimate and the throughput of video transcoder workloads. Analysis of the system explains and justifies multiple design choices, compares the significance of the system in relation to similar publications in the literature, and explores the potential impact of the system.

  2. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California’s Dairy Processing Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homan, Gregory K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-30

    During periods of peak electrical demand on the energy grid or when there is a shortage of supply, the stability of the grid may be compromised or the cost of supplying electricity may rise dramatically, respectively. Demand response programs are designed to mitigate the severity of these problems and improve reliability by reducing the demand on the grid during such critical times. In 2010, the Demand Response Research Center convened a group of industry experts to suggest potential industries that would be good demand response program candidates for further review. The dairy industry was suggested due to the perception that the industry had suitable flexibility and automatic controls in place. The purpose of this report is to provide an initial description of the industry with regard to demand response potential, specifically automated demand response. This report qualitatively describes the potential for participation in demand response and automated demand response by dairy processing facilities in California, as well as barriers to widespread participation. The report first describes the magnitude, timing, location, purpose, and manner of energy use. Typical process equipment and controls are discussed, as well as common impediments to participation in demand response and automated demand response programs. Two case studies of demand response at dairy facilities in California and across the country are reviewed. Finally, recommendations are made for future research that can enhance the understanding of demand response potential in this industry.

  3. Design of demand side response model in energy internet demonstration park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Liu, D. N.

    2017-08-01

    The implementation of demand side response can bring a lot of benefits to the power system, users and society, but there are still many problems in the actual operation. Firstly, this paper analyses the current situation and problems of demand side response. On this basis, this paper analyses the advantages of implementing demand side response in the energy Internet demonstration park. Finally, the paper designs three kinds of feasible demand side response modes in the energy Internet demonstration park.

  4. A Generalized Formulation of Demand Response under Market Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Y.; Nguyen, Duc M.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a generalized formulation of Demand Response (DR) under deregulated electricity markets. The problem is scheduling and controls the consumption of electrical loads according to the market price to minimize the energy cost over a day. Taking into account the modeling of customers' comfort (i.e., preference), the formulation can be applied to various types of loads including what was traditionally classified as critical loads (e.g., air conditioning, lights). The proposed DR scheme is based on Dynamic Programming (DP) framework and solved by DP backward algorithm in which the stochastic optimization is used to treat the uncertainty, if any occurred in the problem. The proposed formulation is examined with the DR problem of different loads, including Heat Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC), Electric Vehicles (EVs) and a newly DR on the water supply systems of commercial buildings. The result of simulation shows significant saving can be achieved in comparison with their traditional (On/Off) scheme.

  5. Pilot Testing of Commercial Refrigeration-Based Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Adam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clark, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Deru, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Trenbath, Kim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doebber, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Studer, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-08

    Supermarkets potentially offer a substantial demand response (DR) resource because of their high energy intensity and use patterns. This report describes a pilot project conducted to better estimate supermarket DR potential. Previous work has analyzed supermarket DR using heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC), lighting, and anti-condensate heaters. This project was concerned with evaluating DR using the refrigeration system and quantifying the DR potential inherent in supermarket refrigeration systems. Ancillary aims of the project were to identify practical barriers to the implementation of DR programs in supermarkets and to determine which high-level control strategies were most appropriate for achieving certain DR objectives. The scope of this project does not include detailed control strategy development for DR or development of a strategy for regional implementation of DR in supermarkets.

  6. Responsive demand to mitigate slow recovery voltage sags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; da Silva, Luiz Carlos Pereira; Xu, Zhao

    2012-01-01

    It is expected that in the future, customers will play a much more active role in modern power distribution systems. Instead of being passive agents, customers will be encouraged to participate in many other functions, such as frequency and voltage control, by providing a rapid, active......, and reactive power reserve for peak load management through price responsive methods and also as energy providers through embedded generation technologies. This article introduces a new technology, called demand as voltagecontrolled reserve, which can help mitigation of momentary voltage sags. The technology...... can be provided by thermostatically controlled loads as well as other types of load. This technology has proven to be effective in distribution systems with a large composition of induction motors, when voltage sags present slow recovery characteristics because of the deceleration of the motors during...

  7. Enabling Automated Dynamic Demand Response: From Theory to Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frincu, Marc; Chelmis, Charalampos; Aman, Saima; Saeed, Rizwan; Zois, Vasileios; Prasanna, Viktor

    2015-07-14

    Demand response (DR) is a technique used in smart grids to shape customer load during peak hours. Automated DR offers utilities a fine grained control and a high degree of confidence in the outcome. However the impact on the customer's comfort means this technique is more suited for industrial and commercial settings than for residential homes. In this paper we propose a system for achieving automated controlled DR in a heterogeneous environment. We present some of the main issues arising in building such a system, including privacy, customer satisfiability, reliability, and fast decision turnaround, with emphasis on the solutions we proposed. Based on the lessons we learned from empirical results we describe an integrated automated system for controlled DR on the USC microgrid. Results show that while on a per building per event basis the accuracy of our prediction and customer selection techniques varies, it performs well on average when considering several events and buildings.

  8. 32 CFR 725.10 - Response to requests or demands in conflict with this instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Response to requests or demands in conflict with... DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL § 725.10 Response to requests or demands in conflict with this instruction... any official DOD information in response to a litigation request or demand without prior...

  9. 34 CFR 8.5 - What procedures are followed in response to a demand for records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What procedures are followed in response to a demand... TESTIMONY OR RECORDS IN LEGAL PROCEEDINGS § 8.5 What procedures are followed in response to a demand for... produce records in response to a demand as described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section without the...

  10. 75 FR 54063 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets; Technical Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ...-000] Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets; Technical Conference AGENCY... address the use of a net benefits test for determining when to compensate demand response providers and the allocation of costs associated with demand response. DATES: The technical conference will be...

  11. 78 FR 38023 - Demand Response Supporters v. New York Independent System Operator, Inc.; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Demand Response Supporters v. New York Independent System Operator, Inc... Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 385.206, Demand Response Supporters (Complainant) filed a formal complaint... NYISO to amend its tariffs to allow demand ] response facilitated by behind-the-meter generation to...

  12. 34 CFR 8.4 - What procedures are followed in response to a demand for testimony?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What procedures are followed in response to a demand... TESTIMONY OR RECORDS IN LEGAL PROCEEDINGS § 8.4 What procedures are followed in response to a demand for...) If a response to a demand for testimony is required before the Secretary determines whether to...

  13. 22 CFR 172.6 - Procedure when response to demand is required prior to receiving instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure when response to demand is required... demand is required prior to receiving instructions. (a) If a response to a demand is required before the... INFORMATION SERVICE OF PROCESS; PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION IN RESPONSE TO COURT...

  14. 78 FR 21928 - Demand Response Coalition v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Demand Response Coalition v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of... Regulatory Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 385.206, the Demand Response Coalition \\1\\ (Complainant) filed a... are therefore unenforceable. \\1\\ The Demand Response Coalition includes Comverge, Inc.,...

  15. 6 CFR 5.46 - Procedure when response to demand is required prior to receiving instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure when response to demand is required....46 Procedure when response to demand is required prior to receiving instructions. (a) If a response to a demand is required before the appropriate Department official designated in § 5.44 renders...

  16. 45 CFR 1201.7 - Procedure when response to demand is required prior to receiving instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedure when response to demand is required..., INTERROGATORIES, OR IN CONNECTION WITH FEDERAL OR STATE LITIGATION § 1201.7 Procedure when response to demand is required prior to receiving instructions. (a) If a response to a demand or request for Official...

  17. Modeling, Analysis, and Control of Demand Response Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Johanna L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    While the traditional goal of an electric power system has been to control supply to fulfill demand, the demand-side can plan an active role in power systems via Demand Response (DR), defined by the Department of Energy (DOE) as “a tariff or program established to motivate changes in electric use by end-use customers in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to give incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of high market prices or when grid reliability is jeopardized” [29]. DR can provide a variety of benefits including reducing peak electric loads when the power system is stressed and fast timescale energy balancing. Therefore, DR can improve grid reliability and reduce wholesale energy prices and their volatility. This dissertation focuses on analyzing both recent and emerging DR paradigms. Recent DR programs have focused on peak load reduction in commercial buildings and industrial facilities (C&I facilities). We present methods for using 15-minute-interval electric load data, commonly available from C&I facilities, to help building managers understand building energy consumption and ‘ask the right questions’ to discover opportunities for DR. Additionally, we present a regression-based model of whole building electric load, i.e., a baseline model, which allows us to quantify DR performance. We use this baseline model to understand the performance of 38 C&I facilities participating in an automated dynamic pricing DR program in California. In this program, facilities are expected to exhibit the same response each DR event. We find that baseline model error makes it difficult to precisely quantify changes in electricity consumption and understand if C&I facilities exhibit event-to-event variability in their response to DR signals. Therefore, we present a method to compute baseline model error and a metric to determine how much observed DR variability results from baseline model error rather than real

  18. Resilience Evaluation of Demand Response as Spinning Reserve under Cyber-Physical Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas AlMajali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the future, automated demand response mechanisms will be used as spinning reserve. Demand response in the smart grid must be resilient to cyber-physical threats. In this paper, we evaluate the resilience of demand response when used as spinning reserve in the presence of cyber-physical threats. We quantify this evaluation by correlating the stability of the system in the presence of attacks measured by system frequency (Hz and attack level measured by the amount of load (MW that responds to the demand response event. The results demonstrate the importance of anticipating the dependability of demand response before it can be relied upon as spinning reserve.

  19. Northwest Open Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-08-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) performed a technology demonstration and evaluation for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) in Seattle City Light's (SCL) service territory. This report summarizes the process and results of deploying open automated demand response (OpenADR) in Seattle area with winter morning peaking commercial buildings. The field tests were designed to evaluate the feasibility of deploying fully automated demand response (DR) in four to six sites in the winter and the savings from various building systems. The project started in November of 2008 and lasted 6 months. The methodology for the study included site recruitment, control strategy development, automation system deployment and enhancements, and evaluation of sites participation in DR test events. LBNL subcontracted McKinstry and Akuacom for this project. McKinstry assisted with recruitment, site survey collection, strategy development and overall participant and control vendor management. Akuacom established a new server and enhanced its operations to allow for scheduling winter morning day-of and day-ahead events. Each site signed a Memorandum of Agreement with SCL. SCL offered each site $3,000 for agreeing to participate in the study and an additional $1,000 for each event they participated. Each facility and their control vendor worked with LBNL and McKinstry to select and implement control strategies for DR and developed their automation based on the existing Internet connectivity and building control system. Once the DR strategies were programmed, McKinstry commissioned them before actual test events. McKinstry worked with LBNL to identify control points that can be archived at each facility. For each site LBNL collected meter data and trend logs from the energy management and control system. The communication system allowed the sites to receive day-ahead as well as day-of DR test event signals. Measurement of DR was

  20. 12 CFR 602.24 - Responses to demands served on non-FCA employees or entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responses to demands served on non-FCA... Not a Named Party § 602.24 Responses to demands served on non-FCA employees or entities. If you are not an employee and are served with a demand or a subpoena in a legal proceeding directing you...

  1. 12 CFR 1703.39 - Responses to demands served on employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responses to demands served on employees. 1703... Production of Documents in Legal Proceedings in Which OFHEO Is Not a Named Party § 1703.39 Responses to demands served on employees. (a) Advice by employee served. Any employee who is served with a demand in...

  2. Price responsive load programs: U.S. experience in creating markets for peak demand reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Miriam L.; Michelman, Thomas [KEMA-XENERGY Inc., Madison, WE (United States); Rosenberg, Mitchell [KEMA-XENERGY Inc., Arnheim (Netherlands)

    2003-07-01

    Demand response programs use a variety of pricing mechanisms to induce end-use customers to reduce demand at specified periods. U.S. distribution utilities, regional market operators, and their regulators have implemented demand response programs with the objectives of improving electric system reliability, avoiding price spikes, and relieving local transmission congestion. This paper reviews the design and performance of market-linked demand response programs operated in 2001 and 2002, focusing on the relationship between program design and customer participation and the development of accurate and feasible methods to measure demand response at the facility level.

  3. Open Automated Demand Response Dynamic Pricing Technologies and Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatikar, Girish; Mathieu, Johanna L.; Piette, Mary Ann; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan

    2010-08-02

    This study examines the use of OpenADR communications specification, related data models, technologies, and strategies to send dynamic prices (e.g., real time prices and peak prices) and Time of Use (TOU) rates to commercial and industrial electricity customers. OpenADR v1.0 is a Web services-based flexible, open information model that has been used in California utilities' commercial automated demand response programs since 2007. We find that data models can be used to send real time prices. These same data models can also be used to support peak pricing and TOU rates. We present a data model that can accommodate all three types of rates. For demonstration purposes, the data models were generated from California Independent System Operator's real-time wholesale market prices, and a California utility's dynamic prices and TOU rates. Customers can respond to dynamic prices by either using the actual prices, or prices can be mapped into"operation modes," which can act as inputs to control systems. We present several different methods for mapping actual prices. Some of these methods were implemented in demonstration projects. The study results demonstrate show that OpenADR allows interoperability with existing/future systems/technologies and can be used within related dynamic pricing activities within Smart Grid.

  4. An Informatics Approach to Demand Response Optimization in Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmhan, Yogesh; Aman, Saima; Cao, Baohua; Giakkoupis, Mike; Kumbhare, Alok; Zhou, Qunzhi; Paul, Donald; Fern, Carol; Sharma, Aditya; Prasanna, Viktor K

    2011-03-03

    Power utilities are increasingly rolling out “smart” grids with the ability to track consumer power usage in near real-time using smart meters that enable bidirectional communication. However, the true value of smart grids is unlocked only when the veritable explosion of data that will become available is ingested, processed, analyzed and translated into meaningful decisions. These include the ability to forecast electricity demand, respond to peak load events, and improve sustainable use of energy by consumers, and are made possible by energy informatics. Information and software system techniques for a smarter power grid include pattern mining and machine learning over complex events and integrated semantic information, distributed stream processing for low latency response,Cloud platforms for scalable operations and privacy policies to mitigate information leakage in an information rich environment. Such an informatics approach is being used in the DoE sponsored Los Angeles Smart Grid Demonstration Project, and the resulting software architecture will lead to an agile and adaptive Los Angeles Smart Grid.

  5. Residential Demand Response Scheduling with Consideration of Consumer Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raka Jovanovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new demand response scheduling framework for an array of households, which are grouped into different categories based on socio-economic factors, such as the number of occupants, family decomposition and employment status. Each of the households is equipped with a variety of appliances. The model takes the preferences of participating households into account and aims to minimize the overall production cost and, in parallel, to lower the individual electricity bills. In the existing literature, customers submit binary values for each time period to indicate their operational preferences. However, turning the appliances “on” or “off” does not capture the associated discomfort levels, as each appliance provides a different service and leads to a different level of satisfaction. The proposed model employs integer values to indicate household preferences and models the scheduling problem as a multi-objective mixed integer programming. The main thrust of the framework is that the multi-level preference modeling of appliances increases their “flexibility”; hence, the job scheduling can be done at a lower cost. The model is evaluated by using the real data provided by the Department of Energy & Climate Change, UK. In the computational experiments, we examine the relation between the satisfaction of consumers based on the appliance usage preferences and the electricity costs by exploring the Pareto front of the related objective functions. The results show that the proposed model leads to significant savings in electricity cost, while maintaining a good level of customer satisfaction.

  6. The adaptive response of jaw muscles to varying functional demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünheid, Thorsten; Langenbach, Geerling E J; Korfage, Joannes A M; Zentner, Andrej; van Eijden, Theo M G J

    2009-12-01

    Jaw muscles are versatile entities that are able to adapt their anatomical characteristics, such as size, cross-sectional area, and fibre properties, to altered functional demands. The dynamic nature of muscle fibres allows them to change their phenotype to optimize the required contractile function while minimizing energy use. Changes in these anatomical parameters are associated with changes in neuromuscular activity as the pattern of muscle activation by the central nervous system plays an important role in the modulation of muscle properties. This review summarizes the adaptive response of jaw muscles to various stimuli or perturbations in the orofacial system and addresses general changes in muscles as they adapt, specific adaptive changes in jaw muscles under various physiologic and pathologic conditions, and their adaptive response to non-surgical and surgical therapeutic interventions. Although the jaw muscles are used concertedly in the masticatory system, their adaptive changes are not always uniform and vary with the nature, intensity, and duration of the stimulus. In general, stretch, increases neuromuscular activity, and resistance training result in hypertrophy, elicits increases in mitochondrial content and cross-sectional area of the fibres, and may change the fibre-type composition of the muscle towards a larger percentage of slow-type fibres. In contrast, changes in the opposite direction occur when neuromuscular activity is reduced, the muscle is immobilized in a shortened position, or paralysed. The broad range of stimuli that affect the properties of jaw muscles might help explain the large variability in the anatomical and physiological characteristics found among individuals, muscles, and muscle portions.

  7. Fast demand response in support of the active distribution network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacDougall, P.; Heskes, P.; Crolla, P.; Burt, G.; Warmer, C.

    2013-01-01

    Demand side management has traditionally been investigated for "normal" operation services such as balancing and congestion management. However they potentially could be utilized for Distributed Network Operator (DNO) services. This paper investigates and validates the use of a supply and demand res

  8. America's water: Agricultural water demands and the response of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, M.; Parthasarathy, V.; Etienne, E.; Russo, T. A.; Devineni, N.; Lall, U.

    2016-07-01

    Agricultural, industrial, and urban water use in the conterminous United States (CONUS) is highly dependent on groundwater that is largely drawn from nonsurficial wells (>30 m). We use a Demand-Sensitive Drought Index to examine the impacts of agricultural water needs, driven by low precipitation, high agricultural water demand, or a combination of both, on the temporal variability of depth to groundwater across the CONUS. We characterize the relationship between changes in groundwater levels, agricultural water deficits relative to precipitation during the growing season, and winter precipitation. We find that declines in groundwater levels in the High Plains aquifer and around the Mississippi River Valley are driven by groundwater withdrawals used to supplement agricultural water demands. Reductions in agricultural water demands for crops do not, however, lead to immediate recovery of groundwater levels due to the demand for groundwater in other sectors in regions such as Utah, Maryland, and Texas.

  9. Modeling, Analysis, and Control of Demand Response Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Johanna L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    While the traditional goal of an electric power system has been to control supply to fulfill demand, the demand-side can plan an active role in power systems via Demand Response (DR), defined by the Department of Energy (DOE) as “a tariff or program established to motivate changes in electric use by end-use customers in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to give incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of high market prices or when grid reliability is jeopardized” [29]. DR can provide a variety of benefits including reducing peak electric loads when the power system is stressed and fast timescale energy balancing. Therefore, DR can improve grid reliability and reduce wholesale energy prices and their volatility. This dissertation focuses on analyzing both recent and emerging DR paradigms. Recent DR programs have focused on peak load reduction in commercial buildings and industrial facilities (C&I facilities). We present methods for using 15-minute-interval electric load data, commonly available from C&I facilities, to help building managers understand building energy consumption and ‘ask the right questions’ to discover opportunities for DR. Additionally, we present a regression-based model of whole building electric load, i.e., a baseline model, which allows us to quantify DR performance. We use this baseline model to understand the performance of 38 C&I facilities participating in an automated dynamic pricing DR program in California. In this program, facilities are expected to exhibit the same response each DR event. We find that baseline model error makes it difficult to precisely quantify changes in electricity consumption and understand if C&I facilities exhibit event-to-event variability in their response to DR signals. Therefore, we present a method to compute baseline model error and a metric to determine how much observed DR variability results from baseline model error rather than real

  10. 46 CFR Appendix F to Subpart C of... - Optional Rider for Additional NVOCC Financial Responsibility for Group Bonds [Optional Rider to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Optional Rider for Additional NVOCC Financial...—Optional Rider for Additional NVOCC Financial Responsibility for Group Bonds FMC-69A, OMB No. 3072-0018 (04/06/04) Optional Rider for Additional NVOCC Financial Responsibility for Group Bonds RIDER...

  11. Estimating Demand Response Market Potential Among Large Commercialand Industrial Customers:A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles; Hopper, Nicole; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Neenan,Bernie; Cappers, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Demand response is increasingly recognized as an essentialingredient to well functioning electricity markets. This growingconsensus was formalized in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT), whichestablished demand response as an official policy of the U.S. government,and directed states (and their electric utilities) to considerimplementing demand response, with a particular focus on "price-based"mechanisms. The resulting deliberations, along with a variety of stateand regional demand response initiatives, are raising important policyquestions: for example, How much demand response is enough? How much isavailable? From what sources? At what cost? The purpose of this scopingstudy is to examine analytical techniques and data sources to supportdemand response market assessments that can, in turn, answer the secondand third of these questions. We focus on demand response for large(>350 kW), commercial and industrial (C&I) customers, althoughmany of the concepts could equally be applied to similar programs andtariffs for small commercial and residential customers.

  12. Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across U.S. Regions of the Western Interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Alkadi, Nasr [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ma, Ookie [USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Demand response has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles for demand response that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study.

  13. Implementation and Test of Demand Response using Behaviour Descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kullmann, Daniel; Gehrke, Oliver; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2011-01-01

    The term Smart Grid describes the effort to enable the integration of large numbers of renewable distributed energy resources into the power grid. The fluctuations inherent in renewable energy resources imply the need to also integrate the demand side actively into the control of the power system...

  14. The adaptative response of jaw muscles to varying functional demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünheid, T.; Langenbach, G.E.J.; Korfage, J.A.M.; Zentner, A.; van Eijden, T.M.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Jaw muscles are versatile entities that are able to adapt their anatomical characteristics, such as size, cross-sectional area, and fibre properties, to altered functional demands. The dynamic nature of muscle fibres allows them to change their phenotype to optimize the required contractile function

  15. The Response of Abortion Demand to Changes in Abortion Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medoff, Marshall H.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses pooled cross-section time-series data, over the years 1982, 1992 and 2000, to estimate the impact of various restrictive abortion laws on the demand for abortion. This study complements and extends prior research by explicitly including the price of obtaining an abortion in the estimation. The empirical results show that the real…

  16. The Response of Abortion Demand to Changes in Abortion Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medoff, Marshall H.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses pooled cross-section time-series data, over the years 1982, 1992 and 2000, to estimate the impact of various restrictive abortion laws on the demand for abortion. This study complements and extends prior research by explicitly including the price of obtaining an abortion in the estimation. The empirical results show that the real…

  17. National Forest management options in response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture

    2009-01-01

    The effect of climate change on ecosystem structure, function, and services will depend on the ecosystem's degree of sensitivity to climate change, the natural ability of plants and animals to adapt, and the availability of effective management options. Sensitivity to climate change is a function of ecosystem health and environmental stresses such as air pollution...

  18. Performance Assessment of Aggregation Control Services for Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondy, Daniel Esteban Morales; Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Heussen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation algorithms that provide services to the grid via demand side management are moving from research ideas to the market. With the diversity of the technology delivering such services, it becomes essential to establish transparent performance standards from a service delivery perspective...... of the quality of service provided by an aggregation control algorithm. By a detailed case study we present and an application of the index, comparing the performance of two different control architectures for demand side management delivering a distribution grid service........ This paper formulates performance measures and an index to evaluate in hind sight the quality of service delivery by an aggregator, both with respect to ancillary service and asset management service. The index is based on requirements formulated in service contracts and provides an overall assessment...

  19. Drivers for the Value of Demand Response under Increased Levels of Wind and Solar Power; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, Elaine

    2015-07-30

    Demand response may be a valuable flexible resource for low-carbon electric power grids. However, there are as many types of possible demand response as there are ways to use electricity, making demand response difficult to study at scale in realistic settings. This talk reviews our state of knowledge regarding the potential value of demand response in several example systems as a function of increasing levels of wind and solar power, sometimes drawing on the analogy between demand response and storage. Overall, we find demand response to be promising, but its potential value is very system dependent. Furthermore, demand response, like storage, can easily saturate ancillary service markets.

  20. Climate change and biological invasions: evidence, expectations, and response options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Philip E

    2017-08-01

    A changing climate may directly or indirectly influence biological invasions by altering the likelihood of introduction or establishment, as well as modifying the geographic range, environmental impacts, economic costs or management of alien species. A comprehensive assessment of empirical and theoretical evidence identified how each of these processes is likely to be shaped by climate change for alien plants, animals and pathogens in terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments of Great Britain. The strongest contemporary evidence for the potential role of climate change in the establishment of new alien species is for terrestrial arthropods, as a result of their ectothermic physiology, often high dispersal rate and their strong association with trade as well as commensal relationships with human environments. By contrast, there is little empirical support for higher temperatures increasing the rate of alien plant establishment due to the stronger effects of residence time and propagule pressure. The magnitude of any direct climate effect on the number of new alien species will be small relative to human-assisted introductions driven by socioeconomic factors. Casual alien species (sleepers) whose population persistence is limited by climate are expected to exhibit greater rates of establishment under climate change assuming that propagule pressure remains at least at current levels. Surveillance and management targeting sleeper pests and diseases may be the most cost-effective option to reduce future impacts under climate change. Most established alien species will increase their distribution range in Great Britain over the next century. However, such range increases are very likely be the result of natural expansion of populations that have yet to reach equilibrium with their environment, rather than a direct consequence of climate change. To assess the potential realised range of alien species will require a spatially explicit approach that not only

  1. 12 CFR 1703.40 - Responses to demands served on nonemployees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responses to demands served on nonemployees... Production of Documents in Legal Proceedings in Which OFHEO Is Not a Named Party § 1703.40 Responses to demands served on nonemployees. (a) OFHEO reports of examinations, or any documents related thereto,...

  2. Web-based energy information systems for energy management and demand response in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Herter, Karen

    2003-04-18

    Energy Information Systems (EIS) for buildings are becoming widespread in the U.S., with more companies offering EIS products every year. As a result, customers are often overwhelmed by the quickly expanding portfolio of EIS feature and application options, which have not been clearly identified for consumers. The object of this report is to provide a technical overview of currently available EIS products. In particular, this report focuses on web-based EIS products for large commercial buildings, which allow data access and control capabilities over the Internet. EIS products combine software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems to collect, analyze and display building information to aid commercial building energy managers, facility managers, financial managers and electric utilities in reducing energy use and costs in buildings. Data types commonly processed by EIS include energy consumption data; building characteristics; building system data, such as heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) and lighting data; weather data; energy price signals; and energy demand-response event information. This project involved an extensive review of research and trade literature to understand the motivation for EIS technology development. This study also gathered information on currently commercialized EIS. This review is not an exhaustive analysis of all EIS products; rather, it is a technical framework and review of current products on the market. This report summarizes key features available in today's EIS, along with a categorization framework to understand the relationship between EIS, Energy Management and Control Systems (EMCSs), and similar technologies. Four EIS types are described: Basic Energy Information Systems (Basic-EIS); Demand Response Systems (DRS); Enterprise Energy Management (EEM); and Web-based Energy Management and Control Systems (Web-EMCS). Within the context of these four categories, the following characteristics of EIS

  3. Hemoglobin screening: response of a Brazilian community to optional programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sérgio Ramalho

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency and the viability of three hemoglobin screening programs were investigated. They were offered on a voluntary basis to a Brazilian population and started with the analysis of blood donors, pregnant women and students. The hemoglobin screening was done through optional exams which included electrophoresis of hemoglobin and complementary hematological tests. A total of 13,670 people were tested over a period of 39 months and a total of 644 individuals with hereditary hemoglobin disorders were detected - 4.7% of the samples examined. The programs showed satisfactory indicators of viability and efficiency, expressed by the significative proportion of exams performed among the probands and their relatives.

  4. Running demands and heart rate response in rugby union referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Portillo, Luis J; García, Jose M; Calvo-Lluch, Africa; Roberts, Simon P; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the match physical demands and exercise intensity associated with men rugby union refereeing using global positioning system technology. Ten male rugby union referees (age, 37.1 ± 5.9 years; body mass, 83.7 ± 4.8 kg; height, 175.5 ± 6.2 cm) were analyzed 2-4 times during a total of 30 national level matches. The average total distance covered by the referees throughout the game was 6,322.2 ± 564.9 m. As a percentage of total distance, 37.3% (2,356.9 ± 291.3 m) was spent walking, 24.1% (1,524.4 ± 229.4 m) jogging, 10.4% (656.2 ± 130.7 m) running at low intensity, 17.6% (1,110.3 ± 212.2 m) at medium intensity, 5.5% (347.1 ± 27.1 m) at high intensity, and 5.2% (328.1 ± 230.3 m) at sprint. A significant decrease (p 0.05) in the first (157 ± 7 b · min; 85% HRmax) and second half (155 ± 7 b · min; 84% HRmax). This study provides evidence of reduced high-intensity running toward the end of the game. These findings offer important information to design better training strategies adapted to the requirements and demands of rugby union refereeing.

  5. Estimating deficit probabilities with price-responsive demand in contract-based electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetovic, Alexander [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago (Chile); Munoz, Cristian M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad de Chile, Mariano Sanchez Fontecilla 310, piso 3 Las Condes, Santiago (Chile)

    2009-02-15

    Studies that estimate deficit probabilities in hydrothermal systems have generally ignored the response of demand to changing prices, in the belief that such response is largely irrelevant. We show that ignoring the response of demand to prices can lead to substantial over or under estimation of the probability of an energy deficit. To make our point we present an estimation of deficit probabilities in Chile's Central Interconnected System between 2006 and 2010. This period is characterized by tight supply, fast consumption growth and rising electricity prices. When the response of demand to rising prices is acknowledged, forecasted deficit probabilities and marginal costs are shown to be substantially lower. (author)

  6. Design and Implementation of Demand Response Information Interactive Service Platform Based on “Internet Plus” Smart Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Gaoying; Fan, Jie; Qin, Yuchen; Wang, Dong; Chen, Guangyan

    2017-05-01

    In order to promote the effective use of demand response load side resources, promote the interaction between supply and demand, enhance the level of customer service and achieve the overall utilization of energy, this paper briefly explain the background significance of design demand response information platform and current situation of domestic and foreign development; Analyse the new demand of electricity demand response combined with the application of Internet and big data technology; Design demand response information platform architecture, construct demand responsive system, analyse process of demand response strategy formulate and intelligent execution implement; study application which combined with the big data, Internet and demand response technology; Finally, from information interaction architecture, control architecture and function design perspective design implementation of demand response information platform, illustrate the feasibility of the proposed platform design scheme implemented in a certain extent.

  7. Agricultural sectoral demand and crop productivity response across the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M.; Ray, D. K.; Cassidy, E. S.; Foley, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    With an increasing and increasingly affluent population, humans will need to roughly double agricultural production by 2050. Continued yield growth forms the foundation of all future strategies aiming to increase agricultural production while slowing or eliminating cropland expansion. However, a recent analysis by one of our co-authors has shown that yield trends in many important maize, wheat and rice growing regions have begun stagnating or declining from the highs seen during the green revolution (Ray et al. 2013). Additional research by our group has shown that nearly 50% of new agricultural production since the 1960s has gone not to direct human consumption, but instead to animal feed and other industrial uses. Our analysis for GLP looks at the convergence of these two trends by examining time series utilization data for 16 of the biggest crops to determine how demand from different sectors has shaped our land-use and intensification strategies around the world. Before rushing headlong into the next agricultural doubling, it would be prudent to first consult our recent agricultural history to better understand what was driving past changes in production. Using newly developed time series dataset - a fusion of cropland maps with historic agricultural census data gathered from around the world - we can examine yield and harvested area trends over the last half century for 16 top crops. We combine this data with utilization rates from the FAO Food Balance Sheet to see how demand from different sectors - food, feed, and other - has influenced long-term growth trends from the green revolution forward. We will show how intensification trends over time and across regions have grown or contracted depending on what is driving the change in production capacity. Ray DK, Mueller ND, West PC, Foley JA (2013) Yield Trends Are Insufficient to Double Global Crop Production by 2050. PLoS ONE 8(6): e66428. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066428

  8. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Automated Demand Response in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Rockoff, Alexandra; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-05-11

    This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities for industrial refrigerated warehouses in California. The report describes refrigerated warehouses characteristics, energy use and demand, and control systems. It also discusses energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities and provides analysis results from three demand response studies. In addition, several energy efficiency, load management, and demand response case studies are provided for refrigerated warehouses. This study shows that refrigerated warehouses can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for open automated demand response (OpenADR) at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to OpenADR due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

  9. Automation of Capacity Bidding with an Aggregator Using Open Automated Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2008-10-01

    This report summarizes San Diego Gas& Electric Company?s collaboration with the Demand Response Research Center to develop and test automation capability for the Capacity Bidding Program in 2007. The report describes the Open Automated Demand Response architecture, summarizes the history of technology development and pilot studies. It also outlines the Capacity Bidding Program and technology being used by an aggregator that participated in this demand response program. Due to delays, the program was not fully operational for summer 2007. However, a test event on October 3, 2007, showed that the project successfully achieved the objective to develop and demonstrate how an open, Web?based interoperable automated notification system for capacity bidding can be used by aggregators for demand response. The system was effective in initiating a fully automated demand response shed at the aggregated sites. This project also demonstrated how aggregators can integrate their demand response automation systems with San Diego Gas& Electric Company?s Demand Response Automation Server and capacity bidding program.

  10. Religiosity, attitude and the demand for socially responsible products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Johan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the relationship between various Christian denominations and attitude and behavior regarding consumption of socially responsible (SR) products. Literature on the relationship between religiosity and pro-social behavior has shown that religiosity strengthens positive attitud

  11. Religiosity, attitude and the demand for socially responsible products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Johan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the relationship between various Christian denominations and attitude and behavior regarding consumption of socially responsible (SR) products. Literature on the relationship between religiosity and pro-social behavior has shown that religiosity strengthens positive attitud

  12. Renewable Energy Resources Portfolio Optimization in the Presence of Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behboodi, Sahand; Chassin, David P.; Crawford, Curran; Djilali, Ned

    2016-01-15

    In this paper we introduce a simple cost model of renewable integration and demand response that can be used to determine the optimal mix of generation and demand response resources. The model includes production cost, demand elasticity, uncertainty costs, capacity expansion costs, retirement and mothballing costs, and wind variability impacts to determine the hourly cost and revenue of electricity delivery. The model is tested on the 2024 planning case for British Columbia and we find that cost is minimized with about 31% renewable generation. We also find that demand responsive does not have a significant impact on cost at the hourly level. The results suggest that the optimal level of renewable resource is not sensitive to a carbon tax or demand elasticity, but it is highly sensitive to the renewable resource installation cost.

  13. Does the Position of Response Options in Multiple-Choice Tests Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohensinn, Christine; Baghaei, Purya

    2017-01-01

    In large scale multiple-choice (MC) tests alternate forms of a test may be developed to prevent cheating by changing the order of items or by changing the position of the response options. The assumption is that since the content of the test forms are the same the order of items or the positions of the response options do not have any effect on…

  14. Demand Response in Low Voltage Distribution Networks with High PV Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nainar, Karthikeyan; Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    the required flexibility from the electricity market through an aggregator. The optimum demand response enables consumption of maximum renewable energy within the network constraints. Simulation studies are conducted using Matlab and DigSilent Power factory software on a Danish low-voltage distribution system...... generation and load forecasts, network topology and market price signals as inputs, limits of network voltages, line power flows, transformer loading and demand response dynamics as constraints to find the required demand response at each time step. The proposed method can be used by the DSOs to purchase...

  15. Modeling the effects of demand response on generation expansion planning in restructured power systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahdi SAMADI; Mohammad Hossein JAVIDI; Mohammad Sadegh GHAZIZADEH

    2013-01-01

    Demand response is becoming a promising field of study in operation and planning of restructured power systems. More attention has recently been paid to demand response programs. Customers can contribute to the operation of power sys-tems by deployment demand response. The growth of customers’ participation in such programs may affect the planning of power systems. Therefore, it seems necessary to consider the effects of demand response in planning approaches. In this paper, the impact of demand responsiveness on decision making in generation expansion planning is modeled. Avoidance or deferment in installation of new generating units is comprehensively investigated and evaluated by introducing a new simple index. The effects of demand responsiveness are studied from the points of view of both customers and generation companies. The pro-posed model has been applied to a modified IEEE 30-bus system and the results of the study are discussed. Simulation results show that reducing just 3%of the customers’ demand (due to price elasticity) may result in a benefit of about 10%for customers in the long term.

  16. Multi-Objective Demand Response Model Considering the Probabilistic Characteristic of Price Elastic Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengchun Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand response (DR programs provide an effective approach for dealing with the challenge of wind power output fluctuations. Given that uncertain DR, such as price elastic load (PEL, plays an important role, the uncertainty of demand response behavior must be studied. In this paper, a multi-objective stochastic optimization problem of PEL is proposed on the basis of the analysis of the relationship between price elasticity and probabilistic characteristic, which is about stochastic demand models for consumer loads. The analysis aims to improve the capability of accommodating wind output uncertainty. In our approach, the relationship between the amount of demand response and interaction efficiency is developed by actively participating in power grid interaction. The probabilistic representation and uncertainty range of the PEL demand response amount are formulated differently compared with those of previous research. Based on the aforementioned findings, a stochastic optimization model with the combined uncertainties from the wind power output and the demand response scenario is proposed. The proposed model analyzes the demand response behavior of PEL by maximizing the electricity consumption satisfaction and interaction benefit satisfaction of PEL. Finally, a case simulation on the provincial power grid with a 151-bus system verifies the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed mechanism and models.

  17. The value of online information for demand response in Walrasian electricity markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessen, F.N.; Liefers, B.J.; Kaisers, M.; La Poutré, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Smart energy systems integrate renewables and demand response. Most European electricity markets coordinate the resulting time-varying flexibility in demand and supply by organising day-ahead trade with Walrasian mechanisms, using simultaneous call auctions and sealed bids. These mechanisms give bid

  18. Cardiac responsiveness to attention-demanding tasks in socially maladaptive children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althaus, M; Aarnoudse, CC; Minderaa, RB; Mulder, Gysbertus; Mulder, Lambertus

    Cardiac responsiveness to attention-demanding tasks in socially maladaptive children A psychofysiological study of the cardiac adaptivity to attention-demanding reaction time tasks demonstrated that children with a lesser variant of the pervasive developmental disorder (DSM-IV: PDDNOS) exhibit less

  19. Cardiac responsiveness to attention-demanding tasks in socially maladaptive children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althaus, M; Aarnoudse, CC; Minderaa, RB; Mulder, Gysbertus; Mulder, Lambertus

    1999-01-01

    Cardiac responsiveness to attention-demanding tasks in socially maladaptive children A psychofysiological study of the cardiac adaptivity to attention-demanding reaction time tasks demonstrated that children with a lesser variant of the pervasive developmental disorder (DSM-IV: PDDNOS) exhibit less

  20. A comparison of Likert scale and visual analogue scales as response options in children's questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Laerhoven, H; van der Zaag-Loonen, H J; Derkx, B H F

    2004-06-01

    To examine which response options children prefer and which they find easiest to use, and to study the relative reliability of the different response options. A consecutive group of unselected children (n = 120) filled out three questionnaires in a paediatric outpatient clinic. Each questionnaire included seven similar questions, but had different response options: the Likert scale, the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the numeric VAS. In general, the questions were not related to the children's particular diseases, but dealt with the frequency of simple activities, their feelings and opinions. The pages with the three different response options were offered in random order. Afterwards, the children rated their preference and ease of use of the different response options on a scale from one to 10. Children preferred the Likert scale (median mark 9.0) over the numeric VAS (median mark 8.0) and the simple VAS (median 6.0). They considered the Likert scale easiest to fill out (median mark 10 vs 9 and 7.5 for the numeric and simple VAS, respectively). Results of the different response options correlated strongly with each other (rho = 0.67-0.90, p Likert scale over the numeric and simple VAS and find it easiest to complete. The Likert scale, the simple VAS and the numeric VAS are of comparable reliability. The Likert scale is recommended for use in questionnaires for children, although research into larger and more diverse samples is needed.

  1. Strategic Demand-Side Response to Wind Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraeepour, Ali; Kazempour, Seyyedjalal; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of allowing large, price-responsive consumers to provide reserves in a power system with significant penetration of wind energy. A bilevel optimization model represents the utility maximization problem of a large consumer, subject to a stochastic day-ahead co-optim...

  2. A Method for Imputing Response Options for Missing Data on Multiple-Choice Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkowitz, Amanda A.; Skorupski, William P.

    2013-01-01

    When missing values are present in item response data, there are a number of ways one might impute a correct or incorrect response to a multiple-choice item. There are significantly fewer methods for imputing the actual response option an examinee may have provided if he or she had not omitted the item either purposely or accidentally. This…

  3. International demands for retrofitting, trends in the nuclear industry, safety margins, concepts and options for retrofit; Nachfrage nach Nachruestungen international; industrielle Trends; Rolle von Sicherheitsmargen, Nachruestkonzepte und -moeglichkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, Rolf; Stoll, Uwe; Grasnick, Claudius [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany). E and P, P-G

    2016-02-15

    The serious accidents at Fukushima in 2011 pointed out the missing implementation of existing international safety standards for nuclear power plants as also new aspects for nuclear safety. The main safety aspects in the aftermath of Fukushima are: robustness against internal and external impacts; sufficient safety margins; prolonged periods for safety measures; inherent and passive systems and mechanisms; enhanced independent operation of the plant in case of external failures; independent long-term supply with AC; accident management procedures; enhanced retention of radionuclides. Technologies for retrofit are available and are under implementation with respect to the demands and options in the countries using nuclear power.

  4. Impact of thermostatically controlled loads' demand response activation on aggregated power: A field experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Marinelli, Mattia; Kosek, Anna Magdalena;

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the impacts of different types of DR (demand response) activation on TCLs' (thermostatically controlled loads) aggregated power. The different parties: power system operators, DR service providers (or aggregators) and consumers, have different objectives in relation to DR...

  5. Opportunities for Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation: A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Gary [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wilcox, Edmund [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Olsen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goli, Sasank [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-02

    California agricultural irrigation consumes more than ten billion kilowatt hours of electricity annually and has significant potential for contributing to a reduction of stress on the grid through demand response, permanent load shifting, and energy efficiency measures. To understand this potential, a scoping study was initiated for the purpose of determining the associated opportunities, potential, and adoption challenges in California agricultural irrigation. The primary research for this study was conducted in two ways. First, data was gathered and parsed from published sources that shed light on where the best opportunities for load shifting and demand response lie within the agricultural irrigation sector. Secondly, a small limited survey was conducted as informal face-to-face interviews with several different California growers to get an idea of their ability and willingness to participate in permanent load shifting and/or demand response programs. Analysis of the data obtained from published sources and the survey reveal demand response and permanent load shifting opportunities by growing region, irrigation source, irrigation method, grower size, and utility coverage. The study examines some solutions for demand response and permanent load shifting in agricultural irrigation, which include adequate irrigation system capacity, automatic controls, variable frequency drives, and the contribution from energy efficiency measures. The study further examines the potential and challenges for grower acceptance of demand response and permanent load shifting in California agricultural irrigation. As part of the examination, the study considers to what extent permanent load shifting, which is already somewhat accepted within the agricultural sector, mitigates the need or benefit of demand response for agricultural irrigation. Recommendations for further study include studies on how to gain grower acceptance of demand response as well as other related studies such as

  6. Options for Department of Defense Total Workforce Supply and Demand Analysis: Potential Approaches and Available Data Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    and reasonable prices, or customer satisfaction (Black, 1995; Sorber and Straight, 1995). The second step is to project workload into the future...workload and future productivity. In an example of a hotel chain, the demand drivers might be the number of hotel rooms and the percent- age occupancy...Using historical data on the number of rooms occu- pied and the size of the housekeeping workforce, a hotel manager can calculate a historical ratio or

  7. How price responsive is the demand for specialty care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Matthew L; Liu, Chuan-Fen; Kavee, Andrew L; Olsen, Maren K

    2012-08-01

    Outpatient visit co-payments have increased in recent years. We estimate the patient response to a price change for specialty care, based on a co-payment increase from $15 to $50 per visit for veterans with hypertension. A retrospective cohort of veterans required to pay co-payments was compared with veterans exempt from co-payments whose nonequivalence was reduced via propensity score matching. Specialty care expenditures in 2000-2003 were estimated via a two-part mixed model to account for the correlation of the use and level outcomes over time, and results from this correlated two-part model were compared with an uncorrelated two-part model and a correlated random intercept two-part mixed model. A $35 specialty visit co-payment increase had no impact on the likelihood of seeking specialty care but induced lower specialty expenditures over time among users who were required to pay co-payments. The log ratio of price responsiveness (semi-elasticity) for specialty care increased from -0.25 to -0.31 after the co-payment increase. Estimates were similar across the three models. A significant increase in specialty visit co-payments reduced specialty expenditures among patients obtaining medications at the Veterans Affairs medical centers. Longitudinal expenditure analysis may be improved using recent advances in two-part model methods. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Design and Implementation of an Open, Interoperable AutomatedDemand Response Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila; Ghatikar, Girish

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes the concept for and lessons from the development and field-testing of an open, interoperable communications infrastructure to support automating demand response (DR). Automating DR allows greater levels of participation and improved reliability and repeatability of the demand response and customer facilities. Automated DR systems have been deployed for critical peak pricing and demand bidding and are being designed for real time pricing. The system is designed to generate, manage, and track DR signals between utilities and Independent System Operators (ISOs) to aggregators and end-use customers and their control systems.

  9. The influence of task demand and learning on the psychophysiological response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairclough, Stephen H; Venables, Louise; Tattersall, Andrew

    2005-05-01

    The level of expertise of an operator may significantly influence his/her psychophysiological response to high task demand. A naive individual may invest considerable mental effort during performance of a difficult task and psychophysiological reactivity will be high compared to the psychophysiological response of a highly skilled operator. A study on multitasking performance was conducted to investigate the interaction between learning and task demand on psychophysiological reactivity. Thirty naive participants performed high and low demand versions of the Multi-attribute Task Battery (MATB) over a learning period of 64 min. High and low task demand setting were preset via a pilot study. Psychophysiological variables were collected from four channels of EEG (Cz, P3, P4, Pz), ECG, EOG and respiration rate to measure the impact of task demand and learning. Several variables were sensitive to the task demand manipulation but not time-on-task, e.g., heart rate, Theta activity at parietal sites. The sensitivity of certain variables to high demand was compromised by skill acquisition, e.g., respiration rate, suppression of alpha activity. A sustained learning effect was observed during the high demand condition only; multiple regression analyses revealed that specific psychophysiological variables predicted learning at different stages on the learning curve. The implications for the sensitivity of psychophysiological variables are discussed.

  10. Nordic TSOs' action plants in enhancing and monitoring demand response[Transmission System Operator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    Nordel has seen demand side flexibility and demand response (DR) to high prices as a necessity for the Nordic market model functioning. The importance of demand response is increasing while the power balance is tightening. Therefore, measures activating demand response have a high priority. In the report 'Peak Production Capability and Peak Load in the Nordic Electricity Market' (Summary and conclusions and Appendix 1) Nordel recommended that each TSO shall make an action plan for enhancing demand response and together with the other stakeholders develop procedures for systematic monitoring of demand response. The practical potential in the medium term was roughly estimated in the above mentioned Nordel report to about 12 000 MW in total. Every 10 % of the potential that can be activated (1 200 MW) equals about 2 % of the peak load in the Nordic countries. This report summarizes the action plans and measures taken by the TSOs so far. In addition, other joint activities going on within Nordel as regards demand response and its systematic monitoring are summarized. In this context, measures aiming at more efficient utilisation of the local back-up generation are also included. By definition back-up generation is not a demand resource, but it is often discussed in the same context, because it is a resource that is dispersed located and controlled by the end-users. Increased local generation reduces need for transmission or distribution of power. For the activation of the back-up generation similar procedures are needed as to DR resources. (au)

  11. Advanced Controls and Communications for Demand Response andEnergy Efficiency in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Hansen, David

    2006-01-17

    Commercial buildings account for a large portion of summer peak demand. Research results show that there is significant potential to reduce peak demand in commercial buildings through advanced control technologies and strategies. However, a better understanding of commercial building's contribution to peak demand and the use of energy management and control systems is required to develop this demand response resource to its full potential. This paper discusses recent research results and new opportunities for advanced building control systems to provide demand response (DR) to improve electricity markets and reduce electric grid problems. The main focus of this paper is the role of new and existing control systems for HVAC and lighting in commercial buildings. A demand-side management framework from building operations perspective with three main features: daily energy efficiency, daily peak load management and event driven, dynamic demand response is presented. A general description of DR, its benefits, and nationwide potential in commercial buildings is outlined. Case studies involving energy management and control systems and DR savings opportunities are presented. The paper also describes results from three years of research in California to automate DR in buildings. Case study results and research on advanced buildings systems in New York are also presented.

  12. On-demand d-modafinil may be an effective treatment option for lifelong premature ejaculation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serefoglu, E C

    2016-02-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is considered to be the most common form of male sexual dysfunction. Given that acute oral administration of d-isomer of modafinil (d-modafinil) can extend the latency to ejaculation in rats without suppressing sexual behaviour, the effects of on-demand d-modafinil treatment were examined on a 30-year-old male patient with lifelong PE. The patient was instructed to take d-modafinil 100 mg 3 h prior to the sexual relation for four times and was invited for a control visit. The patient was re-evaluated 2 weeks later. He reported that his IELT increased to 15 min. He reported heartburn and insomnia when he used d-modafinil for the first time; however, these symptoms were transient and did not recur after the initial dose. Overall, he reported considerable improvement and noted that he feels much better with the treatment. Based on this limited data, on-demand d-modafinil seems to be an effective treatment for men with lifelong PE. The side effects were transient and mild in the reported case. Further randomised clinical trials are necessary to elucidate the therapeutic concept of this drug in patients with lifelong PE.

  13. 36 CFR 1251.4 - May employees provide records or give testimony in response to a demand without authorization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or give testimony in response to a demand without authorization? 1251.4 Section 1251.4 Parks, Forests... § 1251.4 May employees provide records or give testimony in response to a demand without authorization... information or provide any testimony relating to agency information in response to a demand, or other...

  14. Evaluation of Social Cognitive Scaling Response Options in the Physical Activity Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E.; Matheson, Deborah Hunt; Mark, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the reliability, variability, and predictive validity of two common scaling response formats (semantic differential, Likert-type) and two numbers of response options (5-point, 7-point) in the physical activity domain. Constructs of the theory of planned behavior were chosen in this analysis based on its…

  15. Evaluation of Social Cognitive Scaling Response Options in the Physical Activity Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E.; Matheson, Deborah Hunt; Mark, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the reliability, variability, and predictive validity of two common scaling response formats (semantic differential, Likert-type) and two numbers of response options (5-point, 7-point) in the physical activity domain. Constructs of the theory of planned behavior were chosen in this analysis based on its…

  16. Analysis of the impact of the demand response RESIDENS field test on the customer load behaviour; Analyse des Einflusses vom Demand Response RESIDENS-Feldversuch auf das Kundenlastverhalten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnoldt, A.; Warweg, O.; Frenzel, S.; Bretschneider, P. [Fraunhofer IOSB, Ilmenau (Germany). Answendungszentrum Systemtechnik; Werner, M.

    2012-07-01

    The project RESIDENS investigates interactions between the technical electrical grid system and the private end customers through demand response, based on interdisciplinary methodology. December 2010 started the field test investigating the customer behavior on time varying tariffs. Significant load displacements between the trail group and the reference group or the standard load profile of the BDEW (former VDEW) can be detected within the preliminary investigations as well as the latest ones. (orig.)

  17. Demand effects on positive response distortion by police officer applicants on the Revised NEO Personality Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detrick, Paul; Chibnall, John T; Call, Cynthia

    2010-09-01

    Understanding and detecting response distortion is important in the high-demand circumstances of personnel selection. In this article, we describe positive response distortion on the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992) among police officer applicants under high and low demand conditions. Positive response distortion primarily reflected denial/minimization of Neuroticism and accentuation of traits associated with moralistic bias (Agreeableness and Conscientiousness). Validity of the NEO PI-R research validity scale, Positive Presentation Management, was weakly supported with respect to the Neuroticism domain only. Results will be useful in interpreting personality inventory results in the police personnel selection process.

  18. Real-Time Procurement Strategies of a Proactive Distribution Company with Aggregator-Based Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Qi; Wang, Jianhui;

    2016-01-01

    and inelastic demand components. A one-leader multi-follower bilevel model is proposed to derive the procurement strategies, i.e., the upper-level problem intends to maximize the profit of the proactive distribution company, while the lower-level expresses the profit maximization per rational aggregator......In this paper, we present a real-time trading framework for distribution networks where a rational aggregator is identified as a broker by contracting with individual demands and dealing with the distribution company. Demand response capability is characterized by the coexistence of elastic...

  19. Demo Abstract: Toward Data-driven Demand-Response Optimization in a Campus Microgrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amam, Saima; Natarajan, Sreedhar; Yin, Wei; Zhou, Qunzhi; Simmhan, Yogesh; Prasanna, Viktor

    2011-11-01

    We describe and demonstrate a prototype software architecture to support data-driven demand response optimization (DR) in the USC campus microgrid, as part of the Los Angeles Smart Grid Demonstration Project. The architecture includes a semantic information repository that integrates diverse data sources to support DR, demand forecasting using scalable machine-learned models, and detection of load curtailment opportunities by matching complex event patterns.

  20. The Focusing of Responsibility: An Alternative Hypothesis in Help-Demanding Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misavage, Robert; Richardson, James T.

    The "diffusion of responsibility" hypothesis as an explanation of helping behavior (or lack of same) is qualified by suggesting that the hypothesis applies only in non-interacting situations. It is hypothesized that interacting groups who are aware of a help-demanding situation actually focus the responsibility and, therefore, take action as a…

  1. Detailed Performance and Waiting-Time Predictability Analysis of Scheduling Options in On-Demand Video Streaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsmirat MohammadA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of on-demand video streams that can be supported concurrently is highly constrained by the stringent requirements of real-time playback and high transfer rates. To address this problem, stream merging techniques utilize the multicast facility to increase resource sharing. The achieved resource sharing depends greatly on how the waiting requests are scheduled for service. We investigate the effectiveness of the recently proposed cost-based scheduling in detail and analyze opportunities for further tunings and enhancements. In particular, we analyze alternative ways to compute the delivery cost. In addition, we propose a new scheduling policy, called Predictive Cost-Based Scheduling (PCS, which applies a prediction algorithm to predict future scheduling decisions and then uses the prediction results to potentially alter its current scheduling decisions. Moreover, we propose an enhancement technique, called Adaptive Regular Stream Triggering (ART, which significantly enhances stream merging behavior by selectively delaying the initiation of full-length video streams. We analyze the effectiveness of the proposed strategies in terms of their performance effectiveness and impacts on waiting-time predictability through extensive simulation. The results show that significant performance benefits as well as better waiting-time predictability can be attained.

  2. Demand response pilot event conducted August 2,2011 : summary report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincoln, Donald; Evans, Christoper

    2012-01-01

    Energy management in a commercial facility can be segregated into two areas: energy efficiency and demand response (DR). Energy efficiency focuses on steady-state load minimization. Demand response reduces load for event driven periods during the peak load. Demand-response-driven changes in electricity use are designed to be short-term in nature, centered on critical hours during the day when demand is high or when the electricity supplier's reserve margins are low. Due to the recent Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 745, Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets the potential annual compensation to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) from performing DR ranges from $300K to $2,400K. While the current energy supply contract does not offer any compensation for participating in DR, there is benefit in understanding the issues and potential value in performing a DR event. This Report will be helpful in upcoming energy supply contract negotiations to quantify the energy savings and power reduction potential from DR at SNL. On August 25, 2011 the Facilities Management and Operations Center (FMOC) performed the first DR pilot event at SNL/NM. This report describes the details and results of this DR event.

  3. Using high frequency consumption data to identify demand response potential for solar energy integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, L.; Borgeson, S.; Fredman, D.; Hans, L.; Spurlock, A.; Todd, A.

    2015-12-01

    California's renewable portfolio standard (2012) requires the state to get 33% of its electricity from renewable sources by 2020. Increased share of variable renewable sources such as solar and wind in the California electricity system may require more grid flexibility to insure reliable power services. Such grid flexibility can be potentially provided by changes in end use electricity consumptions in response to grid conditions (demand-response). In the solar case, residential consumption in the late afternoon can be used as reserve capacity to balance the drop in solar generation. This study presents our initial attempt to identify, from a behavior perspective, residential demand response potentials in relation to solar ramp events using a data-driven approach. Based on hourly residential energy consumption data, we derive representative daily load shapes focusing on discretionary consumption with an innovative clustering analysis technique. We aggregate the representative load shapes into behavior groups in terms of the timing and rhythm of energy use in the context of solar ramp events. Households of different behavior groups that are active during hours with high solar ramp rates are identified for capturing demand response potential. Insights into the nature and predictability of response to demand-response programs are provided.

  4. Perceptual demand modulates activation of human auditory cortex in response to task-irrelevant sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Merav; Humphries, Colin; Verber, Matthew; Mangalathu, Jain; Desai, Anjali; Binder, Jeffrey R; Liebenthal, Einat

    2013-09-01

    In the visual modality, perceptual demand on a goal-directed task has been shown to modulate the extent to which irrelevant information can be disregarded at a sensory-perceptual stage of processing. In the auditory modality, the effect of perceptual demand on neural representations of task-irrelevant sounds is unclear. We compared simultaneous ERPs and fMRI responses associated with task-irrelevant sounds across parametrically modulated perceptual task demands in a dichotic-listening paradigm. Participants performed a signal detection task in one ear (Attend ear) while ignoring task-irrelevant syllable sounds in the other ear (Ignore ear). Results revealed modulation of syllable processing by auditory perceptual demand in an ROI in middle left superior temporal gyrus and in negative ERP activity 130-230 msec post stimulus onset. Increasing the perceptual demand in the Attend ear was associated with a reduced neural response in both fMRI and ERP to task-irrelevant sounds. These findings are in support of a selection model whereby ongoing perceptual demands modulate task-irrelevant sound processing in auditory cortex.

  5. Optimal Load Response to Time-of-Use Power Price for Demand Side Management in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    -of-use power price for demand side management in order to save the energy costs as much as possible. 3 typical different kinds of loads (industrial load, residential load and commercial load) in Denmark are chosen as study cases. The energy costs decrease up to 9.6% with optimal load response to time......-of-use power price for different loads. Simulation results show that the optimal load response to time-of-use power price for demand side management generates different load profiles and reduces the load peaks. This kind of load patterns may also have significant effects on the power system normal operation....

  6. 2008-2010 Research Summary: Analysis of Demand Response Opportunities in California Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goli, Sasank [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Olsen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Piette, Mary Ann [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This report describes the work of the Industrial Demand Response (DR) Team of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory’s Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) from 2008-2010, in the context of its mandate to conduct and disseminate research that broadens the knowledge base of DR strategies, with a focus on the Industrial-Agricultural-Water (IAW) sector. Through research and case studies of industrial sectors and entities, the DRRC-IAW Team continued to assimilate knowledge on the feasibility of industrial DR strategies with an emphasis on technical and economic evaluation and worked to encourage implementation of these strategies.

  7. 需求和生产成本同时扰动下供应链期权契约应对突发事件%Supply Chain Coordination under Market Demand and Production Costs Disruptions by Adjusting Option Contracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴忠和; 陈宏; 赵千

    2013-01-01

    本文研究了单一供应商和单一零售商组成的供应链在期权契约下的应急协调问题.首先证明了稳定条件下的期权契约能够实现该供应链的协调,当突发事件导致随机市场需求分布函数和制造商生产成本同时扰动时,在市场需求和生产成本变化满足一定条件下,供应链最优购买量不变,否则将会发生改变,此时协调被打破;通过调整期权契约能够实现对突发事件的协调应对.最后运用数值实验对模型进行了验证.%In recent years,emergency events such as nature disaster,terror attack etc.occur frequently,which affect the normal operation of enterprises and supply chain tremendously.Thus,this question leads to a wide attention about how to coordinate the supply chain to response to disruptions.On the other hand,the option contracts have a wide application in the supply chain coordination because of their good flexibility,but in previous studies,only few of them use the option contract to coordinate the supply chain to response to disruptions and verify its validity,and this is just the field that will be explored in this paper.In this paper,we considering a two-stage supply chain composed of one manufacturer and one retailer,while the disruptions cause the stochastic market demand distribution function and the manufacturer's production cost fluctuated simultaneously,how to coordinate the supply chain to response to the disruption by using the option contract is discussed in this paper.A supply chain coordination model is set up based on option contract firstly.As the disruption may affect the supply chain production plan and furthermore it will cause the manufacturer to adjust the production quantity,the production quantity adjustment need to throw in deviation cost.So in the emergency environment,a supply chain model iset up based on a option contract by drawing (leading) into deviation cost.In addition,the model is analyzed thoroughly.As for the thinking

  8. Reducing the number of options on multiple-choice questions: response time, psychometrics and standard setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneid, Stephen D; Armour, Chris; Park, Yoon Soo; Yudkowsky, Rachel; Bordage, Georges

    2014-10-01

    Despite significant evidence supporting the use of three-option multiple-choice questions (MCQs), these are rarely used in written examinations for health professions students. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of reducing four- and five-option MCQs to three-option MCQs on response times, psychometric characteristics, and absolute standard setting judgements in a pharmacology examination administered to health professions students. We administered two versions of a computerised examination containing 98 MCQs to 38 Year 2 medical students and 39 Year 3 pharmacy students. Four- and five-option MCQs were converted into three-option MCQs to create two versions of the examination. Differences in response time, item difficulty and discrimination, and reliability were evaluated. Medical and pharmacy faculty judges provided three-level Angoff (TLA) ratings for all MCQs for both versions of the examination to allow the assessment of differences in cut scores. Students answered three-option MCQs an average of 5 seconds faster than they answered four- and five-option MCQs (36 seconds versus 41 seconds; p = 0.008). There were no significant differences in item difficulty and discrimination, or test reliability. Overall, the cut scores generated for three-option MCQs using the TLA ratings were 8 percentage points higher (p = 0.04). The use of three-option MCQs in a health professions examination resulted in a time saving equivalent to the completion of 16% more MCQs per 1-hour testing period, which may increase content validity and test score reliability, and minimise construct under-representation. The higher cut scores may result in higher failure rates if an absolute standard setting method, such as the TLA method, is used. The results from this study provide a cautious indication to health professions educators that using three-option MCQs does not threaten validity and may strengthen it by allowing additional MCQs to be tested in a fixed amount

  9. When Do Firms Invest in Corporate Social Responsibility? : A Real Option Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassimon, D.; Engelen, P.J.; Liedekerke, L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the process for firms to decide whether or not to invest in corporate social responsibility is treated from a real option perspective. We extend the Husted (2005) framework with an important extra parameter that allows us to understand the timing of CSR investment and explain why some

  10. Demand response impacts on off-grid hybrid photovoltaic-diesel generator microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron St. Leger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid microgrids consisting of diesel generator set(s and converter based power sources, such as solar photovoltaic or wind sources, offer an alternative to generator based off-grid power systems. The hybrid approach has been shown to be economical in many off-grid applications and can result in reduced generator operation, fuel requirements, and maintenance. However, the intermittent nature of demand and renewable energy sources typically require energy storage, such as batteries, to properly operate the hybrid microgrid. These batteries increase the system cost, require proper operation and maintenance, and have been shown to be unreliable in case studies on hybrid microgrids. This work examines the impacts of leveraging demand response in a hybrid microgrid in lieu of energy storage. The study is performed by simulating two different hybrid diesel generator—PV microgrid topologies, one with a single diesel generator and one with multiple paralleled diesel generators, for a small residential neighborhood with varying levels of demand response. Various system designs are considered and the optimal design, based on cost of energy, is presented for each level of demand response. The solar resources, performance of solar PV source, performance of diesel generators, costs of system components, maintenance, and operation are modeled and simulated at a time interval of ten minutes over a twenty-five year period for both microgrid topologies. Results are quantified through cost of energy, diesel fuel requirements, and utilization of the energy sources under varying levels of demand response. The results indicate that a moderate level of demand response can have significant positive impacts to the operation of hybrid microgrids through reduced energy cost, fuel consumption, and increased utilization of PV sources.

  11. The Impact of 3-Option Responses to Multiple-Choice Questions on Guessing Strategies and Cut Score Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROYAL, KENNETH D.; STOCKDALE, MYRAH R.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Research has asserted MCQ items using three response options (one correct answer with two distractors) is comparable to, and possibly preferable over, traditional MCQ item formats consisting of four response options (e.g., one correct answer with three distractors), or five response options (e.g., one correct answer with four distractors). Some medical educators have also adopted the practice of using 3-option responses on MCQ exams as a response to the difficulty experienced in generating additional plausible distractors. To date, however, little work has explored how 3-option responses might impact validity threats stemming from random guessing strategies, and what impact 3-option responses might have on cut-score determinations, particularly in the context of medical education classroom assessments. The purpose of this work is to further explore these critically important considerations that largely have gone ignored in the medical education literature to this point. Methods: A cumulative binomial distribution formula was used to calculate the probability that an examinee will answer at random a given number of items correctly on any exam (of any length). By way of a demonstration, a variety of scenarios were presented to illustrate how examination length and the number of response options impact examinees’ chances of passing a given examination, and how subsequent cut-score decisions may be impacted by these factors. Results: As a general rule, classroom assessments containing fewer items should utilize traditional 4-option or 5-option responses, whereas assessments of greater length are afforded greater flexibility in potentially utilizing 3-option responses. Conclusions: More research on items with 3-option responses is needed to better understand what value, if any, 3-option responses truly add to classroom assessments, and in what contexts potential benefits might be discernible. PMID:28367465

  12. Price Responsiveness of Cigarette Demand in US: Retail Scanner Data (1994–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishwa B. Adhikari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the changes in cigarette demand in response to the changes in cigarette prices; smokeless tobacco prices; adoption of clean indoor air laws (CIALs. We used an error-correction econometric method to estimate the cigarette sales adjustment path in response to changes in prices and CIAL coverage in the United States by utilizing scanner data from supermarkets. Finding from this study indicates that smokeless tobaccos are not perfect substitutes for cigarettes, but increases in the price of cigarettes are associated with an increase in smokeless tobacco sales. The error-correction econometric method suggest that the demand for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco is related to each other; a price increase in either product leads to an increase in demand for the other product. However, the adjustment paths are quite different; an increase in cigarette prices lowers cigarette sales in relatively faster rate than decreases in smokeless tobacco prices or adoption of smoke-free laws. Changes in cigarette demand in response to changes in cigarette prices occur relatively quickly; but the full effects of smokeless tobacco price change and the adoption of 100% smoke-free laws on cigarette demand take a longer time.

  13. MARKET SUPPLY RESPONSE AND DEMAND FOR LOCAL RICE IN NIGERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR SELF-SUFFICIENCY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M RAHJI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the supply response and demand for local rice in Nigeria between 1960 and 2004. A system of equations using secondary data was estimated by OLS and 2SLS techniques. Area planted with local rice is mainly affected by expected price of output, agriculture wage rate and by the partial adjustment coefficient. The short-run response elasticity is 0.077. The implied long-run response elasticity is 1.578. The partial adjustment measure is 0.049. This, points to the difficulty of supply response to changing economic conditions. The price elasticity of demand obtained is 0.841. The demand for local rice is thus price inelastic. Rice income elasticity is 0.3378. It is also inelastic. The ban on rice importation in Nigeria could be said to be a step in the right direction. This policy should be continued and policed. However, price, output and non-price incentives that can exert significant influence on rice supply response and demand are required if the self-sufficiency goal is to be achieved.

  14. Development and evaluation of fully automated demand response in large facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Sezgen, Osman; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Shockman, Christine; ten Hope, Laurie

    2004-03-30

    This report describes the results of a research project to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve electric grid reliability, manage electricity costs, and ensure that customers receive signals that encourage load reduction during times when the electric grid is near its capacity. The two main drivers for widespread demand responsiveness are the prevention of future electricity crises and the reduction of electricity prices. Additional goals for price responsiveness include equity through cost of service pricing, and customer control of electricity usage and bills. The technology developed and evaluated in this report could be used to support numerous forms of DR programs and tariffs. For the purpose of this report, we have defined three levels of Demand Response automation. Manual Demand Response involves manually turning off lights or equipment; this can be a labor-intensive approach. Semi-Automated Response involves the use of building energy management control systems for load shedding, where a preprogrammed load shedding strategy is initiated by facilities staff. Fully-Automated Demand Response is initiated at a building or facility through receipt of an external communications signal--facility staff set up a pre-programmed load shedding strategy which is automatically initiated by the system without the need for human intervention. We have defined this approach to be Auto-DR. An important concept in Auto-DR is that a facility manager is able to ''opt out'' or ''override'' an individual DR event if it occurs at a time when the reduction in end-use services is not desirable. This project sought to improve the feasibility and nature of Auto-DR strategies in large facilities. The research focused on technology development, testing

  15. Low-Carbon Warehousing: Examining Impacts of Building and Intra-Logistics Design Options on Energy Demand and the CO2 Emissions of Logistics Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Freis; Philipp Vohlidka; Willibald A. Günthner

    2016-01-01

    Logistics centers contribute to CO2 emissions in the building and logistics sector and therefore share a responsibility to decarbonize not only the supply chain. Synergy effects in both building and intra-logistics should be considered as suitable levers to lower energy demand and related CO2 emissions. This research develops firs t with a systemic approach an integrated analytical model for energy calculation and reference building models for different types of logistics centers to provide b...

  16. Automated Demand Response: The Missing Link in the Electricity Value Chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Rhyne, Ivin; Piette, Mary Ann; Thompson, Lisa; Lekov, Alex

    2008-08-01

    In 2006, the Public Interest Energy Research Program (PIER) Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory initiated research into Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) applications in California industry. The goal is to improve electric grid reliability and lower electricity use during periods of peak demand. The purpose of this research is to begin to define the relationship among a portfolio of actions that industrial facilities can undertake relative to their electricity use. This 'electricity value chain' defines energy management and demand response (DR) at six levels of service, distinguished by the magnitude, type, and rapidity of response. One element in the electricity supply chain is OpenADR, an open-standards based communications system to send signals to customers to allow them to manage their electric demand in response to supply conditions, such as prices or reliability, through a set of standard, open communications. Initial DRRC research suggests that industrial facilities that have undertaken energy efficiency measures are probably more, not less, likely to initiate other actions within this value chain such as daily load management and demand response. Moreover, OpenADR appears to afford some facilities the opportunity to develop the supporting control structure and to 'demo' potential reductions in energy use that can later be applied to either more effective load management or a permanent reduction in use via energy efficiency. Under the right conditions, some types of industrial facilities can shift or shed loads, without any, or minimal disruption to operations, to protect their energy supply reliability and to take advantage of financial incentives. In 2007 and 2008, 35 industrial facilities agreed to implement OpenADR, representing a total capacity of nearly 40 MW. This paper describes how integrated or centralized demand management and system-level network controls are linked to Open

  17. Automated Demand Response: The Missing Link in the Electricity Value Chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Rhyne, Ivin; Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; Piette, MaryAnn

    2009-08-01

    In 2006, the Public Interest Energy Research Program (PIER) Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory initiated research into Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) applications in California industry. The goal is to improve electric grid reliability and lower electricity use during periods of peak demand. The purpose of this research is to begin to define the relationship among a portfolio of actions that industrial facilities can undertake relative to their electricity use. This ?electricity value chain? defines energy management and demand response (DR) at six levels of service, distinguished by the magnitude, type, and rapidity of response. One element in the electricity supply chain is OpenADR, an open-standards based communications system to send signals to customers to allow them to manage their electric demand in response to supply conditions, such as prices or reliability, through a set of standard, open communications. Initial DRRC research suggests that industrial facilities that have undertaken energy efficiency measures are probably more, not less, likely to initiate other actions within this value chain such as daily load management and demand response. Moreover, OpenADR appears to afford some facilities the opportunity to develop the supporting control structure and to"demo" potential reductions in energy use that can later be applied to either more effective load management or a permanent reduction in use via energy efficiency. Under the right conditions, some types of industrial facilities can shift or shed loads, without any, or minimal disruption to operations, to protect their energy supply reliability and to take advantage of financial incentives.1 In 2007 and 2008, 35 industrial facilities agreed to implement OpenADR, representing a total capacity of nearly 40 MW. This paper describes how integrated or centralized demand management and system-level network controls are linked to OpenADR systems. Case studies

  18. Automated Price and Demand Response Demonstration for Large Customers in New York City using OpenADR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joyce Jihyun; Yin, Rongxin; Kiliccote, Sila

    2013-10-01

    Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR), an XML-based information exchange model, is used to facilitate continuous price-responsive operation and demand response participation for large commercial buildings in New York who are subject to the default day-ahead hourly pricing. We summarize the existing demand response programs in New York and discuss OpenADR communication, prioritization of demand response signals, and control methods. Building energy simulation models are developed and field tests are conducted to evaluate continuous energy management and demand response capabilities of two commercial buildings in New York City. Preliminary results reveal that providing machine-readable prices to commercial buildings can facilitate both demand response participation and continuous energy cost savings. Hence, efforts should be made to develop more sophisticated algorithms for building control systems to minimize customer's utility bill based on price and reliability information from the electricity grid.

  19. 49 CFR 37.189 - Service requirement for OTRB demand-responsive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... following examples illustrate the provisions of this paragraph (e): Example 1. A tour bus operator requires... bus. Example 3. While the operator's normal deadline for reserving space on a charter or tour trip has...) Demand-responsive operators shall ensure that, beginning one year from the date on which the...

  20. Dynamic load management in a smart home to participate in demand response events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Filipe; Morais, Hugo; Vale, Zita

    2014-01-01

    contribution of this work is to include time constraints in resources management, and the context evaluation in order to ensure the required comfort levels. The dynamic resources management methodology allows a better resources’ management in a demand response event, mainly the ones of long duration...

  1. Flexibility dynamics in clusters of residential demand response and distributed generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacDougall, P.A.; Kok, J.K.; Warmer, C.; Roossien, B.

    2013-01-01

    Supply and demand response is a untapped resource in the current electrical system. However little work has been done to investigate the dynamics of utilizing such flexibility as well as the potential effects it could have on the infrastructure. This paper provides a starting point to seeing the pot

  2. An Economic Demand Response Model in Liberalized Electricity Markets with Respect to Flexibility of Consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifi, Reza; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Fathi, S. Hamid

    2017-01-01

    . The most important solution can be demand response (DR) programs. This paper proposes an economic DR model for residential consumers in liberalized electricity markets to change their consumption pattern from times of high energy prices to other times to maximize their utility functions. This economic...

  3. Demands on Attention and the Role of Response Priming in Visual Discrimination of Feature Conjunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Lisa R.; Herbert, Rhonda J.; Farris, Carrie

    2004-01-01

    This study examined how response mapping of features within single- and multiple-feature targets affects decision-based processing and attentional capacity demands. Observers judged the presence or absence of 1 or 2 target features within an object either presented alone or with distractors. Judging the presence of 2 features relative to the less…

  4. Universities Response to Oil and Gas Industry Demands in South Texas (USA) and Tamaulipas (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Marco Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of hydrocarbons for this area, the purpose of this paper is to explore the response of universities to cope with new demands in the south of Texas and Tamaulipas, especially in relation to gas plays of Eagle Ford (Texas side) and Burgos Basin (Mexican side). To accomplish this task, in the first section of the paper a broad…

  5. Energy shift estimation of demand response activation on domestic refrigerators – A field test study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Gudmand-Høyer, Kristian; Marinelli, Mattia;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method to estimate the amount of energy that can be shifted during demand response (DR) activation on domestic refrigerator. Though there are many methods for DR activation like load reduction, load shifting and onsite generation, the method under study is load shifting. Ele...

  6. Optimized Energy Management of a Single-House Residential Micro-Grid With Automated Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Monsef, Hassan; Rahimi-Kian, Ashkan

    2015-01-01

    to take part in demand response (DR) programs. The superior performance and efficiency of the proposed system is studied through several scenarios and case studies and validated in comparison with the conventional models. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed MOEMS has the capability...

  7. Power management and frequency regulation for microgrid and smart grid: A real-time demand response approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmousavi Kani, Seyyed Ali

    Future power systems (known as smart grid) will experience a high penetration level of variable distributed energy resources to bring abundant, affordable, clean, efficient, and reliable electric power to all consumers. However, it might suffer from the uncertain and variable nature of these generations in terms of reliability and especially providing required balancing reserves. In the current power system structure, balancing reserves (provided by spinning and non-spinning power generation units) usually are provided by conventional fossil-fueled power plants. However, such power plants are not the favorite option for the smart grid because of their low efficiency, high amount of emissions, and expensive capital investments on transmission and distribution facilities, to name a few. Providing regulation services in the presence of variable distributed energy resources would be even more difficult for islanded microgrids. The impact and effectiveness of demand response are still not clear at the distribution and transmission levels. In other words, there is no solid research reported in the literature on the evaluation of the impact of DR on power system dynamic performance. In order to address these issues, a real-time demand response approach along with real-time power management (specifically for microgrids) is proposed in this research. The real-time demand response solution is utilized at the transmission (through load-frequency control model) and distribution level (both in the islanded and grid-tied modes) to provide effective and fast regulation services for the stable operation of the power system. Then, multiple real-time power management algorithms for grid-tied and islanded microgrids are proposed to economically and effectively operate microgrids. Extensive dynamic modeling of generation, storage, and load as well as different controller design are considered and developed throughout this research to provide appropriate models and simulation

  8. Residential Demand Response Behaviour Modeling applied to Cyber-physical Intrusion Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; Tyge, Emil; Kosek, Anna Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    by a mix of physical system parameters, exogenous influences, user behaviour and preferences, which can be characterized by unstructured models such as a time-varying finite impulse response. In this study, which is based on field data, it is shown how this characteristic response behaviours can......A real-time demand response system can be viewed as a cyber-physical system, with physical systems dependent on cyber infrastructure for coordination and control, which may be vulnerable to cyber-attacks. The time domain dynamic behaviour of individual residential demand responses is governed...... be identified and how the characterization can be updated continuously. Finally, we propose an approach to apply this behaviour characterization to the identification of anomalous and potentially malicious behaviour modifications as part of a cyber-physical intrusion detection mechanism....

  9. Demand Responsive and Energy Efficient Control Technologies andStrategies in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila

    2006-09-01

    Commercial buildings account for a large portion of summer peak electric demand. Research results show that there is significant potential to reduce peak demand in commercial buildings through advanced control technologies and strategies. However, a better understanding of commercial buildings contribution to peak demand and the use of energy management and control systems is required to develop this demand response resource to its full potential. The main objectives of the study were: (1) To evaluate the size of contributions of peak demand commercial buildings in the U.S.; (2) To understand how commercial building control systems support energy efficiency and DR; and (3) To disseminate the results to the building owners, facility managers and building controls industry. In order to estimate the commercial buildings contribution to peak demand, two sources of data are used: (1) Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) and (2) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). These two sources indicate that commercial buildings noncoincidental peak demand is about 330GW. The project then focused on technologies and strategies that deliver energy efficiency and also target 5-10% of this peak. Based on a building operations perspective, a demand-side management framework with three main features: (1) daily energy efficiency, (2) daily peak load management and (3) dynamic, event-driven DR are outlined. A general description of DR, its benefits, and nationwide DR potential in commercial buildings are presented. Case studies involving these technologies and strategies are described. The findings of this project are shared with building owners, building controls industry, researchers and government entities through a webcast and their input is requested. Their input is presented in the appendix section of this report.

  10. Energy Optimization and Management of Demand Response Interactions in a Smart Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antimo Barbato

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The proposed framework enables innovative power management in smart campuses, integrating local renewable energy sources, battery banks and controllable loads and supporting Demand Response interactions with the electricity grid operators. The paper describes each system component: the Energy Management System responsible for power usage scheduling, the telecommunication infrastructure in charge of data exchanging and the integrated data repository devoted to information storage. We also discuss the relevant use cases and validate the framework in a few deployed demonstrators.

  11. Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Chang, Chin-Yao; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2013-06-21

    Demand response is playing an increasingly important role in the efficient and reliable operation of the electric grid. Modeling the dynamic behavior of a large population of responsive loads is especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of various demand response strategies. In this paper, a highly-accurate aggregated model is developed for a population of air conditioning loads. The model effectively includes statistical information of the population, systematically deals with load heterogeneity, and accounts for second-order dynamics necessary to accurately capture the transient dynamics in the collective response. Based on the model, a novel aggregated control strategy is designed for the load population under realistic conditions. The proposed controller is fully responsive and achieves the control objective without sacrificing end-use performance. The proposed aggregated modeling and control strategies are validated through realistic simulations using GridLAB-D. Extensive simulation results indicate that the proposed approach can effectively manage a large number of air conditioning systems to provide various demand response services, such as frequency regulation and peak load reduction.

  12. Improving demand response potential of a supermarket refrigeration system: A food temperature estimation approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus; Schwensen, John; Biegel, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    a method for estimating food temperature based on measurements of evaporator expansion valve opening degree. This method requires no additional hardware or system modeling. We demonstrate the estimation method on a real supermarket display case and the applicability of knowing food temperature is shown...... through tests on a full scale supermarket refrigeration system made available by Danfoss A/S. The conducted application test shows that feedback based on food temperature can increase the demand flexibility during a step by approx. 60 % the first 70 minutes and up to 100%over the first 150 minutes...... - thereby strengthening the demand response potential of supermarket refrigeration systems....

  13. 19 CFR 103.24 - Procedure in the event a decision concerning a demand is not made prior to the time a response to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... demand is not made prior to the time a response to the demand is required. 103.24 Section 103.24 Customs... Procedure in the event a decision concerning a demand is not made prior to the time a response to the demand is required. If response to a demand is required before the instructions from the Chief Counsel...

  14. 12 CFR 404.32 - Procedure in the event a decision concerning a demand is not made prior to the time a response to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... demand is not made prior to the time a response to the demand is required. 404.32 Section 404.32 Banks... event a decision concerning a demand is not made prior to the time a response to the demand is required. If response to a demand is required before a determination has been rendered by the General...

  15. Mechanisms of mitochondrial response to variations in energy demand in eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devin, Anne; Rigoulet, Michel

    2007-01-01

    This review focuses on the different mechanisms involved in the adjustment of mitochondrial ATP production to cellular energy demand. The oxidative phosphorylation steady state at constant mitochondrial enzyme content can vary in response to energy demand. However, such an adaptation is tightly linked to a modification in both oxidative phosphorylation yield and phosphate potential and is obviously very limited in eukaryotic cells. We describe the three main mechanisms involved in mitochondrial response to energy demand. In heart cells, a short-term adjustment can be reached mainly through metabolic signaling via phosphotransfer networks by the compartmentalized energy transfer and signal transmission. In such a complex regulatory mechanism, Ca(2+) signaling participates in activation of matricial dehydrogenases as well as mitochondrial ATP synthase. These processes allow a large increase in ATP production rate without an important modification in thermodynamic forces. For a long-term adaptation, two main mechanisms are involved: modulation of the mitochondrial enzyme content as a function of energy demand and/or kinetic regulation by covalent modifications (phosphorylations) of some respiratory chain complex subunits. Regardless of the mechanism involved (kinetic regulation by covalent modification or adjustment of mitochondrial enzyme content), the cAMP signaling pathway plays a major role in molecular signaling, leading to the mitochondrial response. We discuss the energetic advantages of these mechanisms.

  16. Insulin demand regulates β cell number via the unfolded protein response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rohit B; O'Donnell, Amy C; Stamateris, Rachel E; Ha, Binh; McCloskey, Karen M; Reynolds, Paul R; Arvan, Peter; Alonso, Laura C

    2015-10-01

    Although stem cell populations mediate regeneration of rapid turnover tissues, such as skin, blood, and gut, a stem cell reservoir has not been identified for some slower turnover tissues, such as the pancreatic islet. Despite lacking identifiable stem cells, murine pancreatic β cell number expands in response to an increase in insulin demand. Lineage tracing shows that new β cells are generated from proliferation of mature, differentiated β cells; however, the mechanism by which these mature cells sense systemic insulin demand and initiate a proliferative response remains unknown. Here, we identified the β cell unfolded protein response (UPR), which senses insulin production, as a regulator of β cell proliferation. Using genetic and physiologic models, we determined that among the population of β cells, those with an active UPR are more likely to proliferate. Moreover, subthreshold endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) drove insulin demand-induced β cell proliferation, through activation of ATF6. We also confirmed that the UPR regulates proliferation of human β cells, suggesting that therapeutic UPR modulation has potential to expand β cell mass in people at risk for diabetes. Together, this work defines a stem cell-independent model of tissue homeostasis, in which differentiated secretory cells use the UPR sensor to adapt organ size to meet demand.

  17. Using Exponential Modeling for DLC Demand Response Programs in Electricity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoorangiz Shams Shamsabad Farahani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Deregulation of power system has introduced new objectives and subjects in electric power systems. Along with expansion of deregulated systems in countries, new subjects such as Demand Response Programs (DRPs have been provided to evaluate the effect of demand-side in electricity market. Participation of demandside in network improves power system utilization, operation and also has a great effect on system social welfare. DRPs are divided into two categories which are priced-based and incentive-based demand response programs.With Regard to the problem, in this study an exponential modeling of Direct Load Control programs (DLC in investigated as incentive-based DRPs. In order to more realistic modeling of demand response to DLC rates, the nonlinear behavioral characteristic of elastic loads is incorporated. Iranian power system with load profile of the peak day is considered to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed technique. Simulation results demonstrate the great impact of running DLC programs using the proposed exponential model. Simulation results are carried out on MATLAB software by numerical simulations.

  18. Demand response modeling considering Interruptible/Curtailable loads and capacity market programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalami, H.A.; Moghaddam, M. Parsa; Yousefi, G.R. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), Tehran (Iran)

    2010-01-15

    Recently, a massive focus has been made on demand response (DR) programs, aimed to electricity price reduction, transmission lines congestion resolving, security enhancement and improvement of market liquidity. Basically, demand response programs are divided into two main categories namely, incentive-based programs and time-based programs. The focus of this paper is on Interruptible/Curtailable service (I/C) and capacity market programs (CAP), which are incentive-based demand response programs including penalties for customers in case of no responding to load reduction. First, by using the concept of price elasticity of demand and customer benefit function, economic model of above mentioned programs is developed. The proposed model helps the independent system operator (ISO) to identify and employ relevant DR program which both improves the characteristics of the load curve and also be welcome by customers. To evaluate the performance of the model, simulation study has been conducted using the load curve of the peak day of the Iranian power system grid in 2007. In the numerical study section, the impact of these programs on load shape and load level, and benefit of customers as well as reduction of energy consumption are shown. In addition, by using strategy success indices the results of simulation studies for different scenarios are analyzed and investigated for determination of the scenarios priority. (author)

  19. Physiological response to ''pressure-demand'' respirator wear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raven, P.B.; Bradley, O.; Rohm-Young, D.; McClure, F.L.; Skaggs, B.

    1982-07-01

    This investigation determined cardiorespiratory responses of subjects with normal lung function and exercise tolerance and compared them with subjects with moderate impairment of lung function and exercise tolerance. The respirator was an air-line full-face mask (MSA-Ultravue) ''pressure-demand'' breathing type equipped with an inspiratory resistance of 85 mmH/sub 2/0 at 85 L/min air flow. This resistance was operable in conjunction with the fixed 25 mmH/sub 2/O inspiratory and expiratory resistance required to pressurize the face piece. Physiologically and subjectively the response of the normal and moderately impaired subjects to respirator wear during rest, 35%, 50% and 80% of their maximal aerobic capacity (VO/sub 2//sub max/) were not different. However, the pressure swings inside the face piece exceeded 24 cm H/sub 2/O and resulted in 50% of the subjects being unable to finish 10 minutes of work at 80% VO/sub 2//sub max/. The greater the ventilatory demand placed upon the respirator due to increasing workload, the more like a ''demand'' system pressure-flow response the ''pressure-demand'' system produced. Hence, the concept of increased protection and reduced inspiratory resistance as a result of pressurizing the facepiece during heavy work is seriously questioned.

  20. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California - Southeast Water Pollution Control Plant Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goli, Sasank [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faulkner, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-12-20

    This report details a study into the demand response potential of a large wastewater treatment facility in San Francisco. Previous research had identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response and automated demand response, and this study was conducted to investigate facility attributes that are conducive to demand response or which hinder its implementation. One years' worth of operational data were collected from the facility's control system, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. These data were analyzed to determine factors which affected facility power demand and demand response capabilities The average baseline demand at the Southeast facility was approximately 4 MW. During the rainy season (October-March) the facility treated 40% more wastewater than the dry season, but demand only increased by 4%. Submetering of the facility's lift pumps and centrifuges predicted load shifts capabilities of 154 kW and 86 kW, respectively, with large lift pump shifts in the rainy season. Analysis of demand data during maintenance events confirmed the magnitude of these possible load shifts, and indicated other areas of the facility with demand response potential. Load sheds were seen to be possible by shutting down a portion of the facility's aeration trains (average shed of 132 kW). Load shifts were seen to be possible by shifting operation of centrifuges, the gravity belt thickener, lift pumps, and external pump stations These load shifts were made possible by the storage capabilities of the facility and of the city's sewer system. Large load reductions (an average of 2,065 kW) were seen from operating the cogeneration unit, but normal practice is continuous operation, precluding its use for demand response. The study also identified potential demand response opportunities that warrant further study: modulating variable-demand aeration loads, shifting

  1. 41 CFR 105-60.606 - Procedure where response to demand is required prior to receiving instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Employees in Response to Subpoenas or Similar Demands in Judicial or Administrative Proceedings § 105-60.606 Procedure where response to demand is required prior to receiving instructions. (a) If a response to a... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedure where...

  2. Retail Pricing and Day-Ahead Demand Response in Smart Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GholamReza Yousefi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on day-ahead (DA retailing for fixed and Time-of-Use (TOU price taker customers and DA real time pricing for active customers who participate in short-term markets. Customers’ response to the offered hourly prices are modeled using an hourly acceptance function which includes decreasing linear probability density functions based on the hourly minimum and maximum retail prices allowed by market regulators. Furthermore, the retailer offers to its active customers to participate in the DA demand response program and voluntary reduce their real time consumption for offered incentives. Numerical studies represent the effect of implementing demand response programs on the total benefit of retailing.

  3. Analyzing the pupil response due to increased cognitive demand: an independent component analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jainta, S; Baccino, T

    2010-07-01

    Pupillometry is used to indicate the relative extent of processing demands within or between tasks; however, this analysis is complicated by the fact that the pupil also responds to low-level aspects of visual input. First, we attempted to identify "principal" components that contribute to the pupil response by computing a principal component analysis (PCA) and second, to reveal "hidden" sources within the pupil response by calculating an independent component analysis (ICA). Pupil response data were collected while subjects read, added or multiplied numbers. A set of 3 factors/components were identified as resembling the individual pupil responses, but only one ICA component changed in concordance to the cognitive demand. This component alone accounted for about 50% of the variance of the pupil response during the most demanding task, i.e. the multiplication task. The highest impact of this factor was observed for 2000 to 300ms after task onset. Even though we did not attempt to answer the question of the functional background of the components 1 and 3, we speculated that component 2 might reflect the effort a subject engages to perform a task with greater difficulty.

  4. Photosynthesis of young apple trees in response to low sink demand under different air temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Pei G; Li, Lian S; Duan, Wei; Li, Wei D; Li, Shao H

    2010-03-01

    Gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic end products and related enzymes in source leaves in response to low sink demand after girdling to remove the root sink were assessed in young apple trees (Malus pumila) grown in two greenhouses with different air temperatures for 5 days. Compared with the non-girdled control in the low-temperature greenhouse (diurnal maximum air temperature demand resulted in lower net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), stomatal conductance (g(s)) and transpiration rate (E) but higher leaf temperature on Day 5, while in the high-temperature greenhouse (diurnal maximum air temperature >36 degrees C), P(n), g(s) and E declined from Day 3 onwards. Moreover, gas exchange responded more to low sink demand in the high-temperature greenhouse than in the low-temperature greenhouse. Decreased P(n) at low sink demand was accompanied by lower intercellular CO(2) concentrations in the low-temperature greenhouse. However, decreased maximal photochemical efficiency, potential activity, efficiency of excitation capture, actual efficiency and photochemical quenching, with increased minimal fluorescence and non-photochemical quenching of photosystem II (PSII), were observed in low sink demand leaves only in the high-temperature greenhouse. In addition, low sink demand increased leaf starch and soluble carbohydrate content in both greenhouses but did not result in lower activity of enzymes involved in metabolism. Thus, decreased P(n) under low sink demand was independent of a direct effect of end-product feedback but rather depended on a high temperature threshold. The lower P(n) was likely due to stomatal limitation in the low-temperature greenhouse, but mainly due to non-stomatal limitation in the high-temperature greenhouse.

  5. Coordinating Demand-Side Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification Among Western States: Options for Documenting Energy and Non-Energy Impacts for the Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Demand-side energy efficiency (efficiency) represents a low-cost opportunity to reduce electricity consumption and demand and provide a wide range of non-energy benefits, including avoiding air pollution. Efficiency-related energy and non-energy impacts are determined and documented by implementing evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) systems. This technical brief describes efficiency EM&V coordination strategies that Western states can consider taking on together, outlines EM&V-related products that might be appropriate for multistate coordination, and identifies some implications of coordination. Coordinating efficiency EM&V activities can save both time and costs for state agencies and stakeholders engaged in efficiency activities and can be particularly beneficial for multiple states served by the same utility. First, the brief summarizes basic information on efficiency, its myriad potential benefits and EM&V for assessing those benefits. Second, the brief introduces the concept of multistate EM&V coordination in the context of assessing such benefits, including achievement of state and federal goals to reduce air pollutants.1 Next, the brief presents three coordination strategy options for efficiency EM&V: information clearinghouse/exchange, EM&V product development, and a regional energy efficiency tracking system platform. The brief then describes five regional EM&V products that could be developed on a multistate basis: EM&V reporting formats, database of consistent deemed electricity savings values, glossary of definitions and concepts, efficiency EM&V methodologies, and EM&V professional standards or accreditation processes. Finally, the brief discusses options for next steps that Western states can take to consider multistate coordination on efficiency EM&V. Appendices provide background information on efficiency and EM&V, as well as definitions and suggested resources on the covered topics. This brief is intended to inform state public

  6. Effects of working memory demand on neural mechanisms of motor response selection and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Anita D; Caffo, Brian S; Pekar, James J; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2013-08-01

    Inhibitory control commonly recruits a number of frontal regions: pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), frontal eye fields (FEFs), and right-lateralized posterior inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), dorsal anterior insula (DAI), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and inferior frontal junction (IFJ). These regions may directly implement inhibitory motor control or may be more generally involved in executive control functions. Two go/no-go tasks were used to distinguish regions specifically recruited for inhibition from those that additionally show increased activity with working memory demand. The pre-SMA and IFG were recruited for inhibition in both tasks and did not have greater activation for working memory demand on no-go trials, consistent with a role in inhibitory control. Activation in pre-SMA also responded to response selection demand and was increased with working memory on go trials specifically. The bilateral FEF and right DAI were commonly active for no-go trials. The FEF was also recruited to a greater degree with working memory demand on go trials and may bias top-down information when stimulus-response mappings change. The DAI, additionally responded to increased working memory demand on both go and no-go trials and may be involved in accessing sustained task information, alerting, or autonomic changes when cognitive demands increase. DLPFC activation was consistent with a role in working memory retrieval on both go and no-go trials. The inferior frontal junction, on the other hand, had greater activation with working memory specifically for no-go trials and may detect salient stimuli when the task requires frequent updating of working memory representations.

  7. A carbohydrate supply and demand model of vegetative growth: response to temperature and light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, Martin P N; Seginer, Ido

    2012-07-01

    Photosynthesis is the limiting factor in crop growth models, but metabolism may also limit growth. We hypothesize that, over a wide range of temperature, growth is the minimum of the supply of carbohydrate from photosynthesis, and the demand of carbohydrate to synthesize new tissue. Biosynthetic demand limits growth at cool temperatures and increases exponentially with temperature. Photosynthesis limits growth at warm temperatures and decreases with temperature. Observations of tomato seedlings were used to calibrate a model based on this hypothesis. Model predictions were tested with published data for growth and carbohydrate content of sunflower and wheat. The model qualitatively fitted the response of growth of tomato and sunflower to both cool and warm temperatures. The transition between demand and supply limitation occurred at warmer temperatures under higher light and faster photosynthesis. Modifications were required to predict the observed non-structural carbohydrate (NSC). Some NSC was observed at warm temperatures, where demand should exceed supply. It was defined as a required reserve. Less NSC was found at cool temperatures than predicted from the difference between supply and demand. This was explained for tomato and sunflower, by feedback inhibition of NSC on photosynthesis. This inhibition was much less in winter wheat.

  8. Effect of Response Reduction Factor on Peak Floor Acceleration Demand in Mid-Rise RC Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surana, Mitesh; Singh, Yogendra; Lang, Dominik H.

    2017-06-01

    Estimation of Peak Floor Acceleration (PFA) demand along the height of a building is crucial for the seismic safety of nonstructural components. The effect of the level of inelasticity, controlled by the response reduction factor (strength ratio), is studied using incremental dynamic analysis. A total of 1120 nonlinear dynamic analyses, using a suite of 30 recorded ground motion time histories, are performed on mid-rise reinforced-concrete (RC) moment-resisting frame buildings covering a wide range in terms of their periods of vibration. The obtained PFA demands are compared with some of the major national seismic design and retrofit codes (IS 1893 draft version, ASCE 41, EN 1998, and NZS 1170.4). It is observed that the PFA demand at the building's roof level decreases with increasing period of vibration as well as with strength ratio. However, current seismic building codes do not account for these effects thereby producing very conservative estimates of PFA demands. Based on the identified parameters affecting the PFA demand, a model to obtain the PFA distribution along the height of a building is proposed. The proposed model is validated with spectrum-compatible time history analyses of the considered buildings with different strength ratios.

  9. Analysis of Multiple Partially Ordered Responses to Belief Items with Don't Know Option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Edward H; Chen, Shyh-Huei; Quandt, Sara A

    2016-06-01

    Understanding beliefs, values, and preferences of patients is a tenet of contemporary health sciences. This application was motivated by the analysis of multiple partially ordered set (poset) responses from an inventory on layman beliefs about diabetes. The partially ordered set arises because of two features in the data-first, the response options contain a Don't Know (DK) option, and second, there were two consecutive occasions of measurement. As predicted by the common sense model of illness, beliefs about diabetes were not necessarily stable across the two measurement occasions. Instead of analyzing the two occasions separately, we studied the joint responses across the occasions as a poset response. Few analytic methods exist for data structures other than ordered or nominal categories. Poset responses are routinely collapsed and then analyzed as either rank ordered or nominal data, leading to the loss of nuanced information that might be present within poset categories. In this paper we developed a general class of item response models for analyzing the poset data collected from the Common Sense Model of Diabetes Inventory. The inferential object of interest is the latent trait that indicates congruence of belief with the biomedical model. To apply an item response model to the poset diabetes inventory, we proved that a simple coding algorithm circumvents the requirement of writing new codes such that standard IRT software could be directly used for the purpose of item estimation and individual scoring. Simulation experiments were used to examine parameter recovery for the proposed poset model.

  10. Separation of metabolic supply and demand: aerobic glycolysis as a normal physiological response to fluctuating energetic demands in the membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Tamir; Xu, Liping; Gillies, Robert J; Gatenby, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells, and a variety of normal cells, exhibit aerobic glycolysis, high rates of glucose fermentation in the presence of normal oxygen concentrations, also known as the Warburg effect. This metabolism is considered abnormal because it violates the standard model of cellular energy production that assumes glucose metabolism is predominantly governed by oxygen concentrations and, therefore, fermentative glycolysis is an emergency back-up for periods of hypoxia. Though several hypotheses have been proposed for the origin of aerobic glycolysis, its biological basis in cancer and normal cells is still not well understood. We examined changes in glucose metabolism following perturbations in membrane activity in different normal and tumor cell lines and found that inhibition or activation of pumps on the cell membrane led to reduction or increase in glycolysis, respectively, while oxidative phosphorylation remained unchanged. Computational simulations demonstrated that these findings are consistent with a new model of normal physiological cellular metabolism in which efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation supplies chronic energy demand primarily for macromolecule synthesis and glycolysis is necessary to supply rapid energy demands primarily to support membrane pumps. A specific model prediction was that the spatial distribution of ATP-producing enzymes in the glycolytic pathway must be primarily localized adjacent to the cell membrane, while mitochondria should be predominantly peri-nuclear. The predictions were confirmed experimentally. Our results show that glycolytic metabolism serves a critical physiological function under normoxic conditions by responding to rapid energetic demand, mainly from membrane transport activities, even in the presence of oxygen. This supports a new model for glucose metabolism in which glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation supply different types of energy demand. Cells use efficient but slow-responding aerobic metabolism

  11. Modelling the non-linear response of Spanish electricity demand to temperature variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moral-Carcedo, J. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dpto. Analisis Economico; Vicens-Otero, J. [Universidad de Madrid (Spain). Dpto. Economia Aplicada

    2005-05-01

    The demand for electricity is a key variable because its links to economic activity and development; however, the electricity consumption also depends on other non-economic variables, notably the weather. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of temperatures on the variability of the Spanish daily electricity demand, and especially to characterise the non-linearity of the response of demand to variations in temperature. In this article, we explore the ability of Smooth Transition (STR), Threshold Regression (TR), and Switching Regressions (SR) models, to handle both aspects. As we conclude, the use of LSTR approach offers two main advantages. First, it captures adequately the smooth response of electricity demand to temperature variations in intermediate ranges of temperatures. Second, it provides a method to analyse the validity of temperature thresholds used to build the ''cooling degree days'' (CDD) and ''heating degree days'' (HDD) variables traditionally employed in the literature. (author)

  12. Critical kick-back mitigation through improved design of demand response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xue; You, Shi; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2016-01-01

    The energy sector is adopting a lot of intermittent renewable energy sources nowadays. In order to successfully integrate these renewable sources, demand side resources (DSR), in a demand response (DR) setup, are able to provide power system services by exploiting their flexibility in power consu...... in DR while maintaining the expected value of DR. The proposed methods are applied to a DR program that aims at using thermostatically controlled heating of residential houses for peak shaving. Quality measures are adopted to measure the performance.......The energy sector is adopting a lot of intermittent renewable energy sources nowadays. In order to successfully integrate these renewable sources, demand side resources (DSR), in a demand response (DR) setup, are able to provide power system services by exploiting their flexibility in power...... consumption. Load kick-back effect describes a dynamic process that the total power consumption of a population of DSRs is higher than the expected value during the steady state after the activation of DR program, due to their temporary synchronous behaviors. For DR programs designed with little consideration...

  13. Solving a Location, Allocation, and Capacity Planning Problem with Dynamic Demand and Response Time Service Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Ka Yuk Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Logistic systems with uncertain demand, travel time, and on-site processing time are studied here where sequential trip travel is allowed. The relationship between three levels of decisions: facility location, demand allocation, and resource capacity (number of service units, satisfying the response time requirement, is analysed. The problem is formulated as a stochastic mixed integer program. A simulation-based hybrid heuristic is developed to solve the dynamic problem under different response time service level. An initial solution is obtained from solving static location-allocation models, followed by iterative improvement of the three levels of decisions by ejection, reinsertion procedure with memory of feasible and infeasible service regions. Results indicate that a higher response time service level could be achieved by allocating a given resource under an appropriate decentralized policy. Given a response time requirement, the general trend is that the minimum total capacity initially decreases with more facilities. During this stage, variability in travel time has more impact on capacity than variability in demand arrivals. Thereafter, the total capacity remains stable and then gradually increases. When service level requirement is high, the dynamic dispatch based on first-come-first-serve rule requires smaller capacity than the one by nearest-neighbour rule.

  14. Demand Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of uncertainty resolution found in productivity heterogeneity models...... in untested destinations. The option to forecast demands causes firms to delay exporting in order to gather more information about foreign demand. Third, since uncertainty is resolved after entry, many firms enter a destination and then exit after learning that they cannot profit. This prediction reconciles...

  15. Open Automated Demand Response Technologies for Dynamic Pricing and Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatikar, Girish; Mathieu, Johanna L.; Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila

    2010-06-02

    We present an Open Automated Demand Response Communications Specifications (OpenADR) data model capable of communicating real-time prices to electricity customers. We also show how the same data model could be used to for other types of dynamic pricing tariffs (including peak pricing tariffs, which are common throughout the United States). Customers participating in automated demand response programs with building control systems can respond to dynamic prices by using the actual prices as inputs to their control systems. Alternatively, prices can be mapped into"building operation modes," which can act as inputs to control systems. We present several different strategies customers could use to map prices to operation modes. Our results show that OpenADR can be used to communicate dynamic pricing within the Smart Grid and that OpenADR allows for interoperability with existing and future systems, technologies, and electricity markets.

  16. Hierarchical control framework for integrated coordination between distributed energy resources and demand response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Di; Lian, Jianming; Sun, Yannan; Yang, Tao; Hansen, Jacob

    2017-09-01

    Demand response is representing a significant but largely untapped resource that can greatly enhance the flexibility and reliability of power systems. In this paper, a hierarchical control framework is proposed to facilitate the integrated coordination between distributed energy resources and demand response. The proposed framework consists of coordination and device layers. In the coordination layer, various resource aggregations are optimally coordinated in a distributed manner to achieve the system-level objectives. In the device layer, individual resources are controlled in real time to follow the optimal power generation or consumption dispatched from the coordination layer. For the purpose of practical applications, a method is presented to determine the utility functions of controllable loads by taking into account the real-time load dynamics and the preferences of individual customers. The effectiveness of the proposed framework is validated by detailed simulation studies.

  17. Distributed generation and demand response dispatch for a virtual power player energy and reserve provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria, Pedro; Soares, Tiago; Vale, Zita

    2014-01-01

    operators, utilities and consumers must adopt strategies and methods to take full advantage of demand response and distributed generation. This requires that all the involved players consider all the market opportunities, as the case of energy and reserve components of electricity markets. The present paper...... proposes a methodology which considers the joint dispatch of demand response and distributed generation in the context of a distribution network operated by a virtual power player. The resources’ participation can be performed in both energy and reserve contexts. This methodology contemplates...... the probability of actually using the reserve and the distribution network constraints. Its application is illustrated in this paper using a 32-bus distribution network with 66 DG units and 218 consumers classified into 6 types of consumers....

  18. Design and Operation of an Open, Interoperable Automated Demand Response Infrastructure for Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish; Kiliccote, Sila; Watson, David; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes the concept for and lessons from the development and field-testing of an open, interoperable communications infrastructure to support automated demand response (auto-DR). Automating DR allows greater levels of participation, improved reliability, and repeatability of the DR in participating facilities. This paper also presents the technical and architectural issues associated with auto-DR and description of the demand response automation server (DRAS), the client/server architecture-based middle-ware used to automate the interactions between the utilities or any DR serving entity and their customers for DR programs. Use case diagrams are presented to show the role of the DRAS between utility/ISO and the clients at the facilities.

  19. A Unit Commitment Model with Demand Response for the Integration of Renewable Energies

    OpenAIRE

    IKEDA Yuichi; Ikegami, Takashi; Kataoka, Kazuto; Ogimoto, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    The output of renewable energy fluctuates significantly depending on weather conditions. We develop a unit commitment model to analyze requirements of the forecast output and its error for renewable energies. Our model obtains the time series for the operational state of thermal power plants that would maximize the profits of an electric power utility by taking into account both the forecast of output its error for renewable energies and the demand response of consumers. We consider a power s...

  20. Ice Storage Air-Conditioning System Simulation with Dynamic Electricity Pricing: A Demand Response Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chun Lo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal dispatch model of an ice storage air-conditioning system for participants to quickly and accurately perform energy saving and demand response, and to avoid the over contact with electricity price peak. The schedule planning for an ice storage air-conditioning system of demand response is mainly to transfer energy consumption from the peak load to the partial-peak or off-peak load. Least Squares Regression (LSR is used to obtain the polynomial function for the cooling capacity and the cost of power consumption with a real ice storage air-conditioning system. Based on the dynamic electricity pricing, the requirements of cooling loads, and all technical constraints, the dispatch model of the ice-storage air-conditioning system is formulated to minimize the operation cost. The Improved Ripple Bee Swarm Optimization (IRBSO algorithm is proposed to solve the dispatch model of the ice storage air-conditioning system in a daily schedule on summer. Simulation results indicate that reasonable solutions provide a practical and flexible framework allowing the demand response of ice storage air-conditioning systems to demonstrate the optimization of its energy savings and operational efficiency and offering greater energy efficiency.

  1. Mass Market Demand Response and Variable Generation Integration Issues: A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter; Mills, Andrew; Goldman, Charles; Wiser, Ryan; Eto, Joseph H.

    2011-09-10

    This scoping study focuses on the policy issues inherent in the claims made by some Smart Grid proponents that the demand response potential of mass market customers which is enabled by widespread implementation of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) through the Smart Grid could be the “silver bullet” for mitigating variable generation integration issues. In terms of approach, we will: identify key issues associated with integrating large amounts of variable generation into the bulk power system; identify demand response opportunities made more readily available to mass market customers through widespread deployment of AMI systems and how they can affect the bulk power system; assess the extent to which these mass market Demand Response (DR) opportunities can mitigate Variable Generation (VG) integration issues in the near-term and what electricity market structures and regulatory practices could be changed to further expand the ability for DR to mitigate VG integration issues over the long term; and provide a qualitative comparison of DR and other approaches to mitigate VG integration issues.

  2. Analysis of Open Automated Demand Response Deployments in California and Guidelines to Transition to Industry Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatikar, Girish; Riess, David; Piette, Mary Ann

    2014-01-02

    This report reviews the Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) deployments within the territories serviced by California?s investor-owned utilities (IOUs) and the transition from the OpenADR 1.0 specification to the formal standard?OpenADR 2.0. As demand response service providers and customers start adopting OpenADR 2.0, it is necessary to ensure that the existing Automated Demand Response (AutoDR) infrastructure investment continues to be useful and takes advantage of the formal standard and its many benefits. This study focused on OpenADR deployments and systems used by the California IOUs and included a summary of the OpenADR deployment from the U.S. Department of Energy-funded demonstration conducted by the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory collected and analyzed data about OpenADR 1.0 deployments, categorized architectures, developed a data model mapping to understand the technical compatibility of each version, and compared the capabilities and features of the two specifications. The findings, for the first time, provided evidence of the total enabled load shed and average first cost for system enablement in the IOU and SMUD service territories. The OpenADR 2.0a profile specification semantically supports AutoDR system architectures and data propagation with a testing and certification program that promotes interoperability, scaled deployments by multiple vendors, and provides additional features that support future services.

  3. A Load Prioritization Model for a Smart Demand Responsive Energy Management System in the Residential Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suratsavadee Koonlaboon KORKUA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to strengthen energy security while reducing environmental impact, particularly from global warming and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, the government of Thailand has established a 20-year Energy Efficiency Development Plan (EEDP, aiming to reduce a 20 % share of final energy consumption by 2030. The energy saving potential assessment reveals that the forecasted energy saving by the residential sector holds more than 60 % of the overall electricity saving shares. Therefore, in this paper, the situation of Thailand’s energy is presented and the energy conservation plan is reviewed. Next, a smart demand responsive energy management system under ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 based wireless communication is proposed. An analysis of demand response potential in terms of a time-of-use (TOU pricing without enabling technology program in Thailand scenario is also investigated. Finally, by using the proposed load characterization and load prioritization under the concept of a smart energy management system, the bill savings benefits of a demand responsive program can be proved while the target of energy saving is also achieved.

  4. Findings from Seven Years of Field Performance Data for Automated Demand Response in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Mathieu, Johanna; Parrish, Kristen

    2010-05-14

    California is a leader in automating demand response (DR) to promote low-cost, consistent, and predictable electric grid management tools. Over 250 commercial and industrial facilities in California participate in fully-automated programs providing over 60 MW of peak DR savings. This paper presents a summary of Open Automated DR (OpenADR) implementation by each of the investor-owned utilities in California. It provides a summary of participation, DR strategies and incentives. Commercial buildings can reduce peak demand from 5 to 15percent with an average of 13percent. Industrial facilities shed much higher loads. For buildings with multi-year savings we evaluate their load variability and shed variability. We provide a summary of control strategies deployed, along with costs to install automation. We report on how the electric DR control strategies perform over many years of events. We benchmark the peak demand of this sample of buildings against their past baselines to understand the differences in building performance over the years. This is done with peak demand intensities and load factors. The paper also describes the importance of these data in helping to understand possible techniques to reach net zero energy using peak day dynamic control capabilities in commercial buildings. We present an example in which the electric load shape changed as a result of a lighting retrofit.

  5. Automated Demand Response Approaches to Household Energy Management in a Smart Grid Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adika, Christopher Otieno

    The advancement of renewable energy technologies and the deregulation of the electricity market have seen the emergence of Demand response (DR) programs. Demand response is a cost-effective load management strategy which enables the electricity suppliers to maintain the integrity of the power grid during high peak periods, when the customers' electrical load is high. DR programs are designed to influence electricity users to alter their normal consumption patterns by offering them financial incentives. A well designed incentive-based DR scheme that offer competitive electricity pricing structure can result in numerous benefits to all the players in the electricity market. Lower power consumption during peak periods will significantly enhance the robustness of constrained networks by reducing the level of power of generation and transmission infrastructure needed to provide electric service. Therefore, this will ease the pressure of building new power networks as we avoiding costly energy procurements thereby translating into huge financial savings for the power suppliers. Peak load reduction will also reduce the inconveniences suffered by end users as a result of brownouts or blackouts. Demand response will also drastically lower the price peaks associated with wholesale markets. This will in turn reduce the electricity costs and risks for all the players in the energy market. Additionally, DR is environmentally friendly since it enhances the flexibility of the power grid through accommodation of renewable energy resources. Despite its many benefits, DR has not been embraced by most electricity networks. This can be attributed to the fact that the existing programs do not provide enough incentives to the end users and, therefore, most electricity users are not willing to participate in them. To overcome these challenges, most utilities are coming up with innovative strategies that will be more attractive to their customers. Thus, this dissertation presents various

  6. Approaches to Enable Demand Response by Industrial Loads for Ancillary Services Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao

    Demand response has gained significant attention in recent years as it demonstrates potentials to enhance the power system's operational flexibility in a cost-effective way. Industrial loads such as aluminum smelters, steel manufacturers, and cement plants demonstrate advantages in supporting power system operation through demand response programs, because of their intensive power consumption, already existing advanced monitoring and control infrastructure, and the strong economic incentive due to the high energy costs. In this thesis, we study approaches to efficiently integrate each of these types of manufacturing processes as demand response resources. The aluminum smelting process is able to change its power consumption both accurately and quickly by controlling the pots' DC voltage, without affecting the production quality. Hence, an aluminum smelter has both the motivation and the ability to participate in demand response. First, we focus on determining the optimal regulation capacity that such a manufacturing plant should provide. Next, we focus on determining its optimal bidding strategy in the day-ahead energy and ancillary services markets. Electric arc furnaces (EAFs) in steel manufacturing consume a large amount of electric energy. However, a steel plant can take advantage of time-based electricity prices by optimally arranging energy-consuming activities to avoid peak hours. We first propose scheduling methods that incorporate the EAFs' flexibilities to reduce the electricity cost. We then propose methods to make the computations more tractable. Finally, we extend the scheduling formulations to enable the provision of spinning reserve. Cement plants are able to quickly adjust their power consumption rate by switching on/off the crushers. However, switching on/off the loading units only achieves discrete power changes, which restricts the load from offering valuable ancillary services such as regulation and load following, as continuous power changes

  7. Final Scientific Technical Report: INTEGRATED PREDICTIVE DEMAND RESPONSE CONTROLLER FOR COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Mike

    2013-10-14

    This project provides algorithms to perform demand response using the thermal mass of a building. Using the thermal mass of the building is an attractive method for performing demand response because there is no need for capital expenditure. The algorithms rely on the thermal capacitance inherent in the building?s construction materials. A near-optimal ?day ahead? predictive approach is developed that is meant to keep the building?s electrical demand constant during the high cost periods. This type of approach is appropriate for both time-of-use and critical peak pricing utility rate structures. The approach uses the past days data in order to determine the best temperature setpoints for the building during the high price periods on the next day. A second ?model predictive approach? (MPC) uses a thermal model of the building to determine the best temperature for the next sample period. The approach uses constant feedback from the building and is capable of appropriately handling real time pricing. Both approaches are capable of using weather forecasts to improve performance.

  8. Physiological demands of women's rugby union: time-motion analysis and heart rate response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virr, Jody Lynn; Game, Alex; Bell, Gordon John; Syrotuik, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physical demands of women's rugby union match play using time-motion analysis and heart rate (HR) response. Thirty-eight premier club level female rugby players, ages 18-34 years were videotaped and HRs monitored for a full match. Performances were coded into 12 different movement categories: 5 speeds of locomotion (standing, walking, jogging, striding, sprinting), 4 forms of intensive non-running exertion (ruck/maul/tackle, pack down, scrum, lift) and 3 discrete activities (kick, jump, open field tackle). The main results revealed that backs spend significantly more time sprinting and walking whereas forwards spend more time in intensive non-running exertion and jogging. Forwards also had a significantly higher total work frequency compared to the backs, but a higher total rest frequency compared to the backs. In terms of HR responses, forwards displayed higher mean HRs throughout the match and more time above 80% of their maximum HR than backs. In summary, women's rugby union is characterised by intermittent bursts of high-intensity activity, where forwards and backs have similar anaerobic energy demands, but different specific match demands.

  9. Hazard consistent structural demands and in-structure design response spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houston, Thomas W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Costantino, Michael C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Costantino, Carl J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Current analysis methodology for the Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) analysis of nuclear facilities is specified in ASCE Standard 4. This methodology is based on the use of deterministic procedures with the intention that enough conservatism is included in the specified procedures to achieve an 80% probability of non-exceedance in the computed response of a Structure, System. or Component for given a mean seismic design input. Recently developed standards are aimed at achieving performance-based, risk consistent seismic designs that meet specified target performance goals. These design approaches rely upon accurately characterizing the probability (hazard) level of system demands due to seismic loads consistent with Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analyses. This paper examines the adequacy of the deterministic SSI procedures described in ASCE 4-98 to achieve an 80th percentile of Non-Exceedance Probability (NEP) in structural demand, given a mean seismic input motion. The study demonstrates that the deterministic procedures provide computed in-structure response spectra that are near or greater than the target 80th percentile NEP for site profiles other than those resulting in high levels of radiation damping. The deterministic procedures do not appear to be as robust in predicting peak accelerations, which correlate to structural demands within the structure.

  10. California DREAMing: The design of residential demand responsive technology with people in mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peffer, Therese Evelyn

    Electrical utilities worldwide are exploring "demand response" programs to reduce electricity consumption during peak periods. Californian electrical utilities would like to pass the higher cost of peak demand to customers to offset costs, increase reliability, and reduce peak consumption. Variable pricing strategies require technology to communicate a dynamic price to customers and respond to that price. However, evidence from thermostat and energy display studies as well as research regarding energy-saving behaviors suggests that devices cannot effect residential demand response without the sanction and participation of people. This study developed several technologies to promote or enable residential demand response. First, along with a team of students and professors, I designed and tested the Demand Response Electrical Appliance Manager (DREAM). This wireless network of sensors, actuators, and controller with a user interface provides information to intelligently control a residential heating and cooling system and to inform people of their energy usage. We tested the system with computer simulation and in the laboratory and field. Secondly, as part of my contribution to the team, I evaluated machine-learning to predict a person's seasonal temperature preferences by analyzing existing data from office workers. The third part of the research involved developing an algorithm that generated temperature setpoints based on outdoor temperature. My study compared the simulated energy use using these setpoints to that using the setpoints of a programmable thermostat. Finally, I developed and tested a user interface for a thermostat and in-home energy display. This research tested the effects of both energy versus price information and the context of sponsorship on the behavior of subjects. I also surveyed subjects on the usefulness of various displays. The wireless network succeeded in providing detailed data to enable an intelligent controller and provide feedback to

  11. 77 FR 51935 - Adjustment of the Amount for the Optional Bond Rider for Proof of NVOCC Financial Responsibility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... 46 CFR Part 515 RIN 3072-AC46 Adjustment of the Amount for the Optional Bond Rider for Proof of NVOCC... bond coverage on the optional China Bond Rider for Non- Vessel-Operating Common Carriers (NVOCCs). The... bond rider to be filed with a licensed NVOCC's proof of financial responsibility to provide...

  12. Reducing Gridlock on the Grid: Utility Trends in Managing Peak Electric Load through Residential Demand Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Betsy

    Utilities across the United States are piloting residential demand response programs to help manage peak electric demand. Using publicly available program evaluations, this thesis analyzes nine such programs to uncover and synthesize the range of program offerings, goals, enrollment strategies, and customer experiences. This review reveals that program participation, components, and results differ based on a variety of factors, including geographic characteristics, program goals, and implementation strategies. The diversity of program designs and evaluation findings suggests an underlying tension between the need to generate cost-effective program impacts and the desire to increase accessibility so that program benefits are not exclusive to certain segments of the population. For more significant and impactful engagement, program goals may need to shift. State level policy support could help shift program goals toward increasing program accessibility. Future research should explore creative strategies that target existing barriers and allow for more inclusive deployment.

  13. Different Optimal Control Strategies for Exploitation of Demand Response in the Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Yi; Bindner, Henrik W.; Gehrke, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    resources, intermittent renewable energy resources in the Smart Grid. This paper presents different optimal control (Genetic Algorithm-based and Model Predictive Control-based) algorithms that schedule controlled loads in the industrial and residential sectors, based on dynamic price and weather forecast......To achieve a Danish energy supply based on 100% renewable energy from combinations of wind, biomass, wave and solar power in 2050 and to cover 50% of the Danish electricity consumption by wind power in 2025, it requires coordinated management of large numbers of distributed and demand response......, considering users’ comfort settings to meet an optimization objective, such as maximum profit or minimum energy consumption. It is demonstrated in this work that the GA-based and MPC-based optimal control strategies are able to achieve load shifting for grid reliability and energy savings, including demand...

  14. Understanding the Effect of Baseline Modeling Implementation Choices on Analysis of Demand Response Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of California, Berkeley; Addy, Nathan; Kiliccote, Sila; Mathieu, Johanna; Callaway, Duncan S.

    2012-06-13

    Accurate evaluation of the performance of buildings participating in Demand Response (DR) programs is critical to the adoption and improvement of these programs. Typically, we calculate load sheds during DR events by comparing observed electric demand against counterfactual predictions made using statistical baseline models. Many baseline models exist and these models can produce different shed calculations. Moreover, modelers implementing the same baseline model can make different modeling implementation choices, which may affect shed estimates. In this work, using real data, we analyze the effect of different modeling implementation choices on shed predictions. We focused on five issues: weather data source, resolution of data, methods for determining when buildings are occupied, methods for aligning building data with temperature data, and methods for power outage filtering. Results indicate sensitivity to the weather data source and data filtration methods as well as an immediate potential for automation of methods to choose building occupied modes.

  15. Demand Response Control in Low Voltage Grids for Technical and Commercial Aggregation Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz de Cerio Mendaza, Iker; Szczesny, Ireneusz; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2016-01-01

    hand, some of those represent a source of flexibility which can be used to satisfy different technical and commercial purposes. This paper introduces an upgraded hierarchical structure which aims to serve as a platform for activating and controlling the demand response in low voltage networks....... In this way, a system operator playing a role of an aggregator not only could trade flexible demand in the power markets but also materialize its energy agreements while ensuring the local network security and reliability. To verify the effectiveness of this extended method, a Danish low voltage networks...... is considered. The results show that it is possible to fulfill energy commitments in energy markets such as the regulation power market while respecting the proper network operation. However, the activation of the flexibility offered might be limited depending on the network characteristics and the season...

  16. Non-steady response of BOD biosensor for the determination of biochemical oxygen demand in wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velling, Siiri; Mashirin, Alexey; Hellat, Karin; Tenno, Toomas

    2011-01-01

    A biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) biosensor for effective and expeditious BOD(7) estimations was constructed and the non-steady phase of the output signal was extensively studied. The modelling approach introduced allows response curve reconstruction and a curve fitting procedure of good quality, resulting in parameters indicating the relationship between response and organic substrate concentration and stability properties of the BOD biosensor. Also, the immobilization matrixes of different thicknesses were characterized to determine their suitability for bio-sensing measurements in non-stationary conditions, as well as for the determination of the mechanical durability of the BOD biosensor in time. The non-steady response of the experimental output of the BOD biosensor was fitted according to the developed model that enables to determine the stability of the biosensor output and dependency on biodegradable organic substrate concentration. The calibration range of the studied BOD biosensor in OECD synthetic wastewater was 15-110 mg O(2) L(-1). Repeatability tests showed relative standard deviation (RSD) values of 2.8% and 5.8% for the parameter τ(d), characterizing the transient output of the amperometric oxygen sensor in time, and τ(s), describing the dependency of the transient response of the BOD biosensor on organic substrate concentration, respectively. BOD biosensor experiments for the evaluation of the biochemical oxygen demand of easily degradable and refractory municipal wastewater showed good concurrence with traditional BOD(7) analysis.

  17. Surprise responses in the human brain demonstrate statistical learning under high concurrent cognitive demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Marta Isabel; Teng, Chee Leong James; Taylor, Jeremy Alexander; Rowe, Elise Genevieve; Mattingley, Jason Brett

    2016-06-01

    The ability to learn about regularities in the environment and to make predictions about future events is fundamental for adaptive behaviour. We have previously shown that people can implicitly encode statistical regularities and detect violations therein, as reflected in neuronal responses to unpredictable events that carry a unique prediction error signature. In the real world, however, learning about regularities will often occur in the context of competing cognitive demands. Here we asked whether learning of statistical regularities is modulated by concurrent cognitive load. We compared electroencephalographic metrics associated with responses to pure-tone sounds with frequencies sampled from narrow or wide Gaussian distributions. We showed that outliers evoked a larger response than those in the centre of the stimulus distribution (i.e., an effect of surprise) and that this difference was greater for physically identical outliers in the narrow than in the broad distribution. These results demonstrate an early neurophysiological marker of the brain's ability to implicitly encode complex statistical structure in the environment. Moreover, we manipulated concurrent cognitive load by having participants perform a visual working memory task while listening to these streams of sounds. We again observed greater prediction error responses in the narrower distribution under both low and high cognitive load. Furthermore, there was no reliable reduction in prediction error magnitude under high-relative to low-cognitive load. Our findings suggest that statistical learning is not a capacity limited process, and that it proceeds automatically even when cognitive resources are taxed by concurrent demands.

  18. Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project for Small and Medium Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Janie; Kiliccote, Sila; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Piette, Mary Ann; Chiu, Albert K.; Kellow, Bashar; Koch, Ed; Lipkin, Paul

    2011-07-01

    Small and medium commercial customers in California make up about 20-25% of electric peak load in California. With the roll out of smart meters to this customer group, which enable granular measurement of electricity consumption, the investor-owned utilities will offer dynamic prices as default tariffs by the end of 2011. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, which successfully deployed Automated Demand Response (AutoDR) Programs to its large commercial and industrial customers, started investigating the same infrastructures application to the small and medium commercial customers. This project aims to identify available technologies suitable for automating demand response for small-medium commercial buildings; to validate the extent to which that technology does what it claims to be able to do; and determine the extent to which customers find the technology useful for DR purpose. Ten sites, enabled by eight vendors, participated in at least four test AutoDR events per site in the summer of 2010. The results showed that while existing technology can reliably receive OpenADR signals and translate them into pre-programmed response strategies, it is likely that better levels of load sheds could be obtained than what is reported here if better understanding of the building systems were developed and the DR response strategies had been carefully designed and optimized for each site.

  19. 10 CFR 202.25 - Procedure where a decision concerning a demand is not made prior to the time a response to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure where a decision concerning a demand is not made prior to the time a response to the demand is required. 202.25 Section 202.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... is not made prior to the time a response to the demand is required. If response to the demand...

  20. 22 CFR 206.4 - Procedure where a decision concerning a demand is not made prior to the time a response to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure where a decision concerning a demand is not made prior to the time a response to the demand is required. 206.4 Section 206.4 Foreign... prior to the time a response to the demand is required. If the response to the demand is required...

  1. Breast fibromatosis response to tamoxifen: dynamic MRI findings and review of the current treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Michael J; Yepes, Monica

    2012-03-01

    Breast fibromatosis is a rare entity responsible for 0.2% of all solid breast tumors. It has been associated with scars, pregnancy, implants, and familial adenomatous polyposis. We present an interesting case of breast fibromatosis in a 29 year old woman which encroached upon her saline implant and subsequently filled its cavity once the implant was removed. The patient was put on tamoxifen therapy and at 14 month follow-up there was a significant decrease in the size of the mass. Dynamic MRI images are offered for review and current treatment options are discussed.

  2. Day-Ahead Scheduling Considering Demand Response as a Frequency Control Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Qing Bao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of advanced metering technologies makes demand response (DR able to provide fast response services, e.g., primary frequency control. It is recognized that DR can contribute to the primary frequency control like thermal generators. This paper proposes a day-ahead scheduling method that considers DR as a frequency control resource, so that the DR resources can be dispatched properly with other resources. In the proposed method, the objective of frequency control is realized by defining a frequency limit equation under a supposed contingency. The frequency response model is used to model the dynamics of system frequency. The nonlinear frequency limit equation is transformed to a linear arithmetic equation by piecewise linearization, so that the problem can be solved by mixed integer linear programming (MILP. Finally, the proposed method is verified on numerical examples.

  3. Effects of Granular Control on Customers’ Perspective and Behavior with Automated Demand Response Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schetrit, Oren; Kim, Joyce; Yin, Rongxin; Kiliccote, Sila

    2014-08-01

    Automated demand response (Auto-DR) is expected to close the loop between buildings and the grid by providing machine-to-machine communications to curtail loads without the need for human intervention. Hence, it can offer more reliable and repeatable demand response results to the grid than the manual approach and make demand response participation a hassle-free experience for customers. However, many building operators misunderstand Auto-DR and are afraid of losing control over their building operation. To ease the transition from manual to Auto-DR, we designed and implemented granular control of Auto-DR systems so that building operators could modify or opt out of individual load-shed strategies whenever they wanted. This paper reports the research findings from this effort demonstrated through a field study in large commercial buildings located in New York City. We focused on (1) understanding how providing granular control affects building operators’ perspective on Auto-DR, and (2) evaluating the usefulness of granular control by examining their interaction with the Auto-DR user interface during test events. Through trend log analysis, interviews, and surveys, we found that: (1) the opt-out capability during Auto-DR events can remove the feeling of being forced into load curtailments and increase their willingness to adopt Auto-DR; (2) being able to modify individual load-shed strategies allows flexible Auto-DR participation that meets the building’s changing operational requirements; (3) a clear display of automation strategies helps building operators easily identify how Auto-DR is functioning and can build trust in Auto-DR systems.

  4. Understanding energy consumption behaviors in order to adapt demand response measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassileva, Iana; Wallin, Fredrik; Dahlquist, Erik [Malardalen University (Sweden)], email: iana.vassileva@mdh.se, email: fredrik.wallin@mdh.se, email: erik.dahlquist@mdh.se

    2011-07-01

    When new price strategies and other demand-response measures are being established, it is important that amounts of electricity consumed and the potential for consumer participation be given serious consideration. It is important to encourage consumers to use less electricity if sustainable use of energy is to be achieved. Demand-response is a key component of the smart grids concept. So it is vital to get a comprehensive understanding of how different processes and factors influence the end use of energy. This paper presents an in-depth analysis of questionnaire responses from 2000 households in Vaxjo, Sweden. It sheds new light on the energy consumption behaviors of Swedish householders. Since 2008 Vaxjo householder customers have been able to check their own daily electricity consumption and get advice and tips, via a website provided by the local energy company, on how to lower the use of electricity. At the present time, of those responding to the questionnaire, this website is visited more frequently by people who live in houses than in apartments.

  5. Multi-Agent System-Based Microgrid Operation Strategy for Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jun Cha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The microgrid and demand response (DR are important technologies for future power grids. Among the variety of microgrid operations, the multi-agent system (MAS has attracted considerable attention. In a microgrid with MAS, the agents installed on the microgrid components operate optimally by communicating with each other. This paper proposes an operation algorithm for the individual agents of a test microgrid that consists of a battery energy storage system (BESS and an intelligent load. A microgrid central controller to manage the microgrid can exchange information with each agent. The BESS agent performs scheduling for maximum benefit in response to the electricity price and BESS state of charge (SOC through a fuzzy system. The intelligent load agent assumes that the industrial load performs scheduling for maximum benefit by calculating the hourly production cost. The agent operation algorithm includes a scheduling algorithm using day-ahead pricing in the DR program and a real-time operation algorithm for emergency situations using emergency demand response (EDR. The proposed algorithm and operation strategy were implemented both by a hardware-in-the-loop simulation test using OPAL-RT and an actual hardware test by connecting a new distribution simulator.

  6. Comparison of the marketing of demand response capacity and of power plant capacity in the minutes reserve market; Vergleich der Vermarktung von Demand-Response- und Kraftwerksleistung auf dem Minutenreservemarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marz, Waldemar; Tzscheutschler, Peter [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft und Anwendungstechnik; Henle, Markus [Stadtwerke Muenchen (Germany). Energiewirtschaft

    2013-03-15

    The greatest challenge in integrating renewable energies into the German and European power supply system lies in levelling out the imbalances between the fluctuating supply of energy from the wind and sun on the one side and the steady demand of the consumers on the other. Aside from the expansion of supra-regional transmission systems and storage power plants one instrument that has raised great hopes is the possibility of adapting demand to supply. These methods are known by the names of demand response (DR) or demand side management (DSM) and are at the core of the ''smart grid'' concept.

  7. Design and Co-simulation of Hierarchical Architecture for Demand Response Control and Coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Lévesque, Martin; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    Demand response (DR) plays a key role for optimum asset utilization and to avoid or delay the need of new infrastructure investment. However, coordinated execution of multiple DRs is desired to maximize the DR benefits. In this study, we propose a hierarchical DR architecture (HDRA) to control...... and coordinate the performance of various DR categories such that the operation of every DR category is backed-up by time delayed action of the others. A reliable, cost-effective communication infrastructure based on ZigBee, WiMAX, and fibers is designed to facilitate the HDRA execution. The performance...

  8. Approaches for Accommodating Demand Response in Operational Problems and Assessing its Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh

    operators through established frameworks. Such frameworks are not suited to interaction with large numbers of individual flexible loads, so it is necessary to establish a representation of their aggregated flexibility that can be effectively communicated to system and market operators. In this thesis we...... investments will be made to establish and operate the resource. A positive commercial assessment will signal to investors that the resource can offer a return on their investment, and that it can thrive in a competitive environment. We consider both the social welfare and commercial value of demand response...

  9. Day-Ahead Congestion Management in Distribution Systems through Household Demand Response and Distribution Congestion Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Weijia; Wu, Qiuwei; Wen, Fushuan

    2014-01-01

    into balancing power might challenge the operation of electric distribution systems and cause congestions. This paper presents a distribution congestion price (DCP) based market mechanism to alleviate possible distribution system congestions. By employing the loca- tional marginal pricing (LMP) model......, the proposed DCPs are able to reflect the real congestion cost and further direct the schedule of the responses of electric demands. Based on the NordPool Spot market structure, the interactions between aggregators and the distribution system operator (DSO) are discussed, and the procedure for calculating DCPs...

  10. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration -- Phase 2 Findings from the Summer of 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Parker, Eric; Bernier, Clark; Young, Paul; Sheehan, Dave; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan

    2009-04-30

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneering demonstration showing that existing utility load-management assets can provide an important electricity system reliability resource known as spinning reserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinning reserve as demonstrated in this project will give grid operators at the California Independent System Operator (CA ISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful new tool to improve reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lower grid operating costs.In the first phase of this demonstration project, we target marketed SCE?s air-conditioning (AC) load-cycling program, called the Summer Discount Plan (SDP), to customers on a single SCE distribution feederand developed an external website with real-time telemetry for the aggregated loads on this feeder and conducted a large number of short-duration curtailments of participating customers? air-conditioning units to simulate provision of spinning reserve. In this second phase of the demonstration project, we explored four major elements that would be critical for this demonstration to make the transition to a commercial activity:1. We conducted load curtailments within four geographically distinct feeders to determine the transferability of target marketing approaches and better understand the performance of SCE?s load management dispatch system as well as variations in the AC use of SCE?s participating customers;2. We deployed specialized, near-real-time AC monitoring devices to improve our understanding of the aggregated load curtailments we observe on the feeders;3. We integrated information provided by the AC monitoring devices with information from SCE?s load management dispatch system to measure the time required for each step in the curtailment process; and4. We established connectivity with the CA ISO to explore the steps involved in responding to CA ISO-initiated requests for dispatch of spinning reserve.The major findings from

  11. Impacts of demand response and renewable generation in electricity power market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhechong

    This thesis presents the objective of the research which is to analyze the impacts of uncertain wind power and demand response on power systems operation and power market clearing. First, in order to effectively utilize available wind generation, it is usually given the highest priority by assigning zero or negative energy bidding prices when clearing the day-ahead electric power market. However, when congestion occurs, negative wind bidding prices would aggravate locational marginal prices (LMPs) to be negative in certain locations. A load shifting model is explored to alleviate possible congestions and enhance the utilization of wind generation, by shifting proper amount of load from peak hours to off peaks. The problem is to determine proper amount of load to be shifted, for enhancing the utilization of wind generation, alleviating transmission congestions, and making LMPs to be non-negative values. The second piece of work considered the price-based demand response (DR) program which is a mechanism for electricity consumers to dynamically manage their energy consumption in response to time-varying electricity prices. It encourages consumers to reduce their energy consumption when electricity prices are high, and thereby reduce the peak electricity demand and alleviate the pressure to power systems. However, it brings additional dynamics and new challenges on the real-time supply and demand balance. Specifically, price-sensitive DR load levels are constantly changing in response to dynamic real-time electricity prices, which will impact the economic dispatch (ED) schedule and in turn affect electricity market clearing prices. This thesis adopts two methods for examining the impacts of different DR price elasticity characteristics on the stability performance: a closed-loop iterative simulation method and a non-iterative method based on the contraction mapping theorem. This thesis also analyzes the financial stability of DR load consumers, by incorporating

  12. Corporate social responsibility: a real options approach to the challenge of financial sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch-Badia, Maria-Teresa; Montllor-Serrats, Joan; Tarrazon-Rodon, Maria-Antonia

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary complex societies, social values like ethics, corporate social responsibility, and being respectful with the environment, among others, are becoming social requirements. Corporations are expected to fulfill them and, according to empirical evidence, an overwhelming majority aspires to good social valuation. At the same time, the maximization of market share value in the long run continues to be the central corporate goal. Making environmental and social expenses compatible with value creation is a central challenge for corporations since it implies the financial sustainability of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The value creation capacity of CSR projects, mainly through innovation, is widely acknowledged in economic literature and corporate practice. This fact arouses the need of having a quantitative framework capable of summarizing the value creation capacity of the variables involved in CSR projects. With this aim we build up a sensitivity analysis of real option ratios that studies and quantifies the value creation capacity of CSR projects connected with innovation. Ratio analysis has the advantage of being scale independent. Hence, it furnishes a homogeneous framework to express the interaction of value creation variables and, thus, supports strategic thinking quantitatively. Often, CSR expenses can be regarded as preliminary projects that create the opportunity to undertake a full future project. For them, we obtain the minimum expectations scenario that makes financially sustainable a preliminary project that can be interpreted as a call option. We propose a classification of CSR projects from the decision analysis perspective following a two-fold approach: Their relationship with value creation and their links with existing corporate activities. This classification of CSR projects aims at contributing to choose the best capital budgeting method to study the financial sustainability of the project and identifying those CSR projects

  13. Corporate social responsibility: a real options approach to the challenge of financial sustainability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Teresa Bosch-Badia

    Full Text Available In contemporary complex societies, social values like ethics, corporate social responsibility, and being respectful with the environment, among others, are becoming social requirements. Corporations are expected to fulfill them and, according to empirical evidence, an overwhelming majority aspires to good social valuation. At the same time, the maximization of market share value in the long run continues to be the central corporate goal. Making environmental and social expenses compatible with value creation is a central challenge for corporations since it implies the financial sustainability of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR.The value creation capacity of CSR projects, mainly through innovation, is widely acknowledged in economic literature and corporate practice. This fact arouses the need of having a quantitative framework capable of summarizing the value creation capacity of the variables involved in CSR projects. With this aim we build up a sensitivity analysis of real option ratios that studies and quantifies the value creation capacity of CSR projects connected with innovation. Ratio analysis has the advantage of being scale independent. Hence, it furnishes a homogeneous framework to express the interaction of value creation variables and, thus, supports strategic thinking quantitatively. Often, CSR expenses can be regarded as preliminary projects that create the opportunity to undertake a full future project. For them, we obtain the minimum expectations scenario that makes financially sustainable a preliminary project that can be interpreted as a call option. We propose a classification of CSR projects from the decision analysis perspective following a two-fold approach: Their relationship with value creation and their links with existing corporate activities. This classification of CSR projects aims at contributing to choose the best capital budgeting method to study the financial sustainability of the project and identifying

  14. Reversibly pH-responsive polyurethane membranes for on-demand intravaginal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungil; Chen, Yufei; Ho, Emmanuel A; Liu, Song

    2017-01-01

    To provide better protection for women against sexually transmitted infections, on-demand intravaginal drug delivery was attempted by synthesizing reversibly pH-sensitive polyether-polyurethane copolymers using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and 1,4-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine (HEP). Chemical structure and thermo-characteristics of the synthesized polyurethanes were confirmed by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR), and melting point testing. Membranes were cast by solvent evaporation method using the prepared pH-sensitive polyurethanes. The impact of varying pH on membrane swelling and surface morphology was evaluated via swelling ratio change and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The prepared pH-responsive membranes showed two times higher swelling ratio at pH 4 than pH 7 and pH-triggered switchable surface morphology change. The anionic anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (NaDF) was used as a model compound for release studies. The prepared pH-responsive polyurethane membranes allowed continuous NaDF release for 24h and around 20% release of total NaDF within 3h at pH 7 but little-to-no drug release at pH 4.5. NaDF permeation across the prepared membranes demonstrated a reversible pH-responsiveness. The pH-responsive polyurethane membranes did not show any noticeable negative impact on vaginal epithelial cell viability or induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine production compared to controls. Overall, the non-cytotoxic HEP-based pH-responsive polyurethane demonstrated its potential to be used in membrane-based implants such as intravaginal rings to achieve on-demand "on-and-off" intravaginal drug delivery.

  15. A Comparison of Sales Response Predictions From Demand Models Applied to Store-Level versus Panel Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrews, Rick L.; Currim, Imran S.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.

    2011-01-01

    In order to generate sales promotion response predictions, marketing analysts estimate demand models using either disaggregated (consumer-level) or aggregated (store-level) scanner data. Comparison of predictions from these demand models is complicated by the fact that models may accommodate differe

  16. Development and Demonstration of the Open Automated Demand Response Standard for the Residential Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herter, Karen; Rasin, Josh; Perry, Tim

    2009-11-30

    The goal of this study was to demonstrate a demand response system that can signal nearly every customer in all sectors through the integration of two widely available and non- proprietary communications technologies--Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) over lnternet protocol and Utility Messaging Channel (UMC) over FM radio. The outcomes of this project were as follows: (1) a software bridge to allow translation of pricing signals from OpenADR to UMC; and (2) a portable demonstration unit with an lnternet-connected notebook computer, a portfolio of DR-enabling technologies, and a model home. The demonstration unit provides visitors the opportunity to send electricity-pricing information over the lnternet (through OpenADR and UMC) and then watch as the model appliances and lighting respond to the signals. The integration of OpenADR and UMC completed and demonstrated in this study enables utilities to send hourly or sub-hourly electricity pricing information simultaneously to the residential, commercial and industrial sectors.

  17. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response in the California Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank; Faulkner, David; McKane, Aimee

    2010-12-22

    This study examines the characteristics of cement plants and their ability to shed or shift load to participate in demand response (DR). Relevant factors investigated include the various equipment and processes used to make cement, the operational limitations cement plants are subject to, and the quantities and sources of energy used in the cement-making process. Opportunities for energy efficiency improvements are also reviewed. The results suggest that cement plants are good candidates for DR participation. The cement industry consumes over 400 trillion Btu of energy annually in the United States, and consumes over 150 MW of electricity in California alone. The chemical reactions required to make cement occur only in the cement kiln, and intermediate products are routinely stored between processing stages without negative effects. Cement plants also operate continuously for months at a time between shutdowns, allowing flexibility in operational scheduling. In addition, several examples of cement plants altering their electricity consumption based on utility incentives are discussed. Further study is needed to determine the practical potential for automated demand response (Auto-DR) and to investigate the magnitude and shape of achievable sheds and shifts.

  18. Distributed Power Control Network and Green Building Test-Bed for Demand Response in Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Kei; Nguyen, Van Ky; Tao, Yu; Tran, Gia Khanh; Araki, Kiyomichi

    It is known that demand and supply power balancing is an essential method to operate power delivery system and prevent blackouts caused by power shortage. In this paper, we focus on the implementation of demand response strategy to save power during peak hours by using Smart Grid. It is obviously impractical with centralized power control network to realize the real-time control performance, where a single central controller measures the huge metering data and sends control command back to all customers. For that purpose, we propose a new architecture of hierarchical distributed power control network which is scalable regardless of the network size. The sub-controllers are introduced to partition the large system into smaller distributed clusters where low-latency local feedback power control loops are conducted to guarantee control stability. Furthermore, sub-controllers are stacked up in an hierarchical manner such that data are fed back layer-by-layer in the inbound while in the outbound control responses are decentralized in each local sub-controller for realizing the global objectives. Numerical simulations in a realistic scenario of up to 5000 consumers show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme to achieve a desired 10% peak power saving by using off-the-shelf wireless devices with IEEE802.15.4g standard. In addition, a small scale power control system for green building test-bed is implemented to demonstrate the potential use of the proposed scheme for power saving in real life.

  19. Demand Response Advanced Controls Framework and Assessment of Enabling Technology Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Jennifer; Cappers, Peter

    2017-08-28

    The Demand Response Advanced Controls Framework and Assessment of Enabling Technology Costs research describe a variety of DR opportunities and the various bulk power system services they can provide. The bulk power system services are mapped to a generalized taxonomy of DR “service types”, which allows us to discuss DR opportunities and bulk power system services in fewer yet broader categories that share similar technological requirements which mainly drive DR enablement costs. The research presents a framework for the costs to automate DR and provides descriptions of the various elements that drive enablement costs. The report introduces the various DR enabling technologies and end-uses, identifies the various services that each can provide to the grid and provides the cost assessment for each enabling technology. In addition to a report, this research includes a Demand Response Advanced Controls Database and User Manual. They are intended to provide users with the data that underlies this research and instructions for how to use that database more effectively and efficiently.

  20. Emergency response network design for hazardous materials transportation with uncertain demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Shahanaghi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Transportation of hazardous materials play an essential role on keeping a friendly environment. Every day, a substantial amount of hazardous materials (hazmats, such as flammable liquids and poisonous gases, need to be transferred prior to consumption or disposal. Such transportation may result in unsuitable events for people and environment. Emergency response network is designed for this reason where specialist responding teams resolve any issue as quickly as possible. This study proposes a new multi-objective model to locate emergency response centers for transporting the hazardous materials. Since many real-world applications are faced with uncertainty in input parameters, the proposed model of this paper also assumes that reference and demand to such centre is subject to uncertainty, where demand is fuzzy random. The resulted problem formulation is modelled as nonlinear non-convex mixed integer programming and we used NSGAII method to solve the resulted problem. The performance of the proposed model is examined with several examples using various probability distribution and they are compared with the performance of other existing method.

  1. Market and policy barriers for demand response providing ancillary services in U.S. markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); MacDonald, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This study provides an examination of various market and policy barriers to demand response providing ancillary services in both ISO/RTO and non-ISO/RTO regions, especially at the program provider level. It is useful to classify barriers in order to create a holistic understanding and identify parties that could be responsible for their removal. This study develops a typology of barriers focusing on smaller customers that must rely on a program provider (i.e., electric investor owned utility or IOU, ARC) to create an aggregated DR resource in order to bring ancillary services to the balancing authority. The barriers were identified through examinations of regulatory structures, market environments, and product offerings; and discussions with industry stakeholders and regulators. In order to help illustrate the differences in barriers among various wholesale market designs and their constituent retail environments, four regions were chosen to use as case studies: Colorado, Texas, Wisconsin, and New Jersey.

  2. Water Demands with Two Adaptation Responses to Climate Change in a Mexican Irrigation District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, W.; Iñiguez-Covarrubias, M.; Rojano, A.

    2012-12-01

    It is well documented that climate change is inevitable and that farmers need to adapt to changes in projected climate. Changes in water demands for a Mexican irrigation district were assessed using an irrigation scheduling model. The impact of two adaptations actions on water demands were estimated and compared with a baseline scenario. Wet and dry cropping plans were selected from the last 15 water years with actual climatology (1961-1990) taken as reference and three A1B climate change projection periods P1, P2 and P3 (2011-2040, 2041-2070, and 2071-2098). Projected precipitation and air temperature (medium, maximum and minimum) data were obtained through weighted averages of the best CGCM projections for Mexico, available at the IPCC data distribution center, using the Reliability Ensemble Averaging method (REA). Two adaptation farmers' responses were analyzed: use of longer season varieties and reduction of planting dates toward colder season as warming intensifies in the future. An annual accumulated ETo value of 1554 mm was estimated for the base period P0. Cumulative and Daily irrigations demands were generated for each agricultural season using the four climate projection series and considering adaptations actions. Figure 1 integrates in a unique net flow curve for the Fall-Winter season under selected adaptations actions. The simulation results indicated that for mid century (Period P2), the use of longer-season cultivars (AV) will have more pronounced effect in daily net flow based than the reduction of planting season (APS) as climate change intensifies during present century. Without adaptation (WA), the increase in temperature will shorten the growing season of all annual crops, generating a peak shift with respect to reference case (WA-P0). Combined adoptions of adaptation actions (AP+V) can generate higher, peak and cumulative, crop water requirements than actual values as Figure 1 shows. There are clear trends that without adaptations, water

  3. Crop Production under Drought and Heat Stress: Plant Responses and Management Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Fahad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses are one of the major constraints to crop production and food security worldwide. The situation has aggravated due to the drastic and rapid changes in global climate. Heat and drought are undoubtedly the two most important stresses having huge impact on growth and productivity of the crops. It is very important to understand the physiological, biochemical, and ecological interventions related to these stresses for better management. A wide range of plant responses to these stresses could be generalized into morphological, physiological, and biochemical responses. Interestingly, this review provides a detailed account of plant responses to heat and drought stresses with special focus on highlighting the commonalities and differences. Crop growth and yields are negatively affected by sub-optimal water supply and abnormal temperatures due to physical damages, physiological disruptions, and biochemical changes. Both these stresses have multi-lateral impacts and therefore, complex in mechanistic action. A better understanding of plant responses to these stresses has pragmatic implication for remedies and management. A comprehensive account of conventional as well as modern approaches to deal with heat and drought stresses have also been presented here. A side-by-side critical discussion on salient responses and management strategies for these two important abiotic stresses provides a unique insight into the phenomena. A holistic approach taking into account the different management options to deal with heat and drought stress simultaneously could be a win-win approach in future.

  4. Crop Production under Drought and Heat Stress: Plant Responses and Management Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahad, Shah; Bajwa, Ali A; Nazir, Usman; Anjum, Shakeel A; Farooq, Ayesha; Zohaib, Ali; Sadia, Sehrish; Nasim, Wajid; Adkins, Steve; Saud, Shah; Ihsan, Muhammad Z; Alharby, Hesham; Wu, Chao; Wang, Depeng; Huang, Jianliang

    2017-01-01

    Abiotic stresses are one of the major constraints to crop production and food security worldwide. The situation has aggravated due to the drastic and rapid changes in global climate. Heat and drought are undoubtedly the two most important stresses having huge impact on growth and productivity of the crops. It is very important to understand the physiological, biochemical, and ecological interventions related to these stresses for better management. A wide range of plant responses to these stresses could be generalized into morphological, physiological, and biochemical responses. Interestingly, this review provides a detailed account of plant responses to heat and drought stresses with special focus on highlighting the commonalities and differences. Crop growth and yields are negatively affected by sub-optimal water supply and abnormal temperatures due to physical damages, physiological disruptions, and biochemical changes. Both these stresses have multi-lateral impacts and therefore, complex in mechanistic action. A better understanding of plant responses to these stresses has pragmatic implication for remedies and management. A comprehensive account of conventional as well as modern approaches to deal with heat and drought stresses have also been presented here. A side-by-side critical discussion on salient responses and management strategies for these two important abiotic stresses provides a unique insight into the phenomena. A holistic approach taking into account the different management options to deal with heat and drought stress simultaneously could be a win-win approach in future.

  5. ISO New England: Results of Ancillary Service Pilot Programs, Alternative Technology Regulation Pilot Program and Demand Response Reserves Pilot Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowell, Jon [ISO New England, Holyoke, MA (United States); Yoshimura, Henry [ISO New England, Holyoke, MA (United States)

    2011-10-26

    This PowerPoint presentation compares performance of pilot program assets and generation resources in alternative technology regulation and demand response reserves for flywheels and residential electric thermal storage.

  6. The Integration of Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy, DemandResponse and Climate Change: Challenges and Opportunities for Evaluatorsand Planners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, Edward

    2007-05-29

    This paper explores the feasibility of integrating energyefficiency program evaluation with the emerging need for the evaluationof programs from different "energy cultures" (demand response, renewableenergy, and climate change). The paper reviews key features andinformation needs of the energy cultures and critically reviews theopportunities and challenges associated with integrating these withenergy efficiency program evaluation. There is a need to integrate thedifferent policy arenas where energy efficiency, demand response, andclimate change programs are developed, and there are positive signs thatthis integration is starting to occur.

  7. A fuzzy chance-constrained program for unit commitment problem considering demand response, electric vehicle and wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ning; Hu, Zhaoguang; Han, Xue

    2015-01-01

    commitment model is proposed in this paper considering demand response and electric vehicles, which can promote the exploitation of wind power. On the one hand, demand response and electric vehicles have the feasi- bility to change the load demand curve to solve the mismatch problem. On the other hand......, they can serve as reserve for wind power. To deal with the unit commitment problem, authors use a fuzzy chance- constrained program that takes into account the wind power forecasting errors. The numerical study shows that the model can promote the utilization of wind power evidently, making the power...

  8. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California -- Phase I Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Song, Katherine; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-04-01

    This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory?s research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities for wastewater treatment facilities in California. The report describes the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy use and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities. In addition, several energy efficiency and load management case studies are provided for wastewater treatment facilities.This study shows that wastewater treatment facilities can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for automated demand response at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to open automated demand response due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

  9. Building political will for HIV response: an operational model and strategy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkerhoff, Derick W

    2016-10-01

    As global programs for HIV response look to transfer responsibility and financing increasingly to country governments, the political will to take on these responsibilities becomes increasingly prominent. However, defining and assessing political will are problematic; it involves intent and motivation, and thus is inherently difficult to observe. It is intimately connected to capacity and is contextually embedded. This article describes an operational model of political will comprised of seven components that are observable and measurable. Two case studies illustrate the application of the model and shed light on the interconnections among commitment, capacity and context: South Africa and China. Strategy options to build political will for HIV response identify possible actions for both government and civil society. Political will as a concept is most usefully viewed as integrated within larger political and bureaucratic processes, as a product of the complex array of incentives and disincentives that those processes create. However, this conclusion is not a recipe for discouragement or inaction. Agent-based conceptualizations of policy change offer a solid grounding for building political will that supports HIV policy and programs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Data-Driven Baseline Estimation of Residential Buildings for Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saehong Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The advent of advanced metering infrastructure (AMI generates a large volume of data related with energy service. This paper exploits data mining approach for customer baseline load (CBL estimation in demand response (DR management. CBL plays a significant role in measurement and verification process, which quantifies the amount of demand reduction and authenticates the performance. The proposed data-driven baseline modeling is based on the unsupervised learning technique. Specifically we leverage both the self organizing map (SOM and K-means clustering for accurate estimation. This two-level approach efficiently reduces the large data set into representative weight vectors in SOM, and then these weight vectors are clustered by K-means clustering to find the load pattern that would be similar to the potential load pattern of the DR event day. To verify the proposed method, we conduct nationwide scale experiments where three major cities’ residential consumption is monitored by smart meters. Our evaluation compares the proposed solution with the various types of day matching techniques, showing that our approach outperforms the existing methods by up to a 68.5% lower error rate.

  11. Multi-Objective Low-Carbon Economic Dispatch Considering Demand Response with Wind Power Integrated Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wenjuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The generation cost, carbon emissions and customers’ satisfaction are considered in this paper. On the basis of this, the multi-objective and low-carbon economic dispatch model with wind farm, this considers demand response, is established. The model user stochastic programming theory to describe the uncertainty of the wind power and converts it into an equivalent deterministic model by using distribution function of wind power output, optimizes demand side resources to adjust the next day load curve and to improve load rate and absorptive capacity of wind power, introduce customers’ satisfaction to ensure that the scheduling scheme satisfies customer and integrate the resources of source and load to unify coordination wind farm access to network and to meet the requirements of energy saving and emission reduction. The search process of artificial fish school algorithm introducing Tabu search and more targeted search mechanism, an multi-objective improved artificial fish school algorithm is proposed to solve this model. Using the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS to sort the Pareto frontier, the optimal scheduling scheme is determined. Simulation results verify the rationality and validity of the proposed model and algorithm.

  12. Female but not male zebra finches adjust heat output in response to increased incubation demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Davina L; Lindström, Jan; McCafferty, Dominic J; Nager, Ruedi G

    2014-04-15

    In many incubating birds, heat transfer from parent to egg is facilitated by the brood patch, an area of ventral abdominal skin that becomes highly vascularised, swells and loses its down feathers around the time of laying. Only the female develops a brood patch in most passerine species, but males of some species can incubate and maintain the eggs at similar temperatures to females even without a brood patch. Here we used a novel application of infrared thermography to examine sex differences in parental care from a physiological perspective. Using incubating male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), a species in which the male lacks a brood patch, we measured the surface temperature of the ventral plumage overlying the abdomen and a reference area that does not contact the eggs (thorax) twice per pair. In half of the pairs, clutch size was experimentally enlarged between the two sets of measurements to increase incubation demand. We found that the temperature differential between abdomen and thorax plumage was greater in females than in males, and that abdomen plumage was warmer after clutch enlargement than before in females but not in males. These findings are consistent with morphological sex differences in brood patch development and suggest that male and female zebra finches differ in the way they regulate abdomen versus general body surface temperature in response to variation in incubation demand.

  13. A Price-Based Demand Response Scheme for Discrete Manufacturing in Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Luo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Demand response (DR is a key technique in smart grid (SG technologies for reducing energy costs and maintaining the stability of electrical grids. Since manufacturing is one of the major consumers of electrical energy, implementing DR in factory energy management systems (FEMSs provides an effective way to manage energy in manufacturing processes. Although previous studies have investigated DR applications in process manufacturing, they were not conducted for discrete manufacturing. In this study, the state-task network (STN model is implemented to represent a discrete manufacturing system. On this basis, a DR scheme with a specific DR algorithm is applied to a typical discrete manufacturing—automobile manufacturing—and operational scenarios are established for the stamping process of the automobile production line. The DR scheme determines the optimal operating points for the stamping process using mixed integer linear programming (MILP. The results show that parts of the electricity demand can be shifted from peak to off-peak periods, reducing a significant overall energy costs without degrading production processes.

  14. A probabilistic risk-based approach for spinning reserve provision using day-ahead demand response program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shayesteh, E. [Islamic Azad University, Garmsar Branch, Garmsar (Iran); Yousefi, A.; Parsa Moghaddam, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), Tehran (Iran)

    2010-05-15

    Spinning Reserve is one of the ancillary services which is essential to satisfy system security constraints when the power system faces with a contingency. In this paper, Day Ahead Demand Response Program as one of the incentive-based Demand Response programs is implemented as a source of spinning reserve. In this regard, certain number of demands are selected according to a sensitivity analysis, and simulated as virtual generation units. The reserve market is cleared for Spinning Reserve allocation considering a probabilistic technique. A comparison is performed between the absence and existence of Day Ahead Demand Response Program from both economical and reliability viewpoints. Numerical studies based on IEEE 57 bus test system is conducted for evaluation of the proposed method. (author)

  15. Methodology for validating technical tools to assess customer Demand Response: Application to a commercial customer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcazar-Ortega, Manuel [Institute for Energy Engineering, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, Edificio 8E, Escalera F, 5a planta. 46022 Valencia (Spain); Escriva-Escriva, Guillermo, E-mail: guieses@die.upv.e [Institute for Energy Engineering, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, Edificio 8E, Escalera F, 5a planta. 46022 Valencia (Spain); Segura-Heras, Isidoro [Institute for Energy Engineering, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, Edificio 8E, Escalera F, 5a planta. 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    The authors present a methodology, which is demonstrated with some applications to the commercial sector, in order to validate a Demand Response (DR) evaluation method previously developed and applied to a wide range of industrial and commercial segments, whose flexibility was evaluated by modeling. DR is playing a more and more important role in the framework of electricity systems management for the effective integration of other distributed energy resources. Consequently, customers must identify what they are using the energy for in order to use their flexible loads for management purposes. Modeling tools are used to predict the impact of flexibility on the behavior of customers, but this result needs to be validated since both customers and grid operators have to be confident in these flexibility predictions. An easy-to-use two-steps method to achieve this goal is presented in this paper.

  16. Area price and demand response in a market with 25% wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Møller Andersen, Frits; Larsen, Helge V.

    2011-01-01

    , which can improve market efficiency, and a welfare gain is obtained. An important limitation for demand response is events of several consecutive hours with extreme values. The analysis in this paper is a summary and update of some of the issues covered by the EU RESPOND project. It shows that extreme...... not only on the electricity wholesale prices, but also on the development of the market. Hourly market data are available from the website of Danish TSO from 1999. In this paper these data are analysed for the period 2004–2010. Electricity generators and customers may respond to hourly price variations...... events were few, and the current infrastructure and market organisation have been able to handle the amount of wind power installed so far. This recommends that geographical bidding area for the wholesale electricity market reflects external transmission constraints caused by wind power....

  17. Real-time Trading Strategies for Proactive Distribution Company with Distributed Generation and Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qi

    and DR resources, and upwardly trading in the TL real-time market, resulting in a proactive manner. The DL aggregator (DA) is dened to manage these small-scale and dispersed DGs and DRs. A methodology is proposed in this thesis for a proactive DISCO (PDISCO) to strategically trade with DAs......-level model is proposed to elaborate the interactions between the PDISCO's bids/offers and the TL market's outcomes. The PDISCO's trading performance features in a bidirectional transaction. In this thesis, replacing the lower-level problems with the primal-dual approach, each proposed bi-level model......Distributed energy resources (DERs), such as distributed generation (DG) and demand response (DR), have been recognized worldwide as valuable resources. High integration of DG and DR in the distribution network inspires a potential deregulated environment for the distribution company (DISCO...

  18. Technical Resource Potential of Non-disruptive Residential Demand Response in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, Johanna; Rasmussen, Theis Bo; Sørensen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has one of the most aggressive renewable energy strategies in the world; however, large penetrations of fluctuating renewable energy resources will pose new problems in the Danish power system. Demand response (DR) has the potential to mitigate these problems by providing a new source...... of flexibility. This paper estimates the technical resource potential of residential DR in Denmark. We focus on DR that is non-disruptive to the consumer, meaning that DR actions harness inherent load flexibility and are not noticeable by the consumer. We build on existing methodologies for computing DR...... technical resource potentials, and use real data from Denmark. We find that country-wide load flexibility is on the order of GWs and GWhs, and will increase drastically over the next 20 years due to electrification of space heating systems and vehicles. However, we also find that flexibility is time...

  19. Dual Stimuli-Responsive Poly(β-amino ester) Nanoparticles for On-Demand Burst Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Seok; Deng, Xiaojian; Han, Patrick; Cheng, Jianjun

    2015-09-01

    We designed poly(β-amino esters) (PBAEs) bearing both UV light- and pH-sensitive groups and used PBAEs to prepare nanoparticles (NPs) that can be utilized for on-demand burst release of guest molecules in response to multiple triggers. Due to the presence of the photo-cleavable group in each repeating unit of PBAE, rapid release of encapsulated model drug could be achieved even with exposures to low intensity UV (10 mW · cm(-2) ). Especially, the burst release was further accelerated by additional UV treatments in the acidic condition showing the combinatory effect of dual stimuli. We believe these PBAE-based NPs can potentially be used to design intelligent controlled release device and nanomedicines.

  20. Definition of Distribution Network Tariffs Considering Distribution Generation and Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Faria, Pedro; Vale, Zita

    2014-01-01

    The use of distribution networks in the current scenario of high penetration of Distributed Generation (DG) is a problem of great importance. In the competitive environment of electricity markets and smart grids, Demand Response (DR) is also gaining notable impact with several benefits for the wh...... the determination of topological distribution factors, and consequent application of the MW-mile method. The application of the proposed tariffs definition methodology is illustrated in a distribution network with 33 buses, 66 DG units, and 32 consumers with DR capacity...... for the whole system. The work presented in this paper comprises a methodology able to define the cost allocation in distribution networks considering large integration of DG and DR resources. The proposed methodology is divided into three phases and it is based on an AC Optimal Power Flow (OPF) including...

  1. Review of Real-time Electricity Markets for Integrating Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi

    2015-01-01

    reviews typical RTMs respectively in the North America, Australia and Europe, focusing on their market architectures and incentive policies for integrating DER and DR in electricity markets. In this paper, RTMs are classified into three groups: Group I applies nodal prices implemented by optimal power......The high penetration of both Distributed Energy Resources (DER) and Demand Response (DR) in modern power systems requires a sequence of advanced strategies and technologies for maintaining system reliability and flexibility. Real-time electricity markets (RTM) are the nondiscriminatory transaction...... flow, which clears energy prices every 5 minutes. Group II applies zonal prices, with the time resolution of 5-min. Group III is a general balancing market, which clears zonal prices intro-hourly. The various successful RTM experiences have been summarized and discussed, which provides a technical...

  2. Grid Integration of Aggregated Demand Response, Part 1: Load Availability Profiles and Constraints for the Western Interconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Daniel J.; Matson, Nance; Sohn, Michael D.; Rose, Cody; Dudley, Junqiao; Goli, Sasank; Kiliccote, Sila; Hummon, Marissa; Palchak, David; Denholm, Paul; Jorgenson, Jennie

    2013-09-09

    Demand response (DR) has the potential to improve electric grid reliability and reduce system operation costs. However, including DR in grid modeling can be difficult due to its variable and non-traditional response characteristics, compared to traditional generation. Therefore, efforts to value the participation of DR in procurement of grid services have been limited. In this report, we present methods and tools for predicting demand response availability profiles, representing their capability to participate in capacity, energy, and ancillary services. With the addition of response characteristics mimicking those of generation, the resulting profiles will help in the valuation of the participation of demand response through production cost modeling, which informs infrastructure and investment planning.

  3. Stomatal response of an anisohydric grapevine cultivar to evaporative demand, available soil moisture and abscisic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogiers, Suzy Y; Greer, Dennis H; Hatfield, Jo M; Hutton, Ron J; Clarke, Simon J; Hutchinson, Paul A; Somers, Anthony

    2012-03-01

    Stomatal responsiveness to evaporative demand (air vapour pressure deficit (VPD)) ranges widely between species and cultivars, and mechanisms for stomatal control in response to VPD remain obscure. The interaction of irrigation and soil moisture with VPD on stomatal conductance is particularly difficult to predict, but nevertheless is critical to instantaneous transpiration and vulnerability to desiccation. Stomatal sensitivity to VPD and soil moisture was investigated in Semillon, an anisohydric Vitis vinifera L. variety whose leaf water potential (Ψ(l)) is frequently lower than that of other grapevine varieties grown under similar conditions in the warm grape-growing regions of Australia. A survey of Semillon vines across seven vineyards revealed that, regardless of irrigation treatment, midday Ψ(l) was dependent on not only soil moisture but VPD at the time of measurement. Predawn Ψ(l) was more closely correlated to not only soil moisture in dry vineyards but to night-time VPD in drip-irrigated vineyards, with incomplete rehydration during high night-time VPD. Daytime stomatal conductance was low only under severe plant water deficits, induced by extremes in dry soil. Stomatal response to VPD was inconsistent across irrigation regime; however, in an unirrigated vineyard, stomatal sensitivity to VPD-the magnitude of stomatal response to VPD-was heightened under dry soils. It was also found that stomatal sensitivity was proportional to the magnitude of stomatal conductance at a reference VPD of 1kPa. Exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) applied to roots of Semillon vines growing in a hydroponic system induced stomatal closure and, in field vines, petiole xylem sap ABA concentrations rose throughout the morning and were higher in vines with low Ψ(l). These data indicate that despite high stomatal conductance of this anisohydric variety when grown in medium to high soil moisture, increased concentrations of ABA as a result of very limited soil moisture may augment

  4. Identification of Response Options to Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining (ASGM) in Ghana via the Delphi Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Avik; Phipps, Sean; Long, Rachel; Essegbey, George; Basu, Niladri

    2015-01-01

    The Delphi technique is a means of facilitating discussion among experts in order to develop consensus, and can be used for policy formulation. This article describes a modified Delphi approach in which 27 multi-disciplinary academics and 22 stakeholders from Ghana and North America were polled about ways to address negative effects of small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. In early 2014, the academics, working in disciplinary groups, synthesized 17 response options based on data aggregated during an Integrated Assessment of ASGM in Ghana. The researchers participated in two rounds of Delphi polling in March and April 2014, during which 17 options were condensed into 12. Response options were rated via a 4-point Likert scale in terms of benefit (economic, environmental, and benefit to people) and feasibility (economic, social/cultural, political, and implementation). The six highest-scoring options populated a third Delphi poll, which 22 stakeholders from diverse sectors completed in April 2015. The academics and stakeholders also prioritized the response options using ranking exercises. The technique successfully gauged expert opinion on ASGM, and helped identify potential responses, policies and solutions for the sector. This is timely given that improvement to the ASGM sector is an important component within the UN Minamata Convention. PMID:26378557

  5. Identification of Response Options to Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining (ASGM in Ghana via the Delphi Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avik Basu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Delphi technique is a means of facilitating discussion among experts in order to develop consensus, and can be used for policy formulation. This article describes a modified Delphi approach in which 27 multi-disciplinary academics and 22 stakeholders from Ghana and North America were polled about ways to address negative effects of small-scale gold mining (ASGM in Ghana. In early 2014, the academics, working in disciplinary groups, synthesized 17 response options based on data aggregated during an Integrated Assessment of ASGM in Ghana. The researchers participated in two rounds of Delphi polling in March and April 2014, during which 17 options were condensed into 12. Response options were rated via a 4-point Likert scale in terms of benefit (economic, environmental, and benefit to people and feasibility (economic, social/cultural, political, and implementation. The six highest-scoring options populated a third Delphi poll, which 22 stakeholders from diverse sectors completed in April 2015. The academics and stakeholders also prioritized the response options using ranking exercises. The technique successfully gauged expert opinion on ASGM, and helped identify potential responses, policies and solutions for the sector. This is timely given that improvement to the ASGM sector is an important component within the UN Minamata Convention.

  6. Effects of Using Visual Design Principles to Group Response Options in Web Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Stern

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we show that in Web questionnaires verbal and visual languages can be used to create groups and subgroups of information, which influence how respondents process Web questionnaires. Following Schwarz (1996; and also Schwarz, Grayson, & Knäuper, 1998 we argue that respondents act as cooperative communicators who use formal features of the questionnaire to help guide them through the survey conversation. Using data from three Web surveys of random samples of Washington State University undergraduates, we found that when response options are placed in close graphical proximity to each other and separated from other options, respondents perceive visual subgroups of the categories, increasing the likelihood that they select an answer from each subgroup. We also found that graphical proximity creates subgroups with and without the use of category heading to describe the subgroups and that the addition of a verbal instruction to “please select the best answer” encouraged respondents to select one answer from each subgroup instead of overriding the effects of proximity. In addition, the effects of grouping were consistent when the subgroups were positioned either vertically or horizontally in relation to each other. Lastly, we found that the effects of visual grouping are consistent across both opinion- and behavior/fact-based questions, although the effects appear to be greater on opinion-based questions. Our findings contribute to the increasing evidence that both verbal and visual languages influence how respondents process and respond to surveys. Because respondents interpret the verbal and graphical features of survey questionnaires as relevant to answering the survey, inadvertent or stylistic design changes can influence how respondents process and respond to survey questions.

  7. Stochastic Security and Risk-Constrained Scheduling for an Autonomous Microgrid with Demand Response and Renewable Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahedipour-Dahraie, Mostafa; Rashidizadeh-Kermani, Homa; Najafi, Hamid Reza

    2017-01-01

    Increasing penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources (RESs) and the development of advanced information, give rise to questions on how responsive loads can be managed to optimize the use of resources and assets. In this context, demand response (DR) as a way for modifying the consumption...... procure energy from various sources including local generating units and demand-side resources to serve the customers. The operator sells electricity to customers under real-time pricing (RTP) scheme and the response of customers to electricity prices by adjusting their loads. The objective...

  8. Field Testing and Modeling of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems as a Demand Response Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, Michael; Hirsch, Adam; Clark, Jordan; Anthony, Jamie

    2016-08-26

    Supermarkets offer a substantial demand response (DR) resource because of their high energy intensity and use patterns; however, refrigeration as the largest load has been challenging to access. Previous work has analyzed supermarket DR using heating, ventilating, and air conditioning; lighting; and anti-sweat heaters. This project evaluated and quantified the DR potential inherent in supermarket refrigeration systems in the Bonneville Power Administration service territory. DR events were carried out and results measured in an operational 45,590-ft2 supermarket located in Hillsboro, Oregon. Key results from the project include the rate of temperature increase in freezer reach-in cases and walk-ins when refrigeration is suspended, the load shed amount for DR tests, and the development of calibrated models to quantify available DR resources. Simulations showed that demand savings of 15 to 20 kilowatts (kW) are available for 1.5 hours for a typical store without precooling and for about 2.5 hours with precooling using only the low-temperature, non-ice cream cases. This represents an aggregated potential of 20 megawatts within BPA's service territory. Inability to shed loads for medium-temperature (MT) products because of the tighter temperature requirements is a significant barrier to realizing larger DR for supermarkets. Store owners are reluctant to allow MT case set point changes, and laboratory tests of MT case DR strategies are needed so that owners become comfortable testing, and implementing, MT case DR. The next-largest barrier is the lack of proper controls in most supermarket displays over ancillary equipment, such as anti-sweat heaters, lights, and fans.

  9. Market and Policy Barriers for Demand Response Providing Ancillary Services in U.S. Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); MacDonald, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we attempt to provide a comprehensive examination of various market and policy barriers to demand response providing ancillary services in both ISO/RTO and non-ISO/RTO regions, especially at the program provider level. It is useful to classify barriers in order to create a holistic understanding and identify parties that could be responsible for their removal. This study develops a typology of barriers focusing on smaller customers that must rely on a program provider (i.e., electric investor owned utility or IOU, ARC) to create an aggregated DR resource in order to bring ancillary services to the balancing authority.ii The barriers were identified through examinations of regulatory structures, market environments, and product offerings; and discussions with industry stakeholders and regulators. In order to help illustrate the differences in barriers among various wholesale market designs and their constituent retail environments, four regions were chosen to use as case studies: Colorado, Texas, Wisconsin, and New Jersey. We highlight the experience in each area as it relates to the identified barriers.

  10. Adaptations of writing posture in response to task demands for left- and right-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeligo, Frank; Brazier, Bette; Houston, Joël

    2003-07-01

    Handedness and writing posture are visible manifestations of differences between left- and right-handers. Although an inverted posture is witnessed in both groups, there is a much higher proportion of left-handers who invert. This study is framed within the adaptation hypothesis of writing posture, which states that invertedness in left-handers develops in response to the demands of cursive writing. Participants (N = 57) comprising left-handed inverters, left-handed standard writers, and right-handed standard writers engaged in tasks that required them to form letters and pen strokes at extreme angles. In addition participants were questioned about attempts to change writing posture. We hypothesised that letter angle controls posture in both left- and right-handers and that inverted posture would be a target of intervention. The results of the study showed some support for these hypotheses in that left- and right-handers adapted their posture in response to the constraints placed upon them and inverters reported more intervention.

  11. 29 CFR 2.23 - Procedure where a decision concerning a demand is not made prior to the time a response to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procedure where a decision concerning a demand is not made prior to the time a response to the demand is required. 2.23 Section 2.23 Labor Office of the Secretary... concerning a demand is not made prior to the time a response to the demand is required. If the response...

  12. Demand on verbal working memory delays haemodynamic response in the inferior prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry, Guillaume; Ibarrola, Danielle; Démonet, Jean-François; Cardebat, Dominique

    2003-05-01

    Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to test the involvement of the inferior prefrontal cortex in verbal working memory. Pairs of French nouns were presented to ten native French speakers who had to make semantic or grammatical gender decisions. Verbal working memory involvement was manipulated by making the categorization of the second noun optional. Decisions could be made after processing the first noun only (RELEASE condition) or after processing the two nouns (HOLD condition). Reaction times suggested faster processing for gender than for semantic category in RELEASE. Despite the absence of anatomical difference across tasks and conditions in the wide activated network, the haemodynamic response peak latencies of the inferior prefrontal cortex were significantly delayed in HOLD versus RELEASE while no such peak delay was observed in the superior temporal gyrus. Interestingly, this pattern did not interact with language tasks. This study shows that cognitive manipulation can influence haemodynamic time-course and suggests that the main cognitive process determining inferior prefrontal activation is verbal working memory rather than specific linguistic processes such as grammatical or semantic analysis.

  13. Hardware-in-the-Loop Co-simulation of Distribution Grid for Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotger-Griful, Sergi; Chatzivasileiadis, Spyros; Jacobsen, Rune H.; Stewart, Emma M.; Domingo, Javier M.; Wetter, Michael

    2016-06-20

    In modern power systems, co-simulation is proposed as an enabler for analyzing the interactions between disparate systems. This paper introduces the co-simulation platform Virtual Grid Integration Laboratory (VirGIL) including Hardware-in-the-Loop testing, and demonstrates its potential to assess demand response strategies. VirGIL is based on a modular architecture using the Functional Mock-up Interface industrial standard to integrate new simulators. VirGIL combines state-of-the-art simulators in power systems, communications, buildings, and control. In this work, VirGIL is extended with a Hardware-in-the-Loop component to control the ventilation system of a real 12-story building in Denmark. VirGIL capabilities are illustrated in three scenarios: load following, primary reserves and load following aggregation. Experimental results show that the system can track one minute changing signals and it can provide primary reserves for up-regulation. Furthermore, the potential of aggregating several ventilation systems is evaluated considering the impact at distribution grid level and the communications protocol effect.

  14. Near-infrared light-responsive composite microneedles for on-demand transdermal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Chin; Ling, Ming-Hung; Wang, Kuan-Wen; Lin, Zhi-Wei; Lai, Bo-Hung; Chen, Dong-Hwang

    2015-05-11

    This study presents near-infrared (NIR) light-responsive polymer-nanostructure composite microneedles used for on-demand transdermal drug delivery. Silica-coated lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6@SiO2) nanostructures were incorporated into polycaprolactone microneedles, serving as an NIR absorber. When the microneedles were irradiated with NIR light, light-to-heat transduction mediated by the LaB6@SiO2 nanostructures caused the microneedle melting at 50 °C. This increased the mobility of the polymer chains, enabling drug release from the matrix. Drug release from the microneedles was evaluated for four laser on/off cycles. In each cycle, the samples were irradiated until the temperature reached 50 °C for 3 min (laser on); the laser was then turned off for 30 min (laser off). The results showed that light-induced phase transition in the polymer triggered drug release from the melted microneedles. A stepwise drug-release behavior was observed after multiple cycles of NIR light exposure. No notable drug leakage was found in the off state. This NIR-light-triggerable device exhibits excellent reproducibility, low off-state leakage, and noninvasive triggerability and, thus, represents an advance in transdermal delivery technology.

  15. DEVELOPING GIS-BASED DEMAND-RESPONSIVE TRANSIT SYSTEM IN TEHRAN CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Faroqi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Create, maintain and development of public transport network in metropolitan are important problems in the field of urban transport management. In public transport, maximize the efficient use of public fleet capacity has been considered. Concepts and technologies of GIS have provided suitable way for management and optimization of the public transports systems. In demand-responsive public transportation system, firstly fellow traveller groups have been established for applicants based on spatial concepts and tools of GIS, second for each group according to its’ members and their paths, a public vehicle has been allocated to them then based on dynamic routing, the fellow passenger group has been gathered from their origins and has been moved to their destinations through optimal route. The suggested system has been implemented based on network data and commuting trips statistics of 1 to 6 districts in Tehran city. Evaluation performed on the results show the 34% increase using of Taxi capacity, 13% increase using of Van capacity and 10% increase using of Bus capacity in comparison between current public transport system and suggested public transportation system has been improved.

  16. Important Factors for Early Market Microgrids: Demand Response and Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David Masaki

    Microgrids are evolving concepts that are growing in interest due to their potential reliability, economic and environmental benefits. As with any new concept, there are many unresolved issues with regards to planning and operation. In particular, demand response (DR) and plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging are viewed as two key components of the future grid and both will likely be active technologies in the microgrid market. However, a better understanding of the economics associated with DR, the impact DR can have on the sizing of distributed energy resource (DER) systems and how to accommodate and price PEV charging is necessary to advance microgrid technologies. This work characterizes building based DR for a model microgrid, calculates the DER systems for a model microgrid under DR through a minimization of total cost, and determines pricing methods for a PEV charging station integrated with an individual building on the model microgrid. It is shown that DR systems which consist only of HVAC fan reductions provide potential economic benefits to the microgrid through participation in utility DR programs. Additionally, peak shaving DR reduces the size of power generators, however increasing DR capacity does not necessarily lead to further reductions in size. As it currently stands for a microgrid that is an early adopter of PEV charging, current installation costs of PEV charging equipment lead to a system that is not competitive with established commercial charging networks or to gasoline prices for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV).

  17. Developing Gis-Based Demand-Responsive Transit System in Tehran City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroqi, H.; Sadeghi-Niaraki, A.

    2015-12-01

    Create, maintain and development of public transport network in metropolitan are important problems in the field of urban transport management. In public transport, maximize the efficient use of public fleet capacity has been considered. Concepts and technologies of GIS have provided suitable way for management and optimization of the public transports systems. In demand-responsive public transportation system, firstly fellow traveller groups have been established for applicants based on spatial concepts and tools of GIS, second for each group according to its' members and their paths, a public vehicle has been allocated to them then based on dynamic routing, the fellow passenger group has been gathered from their origins and has been moved to their destinations through optimal route. The suggested system has been implemented based on network data and commuting trips statistics of 1 to 6 districts in Tehran city. Evaluation performed on the results show the 34% increase using of Taxi capacity, 13% increase using of Van capacity and 10% increase using of Bus capacity in comparison between current public transport system and suggested public transportation system has been improved.

  18. Big Data Analytics for Demand Response: Clustering Over Space and Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelmis, Charalampos [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kolte, Jahanvi [Nirma Univ., Gujarat (India); Prasanna, Viktor K. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-10-29

    The pervasive deployment of advanced sensing infrastructure in Cyber-Physical systems, such as the Smart Grid, has resulted in an unprecedented data explosion. Such data exhibit both large volumes and high velocity characteristics, two of the three pillars of Big Data, and have a time-series notion as datasets in this context typically consist of successive measurements made over a time interval. Time-series data can be valuable for data mining and analytics tasks such as identifying the “right” customers among a diverse population, to target for Demand Response programs. However, time series are challenging to mine due to their high dimensionality. In this paper, we motivate this problem using a real application from the smart grid domain. We explore novel representations of time-series data for BigData analytics, and propose a clustering technique for determining natural segmentation of customers and identification of temporal consumption patterns. Our method is generizable to large-scale, real-world scenarios, without making any assumptions about the data. We evaluate our technique using real datasets from smart meters, totaling ~ 18,200,000 data points, and show the efficacy of our technique in efficiency detecting the number of optimal number of clusters.

  19. A Closed-Loop Control Strategy for Air Conditioning Loads to Participate in Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Hu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs, such as air conditioners (ACs, are important demand response resources—they have a certain heat storage capacity. A change in the operating status of an air conditioner in a small range will not noticeably affect the users’ comfort level. Load control of TCLs is considered to be equivalent to a power plant of the same capacity in effect, and it can significantly reduce the system pressure to peak load shift. The thermodynamic model of air conditioning can be used to study the aggregate power of a number of ACs that respond to the step signal of a temperature set point. This paper analyzes the influence of the parameters of each AC in the group to the indoor temperature and the total load, and derives a simplified control model based on the two order linear time invariant transfer function. Then, the stability of the model and designs its Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID controller based on the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is also studied. The case study presented in this paper simulates both scenarios of constant ambient temperature and changing ambient temperature to verify the proposed transfer function model and control strategy can closely track the reference peak load shifting curves. The study also demonstrates minimal changes in the indoor temperature and the users’ comfort level.

  20. Optimal Power Procurement and Demand Response with Quality-of-Usage Guarantees

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Longbo; Ramchandran, Kannan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a general operating scheme which allows the utility company to jointly perform power procurement and demand response so as to maximize the social welfare. Our model takes into consideration the effect of the renewable energy and the multi-stage feature of the power procurement process. It also enables the utility company to provide quality-of-usage (QoU) guarantee to the power consumers, which ensures that the average power usage level meets the target value for each user. To maximize the social welfare, we develop a low-complexity algorithm called the \\emph{welfare maximization algorithm} (WMA), which performs joint power procurement and dynamic pricing. WMA is constructed based on a two-timescale Lyapunov optimization technique. We prove that WMA achieves a close-to-optimal utility and ensures that the QoU requirement is met with bounded deficit. WMA can be implemented in a distributed manner and is robust with respect to system dynamics uncertainty.

  1. DReAM: Demand Response Architecture for Multi-level District Heating and Cooling Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Saptarshi; Chandan, Vikas; Arya, Vijay; Kar, Koushik

    2017-05-19

    In this paper, we exploit the inherent hierarchy of heat exchangers in District Heating and Cooling (DHC) networks and propose DReAM, a novel Demand Response (DR) architecture for Multi-level DHC networks. DReAM serves to economize system operation while still respecting comfort requirements of individual consumers. Contrary to many present day DR schemes that work on a consumer level granularity, DReAM works at a level of hierarchy above buildings, i.e. substations that supply heat to a group of buildings. This improves the overall DR scalability and reduce the computational complexity. In the first step of the proposed approach, mathematical models of individual substations and their downstream networks are abstracted into appropriately constructed low-complexity structural forms. In the second step, this abstracted information is employed by the utility to perform DR optimization that determines the optimal heat inflow to individual substations rather than buildings, in order to achieve the targeted objectives across the network. We validate the proposed DReAM framework through experimental results under different scenarios on a test network.

  2. Energy supply and demand in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, E. D.

    1978-01-01

    The author expresses his views on future energy demand on the west coast of the United States and how that energy demand translates into demand for major fuels. He identifies the major uncertainties in determining what future demands may be. The major supply options that are available to meet projected demands and the policy implications that flow from these options are discussed.

  3. Growth in Malaysian Demand for Business Education--the Australian Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Philip E. T.; Pratt, Graham R.

    1996-01-01

    Increasing Malaysian demand for business education is examined from the perspective of Australia, one of the largest suppliers to the region. Topics discussed include: origins and nature of the demand; Malaysian enrollment patterns in Australia; "twinning programs," in which a Malaysian college and a foreign university collaborate to meet such…

  4. Clarifying observed relationships between protective behavioral strategies and alcohol outcomes: The importance of response options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitman, Abby L; Henson, James M; Carey, Kate B

    2015-06-01

    Protective behavioral strategies (PBS), or harm-reduction behaviors that can potentially reduce alcohol consumption or associated problems, have been assessed in varied ways throughout the literature. Existing scales vary in focus (i.e., broad vs. narrow), and importantly, in response options (i.e., absolute frequency vs. contingent frequency). Absolute frequency conflates PBS use with number of drinking occasions, resulting in inconsistencies in the relationship between PBS use and alcohol outcomes, whereas contingent frequency is less precise, which could reduce power. The current study proposes the use of absolute frequencies to maximize precision, with an adjustment for number of drinking days to extricate PBS use from drinking occasions, resulting in a contingent score. Study 1 examined the associations between PBS subscales using the Strategy Questionnaire (Sugarman & Carey, 2007) and alcohol outcomes, finding that in raw score form the association between PBS and typical alcohol outcomes varied greatly from significantly positive to significantly negative, but adjusted score relationships were all consistent with harm reduction perspectives. In addition, curvilinear relationships with typical alcohol use were eliminated using the score adjustment, resulting in linear associations. Study 2 confirmed the findings from Study 1 with a more precise timeframe, additional alcohol assessments, and heavier college drinkers. The relationships between alcohol outcomes and PBS in raw score form were again varied, but became consistently negative using the score adjustment. Researchers examining PBS and related constructs should consider modifying current scales to include a precise frequency response scale that is adjusted to account for number of drinking occasions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Analysis of potential coastal zone climate change impacts and possible response options in the southern African region

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theron, AK

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to consider physical coastal zone impacts due to expected climate change in the Namibia, South Africa and Mozambique coastal region, and to provide some mitigating response options. The primary effects of climate change...

  6. Physics-based simulation of the impact of demand response on lead-acid emergency power availability in a datacenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, A.; Wang, D.; Narayanan, I.; Sivasubramaniam, A.; Fathy, H. K.

    2015-02-01

    This paper uses a one-dimensional, physics-based model of a valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery to examine the impact of demand response on uninterruptible power supply (UPS) availability in a datacenter. Datacenters are facilities that provide services such as cloud computing, web search, etc. They are also large electricity consumers. An energy-efficient 15 MW datacenter, for instance, may pay 1 m per month for electricity. Datacenters often utilize VRLA batteries to ensure high reliability in serving their computational demand. This motivates the paper's central question: to what extent does the use of datacenter UPS batteries for demand response affect their availability for their primary purpose (namely, emergency power)? We address this question using a physics-based model of the coupled diffusion-reaction dynamics of VRLA batteries. We discretize this model using finite differences, and simulate it for different datacenter battery pack sizes. The results show that for a typical datacenter power demand profile, a VRLA battery pack sized for UPS functionality can provide demand response with only a minimal loss of UPS availability.

  7. Provision of secondary frequency control via demand response activation on thermostatically controlled loads: Solutions and experiences from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Marinelli, Mattia; Hu, Junjie;

    2016-01-01

    of household fridge performance in terms of response time and ramp-up rate, as well as the impact on fridge temperature and behaviour after the control period. The experimental results show that TCLs are fast responsive loads for DR activation, with the average control signal response time of 24 s......This paper studies the provision of secondary frequency control in electric power systems based on demand response (DR) activation on thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) and quantifies the computation resource constraints for the control of large TCL population. Since TCLs are fast responsive...

  8. A demand response modeling for residential consumers in smart grid environment using game theory based energy scheduling algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sofana Reka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, demand response modeling scheme is proposed for residential consumers using game theory algorithm as Generalized Tit for Tat (GTFT Dominant Game based Energy Scheduler. The methodology is established as a work flow domain model between the utility and the user considering the smart grid framework. It exhibits an algorithm which schedules load usage by creating several possible tariffs for consumers such that demand is never raised. This can be done both individually and among multiple users of a community. The uniqueness behind the demand response proposed is that, the tariff is calculated for all hours and the load during the peak hours which can be rescheduled is shifted based on the Peak Average Ratio. To enable the vitality of the work simulation results of a general case of three domestic consumers are modeled extended to a comparative performance and evaluation with other algorithms and inference is analyzed.

  9. China's Rare Earth Supply Chain: Illegal Production, and Response to new Cerium Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ruby Thuy; Imholte, D. Devin

    2016-07-01

    As the demand for personal electronic devices, wind turbines, and electric vehicles increases, the world becomes more dependent on rare earth elements. Given the volatile, Chinese-concentrated supply chain, global attempts have been made to diversify supply of these materials. However, the overall effect of supply diversification on the entire supply chain, including increasing low-value rare earth demand, is not fully understood. This paper is the first attempt to shed some light on China's supply chain from both demand and supply perspectives, taking into account different Chinese policies such as mining quotas, separation quotas, export quotas, and resource taxes. We constructed a simulation model using Powersim Studio that analyzes production (both legal and illegal), production costs, Chinese and rest-of-world demand, and market dynamics. We also simulated new demand of an automotive aluminum-cerium alloy in the US market starting from 2018. Results showed that market share of the illegal sector has grown since 2007-2015, ranging between 22% and 25% of China's rare earth supply, translating into 59-65% illegal heavy rare earths and 14-16% illegal light rare earths. There will be a shortage in certain light and heavy rare earths given three production quota scenarios and constant demand growth rate from 2015 to 2030. The new simulated Ce demand would require supply beyond that produced in China. Finally, we illustrate revenue streams for different ore compositions in China in 2015.

  10. Responsible management of tropical peatlands: balancing competing demands on a fragile resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Susan; Evans, Christopher; Gauci, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    In 2010 the International Peatland Society published a strategy for responsible peatland management, with the following guiding principles: (i) ensure that high conservation value peatlands are identified and conserved, (ii) manage 'utilised' peatlands responsibly, and (iii) rehabilitate or restore drained, degraded or otherwise irreversibly changed peatlands to restore as many ecological and landscape functions as possible. At the time of its publication, the main focus of the strategy was on northern peatlands, although a few partner organisations in SE Asia were involved in the strategy consultation process. Given the rapid rate of peatland development in SE Asia in the last 7 years and the growing interest in tropical peatland rehabilitation and restoration, we believe that it is now timely to review what a strategy for responsible tropical peatland management might look like. SE Asia's peatlands cover 250,000 km2 of the region and store 69 Gt C but they are subject to continuing deforestation, biodiversity loss, land subsidence/flooding, increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and health impacts due to air pollution from land-clearing fires, all of which pose huge regional and global challenges. Around 75% of the peatlands have been deforested in the last 20 years, with 35% of cleared land now under industrial plantation, 34% under smallholder cultivation, and 25% unutilised, largely as a result of uncontrolled land-clearing fires. The production intensity (GHG emissions per calorie produced) of crops grown on SE Asian organic soils is among the highest in the world (Carlson et al. 2016). There are clear tensions between reconciling peatland management for conservation goals (of biodiversity, carbon and natural resources) with economic and livelihood development goals. A balance needs to be struck between the absolute value and distribution of short term economic gains vs. peatland management strategies that deliver longer-term, sustainable and shared

  11. Experimental analysis of flexibility change with different levels of power reduction by demand response activation on thermostat controlled loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Marinelli, Mattia; Hu, Junjie

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the flexibility available with thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) to provide power system services by demand response (DR) activation. Although the DR activation on TCLs can provide power system ancillary services, it is important to know how long such services can...

  12. Hybrid LSA-ANN Based Home Energy Management Scheduling Controller for Residential Demand Response Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maytham S. Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Demand response (DR program can shift peak time load to off-peak time, thereby reducing greenhouse gas emissions and allowing energy conservation. In this study, the home energy management scheduling controller of the residential DR strategy is proposed using the hybrid lightning search algorithm (LSA-based artificial neural network (ANN to predict the optimal ON/OFF status for home appliances. Consequently, the scheduled operation of several appliances is improved in terms of cost savings. In the proposed approach, a set of the most common residential appliances are modeled, and their activation is controlled by the hybrid LSA-ANN based home energy management scheduling controller. Four appliances, namely, air conditioner, water heater, refrigerator, and washing machine (WM, are developed by Matlab/Simulink according to customer preferences and priority of appliances. The ANN controller has to be tuned properly using suitable learning rate value and number of nodes in the hidden layers to schedule the appliances optimally. Given that finding proper ANN tuning parameters is difficult, the LSA optimization is hybridized with ANN to improve the ANN performances by selecting the optimum values of neurons in each hidden layer and learning rate. Therefore, the ON/OFF estimation accuracy by ANN can be improved. Results of the hybrid LSA-ANN are compared with those of hybrid particle swarm optimization (PSO based ANN to validate the developed algorithm. Results show that the hybrid LSA-ANN outperforms the hybrid PSO based ANN. The proposed scheduling algorithm can significantly reduce the peak-hour energy consumption during the DR event by up to 9.7138% considering four appliances per 7-h period.

  13. Costs to Automate Demand Response - Taxonomy and Results from Field Studies and Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schetrit, Oren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheung, Iris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, Becky Z [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-31

    During the past decade, the technology to automate demand response (DR) in buildings and industrial facilities has advanced significantly. Automation allows rapid, repeatable, reliable operation. This study focuses on costs for DR automation in commercial buildings with some discussion on residential buildings and industrial facilities. DR automation technology relies on numerous components, including communication systems, hardware and software gateways, standards-based messaging protocols, controls and integration platforms, and measurement and telemetry systems. This report compares cost data from several DR automation programs and pilot projects, evaluates trends in the cost per unit of DR and kilowatts (kW) available from automated systems, and applies a standard naming convention and classification or taxonomy for system elements. Median costs for the 56 installed automated DR systems studied here are about $200/kW. The deviation around this median is large with costs in some cases being an order of magnitude great or less than the median. This wide range is a result of variations in system age, size of load reduction, sophistication, and type of equipment included in cost analysis. The costs to automate fast DR systems for ancillary services are not fully analyzed in this report because additional research is needed to determine the total cost to install, operate, and maintain these systems. However, recent research suggests that they could be developed at costs similar to those of existing hot-summer DR automation systems. This report considers installation and configuration costs and does include the costs of owning and operating DR automation systems. Future analysis of the latter costs should include the costs to the building or facility manager costs as well as utility or third party program manager cost.

  14. Estimating Demand Response Load Impacts: Evaluation of BaselineLoad Models for Non-Residential Buildings in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, Katie; Piette, Mary Ann; Goldman, Charles; Kiliccote,Sila

    2008-01-01

    Both Federal and California state policymakers areincreasingly interested in developing more standardized and consistentapproaches to estimate and verify the load impacts of demand responseprograms and dynamic pricing tariffs. This study describes a statisticalanalysis of the performance of different models used to calculate thebaseline electric load for commercial buildings participating in ademand-response (DR) program, with emphasis onthe importance of weathereffects. During a DR event, a variety of adjustments may be made tobuilding operation, with the goal of reducing the building peak electricload. In order to determine the actual peak load reduction, an estimateof what the load would have been on the day of the event without any DRactions is needed. This baseline load profile (BLP) is key to accuratelyassessing the load impacts from event-based DR programs and may alsoimpact payment settlements for certain types of DR programs. We testedseven baseline models on a sample of 33 buildings located in California.These models can be loosely categorized into two groups: (1) averagingmethods, which use some linear combination of hourly load values fromprevious days to predict the load on the event, and (2) explicit weathermodels, which use a formula based on local hourly temperature to predictthe load. The models were tested both with and without morningadjustments, which use data from the day of the event to adjust theestimated BLP up or down.Key findings from this study are: - The accuracyof the BLP model currently used by California utilities to estimate loadreductions in several DR programs (i.e., hourly usage in highest 3 out of10 previous days) could be improved substantially if a morning adjustmentfactor were applied for weather-sensitive commercial and institutionalbuildings. - Applying a morning adjustment factor significantly reducesthe bias and improves the accuracy of all BLP models examined in oursample of buildings. - For buildings with low load

  15. Current treatment options and response rates in children with chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stefan Wirth

    2012-01-01

    Vertical transmission has become the most common mode of transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in children. The rate of perinatal transmission from an HCVinfected mother to her child ranges from 2% to 5% and the prevalence of HCV in children in developed countries ranges between 0.1% and 0.4%. Spontaneous viral clearance seems to be dependent on the genotype and has been reported between 2.4%-25%. For chronically infected patients, treatment with recombinant polyethylene glycol (PEG)-interferon α-2b and daily ribavirin has now been approved as standard treatment for children 2-17 years of age. In five large prospective studies, a total of 318 children and adolescents aged 3-17 years were treated either with subcutaneous PEG-interferon α-2b at a dose of 1-1.5 μg/kg or 60 μg/m2 once a week in combination with oral ribavirin (15 mg/kg per day) or PEG-interferon α-2a with ribavirin. Subjects with genotype 1 and 4 received the medication for 48 wk and individuals with genotype 2 and 3 mainly for 24 wk. Overall sustained viral response (SVR) was achieved in 193/318 (60.7%) of treated patients. Stratified for genotype; 120/234 (51%) with genotype 1, 68/73 (93%) with genotype 2/3, and 6/11 (55%) with genotype 4 showed SVR. Relapse rate was between 7.7% and 17%. Overall, treatment was well tolerated; however,notable side effects were present in approximately 20%. According to recent experiences in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in children and adolescents, a combination of PEG-interferon α with ribavirin has been found to be well tolerated and highly efficacious, particularly in individuals with genotype 2/3. Thus, this treatment can be recommended as standard of care until more effective treatment options will become available for genotype 1 patients.

  16. Failure to modulate neural response to increased task demand in mild Alzheimer's disease: fMRI study of visuospatial processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannini, Patrizia; Lehmann, Christoph; Dierks, Thomas; Jann, Kay; Viitanen, Matti; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Almkvist, Ove

    2008-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by disturbances of visuospatial cognition. Given that these impairments are closely related to metabolic and neuropathological changes, our study aimed to investigate the functional competency of brain regions in the visuospatial networks responsible for early clinical symptoms in AD using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants (13AD patients with mild symptoms and 13 age- and education-matched controls) performed an angle discrimination task with varying task demand. Using a novel approach that modeled the dependency of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal on the subject's reaction time allowed us to investigate task demand-dependent signal changes between the groups. Both groups demonstrated overlapping neural networks engaged in angle discrimination, including the parieto-occipital and frontal regions. In several network regions, AD patients showed a significantly weaker and sometimes no BOLD signal due to increased task demand compared with controls, demonstrating failure to modulate the neural response to increased task demand. A general task demand-independent increase of activation in AD patients compared with controls was found in right middle temporal gyrus. This latter finding may indicate an attempt to compensate for dysfunctional areas in the dorsal visual pathway. These results confirm deficits in visuospatial abilities, which occur early in AD, and offer new insights into the neural mechanisms underlying this impairment.

  17. Economisation of the Education System in Shrinking Regions? The Demographic Responsiveness of Education Demand and Supply at Different Levels of the Education System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dr. Walter Bartl

    2013-01-01

    .... These strategies are, however, not always (directly) attributable to demographic decline. Moreover, there is considerable variation in the demographic responsiveness of education demand and supply...

  18. Reserve capacity of public and private hospitals in response to demand uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Alvarez, Ana; Roibás, David; Wall, Alan

    2012-07-01

    A feature of hospitals is that they face uncertain demand for the services they offer. To cover fluctuations in demand, they need to maintain reserve service capacity in the form of beds, equipment, personnel, etc. to minimize the probability of excess queuing or turning away patients, creating a trade-off between reserve service capacity and economic costs. Using a simple theoretical framework, we show how the reserve capacity established depends on institutional characteristics that can affect the objective of the hospital. In particular, we show that private and public hospitals may provide different levels of reserve capacity. In an empirical application using a panel data set of Spanish hospitals over the period 1996-2006, we model reserve service capacity using a distance frontier approach. Our results show that private hospitals generally react to a lesser extent to demand uncertainty than public hospitals.

  19. Cigarette demand is responsive to higher prices: findings from a survey of University students in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweis, Nadia J; Cherukupalli, Rajeev

    2016-11-01

    To estimate the price elasticity of cigarette demand for university students aged 18-24 years in Jordan. Questions from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey were adapted and administered to students from 10 public universities in Jordan in 2014. A two-part econometric model of cigarette demand was estimated. Nearly one-third of university students in Jordan smoke, purchasing 33.2 packs per month and paying 1.70 Jordanian dinars on average (US$2.40) for a pack of 20 cigarettes. The price elasticity of cigarette demand was estimated to be -1.15. Higher taxes may be particularly effective in reducing smoking among University students in Jordan. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. The Dynamic Response Process to Conflicting Institutional Demands in MNC Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Alison E.; Decreton, Benoit; Nell, Phillip Christopher;

    2017-01-01

    How do subsidiary managers react when their headquarters managers make requests that conflict with the local environment in which the subsidiary operates? Using data from a subsidiary based in Sub-Saharan Africa and headquartered in Europe, we show that subsidiary managers need more time than...... usually expected to react to headquarters demands. Subsidiary managers sometimes postpone or test headquarters demands before deciding how to respond to them. In addition, subsidiary managers can implement headquarters demands in ways that do not fit the expectations from the headquarters or local actors...... (e.g. customers, suppliers), thus resulting in additional delays. Headquarters managers must be aware that implementation can take longer than they anticipate, particularly for subsidiaries located in environments that differ substantially from the environment of the headquarters....

  1. Realization of a demand response in office-buildings; Umsetzung eines Lastmangements in Buerogebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungwirth, Johannes; Berger, Christian [TU Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft und Anwendungstechnik; Roessel, Timm [TU Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bauklimatik und Haustechnik

    2011-07-01

    Due to the mostly fluctuating feed-in characteristics, the strong expansion of renewable energy producers lets expect a paradigm shift in the structure of the power supply concept. The integration of renewables into the electricity grid requires new ways to compensate the temporal discrepancy between production and consumption. Such a load management or demand response requires electrical devices that can be varied with time in their mode of operation. The results of a feasibility study show that amongst other things a lot of electric devices being suitable for the implementation of the load management are present in office buildings and administration buildings. As an already existing communication structure one may refer to the equipment automation for the control of the individual devices. In order to realize the existing potentials, an innovative control strategy based on the existing hardware is necessary. This control strategy may adapt the mode of operation to an external signal. In order to allow a realistic development of such control strategies, a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing environment was created which allows a development of control strategies by means of a real building automation controller under defined and reproducible conditions without adverse effects on the users of a building. The controller is connected to a personal computer which models the building and systems engineering taking into account the user behaviour in real time. All gates of the building automation are tapped and provided as input data to the simulation. Based on this information, in the simulation the reaction of the building is calculated for each time step. The current spatial conditions are reported back to the building automation. Thus, the controller can be tested with all the functionality in the HIL environment. Any locations and environmental conditions in the development process can be compared and evaluated by means of the simulation. The goal is to develop an

  2. Killing Two Birds with One Stone: Can Real-Time Pricing SupportRetail Competition and Demand Response?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Goldman, Charles; Hopper,Nicole; Neenan, Bernie

    2006-04-25

    As retail choice states reach the end of their transitional, rate-cap periods, state regulators must decide what type of default supply service to provide to customers that have not switched to a competitive retail supplier. In a growing number of states, regulators have adopted real-time pricing (RTP) as the default service for large commercial and industrial (C&I) customers. Although this trend is driven chiefly by policy objectives related to retail competition, default service RTP may have the added benefit of stimulating demand response. To evaluate the potential role of RTP as a means to both ends--retail market development and demand response--we conducted a comprehensive review of experience with default RTP in the U.S. and examined the emergence of RTP as a product offering by competitive retail suppliers. Across the ten utilities with default RTP in place in 2005, between 5% and 35% of the applicable load remained on the rate. Based on interviews with competitive retailers, we find evidence to suggest that a comparable amount of load in these states has switched to hourly pricing arrangements with competitive retailers. Many customers on default or competitive hourly pricing are paying prices indexed to the real-time spot market, and thus have no advance knowledge of prices. Because the price responsiveness of customers under these conditions has yet to be formally analyzed, and relatively few efforts have been undertaken to help these customers become price responsive, the actual demand response impacts from hourly pricing in retail choice states remains largely an open question. However, we find that policymakers and other stakeholders in retail choice states have various strategies at their disposal to capture the potential demand response benefits from hourly pricing, while simultaneously supporting retail competition.

  3. The Red Herring technique: a methodological response to the problem of demand characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laney, Cara; Kaasa, Suzanne O; Morris, Erin K; Berkowitz, Shari R; Bernstein, Daniel M; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2008-07-01

    In past research, we planted false memories for food related childhood events using a simple false feedback procedure. Some critics have worried that our findings may be due to demand characteristics. In the present studies, we developed a novel procedure designed to reduce the influence of demand characteristics by providing an alternate magnet for subjects' natural suspicions. We used two separate levels of deception. In addition to giving subjects a typical untrue rationale for the study (i.e., normal deceptive cover story), we built in strong indicators (the "Red Herring") that the study actually had another purpose. Later, we told subjects that we had deceived them, and asked what they believed the "real purpose" of the study was. We also interviewed a subset of subjects in depth in order to analyze their subjective experiences of the procedure and any relevant demand. Our Red Herring successfully tricked subjects, and left little worry that our false memory results were due to demand. This "double cross" technique may have widespread uses in psychological research that hopes to conceal its real hypotheses from experimental subjects.

  4. Similar Demands, Different Responses: Teacher Evaluation in the United Kingdom and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Tracey L.; Struthers, Kathryn S.

    2012-01-01

    Using a conceptual framework grounded in globalization and the knowledge economy, this paper addresses teacher evaluation policy reform in the United Kingdom*** and Singapore. Specifically, the authors discuss similar demands faced by both countries: maintaining economic competitiveness in a globalized society, preparing citizens to participate in…

  5. Demand Response Integration Through Agent-Based Coordination of Consumers in Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Umair, Aisha; Ma, Zheng;

    2016-01-01

    The transition towards an electricity grid based on renewable energy production induces fluctuation in electricity generation. This challenges the existing electricity grid design, where generation is expected to follow demand for electricity. In this paper, we propose a multi-agent based Virtual...

  6. Response to consumer demand for reduced-fat foods; multi-functional fat replacers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The excessive dietary fat intake can result in health problems such as obesity and heart-related diseases, resulting in increased consumer demand for reduced fat foods. A number of food ingredients with fat-like functions have been developed as fat alternatives in the food industry. Especially, so...

  7. Real-Time Procurement Strategies of a Proactive Distribution Company with Aggregator-Based Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Qi; Wang, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    and inelastic demand components. A one-leader multi-follower bilevel model is proposed to derive the procurement strategies, i.e., the upper-level problem intends to maximize the profit of the proactive distribution company, while the lower-level expresses the profit maximization per rational aggregator...

  8. Enhancing user comfort models for Demand Response solutions for domestic water heating systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belov, Alexander; Vasenev, Alexandr; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Meratnia, Nirvana

    2016-01-01

    Demand Side Management (DSM) solutions for domestic Water Heaters (WHs) can assist consumers benefit financially by optimizing their energy usage. However, users’ dissatisfaction caused by negative impact of DSM on their comfort may force them to reject the provided solutions. To facilitate DSM adop

  9. Enhancing user comfort models for Demand Response solutions for domestic water heating systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belov, A.; Vasenev, Alexandr; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Meratnia, Nirvana

    2016-01-01

    Demand Side Management (DSM) solutions for domestic Water Heaters (WHs) can assist consumers benefit financially by optimizing their energy usage. However, users’ dissatisfaction caused by negative impact of DSM on their comfort may force them to reject the provided solutions. To facilitate DSM

  10. Poetry for Children: Reverie and the Demand for the Teacher's Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramberger, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    There are indications of a positive trend in education. International comparative investigations on academic achievement and longitudinal studies on life courses prove the need for and the importance of children's high intellectual knowledge. At the same time, new research initiatives and projects comply with the demand that aesthetic/cultural…

  11. National Testing: Gains or Strains? School Leaders' Responses to Policy Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnulfsen, Ann Elisabeth; Møller, Jorunn

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that principals are essential in successfully implementing large-scale policy reforms in schools. However, the issue of how school leaders interpret and transform reforms is understudied. This article explores how twelve Norwegian school leaders respond to external demands in a new policy context emphasizing national test…

  12. Assessment of precast beam-column using capacity demand response spectrum subject to design basis earthquake and maximum considered earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Kay Dora Abd.; Tukiar, Mohd Azuan; Hamid, Nor Hayati Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Malaysia is surrounded by the tectonic feature of the Sumatera area which consists of two seismically active inter-plate boundaries, namely the Indo-Australian and the Eurasian Plates on the west and the Philippine Plates on the east. Hence, Malaysia experiences tremors from far distant earthquake occurring in Banda Aceh, Nias Island, Padang and other parts of Sumatera Indonesia. In order to predict the safety of precast buildings in Malaysia under near field ground motion the response spectrum analysis could be used for dealing with future earthquake whose specific nature is unknown. This paper aimed to develop of capacity demand response spectrum subject to Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) and Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) in order to assess the performance of precast beam column joint. From the capacity-demand response spectrum analysis, it can be concluded that the precast beam-column joints would not survive when subjected to earthquake excitation with surface-wave magnitude, Mw, of more than 5.5 Scale Richter (Type 1 spectra). This means that the beam-column joint which was designed using the current code of practice (BS8110) would be severely damaged when subjected to high earthquake excitation. The capacity-demand response spectrum analysis also shows that the precast beam-column joints in the prototype studied would be severely damaged when subjected to Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) with PGA=0.22g having a surface-wave magnitude of more than 5.5 Scale Richter, or Type 1 spectra.

  13. Future Opportunities and Challenges with Using Demand Response as a Resource in Distribution System Operation and Planning Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); MacDonald, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Page, Janie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Potter, Jennifer [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stewart, Emma [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This scoping study focuses on identifying the ability for current and future demand response opportunities to contribute to distribution system management. To do so, this scoping study will identify the needs of a distribution system to operate efficiently, safely and reliably; summarize both benefits and challenges for the operation of the distribution system with high penetration levels of distributed energy resources; define a suite of services based on those changing operational needs that could be provided by resources; identify existing demand response opportunities sponsored by distribution utilities and/or aggregators of retail customers; assess the extent to which distribution system services can be provided via DR opportunities both in their current form and with alterations to their design; and provide a qualitative assessment of coordination issues that bulk power and distribution system providers of DR opportunities will need to address.

  14. Demand response er som at købe benzin når den er billigst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderberg Petersen, L.

    2005-01-01

    Vi har vænnet os til at benzinpriserne varierer voldsomt. Vi har vænnet os til at holde i kø ved tankstationen og købe mest muligt benzin når prisen er lavest. Sådan er Demand Response, som vi også vil opleve i fremtidens energisystem.......Vi har vænnet os til at benzinpriserne varierer voldsomt. Vi har vænnet os til at holde i kø ved tankstationen og købe mest muligt benzin når prisen er lavest. Sådan er Demand Response, som vi også vil opleve i fremtidens energisystem....

  15. Water and Climate Impacts on Power System Operations: The Importance of Cooling Systems and Demand Response Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miara, Ariel [City College of New York, NY (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [GE Energy Connections, Atlanta, GA (United States); Hummon, Marissa [Tendril, Denver, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. electricity sector is highly dependent upon water resources; changes in water temperatures and water availability can affect operational costs and the reliability of power systems. Despite the importance of water for power system operations, the effects of changes in water characteristics on multiple generators in a system are generally not modeled. Moreover, demand response measures, which can change the magnitude and timing of loads and can have beneficial impacts on power system operations, have not yet been evaluated in the context of water-related power vulnerabilities. This effort provides a first comprehensive vulnerability and cost analysis of water-related impacts on a modeled power system and the potential for demand response measures to address vulnerability and cost concerns. This study uniquely combines outputs and inputs of a water and power plant system model, production cost, model, and relative capacity value model to look at variations in cooling systems, policy-related thermal curtailments, and demand response measures to characterize costs and vulnerability for a test system. Twenty-five scenarios over the course of one year are considered: a baseline scenario as well as a suite of scenarios to evaluate six cooling system combinations, the inclusion or exclusion of policy-related thermal curtailments, and the inclusion or exclusion of demand response measures. A water and power plant system model is utilized to identify changes in power plant efficiencies resulting from ambient conditions, a production cost model operating at an hourly scale is used to calculate generation technology dispatch and costs, and a relative capacity value model is used to evaluate expected loss of carrying capacity for the test system.

  16. An Analysis of Decentralized Demand Response as Frequency Control Support under CriticalWind Power Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Villena

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In power systems with high wind energy penetration, the conjunction of wind power fluctuations and power system inertia reduction can lead to large frequency excursions, where the operating reserves of conventional power generation may be insufficient to restore the power balance. With the aim of evaluating the demand-side contribution to frequency control, a complete process to determine critical wind oscillations in power systems with high wind penetration is discussed and described in this paper. This process implies thousands of wind power series simulations, which have been carried out through a validated offshore wind farm model. A large number of different conditions have been taken into account, such as frequency dead bands, the percentages of controllable demand and seasonal factor influence on controllable loads. Relevant results and statistics are also included in the paper.

  17. Coordinated Demand Response and Distributed Generation Management in Residential Smart Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Mokhtari, Ghassem; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    potentials to increase the functionality of a typical demand-side management (DSM) strategy, and typical implementation of building-level DERs by integrating them into a cohesive, networked package that fully utilizes smart energy-efficient end-use devices, advanced building control/automation systems....... Finally, the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed model is tested and validated in different operating modes compared to the existing models. The findings of this chapter show that by the use of an expert EMS that coordinates supply and demand sides simultaneously, it is very possible not only......Nowadays with the emerging of small-scale integrated energy systems (IESs) in form of residential smart microgrids (SMGs), a large portion of energy can be saved through coordinated scheduling of smart household devices and management of distributed energy resources (DERs). There are significant...

  18. Demand response impacts on off-grid hybrid photovoltaic-diesel generator microgrids

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron St. Leger

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid microgrids consisting of diesel generator set(s) and converter based power sources, such as solar photovoltaic or wind sources, offer an alternative to generator based off-grid power systems. The hybrid approach has been shown to be economical in many off-grid applications and can result in reduced generator operation, fuel requirements, and maintenance. However, the intermittent nature of demand and renewable energy sources typically require energy storage, such as batteries, to prope...

  19. BEYOND JOB POSITIONS. A SOCIAL RESPONSE TO THE CHANGES IN JOB DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Pirog

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an analysis of the recent changes in the job market and discuss the process this triggered in the social politics of the welfare states. We examine the economic reasons for the changes in job demand and furthermore explore the associated changes in the social structures. New forms of employment and gratification demand a restructurization in the social politics in order to elasticise the job supply. The mismatch between the demand and supply on the job market may result in unemployment, work outside the norms of the law and a growing deficit of social security. This in turn leads to the situation where the sale of own work force doesn't always result in a dignified life standard. As a result, new ways to support people outside the regular job market need to be found. These new solution are essential in the modern society where the distribution of work is an important issue shaping the social bonds and individual identities.

  20. Children with dyslexia show cortical hyperactivation in response to increasing literacy processing demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frøydis eMorken

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This fMRI study aimed to examine how differences in literacy processing demands may affect cortical activation patterns in 11- to 12-year-old children with dyslexia as compared to children with typical reading skills. 11 children with and 18 without dyslexia were assessed using a reading paradigm based on different stages of literacy development. In the analyses, six regions showed an interaction effect between group and condition in a factorial ANOVA. These regions were selected as regions of interest for further analyses. Overall, the dyslexia group showed cortical hyperactivation compared to the typical group. The difference between the groups tended to increase with increasing processing demands. Differences in cortical activation were not reflected in in-scanner reading performance. The six regions further grouped into three patterns, which are discussed in terms of processing demands, compensatory mechanisms, orthography and contextual facilitation. We conclude that the observed hyperactivation is chiefly a result of compensatory activity, modulated by other factors.

  1. 14 CFR 1263.107 - Procedure to be followed when response to a demand is required before the General Counsel or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... demand is required before the General Counsel or designate has reached a final decision. If a response to... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure to be followed when response to a demand is required before the General Counsel or designate has reached a final decision. 1263.107...

  2. An Optimization Model for Large–Scale Wind Power Grid Connection Considering Demand Response and Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Tan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the influence of wind power output uncertainty on power system stability, demand response (DRPs and energy storage systems (ESSs are introduced while solving scheduling optimization problems. To simulate wind power scenarios, this paper uses Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS to generate the initial scenario set and constructs a scenario reduction strategy based on Kantorovich distance. Since DRPs and ESSs can influence the distribution of demand load, this paper constructs a joint scheduling optimization model for wind power, ESSs and DRPs under the objective of minimizing total coal cost, and constraints of power demand and supply balance, users’ demand elasticity, thermal units’ startup-shutdown, thermal units’ output power climbing and wind power backup service. To analyze the influences of ESSs and DRPs on system wind power consumption capacity, example simulation is made in a 10 thermal units system with a 1000 MW wind farm and 400 MW energy storage systems under four simulation scenarios. The simulation results show that the introduction of DRPs and ESSs could promote system wind power consumption capacity with significantly economic and environment benefits, which include less coal consumption and less pollutant emission; and the optimization effect reaches the optimum when DRPs and ESSs are both introduced.

  3. Incentive-based demand response programs designed by asset-light retail electricity providers for the day-ahead market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotouhi Ghazvini, Mohammad Ali; Faria, Pedro; Ramos, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    spikes, volatile loads and the potential for market power exertion by GENCO (generation companies). A REP can manage the market risks by employing the DR (demand response) programs and using its' generation and storage assets at the distribution network to serve the customers. The proposed model suggests...... how a REP with light physical assets, such as DG (distributed generation) units and ESS (energy storage systems), can survive in a competitive retail market. The paper discusses the effective risk management strategies for the REPs to deal with the uncertainties of the DAM (day-ahead market) and how...... to hedge the financial losses in the market. A two-stage stochastic programming problem is formulated. It aims to establish the financial incentive-based DR programs and the optimal dispatch of the DG units and ESSs. The uncertainty of the forecasted day-ahead load demand and electricity price is also...

  4. Load kick-back effects due to activation of demand response in view of distribution grid operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xue; Sossan, Fabrizio; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2014-01-01

    There are increasing potentials to utilize the flexibilities from demand side resource (DSR) units. They can provide grid operation services by shifting or curtailing their energy consumption. The service provision can be achieved by aggregating a large quantity of DSR units in the network....... The paper has shown how aggregated consumption dynamics introduce new peaks in the system due to the synchronous behaviors of a portfolio of homogeneous DSRs, which is instructed by the flexibility management system. This dynamic effect is recognized as load kick-back effect. The impact of load kick......-back effects onto the distribution grid is analysed in this paper by establishing scenarios based on the estimation of DSR penetration levels from the system operator. The results indicate some risks that the activation of demand response may create critical peaks in the local grid due to kick-back effects....

  5. Strategy-making for a proactive distribution company in the real-time market with demand response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Qi; Wang, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to optimize the trading strategies of a proactive distribution company (PDISCO) in the real-time market by mobilizing the demand response. Each distribution-level demand is considered as an elastic one. To capture the interrelation between the PDISCO and the real......-time market, a bi-level model is presented for the PDISCO to render continuous offers and bids strategically. The upper level problem expresses the PDISCO's profit maximization, while the lower-level problem minimizes the operation cost of the transmission-level real-time market. To solve the proposed model......, a primal-dual approach is used to translate this bi-level model into a single-level mathematical program with equilibrium constraints. Results of case studies are reported to show the effectiveness of the proposed model. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  6. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the Smart Grid Environment: An Economic Model of Load Management by Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poudineh R.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental concern regarding the consumption of fossil fuels is among the most serious challenges facing the world. As a result, utilisation of more renewable resources and promotion of a clean transport system such as the use of Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs became the forefront of the new energy policies. However, the breakthrough of PHEVs in the automotive fleet increases concerns around the stability of power system and in particular, the power network. This research simulates the aggregate load profile of the UK with presence of PHEVs based upon different price scenarios. The results show that under the fixed rate and time of use programmes in the current grid, the extra load of the electric vehicles intensifies the consumption profile and also creates new critical points. Thus, there should always be excess standby capacity to satisfy peak demand even for a short period of time. On the other hand, when the consumers do not pay the price based on the actual cost of supply, those who consume less in peak hours subsidise the ones who consume more and this cross subsidy raises a regulatory issue. On the contrary, a smart grid can accommodate PHEVs without creating technical and regulatory problems. This positive consequence is the result of demand response to the real time pricing. From a technical point of view, the biggest chunk of PHEVs' load will be shifted to the late evening and the hours of minimum demand. Besides, from a welfare analysis standpoint, real time pricing creates no deadweight losses and corresponding demand response will limit the ability of suppliers to increase the spot market clearing price above its equilibrium level.

  7. Technical and economical tools to assess customer demand response in the commercial sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Bel, Carlos; Ortega, Manuel Alcazar; Escriva, Guillermo Escriva [Institute for Energy Engineering, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, edificio 8E, escalera F, 5a planta. 46022 Valencia (Spain); Gabaldon Marin, Antonio [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Campus de la Muralla al Mar. 30202 Cartagena (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    The authors present a methodology to evaluate and quantify the economic parameters (costs and benefits) attached to customer electricity consumption by analyzing the service provided by the different ''pieces'' of absorbed electricity. The first step of this methodology is to perform a process oriented market segmentation to identify segments according to their flexibility potential. After that, a procedure based on comprehensive simulations to identify and quantify the actual demand that can be managed in the short term is presented and, finally, the required economic analysis is performed. The methodology, which is demonstrated with some applications to the commercial sector, not only helps the customers to integrate in flexible distribution systems but also offers the necessary economical parameters for them to integrate in electricity markets. (author)

  8. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the primary motor cortex in humans: response to increased functional demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khushu, S; Kumaran, S S; Tripathi, R P; Gupta, A; Jain, P C; Jain, V

    2001-06-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have been performed on 20 right handed volunteers at 1.5 Tesla using echo planar imaging (EPI) protocol. Index finger tapping invoked localized activation in the primary motor area. Consistent and highly reproducible activation in the primary motor area was observed in six different sessions of a volunteer over a period of one month. Increased tapping rate resulted in increase in the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal intensity as well as the volume/area of activation (pixels) in the contralateral primary motor area up to tapping rate of 120 taps/min (2 Hz), beyond which it saturates. Activation in supplementary motor area was also observed. The obtained results are correlated to increased functional demands.

  9. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the primary motor cortex in humans: response to increased functional demands

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Khushu; S S Kumaran; R P Tripathi; A Gupta; P C Jain; V Jain

    2001-06-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have been performed on 20 right handed volunteers at 1.5 Tesla using echo planar imaging (EPI) protocol. Index finger tapping invoked localized activation in the primary motor area. Consistent and highly reproducible activation in the primary motor area was observed in six different sessions of a volunteer over a period of one month. Increased tapping rate resulted in increase in the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal intensity as well as the volume/area of activation (pixels) in the contralateral primary motor area up to tapping rate of 120 taps/min (2 Hz), beyond which it saturates. Activation in supplementary motor area was also observed. The obtained results are correlated to increased functional demands.

  10. Modeling Demand Response in Electricity Retail Markets as a Stackelberg Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Pinson, Pierre

    We model the retail market with dynamic pricing as a Stackelberg game where both retailers (leaders) and flexible consumers (followers) solve an economic cost-minimization problem. The electricity retailer optimizes an economic objective over a daily horizon by setting an hourly price-sequence, w......We model the retail market with dynamic pricing as a Stackelberg game where both retailers (leaders) and flexible consumers (followers) solve an economic cost-minimization problem. The electricity retailer optimizes an economic objective over a daily horizon by setting an hourly price...... with Equilibrium Constraints (MPEC) and cast as a Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP), which can be solved using off-the-shelf optimization software. In an illustrative example, we consider a retailer associated with both flexible demand and wind power production. Such an example shows the efficiency of dynamic...

  11. An Integrated Multiperiod OPF Model with Demand Response and Renewable Generation Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukhsh, Waqquas Ahmed; Zhang, Chunyu; Pinson, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy sources such as wind and solar have received much attention in recent years, and large amount of renewable generation is being integrated to the electricity networks. A fundamental challenge in a power system operation is to handle the intermittent nature of the renewable...... generation. In this paper we present a stochastic programming approach to solve a multiperiod optimal power flow problem under renewable generation uncertainty. The proposed approach consists of two stages. In the first stage, operating points for the conventional power plants are determined. The second...... stage realizes generation from the renewable resources and optimally accommodates it by relying on the demand-side flexibilities and limited available flexibilities from the conventional generating units. The proposed model is illustrated on a 4-bus and a 39- bus system. Numerical results show...

  12. Future water supply and demand in response to climate change and agricultural expansion in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K.; Zhou, T.; Gao, H.; Huang, M.

    2016-12-01

    With ongoing global environmental change and an increasing population, it is challenging (to say the least) to understand the complex interactions of irrigation and reservoir systems. Irrigation is critical to agricultural production and food security, and is a vital component of Texas' agricultural economy. Agricultural irrigation currently accounts for about 60% of total water demand in Texas, and recent occurrences of severe droughts has brought attention to the availability and use of water in the future. In this study, we aim to assess future agricultural irrigation water demand, and to estimate how changes in the fraction of crop irrigated land will affect future water availability in Texas, which has the largest farm area and the highest value of livestock production in the United States. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, which has been calibrated and validated over major Texas river basins during the historical period, is employed for this study. The VIC model, coupling with an irrigation scheme and a reservoir module, is adopted to simulate the water management and regulations. The evolution on agricultural land is also considered in the model as a changing fraction of crop for each grid cell. The reservoir module is calibrated and validated based on the historical (1915-2011) storage records of major reservoirs in Texas. The model is driven by statistically downscaled climate projections from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) model ensembles at a spatial resolution of 1/8°. The lowest (RCP 2.6) and highest (RC P8.5) greenhouse-gas concentration scenarios are adopted for future projections to provide an estimate of uncertainty bounds. We expect that our results will be helpful to assist decision making related to reservoir operations and agricultural water planning for Texas under future climate and environmental changes.

  13. Food supply and demand, a simulation model of the functional response of grazing ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, I.M.; Brunsting, A.M.H.

    2002-01-01

    A dynamic model of the functional response is a first prerequisite to be able to bridge the gap between local feeding ecology and grazing rules that pertain to larger scales. A mechanistic model is presented that simulates the functional response, growth and grazing time of ruminants. It is based on

  14. Food supply and demand, a simulation model of the functional response of grazing ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, I.M.; Brunsting, A.M.H.

    2002-01-01

    A dynamic model of the functional response is a first prerequisite to be able to bridge the gap between local feeding ecology and grazing rules that pertain to larger scales. A mechanistic model is presented that simulates the functional response, growth and grazing time of ruminants. It is based on

  15. ROS-Responsive Microspheres for On Demand Antioxidant Therapy in a Model of Diabetic Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, KM; Nelson, CE; Joshi, RV; Martin, JR; Gupta, MK; Haws, SC; Kavanaugh, TE; Skala, MC; Duvall, CL

    2014-01-01

    A new microparticle-based delivery system was synthesized from reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive poly(propylene sulfide) (PPS) and tested for “on demand” antioxidant therapy. PPS is hydrophobic but undergoes a phase change to become hydrophilic upon oxidation and thus provides a useful platform for ROS-demanded drug release. This platform was tested for delivery of the promising anti-inflammatory and antioxidant therapeutic molecule curcumin, which is currently limited in use in its free form due to poor pharmacokinetic properties. PPS microspheres efficiently encapsulated curcumin through oil-in-water emulsion and provided sustained, on demand release that was modulated in vitro by hydrogen peroxide concentration. The cytocompatible, curcumin-loaded microspheres preferentially targeted and scavenged intracellular ROS in activated macrophages, reduced in vitro cell death in the presence of cytotoxic levels of ROS, and decreased tissue-level ROS in vivo in the diabetic mouse hind limb ischemia model of peripheral arterial disease. Interestingly, due to the ROS scavenging behavior of PPS, the blank microparticles also showed inherent therapeutic properties that were synergistic with the effects of curcumin in these assays. Functionally, local delivery of curcumin-PPS microspheres accelerated recovery from hind limb ischemia in diabetic mice, as demonstrated using non-invasive imaging techniques. This work demonstrates the potential for PPS microspheres as a generalizable vehicle for ROS-demanded drug release and establishes the utility of this platform for improving local curcumin bioavailability for treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:25522975

  16. Market transformation lessons learned from an automated demand response test in the Summer and Fall of 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shockman, Christine; Piette, Mary Ann; ten Hope, Laurie

    2004-08-01

    A recent pilot test to enable an Automatic Demand Response system in California has revealed several lessons that are important to consider for a wider application of a regional or statewide Demand Response Program. The six facilities involved in the site testing were from diverse areas of our economy. The test subjects included a major retail food marketer and one of their retail grocery stores, financial services buildings for a major bank, a postal services facility, a federal government office building, a state university site, and ancillary buildings to a pharmaceutical research company. Although these organizations are all serving diverse purposes and customers, they share some underlying common characteristics that make their simultaneous study worthwhile from a market transformation perspective. These are large organizations. Energy efficiency is neither their core business nor are the decision makers who will enable this technology powerful players in their organizations. The management of buildings is perceived to be a small issue for top management and unless something goes wrong, little attention is paid to the building manager's problems. All of these organizations contract out a major part of their technical building operating systems. Control systems and energy management systems are proprietary. Their systems do not easily interact with one another. Management is, with the exception of one site, not electronically or computer literate enough to understand the full dimensions of the technology they have purchased. Despite the research team's development of a simple, straightforward method of informing them about the features of the demand response program, they had significant difficulty enabling their systems to meet the needs of the research. The research team had to step in and work directly with their vendors and contractors at all but one location. All of the participants have volunteered to participate in the study for altruistic

  17. Load shift incentives for household demand response: A model to evaluate effects from a Danish field experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Jonas; Møller Andersen, Frits; Morthorst, Poul Erik

    2015-01-01

    We use a long-term electricity market equilibrium model to assess the impact of variable price products for household electricity customers. The analysed product structures resemble a rebate provided to customers within a field experiment in Southern Denmark. The developed model provides a clearer...... picture of what to expect from household demand response under spot pricing schemes as compared and simplified product schemes; it also prepares for interpreting the field experiment results. Using preliminary assumptions we estimate both short-term and long-term welfare effects of a shift of customers...

  18. Load shift incentives for household demand response: A model to evaluate effects from a Danish field experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Jonas; Møller Andersen, Frits; Morthorst, Poul Erik

    2015-01-01

    picture of what to expect from household demand response under spot pricing schemes as compared and simplified product schemes; it also prepares for interpreting the field experiment results. Using preliminary assumptions we estimate both short-term and long-term welfare effects of a shift of customers......We use a long-term electricity market equilibrium model to assess the impact of variable price products for household electricity customers. The analysed product structures resemble a rebate provided to customers within a field experiment in Southern Denmark. The developed model provides a clearer...... to an ideal spot pricing scheme and to the simplified rebate product....

  19. The response of the maize nitrate transport system to nitrogen demand and supply across the lifecycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Trevor; Conn, Vanessa; Plett, Darren; Conn, Simon; Zanghellini, Juergen; Mackenzie, Nenah; Enju, Akiko; Francis, Karen; Holtham, Luke; Roessner, Ute; Boughton, Berin; Bacic, Antony; Shirley, Neil; Rafalski, Antoni; Dhugga, Kanwarpal; Tester, Mark; Kaiser, Brent N

    2013-04-01

    An understanding of nitrate (NO3-) uptake throughout the lifecycle of plants, and how this process responds to nitrogen (N) availability, is an important step towards the development of plants with improved nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). NO3- uptake capacity and transcript levels of putative high- and low-affinity NO3- transporters (NRTs) were profiled across the lifecycle of dwarf maize (Zea mays) plants grown at reduced and adequate NO3-. Plants showed major changes in high-affinity NO3- uptake capacity across the lifecycle, which varied with changing relative growth rates of roots and shoots. Transcript abundances of putative high-affinity NRTs (predominantly ZmNRT2.1 and ZmNRT2.2) were correlated with two distinct peaks in high-affinity root NO3- uptake capacity and also N availability. The reduction in NO3- supply during the lifecycle led to a dramatic increase in NO3- uptake capacity, which preceded changes in transcript levels of NRTs, suggesting a model with short-term post-translational regulation and longer term transcriptional regulation of NO3- uptake capacity. These observations offer new insight into the control of NO3- uptake by both plant developmental processes and N availability, and identify key control points that may be targeted by future plant improvement programmes to enhance N uptake relative to availability and/or demand.

  20. Machine to machine (M2M) technology in demand responsive commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, David S.; Piette, Mary Ann; Sezgen, Osman; Motegi, Naoya; ten Hope, Laurie

    2004-08-01

    Machine to Machine (M2M) is a term used to describe the technologies that enable computers, embedded processors, smart sensors, actuators and mobile devices to communicate with one another, take measurements and make decisions--often without human intervention. M2M technology was applied to five commercial buildings in a test. The goal was to reduce electric demand when a remote price signal rose above a predetermine price. In this system, a variable price signal was generated from a single source on the Internet and distributed using the meta-language, XML (Extensible Markup Language). Each of five commercial building sites monitored the common price signal and automatically shed site-specific electric loads when the price increased above predetermined thresholds. Other than price signal scheduling, which was set up in advance by the project researchers, the system was designed to operate without human intervention during the two-week test period. Although the buildings responded to the same price signal, the communication infrastructures used at each building were substantially different. This study provides an overview of the technologies used at each building site, the price generator/server, and each link in between. Network architecture, security, data visualization and site-specific system features are characterized. The results of the test are discussed, including: functionality at each site, measurement and verification techniques, and feedback from energy managers and building operators. Lessons learned from the test and potential implications for widespread rollout are provided.

  1. Ecology and vegetarian considerations: does environmental responsibility demand the elimination of livestock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussow, J D

    1994-05-01

    Although the recommendation to avoid animal flesh for environmental reasons has been increasingly advanced, especially in the highly industrialized countries, the ecological implications of such avoidance are seldom carefully examined. If sustainable food systems are to be modeled after natural systems that maintain fertility, both plants and animals would be involved. This paper examines the history of the idea that environmental responsibility is linked to vegetarianism and the destructive effects of present methods of animal raising on farmers, animal welfare, and the environment. Finally, it explores the question of whether vegetarianism is the appropriate response to these problems.

  2. Photosynthetic response to low sink demand after fruit removal in relation to photoinhibition and photoprotection in peach trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei; Fan, Pei G; Wang, Li J; Li, Wei D; Yan, Shu T; Li, Shao H

    2008-01-01

    Diurnal variations in photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, xanthophyll cycle, antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant metabolism in leaves in response to low sink demand caused by fruit removal (-fruit) were studied in 'Zaojiubao' peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batch) trees during the final stage of rapid fruit growth. Compared with the retained fruit treatment (+fruit), the -fruit treatment resulted in a significantly lower photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, but generally higher internal CO(2) concentration, leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference and leaf temperature. The low photosynthetic rate in the -fruit trees paralleled reductions in maximal efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry and carboxylation efficiency. The midday depression in photosynthetic rate in response to low sink demand resulting from fruit removal was mainly caused by non-stomatal limitation. Fruit removal resulted in lower quantum efficiency of PSII as a result of both a decrease in the efficiency of excitation capture by open PSII reaction centers and an increase in closure of PSII reaction centers. Both xanthophyll-dependent thermal dissipation and the antioxidant system were up-regulated providing protection from photo-oxidative damage to leaves during low sink demand. Compared with the leaves of +fruit trees, leaves of -fruit trees had a larger xanthophyll cycle pool size and a higher de-epoxidation state, as well as significantly higher activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase and a higher reduction state of ascorbate and glutathione. However, the -fruit treatment resulted in higher hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde concentrations compared with the +fruit treatment, indicating photo-oxidative damage.

  3. Demand responsive transport as a social innovation - the case of Skewiel mobiel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotman, H.; Ludden, G.D.S.

    2014-01-01

    People are increasingly growing older. Growing older is likely to come with, for example, decreasing mobility and therefore increasing dependency. This can reduce the social connectedness of older people. As an effect, a social challenge is growing: loneliness. In response to this challenge, local g

  4. Is the mineralisation response to root exudation controlled by the microbial stoichiometric demand in subarctic soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousk, Johannes; Hicks, Lettice; Leizeaga, Ainara; Michelsen, Anders; Rousk, Kathrin

    2017-04-01

    Climate change will expose arctic and subarctic systems to warming and a shift towards plant communities with more rhizosphere labile C input. Labile C can also increase the rate of loss of native soil organic matter (SOM); a phenomenon termed 'priming'. We investigated how warming (+1.1˚ C over ambient using open top chambers) and the addition of plant litter (90 g m-2 y-1) or organic nitrogen (N) (fungal fruit bodies; 90 g m-2 y-1) in the Subarctic influenced the susceptibility of SOM mineralisation to priming, and its microbial underpinnings. Root exudation were simulated with the addition of labile organic matter both in the form of only labile C (13C-glucose) or in the form of labile C and N (13C-alanine). We hypothesized that labile C would induce a higher mineralization of N than C sourced from SOM ("N mining"); a response unrelated to microbial growth responses. We also hypothesized that the N mining effect would be more pronounced in climate change simulation treatments of higher C/N (plant litter) than treatments with lower C/N (fungal fruitbodies and warming), with the control treatments intermediate. We also hypothesized that the addition of labile C and N would not result in selective N mining, but instead coupled responses of C and N mineralisation sourced from SOM; a response that would coincide with stimulated microbial growth responses. Labile C appeared to inhibit the mineralisation of C from SOM by up to 60% within hours. In contrast, the mineralisation of N from SOM was stimulated by up to 300%. These responses occurred rapidly and were unrelated to microbial successional dynamics, suggesting catabolic responses. Considered separately, the labile-C inhibited C mineralisation is compatible with previously reported findings termed 'preferential substrate utilisation' or 'negative apparent priming', while the stimulated N mineralisation responses echo recent reports of 'real priming' of SOM mineralisation. However, C and N mineralisation responses

  5. Challenge Online Time Series Clustering For Demand Response A Theory to Break the ‘Curse of Dimensionality'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Ranjan [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chelmis, Charalampos [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Aman, Saima [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Frincu, Marc [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Prasanna, Viktor [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-07-15

    The advent of smart meters and advanced communication infrastructures catalyzes numerous smart grid applications such as dynamic demand response, and paves the way to solve challenging research problems in sustainable energy consumption. The space of solution possibilities are restricted primarily by the huge amount of generated data requiring considerable computational resources and efficient algorithms. To overcome this Big Data challenge, data clustering techniques have been proposed. Current approaches however do not scale in the face of the “increasing dimensionality” problem where a cluster point is represented by the entire customer consumption time series. To overcome this aspect we first rethink the way cluster points are created and designed, and then design an efficient online clustering technique for demand response (DR) in order to analyze high volume, high dimensional energy consumption time series data at scale, and on the fly. Our online algorithm is randomized in nature, and provides optimal performance guarantees in a computationally efficient manner. Unlike prior work we (i) study the consumption properties of the whole population simultaneously rather than developing individual models for each customer separately, claiming it to be a ‘killer’ approach that breaks the “curse of dimensionality” in online time series clustering, and (ii) provide tight performance guarantees in theory to validate our approach. Our insights are driven by the field of sociology, where collective behavior often emerges as the result of individual patterns and lifestyles.

  6. A Joint Scheduling Optimization Model for Wind Power and Energy Storage Systems considering Carbon Emissions Trading and Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Aiwei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the influence of wind power random on system operation, energy storage systems (ESSs and demand response (DR are introduced to the traditional scheduling model of wind power and thermal power with carbon emission trading (CET. Firstly, a joint optimization scheduling model for wind power, thermal power, and ESSs is constructed. Secondly, DR and CET are integrated into the joint scheduling model. Finally, 10 thermal power units, a wind farm with 2800 MW of installed capacity, and 3×80 MW ESSs are taken as the simulation system for verifying the proposed models. The results show backup service for integrating wind power into the grid is provided by ESSs based on their charge-discharge characteristics. However, system profit reduces due to ESSs’ high cost. Demand responses smooth the load curve, increase profit from power generation, and expand the wind power integration space. After introducing CET, the generation cost of thermal power units and the generation of wind power are both increased; however, the positive effect of DR on the system profit is also weakened. The simulation results reach the optimum when both DR and CET are introduced.

  7. Cognitive load and autonomic response patterns under negative priming demand in depersonalization-derealization disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemche, Erwin; Sierra-Siegert, Mauricio; David, Anthony S; Phillips, Mary L; Gasston, David; Williams, Steven C R; Giampietro, Vincent P

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have yielded evidence for cognitive processing abnormalities and alterations of autonomic functioning in depersonalization-derealization disorder (DPRD). However, multimodal neuroimaging and psychophysiology studies have not yet been conducted to test for functional and effective connectivity under cognitive stress in patients with DPRD. DPRD and non-referred control subjects underwent a combined Stroop/negative priming task, and the neural correlates of Stroop interference effect, negative priming effect, error rates, cognitive load span and average amplitude of skin conductance responses were ascertained for both groups. Evoked haemodynamic responses for basic Stroop/negative priming activations were compared. For basic Stroop to neutral contrast, patients with DPRD differed in the location (inferior vs. superior lobule) of the parietal region involved, but showed similar activations in the left frontal region. In addition, patients with DPRD also co-activated the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (BA9) and posterior cingulate cortex (BA31), which were also found to be the main between-group difference regions. These regions furthermore showed connectivity with frequency of depersonalization states. Evoked haemodynamic responses drawn from regions of interest indicated significant between-group differences in 30-40% of time points. Brain-behaviour correlations differed mainly in laterality, yet only slightly in regions. A reversal of autonomic patterning became evident in patients with DPRD for cognitive load spans, indicating less effective arousal suppression under cognitive stress - patients with DPRD showed positive associations of cognitive load with autonomic responses, whereas controls exhibit respective inverse association. Overall, the results of the present study show only minor executive cognitive peculiarities, but further support the notion of abnormalities in autonomic functioning in patients with DPRD.

  8. Logistics orchestration in the ornamental plant supply chain network: towards responsive and differentiated demand driven networks

    OpenAIRE

    Vorst, van der, H.A.; Duineveld, M.P.J.; Scheer, F.P.

    2007-01-01

    At the moment the Dutch ornamental plant sector has a dominant international position fulfilling about 44% of the European market. However, emerging markets are positioned at a great distance requiring new logistics concepts to operate efficiently and effectively, new marketing channels become apparent which require increased responsiveness and product diversification, and new competitors like Spain and Italy are entering the arena. If no action is taken, the Dutch might loose their renowned ...

  9. Hierarchical Decentralized Control Strategy for Demand-Side Primary Frequency Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Jianming; Hansen, Jacob; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2016-07-21

    The Grid Friendly$^\\textrm{TM}$ Appliance~(GFA) controller, developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, was designed for the purpose of autonomously switching off appliances by detecting under-frequency events. In this paper, a new frequency responsive load~(FRL) controller is first proposed by extending the functionality of the original GFA controller. The proposed FRL controller can autonomously switch on (or off) end-use loads by detecting over-frequency (or under-frequency) events through local frequency measurement. Then, a hierarchical decentralized control framework is developed for engaging the end-use loads to provide primary frequency response with the proposed FRL controller. The developed framework has several important features that are desirable in terms of providing primary frequency control. It not only exclusively maintains the autonomous operation of the end-use loads, but also effectively overcomes the stability issue associated with high penetration of FRLs. The simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the developed hierarchical control framework for providing primary frequency response with the proposed FRL controller.

  10. Partnership for corporate social responsibility : A review of concepts and strategic options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, A.H.J.; Bruijn, de Th.; Honders, H.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to conceptualise the extent to which partnerships with non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are a necessity for successful efforts of businesses in the area of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Design/methodology/approach — The main findings are based on an analysi

  11. [Delegation of medical responsibilities to non-medical personnel. Options and limits from a legal viewpoint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulsenheimer, K

    2009-11-01

    Increasing specialization and growing mechanization in medicine have strongly supported the transfer of originally medical responsibilities to non-medical personnel. The enormous pressure of costs as a result of limited financial resources in the health system make the delegation of previously medical functions to cheaper non-medical ancillary staff expedient and the sometimes obvious lack of physicians also gains importance by the delegation of many activities away from medical staff. In the German health system there is no legal norm which clearly and definitively describes the field of activity of a medical doctor. Fundamental for a reform of the areas of responsibility between physicians and non-medical personnel is a terminological differentiation between instruction-dependent, subordinate, non-independent assistance and the delegation of medical responsibilities which are transferred to non-medical personnel for independent and self-determined completion under the supervision and control of a physician. The inclination towards risk of medical activities, the need of protection of the patient and the intellectual prerequisites required for carrying out the necessary measures define the limitations for the delegation of medical responsibilities to non-medical ancillary staff. These criteria demarcate by expert assessment the exclusively medical field of activity in a sufficiently exact and convincing manner.

  12. Socially Responsible Investment Funds : A review of research priorities and strategic options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de M.; Nijhof, A.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    This is the first literature review on Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) funds. Although SRI funds flourish, we know very little about these investment vehicles. This article reviews academic literature on SRI funds published during the past 25 years. It discusses the current state of theoretica

  13. Developing a Curriculum in Response to Change. OPTIONS. Expanding Educational Services for Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Judith A.; And Others

    This guide is intended to assist adult educators in designing and adapting curricula to conform to technological changes in the workplace and to meet the learning needs of adults. The first part deals with the changing workplace and its effect on postsecondary education and with developing programs that respond to change (responses to…

  14. 自动需求响应信息交换接口设计%Design of Automated Demand Response Information Exchange Interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁兵; 张荣; 李彬; 陈宋宋

    2014-01-01

    Automated demand response information exchange interface, which is one of the key technologies for automated demand response, is entity connecting customer automation systems, demand response service systems in power grid-side and the third-party aggregation service systems for participating in the automated demand response. Information exchange capabilities between demand response systems are realized by the interface. By analyzing demand response business, architecture, hierarchical model and functions of interface were designed in this paper. By integrating function layer, information layer and communication layer entities, efficient, flexible, convenient and secure demand response information exchange can be implemented by the interface that mapped to a physical network reasonable, which is significant for automated demand response.%自动需求响应信息交换接口是连接参加自动需求响应的用户自动化系统、电网公司的需求响应服务系统及第三方的聚合服务系统的实体。接口能实现需求响应各系统间的信息交换功能,是自动需求响应的关键技术之一。从需求响应业务分析出发,设计了接口的体系架构、层次模型和接口功能,通过接口的功能层、信息层和通信层实体间的密切配合,合理映射到物理网络后可进行高效、灵活、方便、安全的需求响应信息交换,对实现需求响应的自动化具有重要意义。

  15. Demand Response of Thermostatic Loads by Optimized Switching-Fraction Broadcast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Totu, Luminita Cristiana; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2014-01-01

    response capabilities within the intrinsic flexibility of the population. A temperature distribution model based on Fokker-Planck partial differential equations is used to capture the behavior of the population. To ensure probability conservation and high accuracy of the numerical solution, Finite Volume...... Method is used to spatially discretize these equations. Next, a broadcast strategy with two switching-fraction signals is proposed for actuating the population. This is applied in an open-loop scenario for tracking a power reference by running an optimization with a multilinear objective....

  16. Amygdala responses to unpleasant pictures are influenced by task demands and positive affect trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Arruda Sanchez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of attention in emotional processing is still the subject of debate. Recent studies have found that high positive affect in approach motivation narrows attention. Furthermore, the positive affect trait has been suggested as an important component for determining human variability in threat reactivity. We employed fMRI to investigate whether different states of attention control would modulate amygdala responses to highly unpleasant pictures relative to neutral and whether this modulation would be influenced by the positive affect trait. Participants (n=22, 12 male were scanned while viewing neutral (people or unpleasant pictures (mutilated bodies flanked by two peripheral bars. They were instructed to (a judge the picture content as unpleasant or neutral or (b to judge the difference in orientation between the bars in an easy condition (0º or 90º orientation difference or (c in a hard condition (0º or 6º orientation difference. Whole brain analysis revealed a task main effect of brain areas related to the experimental manipulation of attentional control, including the amygdala, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex. ROI analysis showed an inverse correlation (r = -0.51, p < 0.01 between left amygdala activation and positive affect level when participants viewed unpleasant stimuli and judged bar orientation in the easy condition. This result suggests that subjects with high positive affect exhibit lower amygdala reactivity to distracting unpleasant pictures. In conclusion, the current study suggests that positive affect modulates attention effect on unpleasant pictures, therefore attenuating emotional responses.

  17. Demand response to improved walking infrastructure: A study into the economics of walking and health behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Alberto; Hutchinson, W George; Hunter, Ruth F; Tully, Mark A; Kee, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Walking is the most common form of moderate-intensity physical activity among adults, is widely accessible and especially appealing to obese people. Most often policy makers are interested in valuing the effect on walking of changes in some characteristics of a neighbourhood, the demand response for walking, of infrastructure changes. A positive demand response to improvements in the walking environment could help meet the public health target of 150 min of at least moderate-intensity physical activity per week. We model walking in an individual's local neighbourhood as a 'weak complement' to the characteristics of the neighbourhood itself. Walking is affected by neighbourhood characteristics, substitutes, and individual's characteristics, including their opportunity cost of time. Using compensating variation, we assess the economic benefits of walking and how walking behaviour is affected by improvements to the neighbourhood. Using a sample of 1209 respondents surveyed over a 12 month period (Feb 2010-Jan 2011) in East Belfast, United Kingdom, we find that a policy that increased walkability and people's perception of access to shops and facilities would lead to an increase in walking of about 36 min/person/week, valued at £13.65/person/week. When focussing on inactive residents, a policy that improved the walkability of the area would lead to guidelines for physical activity being reached by only 12.8% of the population who are currently inactive. Additional interventions would therefore be needed to encourage inactive residents to achieve the recommended levels of physical activity, as it appears that interventions that improve the walkability of an area are particularly effective in increasing walking among already active citizens, and, among the inactive ones, the best response is found among healthier, younger and wealthier citizens.

  18. The rural restaurant healthy options program: response of rural, local newspapers to a program press release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothwehr, Faryle; Andsager, Julie; Haines, Heidi

    2014-03-01

    Local media should be used to raise awareness of health promotion programs. In rural areas, local newspapers provide an opportunity to reach large numbers of residents. Although there are expert guidelines describing the process for successfully engaging local media, little has been documented regarding the range of responses that local, rural newspapers might have when approached about covering health promotion programs. This study describes the response of rural, local newspapers to a press release about a health promotion program taking place in 28 restaurants in different rural towns. The most common reason for not publishing a story was that it would constitute free advertising for the restaurant. Twenty-two stories were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The majority of the responding newspapers were weeklies, and 16 published the full press release verbatim. Three stories included photos, and five included quotes. Headlines typically included the name of the restaurant and the university partner. The overall response rate is encouraging; however, there is considerable room for improvement in terms of personalizing the story with photos or quotes. Greater efforts may be required to obtain this depth of coverage, including training for local journalists to increase their interest and confidence in covering health promotion issues.

  19. Mobilized adult pituitary stem cells contribute to endocrine regeneration in response to physiological demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoti, Karine; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Lovell-Badge, Robin

    2013-10-03

    Pituitary hormone deficiencies, with Growth Hormone deficiency being most frequent (1 in 3,500-10,000 births), cause significant morbidity. Regeneration of missing endocrine cells would be a significant improvement over hormone replacement therapies, which incur side effects and do not mimic physiological secretion patterns. Recent in vitro studies have identified a population of adult pituitary progenitors that express the HMG box transcription factors SOX2 and SOX9. Here, we apply cell-lineage tracing analysis to demonstrate that SOX2- and SOX9-expressing progenitors can self-renew and give rise to endocrine cells in vivo, suggesting that they are tissue stem cells. Moreover, we show that they can become mobilized and differentiate into the appropriate endocrine cell types in response to physiological stress. Our results highlight the pituitary as a model for exploring how physiological changes influence stem cell behavior and suggest that manipulation of endogenous pituitary stem cells is a potential therapeutic strategy for pituitary deficiencies.

  20. Managing and predicting low response to standard in vitro fertilization therapy: a review of the options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karande, Visjhvanath C

    2003-01-01

    Low responders remain a difficult group of patients to manage in an in vitro fertilization (IVF) program. Such patients have low peak estradiol concentrations (strategies that have been utilized to manage low responders because the definition of a low responder varies widely. Also, very few large prospective randomized trials have compared different protocols. Two stimulation protocols involving varying doses of leuprorelin and high doses of gonadotropins appear to be the most promising. The early gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist cessation protocol involves routine pituitary desensitization with luteal phase start of leuprorelin 0.5 mg for 10-14 days. With the onset of gonadotropin treatment, there is cessation of leuprorelin. The 'microdose flare' protocol utilizes oral contraceptive priming followed by diluted doses of leuprorelin 50 microg given twice daily. Two days later, stimulation is started by adding high doses of gonadotropins. The microdoses of leuprorelin and the high doses of gonadotropins are then continued until the day of chorionic gonadotropin administration. Patients who do not respond to these protocols or those with severely diminished ovarian reserve are candidates for donor oocytes. The role of GnRH antagonists and the in vitro maturation of oocytes are potentially exciting strategies that are still being investigated. Ultrasound measurements of ovarian volume, baseline antral follicle counts, and Doppler measurement of ovarian stromal blood flow now make it possible to predict low response to IVF therapy. Low response can be expected if the smaller ovary has a volume <3 cm3, or the mean ovarian diameter in the two longest planes is <20 mm. Antral follicle counts of < or = 3 in each ovary are also associated with low response. Data on ovarian stromal blood flow are still unclear, but an ovarian peak systolic velocity of <10 cm/sec is associated with low response. If low response is anticipated based on baseline ultrasound scan, a

  1. Moderating effects of salivary testosterone levels on associations between job demand and psychological stress response in Japanese medical workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Kumi; Miwa, Machiko; Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Tsuchiya, Masao; Kawakami, Norito

    2016-06-10

    Levels of job stress have been shown to be inversely associated with testosterone levels, but some inconsistent results have been documented. We investigated the moderating effects of testosterone levels on associations between job stress-factors and psychological stress responses in Japanese medical workers. The participants were 63 medical staff (20 males and 43 women; mean age: 30.6 years; SD=7.3) in Okayama, Japan. Their job-stress levels and psychological stress responses were evaluated using self-administered questionnaires, and their salivary testosterone collected. Multiple regression analyses showed that job demand was positively associated with stress responses in men and women. An interaction between testosterone and support from colleagues had a significant effect on depression and anxiety for women. In women with lower testosterone levels, a reducing effect of support from colleagues on depression and anxiety was intensified. In women with higher testosterone levels, depression and anxiety levels were identical regardless of support from colleagues. Testosterone may function as a moderator between perceived work environment and psychological stress responses for female medical workers.

  2. Energetics demands and physiological responses to boxing match and subsequent recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassib, Sabri; Hammoudi-Nassib, Sarra; Chtara, Mokhtar; Mkaouer, Bessem; Maaouia, Ghazwa; Bezrati-Benayed, Ikram; Chamari, Karim

    2017-01-01

    Determining the physiological profile of athletes in boxing match is important for defining aspects of physical performance that are important to competitive performance. Therefore, examination of the energy pathway of high-level boxers' athletes can be very helpful for optimizing training and then improving boxing physical fitness and performance. The aim of the present study was to assess the physiological and cardiovascular responses during boxing matches and subsequent recovery. Fifteen male international level boxers (mean age 19.56±3.6 years; mean body mass 72.46±11.86 kg; mean height 176.50±7.22 cm) participated in this study. Blood samples were drawn from the antecubital vein before and after the boxing matches (T1: pre-match rest measure around 11:00 a.m., T2: measure at 3 minutes of post-match recovery; T3: measure at 60 minutes of recovery; T4: measure at 24 hours post-match - the match started around 11:30 a.m.). An analysis of glucose, triglycerides, lactate, cholesterol, creatinine, uric-acid, high density lipoprotein, and low density lipoprotein concentrations was performed for each sample. Participants did perform a maximal incremental test to measure maximal heart rate (HRmax). Heart rate responses to the matches were measured and expressed in percentage of HRmax. The average HR recorded during the match corresponded to 93±3.26% of HRmax. The levels of glucose, lactate, and cholesterol increased significantly from T1 to T2. Likewise, creatinine levels increased significantly from T1 to T2 and T3. However, the cholesterol level decreased significantly at T3 in comparison with T1. Moreover, 24-hour post-match creatinine levels were significantly lower and triglyceride levels were significantly higher compared with T1. The main results of this study revealed that the boxing matches stress the lipid metabolism system during boxing and post-match (for at least 24 hours) even if it is widely recognized boxing being mainly composed of repeated short

  3. 77 FR 1658 - Adjustment of the Amount for the Optional Rider for Proof of NVOCC Financial Responsibility for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... 46 CFR Part 515 RIN 3072-AC46 Adjustment of the Amount for the Optional Rider for Proof of NVOCC... rules regarding the amount of bond coverage required in its optional China Bond Rider for Non-Vessel... Adjustment of the Amount for the FMC Optional China Bond Rider. Background Under a Memorandum...

  4. Game Design and Analysis for Price-Based Demand Response: An Aggregate Game Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Maojiao; Hu, Guoqiang

    2016-02-18

    In this paper, an aggregate game is adopted for the modeling and analysis of energy consumption control in smart grid. Since the electricity users' cost functions depend on the aggregate energy consumption, which is unknown to the end users, an average consensus protocol is employed to estimate it. By neighboring communication among the users about their estimations on the aggregate energy consumption, Nash seeking strategies are developed. Convergence properties are explored for the proposed Nash seeking strategies. For energy consumption game that may have multiple isolated Nash equilibria, a local convergence result is derived. The convergence is established by utilizing singular perturbation analysis and Lyapunov stability analysis. Energy consumption control for a network of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems is investigated. Based on the uniqueness of the Nash equilibrium, it is shown that the players' actions converge to a neighborhood of the unique Nash equilibrium nonlocally. More specially, if the unique Nash equilibrium is an inner Nash equilibrium, an exponential convergence result is obtained. Energy consumption game with stubborn players is studied. In this case, the actions of the rational players can be driven to a neighborhood of their best response strategies by using the proposed method. Numerical examples are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  5. Compensatory structural adaptive modifications of vagina in response to functional demand in goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, Amer M; Zaid, Nazih W; Hussain, S O

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal biopsies and smears were collected from ten adult local healthy goats. Routine histological methods were carried out on vaginal biopsies and then stained with PAS stain. The smears were stained with Methylene blue. All samples were inspected under light microscope. The present study found that many constituents of the wall of the vagina, which have an important functional role, were absent; among these were the vaginal glands, goblet cells, muscularis mucosa, and lymphatic nodules. On the other hand, vagina showed special compensatory histological mechanisms, namely, the deep epithelial folds, the well-developed germinated stratum basale, the apparent basement membrane, and the profuse defensive cells, such as neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and mast cells. The general stains of this study could not recognize dendritic cells although they play an important functional role. Moreover, the herein study declared also that the vaginal smears showing many adaptive cellular mechanisms among these were, the keratinization, the process of sheet formation that lines the vaginal lumen, the process of metachromasia which is related to the cellular activity in protein synthesis, keratin, and finally the presence of endogenous microorganisms. It was concluded that all the above cellular compensatory adaptive mechanisms may compensate the lacking vaginal constituents and act to raise the immune response of the vagina.

  6. Responses of Lower-Body Power and Match Running Demands Following Long-Haul Travel in International Rugby Sevens Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John A; Pumpa, Kate L; Pyne, David B

    2017-03-01

    Mitchell, JA, Pumpa, KL, and Pyne, DB. Responses of lowerbody power and match running demands after long-haul travel in international rugby sevens players. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 686-695, 2017-This study determined the effect of long-haul (>5 hours) travel on lower-body power and match running demands in international rugby sevens players. Lower-body power was assessed in 22 male international rugby sevens players (age 21.7 ± 2.7 years, mass 89.0 ± 6.7 kg, stature 180.5 ± 6.2 cm; mean ± SD) monitored over 17 rugby sevens tournaments. A countermovement jump was used to monitor lower-body power (peak and mean power) over repeated three week travel and competition periods (pretravel, posttravel, and posttournament). Small decreases were evident in peak power after both short and long-haul travel (-4.0%, ±3.2%; mean, ±90% confidence limits) with further reductions in peak and mean power posttournament (-4.5%, ±2.3% and -3.8%, ±1.5%) culminating in a moderate decrease in peak power overall (-7.4%, ±4.0%). A subset of 12 players (completing a minimum of 8 tournaments) had the effects of match running demands assessed with lower-body power. In this subset, long-haul travel elicited a large decrease in lower-body peak (-9.4%, ±3.5%) and mean power (-5.6%, ±2.9%) over the monitoring period, with a small decrease (-4.3%, ±3.0% and -2.2%, ±1.7%) posttravel and moderate decrease (-5.4%, ±2.5% and -3.5%, ±1.9%) posttournament, respectively. Match running demands were monitored through global positioning system. In long-haul tournaments, the 12 players covered ∼13%, ±13% greater total distance (meter) and ∼11%, ±10% higher average game meters >5 m·s when compared with short-haul (rugby sevens tournaments after long-haul travel.

  7. 考虑努力水平和决策风险偏好的供应链期权销量担保模型%Supply Chain Sale-surety Option Contract with Effort Dependent Demand and Risk Preference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡本勇; 陈旭

    2012-01-01

    对销售商和供应商组成的简单两级供应链,在供应链参与企业的风险偏好影响其决策选择,以及在需求随机并受销售商营销努力水平影响的市场环境下,建立了基于销量担保期权的供应链契约模型.提供了一种基于期望损失的期权定价方法,分析了努力水平和决策风险偏好双重因素对参与企业的决策及其供应链协调的影响.研究表明在考虑努力水平和决策风险偏好差异时,单纯的期权销量契约无法实现供应链协调.为此,引入收益共享和努力成本共担策略,对原契约模型加以修正.在修正契约中,当收益共享比例和努力成本共担比例满足一定条件时,修正的期权销量担保契约可以实现供应链协调.最后,提供了一种模型优化分析方法,并通过案例分析说明了研究结论的有效性.%With the development of market environment, the traditional supply chain contracts are faced with increasing challenge in guiding the current business practice. Under the new supply chain environment, it is necessary to explore a new concept of supply chain collaboration and a new model of supply chain contract based on this concept. In this paper, based on the previous studies, for the current new model of business cooperation, a model of supply chain sale-surety option contract is set up. This contract is designed and led by retailer. Retailers sell sale-surety option, and suppliers purchase it, and at the same time, suppliers access the amount of sales guarantee corresponding to the option. If sales volume is lower than the guarantee's, suppliers will be compensated. Retailers, who have hypermarkets, by improving the stores popularity, attract suppliers enter the market to sale product. Suppliers decide to buy the ideal number of option, and retailers provide sale-surety corresponding to the option. In practice the effort level of retailers will affect products' demand, and the risk attitude of decision

  8. Linking real time and location in scheduling demand-responsive transit. Final report, October 1993-October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetter, K.

    1996-09-01

    The current study builds on the experience of the study team with asessing the viability of the application of GPS to paratransit and fixed-route buses in a mid-sized city, Des Moines. That project provided the basis for the actual investment of Des Moines Metro in a GPS for its paratransit fleet. In this study the focus shifts to rural and small-town demand-responsive properties. The assumption is that these systems are not smaller versions of the urban system, but distinctive forms of transit with very different needs and operating parameters. The question is whether smart technologies that relate to systems operation are viable in this setting. In this cotext, viability is determined not so much in terms of technical feasibility but in terms of overall costs and benefits.

  9. Real-time pricing strategy of micro-grid energy centre considering price-based demand response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiheng; Zhang, Yongjun; Wang, Gan

    2017-07-01

    With the development of energy conversion technology such as power to gas (P2G), fuel cell and so on, the coupling between energy sources becomes more and more closely. Centralized dispatch among electricity, natural gas and heat will become a trend. With the goal of maximizing the system revenue, this paper establishes the model of micro-grid energy centre based on energy hub. According to the proposed model, the real-time pricing strategy taking into account price-based demand response of load is developed. And the influence of real-time pricing strategy on the peak load shifting is discussed. In addition, the impact of wind power predicted inaccuracy on real-time pricing strategy is analysed.

  10. On the Inclusion of Energy-Shifting Demand Response in Production Cost Models: Methodology and a Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Hale, Elaine; Doebber, Ian

    storage technologies, and improving economic efficiency. In practice, DR from the commercial and residential sectors is largely an emerging, not a mature, resource, and its actual costs and benefits need to be studied to determine promising combinations of physical DR resource, enabling controls......In the context of future power system requirements for additional flexibility, demand response (DR) is an attractive potential resource. Its proponents widely laud its prospective benefits, which include enabling higher penetrations of variable renewable generation at lower cost than alternative...... and communications, power system characteristics, regulatory environments, market structures, and business models. The work described in this report focuses on the enablement of such analysis from the production cost modeling perspective. In particular, we contribute a bottom-up methodology for modeling load...

  11. INFLUENCE OF SUPPLY AND DEMAND FACTORS AT THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTALLY RESPONSIBLE HOUSING AND UTILITIES SECTOR IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia B. Safronova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Empirical marketing regional research on supply and demand factors of housing and communal services (HCS revealed determinants of customer loyalty and satisfaction with the service level and factors influencing on willingness to purchase additional services. Specific features of housing and utilities sector (HUS as a social significant industry determine requirements to models reflecting reciprocal influence of indices of satisfaction, loyalty and economic indices of operation. The article presents definition of requirements along with development of techniques for modeling influence of satisfaction and loyalty on consumer behaviour of clients. The authors demonstrate trustworthy statistical results of correlative interrelationship of different factors. There have been designed regression models for taking management solutions by executives of management company housing and communal services at the development environmental responsibility. The causes that lead and hamper development of socially oriented services in different regions of the Russian Federation have been identified.

  12. Distributed energy resources management using plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a fuel-shifting demand response resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Soares, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the smart grids context, distributed energy resources management plays an important role in the power systems' operation. Battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles should be important resources in the future distribution networks operation. Therefore, it is important...... to develop adequate methodologies to schedule the electric vehicles' charge and discharge processes, avoiding network congestions and providing ancillary services.This paper proposes the participation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in fuel shifting demand response programs. Two services are proposed......, namely the fuel shifting and the fuel discharging. The fuel shifting program consists in replacing the electric energy by fossil fuels in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles daily trips, and the fuel discharge program consists in use of their internal combustion engine to generate electricity injecting...

  13. Rehabilitation Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ...

  14. Pricing Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Presents results of a recent survey of over 100 public and academic libraries about pricing options from online companies. Most options fall into three categories: pay-as-you-go, fixed-rate, and user-based. Results are discussed separately for public and academic libraries and for consortial discounts. Trends in pricing options preferred by…

  15. Energy Demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stehfest, E. et al.

    2014-01-01

    Key policy issues – How will energy demand evolve particularly in emerging and medium- and low- income economies? – What is the mix of end-use energy carriers to meet future energy demand? – How can energy efficiency contribute to reducing the growth rate of energy demand and mitigate pressures on t

  16. Pancreatic β-cell response to increased metabolic demand and to pharmacologic secretagogues requires EPAC2A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Woo-Jin; Mondal, Prosenjit; Li, Yuanyuan; Lee, Suh Eun; Hussain, Mehboob A

    2013-08-01

    Incretin hormone action on β-cells stimulates in parallel two different intracellular cyclic AMP-dependent signaling branches mediated by protein kinase A and exchange protein activated by cAMP islet/brain isoform 2A (EPAC2A). Both pathways contribute toward potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). However, the overall functional role of EPAC2A in β-cells as it relates to in vivo glucose homeostasis remains incompletely understood. Therefore, we have examined in vivo GSIS in global EPAC2A knockout mice. Additionally, we have conducted in vitro studies of GSIS and calcium dynamics in isolated EPAC2A-deficient islets. EPAC2A deficiency does not impact GSIS in mice under basal conditions. However, when mice are exposed to diet-induced insulin resistance, pharmacologic secretagogue stimulation of β-cells with an incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 analog or with a fatty acid receptor 1/G protein-coupled receptor 40 selective activator, EPAC2A is required for the increased β-cell response to secretory demand. Under these circumstances, EPAC2A is required for potentiating the early dynamic increase in islet calcium levels after glucose stimulation, which is reflected in potentiated first-phase insulin secretion. These studies broaden our understanding of EPAC2A function and highlight its significance during increased secretory demand or drive on β-cells. Our findings advance the rationale for developing EPAC2A-selective pharmacologic activators for β-cell-targeted pharmacotherapy in type 2 diabetes.

  17. Hydrogel-Forming Microneedle Arrays Made from Light-Responsive Materials for On-Demand Transdermal Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, John G; Larrañeta, Eneko; Donnelly, Ryan F; McGoldrick, Niamh; Migalska, Katarzyna; McCrudden, Maelíosa T C; Irwin, Nicola J; Donnelly, Louise; McCoy, Colin P

    2016-03-07

    We describe, for the first time, stimulus-responsive hydrogel-forming microneedle (MN) arrays that enable delivery of a clinically relevant model drug (ibuprofen) upon application of light. MN arrays were prepared using a polymer prepared from 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) by micromolding. The obtained MN arrays showed good mechanical properties. The system was loaded with up to 5% (w/w) ibuprofen included in a light-responsive 3,5-dimethoxybenzoin conjugate. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the presence of the conjugate inside the polymeric MN matrix. In vitro, this system was able to deliver up to three doses of 50 mg of ibuprofen upon application of an optical trigger over a prolonged period of time (up to 160 h). This makes the system appealing as a controlled release device for prolonged periods of time. We believe that this technology has potential for use in "on-demand" delivery of a wide range of drugs in a variety of applications relevant to enhanced patient care.

  18. Metabolomics reveals differences in postprandial responses to breads and fasting metabolic characteristics associated with postprandial insulin demand in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzami, Ali A; Shrestha, Aahana; Morrison, David A; Poutanen, Kaisa; Mykkänen, Hannu

    2014-06-01

    Changes in serum metabolic profile after the intake of different food products (e.g., bread) can provide insight into their interaction with human metabolism. Postprandial metabolic responses were compared after the intake of refined wheat (RWB), whole-meal rye (WRB), and refined rye (RRB) breads. In addition, associations between the metabolic profile in fasting serum and the postprandial concentration of insulin in response to different breads were investigated. Nineteen postmenopausal women with normal fasting glucose and normal glucose tolerance participated in a randomized, controlled, crossover meal study. The test breads, RWB (control), RRB, and WRB, providing 50 g of available carbohydrate, were each served as a single meal. The postprandial metabolic profile was measured using nuclear magnetic resonance and targeted LC-mass spectrometry and was compared between different breads using ANOVA and multivariate models. Eight amino acids had a significant treatment effect (P effect (P fasting metabolic profile and the postprandial concentration of insulin. Women with higher fasting concentrations of leucine and isoleucine and lower fasting concentrations of sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines had higher insulin responses despite similar glucose concentration after all kinds of bread (cross-validated ANOVA, P = 0.048). High blood concentration of branched-chain amino acids, i.e., leucine and isoleucine, has been associated with the increased risk of diabetes, which suggests that additional consideration should be given to bread proteins in understanding the beneficial health effects of different kinds of breads. The present study suggests that the fasting metabolic profile can be used to characterize the postprandial insulin demand in individuals with normal glucose metabolism that can be used for establishing strategies for the stratification of individuals in personalized nutrition.

  19. Joint Real-Time Energy and Demand-Response Management using a Hybrid Coalitional-Noncooperative Game

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Fulin; Gu, Yi; Hao, Jun; Zhang, Jun Jason; Wei, Jiaolong; Zhang, Yingchen

    2015-11-11

    In order to model the interactions among utility companies, building demands and renewable energy generators (REGs), a hybrid coalitional-noncooperative game framework has been proposed. We formulate a dynamic non-cooperative game to study the energy dispatch within multiple utility companies, while we take a coalitional perspective on REGs and buildings demands through a hedonic coalition formation game approach. In this case, building demands request different power supply from REGs, then the building demands can be organized into an ultimate coalition structure through a distributed hedonic shift algorithm. At the same time, utility companies can also obtain a stable power generation profile. In addition, the interactive progress among the utility companies and building demands which cannot be supplied by REGs is implemented by distributed game theoretic algorithms. Numerical results illustrate that the proposed hybrid coalitional-noncooperative game scheme reduces the cost of both building demands and utility companies compared with the initial scene.

  20. Research and Design of Demand Side Energy Efficiency Management and Demand Response System%电力需求侧能效管理与需求响应系统的研究与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫华光; 陈宋宋; 钟鸣; 蒋利民

    2015-01-01

    为引导需求侧优化用能管理水平、参与电网高峰负荷削减,实现能源利用效率的整体提升,简述了电力需求侧能效管理与需求响应系统建设的背景、意义;概述了系统在监测用户能源消耗数据、控制用户关键用能系统或设备的运行状态、响应电网侧需求响应事件方面功能;提出了系统的层次结构并描述了各层之间的关系;详细设计了系统的物理架构、功能架构,并分析了系统关键技术。本设计方案已应用于国家电力需求侧管理平台、国家电网公司电能服务管理平台的研发建设,为国家电力需求侧管理工作提供了技术支撑。未来,将对为能效管理与需求响应业务在国内的推广实施奠定技术基础。%To guide the optimization of demand side energy utilization management level and to participate the peak load shaving of power grid to overall improve the energy utilization efficiency, both the background and the meaning of constructing the demand side energy efficiency management and demand response system are briefly explained; the functions of the demand side energy efficiency management and demand response system in following aspects such as monitoring user energy consumption data, controlling operating states of user’s key energy utilization system or devices, responding grid-side demand response event are summarized; the hierarchical structure of this system is proposed and the relationship among hierarchies are described; both physical architecture and functional structure of this system are designed in detail and key technologies of this system are analyzed. The design scheme presented in this paper has been applied in the development and construction of national power demand side management platform and electric energy service management platform of China State Power Grid Corp. to provide technical support for national electric power demand side management. In future, the

  1. An econometric analysis of electricity demand response to price changes at the intra-day horizon: The case of manufacturing industry in West Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Framroze Møller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable energy implies a more variable supply of power. Market efficiency may improve if demand can absorb some of this variability by being more flexible, e.g. by responding quickly to changes in the market price of power. To learn about this, in particular, whether demand responds already within the same day, we suggest an econometric model for hourly consumption- and price time series. This allows for multi-level seasonality and that information about day-ahead prices does not arrive every hour but every 24th hour (as a vector of 24 prices. We confront the model with data from the manufacturing industry of West Denmark (2007-2011. The results clearly suggest a lack of response. The policy implication is that relying exclusively on hourly price response by consumers for integrating volatile renewable electricity production is questionable. Either hourly price variation has to increase considerably or demand response technologies be installed.

  2. 需求响应中的直接负荷控制策略%Tactics of Direct Load Control in Demand Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯庆东; 何战勇

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the principles of direct load management in demand response, the research background of relevant control strategy and the current research has been made at home and abroad, describes the meaning of demand response, technology infrastructures and the driving force of demand response. And also gives direct load control strategy detailed analysis and description.%文章介绍了需求响应中的直接负荷管理的原理、相关控制策略,以及当前国内外已取得的研究成果,描述了需求响应的内涵、技术基础及实施需求响应的驱动力.并且对直接负荷控制策略进行了详细分析与介绍.

  3. Component-Based Modelling for Scalable Smart City Systems Interoperability: A Case Study on Integrating Energy Demand Response Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomar, Esther; Chen, Xiaohong; Liu, Zhiming; Maharjan, Sabita; Bowen, Jonathan

    2016-10-28

    Smart city systems embrace major challenges associated with climate change, energy efficiency, mobility and future services by embedding the virtual space into a complex cyber-physical system. Those systems are constantly evolving and scaling up, involving a wide range of integration among users, devices, utilities, public services and also policies. Modelling such complex dynamic systems' architectures has always been essential for the development and application of techniques/tools to support design and deployment of integration of new components, as well as for the analysis, verification, simulation and testing to ensure trustworthiness. This article reports on the definition and implementation of a scalable component-based architecture that supports a cooperative energy demand response (DR) system coordinating energy usage between neighbouring households. The proposed architecture, called refinement of Cyber-Physical Component Systems (rCPCS), which extends the refinement calculus for component and object system (rCOS) modelling method, is implemented using Eclipse Extensible Coordination Tools (ECT), i.e., Reo coordination language. With rCPCS implementation in Reo, we specify the communication, synchronisation and co-operation amongst the heterogeneous components of the system assuring, by design scalability and the interoperability, correctness of component cooperation.

  4. Component-Based Modelling for Scalable Smart City Systems Interoperability: A Case Study on Integrating Energy Demand Response Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomar, Esther; Chen, Xiaohong; Liu, Zhiming; Maharjan, Sabita; Bowen, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Smart city systems embrace major challenges associated with climate change, energy efficiency, mobility and future services by embedding the virtual space into a complex cyber-physical system. Those systems are constantly evolving and scaling up, involving a wide range of integration among users, devices, utilities, public services and also policies. Modelling such complex dynamic systems’ architectures has always been essential for the development and application of techniques/tools to support design and deployment of integration of new components, as well as for the analysis, verification, simulation and testing to ensure trustworthiness. This article reports on the definition and implementation of a scalable component-based architecture that supports a cooperative energy demand response (DR) system coordinating energy usage between neighbouring households. The proposed architecture, called refinement of Cyber-Physical Component Systems (rCPCS), which extends the refinement calculus for component and object system (rCOS) modelling method, is implemented using Eclipse Extensible Coordination Tools (ECT), i.e., Reo coordination language. With rCPCS implementation in Reo, we specify the communication, synchronisation and co-operation amongst the heterogeneous components of the system assuring, by design scalability and the interoperability, correctness of component cooperation. PMID:27801829

  5. On the Inclusion of Energy-Shifting Demand Response in Production Cost Models: Methodology and a Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, Niamh [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Hale, Elaine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doebber, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-20

    In the context of future power system requirements for additional flexibility, demand response (DR) is an attractive potential resource. Its proponents widely laud its prospective benefits, which include enabling higher penetrations of variable renewable generation at lower cost than alternative storage technologies, and improving economic efficiency. In practice, DR from the commercial and residential sectors is largely an emerging, not a mature, resource, and its actual costs and benefits need to be studied to determine promising combinations of physical DR resource, enabling controls and communications, power system characteristics, regulatory environments, market structures, and business models. The work described in this report focuses on the enablement of such analysis from the production cost modeling perspective. In particular, we contribute a bottom-up methodology for modeling load-shifting DR in production cost models. The resulting model is sufficiently detailed to reflect the physical characteristics and constraints of the underlying flexible load, and includes the possibility of capturing diurnal and seasonal variations in the resource. Nonetheless, the model is of low complexity and thus suitable for inclusion in conventional unit commitment and market clearing algorithms. The ability to simulate DR as an operational resource on a power system over a year facilitates an assessment of its time-varying value to the power system.

  6. Dynamic Controls for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response:Framework Concepts and a New Construction Study Case in New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Hughes, Glenn

    2006-06-20

    Many of today's advanced building control systems are designed to improve granularity of control for energy efficiency. Examples include direct digital controls for building heating, ventilation, and cooling systems (HVAC), and dimmable ballasts for continuous dimming for daylighting applications. This paper discusses recent research on the use of new and existing controls in commercial buildings for integrated energy efficiency and demand response (DR). The paper discusses the use of DR controls strategies in commercial buildings and provides specific details on DR control strategy design concepts for a new building in New York. We present preliminary results from EnergyPlus simulations of the DR strategies at the New York Times Headquarters building currently under construction. The DR strategies at the Times building involve unique state of the art systems with dimmable ballasts, movable shades on the glass facade, and underfloor air HVAC. The simulation efforts at this building are novel, with an innovative building owner considering DR and future DR program participation strategies during the design phase. This paper also discusses commissioning plans for the DR strategies. The trends in integration of various systems through the EMCS, master versus supervisory controls and dynamic operational modes concepts are presented and future research directions are outlined.

  7. Turnkey Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning and Lighting Retrofit Solution Combining Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebber, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Deru, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Trenbath, Kim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-12

    NREL worked with the Bonneville Power Administration's Technology Innovation Office to demonstrate a turnkey, retrofit technology that combines demand response (DR) and energy efficiency (EE) benefits for HVAC and lighting in retail buildings. As a secondary benefit, we also controlled various plug loads and electric hot water heaters (EHWH). The technology demonstrated was Transformative Wave's eIQ Building Management System (BMS) automatically responding to DR signals. The BMS controlled the HVAC rooftop units (RTU) using the CATALYST retrofit solution also developed by Transformative Wave. The non-HVAC loads were controlled using both hardwired and ZigBee wireless communication. The wireless controllers, manufactured by Autani, were used when the building's electrical layout was too disorganized to leverage less expensive hardwired control. The six demonstration locations are within the Seattle metro area. Based on the assets curtailed by the BMS at each location, we projected the DR resource. We were targeting a 1.7 W/ft2 shed for the summer Day-Ahead events and a 0.7 W/ft2 shed for the winter events. While summarized in Table ES-1, only one summer DR event was conducted at Casino #2.

  8. User-Preference-Driven Model Predictive Control of Residential Building Loads and Battery Storage for Demand Response: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baker, Kyri A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Dane T. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Isley, Steven C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-21

    This paper presents a user-preference-driven home energy management system (HEMS) for demand response (DR) with residential building loads and battery storage. The HEMS is based on a multi-objective model predictive control algorithm, where the objectives include energy cost, thermal comfort, and carbon emission. A multi-criterion decision making method originating from social science is used to quickly determine user preferences based on a brief survey and derive the weights of different objectives used in the optimization process. Besides the residential appliances used in the traditional DR programs, a home battery system is integrated into the HEMS to improve the flexibility and reliability of the DR resources. Simulation studies have been performed on field data from a residential building stock data set. Appliance models and usage patterns were learned from the data to predict the DR resource availability. Results indicate the HEMS was able to provide a significant amount of load reduction with less than 20% prediction error in both heating and cooling cases.

  9. Component-Based Modelling for Scalable Smart City Systems Interoperability: A Case Study on Integrating Energy Demand Response Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Palomar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Smart city systems embrace major challenges associated with climate change, energy efficiency, mobility and future services by embedding the virtual space into a complex cyber-physical system. Those systems are constantly evolving and scaling up, involving a wide range of integration among users, devices, utilities, public services and also policies. Modelling such complex dynamic systems’ architectures has always been essential for the development and application of techniques/tools to support design and deployment of integration of new components, as well as for the analysis, verification, simulation and testing to ensure trustworthiness. This article reports on the definition and implementation of a scalable component-based architecture that supports a cooperative energy demand response (DR system coordinating energy usage between neighbouring households. The proposed architecture, called refinement of Cyber-Physical Component Systems (rCPCS, which extends the refinement calculus for component and object system (rCOS modelling method, is implemented using Eclipse Extensible Coordination Tools (ECT, i.e., Reo coordination language. With rCPCS implementation in Reo, we specify the communication, synchronisation and co-operation amongst the heterogeneous components of the system assuring, by design scalability and the interoperability, correctness of component cooperation.

  10. User-Preference-Driven Model Predictive Control of Residential Building Loads and Battery Storage for Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baker, Kyri A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Isley, Steven C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Dane T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-03

    This paper presents a user-preference-driven home energy management system (HEMS) for demand response (DR) with residential building loads and battery storage. The HEMS is based on a multi-objective model predictive control algorithm, where the objectives include energy cost, thermal comfort, and carbon emission. A multi-criterion decision making method originating from social science is used to quickly determine user preferences based on a brief survey and derive the weights of different objectives used in the optimization process. Besides the residential appliances used in the traditional DR programs, a home battery system is integrated into the HEMS to improve the flexibility and reliability of the DR resources. Simulation studies have been performed on field data from a residential building stock data set. Appliance models and usage patterns were learned from the data to predict the DR resource availability. Results indicate the HEMS was able to provide a significant amount of load reduction with less than 20% prediction error in both heating and cooling cases.

  11. Demand response strategy management with active and reactive power incentive in the smart grid: a two-level optimization approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuto Shigenobu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available High penetration of distributed generators (DGs using renewable energy sources (RESs is raising some important issues in the operation of modern po­wer system. The output power of RESs fluctuates very steeply, and that include uncertainty with weather conditions. This situation causes voltage deviation and reverse power flow. Several methods have been proposed for solving these problems. Fundamentally, these methods involve reactive power control for voltage deviation and/or the installation of large battery energy storage system (BESS at the interconnection point for reverse power flow. In order to reduce the installation cost of static var compensator (SVC, Distribution Company (DisCo gives reactive power incentive to the cooperating customers. On the other hand, photovoltaic (PV generator, energy storage and electric vehicle (EV are introduced in customer side with the aim of achieving zero net energy homes (ZEHs. This paper proposes not only reactive power control but also active power flow control using house BESS and EV. Moreover, incentive method is proposed to promote participation of customers in the control operation. Demand response (DR system is verified with several DR menu. To create profit for both side of DisCo and customer, two level optimization approach is executed in this research. Mathematical modeling of price elasticity and detailed simulations are executed by case study. The effectiveness of the proposed incentive menu is demonstrated by using heuristic optimization method.

  12. Fostering Residential Demand Response through Dynamic Pricing Schemes: A Behavioural Review of Smart Grid Pilots in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Kessels

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many smart grid projects make use of dynamic pricing schemes aimed to motivate consumers to shift and/or decrease energy use. Based upon existing literature and analyses of current smart grid projects, this survey paper presents key lessons on how to encourage households to adjust energy end use by means of dynamic tariffs. The paper identifies four key hypotheses related to fostering demand response through dynamic tariff schemes and examines whether these hypotheses can be accepted or rejected based on a review of published findings from a range of European pilot projects. We conclude that dynamic pricing schemes have the power to adjust energy consumption behavior within households. In order to work effectively, the dynamic tariff should be simple to understand for the end users, with timely notifications of price changes, a considerable effect on their energy bill and, if the tariff is more complex, the burden for the consumer could be eased by introducing automated control. Although sometimes the mere introduction of a dynamic tariff has proven to be effective, often the success of the pricing scheme depends also on other factors influencing the behavior of end users. An important condition to make dynamic tariffs work is that the end users should be engaged with them.

  13. Individual differences in oscillatory brain activity in response to varying attentional demands during a word recall and oculomotor dual task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusang eKwon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Every day, we face situations that involve multi-tasking. How our brain utilizes cortical resources during multi-tasking is one of many interesting research topics. In this study, we tested whether a dual-task can be differentiated in the neural and behavioral responses of healthy subjects with varying degree of working memory capacity (WMC. We combined word recall and oculomotor tasks because they incorporate common neural networks including the fronto-parietal (FP network. Three different types of oculomotor tasks (eye fixation; Fix-EM, predictive & random smooth pursuit eye movement; P-SPEM & R-SPEM were combined with two memory load levels (low-load: 5 words, high-load: 10 words for a word recall task. Each of those dual-task combinations was supposed to create varying cognitive loads on the FP network. We hypothesize that each dual-task requires different cognitive strategies for allocating the brain’s limited cortical resources and affects brain oscillation of the FP network. In addition, we hypothesized that groups with different WMC will show differential neural and behavioral responses. We measured oscillatory brain activity with simultaneous MEG and EEG recordings and behavioral performance by word recall. Prominent frontal midline (FM theta (4-6 Hz synchronization emerged in the EEG of the high-WMC group experiencing R-SPEM with high-load conditions during the early phase of the word maintenance period. Conversely, significant parietal upper alpha (10-12 Hz desynchronization was observed in the EEG and MEG of the low-WMC group experiencing P-SPEM under high-load conditions during the same period. Different brain oscillatory patterns seem to depend on each individual’s WMC and varying attentional demands from different dual-task combinations. These findings suggest that specific brain oscillations may reflect different strategies for allocating cortical resources during combined word recall and oculomotor dual-tasks.

  14. Meeting increased demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Andrew

    2004-07-01

    New Zealand is a little country with a little economy but with a population that's rapidly aging. New Zealand's population is only 4.3 million people. It's GDP is only $US58.6 billion (2002). New Zealand's expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP is not out of line with that of other countries. As a nation we have been increasing expenditure on health over recent years. In 1990 we spent 7% of GDP on health. In 1995 that increased to 7.65% and is now 8.3%. However, in per capita terms our expenditure on health does not compare so well with like countries. The size of New Zealand's economy is restricting what our country spends on health. Health is already the second highest demand on the New Zealand tax dollar. The tolerance of New Zealanders would be challenged if a Government attempted to increase taxes further to meet the growing demands for expenditure on health, but at the same time the population's expectations are increasing. This is the challenging situation we face today. What lies ahead? Like all industrialized countries New Zealand is facing an aging population. The population below age 40 is decreasing, but it is increasing significantly over that age. 16% of the population is currently aged over 60. By 2051 this proportion will almost double to just over 31%. Coupled with the aging population is increased awareness and expectations, as access to options for treatment and technology becomes readily accessible to the population through such media as the internet. The extent of the impact of the aging population can be clearly represented by focusing on one specialty such as orthopaedics. The New Zealand Orthopaecic Association undertook a study in July 2003 which concluded (among other things) that as a result of the projected aging of the population, over the next 50 years: Musculo-skeletal operations will increase by over 30%. The number of hip replacements will nearly double. The incidence of osteoporosis will increase by a massive 201%. The number

  15. Comparison of Modes of Administration and Response Options in the Assessment of Subjective Health Using the First Question of SF-36

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Salome; Severo, Milton; Lopes, Carla

    2012-01-01

    To compare two modes of administration (self-administered; by interviewer) and two response options format (using words; images of "facial-expressions") of the first question of SF-36 (Q1SF-36), and to test its validity. We included 825 participants (20-90 years). Q1SF-36, using words or images, was included in a global questionnaire interview and…

  16. Opportunities for Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California - Phase II Report. San Luis Rey Wastewater Treatment Plant Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Lisa; Lekov, Alex; McKane, Aimee; Piette, Mary Ann

    2010-08-20

    This case study enhances the understanding of open automated demand response opportunities in municipal wastewater treatment facilities. The report summarizes the findings of a 100 day submetering project at the San Luis Rey Wastewater Treatment Plant, a municipal wastewater treatment facility in Oceanside, California. The report reveals that key energy-intensive equipment such as pumps and centrifuges can be targeted for large load reductions. Demand response tests on the effluent pumps resulted a 300 kW load reduction and tests on centrifuges resulted in a 40 kW load reduction. Although tests on the facility?s blowers resulted in peak period load reductions of 78 kW sharp, short-lived increases in the turbidity of the wastewater effluent were experienced within 24 hours of the test. The results of these tests, which were conducted on blowers without variable speed drive capability, would not be acceptable and warrant further study. This study finds that wastewater treatment facilities have significant open automated demand response potential. However, limiting factors to implementing demand response are the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration load, along with the cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities.

  17. Prioritizing Demand Response: How Federal Legislation and Technological Innovation Changed the Electricity Supply Market and the Need to Revitalize FERC Order 745

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. McAllister

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional barriers to entry in the electricity supply marketplace are crumbling due to recent federal legislation and new technology. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC's Order 745 prioritizes the use of demand response via a uniform pricing mechanism. Through it, demand response is able to provide the same benefit as traditional electricity generation - at a reduced cost - and improve service, reliability, and market development. Consequently, the increased use of demand response reduces prices for regional grid operators, as well as commercial, institutional, and residential consumers. This Note discusses the legal, economic, and policy reasons for upholding Order 745 in the face of transformative change in the electricity supply market and evaluates the history of smart grid legislation leading up to the issuance of Order 745 in 2011. Next, it analyzes how energy intelligence hardware and software allow new entrants into the wholesale electricity supply market in hopes of capitalizing on inefficiencies in regional power distribution and the revolutionary opportunities for residential consumers through new technologies. Most importantly, this Note argues for a reversal of the D.C. Circuit’s decision to vacate Order 745 in the case EPSA v. FERC, decided in May 2014. Such a reversal is necessary because Order 745 falls within FERC’s authority under the Federal Power Act and the loss of a uniform pricing mechanism for demand response resources sold at capacity auctions will harm electricity markets.

  18. Demand response-enabled model predictive HVAC load control in buildings using real-time electricity pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Mesut

    A practical cost and energy efficient model predictive control (MPC) strategy is proposed for HVAC load control under dynamic real-time electricity pricing. The MPC strategy is built based on a proposed model that jointly minimizes the total energy consumption and hence, cost of electricity for the user, and the deviation of the inside temperature from the consumer's preference. An algorithm that assigns temperature set-points (reference temperatures) to price ranges based on the consumer's discomfort tolerance index is developed. A practical parameter prediction model is also designed for mapping between the HVAC load and the inside temperature. The prediction model and the produced temperature set-points are integrated as inputs into the MPC controller, which is then used to generate signal actions for the AC unit. To investigate and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, a simulation based experimental analysis is presented using real-life pricing data. An actual prototype for the proposed HVAC load control strategy is then built and a series of prototype experiments are conducted similar to the simulation studies. The experiments reveal that the MPC strategy can lead to significant reductions in overall energy consumption and cost savings for the consumer. Results suggest that by providing an efficient response strategy for the consumers, the proposed MPC strategy can enable the utility providers to adopt efficient demand management policies using real-time pricing. Finally, a cost-benefit analysis is performed to display the economic feasibility of implementing such a controller as part of a building energy management system, and the payback period is identified considering cost of prototype build and cost savings to help the adoption of this controller in the building HVAC control industry.

  19. DEMAND AND PRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VĂDUVA MARIA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Studying the consumer’s behavior by the ordinal approach of utility with the help of indifference curves allows us to deduce the two “movement laws of demand” in this chapter: the demand for a “normal” good is decreasing function of its price and an increasing function of income. We will use the elasticity concept to measure the intensity of the relation that is established between the demand, on the one hand, and prices or income, on the other hand: elasticity – price, direct and crossed, and elasticity – income. We can classify the goods in many categories, depending on the values that this elasticity takes. The demand elasticity can be determined depending on price and income. It reflects the proportion in which the demand for different products changes with the modification of the consumers’ income, the other factors remaining constant. The elasticity compared to the income is a demonstration of legality from the consumer’s sphere, which determines a certain hierarchy of the needs of each population category in a certain level of income. The movement of prices orients both the options and decisions of producers, namely the most useful productions and the most efficient investments, as well as the consumers’ options and decisions on the most advantageous buying of goods and services that they need. The prices appear as a “signal system” coordinating and making coherence the economic agents’ decisions – producers, consumers and population.

  20. 考虑不同需求偏好的可控负荷需求响应菜单定价研究%Study on the menu-pricing of controllable load demand response considering different demand and preference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊; 李文东; 杨洪朝

    2015-01-01

    随着智能电网技术的不断发展,需求侧大量的可控负荷资源主动参与电网调度成为可能,如何设计有效的价格机制来激励用户主动的需求响应成为目前值得研究的热点问题。然而,传统固定单一价格的定价模式已经很难满足不同用户深层次的差异化需求。提出一种可控负荷需求响应菜单定价方法,该方法以可控负荷用户的需求为导向,考虑不同用户的需求偏好特性并划分用户类型;以需求响应电价和负荷削减量为菜单选项,构建以系统供电总成本最小为目标函数的可控负荷需求响应菜单定价模型。算例分析表明,该定价方法能够对不同偏好的用户进行有效区隔,增加了用户对电价的自主选择性,提高了用户参与的积极性,实现了电力资源的优化配置。%With the development of smart grid technologies,it become possible for a large number of controllable load resources on the demand-side to participate in power grid dispatching actively. How to design an effective price mechanism to motivate users to take the initiative to demand re-sponse becomes a problem,which is worthy of study at present.However,the traditional single price model has been difficult to meet different users demands of deep-seated differences.A menu-pricing of the controllable load demand response considering different demand and preference was proposed in this paper.Taking the demand of controllable load users as a guidance,the method considered the needs of different users preference and then divided the user classification.Taking the cost of power supply as minimum objective function,a menu pricing decision model of the controllable load demand response was set up.A case study results showed that the pricing meth-od could segment the different preferences of users effectively,and increase the independence se-lectivity of electricity prices.It can still improve the enthusiasm of users

  1. Research on development of electric power demand side response%电力需求侧响应发展研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍伟华; 庞建军; 陈广开; 王薪与

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of demand side response (DR) brings many benefits to the energy consumers,the power system and society. Based on the developing status and related researches of demand side response in the domestic and overseas,the present paper discuses different demand response projects existing in the world, summarizes implementation methods of price-based DR and incentive-based DR programs,illustrates the relationship of this two types in the system operation and generation planning and their effect on the system, introduces demand response 2.0 (DR2.0)in U.S, and at last, makes recommendations to the development of demand response in China.%实施电力需求侧响应(DR)能为用户侧、系统侧和社会带来诸多效益。本文基于国内外的电力需求侧响应(DR)发展现状及相关的研究,对国际上现有的需求侧响应项目进行深入的分类讨论,总结了基于价格和基于激励的需求侧响应项目的实施方法,说明了两类需求侧响应在系统运行与规划时的关系及其对系统的作用,介绍了美国需求侧响应的发展规划(DR2.0)。最后针对我国需求侧响应发展现状提出建议。

  2. The Role of Demand Resources In Regional Transmission Expansion Planning and Reliable Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL

    2006-07-01

    , market and reliability rules have, understandably, been written around the capabilities and limitations of generators, the historic reliability resources. Responsive load limitations and capabilities are often not accommodated in markets or reliability criteria. Third, because of the institutional structure, demand response alternatives are treated as temporary solutions that can delay but not replace transmission enhancement. Financing has to be based on a three to five year project life as opposed to the twenty to fifty year life of transmission facilities. More can be done to integrate demand response options into transmission expansion planning. Given the societal benefits it may be appropriate for independent transmission planning organizations to take a more proactive role in drawing demand response alternatives into the resource mix. Existing demand response programs provide a technical basis to build from. Regulatory and market obstacles will have to be overcome if demand response alternatives are to be routinely considered in transmission expansion planning.

  3. Demand forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor, Belčec

    2011-01-01

    Companies operate in an increasingly challenging environment that requires them to continuously improve all areas of the business process. Demand forecasting is one area in manufacturing companies where we can hope to gain great advantages. Improvements in forecasting can result in cost savings throughout the supply chain, improve the reliability of information and the quality of the service for our customers. In the company Danfoss Trata, d. o. o. we did not have a system for demand forecast...

  4. Selecting the best responsive option to unexpected orders at the time of capacity-shortage using multi criteria decision models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud parsaei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The way orders are accepted or rejected is the most important factor in customer satisfaction and success of make-to-order systems. The incoming orders to such organizations have certain delivery date in which the customer expects the order to be fulfilled and delivered. In some cases, unexpectedly increased orders exceed the existing capacity for on time fulfillment. In addition to rejection of order, as a typical choice, other options like outsourcing and capacity expansion are available to compensate for capacity shortage and deliver incoming orders according to schedule. However, each of the proposed options is superior in one or more criteria and so selecting the best one is not simply possible. The main goal of this study is to provide managers with a comprehensive, systematic, and applicable approach to evaluate and select the best of the existing options. For this purpose, a model comprised of some multi-criteria techniques is delivered. Our proposed model is a blend of FAHP and FTOPSIS methods. In this model, FAHP is first used to determine the weight of criteria and then Fuzzy-TOPSIS (FTOPSIS is employed to rank the options. Finally, the proposed model is applied on an actual case to assess and examine its efficiency.

  5. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profile Analysis of Prunus persica in Response to Low Sink Demand after Fruit Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei; Xu, Hongguo; Liu, Guotian; Fan, Peige; Liang, Zhenchang; Li, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Prunus persica fruits were removed from 1-year-old shoots to analysis photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and genes changes in leaves to low sink demand caused by fruit removal (-fruit) during the final stage of rapid fruit growth. A decline in net photosynthesis rate was observed, accompanied with a decrease in stomatal conductance. The intercellular CO2 concentrations and leaf temperature increased as compared with a normal fruit load (+fruit). Moreover, low sink demand significantly inhibited the donor side and the reaction center of photosystem II. 382 genes in leaf with an absolute fold change ≥1 change in expression level, representing 116 up- and 266 down-regulated genes except for unknown transcripts. Among these, 25 genes for photosynthesis were down-regulated, 69 stress and 19 redox related genes up-regulated under the low sink demand. These studies revealed high leaf temperature may result in a decline of net photosynthesis rate through down-regulation in photosynthetic related genes and up-regulation in redox and stress related genes, especially heat shock proteins genes. The complex changes in genes at the transcriptional level under low sink demand provided useful starting points for in-depth analyses of source-sink relationship in P. persica.

  6. On-Demand Testing and Maintaining Standards for General Qualifications in the UK Using Item Response Theory: Possibilities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qingping

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although on-demand testing is being increasingly used in many areas of assessment, it has not been adopted in high stakes examinations like the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) and General Certificate of Education Advanced level (GCE A level) offered by awarding organisations (AOs) in the UK. One of the major issues…

  7. Insula Demonstrates a Non-Linear Response to Varying Demand for Cognitive Control and Weaker Resting Connectivity With the Executive Control Network in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedota, John R; Matous, Allison L; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Gu, Hong; Ross, Thomas J; Stein, Elliot A

    2016-09-01

    Deficits in cognitive control processes are a primary characteristic of nicotine addiction. However, while network-based connectivity measures of dysfunction have frequently been observed, empirical evidence of task-based dysfunction in these processes has been inconsistent. Here, in a sample of smokers (n=35) and non-smokers (n=21), a previously validated parametric flanker task is employed to characterize addiction-related alterations in responses to varying (ie, high, intermediate, and low) demands for cognitive control. This approach yields a demand-response curve that aims to characterize potential non-linear responses to increased demand for control, including insensitivities or lags in fully activating the cognitive control network. We further used task-based differences in activation between groups as seeds for resting-state analysis of network dysfunction in an effort to more closely link prior inconsistencies in task-related activation with evidence of impaired network connectivity in smokers. For both smokers and non-smokers, neuroimaging results showed similar increases in activation in brain areas associated with cognitive control. However, reduced activation in right insula was seen only in smokers and only when processing intermediate demand for cognitive control. Further, in smokers, this task-modulated right insula showed weaker functional connectivity with the superior frontal gyrus, a component of the task-positive executive control network. These results demonstrate that the neural instantiation of salience attribution in smokers is both more effortful to fully activate and has more difficulty communicating with the exogenous, task-positive, executive control network. Together, these findings further articulate the cognitive control dysfunction associated with smoking and illustrate a specific brain circuit potentially responsible.

  8. Demanding Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2010-01-01

    It was the kind of crisis most universities dread. In November 2006, a group of minority student leaders at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) threatened to sue the university if administrators did not heed demands that included providing more funding for multicultural student groups. This article discusses how this threat…

  9. Alkaline electrolyzer and V2G system DIgSILENT models for demand response analysis in future distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz de Cerio Mendaza, Iker; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    about the future control and operation of the power system. A widespread idea to face these challenges is to have a flexible demand easily adjustable to the system variations. Electrothermal loads, electric vehicles and hydrogen generation are among the most mentioned technologies capable to respond...... levels were considered: 20 kV for the electrolyzer grid connection and 0.4 kV for the plug-in electric vehicle. Simulation results illustrate the simplicity and manageability of the presented models....

  10. Using institutional theory to analyse hospital responses to external demands for finance and quality in five European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, Glenn Brian; Anderson, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Given the impact of the global economic crisis, delivering better health care with limited finance grows more challenging. Through the lens of institutional theory, this paper explores pressures experienced by hospital leaders to improve quality and constrain spending, focusing on how they respond to these often competing demands. Methods: An in-depth, multilevel analysis of health care quality policies and practices in five European countries including longitudinal case studies i...

  11. 'Supply Push’ or ‘Demand Pull?’: Strategic Recommendations for the Responsible Development of Biofuel in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Goodsite, Michael; Sovacool, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates China's biofuel industry—the third largest in the world—by combining a strength, weakness, opportunity and threats (SWOT) analysis with a method known as fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP). More specifically, the study employs SWOT analysis to identify the influential...... perform, adhering to a "supply push" mentality. Others focus on improving affordability and consumer awareness, adhering to a "demand pull" mentality....

  12. Using institutional theory to analyse hospital responses to external demands for finance and quality in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Susan; Mendel, Peter; Nunes, Francisco; Wiig, Siri; van den Bovenkamp, Hester; Karltun, Anette; Robert, Glenn; Anderson, Janet; Vincent, Charles; Fulop, Naomi

    2016-04-01

    Given the impact of the global economic crisis, delivering better health care with limited finance grows more challenging. Through the lens of institutional theory, this paper explores pressures experienced by hospital leaders to improve quality and constrain spending, focusing on how they respond to these often competing demands. An in-depth, multilevel analysis of health care quality policies and practices in five European countries including longitudinal case studies in a purposive sample of ten hospitals. How hospitals responded to the financial and quality challenges was dependent upon three factors: the coherence of demands from external institutions; managerial competence to align external demands with an overall quality improvement strategy, and managerial stability. Hospital leaders used diverse strategies and practices to manage conflicting external pressures. The development of hospital leaders' skills in translating external requirements into implementation plans with internal support is a complex, but crucial, task, if quality is to remain a priority during times of austerity. Increasing quality improvement skills within a hospital, developing a culture where quality improvement becomes embedded and linking cost reduction measures to improving care are all required. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Using institutional theory to analyse hospital responses to external demands for finance and quality in five European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Peter; Nunes, Francisco; Wiig, Siri; van den Bovenkamp, Hester; Karltun, Anette; Robert, Glenn; Anderson, Janet; Vincent, Charles; Fulop, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Given the impact of the global economic crisis, delivering better health care with limited finance grows more challenging. Through the lens of institutional theory, this paper explores pressures experienced by hospital leaders to improve quality and constrain spending, focusing on how they respond to these often competing demands. Methods An in-depth, multilevel analysis of health care quality policies and practices in five European countries including longitudinal case studies in a purposive sample of ten hospitals. Results How hospitals responded to the financial and quality challenges was dependent upon three factors: the coherence of demands from external institutions; managerial competence to align external demands with an overall quality improvement strategy, and managerial stability. Hospital leaders used diverse strategies and practices to manage conflicting external pressures. Conclusions The development of hospital leaders’ skills in translating external requirements into implementation plans with internal support is a complex, but crucial, task, if quality is to remain a priority during times of austerity. Increasing quality improvement skills within a hospital, developing a culture where quality improvement becomes embedded and linking cost reduction measures to improving care are all required. PMID:26683885

  14. Demand response - Non-electric storage devices for electric utilities with a high participation of renewable energy sources; Demand response - Nichtelektrische Speicher fuer Elektrizitaetsversorgungssysteme mit hohem Anteil erneuerbarer Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, I.

    2005-10-15

    Electrical power supply is mainly based on fossil and nuclear fuels. Their availability will be dramatically reduced within the next half century. The only possibility to maintain our high living and economic standard which is based on high energy consumption will be a reorganisation of our supplies towards renewable energies such as wind, photovoltaics and biomass. It is generally accepted that the maximum fraction of stochastically available renewable energies that can be integrated into our electricity supplies is 20 to 25 %. Reasons are stability of the electricity network and absence of possibilities to store large amounts of electricity. The author demonstrates that by integrating already existing intrinsic storage capacities on the demand side into the control of electricity supplies there is no longer an upper limit for integration of renewable energies. The following technologies on the demand side are taken into account: storage heating and electrical water heating, ventilation, refrigeration, circulation pumps and compressed air in industry. Furthermore, changes in user behaviour, compressed air energy storage, and transition to flexible electricity usage by integration of thermal storage are discussed. (orig.)

  15. 基于模糊响应的阶梯电价机制研究%Tiered Pricing Mechanism Based on Fuzzy Demand Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李媛; 罗琴; 宋依群; 徐剑; 蔡磊; 顾俊

    2012-01-01

    A fuzzy demand response model for electricity tiered pricing is established with the fuzzification of price tiers and price elasticity;the fuzzy optimization theory is applied to calculate the tiered price variation and its distribution range.Firstly the price tiers and price elasticity are fuzzified and the fuzzy numbers of customers' electricity demand and tiers are compared with respect to the degree of customer satisfaction,therefore the membership of users to different tiers is determined,and the users' response is described as the fuzzy result of each tier's response.Then with a view to minimizing the total electricity demand and constrained by the power charge profit for power companies and the electricity price increase for users,the fuzzy optimization range of the tiered price variation is calculated.A case study has been made in Shanghai in order to calculate the demand response range,and the calculation results verify that the fuzzy demand response analysis is reasonable,and that tiered pricing has energy-saving effects.Finally, the research analyzes the impacts of the tiers and price elasticity on tiered pricing.%通过对档位和价格弹性模糊化,建立用户对阶梯电价的模糊响应模型,利用模糊优化理论,计算各档阶梯电价调整量及其分布区间。首先将阶梯电价的档位和价格弹性模糊化,利用满意度对用户电量和档位进行模糊数比较,确定用户档位属性的隶属度,将用户的响应描述成各档响应的模糊结果;以最小化全体用户电量为目标,综合考虑电力公司的电费收益及用户电费增长等约束,计算各档电价调整量的模糊优化区间。以上海市区居民用户为例,计算了用户响应后的电量变化区间,证明了模糊响应分析的合理性;证实了阶梯电价具有一定的节能效果并分析了档位和价格弹性对阶梯电价的影响。

  16. Complex Supply Chain Contracts with Option and Return Policy under the Condition of Demand Influenced by Quality Evaluation%需求与质量评价相关性下期权和退货政策的复合供应链契约研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡军; 华尔天; 尤建新

    2011-01-01

    Product quality of supply chain partners can influence product demand, thereby affecting the execution of traditional contracts, such as return policy and options. Therefore, it is important to study contracts that can help supply chain partners coordinate and collaborate with each other in a complex business environment.The proposed game model takes into consideration the sensitivity of market demand to product quality. In the game model,companies using the option contract tend to choose products with high quality and companies using the return contract tend to choose products with low quality in order to increase their revenue. This proposed model considers the combined effect of return policy and option contract. Built upon this game model, contracts designed for the centralized supply chain are as effective as contracts for the decentralized supply chain. This proposed model helps achieve supply chain coordination.The first part of this paper proposed a game model to improve supply chain coordination based on Barnes-Schuster and Coachon's study. The proposed model considered both option contract and return policy. The second part discussed how our proposed model can solve complex contracts, involvin8 return policy and option contracts. The model was able to improve supply chain coordination with respect to price, quantity and quality. The third part demonstrated that under the assumption of linear quality-demand function supply chains can be coordinated to deliver both option contract and return policy. Centralized supply chains can deliver more coordination benefits in product price, quantity and quality than decentralized supply chains.In summary, a composite contract with option contract and return policy can achieve supply chain coordination when product quality can affect market demand. Our proposed model is a. composite contract that can meet the requirements of Nash Equilibrium and help the entire supply chain maximize revenues through effective price

  17. Modelling population dynamics and response to management options in the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, K; Zenner, L; Bicout, D J

    2011-02-28

    The poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae is a major pest and widespread ectoparasite of laying hens and other domestic and wild birds. Under optimal conditions, D. gallinae can complete its lifecycle in less than 10 days, leading to rapid proliferation of populations in poultry systems. This paper focuses on developing a theoretical model framework to describe the population dynamics of D. gallinae. This model is then used to test the efficacy and residual effect of different control options for managing D. gallinae. As well as allowing comparison between treatment options, the model also allows comparison of treatment efficacies to different D. gallinae life stages. Three different means for controlling D. gallinae populations were subjected to the model using computer simulations: mechanical cleaning (killing once at a given time all accessible population stages), sanitary clearance (starving the mite population for a given duration, e.g. between flocks) and acaricide treatment (killing a proportion of nymphs and adults during the persistence of the treatment). Simulations showed that mechanical cleaning and sanitary clearance alone could not eradicate the model D. gallinae population, although these methods did delay population establishment. In contrast, the complete eradication of the model D. gallinae population was achieved by several successive acaricide treatments in close succession, even when a relatively low treatment level was used.

  18. Evaluation of soil-foundation-structure interaction effects on seismic response demands of multi-story MRF buildings on raft foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Raheem, Shehata E.; Ahmed, Mohamed M.; Alazrak, Tarek M. A.

    2015-03-01

    Soil conditions have a great deal to do with damage to structures during earthquakes. Hence the investigation on the energy transfer mechanism from soils to buildings during earthquakes is critical for the seismic design of multi-story buildings and for upgrading existing structures. Thus, the need for research into soil-structure interaction (SSI) problems is greater than ever. Moreover, recent studies show that the effects of SSI may be detrimental to the seismic response of structure and neglecting SSI in analysis may lead to un-conservative design. Despite this, the conventional design procedure usually involves assumption of fixity at the base of foundation neglecting the flexibility of the foundation, the compressibility of the underneath soil and, consequently, the effect of foundation settlement on further redistribution of bending moment and shear force demands. Hence the SSI analysis of multi-story buildings is the main focus of this research; the effects of SSI are analyzed for typical multi-story building resting on raft foundation. Three methods of analysis are used for seismic demands evaluation of the target moment-resistant frame buildings: equivalent static load; response spectrum methods and nonlinear time history analysis with suit of nine time history records. Three-dimensional FE model is constructed to investigate the effects of different soil conditions and number of stories on the vibration characteristics and seismic response demands of building structures. Numerical results obtained using SSI model with different soil conditions are compared to those corresponding to fixed-base support modeling assumption. The peak responses of story shear, story moment, story displacement, story drift, moments at beam ends, as well as force of inner columns are analyzed. The results of different analysis approaches are used to evaluate the advantages, limitations, and ease of application of each approach for seismic analysis.

  19. How interactions between microbial resource demands, soil organic matter stoichiometry, and substrate reactivity determine the direction and magnitude of soil respiratory responses to warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Sharon A; Ballantyne, Ford

    2013-01-01

    Recent empirical and theoretical advances inform us about multiple drivers of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and microbial responses to warming. Absent from our conceptual framework of how soil respiration will respond to warming are adequate links between microbial resource demands, kinetic theory, and substrate stoichiometry. Here, we describe two important concepts either insufficiently explored in current investigations of SOM responses to temperature, or not yet addressed. First, we describe the complete range of responses for how warming may change microbial resource demands, physiology, community structure, and total biomass. Second, we describe how any relationship between SOM activation energy of decay and carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stoichiometry can alter the relative availability of C and N as temperature changes. Changing availabilities of C and N liberated from their organic precursors can feedback to microbial resource demands, which in turn influence the aggregated respiratory response to temperature we observe. An unsuspecting biogeochemist focused primarily on temperature sensitivity of substrate decay thus cannot make accurate projections of heterotrophic CO2 losses from diverse organic matter reservoirs in a warming world. We establish the linkages between enzyme kinetics, SOM characteristics, and potential for microbial adaptation critical for making such projections. By examining how changing microbial needs interact with inherent SOM structure and composition, and thus reactivity, we demonstrate the means by which increasing temperature could result in increasing, unchanging, or even decreasing respiration rates observed in soils. We use this exercise to highlight ideas for future research that will develop our abilities to predict SOM feedbacks to climate. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Demand Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of uncertainty resolution found in productivity heterogeneity models...... the high rate of exit seen in the first years of exporting. Finally, when faced with multiple countries in which to export, some firms will choose to sequentially export in order to slowly learn more about its chances for success in untested markets....

  1. 自动需求响应系统的需求及架构研究%Studies on Requirements and Architecture for Automated Demand Response System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶; 孙万珺; 王婷

    2015-01-01

    用户是电力系统服务的最终对象,需求响应(demand response,DR)与用户紧密相关,随着智能电网的发展,传统的交互模式已经不能满足DR领域的需求。该文综合阐述国内外自动需求响应(automated demand response,ADR)系统的研究进展,提出ADR系统概念模型,逻辑架构和物理部署,从而明确 ADR 系统的参与角色及作用;剖析 ADR系统的业务需求,功能需求及非功能需求,分析系统构建的关键技术,包括用例分析技术、信息模型技术、通信传输技术、可视化技术、需求响应测量与评估及一致性和安全要求等,对需求响应自动化建设具有重要意义。最后,介绍ADR在国内的相关试点工程,对下一步工作提出展望。%Customer is the ultimate object of power system services, while demand response (DR) is closely related to the customer. With the development of smart grid, the traditional interactive mode cannot meet the needs of DR field. This paper described the progress of domestic automated demand response (ADR), and then proposed configuration, logical structure and physical deployment of ADR system, which thus cleared the participation role and effects of ADR system. This paper analyzed business requirements, functional requirements and non-functional requirements of ADR system, and also analyzed key technology to build the system, including case analysis technology, information modeling technology, communications transmission technology, visualization technology, demand response measurement and evaluation technology, consistency and safety requirements, and so on. These requirements were important for building ADR system. Finally, ADR related pilot projects in China were introduced, and expectations for the next step were raised.

  2. Enhanced response of microbial fuel cell using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone membrane as a biochemical oxygen demand sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyaru, Sivasankaran; Dharmalingam, Sangeetha

    2014-03-25

    The present study is focused on the development of single chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane to determine the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) matter present in artificial wastewater (AW). The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm when using artificial wastewater. This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion(®). The most serious problem in using MFC as a BOD sensor is the oxygen diffusion into the anode compartment, which consumes electrons in the anode compartment, thereby reducing the coulomb yield and reducing the electrical signal from the MFC. SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion(®), resulting in low internal resistance and substrate loss, thus improving the sensing range of BOD. The system was further improved by making a double membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with an increased electrode surface area which provide high surface area for electrically active bacteria.

  3. On the Trade-off Between Real-time Pricing and the Social Acceptability Costs of Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Hendrigo Batista; Santiago, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic tariff policies have become an essential feature of modern electric grid design. The successful implementation of such policies usually depends on overcoming the resistance of end-users to real-time pricing and its political implications. In this paper, we review the literature on the soc......Dynamic tariff policies have become an essential feature of modern electric grid design. The successful implementation of such policies usually depends on overcoming the resistance of end-users to real-time pricing and its political implications. In this paper, we review the literature...... influence price changes in such programs and how the social acceptability cost could be reduced as a function of pricing policies. We conclude by discussing the policy design mechanisms in line with demand elasticity and their role in decreasing price variations to cope with the minimum volatility principle...

  4. Integration of V2H/V2G Hybrid System for Demand Response in Distribution Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yubo; Sheikh, Omar; Hu, Boyang; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit

    2014-11-03

    Integration of Electrical Vehicles (EVs) with power grid not only brings new challenges for load management, but also opportunities for distributed storage and generation in distribution network. With the introduction of Vehicle-to-Home (V2H) and Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G), EVs can help stabilize the operation of power grid. This paper proposed and implemented a hybrid V2H/V2G system with commercialized EVs, which is able to support both islanded AC/DC load and the power grid with one single platform. Standard industrial communication protocols are implemented for a seamless respond to remote Demand Respond (DR) signals. Simulation and implementation are carried out to validate the proposed design. Simulation and implementation results showed that the hybrid system is capable of support critical islanded DC/AC load and quickly respond to the remote DR signal for V2G within 1.5kW of power range.

  5. Study of the Effect of Time-Based Rate Demand Response Programs on Stochastic Day-Ahead Energy and Reserve Scheduling in Islanded Residential Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahedipour-Dahraie, Mostafa; Najafi, Hamid Reza; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad

    2017-01-01

    In recent deregulated power systems, demand response (DR) has become one of the most cost-effective and efficient solutions for smoothing the load profile when the system is under stress. By participating in DR programs, customers are able to change their energy consumption habits in response...... in presence of renewable energy resources (RESs) and electric vehicles (EVs). An economic model of responsive load is also proposed on the basis of elasticity factor to model the behavior of customers participating in various DR programs. A two-stage stochastic programming model is developed accordingly...... to minimize the expected cost of MG under different TBR programs. To verify the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed approach, a number of simulations are performed under different scenarios using real data; and the impact of TBR-DR actions on energy and reserve scheduling are studied and compared...

  6. Review of current Southern California edison load management programs and proposal for a new market-driven, mass-market, demand-response program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    Utility load management programs, including direct load control and interruptible load programs, constitute a large installed base of controllable loads that are employed by utilities as system reliability resources. In response to energy supply shortfalls expected during the summer of 2001, the California Public Utilities Commission in spring 2001 authorized new utility load management programs as well as revisions to existing programs. This report provides an independent review of the designs of these new programs for a large utility (Southern California Edison) and suggests possible improvements to enhance the price responsiveness of the customer actions influenced by these programs. The report also proposes a new program to elicit a mass-market demand response to utility price signals.

  7. Study of the Effect of Time-Based Rate Demand Response Programs on Stochastic Day-Ahead Energy and Reserve Scheduling in Islanded Residential Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahedipour-Dahraie, Mostafa; Najafi, Hamid Reza; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad

    2017-01-01

    In recent deregulated power systems, demand response (DR) has become one of the most cost-effective and efficient solutions for smoothing the load profile when the system is under stress. By participating in DR programs, customers are able to change their energy consumption habits in response...... to energy price changes and get incentives in return. In this paper, we study the effect of various time-based rate (TBR) programs on the stochastic day-ahead energy and reserve scheduling in residential islanded microgrids (MGs). An effective approach is presented to schedule both energy and reserve...... in presence of renewable energy resources (RESs) and electric vehicles (EVs). An economic model of responsive load is also proposed on the basis of elasticity factor to model the behavior of customers participating in various DR programs. A two-stage stochastic programming model is developed accordingly...

  8. Exploring Modeling Options and Conversion of Average Response to Appropriate Vibration Envelopes for a Typical Cylindrical Vehicle Panel with Rib-stiffened Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Phil; LaVerde, Bruce; Teague, David

    2009-01-01

    Although applications for Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) techniques are more widely used in the aerospace industry today, opportunities to anchor the response predictions using measured data from a flight-like launch vehicle structure are still quite valuable. Response and excitation data from a ground acoustic test at the Marshall Space Flight Center permitted the authors to compare and evaluate several modeling techniques available in the SEA module of the commercial code VA One. This paper provides an example of vibration response estimates developed using different modeling approaches to both approximate and bound the response of a flight-like vehicle panel. Since both vibration response and acoustic levels near the panel were available from the ground test, the evaluation provided an opportunity to learn how well the different modeling options can match band-averaged spectra developed from the test data. Additional work was performed to understand the spatial averaging of the measurements across the panel from measured data. Finally an evaluation/comparison of two conversion approaches from the statistical average response results that are output from an SEA analysis to a more useful envelope of response spectra appropriate to specify design and test vibration levels for a new vehicle.

  9. Demands on response inhibition processes determine modulations of theta band activity in superior frontal areas and correlations with pupillometry - Implications for the norepinephrine system during inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippel, Gabriel; Mückschel, Moritz; Ziemssen, Tjalf; Beste, Christian

    2017-08-15

    Response inhibition processes are important for goal-directed behavior and particularly demanded when it is unlikely to inhibit automatically executed responses. It has been suggested that the norepinephrine (NE) system is important to consider for such likelihood effects. As an indirect measure of the NE system activity we used the pupil diameter and integrated this data with neurophysiological (EEG) data and beamforming analyses. The study shows that inhibitory control processes reflected by theta oscillations are strongly modulated by the likelihood to employ these processes and that these mechanisms were related to neural processes in the SMA and SFG. Probably, the modulations observed for theta band activity may reflect modulations in the encoding of a surprise, or conflict signal. Interestingly, correlation analyses of neuronal activity at the sensor and the source level with pupil diameter data revealed strong correlations that were only seen in the condition where inhibitory control processes were rarely demanded. On the basis of findings and theoretical models suggesting that the pupil diameter can be interpreted as a proximate of NE system activity the results may be interpreted that the NE system modulates inhibitory control processes via theta band activity in the SFB when the likelihood to inhibit a prepotent response tendency is low. From this it may be speculated that the NE system dynamically gains and loses relevance to modulate inhibitory control depending on boundary conditions that determine the mode of responding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Response of bean (Vicia faba L. plants to low sink demand by measuring the gas exchange rates and chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Fang Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The decline of photosynthesis in plants under low sink demand is well known. Previous studies focused on the relationship between stomatal conductance (gs and net photosynthetic rate (Pn. These studies investigated the effect of changes in Photosystem II (PSII function on the Pn decline under low sink demand. However, little is known about its effects on different limiting steps of electron transport chain in PSII under this condition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Two-month-old bean plants were processed by removing pods and flowers (low sink demand. On the 1(st day after low sink demand treatment, a decline of Pn was accompanied by a decrease in gs and internal-to-ambient CO2 concentration ratio (Ci/Ca. From the 3(rd to 9(th day, Pn and gs declined continuously while Ci/Ca ratio remained stable in the treatment. Moreover, these values were lower than that of control. Wk (a parameter reflecting the damage to oxygen evolving complex of the donor side of PSII values in the treatment were significantly higher than their corresponding control values. However, RCQA (a parameter reflecting the number of active RCs per excited cross-section of PSII values in the treatment were significantly lower than control from the 5(th day. From the 11(th to 21(st day, Pn and gs of the treatment continued to decline and were lower than control. This was accompanied by a decrease of RCQA, and an increase of Wk. Furthermore, the quantum yield parameters φPo, φEo and ψEo in the treatment were lower than in control; however, Ci/Ca values in the treatment gradually increased and were significantly higher than control on the 21(st day. CONCLUSIONS: Stomatal limitation during the early stage, whereas a combination of stomatal and non-stomatal limitation during the middle stage might be responsible for the reduction of Pn under low sink demand. Non-stomatal limitation during the late stages after the removal of the sink of roots and pods may also cause Pn

  11. Task demands modulate decision and eye movement responses in the chimeric face test: examining the right hemisphere processing account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason eCoronel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A large and growing body of work, conducted in both brain-intact and brain-damaged populations, has used the free viewing chimeric face test as a measure of hemispheric dominance for the extraction of emotional information from faces. These studies generally show that normal right-handed individuals tend to perceive chimeric faces as more emotional if the emotional expression is presented on the half of the face to the viewer’s left (left hemiface. However, the mechanisms underlying this lateralized bias remain unclear. Here, we examine the extent to which this bias is driven by right hemisphere processing advantages versus default scanning biases in a unique way -- by changing task demands. In particular, we compare the original task with one in which right-hemisphere-biased processing cannot provide a decision advantage. Our behavioral and eye-movement data are inconsistent with the predictions of a default scanning bias account and support the idea that the left hemiface bias found in the chimeric face test is largely due to strategic use of right hemisphere processing mechanisms.

  12. Enhanced response of microbial fuel cell using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone membrane as a biochemical oxygen demand sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayyaru, Sivasankaran; Dharmalingam, Sangeetha, E-mail: sangeetha@annauniv.edu

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane in SCMFC used to determine the BOD. • The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm. • This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion{sup ®}. • SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion{sup ®}. • Nafion{sup ®} shows high anodic internal resistance (67 Ω) than the SPEEK (39 Ω). - Abstract: The present study is focused on the development of single chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane to determine the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) matter present in artificial wastewater (AW). The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm when using artificial wastewater. This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion{sup ®}. The most serious problem in using MFC as a BOD sensor is the oxygen diffusion into the anode compartment, which consumes electrons in the anode compartment, thereby reducing the coulomb yield and reducing the electrical signal from the MFC. SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion{sup ®}, resulting in low internal resistance and substrate loss, thus improving the sensing range of BOD. The system was further improved by making a double membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with an increased electrode surface area which provide high surface area for electrically active bacteria.

  13. Modelling effects of geoengineering options in response to climate change and global warming: implications for coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabbe, M J C

    2009-12-01

    Climate change will have serious effects on the planet and on its ecosystems. Currently, mitigation efforts are proving ineffectual in reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Coral reefs are the most sensitive ecosystems on the planet to climate change, and here we review modelling a number of geoengineering options, and their potential influence on coral reefs. There are two categories of geoengineering, shortwave solar radiation management and longwave carbon dioxide removal. The first set of techniques only reduce some, but not all, effects of climate change, while possibly creating other problems. They also do not affect CO2 levels and therefore fail to address the wider effects of rising CO2, including ocean acidification, important for coral reefs. Solar radiation is important to coral growth and survival, and solar radiation management is not in general appropriate for this ecosystem. Longwave carbon dioxide removal techniques address the root cause of climate change, rising CO2 concentrations, they have relatively low uncertainties and risks. They are worthy of further research and potential implementation, particularly carbon capture and storage, biochar, and afforestation methods, alongside increased mitigation of atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

  14. Load-shift incentives for household demand response: Evaluation of hourly dynamic pricing and rebate schemes in a wind-based electricity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Jonas; Møller Andersen, Frits; Morthorst, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    Applying a partial equilibrium model of the electricity market we analyse effects of exposing household electricity customers to retail products with variable pricing. Both short-term and long-term effects of exposing customers to hourly spot market prices and a simpler rebate scheme are analysed...... under scenarios with large shares of wind power in a Danish case study. Our results indicate strategies that could be favourable in ensuring high adoption of products and efficient response by households. We find that simple pricing schemes, though economically less efficient, could become important...... in an early phase to initialise the development of household demand response. At a later point, when long-term dynamics take effect, a larger effort should be made to shift consumers onto real-time rates, and an increased focus on overall adoption of variable pricing will be required. Another finding...

  15. Nutrient demand interacts with grass maturity to affect milk fat concentration and digestion responses in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammes, K L; Allen, M S

    2012-09-01

    Effects of grass maturity on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, ruminal fermentation and pool sizes, digestion and passage kinetics, and chewing activity and the relationship of these effects with preliminary DMI (pDMI) were evaluated using 13 ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows in a crossover design with a 14-d preliminary period and two 18-d treatment periods. During the preliminary period, pDMI of individual cows ranged from 23.5 to 28.2 kg/d (mean=26.1 kg/d) and 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) yield ranged from 30.8 to 57.2 kg/d (mean=43.7 kg/d). Experimental treatments were diets containing orchardgrass silage harvested either (1) early-cut, less mature (EC) or (2) late-cut, more mature (LC) as the sole forage. Early- and late-cut orchardgrass contained 44.9 and 54.4% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 20.1 and 15.3% crude protein, respectively. Forage:concentrate ratio was 58:42 and 46:54 for EC and LC, respectively; both diets contained approximately 25% forage NDF and 30% total NDF. Preliminary DMI, an index of nutrient demand, was determined during the last 4d of the preliminary period when cows were fed a common diet and used as a covariate. Main effects of grass maturity and their interaction with pDMI were tested by ANOVA. The EC diet decreased milk yield and increased milk fat concentration compared with the LC diet. Grass maturity and its interaction with pDMI did not affect FCM yield, DMI, rumen pH, or microbial efficiency. The EC diet increased rates of ruminal digestion of potentially digestible NDF and passage of indigestible NDF (iNDF) compared with the LC diet. The lower concentration and faster passage rate of iNDF for EC resulted in lower rumen pools of iNDF, total NDF, organic matter, and dry matter for EC than LC. Ruminal passage rates of potentially digestible NDF and starch were related to level of intake (quadratic and linear interactions, respectively) and subsequently affected ruminal digestibility of these nutrients

  16. Nutrient demand interacts with grass particle length to affect digestion responses and chewing activity in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammes, K L; Allen, M S

    2012-02-01

    Effects of grass particle length on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, ruminal fermentation and pool sizes, digestion and passage kinetics, and chewing activity and the relationship of these effects with preliminary DMI (pDMI) were evaluated using 15 ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows in a crossover design with a 14-d preliminary period and two 18-d treatment periods. During the preliminary period, pDMI of individual cows ranged from 22.6 to 29.8 kg/d (mean=25.8 kg/d) and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield ranged from 29.2 to 56.9 kg/d (mean=41.9 kg/d). Experimental treatments were diets containing orchardgrass silage chopped to either (a) 19-mm (long) or (b) 10-mm (short) theoretical length of cut as the sole forage. Grass silages contained approximately 46% neutral detergent fiber (NDF); diets contained 50% forage, 23% forage NDF, and 28% total NDF. Preliminary DMI, an index of nutrient demand, was determined during the last 4 d of the preliminary period when cows were fed a common diet and used as a covariate. Main effects of grass particle length and their interaction with pDMI were tested by ANOVA. Grass particle length and its interaction with pDMI did not affect milk yield, milk composition, or rumen pH. Long particle length tended to decrease DMI compared with short particle length, which might have been limited by rumen fill or chewing time, or both. Passage rates of feed fractions did not differ between long and short particle lengths and were not related to level of intake. As pDMI increased, long particles decreased ruminal digestion rate of potentially digestible NDF at a faster rate than short particles. As a result, long particles decreased or tended to decrease rates of ruminal turnover for NDF, organic matter, and dry matter and increased their rumen pools compared with short particles for cows with high pDMI. Long particles increased eating time, which affected cows with high intake to the greatest extent, and total chewing time

  17. Protease-degradable PEG-maleimide coating with on-demand release of IL-1Ra to improve tissue response to neural electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowski, Stacie M; Shoemaker, James T; Templeman, Kellie L; Wei, Yang; Latour, Robert A; Bellamkonda, Ravi V; LaPlaca, Michelle C; García, Andrés J

    2015-03-01

    Neural electrodes are an important part of brain-machine interface devices that can restore functionality to patients with sensory and movement disorders. Chronically implanted neural electrodes induce an unfavorable tissue response which includes inflammation, scar formation, and neuronal cell death, eventually causing loss of electrode function. We developed a poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel coating for neural electrodes with non-fouling characteristics, incorporated an anti-inflammatory agent, and engineered a stimulus-responsive degradable portion for on-demand release of the anti-inflammatory agent in response to inflammatory stimuli. This coating reduces in vitro glial cell adhesion, cell spreading, and cytokine release compared to uncoated controls. We also analyzed the in vivo tissue response using immunohistochemistry and microarray qRT-PCR. Although no differences were observed among coated and uncoated electrodes for inflammatory cell markers, lower IgG penetration into the tissue around PEG+IL-1Ra coated electrodes indicates an improvement in blood-brain barrier integrity. Gene expression analysis showed higher expression of IL-6 and MMP-2 around PEG+IL-1Ra samples, as well as an increase in CNTF expression, an important marker for neuronal survival. Importantly, increased neuronal survival around coated electrodes compared to uncoated controls was observed. Collectively, these results indicate promising findings for an engineered coating to increase neuronal survival and improve tissue response around implanted neural electrodes.

  18. Policy options to reduce consumer waste to zero: comparing product stewardship and extended producer responsibility for refrigerator waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Scott; Thompson, Shirley

    2007-06-01

    Today, over-consumption, pollution and resource depletion threaten sustainability. Waste management policies frequently fail to reduce consumption, prevent pollution, conserve resources and foster sustainable products. However, waste policies are changing to focus on lifecycle impacts of products from the cradle to the grave by extending the responsibilities of stakeholders to post-consumer management. Product stewardship and extended producer responsibility are two policies in use, with radically different results when compared for one consumer product, refrigerators. North America has enacted product stewardship policies that fail to require producers to take physical or financial responsibility for recycling or for environmentally sound disposal, so that releases of ozone depleting substances routinely occur, which contribute to the expanding the ozone hole. Conversely, Europe's Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive requires extended producer responsibility, whereby producers collect and manage their own post-consumer waste products. WEEE has resulted in high recycling rates of greater than 85%, reduced emissions of ozone-depleting substances and other toxins, greener production methods, such as replacing greenhouse gas refrigerants with environmentally friendly hydrocarbons and more reuse of refrigerators in the EU in comparison with North America.

  19. Poplar demand.

    OpenAIRE

    Holton, W. C.

    1998-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common industrial solvent that poses a particular pollution problem in groundwater; while TCE disappears from surface water within a few weeks, groundwater contamination can take months or years to degrade. Humans have not conclusively been shown to develop cancer in response to TCE exposure, but rats and mice exposed to TCE have an increased incidence of liver and lung cancers.

  20. Nutrient demand interacts with legume particle length to affect digestion responses and rumen pool sizes in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammes, K L; Ying, Y; Allen, M S

    2012-05-01

    Effects of legume particle length on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, ruminal fermentation and pool sizes, and digestion and passage kinetics, and the relationship of these effects with preliminary DMI (pDMI) were evaluated using 13 ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows in a crossover design with a 14-d preliminary period and two 19-d treatment periods. During the preliminary period, pDMI of individual cows ranged from 22.8 to 32.4 kg/d (mean=26.5 kg/d) and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield ranged from 22.9 to 62.4 kg/d (mean=35.1 kg/d). Experimental treatments were diets containing alfalfa silage chopped to (1) 19 mm (long cut, LC) or (2) 10 mm (short cut, SC) theoretical length of cut as the sole forage. Alfalfa silages contained approximately 43% neutral detergent fiber (NDF); diets contained approximately 47% forage and 20% forage NDF. Preliminary DMI, an index of nutrient demand, was determined during the last 4 d of the preliminary period, when cows were fed a common diet, and used as a covariate. Main effects of legume particle length and their interaction with pDMI were tested by ANOVA. Alfalfa particle length and its interaction with pDMI did not affect milk yield or rumen pH. The LC diet decreased milk fat concentration more per kilogram of pDMI increase than the SC diet and increased yields of milk fat and fat-corrected milk less per kilogram of pDMI increase than the SC diet, resulting in a greater benefit for LC at low pDMI and for SC at high pDMI. The LC diet tended to decrease DMI compared with the SC diet. Ruminal digestion and passage rates of feed fractions did not differ between LC and SC and were not related to level of intake. The LC diet tended to decrease the rate of ruminal turnover for NDF but increased NDF rumen pools at a slower rate than the SC diet as pDMI increased. This indicated that the faster NDF turnover rate did not counterbalance the higher DMI for SC, resulting in larger NDF rumen pools for SC than LC. As p