WorldWideScience

Sample records for demand cod destruction

  1. Chemical oxygen demand (cod) attenuation of methyl red in water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical oxygen demand (cod) attenuation of methyl red in water using biocarbons obtained from Nipa palm leaves. ... eco-friendly and locally accessible biocarbon for mitigation of organic contaminants in water. Keywords: Chemical oxygen demand, biocarbon, methyl red, biodegradation, bioremediation, Nipa palm ...

  2. Research progress of on-line automatic monitoring of chemical oxygen demand (COD) of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Youfa; Fu, Xing; Gao, Xiaolu; Li, Lianyin

    2018-02-01

    With the increasingly stricter control of pollutant emission in China, the on-line automatic monitoring of water quality is particularly urgent. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a comprehensive index to measure the contamination caused by organic matters, and thus it is taken as one important index of energy-saving and emission reduction in China’s “Twelve-Five” program. So far, the COD on-line automatic monitoring instrument has played an important role in the field of sewage monitoring. This paper reviews the existing methods to achieve on-line automatic monitoring of COD, and on the basis, points out the future trend of the COD on-line automatic monitoring instruments.

  3. Fuel switching? Demand destruction? Gas market responses to price spikes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippe, D.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation defined fuel switching and addressed the issue regarding which consumers have the capability to switch fuels. In response to short term price aberrations, consumers with fuel switching capabilities reduce their use of one fuel and increase consumption of an alternative fuel. For example, natural gas consumption by some consumers declines in response to price spikes relative to prices of alternative fuels. This presentation also addressed the issue of differentiating between fuel switching and demand destruction. It also demonstrated how to compare gas prices versus alternative fuel prices and how to determine when consumers will likely switch fuels. Price spikes have implications for long term trends in natural gas demand, supply/demand balances and prices. The power generating sector represents a particular class of gas consumers that reduce operating rates of gas fired plants and increase operating rates of other plants. Some gas consumers even shut down plants until gas prices declines and relative economies improve. Some practical considerations for fuel switching include storage tank capacity, domestic refinery production, winter heating season, and decline in working gas storage. tabs., figs

  4. Replacement of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with total organic carbon (TOC) for monitoring wastewater treatment performance to minimize disposal of toxic analytical waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubber, Donata; Gray, Nicholas F

    2010-10-01

    Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is widely used for wastewater monitoring, design, modeling and plant operational analysis. However this method results in the production of hazardous wastes including mercury and hexavalent chromium. The study examined the replacement of COD with total organic carbon (TOC) for general performance monitoring by comparing their relationship with influent and effluent samples from 11 wastewater treatment plants. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) was also included in the comparison as a control. The results show significant linear relationships between TOC, COD and BOD5 in settled (influent) domestic and municipal wastewaters, but only between COD and TOC in treated effluents. The study concludes that TOC can be reliably used for the generic replacement of both COD (COD=49.2+3.00*TOC) and BOD5 (BOD5=23.7+1.68*TOC) in influent wastewaters but only for COD (COD=7.25+2.99*TOC) in final effluents.

  5. An integrated mathematical model for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR) including predation and hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla, Marta; Galán, Berta; Viguri, Javier R

    2016-07-01

    An integrated mathematical model is proposed for modelling a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) under aerobic conditions. The composite model combines the following: (i) a one-dimensional biofilm model, (ii) a bulk liquid model, and (iii) biological processes in the bulk liquid and biofilm considering the interactions among autotrophic, heterotrophic and predator microorganisms. Depending on the values for the soluble biodegradable COD loading rate (SCLR), the model takes into account a) the hydrolysis of slowly biodegradable compounds in the bulk liquid, and b) the growth of predator microorganisms in the bulk liquid and in the biofilm. The integration of the model and the SCLR allows a general description of the behaviour of COD removal by the MBBR under various conditions. The model is applied for two in-series MBBR wastewater plant from an integrated cellulose and viscose production and accurately describes the experimental concentrations of COD, total suspended solids (TSS), nitrogen and phosphorous obtained during 14 months working at different SCLRs and nutrient dosages. The representation of the microorganism group distribution in the biofilm and in the bulk liquid allow for verification of the presence of predator microorganisms in the second reactor under some operational conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pecan shell-based granular activated carbon for treatment of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansode, R R; Losso, J N; Marshall, W E; Rao, R M; Portier, R J

    2004-09-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to compare the adsorption efficiency of pecan shell-based granular activated carbon with the adsorption efficiency of the commercial carbon Filtrasorb 200 with respect to uptake of the organic components responsible for the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of municipal wastewater. Adsorption efficiencies for these two sets of carbons (experimental and commercial) were analyzed by the Freundlich adsorption model. The results indicate that steam-activated and acid-activated pecan shell-based carbons had higher adsorption for organic matter measured as COD, than carbon dioxide-activated pecan shell-based carbon or Filtrasorb 200 at all the carbon dosages used during the experiment. The higher adsorption may be related to surface area as the two carbons with the highest surface area also had the highest organic matter adsorption. These results show that granular activated carbons made from agricultural waste (pecan shells) can be used with greater effectiveness for organic matter removal from municipal wastewater than a coal-based commercial carbon. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) using an alternative wet chemical method free of mercury and dichromate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Marit; Bahadir, Müfit; Teichgräber, Burkhard

    2017-10-01

    Worldwide, the standard methods for the determination of the important wastewater parameter chemical oxygen demand (COD) are still based on the use of the hazardous chemicals, mercury sulfate and chromium(VI). However, due to their properties they are meanwhile classified as "priority pollutants" and shall be phased out or banned in the frame of REACH (current European Chemical Law: Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and restriction of Chemicals) by the European Union. Hence, a new wet-chemical method free of mercury and chromium(VI) was developed. Manganese(III) was used as oxidant and silver nitrate for the removal of chloride ions. The quantification was performed by back titration of manganese(III) with iron(II) as done in the standard method. In order to minimize losses of organic substances during the precipitation of silver chloride, suspended and colloid organic matter had to be separated by precipitation of aluminum hydroxide in a first step. In these cases, two fractions, one of the suspended and colloid matters and a second of the dissolved organic substances, are prepared and oxidized separately. The method was tested with potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) as conventional COD reference substance and different types of wastewater samples. The oxidation of KHP was reproducible in a COD range of 20-500 mg/L with a mean recovery rate of 88.7% in comparison to the standard COD method (DIN 38409-41). Also in presence of 1000 mg/L chloride a recovery rate of 84.1% was reached. For a series of industrial and municipal wastewater samples a high correlation (R 2  = 0.9935) to the standard method with a mean recovery rate of 78.1% (±5.2%) was determined. Even though the results of the new method are not 100% of the standard method, its high correlation to the standard method and reproducibility offers an environmentally benign alternative method with no need to purchase new laboratory equipment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A non-destructive ammonium detection method as indicator for freshness for packed fish: Application on cod

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heising, J.K.; Dekker, M.; Bartels, P.V.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a non-destructive method for monitoring headspace ammonium as an indicator for changes in the freshness status of packed fish. Electrodes in an aqueous phase in the package monitor changes in the concentration of ammonia produced in/on the packed fish and released in the

  9. APPLICATION OF ELECTROCHEMICAL METHODS FOR DECREASING OF CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (COD AND TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLID (TSS OF TOFU INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tofu industrial wastewater has high COD and TSS level, which it cause an environmental pollution. Therefore, it is necessary to decrease the value of COD and TSS of tofu industrial wastewater before discharge into the water body. Decreasing of COD and TSS values can be carried out using an electrochemical method. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of potential, electrode distance, pH, and time to decrease of COD and TSS value of the tofu industrial wastewater. The experiment has been performed by electrolysis tofu industrial wastewater using PbO2 as anode and Pb as cathode. The result of the research showed that under the optimum conditions of 12 V voltage, 1 cm electrode distance, pH 1, and electrolysis time of 120 minutes, decreasing COD and TSS of 96.33% and 87.87% respectively

  10. PENGGUNAAN BIOCATALYS ELECTROLYSIS DALAM PENURUNAN KONSENTRASI TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLID (TSS DAN CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (COD LIMBAH DOMESTIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiharyanto Oktiawan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Secara umum air limbah kegiatan rumah tangga (domestik dibuang langsung menuju badan air seperti sungai dan danau. Pengolahan limbah cair secara biologis (aerob sering menghasilkan lumpur dalam jumlah besar. Jumlah lumpur dapat dikurangi dengan pengolahan anaerob. Sistem bioelektrokimia merupakan salah satu terobosan teknologi yang memungkinkan untuk mengolah limbah sekaligus menghasilkan energi berupa gas metana. Penggunaan biocatalys electrolysis dapat mengatasi kelemahan proses anaerob secara konvensional dalam penurunan konsentrasi TSS dan COD limbah domestik salah satunya mampu menghasilkan gas H2 dari proses elektrolisis. Penambahan daya ekternal sebesar 6 volt mampu menyisihkan TSS sampai kadar 82 mg/l dari kadar semula 157 mg/l. Tegangan 12 volt mampu menurunkan kadar COD sampai 47,46 mg/l dari kadar awal 223 mg/l. Penyisihan TSS paling rendah pada waktu elektrolisis 15 menit dengan kadar 87 mg/l. Penambahan waktu elektrolisis sebanding dengan penurunan konsentrasi COD limbah domestik. Pada penelitian ini kualitas maupun kuantitas gas metana tidak diketahui secara jelas. Selain gas metan, produk fermentasi juga belum diketahui.

  11. Dissolved Organic In Natural and Polluted Waters: Methodology and Results of Running Control of Chemical Oxygen Demand (cod) For The Inland and Marine Aquatic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melentyev, K. V.; Worontsov, A. M.

    Current control of dissolved organic matter in natural and waste waters is the definition traditionally of chemical oxygen demand (COD) -- one of the basic parameters of quality of water. According to the International Standard (ISO 6060), it requires not less than one hour, while in many cases the operative information about amount of dissolved organic matter in aquatic environments have importance for prevention of an emergency. The standard method is applicable to waters with meaning of COD above 30 mg O2/l and, as the chloride ion prevents, it could be difficult for assessment of organic matter in sea water. Besides it is based on dichromate oxidation of the sum of organic substances in strong acid conditions at the presence of silver and mercury, that resulted in formation toxic pollutants. Till now attempts of automation of the COD definition in aquatic system were limited, basically, to duplication of the technology submitted the above standard (automatic COD analyzers "SERES Co."-- France, or "Tsvet Co." - Russia). The system of ozone-chemiluminescence automatic control of organic matter in water (CS COD) is offered and designed. Its based on the ozone oxidation of these substances in flowing water system and measurement arising from luminescent effects. CS COD works in real time. An instrument uses for reaction the atmospheric air, doesn't require fill of reagents and doesn't make new toxic pollutants. The system was tested in laboratory, and biochemical control of organic matter in water samples gathered from the river Neva and other polluted inland water areas and basins in St. Petersburg region was fulfilled (distilled water was used as "zero" media). The results of systematization of these measurements are presented. The new special ozone generator and flowing reactor for real-time running control of different waters in natural conditions were developed, and several series of large - scale field experiments onboard research ship were provided

  12. Achieving low effluent NO3-N and TN concentrations in low influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) ratio without using external carbon source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiashun; Oleyiblo, Oloche James; Xue, Zhaoxia; Otache, Y. Martins; Feng, Qian

    2015-07-01

    Two mathematical models were used to optimize the performance of a full-scale biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated treatment plant, a plug-flow bioreactors operated in a 3-stage phoredox process configuration, anaerobic anoxic oxic (A2/O). The ASM2d implemented on the platform of WEST2011 software and the BioWin activated sludge/anaerobic digestion (AS/AD) models were used in this study with the aim of consistently achieving the designed effluent criteria at a low operational cost. Four ASM2d parameters (the reduction factor for denitrification , the maximum growth rate of heterotrophs (µH), the rate constant for stored polyphosphates in PAOs ( q pp), and the hydrolysis rate constant ( k h)) were adjusted. Whereas three BioWin parameters (aerobic decay rate ( b H), heterotrophic dissolved oxygen (DO) half saturation ( K OA), and Y P/acetic) were adjusted. Calibration of the two models was successful; both models have average relative deviations (ARD) less than 10% for all the output variables. Low effluent concentrations of nitrate nitrogen (N-NO3), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) were achieved in a full-scale BNR treatment plant having low influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) ratio (COD/TKN). The effluent total nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen concentrations were improved by 50% and energy consumption was reduced by approximately 25%, which was accomplished by converting the two-pass aerobic compartment of the plug-flow bioreactor to anoxic reactors and being operated in an alternating mode. Findings in this work are helpful in improving the operation of wastewater treatment plant while eliminating the cost of external carbon source and reducing energy consumption.

  13. Relationships between chemical oxygen demand (COD) components and toxicity in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor/aerobic completely stirred reactor system treating Kemicetine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sponza, Delia Teresa, E-mail: delya.sponza@deu.edu.tr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eyluel University, Buca Kaynaklar Campus, Tinaztepe, 35160 Izmir (Turkey); Demirden, Pinar, E-mail: pinar.demirden@kozagold.com [Environmental Engineer, Koza Gold Company, Environmental Department, Ovacik, Bergama Izmir (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    In this study the interactions between toxicity removals and Kemicetine, COD removals, intermediate products of Kemicetine and COD components (CODs originating from slowly degradable organics, readily degradable organics, inert microbial products and from the inert compounds) were investigated in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR)/aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system with a real pharmaceutical wastewater. The total COD and Kemicetine removal efficiencies were 98% and 100%, respectively, in the sequential ABR/CSTR systems. 2-Amino-1 (p-nitrophenil)-1,3 propanediol, l-p-amino phenyl, p-amino phenol and phenol were detected in the ABR as the main readily degradable inter-metabolites. In the anaerobic ABR reactor, the Kemicetin was converted to corresponding inter-metabolites and a substantial part of the COD was removed. In the aerobic CSTR reactor the inter-metabolites produced in the anaerobic reactor were completely removed and the COD remaining from the anerobic reactor was biodegraded. It was found that the COD originating from the readily degradable organics did not limit the anaerobic degradation process, while the CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and from the inert microbial products significantly decreased the anaerobic ABR reactor performance. The acute toxicity test results indicated that the toxicity decreased from the influent to the effluent of the aerobic CSTR reactor. The ANOVA test statistics showed that there was a strong linear correlation between acute toxicity, CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and inert microbial products. A weak correlation between acute toxicity and CODs originating from the inert compounds was detected.

  14. Relationships between chemical oxygen demand (COD) components and toxicity in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor/aerobic completely stirred reactor system treating Kemicetine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Demirden, Pinar

    2010-01-01

    In this study the interactions between toxicity removals and Kemicetine, COD removals, intermediate products of Kemicetine and COD components (CODs originating from slowly degradable organics, readily degradable organics, inert microbial products and from the inert compounds) were investigated in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR)/aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system with a real pharmaceutical wastewater. The total COD and Kemicetine removal efficiencies were 98% and 100%, respectively, in the sequential ABR/CSTR systems. 2-Amino-1 (p-nitrophenil)-1,3 propanediol, l-p-amino phenyl, p-amino phenol and phenol were detected in the ABR as the main readily degradable inter-metabolites. In the anaerobic ABR reactor, the Kemicetin was converted to corresponding inter-metabolites and a substantial part of the COD was removed. In the aerobic CSTR reactor the inter-metabolites produced in the anaerobic reactor were completely removed and the COD remaining from the anerobic reactor was biodegraded. It was found that the COD originating from the readily degradable organics did not limit the anaerobic degradation process, while the CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and from the inert microbial products significantly decreased the anaerobic ABR reactor performance. The acute toxicity test results indicated that the toxicity decreased from the influent to the effluent of the aerobic CSTR reactor. The ANOVA test statistics showed that there was a strong linear correlation between acute toxicity, CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and inert microbial products. A weak correlation between acute toxicity and CODs originating from the inert compounds was detected.

  15. Cod Liver Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cod liver oil can be obtained from eating fresh cod liver or by taking supplements. Cod liver oil is used as a source of vitamin A ... called macular degeneration. Some people put cod liver oil on their skin to speed healing of wounds, ...

  16. Genomics of Arctic cod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert E.; Sage, George K.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Gravley, Megan C.; Menning, Damian; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2017-01-01

    The Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) is an abundant marine fish that plays a vital role in the marine food web. To better understand the population genetic structure and the role of natural selection acting on the maternally-inherited mitochondrial genome (mitogenome), a molecule often associated with adaptations to temperature, we analyzed genetic data collected from 11 biparentally-inherited nuclear microsatellite DNA loci and nucleotide sequence data from from the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (cytb) gene and, for a subset of individuals, the entire mitogenome. In addition, due to potential of species misidentification with morphologically similar Polar cod (Arctogadus glacialis), we used ddRAD-Seq data to determine the level of divergence between species and identify species-specific markers. Based on the findings presented here, Arctic cod across the Pacific Arctic (Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas) comprise a single panmictic population with high genetic diversity compared to other gadids. High genetic diversity was indicated across all 13 protein-coding genes in the mitogenome. In addition, we found moderate levels of genetic diversity in the nuclear microsatellite loci, with highest diversity found in the Chukchi Sea. Our analyses of markers from both marker classes (nuclear microsatellite fragment data and mtDNA cytb sequence data) failed to uncover a signal of microgeographic genetic structure within Arctic cod across the three regions, within the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, or between near-shore or offshore habitats. Further, data from a subset of mitogenomes revealed no genetic differentiation between Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort seas populations for Arctic cod, Saffron cod (Eleginus gracilis), or Walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus). However, we uncovered significant differences in the distribution of microsatellite alleles between the southern Chukchi and central and eastern Beaufort Sea samples of Arctic cod. Finally, using ddRAD-Seq data, we

  17. Cod reproductive ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjbek, Maria

    In recent decades, Baltic cod has experienced a period of low recruitment. In the same period the pelagic Baltic Sea ecosystem experienced a regime shift, due to hydrographic changes, affecting all trophic levels. The rationale for the thesis is built on the hypothesis that the regime shift has r...

  18. Textile wastewater treatment: colour and COD removal of reactive black-5 by ozonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawan, I. W. K.; Helmy, Q.; Notodarmojo, S.

    2018-01-01

    Textile industries produced a large amount of highly coloured wastewater containing variety of dyes in different concentrations. Due to the high concentration of organics in the effluents and the higher stability of modern synthetic dyes, the conventional biological treatment methods are ineffective for the complete colour removal and degradation of organics and dyes. On the other hand, physical-chemical treatment are not destructive, mainly just concentrate and separate the pollutants phases. This research paper investigates the removal of colour and chemical oxygen demand/COD from textile wastewater using ozone treatment. Varied ozone dosages of 1.16; 3.81; 18.79; and 40.88 mg/minute were used in the experiment. Varied wastewater containing Reactive Black 5 (RB-5) concentrations of 40 mg/L, 100 mg/L were also applied. Research result showed the highest colour removal efficiency of 96.9 % was achieved after 5 hours incubation time, while the highest COD removal efficiency of 77.5% was achieved after 2 hours incubation time.

  19. Northeast Regional Cod Tagging Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientific justification: Canadian and US stock assessments for Atlantic cod indicate considerable fluctuation in stock abundance and recruitment over the last 20...

  20. Industry Based Survey (IBS) Cod

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The "Gulf of Maine Atlantic Cod Industry-Based Survey" was a collaboration of the Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries and the fishing industry, with support...

  1. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, C A

    1906-05-22

    The invention relates to an apparatus in which the destructive distillation or coking of coal, peat, shale, etc., is carried out by means of a current of hot gases at a temperature of 700--800/sup 0/F., as described in Specification No. 11,925, A.D. 1906.

  2. Effect of the two-stage thermal disintegration and anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge on the COD fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaciuch Anna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The research presents the changes in chemical oxygen demand (COD fractions during the two-stage thermal disintegration and anaerobic digestion (AD of sewage sludge in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. Four COD fractions have been separated taking into account the solubility of substrates and their susceptibility to biodegradation: inert soluble organic matter SI, readily biodegradable substrate SS, slowly biodegradable substrates XS and inert particulate organic material XI. The results showed that readily biodegradable substrates SS (46.8% of total COD and slowly biodegradable substrates XS (36.1% of total COD were dominant in the raw sludge effluents. In sewage effluents after two-stage thermal disintegration, the percentage of SS fraction increased to 90% of total COD and percentage of XS fraction decreased to 8% of total COD. After AD, percentage of SS fraction in total COD decreased to 64%, whereas the percentage of other fractions in effluents increased.

  3. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosden, S; Cosden, J S

    1937-09-08

    A means and process are described for the destructive distillation of solid carbonaceous materials in which the process comprises charging the material, in a finely divided condition into a stream of hot combustion gases, and allows the hot gases to act pyrolytically on the organic compounds contained in the material, separating the volatile liberated constituents from residuary constituents. Hot reaction gases are generated by fuel ignition means in a generator and are immediately intermingled with comminuted carbonaceous material from a hopper, in a narrow conduit. The mixture of material and reaction fluid is then passed through an elongated confined path, which is exteriorly heated by the combustion chamber of the furnace, where the destructive distillation is effected. Volatile and solid constituents are separated in the chamber, and the volatile constituents are fractionated and condensed.

  4. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-07-05

    A process and apparatus for the destructive distillation at low temperature of mineral or organic material particularly oil shale, is given in which the process comprises distilling the material in a horizontal gaseous stream, subjecting the hot residues to the action of a gaseous stream containing a predetermined amount of oxygen so as to burn, at least partly, the carbon-containing substances, and the process uses the gases from this combustion for the indirect heating of the gases serving for the distillation.

  5. How cod shapes its world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, A.; de Roos, A.M.; Persson, L.

    2008-01-01

    Cod stocks in the North West Atlantic and the Baltic Sea have shown similar dynamics in recent decades with a rapid decline in abundance and a lack of stock recovery following a period of large biomass. We explore whether the lack of recovery can be ascribed to an emergent Allee effect, which is a

  6. Simulations on the prediction of cod (Gadus morhua) freshness from an intelligent packaging sensor concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heising, J.K.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Dekker, M.

    2015-01-01

    A non-destructive method that monitors changes in the freshness status of packed cod fillets has potential for the development of an intelligent packaging concept. The method is based on monitoring volatile compounds that dissolve and dissociate in the sensing aqueous phase. A mathematical model was

  7. Cod monitoring; results 2015, quarter 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijden, van der K.J.; Machiels, M.A.M.; Trapman, B.K.; Kraan, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    The Cod monitoring program is part of the Dutch cod avoidance plan developed by the Dutch Government together with the Dutch fishing sector. The aim of this cod monitoring program is to provide information on the Catch per Unit Effort (CpUE) in the TR fleet (bottom trawls and seines). This is needed

  8. Cod monitoring : results 2015, quarter 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teal, L.R.; Reijden, van der K.J.; Machiels, M.A.M.; Kraan, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    The Cod monitoring program is part of the Dutch cod avoidance plan developed by the Dutch Government together with the Dutch fishing sector. The aim of this cod monitoring program is to provide information on the Catch per Unit Effort (CpUE) in the TR fleet (bottom trawls and seines). This is needed

  9. Effect of influent COD/SO4(2-) ratios on UASB treatment of a synthetic sulfate-containing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong; Jing, Zhaoqian; Sudo, Yuta; Niu, Qigui; Du, Jingru; Wu, Jiang; Li, Yu-You

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the chemical oxygen demand/sulfate (COD/SO4(2-)) ratio on the anaerobic treatment of synthetic chemical wastewater containing acetate, ethanol, and sulfate, was investigated using a UASB reactor. The experimental results show that at a COD/SO4(2-) ratio of 20 and a COD loading rate of 25.2gCODL(-1)d(-1), a COD removal of as high as 87.8% was maintained. At a COD/SO4(2-) ratio of 0.5 (sulfate concentration 6000mgL(-1)), however, the COD removal was 79.2% and the methane yield was 0.20LCH4gCOD(-1). The conversion of influent COD to methane dropped from 80.5% to 54.4% as the COD/SO4(2-) ratio decreased from 20 to 0.5. At all the COD/SO4(2-) ratios applied, over 79.4% of the total electron flow was utilized by methane-producing archaea (MPA), indicating that methane fermentation was the predominant reaction. The majority of the methane was produced by acetoclastic MPA at high COD/SO4(2-) ratios and both acetoclastic and hydrogenthrophic MPA at low COD/SO4(2-) ratios. Only at low COD/SO4(2-) ratios were SRB species such as Desulfovibrio found to play a key role in ethanol degradation, whereas all the SRB species were found to be incomplete oxidizers at both high and low COD/SO4(2-) ratios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Data Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergren, Martha Dewey

    2005-01-01

    School nurses are caretakers of a vast amount of sensitive student and family health information. In schools, older computer hardware that previously stored education records is recycled for less demanding student and employee functions. Sensitive data must be adequately erased before electronic storage devices are reassigned or are discarded.…

  11. Destructive, distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jameson, J

    1882-10-23

    The apparatus employed resembles a reverberatory furnace, having a brickwork chamber with pipes or passages leading from the bottom, through which gases and vapors, arising from destructive distillation or heating of the materials with which the chamber is charged to a certain depth, are drawn by suction produced by a fan or blower. The materials are heated from above by firegates admitted from a separate furnace or fireplace. When shale is thus treated, to obtain burning gas, oil, and ammonia, the suction may be so regulated as to give preponderance to whichever product is desired, the depth of material treated being also concerned in the result. The process is applicable also in the treatment of coal pit refuse, sawdust, peat, and other matters, to obtain volatile products; in burning limestone to obtain carbon dioxide; and in roasting ores. Reference is made to a former Specification for coking coal, No. 1947, A. D. 1882.

  12. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, G

    1865-05-16

    A retort for the destructive distillation of coal, shale, whereby hydrocarbons are produced, is described. The vertical retort is provided with a charging door, a discharging door, an outlet leading to the condensing plant, an inclined bottom, and a perforated cage to facilitate the escape of the vapor and to regulate the amount of materials operated upon in the retort. The upper part of the cage is conical to deflect the materials fed in by the door and the lower part is also slightly conical to facilitate emptying the retort. The bottom may incline from both back and front, and also from the sides to the center. The apparatus is heated from below, and the flues pass all round the lower part of the retort.

  13. [Spatial distribution of COD and the correlations with other parameters in the northern region of Lake Taihu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-lin; Yang, Long-yuan; Qin, Bo-qiang; Gao, Guang; Luo, Lian-cong; Zhu, Guang-wei; Liu, Ming-liang

    2008-06-01

    Spatial variation of chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration was documented and significant correlations between COD concentration and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption, fluorescence, DOC concentration were found based on a cruise sampling in the northern region of Lake Taihu in summer including 42 samplings. The possible source of COD was also discussed using every two cruise samplings in summer and winter, respectively. The COD concentration ranged from 3.77 to 7.96 mg x L(-1) with a mean value of (5.90 +/- 1.54) mg x L(-1). The mean COD concentrations in Meiliang Bay and the central lake basin were (6.93 +/- 0.89) mg x L(-1) and (4.21 +/- 0.49) mg x L(-1) respectively. A significant spatial difference was found between Meiliang Bay and the central lake basin in COD concentration, CDOM absorption coefficient, fluorescence, DOC and phytoplankton pigment concentrations, decreasing from the river mouth to inner bay, outer bay and the central lake basin. Significant correlations between COD concentration and CDOM absorption, fluorescence, DOC concentration, suggested that COD concentration could be estimated and organic pollution could be assessed using CDOM absorption retrieved from remote sensing images. Significant and positive correlation was found between COD concentration and chlorophyll a concentration in summer. However, the correlation was weak or no correlation was found in winter. Furthermore, a significant higher COD concentration was found in summer than in winter (p summer, except for river terrestrial input.

  14. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W

    1881-04-12

    Destructive distillation of shale for the manufacture of mineral oil and ammonia is described. The retorts are arranged in benches, each retort being placed over its own combustion chamber into which the spent shale is discharged and consumed in heating the next charge as described in Specification No. 1578, A. D. 1880. Two forms of retorts are shown, each consisting of two retorts placed above and communicating with one another, the upper being employed to distill the oil at a low red heat, and the lower to eliminate the nitrogen in the form of ammonia at a much higher temperature. The retorts are divided by a sliding damper and have an outlet for the passage of the products placed at the junction. The retorts have an outlet at the top for the escape of the products. Each retort has an opening closed by a cover for charging and a door for discharging. The products of combustion from the combustion chambers pass through ports to a chamber surrounding the lower retorts and thence through ports in the division wall controlled by dampers into the chamber surrounding the upper retorts, whence they pass through flues to the chimney. Around the bottom of each retort are openings communicating with a chamber to which steam is admitted through a valve from a pipe preferably placed in a coil in the flue.

  15. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W; Fyfe, J

    1897-06-03

    Improvements in retorts of the class described in Specification No. 1377, A. D. 1882, for the destructive distillation of shale are disclosed. The retorts are provided with enlarged multiple hoppers for the reception of the fresh shale, and with enlarged chambers for the reception of the exhausted shale. The hoppers are built up of steel plates, and are bolted at the bottom to flanges on the upper ends of the retorts so as to permit of differential expansion. The shale is fed continuously into the retorts by rods or chains carried by a rocking shaft, or by a slit tube attached to a rocking shaft, and in connection with the hydraulic main. The spent shale is discharged into the receiving chambers by means of a series of prongs extending through a grating and carried by a rocking shaft actuated by levers engaging with reciprocating bars. In an alternative arrangement, the pronged rocking shafts are replaced by worms or screws formed into one half with a right-hand thread and the other half with a left-hand thread.

  16. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, J M

    1884-06-03

    The invention relates to retorts for the destructive distillation of shale, dross, and other carbonaceous or oleaginous materials, and for the distillation and carbonization of sawdust, shavings, tan bark, and the like. The material is fed from a trapped hopper on a series of trays or casings of cast iron or other material, separated by flue spaces and arranged in a tier round a vertical rotating shaft passing through tubular pieces cast on the casings. The shaft is fitted with arms which carry stirring-blades so disposed that the material is shifted from side to side and slowly fed towards the ducts through which it passes to the casing next below, and is finally withdrawn from the apparatus by a pipe, which may be trapped or otherwise. Furnace gases are admitted through openings in the enclosing brickwork having settings to support the casings, the lowermost of which may be fitted below the inlet for furnace gases and their contents cooled by the circulation of cold water round them. The gaseous or volatile products of distillation pass to a condenser by means of openings and the pipe, which may be formed in sections to obtain access to the casings, or doors may be provided for this purpose. The ducts may be arranged alternately at the edge and center of the casings, which may be jacketed, and heated air or steam may be employed instead of furnace gases. Means may also be provided for admitting superheated steam into one or more of the casings.

  17. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) Attenuation of Methyl Red in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Department of Pure & Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Science , University of ... ABSTRACT: Attenuation of methyl red dyestuff in water was assessed by ... alternative low cost materials (Ahmad et al., 2010, .... ml distilled water as blank was also taken through the .... quality control measures such as washing of glassware,.

  18. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W; Neilson, A; Young, A

    1876-10-09

    The invention relates to modifications of the retort apparatus, described in Specification No. 2487, A.D. 1872, for the destructive distillation of shale and other bituminous substances. The retorts instead of being worked continuously are completely filled and completely discharged in turn. They are made oblong in cross-section in order to present the material in thin layers and cause it to be acted upon more rapidly and economically. The retorts can thus be heated solely by the combustion of the carbonaceus matter contained in the discharged residues or with a small amount of coal in addition. Each retort is contracted at the bottom and is fitted with a box or chest having a hole in it corresponding to the opening in the retort and a sliding plate of iron, firebrick, or other suitable material, which can be operated by a rod passing through the front of the box, for opening or closing the retort. Underneath the box and over the combustion chamber are placed fireclay blocks leaving an opening, which can be closed by another plate of firebrick or the like. When distillation commences, the gases and vapors in the retort are drawn off through a pipe and a main by an exhauster. In order to prevent air from entering the retort or hydrocarbon vapor from being puffed back by the action of the wind, the gas which remains after the condensation of the oils is forced back into the box between the plates and part of it enters the retort and part the combustion chamber. In order to avoid the liability of the oil being carried past the condensers by the action of the gas, steam may be used as a substitute for the gas or mixed with it in large proportions, a steam jet being used to force the gas into the main supplying the boxes.

  19. AFSC/REFM: Pacific cod Localized Depletion Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Localized Depletion study for Pacific cod 2001-2005. Study was conducted using cod pot gear to measure localized abundance of Pacific cod inside and...

  20. Detection of Fish Bones in Cod Fillets by UV Illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Nian, Rui; Cao, Limin; Sui, Jianxin; Lin, Hong

    2015-07-01

    The presence of fish bones is now regarded as an important hazard in fishery products, and there is increasing demand for new analytical techniques to control it more effectively. Here, the fluorescent properties of cod bones under UV illumination were investigated, and the maximal wavelengths for excitation and emission were determined to be 320 nm and 515 nm, respectively, demonstrating significantly different fluorescence characteristics and much higher fluorescence intensity compared to those of fillet muscles. Based on the results, UV fluorescence-assisted candling for the detection of bones in fishery products was developed for the first time. Using cod fillets as samples, the detection ratio of this technique was calculated as 90.86%, significantly higher than that of traditional candling under daylight (76.78%). Moreover, the working efficiency of the new technique was about 26% higher than that of the traditional method. A UV fluorescence imaging framework was also developed, and a method for automatic identification of the fish bones in the cod fillets based on the linear discriminant analysis proposed by Fisher was preliminarily realized, but the detection ratio was demonstrated to be relatively poor compared to those of candling techniques. These results allow us to suggest UV-based methods as new and promising approaches for routine monitoring of bones in fishery products.

  1. Impact of influent COD/N ratio on disintegration of aerobic granular sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinghai; Hao, Tianwei; Wei, Li; Mackey, Hamish R; Lin, Ziqiao; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2014-10-01

    Disintegration of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) is a challenging issue in the long-term operation of an AGS system. Chemical oxygen demand (COD)-to-nitrogen (N) ratio (COD/N), often variable in industrial wastewaters, could be a destabilizing factor causing granule disintegration. This study investigates the impact of this ratio on AGS disintegration and identifies the key causes, through close monitoring of AGS changes in its physical and chemical characteristics, microbial community and treatment performance. For specific comparison, two lab-scale air-lift type sequencing batch reactors, one for aerobic granular and the other for flocculent sludge, were operated in parallel with three COD/N ratios (4, 2, 1) applied in the influent of each reactor. The decreased COD/N ratios of 2 and 1 strongly influenced the stability of AGS with regard to physical properties and nitrification efficiency, leading to AGS disintegration when the ratio was decreased to 1. Comparatively the flocculent sludge maintained relatively stable structure and nitrification efficiency under all tested COD/N ratios. The lowest COD/N ratio resulted in a large microbial community shift and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) reduction in both flocculent and granular sludges. The disintegration of AGS was associated with two possible causes: 1) reduction in net tyrosine production in the EPS and 2) a major microbial community shift including reduction in filamentous bacteria leading to the collapse of granule structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of the COD to sulphate ratio on the anaerobic organic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were carried out with synthetic substrate containing glucose, ammonium acetate and methanol, besides sodium bicarbonate. Micronutrients were provided by adding salts and trace metals from a stock solution. The influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) was maintained as constant as possible around 2 000 ...

  3. Improvement of COD and TOC reactive dyes in textile wastewater by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... This study was designed to investigate the removal of reactive dyes, Samofix Red V-RBL and Samofix. Green V-G from wastewater using a two step Al (III) coagulation/activated carbon adsorption method. ... (90%) of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC) ..... a liquid to a solid surface.

  4. Relationships between water quality parameters in rivers and lakes: BOD5, COD, NBOPs, and TOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaewoong; Lee, Seunghyun; Yu, Soonju; Rhew, Doughee

    2016-04-01

    Biological oxygen demand (BOD5) or chemical oxygen demand (COD) analysis is widely used to evaluate organic pollutants in water systems as well as the efficiency of wastewater treatment plants. However, both analysis methods have restrictions such as being insensitive, imprecise, time-consuming, and the production of chemical waste. Therefore, total organic carbon (TOC) analysis for organic pollutants has been considered for an alternative analysis instead of BOD5 or COD. Several studies have investigated the replacement of BOD5 or COD with TOC in wastewater samples; however, few studies have investigated the relationships between water quality parameters in rivers and lakes. Therefore, this study evaluated the relationships between BOD5, COD, or NBOPs and TOC by the analysis of national water quality monitoring data of rivers and lakes for 5 years. High correlation coefficients (r) of 0.87 and 0.66 between BOD5 and TOC (p TOC (p TOC was 0.93 for rivers and 0.72 for lakes. The coefficients of determination (R 2) were 0.75 and 0.44 between BOD5 and TOC for rivers and lakes as well as were 0.87 and 0.57 between COD and TOC for rivers and lakes, respectively. The coefficient of determination (R 2) between NBOPs and TOC was 0.73 for rivers and 0.52 for lakes.

  5. COD and colour removal from molasses spent wash using activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The removal of COD and colour from a melanoidin solution with this activated carbon was carried out using an experimental design taking 4 factors into account. These were adsorbent dose, contact time, pH and initial COD concentration, with removal of COD and colour as response variables. COD reduction was ...

  6. Non-destructive Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Jin Hyeon; Ryu, Taek In; Ko, Jun Bin; Hwang, Yong Hwa

    2006-08-01

    This book gives descriptions of non-destructive engineering on outline of non-destructive test, weld defects, radiographic inspection radiography, ultrasonic inspection, magnetic particle testing, liquid penetrant testing, eddy current inspection method, strain measurement, acoustic emission inspection method, other non-destructive testing like leakage inspection method, and non-destructive mechanics for fault analysis such as Griffiths creaking theory, and stress analysis of creaking.

  7. Walking the cod: an investigation into the relative robustness of cod, Gadus morhua, skeletal elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K.G. Jones

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple experiment is described which details what happens to the bones of cod when they are walked on by a man. The pattern of fragmentation for various elements is illustrated and an index of robustness proposed for those elements in a cod skeleton most frequently recovered from archaeological sites.

  8. Geologic history of Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1976-01-01

    Cape Cod, a sandy peninsula built mostly during the Ice Age, juts into the Atlantic Ocean like a crooked arm. Because of its exposed location, Cape Cod was visited by many early explorers. Although clear-cut evidence is lacking, the Vikings may have sighted this land about 1,000 years ago. It was visited by Samuel de Champlain in 1605, and his detailed descriptions and charts have helped present-day scientists to determine the rate of growth of Nauset Beach marsh and Nauset spit. Bartholomew Gosnold, a lesser known explorer, settled for a short time on the Elizabeth Islands to the southwest and gave Cape Cod its name in 1602. The Pilgrims first landed in America on the tip of Lower Cape Cod after they were turned back from their more southerly destination by shoals between Cape Cod and Nantucket Island. On Cape Cod they found potable water and food and had their first fight with the natives. The Pilgrims, however, decided that this land was too isolated, too exposed, and too sandy to support them, and they sailed across Cape Cod Bay to establish Plymouth. These features remain today. Small villages are separated by large areas of forest, dune, beach, and marsh. This unspoiled natural beauty makes Cape Cod one of the most favored vacation areas for the people living in the thickly settled Northeastern States. Cape Cod is of particular interest to geologists because it was formed by glaciers very recently in terms of geologic time. During the Great Ice Age, (the Pleistocene Epoch which began 2 to 3 million years ago), glaciers advanced from the north into the temperate regions of the Earth. Glacial ice covered the land at least four times. Each advance was accompanied by a worldwide lowering of sea level because the source of the ice was water from the seas. When the glaciers melted, the climate and sea level were probably much like they are today. In fact, some scientists believe that the Earth is presently between glacial episodes and that ice once again will

  9. Removal of COD and color loads in bleached kraft pulp effluents by bottom ashes from boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tran, A

    2008-07-01

    The effectiveness of the bottom ashes from biomass and coal-fired boilers in removing chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colorloads in effluents of a kraft pulp bleachery plant is investigated. The effluents tested are those of the sulfuric acid treatment (A stage) of a hardwood kraft pulp, and of the first acidic (chlorine or chlorine dioxide) and second alkaline (extraction) stages in the chlorine and elemental chlorine-free (ECF) bleaching lines of hardwood and softwood kraft pulps. The coal-fired boiler's bottom ashes are unable to remove either COD or color load in the bleached kraft pulp effluents. However, the bottom ashes of the biomass boiler are effective in removing COD and color loads of the acidic and alkaline effluents irrespective of the bleaching process or wood species. In particular, these ashes increase the pH of all the effluents examined.

  10. Sensory characteristics of different cod products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Hyldig, Grethe

    2010-01-01

    atmosphere) were evaluated with quantitative descriptive analysis by a trained sensory panel. Signal-to-noise analysis, p*MSE (discrimination and repeatability) and line plots proved to be very useful in studying panelists' performance. Most sensory attributes described significant differences between...... the products, and principal component analysis provided an overview of the differences and similarities between the products with regard to sensory characteristics. Farmed cod had different sensory characteristics compared with wild cod, such as more meat flavor, and rubbery and meaty texture. Different...... storage methods had minor influence on sensory characteristics of cod fillets after short storage time, but after extended storage, the groups were different with regard to most attributes. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This paper presents different ways of analyzing sensory data. The process of analysis...

  11. 137CS in cod from Barents sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellermann, H.-J.; Kanisch, G.; Krueger, A.

    2003-01-01

    After publication of the Yablovkov report about dumping of radioactive waste by the former Soviet Union the Institute for Fishery Ecology has analysed fish from Barents Sea for radioactivity. In all studies 137 Cs concentrations in cod fillet showed a clear dependance from fish length. Results from an analysis of covariance for cod of 70 cm length have minor changes within Barents Sea and indicate a rapid decay to a value as is expected for marine fish which is only influenced by global fallout. (orig.)

  12. Occurrence of anisakid nematodes in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and Greenland cod (Gadus ogac), West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Kim N.; Hedeholm, Rasmus; Schack, Henriette B.

    2010-01-01

    Anisakid nematodes commonly infect gadids, and are of economic and aesthetic importance to the commercial fishing industry in Greenland as some species are pathogenic to humans. However, very little is known about the occurrence of these parasites and their impact on the hosts in Greenland waters....... During a survey in 2005, stomach sample of 227 Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and 64 Greenland cod (Gadus ogac) was collected in Godthaab and Sisimiut fiord systems in West Greenland waters. All cod were dissected for stomach contents and anisakid nematodes were removed from the visceral cavity. Third stage...... nematode species regarding prevalence of infection and mean infection intensity was evident, and there was no relationship between fish condition and the intensity of nematode infections. Standardised for size, capelin-eating cod were in better condition and more heavily infected than fish subsisting...

  13. Destructiveness in Political Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Яна Александровна Волкова

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Destructiveness is among the fundamental discourse categories that play a significant role in the organization of communicative interaction and define the pragmatics of discourse; its study helps to understand some mechanisms and principles of communication, identify strategies and tactics used by a destructive communicative personality. The relevance of this study is determined by the increasing aggressiveness in various types of discourse, and, accordingly, by the need to extend the knowledge of destructive behavior of a communicative personality. The study is based on the theory of discourse-analysis and theory of destructiveness (Z. Harris, T. van Dijk, A. Buss, E. Fromm, D. Ponton, K. Hacker, R. Wodak. N. Arutyunova, V. Karasik, M. Makarov, E. Sheigal et al. Developing the theory of destructiveness and relying on Erich Fromm’s research (1973, we specify the concept of “destructiveness” in relation to the political discourse and compare it with the related concept of aggressiveness. The paper analyses the category of destructiveness in modern US political discourse, using excerpts from the speeches of the candidates for presidency of 2016. Particular attention is paid to the dominant destructive intention - to harm the reputation of the opponent and reduce his political chances, as well as to the functions of verbal aggression: on the one hand - to discredit the opponent, bring accusations, on the other hand - to poison the audience mind against him/her and arouse the feeling of danger posed by a political opponent. The analysis of verbal and nonverbal means of destructiveness in the US political discourse is carried out. The article concludes that abusive remarks of politicians do not result from spontaneous emotional outburst, but from an elaborated destructive strategy where the agonistic nature of political discourse stipulates the use of instrumental aggression (Buss, 1971 for the sake of the conquest of power, lowering the

  14. Explaining the catch efficiency of different cod pots using underwater video to observe cod entry and exit behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedgärde, Maria; Berg, Casper Willestofte; Kindt-Larsen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Cod pots are considered seal-safe fishing gear and are proposed as a solution to mitigate the ongoing seal-fisheries conflict in the Baltic Sea. This study examined various factors which could affect the entry and exit behaviour of cod in relation to cod pots. Statistical modelling was used...

  15. Selective haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) trawling: Avoiding cod (Gadus morhua) bycatch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Holst, René; Madsen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The critical condition of the North Sea cod stocks has resulted in restrictions on not only cod, but also haddock and other species that are caught together with cod. Thus full exploitation of the haddock stock is unachievable unless cod can be excluded from the haddock catch. We designed a selec...... dependent: smaller cod escaped the trawl in greater numbers than did larger individuals. Whiting, saithe. lemon sole, and plaice were included in the analysis. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  16. Restricted fish feeding reduces cod otolith opacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, H.; Folkvord, A.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to examine the effect of reduced feeding and constant temperature on cod otolith opacity. Three groups of juvenile cod were given restricted food rations at different times for 4 months, resulting in depressed somatic growth. Otolith opacity was measured on pictures...... in otolith opacity were found between individual fish both within groups and between groups. In two of the three groups significantly more translucent otolith material was deposited in response to reduced feeding. Our results show that variations in feeding and hence fish growth resulted in variation...... in otolith opacity, but the effect was minor compared to that of variations in ambient temperature. The combined influence of these effects, which both act on fish metabolism, are most likely controlling the seasonal opacity changes observed in wild fish. Our results help explain the variations seen in fish...

  17. Effects of COD/N ratio on soluble microbial products in effluent from sequencing batch reactors and subsequent membrane fouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Quang Viet; Nghiem, Long D; Sibag, Mark; Maqbool, Tahir; Hur, Jin

    2018-05-01

    The relative ratios of chemical oxygen demand (COD) to nitrogen (N) in wastewater are known to have profound effects on the characteristics of soluble microbial products (SMP) from activated sludge. In this study, the changes in the SMP characteristics upon different COD/N ratios and the subsequent effects on ultrafiltration (UF) membrane fouling potentials were examined in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) using excitation emission matrix-parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Three unique fluorescent components were identified from the SMP samples in the bioreactors operated at the COD/N ratios of 100/10 (N rich), 100/5 (N medium), and 100/2 (N deficient). The tryptophan-like component (C1) was the most depleted at the N medium condition. Fulvic-like (C2) and humic-like (C3) components were more abundant with N rich wastewater. Greater abundances of large size biopolymer (BP) and low molecular weight neutrals (LMWN) were found under the N deficient and N rich conditions, respectively. SMPs from various COD/N exhibited a greater degree on membrane fouling following the order of 100/2 > 100/10 > 100/5. C1 and C2 had close associations with reversible and irreversible fouling, respectively, while the reversible fouling potential of C3 depended on the COD/N ratios. No significant impact of COD/N ratio was observed on the relative contributions of SMP size fractions to either reversible or irreversible fouling potential. However, the COD/N ratios likely altered the BP foulants' composition with greater contribution of proteinaceous substances to reversible fouling under the N deficient condition than at other N richer conditions. The opposite trend was observed for irreversible fouling. Our results provided further insight into changes in different SMP constitutes and their membrane fouling in response to microbial activities under different COD/N ratios. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Northeast arctic cod stock and fishery dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Bulatov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Northeast arctic cod stock is one of a most valuable target of fisheries in the Barents Sea. The catches of cod for the period 1960-2014 are widely changed. The minimum level of catches is marked in 1990 (212 thousands ton, and the maximum values of catches were observed in 1969 – 1.2 mill. ton. In the recent years international catch of cod exceeded 1 mill. ton. Fishable and spawning stock biomass (SSB also widely changed in this period. According to ICES data, SSB had a minimum in 1965 (102 thousand tons, and extremely high level in 2013 – 2 150 thousand tons. Fishable biomass changed also widely. The maximum level is registered in 2013 – 3 636 thousand tons, and minimum value was 5 times less, 739 thousand tons (1983. The ratio between historical high level of SSB and catch in 2013 was 2.2:1.0, due to low value of fishing mortality. Possibility to increase catch will be discussed.

  19. Improvement of COD and color removal from UASB treated poultry manure wastewater using Fenton's oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Sakar, Suleyman

    2008-01-01

    The applicability of Fenton's oxidation as an advanced treatment for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal from anaerobically treated poultry manure wastewater was investigated. The raw poultry manure wastewater, having a pH of 7.30 (±0.2) and a total COD of 12,100 (±910) mg/L was first treated in a 15.7 L of pilot-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB reactor was operated for 72 days at mesophilic conditions (32 ± 2 deg. C) in a temperature-controlled environment with three different hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 15.7, 12 and 8.0 days, and with organic loading rates (OLR) between 0.650 and 1.783 kg COD/(m 3 day). Under 8.0 days of HRT, the UASB process showed a remarkable performance on total COD removal with a treatment efficiency of 90.7% at the day of 63. The anaerobically treated poultry manure wastewater was further treated by Fenton's oxidation process using Fe 2+ and H 2 O 2 solutions. Batch tests were conducted on the UASB effluent samples to determine the optimum operating conditions including initial pH, effects of H 2 O 2 and Fe 2+ dosages, and the ratio of H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ . Preliminary tests conducted with the dosages of 100 mg Fe 2+ /L and 200 mg H 2 O 2 /L showed that optimal initial pH was 3.0 for both COD and color removal from the UASB effluent. On the basis of preliminary test results, effects of increasing dosages of Fe 2+ and H 2 O 2 were investigated. Under the condition of 400 mg Fe 2+ /L and 200 mg H 2 O 2 /L, removal efficiencies of residual COD and color were 88.7% and 80.9%, respectively. Under the subsequent condition of 100 mg Fe 2+ /L and 1200 mg H 2 O 2 /L, 95% of residual COD and 95.7% of residual color were removed from the UASB effluent. Results of this experimental study obviously indicated that nearly 99.3% of COD of raw poultry manure wastewater could be effectively removed by a UASB process followed by Fenton's oxidation technology used as a post-treatment unit

  20. Improvement of COD and color removal from UASB treated poultry manure wastewater using Fenton's oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Sakar, Suleyman

    2008-03-01

    The applicability of Fenton's oxidation as an advanced treatment for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal from anaerobically treated poultry manure wastewater was investigated. The raw poultry manure wastewater, having a pH of 7.30 (+/-0.2) and a total COD of 12,100 (+/-910) mg/L was first treated in a 15.7 L of pilot-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB reactor was operated for 72 days at mesophilic conditions (32+/-2 degrees C) in a temperature-controlled environment with three different hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 15.7, 12 and 8.0 days, and with organic loading rates (OLR) between 0.650 and 1.783 kg COD/(m3day). Under 8.0 days of HRT, the UASB process showed a remarkable performance on total COD removal with a treatment efficiency of 90.7% at the day of 63. The anaerobically treated poultry manure wastewater was further treated by Fenton's oxidation process using Fe2+ and H2O2 solutions. Batch tests were conducted on the UASB effluent samples to determine the optimum operating conditions including initial pH, effects of H2O2 and Fe2+ dosages, and the ratio of H2O2/Fe2+. Preliminary tests conducted with the dosages of 100 mg Fe2+/L and 200 mg H2O2/L showed that optimal initial pH was 3.0 for both COD and color removal from the UASB effluent. On the basis of preliminary test results, effects of increasing dosages of Fe2+ and H2O2 were investigated. Under the condition of 400 mg Fe2+/L and 200 mg H2O2/L, removal efficiencies of residual COD and color were 88.7% and 80.9%, respectively. Under the subsequent condition of 100 mg Fe2+/L and 1200 mg H2O2/L, 95% of residual COD and 95.7% of residual color were removed from the UASB effluent. Results of this experimental study obviously indicated that nearly 99.3% of COD of raw poultry manure wastewater could be effectively removed by a UASB process followed by Fenton's oxidation technology used as a post-treatment unit.

  1. Nitrogen and COD removal from domestic and synthetic wastewater in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, R S; Grismer, M E

    2013-09-01

    Comparisons of the performance of constructed-wetland systems (CWs) for treating domestic wastewater in the laboratory and field may use pathogen-free synthetic wastewater to avoid regulatory health concerns. However, little to no data are available describing the relative treatment efficiencies of CWs to both actual and synthetic domestic wastewaters so as to enable such comparison. To fill this gap, treatment performances with respect to organics (chemical organic demand; COD) and nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) removal from domestic (septic tank) and a similar-strength synthetic wastewater under planted and non-planted subsurface-flow CWs are determined. One pair of CWs was planted with cattails in May 2008, whereas the adjacent system was non-planted. Collected septic tank or synthesized wastewater was allowed to gravity feed each CWs, and effluent samples were collected and tested for COD and nitrogen species regularly during four different periods over six months. Overall, statistically significant greater removal of COD (-12%) and nitrogen (-5%) occurred from the synthetic as compared with the domestic wastewater from the planted and non-planted CWs. Effluent BOD5/COD ratios from the synthetic wastewater CWs averaged nearly twice that from the domestic wastewater CWs (0.17 vs 0.10), reflecting greater concentrations of readily degraded compounds. That removal fractions were consistent across the mid-range loading rates to the CWs suggests that the synthetic wastewater can be used in testing laboratory CWs with reasonable success in application of their results to the field.

  2. Dose of Biocoagulant-Mixing Rate Combinations for Optimum Reduction of COD in Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia, Maria Faustina; Purwono; Budihardjo, Mochamad Arief

    2018-02-01

    Chemical oxygen demand (COD) in domestic wastewater can be treated using flocculation-coagulation process with addition of Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in powder form as biocoagulant. The fungal cell wall of Oyster mushroom comprises of chitin that is high polyelectrolyte and can be function as an absorbent of heavy metals in wastewater. The effectiveness of flocculation-coagulation process in treating wastewater depends on dose of coagulant and mixing rate. Therefore, this study aims to determine the best combination of three variation of dose of biocoagulant which are 600 mg/l, 1000 mg/l, and 2000 mg/l and mixing rate which are 100 rpm, 125 rpm, and 150 rpm that give the most reduction of COD in the wastewater. The result indicates that the combination of 1000 mg/l of biocoagulant and 100 rpm of mixing rate were found to be the most optimum combination to treat COD in the wastewater with COD reduction of 47.7%.

  3. Dose of Biocoagulant-Mixing Rate Combinations for Optimum Reduction of COD in Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustina Patricia Maria

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical oxygen demand (COD in domestic wastewater can be treated using flocculation-coagulation process with addition of Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus in powder form as biocoagulant. The fungal cell wall of Oyster mushroom comprises of chitin that is high polyelectrolyte and can be function as an absorbent of heavy metals in wastewater. The effectiveness of flocculation-coagulation process in treating wastewater depends on dose of coagulant and mixing rate. Therefore, this study aims to determine the best combination of three variation of dose of biocoagulant which are 600 mg/l, 1000 mg/l, and 2000 mg/l and mixing rate which are 100 rpm, 125 rpm, and 150 rpm that give the most reduction of COD in the wastewater. The result indicates that the combination of 1000 mg/l of biocoagulant and 100 rpm of mixing rate were found to be the most optimum combination to treat COD in the wastewater with COD reduction of 47.7%.

  4. Simultaneous removal of AOX and COD from real recycled paper wastewater using GAC-SBBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Wan Hasnidah Wan; Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah Sheikh; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Rahman, Rakmi Abd

    2013-05-30

    A lab-scale granular activated carbon sequencing batch biofilm reactor (GAC-SBBR), a combined adsorption and biological process, was developed to treat real wastewater from a recycled paper mill. In this study, one-consortia of mixed culture (4000-5000 mg/L) originating from recycled paper mill activated sludge from Kajang, Malaysia was acclimatized. The GAC-SBBR was fed with real wastewater taken from the same recycled paper mill, which had a high concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and adsorbable organic halides (AOX). The operational duration of the GAC-SBBR was adjusted from 48 h to 24, 12 and finally 8 h to evaluate the effect of the hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the simultaneous removal of COD and AOX. The COD and AOX removals were in the range of 53-92% and 26-99%, respectively. From this study, it was observed that the longest HRT (48 h) yielded a high removal of COD and AOX, at 92% and 99%, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Particulate COD balance of particulate cod in eletrocuagulation/flotation reactor treating tannery effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Babora Borri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mass balance or particulate organic matter was studied in terms of COD, by means of electrocoagulation/flotation (ECF reactor treating tannery effluent. Reactor was operated in fill and draw (batch mode. Operating in hydraulic residence time of 65 minutes, ECF reactor reached 55 % COD removal. Although volatile solids were also removed from liquid phase (removal of 40%, fixed solids concentration, and hence total solids concentration, showed to be higher in withdrawn effluent than in ECF’s influent. This was assigned to NaCl added in order to enhance conductivity in wastewater.

  6. Electrochemical destruction of nitrosamines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lejen, T; Volchek, K; Ladanowski, C; Velicogna, D; Whittaker, H [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Engineering Div.

    1996-09-01

    Treatment conditions for the electrolytic destruction of nitrosamines were studied. The joint investigation between Canada and the Ukraine was part of an assessment of hazardous contaminants at former Soviet ICBM missile sites. The electrochemical destruction of N-dimethylnitrosamines (NDMA) on carbon/platinum electrodes was studied under basic and acidic conditions by UV spectroscopy, gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and colorimetry. Experiments with a 100 ppm NDMA solution showed that electrolytic-reduction was pH sensitive within a range of pH 0.5 to 4.0. Electrolysis was effective for the reduction of NDMA in strong acidic conditions. 30 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  7. Money Creation and Destruction

    OpenAIRE

    Faure, Salomon; Gersbach, Hans

    2017-01-01

    We study money creation and destruction in today’s monetary architecture and examine the impact of monetary policy and capital regulation in a general equilibrium setting. There are two types of money created and destructed: bank deposits, when banks grant loans to firms or to other banks and central bank money, when the central bank grants loans to private banks. We show that equilibria yield the first-best level of money creation and lending when prices are flexible, regardless of the monet...

  8. Fish stories: cod, oil and gas turn about to be hard to mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, W.

    2000-01-01

    In 1992 the Government of Canada gave the green light for the start of construction of the Hibernia oil platform; in the same year moratorium on cod fishing was declared. Hibernia ushered in a new era of growth in Atlantic Canada, the moratorium put an end to cod exports for a period of seven years. Environmental activist believe that the two events are not unrelated; after-effects of the Hibernia development played a role in reducing fish stocks and likely to inhibit their recovery. The environmental group 'Save our Seas and Shores' (SOSS) claims that seismic work and drilling are likely to interfere with the migration patterns of young cod, forcing them to spawn in areas that are not safe for egg maturity. According to SOSS, the future of cod fishing is in danger of destruction by further exploration and development in spawning nursery and migratory areas. The group is claiming support from a Nova Scotia government review of two marine ecosystems both of which were declared too delicate to withstand the effects of oil and gas activity. SOSS, supported by a coalition of fishery, native, environmental and tourism groups is determined to halt petroleum exploration along the western coast of Cape Breton Island. In the meantime, the Atlantic Petroleum Institute, first opened in Nova Scotia, and now in the process of expanding into Newfoundland, supported by industry and the Canada Atlantic Opportunities Council, has been assured of funding for a period of five years to develop education and training programs, organize forums for discussion, debate and problem solving, and coordinate research and development. The Institute hopes that SOSS will want to participate in finding solutions to the problems of fisheries that are acceptable to both petroleum and fishing industry interests

  9. Harvesting Atlantic Cod under Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremus, K. L.

    2016-12-01

    Previous literature links the growth of a fishery to climate variability. This study uses an age-structured bioeconomic model to compare optimal harvest in the Gulf of Maine Atlantic cod fishery under a variable climate versus a static climate. The optimal harvest path depends on the relationship between fishery growth and the interest rate, with higher interest rates dictating greater harvests now at the cost of long-term stock sustainability. Given the time horizon of a single generation of fishermen under assumptions of a static climate, the model finds that the economically optimal management strategy is to harvest the entire stock in the short term and allow the fishery to collapse. However, if the biological growth of the fishery is assumed to vary with climate conditions, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, there will always be pulses of high growth in the stock. During some of these high-growth years, the growth of the stock and its economic yield can exceed the growth rate of the economy even under high interest rates. This implies that it is not economically optimal to exhaust the New England cod fishery if NAO is included in the biological growth function. This finding may have theoretical implications for the management of other renewable yet exhaustible resources whose growth rates are subject to climate variability.

  10. Performance and Metabolic Demand of a New Repeated-Sprint Ability Test in Basketball Players: Does the Number of Changes of Direction Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagatto, Alessandro M; Ardigò, Luca P; Barbieri, Fabio A; Milioni, Fabio; Dello Iacono, Antonio; Camargo, Bruno H F; Padulo, Johnny

    2017-09-01

    Zagatto, AM, Ardigò, LP, Barbieri, FA, Milioni, F, Dello Iacono, A, Camargo, BHF, and Padulo, J. Performance and metabolic demand of a new repeated-sprint ability test in basketball players: does the number of changes of direction matter? J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2438-2446, 2017-This study compared 2 repeated-sprint ability (RSA) tests in basketball players. Both tests included 10 × 30-m sprints, with the difference that the previously validated test (RSA2COD) featured 2 changes of direction (COD) per sprint, whereas the experimental test (RSA5COD) featured 5 CODs per sprint. Test performances and metabolic demands were specifically assessed in 20 basketball players. First, RSA5COD test-retest reliability was investigated. Then, RSA2COD, RSA5COD sprint times, peak speeds, oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) and posttest blood lactate concentration [La] were measured. The RSA5COD results showed to be reliable. RSA2COD performance resulted better than the RSA5COD version (p 0.05). Over whole bout, the RSA2COD was more demanding than the RSA5COD, considering overall metabolic power requirement (i.e., VO2-driven + [La]-driven components). Given that RSA5COD (a) mimics real game-play as sprint distance and action change frequency/direction and (b) has the same metabolic expenditure per task completion as metabolic cost, RSA5COD is a valuable option for players and coaches for training basketball-specific agility and assessing bioenergetic demands.

  11. Comparison of COD removal from pharmaceutical wastewater by electrocoagulation, photoelectrocoagulation, peroxi-electrocoagulation and peroxi-photoelectrocoagulation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, Sajjad; Aminzadeh, Behnoush; Torabian, Ali; Khatibikamal, Vahid; Alizadeh Fard, Mohammad

    2012-06-15

    This work makes a comparison between electrocoagulation (EC), photoelectrocoagulation, peroxi-electrocoagulation and peroxi-photoelectrocoagulation processes to investigate the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from pharmaceutical wastewater. The effects of operational parameters such as initial pH, current density, applied voltage, amount of hydrogen peroxide and electrolysis time on COD removal efficiency were investigated and the optimum operating range for each of these operating variables was experimentally determined. In electrocoagulation process, the optimum values of pH and voltage were determined to be 7 and 40 V, respectively. Desired pH and hydrogen peroxide concentration in the Fenton-based processes were found to be 3 and 300 mg/L, respectively. The amounts of COD, pH, electrical conductivity, temperature and total dissolved solids (TDS) were on-line monitored. Results indicated that under the optimum operating range for each process, the COD removal efficiency was in order of peroxi-electrocoagulation > peroxi-photoelectrocoagulation > photoelectrocoagulation>electrocoagulation. Finally, a kinetic study was carried out using the linear pseudo-second-order model and results showed that the pseudo-second-order equation provided the best correlation for the COD removal rate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. CodY-Dependent Regulation of Sporulation in Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocki, Kathryn L; Edwards, Adrianne N; Daou, Nadine; Bouillaut, Laurent; McBride, Shonna M

    2016-08-01

    Clostridium difficile must form a spore to survive outside the gastrointestinal tract. The factors that trigger sporulation in C. difficile remain poorly understood. Previous studies have suggested that a link exists between nutritional status and sporulation initiation in C. difficile In this study, we investigated the impact of the global nutritional regulator CodY on sporulation in C. difficile strains from the historical 012 ribotype and the current epidemic 027 ribotype. Sporulation frequencies were increased in both backgrounds, demonstrating that CodY represses sporulation in C. difficile The 027 codY mutant exhibited a greater increase in spore formation than the 012 codY mutant. To determine the role of CodY in the observed sporulation phenotypes, we examined several factors that are known to influence sporulation in C. difficile Using transcriptional reporter fusions and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis, we found that two loci associated with the initiation of sporulation, opp and sinR, are regulated by CodY. The data demonstrate that CodY is a repressor of sporulation in C. difficile and that the impact of CodY on sporulation and expression of specific genes is significantly influenced by the strain background. These results suggest that the variability of CodY-dependent regulation is an important contributor to virulence and sporulation in current epidemic isolates. This report provides further evidence that nutritional state, virulence, and sporulation are linked in C. difficile This study sought to examine the relationship between nutrition and sporulation in C. difficile by examining the global nutritional regulator CodY. CodY is a known virulence and nutritional regulator of C. difficile, but its role in sporulation was unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CodY is a negative regulator of sporulation in two different ribotypes of C. difficile We also demonstrate that CodY regulates known effectors of sporulation, Opp and Sin

  13. Demand Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of uncertainty resolution found in productivity heterogeneity models....... This retooling addresses several shortcomings. First, the imperfect correlation of demands reconciles the sales variation observed in and across destinations. Second, since demands for the firm's output are correlated across destinations, a firm can use previously realized demands to forecast unknown demands...... in untested destinations. The option to forecast demands causes firms to delay exporting in order to gather more information about foreign demand. Third, since uncertainty is resolved after entry, many firms enter a destination and then exit after learning that they cannot profit. This prediction reconciles...

  14. Non-destructive controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouvet, A.

    1978-01-01

    The non-destructive controls permit, while respecting their integrity, the direct and individual examination of parts or complete objects as they are manufactured, as well as to follow the evolution of their eventual defects while in operation. The choice of control methods depends on the manufacturing process and shapes of parts, on the physical properties of their components as well as the nature, position and size of the defects which are likely to be detected. Whether it is a question of controls by means of ionizing radiation, flux of neutrons, ultrasons, acoustic source, sweating, magnetoscopy. Foucault currents, thermography, detection of leaks or non-destructive metallography, each has a limited field of application such that they are less competitive than complementary [fr

  15. Destructive distillation under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1932-09-08

    A process of destructive distillation of distillable carbonaceous material under pressure is described, consisting of regulating the temperature by introducing the carbonaceous materials to a point where the reaction of hydrogenation has begun but has not stopped, by placing it in indirect heat-exchange with a cooling agent at a critical temperature below the reaction temperature, the agent being under pressure and introduced in the liquid state. Water is used as the cooling agent.

  16. Quantifying predation on Baltic cod early life stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Schaber, Matthias; Eero, Margit

    2017-01-01

    Predation on cod (Gadus morhua) eggs by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus) is known to be one of the processes influencing reproductive success of the eastern Baltic cod and has been reported to have contributed to lack of recovery of the stock in the 1990s. This study quanti...

  17. Monitoring cod catches of the Dutch demersal fleet in 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hal, van R.; Machiels, M.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    This report presents the results of the cod monitoring program 2016. The research was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs within the EZ-program Beleidsondersteunend Onderzoek. Cod catches of the vessels in the fleet segments BT2 (beam trawl and pulse trawl) and TR (otter trawls

  18. Modelling axisymmetric cod-ends made of different mesh types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priour, D.; Herrmann, Bent; O'Neill, F.G.

    2009-01-01

    the selectivity process has become more important. This paper presents a model of the deformation of an axisymmetric cod-end. The twine tension and the catch pressure acting on the knots of each mesh along the cod-end profile are calculated, and a Newton-Raphson scheme is used to estimate the equilibrium position...

  19. Rationale for restocking the Eastern Baltic cod stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Overton, Julia Lynne; Paulsen, Helge

    2008-01-01

    The Danish Institute for Fisheries Research and Bornholm's Salmon Hatchery examined the potential for restocking Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) in the eastern Baltic Sea. This cod population has adapted to the unique brackish water conditions where successful spawning depends on regular i...

  20. Distribution of water in fresh cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Møller; Rinnan, A.

    2002-01-01

    Low-field (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) transverse relaxation was used to measure water mobility and distribution of water in fresh cod fillets. The NMR relaxations were analysed with the so-called SLICING method giving uni-exponential profiles from which the transverse relaxation time (T(2......)-values) and the relative sizes of the water populations were calculated. Two water populations with the T(2)-values of 50 and 94 ms were obtained. The shortest relaxation time was primarily found near the head, and water with the longest relaxation time was primarily found near the tail. This variation...... can he explained by the smaller muscle cells and muscle fibers in the tail, which may influence the distributions of water into the different pools. The amount of one of the water populations was correlated to the overall water content with a correlation coefficient of -0.94. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science...

  1. The eastern Baltic cod fishery: a fleet-based management strategy evaluation framework to assess the cod recovery plan of 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastardie, Francois; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Kraus, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    The eastern Baltic cod fishery: a fleet-based management strategy evaluation framework to assess the cod recovery plan of 2008. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67: 71-86.......The eastern Baltic cod fishery: a fleet-based management strategy evaluation framework to assess the cod recovery plan of 2008. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67: 71-86....

  2. Selection of hydrothermal pre-treatment conditions of waste sludge destruction using multicriteria decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shiekh Khalil, Wael; Shanableh, Abdullah; Rigby, Portia; Kokot, Serge

    2005-04-01

    The effectiveness of hydrothermal treatment for the destruction of the organic content of sludge waste was investigated. The sludge sampled in this study contained approximately 2% solids. The experimental program consisted of hydrothermal treatment experiments conducted in a batch reactor at temperatures between 100 and 250 degrees C, with the addition of an oxidant (hydrogen peroxide) in the range of 0-150% with reference to TCOD, and reaction times of up to 60 min. The results suggested that the availability of oxidant, reaction temperature and reaction time were the determining factors for COD removal. A significant fraction of the COD remaining after treatment consisted of the dissolved COD. The results confirmed that hydrothermal treatment proceeds through hydrolysis resulting in the production of dissolved organic products followed by COD removal through oxidation. Two MCDM chemometrics methods, PROMETHEE and GAIA, were applied to process the large data matrix so as to facilitate the selection of the most suitable hydrothermal conditions for sludge destruction. Two possible scenarios were produced from this analysis-one depended on the use of high temperatures and no oxidant, while the second offered a choice of compromise solutions at lower temperatures but with the use of at least some oxidant. Thus, for the final choice of operating conditions, the decision maker needs local knowledge of the costs and available infrastructure. In principle, such information could be added as further criteria to the data matrix and new rankings obtained.

  3. Optimizing TOC and COD removal for the biodiesel wastewater by electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanattı, N. Pınar; Şengil, İ. Ayhan; Özdemir, Abdil

    2018-05-01

    In this study, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the total organic carbon content (TOC) in biodiesel wastewater iron and aluminum electrodes arranged in a bipolar position. In the EC of the biodiesel wastewater, the effects of the supporting electrolyte, initial pH, electrolysis time and current density were examined. The results showed that the majority of the pollutants in the biodiesel wastewater were effectively removed when the iron or aluminum electrodes were used as a sacrificial anode. The highest COD and TOC removal efficiencies were successfully obtained with the iron electrode. COD removal efficiencies are 91.74 and 90.94% for iron and aluminum electrode, respectively. In the same way, TOC removal efficiencies were obtained as 91.79 and 91.98% for the iron and aluminum electrodes, respectively, at initial pH of 6, the current density of 0.3226 mA/cm2, NaCl concentration 1 g/L and 1 min of operating time.

  4. Improving bioelectricity generation and COD removal of sewage sludge in microbial desalination cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Atieh; Yousefi Kebria, Daryoush; Darzi, Ghasem Najafpour

    2018-05-01

    Improving wastewater treatment process and water desalination are two important solutions for increasing the available supply of fresh water. Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) with common electrolytes display relatively low organic matter removal and high cost. In this study, sewage sludge was used as the substrate in the Microbial desalination cell (MDC) under three different initial salt concentrations (5, 20 and 35 g.L -1 ) and the maximum salt removal rates of 50.6%, 64% and 69.6% were obtained under batch condition, respectively. The MDC also produced the maximum power density of 47.1 W m -3 and the averaged chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 58.2 ± 0.89% when the initial COD was 6610 ± 83 mg L -1 . Employing treated sludge as catholyte enhanced COD removal and power density to 87.3% and 54.4 W m -3 , respectively, with counterbalancing pH variation in treated effluent. These promising results showed, for the first time, that the excess sewage sludge obtained from biological wastewater treatment plants could be successfully used as anolyte and catholyte in MDC, achieving organic matter biodegradation along with salt removal and energy production. In addition, using treated sludge as catholyte will improve the performance of MDC and introduce a more effective method for both sludge treatment and desalination.

  5. Low temperature destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-07-05

    A process is given and apparatus is described for the destructive distillation at low temperature of coal, oil shale, and the like by subjection to the action of a stream of hot gases or superhearted steam, flowing in a closed circuit. Subsequent treatment of the distillation residues with a gas stream containing oxygen results in combustion of the carbon-containing material therein brings to a high temperature the solid residue, in which the process comprises subsequently contacting the hot solid residue with the fluid stream effecting the distillation.

  6. Reducing COD level on oily effluent by utilizing biosurfactant-producing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Franco Carvalho Jacobucci

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Two bacteria isolated from crude oil contaminated soil, Pantoea agglomerans and Planococcus citreus, produced biosurfactants utilizing 1.5% of kerosene and olive oil as the sole carbon sources, respectively. The bacteria and the biosurfactants produced were introduced to oily effluent, arising from margarine and soap industry. Emulsification activities were determined by increases in the absorbance of the oil-in-water emulsions at 610 nm, whereas the water-in-oil emulsions were expressed as the height (cm of the emulsion layers formed. The 72 h incubation experiment resulted in a COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand reduction of 76% with Planococcus citreus strain and 70% with Pantoea agglomerans.The COD reduction with bacterial biosurfactants was over 50% in 24 h of incubation. The COD reduction showed that these strains and the surfactants produced could be used in bioremediation processes.Duas bactérias isoladas de solo contaminado com derivados de petróleo, Pantoea agglomerans e Planococcus citreus, produzem biosurfactantes utilizando respectivamente 1.5% de querosene e óleo de oliva como únicas fontes de carbono. As bactérias e os biosurfactantes produzidos foram adicionados a um efluente oleoso obtido de uma indústria nacional de sabão e margarina. As atividades de emulsificação foram determinadas pelo aumento da absorbância das emulsões óleo em água a 610 nm, enquanto que as emulsões do tipo água em óleo foram expressas em centímetros, pela altura do halo de espumas formado. A redução da demanda química de oxigênio (COD mostra que as linhagens e os biosurfactantes produzidos podem ser utilizados em processos de biorremediação.

  7. Comparison of COD removal from pharmaceutical wastewater by electrocoagulation, photoelectrocoagulation, peroxi-electrocoagulation and peroxi-photoelectrocoagulation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhadi, Sajjad; Aminzadeh, Behnoush; Torabian, Ali; Khatibikamal, Vahid; Alizadeh Fard, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hydrogen peroxide improves the performance of electrocoagulation process. ► UV light can be effective on the performance on peroxi-electrocoagulation and electrocoagulation processes. ► The optimal amount of hydrogen peroxide for peroxi-electrocoagulation process for COD removal from pharmaceutical wastewater is 300 mg/L. ► The optimal values of pH for electrocoagulation and peroxi-electrocoagulation are 7 and 3, respectively. - Abstract: This work makes a comparison between electrocoagulation (EC), photoelectrocoagulation, peroxi-electrocoagulation and peroxi-photoelectrocoagulation processes to investigate the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from pharmaceutical wastewater. The effects of operational parameters such as initial pH, current density, applied voltage, amount of hydrogen peroxide and electrolysis time on COD removal efficiency were investigated and the optimum operating range for each of these operating variables was experimentally determined. In electrocoagulation process, the optimum values of pH and voltage were determined to be 7 and 40 V, respectively. Desired pH and hydrogen peroxide concentration in the Fenton-based processes were found to be 3 and 300 mg/L, respectively. The amounts of COD, pH, electrical conductivity, temperature and total dissolved solids (TDS) were on-line monitored. Results indicated that under the optimum operating range for each process, the COD removal efficiency was in order of peroxi-electrocoagulation > peroxi-photoelectrocoagulation > photoelectrocoagulation > electrocoagulation. Finally, a kinetic study was carried out using the linear pseudo-second-order model and results showed that the pseudo-second-order equation provided the best correlation for the COD removal rate.

  8. Comparison of COD removal from pharmaceutical wastewater by electrocoagulation, photoelectrocoagulation, peroxi-electrocoagulation and peroxi-photoelectrocoagulation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhadi, Sajjad, E-mail: sajjadfarhadi@ut.ac.ir [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aminzadeh, Behnoush, E-mail: bamin@ut.ac.ir [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Torabian, Ali, E-mail: atorabi@ut.ac.ir [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khatibikamal, Vahid, E-mail: vahidkhatibi@ut.ac.ir [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alizadeh Fard, Mohammad, E-mail: malizadeh1987@ut.ac.ir [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen peroxide improves the performance of electrocoagulation process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV light can be effective on the performance on peroxi-electrocoagulation and electrocoagulation processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimal amount of hydrogen peroxide for peroxi-electrocoagulation process for COD removal from pharmaceutical wastewater is 300 mg/L. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimal values of pH for electrocoagulation and peroxi-electrocoagulation are 7 and 3, respectively. - Abstract: This work makes a comparison between electrocoagulation (EC), photoelectrocoagulation, peroxi-electrocoagulation and peroxi-photoelectrocoagulation processes to investigate the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from pharmaceutical wastewater. The effects of operational parameters such as initial pH, current density, applied voltage, amount of hydrogen peroxide and electrolysis time on COD removal efficiency were investigated and the optimum operating range for each of these operating variables was experimentally determined. In electrocoagulation process, the optimum values of pH and voltage were determined to be 7 and 40 V, respectively. Desired pH and hydrogen peroxide concentration in the Fenton-based processes were found to be 3 and 300 mg/L, respectively. The amounts of COD, pH, electrical conductivity, temperature and total dissolved solids (TDS) were on-line monitored. Results indicated that under the optimum operating range for each process, the COD removal efficiency was in order of peroxi-electrocoagulation > peroxi-photoelectrocoagulation > photoelectrocoagulation > electrocoagulation. Finally, a kinetic study was carried out using the linear pseudo-second-order model and results showed that the pseudo-second-order equation provided the best correlation for the COD removal rate.

  9. A novel and quick method to avoid H2O2 interference on COD measurement in Fenton system by Na2SO3 reduction and O2 oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yong; Li, Weiguang; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide interference on chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurement has been a big problem in the application of the Fenton process. However, there is no simple and effective method available to address this problem, although several methods have been reported in the literature. In this st......Hydrogen peroxide interference on chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurement has been a big problem in the application of the Fenton process. However, there is no simple and effective method available to address this problem, although several methods have been reported in the literature...... to be effective in the matrix of Fenton treating real landfill leachate. Meanwhile, the procedure for this method in other applications was proposed in detail. To the best of our knowledge, this newly developed method is the most simple and effective way to avoid H2O2 interference on COD analysis....

  10. Evaluate the interactive and reusable service in adaptive on demand applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang , Chyi-Wen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the researcher based on the open platforms and tools for personalized learning idea, with the “ Interactive & reusable” function in UI design model, directly dealing with Knowledge on demand (KOD) service from the aspect-oriented and object-oriented issue. Moreover, to propose the KOD combine with VOD (Video on Demand); AOD (Audio on Demand); COD (Course on Demand) and IOD (Information on Demand in Global index searching) in diversity of hypermedia metadata.

  11. Structure of chymotrypsin variant B from Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Asgeirsson, B; Thórólfsson, M

    1996-01-01

    The amino-acid sequence of chymotrypsin variant B isolated from the pyloric caeca of Atlantic cod has been elucidated. The characterization of the primary structure is based on N-terminal Edman degradation and mass spectrometry of the native protein and enzymatically derived peptides. Chymotrypsi...... autolysis sites, cod variant B only contains a single autolysis site. The three-dimensional structures of the A- and B-variants of cod has been modelled on the known crystal structure of bovine alpha-chymotrypsin showing almost superimposable structures....

  12. "XANSONS for COD": a new small BOINC project in crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neverov, Vladislav S.; Khrapov, Nikolay P.

    2018-04-01

    "XANSONS for COD" (http://xansons4cod.com) is a new BOINC project aimed at creating the open-access database of simulated x-ray and neutron powder diffraction patterns for nanocrystalline phase of materials from the collection of the Crystallography Open Database (COD). The project uses original open-source software XaNSoNS to simulate diffraction patterns on CPU and GPU. This paper describes the scientific problem this project solves, the project's internal structure, its operation principles and organization of the final database.

  13. The COD Model: Simulating Workgroup Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggiero, Lucio; Sevi, Enrico

    Though the question of the determinants of workgroup performance is one of the most central in organization science, precise theoretical frameworks and formal demonstrations are still missing. In order to fill in this gap the COD agent-based simulation model is here presented and used to study the effects of task interdependence and bounded rationality on workgroup performance. The first relevant finding is an algorithmic demonstration of the ordering of interdependencies in terms of complexity, showing that the parallel mode is the most simplex, followed by the sequential and then by the reciprocal. This result is far from being new in organization science, but what is remarkable is that now it has the strength of an algorithmic demonstration instead of being based on the authoritativeness of some scholar or on some episodic empirical finding. The second important result is that the progressive introduction of realistic limits to agents' rationality dramatically reduces workgroup performance and addresses to a rather interesting result: when agents' rationality is severely bounded simple norms work better than complex norms. The third main finding is that when the complexity of interdependence is high, then the appropriate coordination mechanism is agents' direct and active collaboration, which means teamwork.

  14. Alkali cyanides; destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clancy, J C

    1925-12-02

    The destructive distillation of carbonaceous substances can be accomplished by heating them in a bath of molten alkali and cyanide. Liquid hydrocarbons are produced. The separation of the cyanide from the coke or carbonaceous residues by filtration leaves a substantial quantity of cyanide absorbed by the carbon. A feasible method for removal has been developed by mixing the mixture of cyanide and coke with sodium carbonate or other alkali in the molten state, then treating this substance with nitrogen with or without ammonia to convert most of the carbon to cyanide. The carbonaceous material may be mixed with a liquid hydrocarbon such as petroleum, shale oil, or heavy tar oil, heated, and introduced below the surface of the liquid cyanide which partially decomposes and hydrogenates the coal to increase the yield of hydrocarbons. Dry ammonia may be bubbled through the reaction mixture to effect agitation and to form more cyanide.

  15. Destructive distillation: oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J; Glover, S

    1918-01-31

    Canned and other coals are destructively distilled in continuously operated vertical retorts which at their upper portions are maintained at temperatures suitable for low temperature oil distillation such as about 700/sup 0/C, and at their lower portions the temperature is higher and such as to be suitable for the production of gas, e.g., about 1400/sup 0/C. Superheated steam is introduced into the lower portion of the retort, preferably by means of the arrangement described in Specification 120,458, and this is converted into blue water gas which assists the distillation in the center of the coal charge. The retorts are preferably such as are described in Specifications 2663/07 and 7757/14.

  16. COD correction for laser cooling at S-LSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souda, Hikaru; Fujimoto, Shinji; Tongu, Hiromu; Shirai, Toshiyuki; Tanabe, Mikio; Ishikawa, Takehiro; Nakao, Masao; Ikegami, Masahiro; Wakita, Akihisa; Iwata, Soma; Fujimoto, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Takeshi; Noda, Koji; Noda, Akira

    2008-01-01

    A closed orbit is corrected for single-turn injection to perform laser cooling experiments of 40 keV 24 Mg + beam at the small laser-equipped storage ring (S-LSR). Closed orbit distortion (COD) corrections have been carried out using a downhill simplex method, and CODs of less than ±0.5mm have been achieved throughout the whole circumference. The injection orbit and the CODs are optimized to pass through the two aperture holes in the alignment targets located in the laser cooling section with an algorithm to maximize beam lifetime. The CODs at the aperture holes are reduced to be less than ±0.2mm, assuring an overlap between the laser and the 24 Mg + ion beam.

  17. Improvement of COD and color removal from UASB treated poultry manure wastewater using Fenton's oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: yetilmez@yildiz.edu.tr; Sakar, Suleyman [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-03-01

    The applicability of Fenton's oxidation as an advanced treatment for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal from anaerobically treated poultry manure wastewater was investigated. The raw poultry manure wastewater, having a pH of 7.30 ({+-}0.2) and a total COD of 12,100 ({+-}910) mg/L was first treated in a 15.7 L of pilot-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB reactor was operated for 72 days at mesophilic conditions (32 {+-} 2 deg. C) in a temperature-controlled environment with three different hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 15.7, 12 and 8.0 days, and with organic loading rates (OLR) between 0.650 and 1.783 kg COD/(m{sup 3} day). Under 8.0 days of HRT, the UASB process showed a remarkable performance on total COD removal with a treatment efficiency of 90.7% at the day of 63. The anaerobically treated poultry manure wastewater was further treated by Fenton's oxidation process using Fe{sup 2+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solutions. Batch tests were conducted on the UASB effluent samples to determine the optimum operating conditions including initial pH, effects of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Fe{sup 2+} dosages, and the ratio of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+}. Preliminary tests conducted with the dosages of 100 mg Fe{sup 2+}/L and 200 mg H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/L showed that optimal initial pH was 3.0 for both COD and color removal from the UASB effluent. On the basis of preliminary test results, effects of increasing dosages of Fe{sup 2+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were investigated. Under the condition of 400 mg Fe{sup 2+}/L and 200 mg H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/L, removal efficiencies of residual COD and color were 88.7% and 80.9%, respectively. Under the subsequent condition of 100 mg Fe{sup 2+}/L and 1200 mg H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/L, 95% of residual COD and 95.7% of residual color were removed from the UASB effluent. Results of this experimental study obviously indicated that nearly 99.3% of COD of raw poultry manure wastewater could be effectively removed by a

  18. Performance of denitrifying microbial fuel cell subjected to variation in pH, COD concentration and external resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Tao; Zhang, Shao-Hui; Hua, Yu-Mei

    2013-01-01

    The effects of pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration and external resistance on denitrifying microbial fuel cell were evaluated in terms of electricity generation characteristics and pollutant removal performance. The results showed that anodic influent with weakly alkaline or neutral pH and cathodic influent with weakly acidic pH favored pollutant removal and electricity generation. The suitable influent pH of the anode and cathode were found to be 7.5-8.0 and 6.0-6.5, respectively. In the presence of sufficient nitrate in the cathode, higher influent COD concentration led to more electricity generation and greater pollutant removal rates. With an anodic influent pH of 8.0 and a cathodic influent pH of 6.0, an influent COD concentration of 400 mg/L was deemed to be appropriate. Low external resistance favored nitrate and COD removal. The results suggest that operation of denitrifying microbial fuel cell at a lower external resistance would be desirable for pollutant removal but not electricity generation.

  19. Controlling the COD removal of an A-stage pilot study with instrumentation and automatic process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark W; Elliott, Matt; DeArmond, Jon; Kinyua, Maureen; Wett, Bernhard; Murthy, Sudhir; Bott, Charles B

    2017-06-01

    The pursuit of fully autotrophic nitrogen removal via the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) pathway has led to an increased interest in carbon removal technologies, particularly the A-stage of the adsorption/bio-oxidation (A/B) process. The high-rate operation of the A-stage and lack of automatic process control often results in wide variations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal that can ultimately impact nitrogen removal in the downstream B-stage process. This study evaluated the use dissolved oxygen (DO) and mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) based automatic control strategies through the use of in situ on-line sensors in the A-stage of an A/B pilot study. The objective of using these control strategies was to reduce the variability of COD removal by the A-stage and thus the variability of the effluent C/N. The use of cascade DO control in the A-stage did not impact COD removal at the conditions tested in this study, likely because the bulk DO concentration (>0.5 mg/L) was maintained above the half saturation coefficient of heterotrophic organisms for DO. MLSS-based solids retention time (SRT) control, where MLSS was used as a surrogate for SRT, did not significantly reduce the effluent C/N variability but it was able to reduce COD removal variation in the A-stage by 90%.

  20. Implications of stock recovery for a neighbouring management unit: experience from the Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Hüssy, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Cod in the Baltic Sea is assessed and managed as two separate stocks, i.e. eastern and western Baltic cod. The eastern Baltic cod has recently started to recover after several decades of severe depletion. In the present study, we suggest that the recovery of the eastern Baltic cod population has ...

  1. Simulation-based investigation of the paired-gear method in cod-end selectivity studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Bent; Frandsen, Rikke; Holst, René

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the paired-gear and covered cod-end methods for estimating the selectivity of trawl cod-ends are compared. A modified version of the cod-end selectivity simulator PRESEMO is used to simulate the data that would be collected from a paired-gear experiment where the test cod-end also ...

  2. Use of COD, TOC, and Fluorescence Spectroscopy to Estimate BOD in Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Evelyn; Batista, Jacimaria R; Gerrity, Daniel

    2017-02-01

      Common to all National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits in the United States is a limit on biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), and fluorescence spectroscopy are also capable of quantifying organic content, although the mechanisms of quantification and the organic fractions targeted differ for each test. This study explores correlations between BOD5 and these alternate test procedures using facility influent, primary effluent, and facility effluent samples from a full-scale water resource recovery facility. Relative reductions of the water quality parameters proved to be strong indicators of their suitability as surrogates for BOD5. Suitable correlations were generally limited to the combined datasets for the three sampling locations or the facility effluent alone. COD exhibited relatively strong linear correlations with BOD5 when considering the three sample points (r = 0.985) and the facility effluent alone (r = 0.914), while TOC exhibited a suitable linear correlation with BOD5 in the facility effluent (r = 0.902). Exponential regressions proved to be useful for estimating BOD5 based on TOC or fluorescence (r > 0.95).

  3. PREDICTION OF BOD AND COD OF A REFINERY WASTEWATER USING MULTILAYER ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldon Raj Rene

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, artificial neural networks (ANNs have shown the ability to learn and capture non-linear static or dynamic behaviour among variables based on the given set of data. Since the knowledge of internal procedure is not necessary, the modelling can take place with minimum previous knowledge about the process through proper training of the network. In the present study, 12 ANN based models were proposed to predict the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5 and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD concentrations of wastewater generated from the effluent treatment plant of a petrochemical industry. By employing the standard back error propagation (BEP algorithm, the network was trained with 103 data points for water quality indices such as Total Suspended Solids (TSS, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Phenol concentration, Ammoniacal Nitrogen (AMN, Total Organic Carbon (TOC and Kjeldahl’s Nitrogen (KJN to predict BOD and COD. After appropriate training, the network was tested with a separate test data and the best model was chosen based on the sum square error (training and percentage average relative error (% ARE for testing. The results from this study reveal that ANNs can be accurate and efficacious in predicting unknown concentrations of water quality parameters through its versatile training process.

  4. Destructive electronics from electrochemical-mechanically triggered chemical dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Kyoseung; Wang, Xu; Yu, Cunjiang; Li, Yuhang; Linghu, Changhong; Song, Jizhou; Gao, Yang

    2017-01-01

    The considerable need to enhance data and hardware security suggest one possible future for electronics where it is possible to destroy them and even make them disappear physically. This paper reports a type of destructive electronics which features fast transience from chemical dissolution on-demand triggered in an electrochemical-mechanical manner. The detailed materials, mechanics, and device construction of the destructive electronics are presented. Experiment and analysis of the triggered releasing and transience study of electronic materials, resistors and metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors illustrate the key aspects of the destructive electronics. The reported destructive electronics is useful in a wide range of areas from security and defense, to medical applications (paper)

  5. Anaerobic treatment of antibiotic production wastewater pretreated with enhanced hydrolysis: Simultaneous reduction of COD and ARGs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Qizhen; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Yingxin; Tian, Zhe; Yang, Min

    2017-03-01

    The presence of high concentration antibiotics in wastewater can disturb the stability of biological wastewater treatment systems and promote generation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during the treatment. To solve this problem, a pilot system consisting of enhanced hydrolysis pretreatment and an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor in succession was constructed for treating oxytetracycline production wastewater, and the performance was evaluated in a pharmaceutical factory in comparison with a full-scale anaerobic system operated in parallel. After enhanced hydrolysis under conditions of pH 7 and 85 °C for 6 h, oxytetracycline production wastewater with an influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 11,086 ± 602 mg L -1 was directly introduced into the pilot UASB reactor. With the effective removal of oxytetracycline and its antibacterial potency (from 874 mg L -1 to less than 0.61 mg L -1 and from 900 mg L -1 to less than 0.84 mg L -1 , respectively) by the enhanced hydrolysis pretreatment, an average COD removal rate of 83.2%, 78.5% and 68.9% was achieved at an organic loading rate of 3.3, 4.8 and 5.9 kg COD m -3  d -1 , respectively. At the same time, the relative abundances of the total tetracycline (tet) genes and a mobile element (Class 1 integron (intI1)) in anaerobic sludge on day 96 were one order of magnitude lower than those in inoculated sludge on day 0 (P anaerobic system treating oxytetracycline production wastewater with an influent COD of 3720 ± 128 mg L -1 after dilution exhibited a COD removal of 51 ± 4% at an organic loading rate (OLR) 1.2 ± 0.2 kg m -3  d -1 , and a total tet gene abundance in sludge was five times higher than the pilot-scale system (P anaerobic treatment of oxytetracycline production wastewater containing high concentrations of oxytetracycline with significantly lower generation of ARGs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Destructive hydrogenation. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1929-07-15

    Liquid or readily liquefiable products are obtained from solid distillable carbonaceous materials such as coals, oil shales or other bituminous substances by subjecting the said initial materials to destructive hydrogenation under mild conditions so that the formation of benzine is substantially avoided, and then subjecting the treated material to extraction by solvents. By hydrogenating under mild conditions the heavy oils which prevent the asphaltic substances from being precipitated are preserved, and the separation of the liquid products from the solid residue is facilitated. Solid paraffins and high boiling point constituents suitable for the production of lubricating oils may be removed before or after the extraction process. The extraction is preferably carried out under pressure with solvents which do not precipitate asphaltic substances. Brown coal containing 11 per cent ash is passed at 450/sup 0/C, and 200 atmospheres pressure in counter current to hydrogen; 40 per cent of the coal is converted into liquid products which are condensed out of the hydrogen stream; the pasty residue, on extraction with benzene, yields 45 per cent of high molecular weight products suitable for the production of lubricating oil.

  7. Innovation in Non Destructive Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, C.H.P.

    2012-01-01

    In many established companies the pace of innovation is low. The Non-Destructive Testing sector is an example of a sector where the pace of innovation is very slow. Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) refers to the set of non-invasive activities used to determine the condition of objects or installations

  8. Two-stage soil infiltration treatment system for treating ammonium wastewaters of low COD/TN ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhongfang; Wu, Ting; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Xiang; Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Soil infiltration treatment (SIT) is ineffective to treat ammonium wastewaters of total nitrogen (TN) > 100 mg l(-1). This study applied a novel two-stage SIT process for effective TN removal from wastewaters of TN>100 mg l(-1) and of chemical oxygen demand (COD)/TN ratio of 3.2-8.6. The wastewater was first fed into the soil column (stage 1) at hydraulic loading rate (HLR) of 0.06 m(3) m(-2) d(-1) for COD removal and total phosphorus (TP) immobilization. Then the effluent from stage 1 was fed individually into four soil columns (stage 2) at 0.02 m(3) m(-2) d(-1) of HLR with different proportions of raw wastewater as additional carbon source. Over the one-year field test, balanced nitrification and denitrification in the two-stage SIT revealed excellent TN removal (>90%) from the tested wastewaters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of coagulation, ozone and ferrate treatment processes for color, COD and toxicity removal from complex textile wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sameena N; Ghosh, Prakash C; Vaidya, Atul N; Waindeskar, Vishal; Das, Sera; Mudliar, Sandeep N

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the comparative performance of coagulation, ozone, coagulation + ozone + coagulation and potassium ferrate processes to remove chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, and toxicity from a highly polluted textile wastewater were evaluated. Experimental results showed that ferrate alone had no effect on COD, color and toxicity removal. Whereas, in combination with FeSO 4 , it has shown the highest removal efficiency of 96.5%, 83% and 75% for respective parameters at the optimal dose of 40 mgL -1 + 3 ml FeSO 4 (1 M) in comparison with other processes. A seed germination test using seeds of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) also indicated that ferrate was more effective in removing toxicity from contaminated textile wastewater. Potassium ferrate also produces less sludge with maximum contaminant removal, thereby making the process more economically feasible. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis also shows the cleavage of the chromophore group and degradation of textile wastewater during chemical and oxidation treatment processes.

  10. Non-destructive inservice inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauppinen, P.; Sarkimo, M.; Lahdenperae, K.

    1998-01-01

    In order to assess the possible damages occurring in the components and structures of operating nuclear power plants during service the main components and structures are periodically inspected by non-destructive testing techniques. The reliability of non-destructive testing techniques applied in these inservice inspections is of major importance because the decisions concerning the needs for repair of components are mainly based on the results of inspections. One of the targets of this research program has been to improve the reliability of non-destructive testing. This has been addressed in the sub-projects which are briefly summarised here. (author)

  11. COD removal characteristics in air-cathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Exoelectrogenic microorganisms in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) compete with other microorganisms for substrate. In order to understand how this affects removal rates, current generation, and coulombic efficiencies (CEs), substrate removal rates were compared in MFCs fed a single, readily biodegradable compound (acetate) or domestic wastewater (WW). Removal rates based on initial test conditions fit first-order kinetics, but rate constants varied with circuit resistance. With filtered WW (100Ω), the rate constant was 0.18h- 1, which was higher than acetate or filtered WW with an open circuit (0.10h- 1), but CEs were much lower (15-24%) than acetate. With raw WW (100Ω), COD removal proceeded in two stages: a fast removal stage with high current production, followed by a slower removal with little current. While using MFCs increased COD removal rate due to current generation, secondary processes will be needed to reduce COD to levels suitable for discharge.

  12. In demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, B. [Bridgestone Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    The paper explains how good relationships can help alleviate potential tyre shortages. Demand for large dump truck tyres (largely for China) has increased by 50% within 12 months. Bridgestone's manufacturing plants are operating at maximum capacity. The company supplies tyres to all vehicles at Scottish Coal's opencast coal mines. Its Tyre Management System (TMS) supplied free of charge to customers helps maximise tyre life and minimise downtime from data on pressure, tread and general conditions fed into the hand-held TMS computer. 3 photos.

  13. CodY-mediated regulation of Streptococcus pyogenes exoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDowell Emily J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The production of Streptococcus pyogenes exoproteins, many of which contribute to virulence, is regulated in response to nutrient availability. CodY is a transcriptional regulator that controls gene expression in response to amino acid availability. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the expression of streptococcal exoproteins associated with deletion of the codY gene. Results We compared the secreted proteins produced by wild-type S. pyogenes to a codY mutant in the post-exponential phase of growth. We used both one and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to separate exoproteins. Proteins that were significantly different in abundance upon repeated analysis were identified with tandem mass spectrometry. The production of the secreted cysteine protease SpeB, a secreted chromosomally encoded nuclease (SdaB, and a putative adhesion factor (Spy49_0549 were more abundant in supernatant fluids obtained from the codY mutant. In addition, hyaluronidase (HylA, CAMP factor (Cfa, a prophage encoded nuclease (Spd-3, and an uncharacterized extracellular protein (Spy49_0015 were less abundant in supernatant fluids obtained from the codY mutant strain. Enzymatic assays showed greater DNase activity in culture supernatants isolated in the post-exponential phase of growth from the codY mutant strain compared to the wild-type strain. Because extracellular nucleases and proteases can influence biofilm formation, we also measured the ability of the strains to form biofilms during growth with both rich medium (Todd Hewitt yeast extract; THY and chemically defined media (CDM. No difference was observed with rich media but with CDM the biofilms formed by the codY mutant strain had less biomass compared to the wild-type strain. Conclusions Overall, the results indicate that CodY alters the abundance of a select group of S. pyogenes exoproteins, including DNases, a protease, and hylauronidase, which together may alleviate

  14. Ancient DNA reveals the Arctic origin of Viking Age cod from Haithabu, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star, Bastiaan; Boessenkool, Sanne; Gondek, Agata T; Nikulina, Elena A; Hufthammer, Anne Karin; Pampoulie, Christophe; Knutsen, Halvor; André, Carl; Nistelberger, Heidi M; Dierking, Jan; Petereit, Christoph; Heinrich, Dirk; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Jentoft, Sissel; Barrett, James H

    2017-08-22

    Knowledge of the range and chronology of historic trade and long-distance transport of natural resources is essential for determining the impacts of past human activities on marine environments. However, the specific biological sources of imported fauna are often difficult to identify, in particular if species have a wide spatial distribution and lack clear osteological or isotopic differentiation between populations. Here, we report that ancient fish-bone remains, despite being porous, brittle, and light, provide an excellent source of endogenous DNA (15-46%) of sufficient quality for whole-genome reconstruction. By comparing ancient sequence data to that of modern specimens, we determine the biological origin of 15 Viking Age (800-1066 CE) and subsequent medieval (1066-1280 CE) Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua ) specimens from excavation sites in Germany, Norway, and the United Kingdom. Archaeological context indicates that one of these sites was a fishing settlement for the procurement of local catches, whereas the other localities were centers of trade. Fish from the trade sites show a mixed ancestry and are statistically differentiated from local fish populations. Moreover, Viking Age samples from Haithabu, Germany, are traced back to the North East Arctic Atlantic cod population that has supported the Lofoten fisheries of Norway for centuries. Our results resolve a long-standing controversial hypothesis and indicate that the marine resources of the North Atlantic Ocean were used to sustain an international demand for protein as far back as the Viking Age.

  15. Determination of humic acid in alkali leaching solution of uranium by spectophotrometry-COD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yu; An Wei; Chen Shusen

    2014-01-01

    It is one of the main causes of extraction emulsification or resin toxicosis during alkali leaching process in uranium metallurgy which organic matters including humic acid exist in lixiviums. In order to study the effect of humic acid in uranium metallurgy, a method for determination of content of humic acid in aqueous solution need to be established. Spectrophotometry is a simple and convenient method in humic acid analysis. However, accuracy of spectrophotometry can be reduced greatly because of interference of uranium and other elements in the humic acid solutions. Although chemical oxygen demand (COD) method is a common analysis way of organic matters in aqueous solutions, the concentration of humic acid cannot be directly measured. In this paper, COD method is related with spectrophotometry to avoid the interference of uranium and ensure the accurate analysis of humic acid. The results showed that the detection limit of the method was 1.78 mg/L and the recovery rate was 101.2%. (authors)

  16. Exophiala angulospora causes systemic inflammation in atlantic cod Gadus morhua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjessing, Mona Cecilie; Davey, Marie; Kvellestad, Agnar; Vrålstad, Trude

    2011-10-06

    Species of Exophiala are opportunistic fungal pathogens that may infect a broad range of warm- and cold-blooded animals, including salmonids and Atlantic cod. In the present study, we observed abnormal swimming behaviour and skin pigmentation and increased mortality in cod kept in an indoor tank. Necropsy revealed foci of different sizes with a greyish to brownish colour in internal organs of diseased fish. The foci consisted of ramifying darkly pigmented fungal hyphae surrounded by distinct layers of inflammatory cells, including macrophage-like cells. In the inner layer with many hyphae, the macrophage-like cells were dead. We observed no apparent restriction of fungal growth by the inflammatory response. A darkly pigmented fungus was repeatedly isolated in pure culture from foci of diseased fish and identified as Exophiala angulospora using morphological and molecular characters. This species has not been previously reported to cause disease in cod, but has been reported as an opportunistic pathogen of both marine and freshwater fish. Based on the morphology and sequence analysis presented here, we conclude that E. angulospora caused the observed chronic multifocal inflammation in internal organs of cod, leading to severe disease and mortality.

  17. Regime shifts, resilience and recovery of a cod stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Diekmann, Rabea; Möllmann, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In the North and Baltic seas Atlantic cod Gadus morhua stocks collapsed as part or one of the major factors inducing large-scale ecosystem regime shifts. Determining the relative contribution of overfishing and climate variability in causing these shifts has proven difficult. While facing similar...

  18. Arctic Climate Change: A Tale of Two Cod Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arctic cod play an important role in the Arctic trophic hierarchy as the consumer of primary productivity and a food source for many marine fish and mammals. Shifts in their distribution and abundance could have cascading affects in the marine environment. This paper investigates...

  19. Removal of hard COD, nitrogenous compounds and phenols from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to identify the factors affecting the suspended and fixed biomass in the removal of hard COD, nitrogenous compounds and phenols from a coal gasification wastewater (CGWW) stream using a hybrid fixed-film bioreactor (H-FFBR) process under real-time plant operational conditions and ...

  20. Review of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Important processes in the recruitment dynamics of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) are identified. Spawning areas are in the deep, saline waters below 20–40 m, depending on area topography. Spatial distribution remains relatively stable over time. Peak spawning shows an area-specific pattern...

  1. Eastern Baltic cod recruitment revisited—dynamics and impacting factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Huwer, Bastian; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald

    2017-01-01

    The Eastern Baltic cod abundance started rapidly to increase in the mid-2000s as evidenced by analytical stock assessments, due to increased recruitment and declining fishing mortality. Since 2014, the analytical stock assessment is not available, leaving the present stock status unclear and cast......The Eastern Baltic cod abundance started rapidly to increase in the mid-2000s as evidenced by analytical stock assessments, due to increased recruitment and declining fishing mortality. Since 2014, the analytical stock assessment is not available, leaving the present stock status unclear...... and casting doubts about the magnitude of the recent increase in recruitment. Earlier studies identified main factors impacting on cod reproductive success to be related to the loss of two out of three spawning areas in the 1980s caused by lack of major Baltic inflows with a concurrent reduction in salinity...... decade, as the period was characterized by an absence of large-scale Baltic inflows since 2003 and persistent anoxic conditions in the bottom water of the deep Baltic basins. This questions the perception of the increased recruitment in later years and challenges our present understanding of cod...

  2. Fluorescence of muscle and connective tissue from cod and salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Møller; Wold, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Autofluorescence of salmon and cod muscle was measured and compared with autofluorescence of collagen type I and type V. Similarities between fluorescence of fish muscle and collagen were found in that the same peaks were obtained around 390, 430, and 480 nm, These similarities are supported...

  3. Could seals prevent cod recovery in the Baltic Sea?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Eero, Margit; Ojaveer, Henn

    2011-01-01

    Fish populations are increasingly affected by multiple human and natural impacts including exploitation, eutrophication, habitat alteration and climate change. As a result many collapsed populations may have to recover in ecosystems whose structure and functioning differ from those in which...... these goals will also depend on how climate change affects cod recruitment....

  4. Verification of Chemical Weapons Destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodding, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Chemical Weapons Convention is the only multilateral treaty that bans completely an entire category of weapons of mass destruction under international verification arrangements. Possessor States, i.e. those that have chemical weapons stockpiles at the time of becoming party to the CWC, commit to destroying these. All States undertake never to acquire chemical weapons and not to help other States acquire such weapons. The CWC foresees time-bound chemical disarmament. The deadlines for destruction for early entrants to the CWC are provided in the treaty. For late entrants, the Conference of States Parties intervenes to set destruction deadlines. One of the unique features of the CWC is thus the regime for verifying destruction of chemical weapons. But how can you design a system for verification at military sites, while protecting military restricted information? What degree of assurance is considered sufficient in such circumstances? How do you divide the verification costs? How do you deal with production capability and initial declarations of existing stockpiles? The founders of the CWC had to address these and other challenges in designing the treaty. Further refinement of the verification system has followed since the treaty opened for signature in 1993 and since inspection work was initiated following entry-into-force of the treaty in 1997. Most of this work concerns destruction at the two large possessor States, Russia and the United States. Perhaps some of the lessons learned from the OPCW experience may be instructive in a future verification regime for nuclear weapons. (author)

  5. Effect of catch location, season and quality on value of Icelandic cod (Gadus morhua) products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margeirsson, Sveinn; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Jonsson, Gudmundur R.

    2006-01-01

    In this book, scientists from various disciplines address the advances in seafood research with respect to quality, safety, consumer's demands and processing of wild and farmed fish. The nutritional properties of marine lipids and lipid oxidation from model systems to seafood are presented. Several...... contributions on the effects of natural anti-oxidants to prevent oxidation are also included. Effects of dietary factors on muscle tissue quality, pre-rigor processing and brining of farmed cod are covered. The development of rigor mortis and the quality of muscle in relation to commercial and experimental...... slaughter techniques are also discussed. Consumer's knowledge, perception and need for information about seafood are discussed. Topics such as shelf life and microbial quality of seafood are covered in a range of contributions. Inactivation of micro organisms or biopreservation of seafood are included...

  6. Comparative study on the removal of COD from POME by electrocoagulation and electro-Fenton methods: Process optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chairunnisak, A.; Arifin, B.; Sofyan, H.; Lubis, M. R.; Darmadi

    2018-03-01

    This research focuses on the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) treatment in palm oil mill effluent by electrocoagulation and electro-Fenton methods to solve it. Initially, the aqueous solution precipitates in acid condition at pH of about two. This study focuses on the palm oil mill effluent degradation by Fe electrodes in a simple batch reactor. This work is conducted by using different parameters such as voltage, electrolyte concentration of NaCl, volume of H2O2 and operation time. The processing of data resulted is by using response surface method coupled with Box-Behnken design. The electrocoagulation method results in the optimum COD reduction of 94.53% from operating time of 39.28 minutes, 20 volts, and without electrolyte concentration. For electro-Fenton process, experiment points out that voltage 15.78 volts, electrolyte concentration 0.06 M and H2O2 volume 14.79 ml with time 35.92 minutes yield 99.56% degradation. The result concluded that the electro-Fenton process was more effective to degrade COD of the palm-oil-mill effluent compared to electrocoagulation process.

  7. DESTRUCTIVE EDUCATIONAL PRACTICES AT UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрей Владимирович Феоктистов

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to problems of origin and development of destructive educational practices at university. The authors focus on complex of interactions that disturb the existing in the academic environment norms and ethical principles. The most vivid evidence of destructive educational practice is the corruption issue. On the basis of the analyzed publications dealing with dynamics of corruption in the Russian higher education and the results of the survey by questionnaire, carried out at the technical university, the complex of recommendations has been prepared and suggested that is directed at minimization of destructive behavior at university.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-28

  8. Bay-scale population structure in coastal Atlantic cod in Labrador and Newfoundland, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Wroblewski, J.S.; Taggart, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    Polymorphisms at five microsatellite DNA loci provide evidence that Atlantic cod Gadus morhua inhabiting Gilbert Bay, Labrador are genetically distinguishable from offshore cod on the north- east Newfoundland shelf and from inshore cod in Trinity Bay, Newfoundland. Antifreeze activity in the bloo...

  9. Externally driven mortality of cod early life stages in the central Baltic: hydrography vs. predation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, Matthias

    pressure by clupeids on the early life stages of cod could have enhanced cod recruitment in recent years. The analyses are based on a large dataset of stomach content of clupeids, cod egg abundances from ichthyoplankton surveys, and hydrographic measurements. We investigate temporal and spatial variability...

  10. Estimation of bacterial quality of cod fillets with the disc flotation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boismenu, D.; Lepine, F.; Thibault, C.; Gagnon, M.; Charbonneau, R.; Dugas, H.

    1991-01-01

    Spoilage bacteria of cod fillets were desorbed off the fillet surface by ultrasonication. Catalase activity of these bacteria was determined using the disc flotation method after selective heat inactivation of the endogenous cod catalase and then correlated with the colony forming units. The method was applied to cod fillets from ten retail sources with satisfactory results

  11. Grain destruction in interstellar shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seab, C.G.; Shull, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    One of the principal methods for removing grains from the Interstellar Medium is to destroy them in shock waves. Previous theoretical studies of shock destruction have generally assumed only a single size and type of grain; most do not account for the effect of the grain destruction on the structure of the shock. Earlier calculations have been improved in three ways: first, by using a ''complete'' grain model including a distribution of sizes and types of grains; second, by using a self-consistent shock structure that incorporates the changing elemental depletions as the grains are destroyed; and third, by calculating the shock-processed ultraviolet extinction curves for comparison with observations. (author)

  12. The destruction of organic matter

    CERN Document Server

    Gorsuch, T T

    1970-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Analytical Chemistry, Volume 39: The Destruction of Organic Matter focuses on the identification of trace elements in organic compounds. The monograph first offers information on the processes involved in the determination of trace elements in organic matters, as well as the methods not involving complete destruction of these elements. The text surveys the sources of errors in the processes responsible in pinpointing elements in organic compounds. These processes include sampling, disruption of the samples, manipulation, and measurements. The book

  13. Manual or automated measuring of antipsychotics' chemical oxygen demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sarah A P; Costa, Susana P F; Cunha, Edite; Passos, Marieta L C; Araújo, André R S T; Saraiva, M Lúcia M F S

    2018-05-15

    Antipsychotic (AP) drugs are becoming accumulated in terrestrial and aqueous resources due to their actual consumption. Thus, the search of methods for assessing the contamination load of these drugs is mandatory. The COD is a key parameter used for monitoring water quality upon the assessment of the effect of polluting agents on the oxygen level. Thus, the present work aims to assess the chemical oxygen demand (COD) levels of several typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs in order to obtain structure-activity relationships. It was implemented the titrimetric method with potassium dichromate as oxidant and a digestion step of 2h, followed by the measurement of remained unreduced dichromate by titration. After that, an automated sequential injection analysis (SIA) method was, also, used aiming to overcome some drawbacks of the titrimetric method. The results obtained showed a relationship between the chemical structures of antipsychotic drugs and their COD values, where the presence of aromatic rings and oxidable groups give higher COD values. It was obtained a good compliance between the results of the reference batch procedure and the SIA system, and the APs were clustered in two groups, with the values ratio between the methodologies, of 2 or 4, in the case of lower or higher COD values, respectively. The SIA methodology is capable of operating as a screening method, in any stage of a synthetic process, being also more environmentally friendly, and cost-effective. Besides, the studies presented open promising perspectives for the improvement of the effectiveness of pharmaceutical removal from the waste effluents, by assessing COD values. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Feeding opportunities of larval and juvenile cod (Gadus morhua) in a Greenlandic fjord: temporal and spatial linkages between cod and their preferred prey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swalethorp, Rasmus; Kjellerup, Sanne; Malanski, Evandro

    2014-01-01

    preferences of the early-life stages of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) to quantify the availability of prey during a spring-summer season in a West Greenlandic fjord. We hypothesized that abundances of larval and juvenile cod at size were synchronized to optimal availability of preferred prey in space and time....... These findings stress the importance of focusing on abundance of preferred prey when assessing the actual prey availability to young fish. We found a spatio-temporal overlap between cod and their preferred prey, and observations suggest that advection of both zooplankton and cod contributed to this overlap...

  15. Conceptualizing Chronic Self-Destructiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Kathryn

    Self-destructiveness can be viewed in two ways: as performing an act which one knows cognitively is not conducive to one's welfare but nonetheless leads to some pleasurable affect (e.g., overeating, smoking); or not performing an act one knows one should perform but which has some negative affective consequences (e.g., dental checkups, saving…

  16. Animal Spirits Meets Creative Destruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francois, P.; Lloyd-Ellis, H.

    2001-01-01

    We show how a Schumpeterian process of creative destruction can induce coordination in the timing of entrepreneurial activities across diverse sectors of the economy.Consequently, a multi-sector economy, in which sector-specific, productivity improvements are made by independent, profit-seeking

  17. Dynamic Scoring Through Creative Destruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oudheusden, P.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We examine the dynamic feedback effects of fiscal policies on the government budget and economy activity in a calibrated general equilibrium framework featuring endogenous growth through creative destruction. For several European countries, we find that making tax incentives with respect

  18. Exergy destruction in ammonia scrubbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zisopoulos, Filippos K.; Goot, van der Atze Jan; Boom, Remko M.

    2018-01-01

    A theoretical ammonia scrubbing process by sulfuric acid solution is assessed with the concept of exergy. The exergy destruction of chemical neutralization is mainly (75–94%) due to changes in the chemical exergy of streams and thermal effects from the reaction while mixing effects have a limited

  19. Bay-scale population structure in coastal Atlantic cod in Labrador and Newfoundland, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Wroblewski, J.S.; Taggart, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    Polymorphisms at five microsatellite DNA loci provide evidence that Atlantic cod Gadus morhua inhabiting Gilbert Bay, Labrador are genetically distinguishable from offshore cod on the north- east Newfoundland shelf and from inshore cod in Trinity Bay, Newfoundland. Antifreeze activity in the blood...... of population structure suggest that important barriers to gene flow exist among five components that include two inshore (Gilbert and Trinity Bay) and three offshore cod aggregations on the north-east Newfoundland Shelf and the Grand Bank. D-A and D-SW estimates of genetic distance that involve Gilbert Bay cod...

  20. Isolation of putative probionts from cod rearing environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauzon, H.L.; Gudmundsdottir, S.; Pedersen, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    , metabolite production and adhesion to fish cell lines. Our study demonstrated that 14% of screened bacteria (n = 188) had antagonistic properties towards fish pathogens. The majority of these isolates were Gram-positive (81%), belonging to Firmicutes (69.2%) and Actinobacteria (11.5%) phyla based on 16S r...... was designed to search for new probiotics to target this critical period in cod rearing. Potential probionts were selected from the naturalmicrobiota of cod aquacultural environment. The selection was based on several criteria: pathogen inhibition potential, growth characteristics, strain identification......RNA gene sequencing. Only 6 (3.2%) of 188 isolates could inhibit all three pathogens tested: Vibrio anguillarum, Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes and Vibrio salmonicida. Differences observed in activity intensity and spectrum among inhibitory isolates emphasise the need to develop probiotic...

  1. Ecological forecasting under climate change: the case of Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Möllmann, Christian; Nielsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Good decision making for fisheries and marine ecosystems requires a capacity to anticipate the consequences of management under different scenarios of climate change. The necessary ecological forecasting calls for ecosystem-based models capable of integrating multiple drivers across trophic levels...... and properly including uncertainty. The methodology presented here assesses the combined impacts of climate and fishing on marine food-web dynamics and provides estimates of the confidence envelope of the forecasts. It is applied to cod (Gadus morhua) in the Baltic Sea, which is vulnerable to climate......-related decline in salinity owing to both direct and indirect effects (i.e. through species interactions) on early-life survival. A stochastic food web-model driven by regional climate scenarios is used to produce quantitative forecasts of cod dynamics in the twenty-first century. The forecasts show how...

  2. Practical application of COD measurement in welded assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beghe, S.

    1975-01-01

    Measurement of the COD makes it possible to evaluate sensitivity to brittle fracture initiation. This technique is ideal for welded structures, owing to the types of defect likely to affect them, and the magnitude of the residual stresses introduced. Moreover, the COD concept, based on thickness and temperature experiments on materials, enables evaluation of the critical defect size in these structures. However, its application to welded joints encounters certain problems. The presence of fatigue cracks in the molten zone of a welded joint is frequently disturbed by the residual stresses caused by welding. An additional difficulty is created by the problem of stable growth of the crack during the bending test. This discussion covers all these matters and suggests some solutions [fr

  3. Stability of compounded trilostane suspension in cod liver oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Jesse; Brown, Stacy

    2017-10-01

    Trilostane is a synthetic steroid analog used to treat canine hyperadrenocorticism. For small dogs, the dose found in commercially available dosage forms of trilostane is sometimes too high. Compounding trilostane in a liquid diluent provides an option for more precise dosing and adjustments, and can be easier to administer, versus a tablet or capsule. Trilostane suspends well in cod liver oil, which is generally palatable to dogs. The stability of a compounded trilostane suspension in cod liver oil stored at room temperature was investigated for 90 days. Compounded trilostane retained stability, defined as maintaining 90-105% labeled value, for 60 days when stored in amber glass bottles. However, drug potency fell >10% below the labeled value when stored in amber plastic bottles after 7 days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Removal of COD from laundry wastewater by electrocoagulation/electroflotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.-T. [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan County, Hsien 717, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: ctwwang@mail.hwai.edu.tw; Chou, W.-L. [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering and Institute of Occupational Safety and Hazard Prevention, HungKuang University, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Y.-M. [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan County, Hsien 717, Taiwan (China)

    2009-05-15

    The removal efficiency of COD in the treatment of simulated laundry wastewater using electrocoagulation/electroflotation technology is described. The experimental results showed that the removal efficiency was better, reaching to about 62%, when applying ultrasound to the electrocoagulation cell. The solution pH approached neutrality in all experimental runs. The optimal removal efficiency of COD was obtained by using the applied voltage of 5 V when considering the energy efficiency and the acceptable removal efficiency simultaneously. The Cl{sup -} concentration of less than 2500 ppm had a positive effect on the removal efficiency. The performance of the monopolar connection of electrodes was better than that of the bipolar connection in this work. In addition, the removal efficiency of using Al electrodes was higher in comparison with using Fe electrodes in the study. The highest COD removal amount per joule was found to be 999 mg dm{sup -3} kW h{sup -1} while using two Al electrodes, although the removal efficiency increased with the number of Al plates.

  5. Effect of produced water on cod (Gadus morhua) immune responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamoutene, D.; Mabrouk, G.; Samuelson, S.; Mansour, A.; Lee, K. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Maritimes Region, Ocean Sciences Division; Volkoff, H.; Parrish, C. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Mathieu, A. [Oceans Ltd., St. John' s, NL (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Studies have shown that produced water (PW) discharged from North Sea offshore platforms affects the biota at greater distances from operational platforms than originally presumed. According to PW dispersion simulations, dilution by at least 240 times occurs within 50-100 m, and up to 9000 times by 20 km from the discharge. In this study, the effect of PW on cod immunity was investigated by exposing fish to 0, 100 ppm (x 10,000 dilution) or 200 ppm (x 500) of PW for 76 days. Immune responses were evaluated at the end of the exposure. Fish from the 3 groups were injected with Aeromonas salmonicida lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Blood cell observation and flow cytometry were used to investigate the serum cortisol levels and gill histology along with ratios and respiratory burst (RB) responses of both circulating and head-kidney white blood cells (WBCs). The study revealed that baseline immunity and stress response were not affected by PW, other than an irritant-induced change in gill cells found in treated cod. In all groups, LPS injection resulted in a pronounced decrease in RB of head-kidney cells and an increase in serum cortisol and protein levels. However, the group exposed to 200 ppm of PW exhibited the most significant changes. LPS injection was also shown to influence WBC ratios, but further studies are needed to determine if this impact is stronger in fish exposed to PW. This study suggested an effect of PW on cod immunity after immune challenge with LPS.

  6. Removal of COD from laundry wastewater by electrocoagulation/electroflotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.-T.; Chou, W.-L.; Kuo, Y.-M.

    2009-01-01

    The removal efficiency of COD in the treatment of simulated laundry wastewater using electrocoagulation/electroflotation technology is described. The experimental results showed that the removal efficiency was better, reaching to about 62%, when applying ultrasound to the electrocoagulation cell. The solution pH approached neutrality in all experimental runs. The optimal removal efficiency of COD was obtained by using the applied voltage of 5 V when considering the energy efficiency and the acceptable removal efficiency simultaneously. The Cl - concentration of less than 2500 ppm had a positive effect on the removal efficiency. The performance of the monopolar connection of electrodes was better than that of the bipolar connection in this work. In addition, the removal efficiency of using Al electrodes was higher in comparison with using Fe electrodes in the study. The highest COD removal amount per joule was found to be 999 mg dm -3 kW h -1 while using two Al electrodes, although the removal efficiency increased with the number of Al plates

  7. Evaluating photo-degradation of COD and TOC in petroleum refinery wastewater by using TiO2/ZnO photo-catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljuboury, Dheeaa Al Deen Atallah; Palaniandy, Puganeshwary; Abdul Aziz, Hamidi Bin; Feroz, Shaik; Abu Amr, Salem S

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of combined solar photo-catalyst of titanium oxide/zinc oxide (TiO 2 /ZnO) with aeration processes to treat petroleum wastewater. Central composite design with response surface methodology was used to evaluate the relationships between operating variables for TiO 2 dosage, ZnO dosage, air flow, pH, and reaction time to identify the optimum operating conditions. Quadratic models for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) removals prove to be significant with low probabilities (TOC removal rates of 99% and 74%, respectively. The TOC and COD removal rates correspond well with the predicted models. The maximum removal rate for TOC and COD was 99.3% and 76%, respectively at optimum operational conditions of TiO 2 dosage (0.5 g/L), ZnO dosage (0.54 g/L), air flow (4.3 L/min), reaction time (170 min) and pH (6.8). The new treatment process achieved higher degradation efficiencies for TOC and COD and reduced the treatment time comparing with other related processes.

  8. The removal of COD and NH3-N from atrazine production wastewater treatment using UV/O3: experimental investigation and kinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Liang; Chen, Bing; Wen, Diya; Zheng, Jisi; Zhang, Baiyu

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a UV/O 3 hybrid advanced oxidation system was used to remove chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH 3 -N), and atrazine (ATZ) from ATZ production wastewater. The removal of COD and NH 3 -N, under different UV and O 3 conditions, was found to follow pseudo-first-order kinetics with rate constants ranging from 0.0001-0.0048 and 0.0015-0.0056 min -1 , respectively. The removal efficiency of ATZ was over 95% after 180 min treatment, regardless the level of UV power. A kinetic model was further proposed to simulate the removal processes and to quantify the individual roles and contributions of photolysis, direct O 3 oxidation, and hydroxyl radical (OH·) induced oxidation. The experimental and kinetic modeling results agreed reasonably well with deviations of 12.2 and 13.1% for the removal of COD and NH 3 -N, respectively. Photolysis contributed appreciably to the degradation of ATZ, while OH· played a dominant role for the removal of both COD and NH 3 -N, especially in alkaline environments. This study provides insights into the treatment of ATZ containing wastewater using UV/O 3 and broadens the knowledge of kinetics of ozone-based advanced oxidation processes.

  9. Total destruction of PCB transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that if elimination of PCB liability, including lingering liabilities, is the goal, then landfilling cannot be and option. The law is clear that the generator of PCB waste is responsible for that waste until this destruction. Landfilling is not destruction. Retrofilling as askarel units will not get rid of all PCB liabilities, either. Askarel retrofilling can only make this claim when it can give a lifetime guaranty of no detectable PCBs. States like Washington and California regulate, as hazardous waste, fluids which contain greater than 2 and 5 ppm PCB, respectively. There is no guarantee that your state will not so regulate PCBs in the future or that the federal laws might tighten up. Therefore, replacement and disposal by Resource Recovery constitutes the only lifetime guarantee on the market that the PCBs in your askarel transformers will never come back to haunt you

  10. Defining Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Cyprus, Liberia, Malta, Marshall Islands , Mongolia, Panama, and St. Vin- cent and the Grenadines, according to a State Department summary available...1972 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, and the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention. As such, NBC weapons represent a group of weapons that the...Development, Produc- tion and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction contains two references to WMD

  11. Chondrule destruction in nebular shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Thompson, Christopher, E-mail: ejacquet@mnhn.fr [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2014-12-10

    Chondrules are millimeter-sized silicate spherules ubiquitous in primitive meteorites, but whose origin remains mysterious. One of the main proposed mechanisms for producing them is melting of solids in shock waves in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. However, evidence is mounting that chondrule-forming regions were enriched in solids well above solar abundances. Given the high velocities involved in shock models, destructive collisions would be expected between differently sized grains after passage of the shock front as a result of differential drag. We investigate the probability and outcome of collisions of particles behind a one-dimensional shock using analytic methods as well as a full integration of the coupled mass, momentum, energy, and radiation equations. Destruction of protochondrules seems unavoidable for solid/gas ratios ε ≳ 0.1, and possibly even for solar abundances because of 'sandblasting' by finer dust. A flow with ε ≳ 10 requires much smaller shock velocities (∼2 versus 8 km s{sup –1}) in order to achieve chondrule-melting temperatures, and radiation trapping allows slow cooling of the shocked fragments. Initial destruction would still be extensive; although re-assembly of millimeter-sized particles would naturally occur by grain sticking afterward, the compositional heterogeneity of chondrules may be difficult to reproduce. We finally note that solids passing through small-scale bow shocks around few kilometer-sized planetesimals might experience partial melting and yet escape fragmentation.

  12. Destructive analysis and evaluation services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, E.; Lemaire, R.; Wenzel, U.; Aigner, H.; Bagliano, G.; Deron, S.; Jordan, L.

    1986-07-01

    This manual describes the procedures for independent verification measurements by Destructive Analysis as required by the Divisions of Operations. It includes the relevant instructions and information necessary to achieve the verification from sampling through final use of the evaluation results. It is a working/reference document for the Inspectors and for the supporting units, as well as a training manual for Inspectors which brings together all the necessary information for verification by Destructive Analysis. This manual gives information essential to the Inspector and to the units of the Safeguards Analytical Services (SAS) in the following areas: material stratification, sampling, sample conditioning and data collection; packaging, transporting, tracking, receipt and analysis of samples; and evaluation and final use of the evaluation results. This information is provided as: specific instructions and/or examples; summaries of relevant, existing documents; and references to existing documents. Forms are available for sample, item and stratum data collection as well as for transfer of samples and for the reporting of results. A complete typical example package of the documents related to the verification by Destructive Analysis is included. In addition, summaries of the analytical procedures used at the Safeguards Analytical Laboratory (SAL) of the IAEA and the expected measurement performance for element assay and isotopic abundance are provided. (author)

  13. Effect of dairy wastewater on changes in COD fractions in technical-scale SBR type reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk-Sokołowska, Joanna; Rodziewicz, Joanna; Mielcarek, Artur

    2017-04-01

    The annual global production of milk is approximately 630,000 million litres and the volume of generated dairy wastewater accounts for 3.2 m 3 ·m -3 product. Dairy wastewater is characterized by a high load of chemical oxygen demand (COD). In many wastewater plants dairy wastewater and municipal wastewater are co-treated. The effect of dairy wastewater contribution on COD fraction changes in municipal sewage which has been treated with a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) in three wastewater treatment plants in north-east Poland is presented. In these plants the real contribution of dairy wastewater was 10, 13 and 17%. In raw wastewater, S S fraction (readily biodegradable dissolved organic matter) was dominant and ranged from 38.3 to 62.6%. In the effluent, S S fraction was not noted, which is indicative of consumption by microorganisms. The presence of dairy wastewater in municipal sewage does not cause changes in the content of the X I fraction (insoluble fractions of non-biodegradable organic matter). SBR effluents were dominated by non-biodegradable dissolved organic matter S I , which from 57.7 to 61.7%. In raw wastewater S I ranged from 1.0 to 4.6%. X s fraction (slowly biodegradable non-soluble organic matter) in raw wastewater ranged from 24.6 to 45.5% while in treated wastewater it ranged from 28.6 to 30.8%. In the control object (fourth wastewater plant) which does not process dairy wastewater, the S S , S I , X s and X I fraction in inflow was 28.7, 2.4, 51.7 and 17.2% respectively. In the effluent the S S , S I , X s and X I fraction was below 0.1, 33.6, 50.0 and 16.4% respectively.

  14. Removal of chemical oxygen demand from textile wastewater using a natural coagulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramavandi, Bahman [Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farjadfard, Sima [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    A biomaterial was successfully synthesized from Plantago ovata by using an FeCl{sub 3}-induced crude extract (FCE). The potential of FCE to act as a natural coagulant was tested for the pretreatment of real textile wastewater. Tests were performed to evaluate the effects of FCE quantity, salt concentration, and wastewater pH on chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction during a coagulation/flocculation process. Experimental results indicated that the wastewater could be effectively treated by using a coagulation/flocculation process, where the BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio of the effluent was improved to 0.48. A low coagulant dose, 1.5mg/L, achieved a high COD removal percentage, 89%, at operational conditions of neutral pH and room temperature. The experimental data revealed that the maximum COD removal occurred at water pH<8. Increasing the salt promoted the COD removal. The settling and filterability characteristics of the sludge were also studied. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy studies were conducted to determine the sludge structure and composition, respectively. Overall, FCE as an eco-friendly biomaterial was revealed to be a very efficient coagulant and a promising option for the removal of COD from wastewaters.

  15. Chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency and limited factors study of aminosilicone polymers in a water emulsion by iron-carbon micro-electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shangyuan; Liang, Zhiwei; Yu, Huadong; Wang, Yunlong; Chen, Yingxu

    2014-02-01

    Micro-electrolysis was applied in the present study to investigate the effect of pH, iron-carbon mass ratio, contact time, and treatment batch on the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) within an aminosilicone emulsion. The results exhibited that the removal efficiency of COD decreased linearly with the batch increase, and this tendency was consistent under the various conditions. The adsorption of activated carbons contributes a large portion to the elimination of COD within the aminosilicone emulsion. The oxidation action of iron-carbon micro-electrolysis was proven and the aminosilicone emulsion's COD removal contribution was approximately 16%. Aminosilicone polymers were adsorbed on the surface of activated carbons and iron chips, which contributes to the decline of COD removal efficiency and limits the contribution of oxidation action.

  16. New type of canned cod gonads and liver pastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grokhovsky V. A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of rational way of processing the offal of the Gadidae family (liver and gonads for food purposes has been proved. The possibility of using the frozen gonads (milt and caviar and the liver of the cod in the human nutrition (especially for the people of elderly age has been researched. The frozen gonads with addition of fish liver are proven to be used for producing the canned foods with high quality level. The physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the product have been determined by the standardized methods. The quality level of canned foods has been obtained using the developed criteria of the objective evaluation of the quality. The specimens of the canned pastes produced from the frozen cod milt, caviar and liver using different compositions have been researched. Near-to-optimal composition of the new product has been defined. The quality level of canned food is 88.6 %. The commercial sterility of the canned food specimens prepared using the developed technology has been established. The chemical composition and the sensory characteristics of canned food have been researched. It has been established that protein content in the canned food is 12.9 %, fat content – 13.5 %, water content – 71.2 %, sodium chloride content – 1.3 %, carbohydrates content – 0.5 %. The product is the uniform, finely ground, evenly mixed mass with the presence of the separate caviar grains. The color of the paste is light-beige. The canned food has the tender consistency, pleasant taste and aroma. The energy value of the product is 678 kJ (162 kcal. Using the frozen cod caviar, milt and liver for producing the developed assortment of canned foods will make it possible to solve the problem of the complex processing of fish, and also to manufacture the canned food of high quality on the shore enterprises from the frozen fish offal (caviar, milt and liver all the year round.

  17. Suitability of otolith microchemistry for stock separation of Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, F; Marohn, L; Hinrichsen, HH

    2012-01-01

    differences between individuals from the eastern and the western Baltic Sea and between North Sea and Baltic Sea samples. Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, Y/Ca, Mg/Ca, Zr/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios had the strongest discriminatory power. A further separation of individuals caught in 3 different spawning grounds of the eastern Baltic......, however, was not possible. Elemental compositions from the core regions of otoliths from young of the year cod caught in eastern and western Baltic Sea spawning grounds showed significant differences in Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca and Mg/Ca concentrations. Analyses of similarities again showed significant differences...

  18. Lessons for fisheries management from the EU cod recovery plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraak, S.B.M.; Bailey, N.; Cardinale, M.

    2013-01-01

    Member States to 'buy back' or increase fishing effort for fleet segments engaged in cod-avoidance measures. The stipulated fishing mortality reductions have not been achieved. On the positive side, the 'buy-back' instrument has led to increased uptake of selective gear and implementation of permanent...... in targeted fisheries, although fishers experienced them as prohibiting the full uptake of other quotas. Recommendations for future plans include (i) management through catch rather than landings quotas, (ii) the internalisation of the costs of exceeding quotas, (iii) use of more selective gear types, (iv...

  19. Nutritional condition and vertical distribution of Baltic cod larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, P.; Clemmesen, C.; St. John, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Newly hatched Baltic cod Gadus morhua larvae are typically found at depths >60 m. This is a region of low light and prey availability, hence generating the hypothesis that larvae have to migrate from hatching depth to the surface layer to avoid starvation and improve their nutritional condition...... aged 2-25 days (median 10 days) ranged from 0.4 to 6.2, corresponding to levels exhibited by starving and fast growing larvae in laboratory calibration studies (starvation, protein growth rate, G(pi)=-12.2% day(-1); fast-growing larvae, G(pi)=14.1% day(-1)) respectively. Seventy per cent of the field...

  20. A millennium of north-east Atlantic cod juvenile growth trajectories inferred from archaeological otoliths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guðbjörg Ásta Ólafsdóttir

    Full Text Available Archaeological excavations of historical fishing sites across the North Atlantic have recovered high quantities of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua bones. In the current study we use Atlantic cod otoliths from archaeological excavations of a historical fishing sites in north-west Iceland, dated to AD 970 -AD 1910 to examine historical growth trajectories of cod. No large scale growth variations or shifts in growth patterns were observed in the current chronologies, supporting the stability of historical Atlantic cod growth trajectories. The most significant variation in growth patterns was consistent with those that have been observed in recent times, for example, reduced early juvenile growth during periods of colder ocean temperature. The current results represent a high resolution chronological record of north-east Atlantic cod growth, greatly increasing the prior temporal range of such data, thereby providing a valuable baseline for a broad range of studies on Atlantic cod growth.

  1. Improved management based on stock identification of eastern and western Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Bastardie, Francois; Eero, Margit

    The objective of this project was to establish an empirically founded knowledge base for the sustainable exploitation of the western Baltic cod stock by including the complex stock structure and migration patterns. Stock mapping: Extensive immigration of “Eastern” cod into the Arkona Basin (SD 24......) within the “Western” cod’s management unit was documented using high-powered genetic tools. The majority (91%) of all spawning fish caught in SD 24 in 2011 were “Eastern” cod and only 9% were from the “Western” stock. The results suggest that the stock structure in the Arkona Basin is highly influenced...... by mixing of genetically separate stocks. Trends in mixing: Since the 1980’s where cod in SD 24 consisted primarily of “Western” type, the proportion of “Eastern” cod has increased, particularly since 2005. Throughout that period, the immigration of “Eastern” cod into SD 24 consisted primarily of adult...

  2. Experience destructive therapy anogenital warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Rahmatulina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the efficiency and tolerability of the Mardil Zinc Max, solution for external application, in topical therapy of patients with anogenital warts. Materials and methods. The study involved 58 women and 12 men at the age of 18 to 57 years old, suffering from anogenital warts. the diagnosis was confirmed by identification of human papillomavirus by the polymerase chain reaction in real time. All the patients were treated by the chemical destruction of anogenital warts with the 1.5% solution of zinc chloropropionate in 50% 2-chloropropionic acid (Mardil Zinc Max by a single application of the solution on the pathological eruptions. The results of treatment were assessed in 2 weeks, in 1, 3, 6 and 9 months after the destructive therapy. Results. In 2 weeks 62 (88.6% patients showed a clinical cure with complete tissue regeneration in the lesions, in 8 (11,4% cases in areas of the preparation erosions were visualized in the epithelialization phase, and they completely resolved within 1 week. recurrences of anogenital warts were detected in 1 (1,4% patient in the observation period up to 3 months and in 2 (2,8% patients during 9 months after carrying out the destruction. Adverse drug events have not been identified in the course of therapy and follow-up. Conclusions. As a result of the treatment of anogenital warts with the Mardil Zinc Max high rate of performance and security was set (100%, as well as the low percentage (4,2% of development of relapses.

  3. Mediated electrochemical hazardous waste destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.G.; Farmer, J.C.; Wang, F.T.

    1992-03-01

    There are few permitted processes for mixed waste (radioactive plus chemically hazardous) treatment. We are developing an electrochemical process, based upon mediated electrochemical oxidation (MEO), that converts toxic organic components of mixed waste to water, carbon dioxide, and chloride or chloride precipitates. Aggressive oxidizer ions such as Ag 2+ , Co 3+ , or Fe 3+ are produced at an anode. These can attack organic molecules directly, and may also produce hydroxyl free radicals that promote destruction. Solid and liquid radioactive waste streams containing only inorganic radionuclide forms may be treated with existing technology and prepared for final disposal. The coulombic efficiency of the process has been determined, as well as the destruction efficiency for ethylene glycol, a surrogate waste. In addition, hazardous organic materials are becoming very expensive to dispose of and when they are combined with transuranic radioactive elements no processes are presently permitted. Mediated electrochemical oxidation is an ambient- temperature aqueous-phase process that can be used to oxidize organic components of mixed wastes. Problems associated with incineration, such as high-temperature volatilization of radionuclides, are avoided. Historically, Ag(II) has been used as a mediator in this process. Fe(III) and Co(III) are attractive alternatives to Ag(II) since they form soluble chlorides during the destruction of chlorinated solvents. Furthermore, silver itself is toxic heavy metal. Quantitative data have been obtained for the complete oxidation of ethylene glycol by Fe(III) and Co(III). Though ethylene glycol is a nonhalogenated organic, these data have enabled us to make direct comparisons of activities of Fe(III) and Co(III) with Ag(II). Very good quantitative data for the oxidation of ethylene glycol by Ag(II) had already been collected

  4. Process contribution evaluation for COD removal and energy production from molasses wastewater in a BioH2-BioCH4-MFC-integrated system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jeonghee; Lee, Yun-Yeong; Choi, Hyung Joo; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a three-stage-integrated process using the hydrogenic process (BioH 2 ), methanogenic process (BioCH 4 ), and a microbial fuel cell (MFC) was operated using molasses wastewater. The contribution of individual processes to chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and energy production was evaluated. The three-stage integration system was operated at molasses of 20 g-COD L -1 , and each process achieved hydrogen production rate of 1.1 ± 0.24 L-H 2 L -1 day -1 , methane production rate of 311 ± 18.94 mL-CH 4 L -1 day -1 , and production rate per electrode surface area of 10.8 ± 1.4 g m -2 day -1 . The three-stage integration system generated energy production of 32.32 kJ g-COD -1 and achieved COD removal of 98 %. The contribution of BioH 2 , BioCH 4 , and the MFC reactor was 20.8, 72.2, and, 7.0 % of the total COD removal, and 18.7, 81.2, and 0.16 % of the total energy production, respectively. The continuous stirred-tank reactor BioH 2 at HRT of 1 day, up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket BioCH 4 at HRT of 2 days, and MFC reactor at HRT of 3 days were decided in 1:2:3 ratios of working volume under hydraulic retention time consideration. This integration system can be applied to various configurations depending on target wastewater inputs, and it is expected to enhance energy recovery and reduce environmental impact of the final effluent.

  5. Nilotinib-Associated Destructive Thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhalia Bakerywala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors are currently an important drug class in the treatment of leukemia. They represent targeted cancer therapy and have become the treatment of choice in chronic myeloid leukemia. Tyrosine kinases are enzymes expressed in multiple tissues and are involved in several signaling pathways influencing cellular growth. Below we describe a patient who developed an unusual complication of tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy: thyrotoxicosis due to destructive thyroiditis. We review the pathophysiology of tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced thyroid dysfunction particularly with regard to new second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

  6. Creative destruction and export patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Kvedaras, Virmantas; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2014-01-01

    varieties obsolete. For a given technology (variety) production costs decrease after an infant period due to learning. While all firms are assumed to be symmetric in a life-cycle perspective, at a given point in time firms of different ages differ in productivity, firm size, product quality, and export...... behavior. The model highlights a process of creative destruction, which allows firms to produce in a finite span of periods determined by the intensity of product and process innovations. The model predicts a wide range of export behavior of the individual firm during its life cycle depending...

  7. Electrocoagulation process to Chemical and Biological Oxygen Demand treatment from carwash grey water in Ahvaz megacity, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Javad; Takdastan, Afshin; Jorfi, Sahand; Neisi, Abdolkazem; Farhadi, Majid; Yari, Ahmad Reza; Dobaradaran, Sina; Khaniabadi, Yusef Omidi

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we present the result of an electric coagulation process with iron and aluminum electrodes for removal of chemical and biological oxygen demand (COD and BOD) from grey water in different car washes of Ahvaz, Iran. Nowadays, one of the important dangerous that can contaminate water resources for drinking, agriculture and industrial is Car wash effluent [1,2]. In this study, initial COD and BOD concentration, pH of the solution, voltage power and reaction time was investigated. The concentration level of remaining COD and BOD in samples was measured, using DR/5000 UV-vis HACH spectrophotometer [3,4]. The effects of contact time, initial pH, electrical potential and voltage data on removal of COD and BOD were presented. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using Special Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 16).

  8. Electrocoagulation process to Chemical and Biological Oxygen Demand treatment from carwash grey water in Ahvaz megacity, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Mohammadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the result of an electric coagulation process with iron and aluminum electrodes for removal of chemical and biological oxygen demand (COD and BOD from grey water in different car washes of Ahvaz, Iran. Nowadays, one of the important dangerous that can contaminate water resources for drinking, agriculture and industrial is Car wash effluent [1,2]. In this study, initial COD and BOD concentration, pH of the solution, voltage power and reaction time was investigated. The concentration level of remaining COD and BOD in samples was measured, using DR/5000 UV–vis HACH spectrophotometer [3,4]. The effects of contact time, initial pH, electrical potential and voltage data on removal of COD and BOD were presented. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using Special Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 16.

  9. Chromium (VI) biosorption and removal of chemical oxygen demand by Spirulina platensis from wastewater-supplemented culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Clinei D; Deon, Maitê C; De Rossi, Andreia; Reinehr, Christian O; Hemkemeier, Marcelo; Colla, Luciane M

    2012-01-01

    The inappropriate discharge of wastewater containing high concentrations of toxic metals is a serious threat to the environment. Given that the microalga Spirulina platensis has demonstrated a capacity for chromium VI (Cr (VI) biosorption, we assessed the ideal concentration of chromium-containing wastewater required for maximum removal of Cr (VI) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the environment by using this microalga. The Paracas and Leb-52 strains of S. platensis, with initial wastewater concentrations of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, and 50%, were cultured in Zarrouk medium diluted to 50% under controlled air, temperature, and lighting conditions. The cultures were maintained for 28 days, and pH, biomass growth, COD, and Cr (VI) were assessed. The wastewater concentration influenced microalgal growth, especially at high concentrations. Removal of 82.19% COD and 60.92% Cr (VI) was obtained, but the COD removal was greater than the Cr (VI) removal in both strains of S. platensis.

  10. Advanced uses of radiation in non-destructive evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldev Raj; Viswanathan, B.; Venkataraman, B.

    1998-01-01

    The increasing demand for newer materials and stringency of specifications, have expanded the scope of advanced uses of radiation in non-destructive evaluation of materials and industrial components. This paper highlights the application of some of the advanced techniques of radiography and residual stress measurements, using x-ray diffraction, for materials characterisation and testing, based on the results obtained at the author's laboratory. The application of positron annihilation techniques based on the use of radioisotopes and high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy, is introduced as non-destructive tools for materials characterisation. Selective examples of significant results obtained using this technique, on the radiation damage and early stages of fatigue damage in technologically important steels are reviewed from recent works at the author's laboratory and elsewhere. The scope of application of charge particle based thin layer activation method is briefly outlined. (author)

  11. Recovery in eastern Baltic cod: is increased recruitment caused by decreased predation on early life stages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, M.

    2014-01-01

    Cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment in the eastern Baltic Sea is influenced by predation on early life stages by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus), which is considered as one of the mechanisms preventing cod recovery in the 1990s. In the light of improved cod recruitment...... in the second half of the 2000s, new analyses of stomach content of sprat and herring were conducted, to elucidate the contribution of changes in predation pressure on cod recruitment. Comparison of stomach contents of sprat and herring in 2004–2008 with data from the 1990s showed a similar diet composition...

  12. Destructive spondyloarthropathy in hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orzincolo, C.; Ghedini, M.; Cardona, P.; Bedani, P.L.; Scutellari, P. N.

    1991-01-01

    Destructive spondyloarthropathy (DSA) has been observed in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis. The pathophysiology of this condition is still unknown, but there is evidence that amyloid depositions play an important role in its development. Despite several reports, the radiological evolution of these lesions is poorly known. The authors report the results of the radiographic follow-up (12-18 months) of 9 cases (7 female and 2 male patients; age 63±6 years) hemodilized for over 60 months (mean: 126±33). In 7 cases. radiographic patterns of destructive arthropathy were seen in peripheral joints as well. X-ray pictures demonstrated: 1) increased erosion of vertebral end plates (in all cases); 2) increased narrowing of invertebral spaces (in 5 cases); 3) increased collapse of vertebral bodies (in 5 cases); 4) increased malalignment of the involved segments (in 4 cases). In 3 autopsied cases β 2 -microglobulin amyloid depositions were found in disc and ligamentous paravertebral tissue. These results confirm that: 1) DSA is progressive in longterm hemodialysis patients; 2) radiographic evolution is often very quick; 3) the cervical spine is the most frequently involved location and the one where lesions are quickest to develop; 4) severe malalignament of the involved spine may be present, with subsequent neurological complications

  13. Evaluation of nitrate destruction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.A.; Kurath, D.E.; Guenther, R.

    1993-01-01

    A wide variety of high nitrate-concentration aqueous mixed [radioactive and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous] wastes are stored at various US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. These wastes will ultimately be solidified for final disposal, although the waste acceptance criteria for the final waste form is still being determined. Because the nitrates in the wastes will normally increase the volume or reduce the integrity of all of the waste forms under consideration for final disposal, nitrate destruction before solidification of the waste will generally be beneficial. This report describes and evaluates various technologies that could be used to destroy the nitrates in the stored wastes. This work was funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development, through the Chemical/Physical Technology Support Group of the Mixed Waste Integrated Program. All the nitrate destruction technologies will require further development work before a facility could be designed and built to treat the majority of the stored wastes. Several of the technologies have particularly attractive features: the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process produces an insoluble waste form with a significant volume reduction, electrochemical reduction destroys nitrates without any chemical addition, and the hydrothermal process can simultaneously treat nitrates and organics in both acidic and alkaline wastes. These three technologies have been tested using lab-scale equipment and surrogate solutions. At their current state of development, it is not possible to predict which process will be the most beneficial for a particular waste stream

  14. Self-Destructing Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, Yuval [Cornell U., LEPP; Harnik, Roni [Fermilab; Telem, Ofri [Cornell U., LEPP; Zhang, Yue [Northwestern U.

    2017-12-01

    We present Self-Destructing Dark Matter (SDDM), a new class of dark matter models which are detectable in large neutrino detectors. In this class of models, a component of dark matter can transition from a long-lived state to a short-lived one by scattering off of a nucleus or an electron in the Earth. The short-lived state then decays to Standard Model particles, generating a dark matter signal with a visible energy of order the dark matter mass rather than just its recoil. This leads to striking signals in large detectors with high energy thresholds. We present a few examples of models which exhibit self destruction, all inspired by bound state dynamics in the Standard Model. The models under consideration exhibit a rich phenomenology, possibly featuring events with one, two, or even three lepton pairs, each with a fixed invariant mass and a fixed energy, as well as non-trivial directional distributions. This motivates dedicated searches for dark matter in large underground detectors such as Super-K, Borexino, SNO+, and DUNE.

  15. Decolorization and COD reduction of UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater by electrocoagulation process: A post-treatment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Ilhan, Fatih; Sapci-Zengin, Zehra; Sakar, Suleyman; Gonullu, M. Talha

    2009-01-01

    The performance of electrocoagulation (EC) technique for decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of anaerobically pretreated poultry manure wastewater was investigated in a laboratory batch study. Two identical 15.7-L up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors were first run under various organic and hydraulic loading conditions for 216 days. Effects of operating parameters such as type of sacrificial electrode material, time of electrolysis, current density, initial pH, and electrolyte concentration were further studied to optimize conditions for the post-treatment of UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater. Preliminary tests conducted with two types of sacrificial electrodes (Al and Fe) resulted that Al electrodes were found to be more effective for both COD and color removals than Fe electrodes. The subsequent EC tests performed with Al electrodes showed that optimal operating conditions were determined to be an initial pH of 5.0, a current density of 15 mA/cm 2 , and an electrolysis time of 20 min. The results indicated that under the optimal conditions, about 90% of COD and 92% of residual color could be effectively removed from the UASB effluent with the further contribution of the EC technology used as a post-treatment unit. In this study, the possible acute toxicity of the EC effluent was also evaluated by a static bioassay test procedure using guppy fish (Lebistes reticulatus). Findings of this study clearly indicated that incorporation of a toxicological test into conventional physicochemical analyses provided a better evaluation of final discharge characteristics

  16. Decolorization and COD reduction of UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater by electrocoagulation process: A post-treatment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: yetilmez@yildiz.edu.tr; Ilhan, Fatih; Sapci-Zengin, Zehra; Sakar, Suleyman; Gonullu, M. Talha [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-02-15

    The performance of electrocoagulation (EC) technique for decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of anaerobically pretreated poultry manure wastewater was investigated in a laboratory batch study. Two identical 15.7-L up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors were first run under various organic and hydraulic loading conditions for 216 days. Effects of operating parameters such as type of sacrificial electrode material, time of electrolysis, current density, initial pH, and electrolyte concentration were further studied to optimize conditions for the post-treatment of UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater. Preliminary tests conducted with two types of sacrificial electrodes (Al and Fe) resulted that Al electrodes were found to be more effective for both COD and color removals than Fe electrodes. The subsequent EC tests performed with Al electrodes showed that optimal operating conditions were determined to be an initial pH of 5.0, a current density of 15 mA/cm{sup 2}, and an electrolysis time of 20 min. The results indicated that under the optimal conditions, about 90% of COD and 92% of residual color could be effectively removed from the UASB effluent with the further contribution of the EC technology used as a post-treatment unit. In this study, the possible acute toxicity of the EC effluent was also evaluated by a static bioassay test procedure using guppy fish (Lebistes reticulatus). Findings of this study clearly indicated that incorporation of a toxicological test into conventional physicochemical analyses provided a better evaluation of final discharge characteristics.

  17. Training Guidelines in Non-destructive Testing Techniques. 2013 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The IAEA promotes industrial applications of radiation technology, including non-destructive testing (NDT), through activities such as Technical Cooperation Projects (national and regional) and Coordinated Research Projects. Through this cooperation, Member States have initiated national programmes for the training and certification of NDT personnel. National certifying bodies have also been established based on International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards. As part of these efforts, the IAEA has been actively involved in developing training materials. Consequently, IAEA-TECDOC-407, Training Guidelines in Non-destructive Testing Techniques, was published in 1987, then revised and expanded as IAEA-TECDOC-628 in 1991. Revisions of IAEA-TECDOC-628 were considered essential to meet the demands of end-user industries in Member States, and revised and expanded versions were issued in 2002 and 2008. These latter versions included work conducted by the International Committee for Non-Destructive Testing (ICNDT) and many national NDT societies. It is one of the publications referred to in ISO 9712:2005, Non-destructive Testing: Qualification and Certification of Personnel, which in turn is an internationally accepted standard, revised as ISO 9712:2012, Non-destructive Testing: Qualification and Certification of NDT Personnel. This publication is an updated version of IAEA-TECDOC-628. The content of which has been revised following the changes of ISO 9712 converging with EN 473 and becoming EN ISO 9712:2012, based on the experience of experts and comments from end-user industries. The details of the topics on each subject have been expanded to include the latest developments in the respective methods. The incorporated changes will assist the end-user industries to update their NDT qualification and certification schemes and course materials. This publication, like the previous versions, will continue to play an important role in international harmonization

  18. Quality improvement in determination of chemical oxygen demand in samples considered difficult to analyze, through participation in proficiency-testing schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raposo, Francisco; Fernández-Cegrí, V.; De la Rubia, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a critical analytical parameter in waste and wastewater treatment, more specifically in anaerobic digestion, although little is known about the quality of measuring COD of anaerobic digestion samples. Proficiency testing (PT) is a powerful tool that can be used...... to test the performance achievable in the participants laboratories, so we carried out a second PT of COD determination in samples considered ‘‘difficult’’ to analyze (i.e. solid samples and liquid samples with high concentrations of suspended solids). The results obtained (based on acceptable z...

  19. Indirect Self-Destructiveness and Emotional Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos

    2016-06-01

    While emotional intelligence may have a favourable influence on the life and psychological and social functioning of the individual, indirect self-destructiveness exerts a rather negative influence. The aim of this study has been to explore possible relations between indirect self-destructiveness and emotional intelligence. A population of 260 individuals (130 females and 130 males) aged 20-30 (mean age of 24.5) was studied by using the Polish version of the chronic self-destructiveness scale and INTE, i.e., the Polish version of the assessing emotions scale. Indirect self-destructiveness has significant correlations with all variables of INTE (overall score, factor I, factor II), and these correlations are negative. The intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates significantly the height of the emotional intelligence and vice versa: the height of the emotional intelligence differentiates significantly the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness. Indirect self-destructiveness has negative correlations with emotional intelligence as well as its components: the ability to recognize emotions and the ability to utilize emotions. The height of emotional intelligence differentiates the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness, and vice versa: the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates the height of emotional intelligence. It seems advisable to use emotional intelligence in the prophylactic and therapeutic work with persons with various types of disorders, especially with the syndrome of indirect self-destructiveness.

  20. Mediated electrochemical hazardous waste destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.G.; Farmer, J.C.; Wang, F.T.

    1991-08-01

    There are few permitted processes for mixed waste (radioactive plus chemically hazardous) treatment. We are developing electrochemical processes that convert the toxic organic components of mixed waste to water, carbon dioxide, an innocuous anions such as chloride. Aggressive oxidizer ions such as Ag 2+ or Ce +4 are produced at an anode. These can attack the organic molecules directly. They can also attack water which yields hydroxyl free radicals that in turn attack the organic molecules. The condensed (i.e., solid and/or liquid) effluent streams contain the inorganic radionuclide forms. These may be treated with existing technology and prepared for final disposal. Kinetics and the extent of destruction of some toxic organics have been measured. Depending on how the process is operated, coulombic efficiency can be nearly 100%. In addition, hazardous organic materials are becoming very expensive to dispose of and when they are combined with transuranic radioactive elements no processes are presently permitted. Mediated electrochemical oxidation is an ambient-temperature aqueous-phase process that can be used to oxidize organic components of mixed wastes. Problems associated with incineration, such as high-temperature volatilization of radionuclides, are avoided. Historically, Ag (2) has been used as a mediator in this process. Fe(6) and Co(3) are attractive alternatives to Ag(2) since they form soluble chlorides during the destruction of chlorinated solvents. Furthermore, silver itself is a toxic heavy metal. Quantitative data has been obtained for the complete oxidation of ethylene glycol by Fe(6) and Co(3). Though ethylene glycol is a nonhalogenated organic, this data has enabled us to make direct comparisons of activities of Fe(6) and Co(3) with Ag(2). Very good quantitative data for the oxidation of ethylene glycol by Ag(2) had already been collected. 4 refs., 6 figs

  1. L’écodéveloppement participatif en question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Dejouhanet

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Si les politiques forestières indiennes ont évolué d’un paradigme directif à un paradigme participatif, les aires protégées sont encore gérées par des textes de loi qui privilégient la séparation entre activités humaines et espaces à protéger. L’écodéveloppement, soutenu par la Banque Mondiale, se voulait un moyen de favoriser des activités alternatives à l’exploitation des ressources et de faire participer les populations à la protection de leur environnement. Lancé en 2001 dans la réserve naturelle de Parambikulam au Kérala, ses résultats quelques années après sont peu concluants. Alors qu’un rapport de 2003 accuse le délitement social des populations concernées, cet article insiste davantage sur l’inadaptation des projets des comités d’écodéveloppement au contexte des villages ; le cliché essentialiste attaché aux populations adivasi constitue une vision a-historique qui ne permet pas de penser le développement aujourd’hui. L’écodéveloppement, s’il veut atteindre ses objectifs, doit permettre une réelle négociation entre acteurs des aires protégées et proposer des compromis réalistes entre limitation des activités et survie des populations.While Indian forest policies have evolved from a directive paradigm to a participative one, protected areas are still managed by legislative acts, which advocate a clear separation between human activities and areas to be protected. Eco-development financed by the World Bank was planned as a tool for developing alternative activities to resource exploitation and for involving local populations in environment protection through participation. Started in 2001 in the Wildlife Sanctuary of Parambikulam in Kerala, its results few years after are rather inconclusive. While a report in 2003 was accusing the social disintegration of concerned people, I am more stressing on the inappropriateness of EDC to villages’ context. The essentialist clich

  2. Low-cost adsorbent prepared from sewage sludge and corn stalk for the removal of COD in leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Liao, Xiaofeng; Liao, Li; Shu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Sewage sludge (SS) with corn stalk (CS) was used to prepare SS-based activated carbon (SAC) by pyrolysis with ZnCl2. The effects of mixing ratio on surface area and pore size distribution, elemental composition, surface chemistry, and morphology were investigated. The results demonstrated that the addition of CS into SS samples improved the surface area (from 92 to 902 m(2)/g) and the microporosity (from 1.2 to 4.1%) of the adsorbents and, therefore, enhancing the adsorption performance. The removal of leachate chemical oxygen demand (COD) was also determined. It was found that the COD removal rate reached 85% at pH 4 with the SAC (90 wt% CS) dosage of 2% (g/mL) and an adsorption time of 40 min. The adsorption experimental data were fitted by both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Long-chain alkanes and refractory organics were found in raw leachate, but could be removed by SAC largely.

  3. Developing Baltic cod recruitment models I : Resolving spatial and temporal dynamics of spawning stock and recruitment for cod, herring, and sprat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Möllmann, C.; Neuenfeldt, Stefan

    2001-01-01

    The Baltic Sea comprises a heterogeneous oceanographic environment influencing the spatial and temporal potential for reproductive success of cod (Gadus morhua) and sprat (Sprattus sprattus) in the different spawning basins. Hence, to quantify stock and recruitment dynamics, it is necessary......-disaggregated multispecies virtual population analyses (MSVPA) were performed for interacting species cod, herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat in the different subdivisions of the Central Baltic. The MSVPA runs revealed distinct spatial trends in population abundance, spawning biomass, recruitment, and predation...

  4. Hydrolysis of Marine Cod (Gadus Morhua) Head - Utilization of rest raw material from cod for production of ingredients for human consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Meldstad, Fataneh

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the possibility of utilizing frozen marine cod head for further processing into high-quality and high-yield fish protein hydrolysates. The project included determination of the effect of mincing versus whole head, frozen storage and thawing methods on the composition and yield of FPH. The results show that freezing and thawing of cod head lead to small changes in the composition of raw material and consequently the resulting ...

  5. Ingestion of bacteria by cod (Gadus morhua L.) larvae. In: The propagation of cod Gadus morhua L.: an international symposium, Arendal, 14 - 17 June 1983

    OpenAIRE

    Olafsen, Jan A.

    1984-01-01

    The uptake of Rhodamine-labelled bacteria by cod larvae was demonstrated using a fluorescent microscopy technique, which allowed a quick estimate of bacterial uptake and gut clearance. Live or heat-killed bacteria, isolated from cod-eggs, were rapidly ingested by larvae at yolk-sac and older stages. A substantial uptake could be seen after 15 min exposure, and eventually the bacteria became densely packed in the digestive tract. Some morphological details in the develo...

  6. PENURUNAN COD, TSS DAN TOTAL FOSFAT PADA SEPTIC TANK LIMBAH MATARAM CITRA SEMBADA CATERING DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN WASTEWATER GARDEN (Degradation of COD, TSS and Total Phosphate in Septic Tank Wastewater of Mataram Citra Sembada Catering Using Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dradjat Suhardjo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK  Sumber limbah berasal dari septictank industri restauran (catering Citra Sembada Catering, termasuk dalam kategori limbah domestik. Limbah tersebut banyak mengandung komponen yang tidak diinginkan bila dibuang ke badan air. Konsentrasi limbah yang masih di atas baku mutu, di antaranya akan memunculkan masalah pencemaran. Reaktor Wastewater Garden yang menggunakan krikil (0,5Cm-1cm dan 6 jenis tanaman yaitu : melati air (Echinodoras paleafias, Cyperus (Cyperus, Futoi (Hippochaetes lymnenalis, Pisang air (Typhonodorum indleyanum, Pickerel rush (Pontedoria cordata, Cattail (Typha latifulia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat efektivitas reaktor Wastewater Garden, apabila digunakan untuk menurunkan konsentrasi Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Total Suspended Solid (TSS dan Fosfat Total sebagai faktor pencemar pada limbah industri restauran (Citra Sembada Catering yang tertampung pada septictank. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan reaktor Wastewater Garden dengan sistem batch dan dimensi reaktor lm x 0.5m x lm. Zona air limbah 75 cm, dan zona substrat atau krikil 80 cm, akar tanaman ditanam sedalam l0-15 cm. Metode penelitian yang digunakan berdasarkan SNI, di mana COD mengacu pada SNI 06-6989.2-2004 metode refluks tertutup secara spektrofotometri, TSS mengacu pada SK SNI M-03-1990-F metode pengujian secara gravimetri dan Fosfat total mengacu pada SNI M-52-1990-03 metode asam askorbat dengan alat spektrofotometer. Penelitian ini dilakukan selama 12 hari di mana setiap 3 hari sampel diambil pada outlel kemudian dianalisis. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini, diperoleh bahwa penggunaan wastewater garden pada limbah cair Mataram Citra Sembada Catering dapat menurunkan COD dengan efektivitas optimum 40,81% pada hari ke-6, penurunan TSS 89,l2% pada efektifitas optirnum hari ke-12 dan penurunan fosfat total dengan efektivitas optimum pada hari ke-6 yaitu sebesar 99,73 %. Tanaman dapat hidup dengan subur.   ABSTRACT  Wastewater

  7. Hazard Analysis and identification of Critical Control Points of collagen extraction from cod by-products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberts, C.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the European research project “UTILISATION AND STABILISATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COD SPECIES” (QLK1-CT-2000-01017 QLRT-2001-02829) is to investigate whether collagen from fish by-products could serve as an important raw material in high quality food. Since Atlantic cod is a major

  8. Plastic ingestion by juvenile polar cod (Boreogadus saida) in the Arctic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühn, Susanne; Schaafsma, Fokje L.; Werven, van Bernike; Flores, Hauke; Bergmann, Melanie; Egelkraut-Holtus, Marion; Tekman, Mine B.; Franeker, van Jan A.

    2018-01-01

    One of the recently recognised stressors in Arctic ecosystems concerns plastic litter. In this study, juvenile polar cod (Boreogadus saida) were investigated for the presence of plastics in their stomachs. Polar cod is considered a key species in the Arctic ecosystem. The fish were collected both

  9. 77 FR 59970 - Notice of November 14, 2012, Meeting for Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... change Herring Cove Beach/revetment Climate Friendly Parks 6. Old Business National Seashore Law Enforcement Policies 7. New Business 8. Date and agenda for next meeting 9. Public comment and 10. Adjournment... Meeting of the Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission. DATES: The public meeting of the Cape Cod...

  10. Increasing intake of soybean protein or casein, but not cod meal, reduces nephrocalcinosis in female rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Beynen, A.C.

    1992-01-01

    Female weanling rats were fed diets with soybean protein, casein or cod meal at 171, 342 or 513 mmol nitrogen/100 g for 3 wk. The diets were isonitrogenous and balanced for fat, cholesterol, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. Cod meal feeding at 171 and 342 mmol nitrogen/100 g diet produced lower

  11. Prediction of selectivity from morphological conditions: Methodology and a case study on cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Bent; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Frandsen, Rikke

    2009-01-01

    The FISHSELECT methodology. tools, and software were developed and used to measure the morphological parameters that determine the ability of cod to penetrate different mesh types, sizes, and openings. The shape of one cross-section at the cod's head was found to explain 97.6% of the mesh...

  12. Time matters: post-surgical recovery of gastric evacuation rate in Atlantic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Jane; Gräns, Albin; Andersen, Niels Gerner

    GER was affected after surgically introducing dummies of a blood-flow biotelemetry system into the abdominal cavity of Atlantic cod. Two days post surgery the cod with implants were, together with a control group, force-fed a standardized meal and the stomach contents recovered 24h later...

  13. Cod Gadus morhua and climate change: processes, productivity and prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, Keith

    2010-01-01

    the causes. Investigation of cod Gadus morhua populations across the whole North Atlantic Ocean has shown large-scale patterns of change in productivity due to lower individual growth and condition, caused by large-scale climate forcing. If a population is being heavily exploited then a drop in productivity......Environmental factors act on individual fishes directly and indirectly. The direct effects on rates and behaviour can be studied experimentally and in the field, particularly with the advent of ever smarter tags for tracking fishes and their environment. Indirect effects due to changes in food......, predators, parasites and diseases are much more difficult to estimate and predict. Climate can affect all life-history stages through direct and indirect processes and although the consequences in terms of growth, survival and reproductive output can be monitored, it is often difficult to determine...

  14. [Cod liver oil. A natural Vitamin D for preserving health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehér, János; Kovács, Illés; Corrado, Balacco-Gabrieli

    2011-02-27

    Vitamin D deficiency is pandemic in industrialized countries due to life-style changes. Recent studies suggest that besides bone-metabolism, vitamin D plays a central role in basic cell function like multiplication, differentiation and metabolism. This may explain that low vitamin D levels represent a risk factor for several apparently different diseases such as infective, autoimmune, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, as well as diabetes, osteoporosis and cancer. Accumulating evidences suggest that an adequate intake of vitamin D may significantly decrease prevalence and clinical outcome of these diseases. Estimated reduction of the economic burden might reach about 10 percent through normalizing vitamin D levels for these diseases. However, high doses of vitamin D monotherapy needs precaution for potential adverse effects and it should be substituted with the recommended doses of vitamin D in combination with synergistic vitamin A and omega 3 fatty acids, such as cod liver oil.

  15. KEMAMPUAN SISTEM SARINGAN PASIR-TANAMAN MENURUNKAN NILAI BOD DAN COD AIR TERCEMAR LIMBAH PENCELUPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I W. Budiarsa Suyasa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Colored of clothes has developed as concentrated in Denpasar area. The process has a negativeeffect because of waste, the resulting organic toxicants and heavy metal into aquatic system. The effect ofthe pollution including the river, well water and organism that live there. The research of bioremedialeffectiveness of herb-sand treatment system on laboratory simulation were studied in Denpasar, from June2004 to September 2004.For laboratory simulation, the plants were cultured in 25 cm sand bed, in between 5 cm palmfiber ofwhich were in between 10 cm pumicestone for the top and 5 cm gravel for the bottom with surface area of 25x 50 cm2.The result of treatment system showed that effective for decrease biological oxygen demandcompared to those of chemical oxygen demand parameters. The treatment system reduced significantly BODlevel respectively to 13,15 for 3 days, 11,19 for 10 days and 5,79 for 20 days with 85,55 – 93,63 effectively.While COD level respectively to 76,68 for 3 days, 61,38 for 10 days and 58,57 for 20 days with 42,78 – 56,50effectively. Time of treatment for 3, 10 and 20 days showed a little increase of pH from 6,87 to 7,00.

  16. Anaerobic treatment of agro-industrial wastewaters for COD removal in expanded granular sludge bed bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abumalé Cruz-Salomón

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Untreated agro-industrial wastewaters are undesirable in the aquatic environment due to the presence of high organic matter contents. However, they may constitute a large potential for biogas production. The present investigation is focused on three laboratory-scale anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB bioreactors, continuously operated for 60 d under mesophilic condition with the aim of exploring the feasibility of treating three most significant agro-industrial wastewaters in Chiapas, Mexico (i.e., cheese whey, vinasse, and coffee-processing wastewater. The EGSB bioreactors were operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT of 6 d under stable conditions (i.e., buffer index (BI of 0.31, 0.34, and 0.03, generating a maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD removal efficiency of 91, 74, and 96% with an average methane production of 340, 245, and 300 mL/g COD∙d for cheese whey, vinasse, and coffee-processing wastewater, respectively. According to the obtained results, the EGSB bioreactors could be a sustainable alternative to simultaneously solve the environmental problems and to produce bioenergy.

  17. Biodegradation of COD in Household Wastewater with Aerobic Biofilm Technology by Adding Sediment Drainage Sewerage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyati, Sri; Purwanto; Sutrisno, Endro; Sudarno; Arthawidya, Jalu; Izzudin, Humam

    2018-02-01

    Household wastewater contains contaminants that harm the environment. One of the pollutants found COD. If being discharged into the environment directly, COD concentrations exceeding the existing quality standard will disrupt the ecosystem in the receiving water body. One of the technologies that can degrade COD is biofilm technology with honeycomb tube media. This research aims to analyze the decrease of COD concentration present in wastewater household with biofilm technology of honeycomb media. The reactor used in was made of glass with a thickness of 4 mm, a volume of 18 litres and operated continuously. The media used is made of a PVC pipe, cut to 3 cm in size and then glued to one another, forming a honey comb. The results showed that there has been a decrease in COD concentration of household wastewater.

  18. Host size-dependent anisakid infection in Baltic cod Gadus morhua associated with differential food preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, Shaozhi; Huwer, Bastian; Bahlool, Qusay

    2016-01-01

    A significant increase in the infection level of Baltic cod Gadus morhua with the anisakid nematode larvae Contracaecum osculatum and Pseudoterranova decipiens has been recorded during recent years due to the expanding local population of grey seals Halichoerus grypus, which act as final hosts...... for these parasites. Here, we report from an investigation of 368 cod (total length [TL] 6-49 cm; caught in ICES Subdivision 25) that the infection level of juvenile cod (TL 6-30 cm) with larvae of C. osculatum and P. decipiens is absent or very low, whereas it increases drastically in larger cod (TL 31-48 cm...... suggest that the C. osculatum life cycle in the Baltic Sea includes grey seals as final hosts, sprat as the first transport host and cod as second transport host. It may be speculated that sprat obtain infection by feeding on copepods and/or cladocerans, which could serve as the first intermediate hosts...

  19. Thermal niche of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua: limits, tolerance and optima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Righton, David A.; Andersen, Ken Haste; Neat, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies in the marine environment have suggested that the limited phenotypic plasticity of cold-adapted species such as Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. will cause distributions to shift toward the poles in response to rising sea temperatures. Some cod stocks are predicted to collapse, but thi......Recent studies in the marine environment have suggested that the limited phenotypic plasticity of cold-adapted species such as Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. will cause distributions to shift toward the poles in response to rising sea temperatures. Some cod stocks are predicted to collapse...... niche of approximately 12°C, but latitudinal differences in water temperature meant that cod in the warmer, southern regions experienced 3 times the degree days (DD; ~4000 DD yr–1) than individuals from northern regions (~1200 DD yr–1). Growth rates increased with temperature, reaching a maximum...

  20. Association between nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum invasion of cod larvae and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Bahlool, Qusay Z. M.; Kuhn, Jesper

    , lapillus otoliths were removed, polished and the number of growth zones in each otolith counted by light microscopy. Each growth zone indicates one day of the fish life span. Covariance analysis demonstrated highly significant differences (p≤ 0.001) between the growth rate of infected and uninfected cod...... invertebrates and fish species and for some species also higher vertebrate hosts. We have recently demonstrated that fry of North Sea cod has a high prevalence of infection with regard to the nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum and it was indicated that these infections could affect survival of cod and thereby...... affect the cod stock in the North Sea. The objective of the present study was to elucidate if infections are associated with a decrease or an increase of fish size when examining fish of the same age. We investigated effects of H. aduncum infections on the growth rate of cod larvae by using the otolith...

  1. Peroxone mineralization of chemical oxygen demand for direct potable water reuse: Kinetics and process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tingting; Englehardt, James D

    2015-04-15

    Mineralization of organics in secondary effluent by the peroxone process was studied at a direct potable water reuse research treatment system serving an occupied four-bedroom, four bath university residence hall apartment. Organic concentrations were measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD) and kinetic runs were monitored at varying O3/H2O2 dosages and ratios. COD degradation could be accurately described as the parallel pseudo-1st order decay of rapidly and slowly-oxidizable fractions, and effluent COD was reduced to below the detection limit (<0.7 mg/L). At dosages ≥4.6 mg L(-1) h(-1), an O3/H2O2 mass ratio of 3.4-3.8, and initial COD <20 mg/L, a simple first order decay was indicated for both single-passed treated wastewater and recycled mineral water, and a relationship is proposed and demonstrated to estimate the pseudo-first order rate constant for design purposes. At this O3/H2O2 mass ratio, ORP and dissolved ozone were found to be useful process control indicators for monitoring COD mineralization in secondary effluent. Moreover, an average second order rate constant for OH oxidation of secondary effluent organics (measured as MCOD) was found to be 1.24 × 10(7) ± 0.64 × 10(7) M(-1) S(-1). The electric energy demand of the peroxone process is estimated at 1.73-2.49 kW h electric energy for removal of one log COD in 1 m(3) secondary effluent, comparable to the energy required for desalination of medium strength seawater. Advantages/disadvantages of the two processes for municipal wastewater reuse are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Diet of Norwegian coastal cod (Gadus morhua) studied by using citizen science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoksen, Siri Elise; Reiss, Henning

    2018-04-01

    The Norwegian coastal cod (Gadus morhua) is a keystone species in the food web of northern Norwegian fjords. Their relatively stationary populations might specifically depend on local food resources, but the diet of cod has rarely been studied in fjord systems. Using a citizen science approach, where recreational anglers and tourists participated in the sampling, we studied small-scale differences in the diet composition of cod in a fjord system in northern Norway. We compared the cod diet from the MPA Saltstraumen, characterised by strong tidal currents and a highly diverse and abundant fauna, with the inner fjord area of Skjerstadfjord. The diet composition of cod significantly differed between both areas within the fjord. Although fish was the dominant prey in both areas, cod consumed > 40% invertebrates in terms of weight, even in the cod size class of 70-99 cm. The invertebrate prey also caused the observed spatial differences. In Saltstraumen, brittle stars (Ophiuroidea), crabs (Brachyura) and sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea) were important food sources for cod, while sea urchins (Echinoidea), clams (Bivalvia), shrimps (Caridea) and krill (Euphausiacea) dominated the diet in the inner Skjerstadfjord. The high densities of sessile fauna in the dynamic environment of Saltstraumen, was only partly reflected in the diet of cod, with only Holothuroidea found in 17% of the stomachs. High rates of empty stomachs (24%), cannibalism as well as a higher proportion of low-energy prey in the diet of large cod, may indicate a shortage of high quality food in Skjerstadfjord. The samples for this study were collected through a citizen science campaign. This approach might provide opportunities to be used for coastal ecological monitoring with potential applications in local ecosystem management strategies through public involvement.

  3. Chemical oxygen demand reduction in coffee wastewater through chemical flocculation and advanced oxidation processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZAYAS Pérez Teresa; GEISSLER Gunther; HERNANDEZ Fernando

    2007-01-01

    The removal of the natural organic matter present in coffee processing wastewater through chemical coagulation-flocculatio and advanced oxidation processes(AOP)had been studied.The effectiveness of the removal of natural organic matter using commercial flocculants and UV/H202,UVO3 and UV/H-H202/O3 processes was determined under acidic conditions.For each of these processes,different operational conditions were explored to optimize the treatment efficiency of the coffee wastewater.Coffee wastewater is characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand(COD)and low total suspended solids.The outcomes of coffee wastewater reeatment using coagulation-flocculation and photodegradation processes were assessed in terms of reduction of COD,color,and turbidity.It was found that a reductiOn in COD of 67%could be realized when the coffee wastewater was treated by chemical coagulation-flocculatlon witll lime and coagulant T-1.When coffee wastewater was treated by coagulation-flocculation in combination with UV/H202,a COD reduction of 86%was achieved,although only after prolonged UV irradiation.Of the three advanced oxidation processes considered,UV/H202,uv/03 and UV/H202/03,we found that the treatment with UV/H2O2/O3 was the most effective,with an efficiency of color,turbidity and further COD removal of 87%,when applied to the flocculated coffee wastewater.

  4. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.6 Destruction of...

  5. Weapons of mass destruction, WMD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Since the invasion into Iraq in 2003, weapons of mass destruction (WMD), have come to general notice; they include today chemical, biological, and atomic/nuclear weapons, (CW, BW, and AW). Radiological findings shall be described. Material and methods: X-ray findings of victims of WMD are described. From CW, own observations are reported. Examples of (possible) X-ray findings of victims of BW are described. AW may induce radiation disease. Results: Exposure to sulfur-lost induces severe bronchitis; if the radiograph shows pulmonary infiltrations, the prognosis is bad; a late consequence maybe bronchiectasis. BW can be based on bacteria, virus or toxins. An approach of the X-ray findings for BW victims is based on the assumption that the disease induced by BW has the same (or a similar) clinic and radiology as that induced by the original microorganism or by the unchanged toxism. This approximation may have its limits, if the germ or toxin has been modified. In survivors of AW, the radiology is probably that of victims of thermal radiation and blast. Conclusion: WMD seem to be a real or a possible threat. They can be used in war, in terrorist attacks, in crime, and in action of secret services. In case that WMD are employed, X-ray diagnostic will be used to evaluate the prognosis (triage) and the risk of infection

  6. Weapons of mass destruction, WMD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, H. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, D-20099 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Hermann.vogel@ak-stgeorg.lbk-hh.de

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: Since the invasion into Iraq in 2003, weapons of mass destruction (WMD), have come to general notice; they include today chemical, biological, and atomic/nuclear weapons, (CW, BW, and AW). Radiological findings shall be described. Material and methods: X-ray findings of victims of WMD are described. From CW, own observations are reported. Examples of (possible) X-ray findings of victims of BW are described. AW may induce radiation disease. Results: Exposure to sulfur-lost induces severe bronchitis; if the radiograph shows pulmonary infiltrations, the prognosis is bad; a late consequence maybe bronchiectasis. BW can be based on bacteria, virus or toxins. An approach of the X-ray findings for BW victims is based on the assumption that the disease induced by BW has the same (or a similar) clinic and radiology as that induced by the original microorganism or by the unchanged toxism. This approximation may have its limits, if the germ or toxin has been modified. In survivors of AW, the radiology is probably that of victims of thermal radiation and blast. Conclusion: WMD seem to be a real or a possible threat. They can be used in war, in terrorist attacks, in crime, and in action of secret services. In case that WMD are employed, X-ray diagnostic will be used to evaluate the prognosis (triage) and the risk of infection.

  7. Non-destructive testing at Chalk River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilborn, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    In 1969 CRNL recognized the need for a strong group skilled in non-destructive test procedures. Within two years a new branch called Quality Control Branch was staffed and working. This branch engages in all aspects of non-destructive testing including development of new techniques, new applications of known technology, and special problems in support of operating reactors. (author)

  8. Artificial intelligence based model for optimization of COD removal efficiency of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor in the saline wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picos-Benítez, Alain R; López-Hincapié, Juan D; Chávez-Ramírez, Abraham U; Rodríguez-García, Adrián

    2017-03-01

    The complex non-linear behavior presented in the biological treatment of wastewater requires an accurate model to predict the system performance. This study evaluates the effectiveness of an artificial intelligence (AI) model, based on the combination of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and genetic algorithms (GAs), to find the optimum performance of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) for saline wastewater treatment. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was predicted using conductivity, organic loading rate (OLR) and temperature as input variables. The ANN model was built from experimental data and performance was assessed through the maximum mean absolute percentage error (= 9.226%) computed from the measured and model predicted values of the COD. Accordingly, the ANN model was used as a fitness function in a GA to find the best operational condition. In the worst case scenario (low energy requirements, high OLR usage and high salinity) this model guaranteed COD removal efficiency values above 70%. This result is consistent and was validated experimentally, confirming that this ANN-GA model can be used as a tool to achieve the best performance of a UASB reactor with the minimum requirement of energy for saline wastewater treatment.

  9. Enhanced nitrogen removal from piggery wastewater with high NH4+ and low COD/TN ratio in a novel upflow microaerobic biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jia; Li, Jiuling; Li, Jianzheng; Antwi, Philip; Deng, Kaiwen; Nan, Jun; Xu, Pianpian

    2018-02-01

    To enhance nutrient removal more cost-efficiently in microaerobic process treating piggery wastewater characterized by high ammonium (NH 4 + -N) and low chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total nitrogen (TN) ratio, a novel upflow microaerobic biofilm reactor (UMBR) was constructed and the efficiency in nutrient removal was evaluated with various influent COD/TN ratios and reflux ratios. The results showed that the biofilm on the carriers had increased the biomass in the UMBR and enhanced the enrichment of slow-growth-rate bacteria such as nitrifiers, denitrifiers and anammox bacteria. The packed bed allowed the microaerobic biofilm process perform well at a low reflux ratio of 35 with a NH 4 + -N and TN removal as high as 93.1% and 89.9%, respectively. Compared with the previously developed upflow microaerobic sludge reactor, the UMBR had not changed the dominant anammox approach to nitrogen removal, but was more cost-efficiently in treating organic wastewater with high NH 4 + -N and low COD/TN ratio. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Collisional destruction of fast hydrogen Rydberg atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    A new modulated electric field technique was developed to study Rydberg atom destruction processes in a fast beam. The process of destruction of a band of Rydberg atom destruction of a band of Rydberg atoms through the combined processes of ionization, excitation, and deexcitation was studied for collisions with gas targets. Rydberg atoms of hydrogen were formed by electron capture, and detected by field ionization. The modulated field technique described proved to be an effective technique for producing a large signal for accurate cross section measurements. The independent particle model for Rydberg atom destruction processes was found to hold well for collisions with molecular nitrogen, argon, and carbon dioxide. The resonances in the cross sections for the free electron scattering with these targets were found to also occur in Rydberg destruction. Suggestions for future investigations of Rydberg atom collision processes in the fast beam regime are given

  11. On-Demand Telemetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AFRC has previously investigated the use of Network Based Telemetry. We will be building on that research to enable On-Demand Telemetry. On-Demand Telemetry is a way...

  12. Slave to the rhythm: seasonal signals in otolith microchemistry reveal age of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Gröger, J.; Heidemann, F.

    2016-01-01

    Annual growth zones in cod otoliths from the eastern Baltic stock are less discrete than in other cod stocks leading to biased age reading, which recently led to a failure of age-based assessment in the eastern Baltic cod stock. In this study, we explored the applicability of minor and trace elem...

  13. 75 FR 19561 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... is opening directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 meters) length... meters) length overall using hook-and-line or pot gear in the BSAI under Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii) on March... 400 metric tons of Pacific cod remain in the 2010 Pacific cod apportionment for catcher vessels less...

  14. Thawed cod fillets spoil less rapidly than unfrozen fillets when stored under modified atmosphere at 2 C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, H.S.; Bøknæs, Niels; Østerberg, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    The effect of two months of frozen storage at -20 degrees C on the spoilage characteristics and shelf life of thawed and modified atmosphere packed (MAP) cod fillets stored at 2 degrees C was studied. Thawed MAP cod fillets were compared with fresh cod fillets stored in CO2-containing modified at...

  15. Money Demand in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivars Tillers

    2004-01-01

    The econometric analysis of the demand for broad money in Latvia suggests a stable relationship of money demand. The analysis of parameter exogeneity indicates that the equilibrium adjustment is driven solely by the changes in the amount of money. The demand for money in Latvia is characterised by relatively high income elasticity typical for the economy in a monetary expansion phase. Due to stability, close fit of the money demand function and rapid equilibrium adjustment, broad money aggreg...

  16. The Effect of H2O2 Interference in Chemical Oxygen Demand Removal During Advanced Oxidation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsane Chavoshani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is one of the most oxidants in AOPs. By H2O2 dissociation, hydroxyl radical with a standard oxidation potential of 2.7 is produced. It is reported H2O¬ residual in AOPs has been led to interference in chemical oxygen demand (COD test and it is able to hinder biological treatment of waste water. Because of high mixed organic load of solid waste leachate, this study investigated effect of H2O2 interference in COD removal from solid waste leachate. In this study effect of parameters such as pH (3,5,7,12, H2O2 dose (0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 mol l-1, and time reaction(10,20,30,40,50,60 min evaluated on H2O2 interference in COD removal from solid waste leachate. Optimum pH and concentration were 3 and 0.02 moll-1 respectively. With increasing reaction time, COD removal was increased. The false COD obtained between 0.49mg per 1mg of H2O2. The average of COD removal by H2O2 for 60 min was 6.57%. Also reaction rate of this process was 0.0029 min-1. The presence of H2O2 leads to overestimation of COD values after reaction time because it consumes the oxidation agent. The extent of H2O2 interference in COD analysis was proportional to the remaining H2O2 concentration at the moment of sampling.

  17. Inversion of CDOM and COD in water using HJ-1/CCD data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Miaofen; Xing, Xufeng; Zhao, Zulong; Li, Zhanqiang; Wang, Xinxing

    2014-01-01

    With the in-situ measurement data including the absorption coefficient of the CDOM, apparent optical properties and the COD, a regression model was established for retrieving ag(440) based on the remote sensing reflectance of the first and the third band of the environment satellite HJ-1/CCD. The measurement data were obtained at the regions of Panjin, Liaoning province in May 2008 and August 2009. Secondly, the remote sensing regression model was created based on the correlation of the CDOM optical properties and the COD. Finally, using the HJ-1/CCD data from 2009 to 2011 in Liaodong bay, the thematic snapshots of water environmental parameters in coastal waters, such as the CDOM and the COD, were calculated and analyzed. The results showed that: (1) the distribution of the CDOM tends to decrease from offshore areas to distant sea with some zonated character; (2) Most of the retrieved CDOM values vary between 0.2–1.7m-1, which is consistent with the measured value in 2009 and 2010 years; (3) the spatial distribution of the COD has good consistency with the CDOM, also shows a certain zonated distribution in coastal-offshore areas; (4) in September 2009 and September 2011, the values of the COD was basically below 40 mg/L while the values of the COD in September 2010 are relatively higher, mostly above 55 mg/L; (5) in June 2011 and May 2010, the COD values are nearly all larger than 55 mg/L

  18. Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua benefits from the availability of seagrass (Zostera marina nursery habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Lilley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua is a species of significant economic and historic importance but infamous for its decline. Apart from overfishing, the causes of this decline and its subsequent lack of recovery remain largely unresolved. Indeed, the degree to which specific habitats are important for this species remains unquantified at the scale of North Atlantic. Here, the literature on the role of eelgrass meadows (Zostera marina as valuable nursery habitat for the Atlantic cod is reviewed and synthesized. Evidence is presented on relative densities of Atlantic cod in shallow water environments and in eelgrass meadows in comparison to alternative habitats. In addition, evidence pertaining to the ’viability gains’ attributed to the use of eelgrass meadows as nursery habitat (growth and survival by juvenile Atlantic cod is analyzed. Although juvenile Atlantic cod use of Z. marina is found to be facultative, when possible, available literatures indicates that they may select Z. marina as a nursery habitat where they are found in high density (average of at least 246 ha−1. From their use of Z. marina habitat the juvenile Atlantic cod receives viability benefits from it, improving their chances of reaching maturation. This paper provides strong evidence that eelgrass meadows are of significant importance to contributing to Atlantic cod stocks. Keywords: Zostera marina, Eelgrass, Gadus morhua, Fisheries, Juveniles, Nursery habitat

  19. Coupling of anodic oxidation and adsorption by granular activated carbon for chemical oxygen demand removal from 4,4'-diaminostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lizhang; Zhao, Yuemin

    2010-01-01

    Experiments were performed to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) from 4,4'-diaminostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic (DSD) acid manufacturing wastewater using electrochemical oxidation coupled with adsorption by granular activated carbon. The COD removal is affected by the residence time and applied voltage. When the residence time is increased, lower value of COD effluent could be obtained, however, the average current efficiency (ACE) decreased rapidly, and so does the applied voltage. In addition, aeration could effectively enhance COD removal efficiency and protect anodes from corrosion. Furthermore, the acidic condition is beneficial to the rapid decrease of COD and the values of pH effluent are independent of the initial solution pH. The optimization conditions obtained from these experiments are applied voltage of 4.8 V, residence time of 180 min and air-liquid ratio of 4.2 with the COD effluent of about 690 mg L⁻¹. In these cases, the ACE and energy consumption are 388% and 4.144 kW h kg⁻¹ COD, respectively. These perfect results from the experiments illustrate that the combined process is a considerable alternative for the treatment of industrial wastewater containing high concentration of organic pollutants and salinity.

  20. Thermal Transmission through Existing Building Enclosures: Destructive Monitoring in Intermediate Layers versus Non-Destructive Monitoring with Sensors on Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echarri, Víctor; Espinosa, Almudena; Rizo, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Opaque enclosures of buildings play an essential role in the level of comfort experienced indoors and annual energy demand. The impact of solar radiation and thermal inertia of the materials that make up the multi-layer enclosures substantially modify thermal transmittance behaviour of the enclosures. This dynamic form of heat transfer, additionally affected by indoor HVAC systems, has a substantial effect on the parameters that define comfort. It also has an impact on energy demand within a daily cycle as well as throughout a one-year use cycle. This study describes the destructive monitoring of an existing block of flats located in Alicante. Once the enclosure was opened, sensors of temperature (PT100), air velocity, and relative humidity were located in the different layers of the enclosure, as well as in the interior and exterior surfaces. A pyranometer was also installed to measure solar radiation levels. A temperature data correction algorithm was drawn up to address irregularities produced in the enclosure. The algorithm was applied using a Raspberry Pi processor in the data collection system. The comparative results of temperature gradients versus non-destructive monitoring systems are presented, providing measures of the transmittance value, surface temperatures and indoor and outdoor air temperatures. This remote sensing system can be used in future studies to quantify and compare the energy savings of different enclosure construction solutions. PMID:29292781

  1. Thermal Transmission through Existing Building Enclosures: Destructive Monitoring in Intermediate Layers versus Non-Destructive Monitoring with Sensors on Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echarri, Víctor; Espinosa, Almudena; Rizo, Carlos

    2017-12-08

    Opaque enclosures of buildings play an essential role in the level of comfort experienced indoors and annual energy demand. The impact of solar radiation and thermal inertia of the materials that make up the multi-layer enclosures substantially modify thermal transmittance behaviour of the enclosures. This dynamic form of heat transfer, additionally affected by indoor HVAC systems, has a substantial effect on the parameters that define comfort. It also has an impact on energy demand within a daily cycle as well as throughout a one-year use cycle. This study describes the destructive monitoring of an existing block of flats located in Alicante. Once the enclosure was opened, sensors of temperature (PT100), air velocity, and relative humidity were located in the different layers of the enclosure, as well as in the interior and exterior surfaces. A pyranometer was also installed to measure solar radiation levels. A temperature data correction algorithm was drawn up to address irregularities produced in the enclosure. The algorithm was applied using a Raspberry Pi processor in the data collection system. The comparative results of temperature gradients versus non-destructive monitoring systems are presented, providing measures of the transmittance value, surface temperatures and indoor and outdoor air temperatures. This remote sensing system can be used in future studies to quantify and compare the energy savings of different enclosure construction solutions.

  2. Thermal Transmission through Existing Building Enclosures: Destructive Monitoring in Intermediate Layers versus Non-Destructive Monitoring with Sensors on Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Echarri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Opaque enclosures of buildings play an essential role in the level of comfort experienced indoors and annual energy demand. The impact of solar radiation and thermal inertia of the materials that make up the multi-layer enclosures substantially modify thermal transmittance behaviour of the enclosures. This dynamic form of heat transfer, additionally affected by indoor HVAC systems, has a substantial effect on the parameters that define comfort. It also has an impact on energy demand within a daily cycle as well as throughout a one-year use cycle. This study describes the destructive monitoring of an existing block of flats located in Alicante. Once the enclosure was opened, sensors of temperature (PT100, air velocity, and relative humidity were located in the different layers of the enclosure, as well as in the interior and exterior surfaces. A pyranometer was also installed to measure solar radiation levels. A temperature data correction algorithm was drawn up to address irregularities produced in the enclosure. The algorithm was applied using a Raspberry Pi processor in the data collection system. The comparative results of temperature gradients versus non-destructive monitoring systems are presented, providing measures of the transmittance value, surface temperatures and indoor and outdoor air temperatures. This remote sensing system can be used in future studies to quantify and compare the energy savings of different enclosure construction solutions.

  3. Quantum dots assisted photocatalysis for the chemiluminometric determination of chemical oxygen demand using a single interface flow system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, Cristina I.C.; Frigerio, Christian [Requimte, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Porto University, Rua Anibal Cunha 164, 4099-030, Porto (Portugal); Santos, Joao L.M., E-mail: joaolms@ff.up.pt [Requimte, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Porto University, Rua Anibal Cunha 164, 4099-030, Porto (Portugal); Lima, Jose L.F.C. [Requimte, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Porto University, Rua Anibal Cunha 164, 4099-030, Porto (Portugal)

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} A novel flow method for the determination of chemical oxygen demand is proposed. {yields} CdTe nanocrystals are irradiated with UV light to generate strong oxidizing species. {yields} Reactive species promote a fast catalytic degradation of organic matter. {yields} Luminol is used as a chemiluminescence probe for indirect COD assessment. {yields} A single interface flow system was implemented to automate the assays. - Abstract: A novel flow method for the determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) is proposed in this work. It relies on the combination of a fully automated single interface flow system, an on-line UV photocatalytic unit and quantum dot (QD) nanotechnology. The developed approach takes advantage of CdTe nanocrystals capacity to generate strong oxidizing species upon irradiation with UV light, which fostered a fast catalytic degradation of the organic compounds. Luminol was used as a chemiluminescence (CL) probe for indirect COD assessment, since it is easily oxidized by the QD generated species yielding a strong CL emission that is quenched in the presence of the organic matter. The proposed methodology allowed the determination of COD concentrations between 1 and 35 mg L{sup -1}, with good precision (R.S.D. < 1.1%, n = 3) and a sampling frequency of about 33 h{sup -1}. The procedure was applied to the determination of COD in wastewater certified reference materials and the obtained results showed an excellent agreement with the certified values.

  4. Electricity demand forecasting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanalingam, K.

    1994-01-01

    Electricity demand forecasting plays an important role in power generation. The two areas of data that have to be forecasted in a power system are peak demand which determines the capacity (MW) of the plant required and annual energy demand (GWH). Methods used in electricity demand forecasting include time trend analysis and econometric methods. In forecasting, identification of manpower demand, identification of key planning factors, decision on planning horizon, differentiation between prediction and projection (i.e. development of different scenarios) and choosing from different forecasting techniques are important

  5. Ribosomal RNA gene sequences confirm that protistan endoparasite of larval cod Gadus morhua is Ichthyodinium sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Alf; Meyer, Stefan; Overton, Julia Lynne

    2010-01-01

    An enigmatic protistan endoparasite found in eggs and larvae of cod Gadus morhua and turbot Psetta maxima was isolated from Baltic cod larvae, and DNA was extracted for sequencing of the parasite's small Subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. The endoparasite has previously been suggested...... to be related to Ichthyodinium chabelardi, a dinoflagellate-like protist that parasitizes yolk sacs of embryos and larvae of a variety of fish species. Comparison of a 1535 bp long fragment of the SSU rRNA gene of the cod endoparasite showed absolute identify with I. chabelardi, demonstrating that the 2...

  6. Sensory characteristics of different cod products related to consumer preferences and attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Green-Petersen, Ditte

    2009-01-01

    countries tasted and scored the cod products on a 9-point hedonic scale. In addition information on the consumers attitudes, motives/barriers and fish purchase behaviour was collected. The aim was to investigate how sensory quality corresponded to consumers liking of different cod products and to study...... to fish consumption, attitudes and preferences of the eight cod products. However, it was demonstrated that within each country, different segments of consumers existed with different preferences, motives/barriers and demographic background. The results indicated various potential to increase fish...

  7. Developing Baltic cod recruitment models II : Incorporation of environmental variability and species interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Hinrichsen, H.H.; St. John, Michael

    2001-01-01

    We investigate whether a process-oriented approach based on the results of field, laboratory, and modelling studies can be used to develop a stock-environment-recruitment model for Central Baltic cod (Gadus morhua). Based on exploratory statistical analysis, significant variables influencing...... cod in these areas, suggesting that key biotic and abiotic processes can be successfully incorporated into recruitment models....... survival of early life stages and varying systematically among spawning sites were incorporated into stock-recruitment models, first for major cod spawning sites and then combined for the entire Central Baltic. Variables identified included potential egg production by the spawning stock, abiotic conditions...

  8. Threshold-dependent climate effects and high mortality limit recruitment and recovery of the Kattegat cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Eero, Margit

    2013-01-01

    Cod in the Kattegat is one of the most dramatic examples of stock collapse, where despite large management efforts, almost no signs of recovery have been observed. We investigate how multiple physical and biological factors could potentially influence recruitment and recovery of Kattegat cod, using...... non-additive threshold models. In contrast to previous studies on recruitment dynamics of Kattegat cod Gadus morhua, we found that recruitment variability may be explained by a combination of the size of the spawning stock and external conditions (i.e. sea surface temperature and oxygen concentrations...

  9. Hierarchical modelling of temperature and habitat size effects on population dynamics of North Atlantic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantzouni, Irene; Sørensen, Helle; O'Hara, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    and Beverton and Holt stock–recruitment (SR) models were extended by applying hierarchical methods, mixed-effects models, and Bayesian inference to incorporate the influence of these ecosystem factors on model parameters representing cod maximum reproductive rate and carrying capacity. We identified......Understanding how temperature affects cod (Gadus morhua) ecology is important for forecasting how populations will develop as climate changes in future. The effects of spawning-season temperature and habitat size on cod recruitment dynamics have been investigated across the North Atlantic. Ricker...

  10. Bioactivity of Cod and Chicken Protein Hydrolysates before and after in vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamnik, Polona; Istenič, Katja; Wulff, Tune

    2017-01-01

    , where values of cod and chicken were (95.5±1.2) and (90.5±0.7) %, respectively. Neither species nor digestion had any effect on cellular metabolic energy. At proteome level, digested hydrolysates gave again significantly stronger responses than undigested counterparts; cod peptides here also gave...... somewhat stronger response than chicken peptides. The knowledge of the action of food protein hydrolysates and their digests within live cells, also at proteome level, is important for further validation of their activity in higher eukaryotes to develop new products, such as in this case chicken and cod...... muscle-derived peptides as functional ingredients....

  11. Significance of Charpy and COD tests in the determination of fracture toughness of welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caminha Junior, H.M.; Bastian, F.L.

    1983-01-01

    A comparison is made between the Charpy and crack opening displacement (COD) tests used to acess the fracture toughness of metallic materials. The main problems inherent in these tests are discussed, such as scatter of results and their advantages and limitations. The chief experimental difficulties when they are applied to welds are indicated and the various methods available for calculating the COD from a test graph are described. Comments are made on the use of the Charpy test and the methods of calculating the COD in determing critical defect sizes in welded structures. (Author) [pt

  12. Specific inhibition of Photobacterium phosphoreum extends the shelf life of modified-atmosphere-packed cod fillets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Munoz, L.G.; Mejlholm, Ole

    1998-01-01

    rather than the development of a new product. In naturally contaminated modified-atmosphere-packed cod fillets, 500 ppm Na(2)CaEDTA reduced the growth rate of P. phosphoreum by 40% and shelf life was increased proportionally by 40%, from 15 to 17 days to 21 to 23 days at 0 degrees C. In aerobically...... stored cod fillets other microorganisms were responsible for spoilage and Na2CaEDTA had no effect on shelf Life. The extension of the shelf life of modified-atmosphere-packed cod therefore was a result of the reduced growth of P. phosphoreum and no other microbial or nonmicrobial spoilage reactions...

  13. Non destructive evaluation of ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R.E. Jr

    1992-01-01

    While monolithic and composite ceramics have been successfully manufactured, inconsistencies in processing and the unpredictable nature of their failure have limited their use as engineering materials. The optimization of the processing and properties of ceramics and the structures, devices and systems made from them demand the innovative application of modern nondestructive materials characterization techniques to monitor and control as many stages of the production process as possible. This paper will describe the state-of-the-art of nondestructive evaluation techniques for characterization of monolithic ceramics and ceramic composites. Among the techniques to be discussed are laser ultrasonics, acoustic microscopy, thermography, microfocus and x-ray tomography, and micro-photoelasticity. Application of these and other nondestructive evaluation techniques for more effective and efficient real-time process control will result in improved product quality and reliability. 27 refs

  14. Delineation of groundwater recharge areas, western Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Walter, Donald A.

    2000-01-01

    The unconfined sand-and-gravel aquifer in western Cape Cod, Massachusetts, which is the sole source of water supply for the communities in the area, is recharged primarily from precipitation. The rate of recharge from precipitation is estimated to be about 26 inches per year (in/yr), or about 60 percent of the precipitation rate. This recharge rate yields a flow through the aquifer of about 180 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Groundwater flows radially outward from the top of the water-table mound in the north-central part of the flow system toward the coast, as indicated by the water-table contours on the large map on this sheet. Recharge that reaches the water table near the top of the mound travels deeper through the aquifer than recharge that reaches the water table closer to the coast. All recharge to the aquifer ultimately discharges to pumping wells, streams, or coastal areas; however, some of this recharge may flow first through kettle ponds before eventually reaching these discharge points.

  15. Can non-destructive inspection be reliable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, M.G.; Stoneham, A.M.; Temple, J.A.G.

    1988-01-01

    The paper on inspection is based on the book ''The reliability of non-destructive inspection: assessing the assessment of structures under stress'' by the present authors (published by Adam Hilger 1987). Emphasis is placed on the reliability of inspection and whether cracks in welds or flaws in components can be detected. The need for non-destructive testing and the historical attitudes to non-destructive testing are outlined, along with the case of failure. Factors influencing reliable inspection are discussed, and defect detection trials involving round robin tests are described. The development of reliable inspection techniques and the costs of reliability and unreliability are also examined. (U.K.)

  16. Electricity demand in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atakhanova, Zauresh; Howie, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Properties of electricity demand in transition economies have not been sufficiently well researched mostly due to data limitations. However, information on the properties of electricity demand is necessary for policy makers to evaluate effects of price changes on different consumers and obtain demand forecasts for capacity planning. This study estimates Kazakhstan's aggregate demand for electricity as well as electricity demand in the industrial, service, and residential sectors using regional data. Firstly, our results show that price elasticity of demand in all sectors is low. This fact suggests that there is considerable room for price increases necessary to finance generation and distribution system upgrading. Secondly, we find that income elasticity of demand in the aggregate and all sectoral models is less than unity. Of the three sectors, electricity demand in the residential sector has the lowest income elasticity. This result indicates that policy initiatives to secure affordability of electricity consumption to lower income residential consumers may be required. Finally, our forecast shows that electricity demand may grow at either 3% or 5% per year depending on rates of economic growth and government policy regarding price increases and promotion of efficiency. We find that planned supply increases would be sufficient to cover growing demand only if real electricity prices start to increase toward long-run cost-recovery levels and policy measures are implemented to maintain the current high growth of electricity efficiency

  17. Between Localization and Delocalization: Ru(cod)2+ Units in the Zintl Clusters [Bi9 {Ru(cod)}2 ]3- and [Tl2 Bi6 {Ru(cod)}]2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberger, Niels; Spang, Nils; Eichhöfer, Andreas; Dehnen, Stefanie

    2017-10-16

    Reactions of [K(crypt-222)] 2 (TlBi 3 )⋅0.5 en (1 b) with [Ru(cod)(H 2 CC(Me)CH 2 ) 2 ] (A) in 1,2-diaminoethane (en) led to the formation of two compounds with new bismuth-rich cluster anions, [K(crypt-222)] 3 [Bi 9 {Ru(cod)} 2 ]⋅1.5 en (2) and [K(crypt-222)] 2 [Tl 2 Bi 6 {Ru(cod)}]⋅2 tol (3), alongside the salt of a binary nido cluster, [K(crypt-222)] 3 (Tl 4 Bi 5 )⋅2 en (4). The anions in 2 and 3 are two further examples of rare heterometallic clusters containing Ru atoms. As one cod ligand is retained on each Ru atom in both clusters, the anions may be viewed as intermediates on the way towards larger, ligand-free intermetalloid clusters. Quantum-chemical studies provided insight into the bonding situation in these clusters. According to these studies, the anion of 2 features both electron-precise and electron-deficient parts. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the clusters undergo stepwise fragmentation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Long term operation of continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal granules at different COD loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) granules was operated at different COD concentrations (200, 300 and 400mgL(-)(1)) to investigate the effect of COD loading on this system. The results showed that when the COD concentration in influent was increased to 400mgL(-)(1), the anaerobic COD removal efficiency and total phosphorus removal efficiency reduced obviously and the settling ability of granules deteriorated due to the proliferation of filamentous bacteria. Moreover, high COD loading inhibited the EPS secretion and destroyed the stability of granules. Results of high-through pyrosequencing indicated that filamentous bacteria had a competitive advantage over polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) at high COD loading. The performance of system, settling ability of granules and proportion of PAOs gradually recovered to the initial level after the COD concentration was reduced to 200mgL(-)(1) on day 81. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Preferred temperature of juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua with different haemoglobin genotypes at normoxia and moderate hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, M.F.; Steffensen, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    .2+/-1.5 degrees C while HbI-1 cod preferred 15.4+/-1.1 degrees C, and this preference was significant. The effect of hypoxia (35% oxygen saturation) on the preferred temperature was also measured. Previous studies showed that the preferred temperature of fish decreases during hypoxia, and this was the case for Hb......I-1 cod, which preferred 9.8+/-1.8 degrees C during hypoxia, whereas HbI-2 cod did not show this effect. The results indicate that environmental temperature changes will lead to a distributional change in the different haemoglobin types of Atlantic cod, global warming providing an advantage for HbI-1...... cod. However, since HbI-1 cod prefer a low temperature under hypoxic conditions, a combination of increased water temperature and hypoxia could be unfavourable for Atlantic cod stocks....

  20. 75 FR 64955 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Correction to Cod...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... GOM cod. By an administrative error, the inseason action published on September 27, 2010, reduced the... effectiveness would further disadvantage vessels subject to the lower trip limits implemented on September 27...

  1. AFSC/REFM: Pacific cod genetics in the Aleutian Islands 2004-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Landscape genetics of Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus within the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) management area of Alaska was examined in samples from nine...

  2. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Nichol: Archival tag depth and temperature data from Pacific cod

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from 250 recaptured (624 released) depth and temperature recording archival (data storage) tags attached to Pacific cod off Kodiak Island and in the eastern...

  3. Location of and post-mortem changes in some cytoskeletal proteins in pork and cod muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, E.H.; Bremner, Allan; Purslow, P.P.

    2000-01-01

    The cytoskeletal proteins actin, nebulin, spectrin, desmin, vinculin and talin were labelled immunohistochemically in sections of muscle from commercially available pigs and cod (Gadus morhua) taken pre-rigor and from samples stored for several days. Actin, nebulin and spectrin gave similar...... labelling patterns in both pork and cod muscle which remained the same in stored samples. Desmin was intensely labelled at the cell boundaries and within the body of the cells in both pork and cod in the initial and the stored samples. Vinculin was readily labelled in pork muscle but showed only diffuse...... labelling in fish. Labelling for talin in pork muscle was intense at the sarcolemma but was not present in samples stored for 4 days. In contrast, the label for talin was concentrated at the myotendinous junction of the cod muscle throughout the storage period. These are the first reports of the detection...

  4. Host size-dependent anisakid infection in Baltic cod Gadus morhua associated with differential food preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, Shaozhi; Huwer, Bastian; Bahlool, Qusay

    2016-01-01

    A significant increase in the infection level of Baltic cod Gadus morhua with the anisakid nematode larvae Contracaecum osculatum and Pseudoterranova decipiens has been recorded during recent years due to the expanding local population of grey seals Halichoerus grypus, which act as final hosts......). A third nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum was rarely found. The study indicates that the prey animals for large cod act as transport hosts for the parasite larvae. Analyses of stomach contents of cod caught in the same area (2007-2014) showed that small benthic organisms (including polychaetes Harmothoë...... suggest that the C. osculatum life cycle in the Baltic Sea includes grey seals as final hosts, sprat as the first transport host and cod as second transport host. It may be speculated that sprat obtain infection by feeding on copepods and/or cladocerans, which could serve as the first intermediate hosts...

  5. Contracaecum osculatum and other anisakid nematodes in grey seals and cod in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, S; Kania, P W; Mehrdana, F

    2018-01-01

    Populations of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), sprats (Sprattus sprattus) and cod (Gadus morhua) in the Baltic Sea are relatively stationary. The present work, applying classical and molecular helminthological techniques, documents that seals and cod also share a common parasite, the anisakid...... nematode Contracaecum osculatum, which uses seals as the final host and fish as transport hosts. Sequencing mitochondrial genes (COX1 and COX2) in adult worms from seals and third-stage larvae from livers of Baltic fish (sprats and cod), showed that all gene variants occur in both seals and fish. Other...... anisakid nematodes Pseudoterranova decipiens and Anisakis simplex are also found in both seals and cod in the Baltic Sea, but at much lower rates. The Baltic grey seal population was left at a critically low level (comprising a few hundred individuals) during the latter part of the 20th century, but since...

  6. Postradiation destruction of dextran in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, N.T.; Sharpatyj, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    Methods of pH-metry, UV absorption and ESR spectroscopy were used to study the oxidation destruction of dextran solutions, stored in the air after gamma irradiation ( 60 Co) bydoses of up to 200 kGy. It is shown that polymer destruction under mentioned conditions is initiated by hydroperoxide decomposition with successive radical transformation into peroxides. Experimentally observed periodical change of acidity of irradiated dextran solutions is also explained by transformations of peroxy radicals

  7. Innovation and Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    2007-01-01

    the demand-side of markets in the simplest possible way. This strategy has allowed a gradual increase in the sophistication of supply-side aspects of economic evolution, but the one-sided focus on supply is facing diminishing returns. Therefore, demand-side aspects of economic evolution have in recent years...... received increased attention. The present paper argues that the new emphasis on demand-side factors is quite crucial for a deepened understanding of economic evolution. The major reasons are the following: First, demand represents the core force of selection that gives direction to the evolutionary process....... Second, firms' innovative activities relate, directly or indirectly, to the structure of expected and actual demand. Third, the demand side represents the most obvious way of turning to the much-needed analysis of macro-evolutionary change of the economic system....

  8. Historic changes in length distributions of three Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks: Evidence of growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedäng, Henrik; Hornborg, Sara

    2017-08-01

    Understanding how combinations of fishing effort and selectivity affect productivity is central to fisheries research. We investigate the roles of fishing regulation in comparison with ecosystem status for Baltic Sea cod stock productivity, growth performance, and population stability. This case study is interesting because three cod populations with different exploitation patterns and stock status are located in three adjacent but partially, ecologically different areas. In assessing stock status, growth, and productivity, we use survey information and rather basic stock parameters without relying on age readings. Because there is an urgent interest of better understanding of the current development of the Eastern Baltic cod stock, we argue that our approach represents partly a novel way of interpreting monitoring information together with catch data in a simplified yet more informative way. Our study reports how the Eastern and Western Baltic cod have gone toward more truncated size structures between 1991 and 2016, in particular for the Eastern Baltic cod, whereas the Öresund cod show no trend. We suggest that selective fishing may disrupt fish population dynamic stability and that lower natural productivity might amplify the effects of selective fishing. In support of earlier findings on a density-dependent growth of Eastern Baltic cod, management is advised to acknowledge that sustainable exploitation levels for Eastern Baltic cod are much more limited than perceived in regular assessments. Of more general importance, our results emphasize the need to embrace a more realistic view on what ecosystems can produce regarding tractable fish biomass to facilitate a more ecosystem-based fisheries management.

  9. The effect of external dummy transmitters on oxygen consumption and performance of swimming Atlantic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhausen, M.F.; Andersen, Niels Gerner; Steffensen, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Decreased critical swimming speed and increased oxygen consumption (Mo-2) was found for externally tagged Atlantic cod Gadus morhua swimming at a high speed of 0 center dot 9 body length (total length, L-Gamma) s(-1). No difference was found in the standard metabolic rate, indicating...... that the higher Mo-2 for tagged cod was due to drag force rather than increased costs to keep buoyancy. (c) 2006 The Authors Journal compilation (c) 2006 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles....

  10. PERFECT DEMAND ILLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Yu. Sulimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to technique «Perfect demand illusion», which allows to strengthen the competitive advantageof retailers. Also in the paper spells out the golden rules of visual merchandising.The definition of the method «Demand illusion», formulated the conditions of its functioning, and is determined by the mainhypothesis of the existence of this method.Furthermore, given the definition of the «Perfect demand illusion», and describes its additional conditions. Also spells out the advantages of the «Perfect demandillusion», before the «Demand illusion».

  11. Divers of Passenger Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    -Overview drivers of passenger demand -Driver 1: Economic growth in developing countries -Driver 2: International business travel in developed countries -Driver 3: International leisure travel in developed countries

  12. Application of response surface methodology (RSM) for optimisation of COD, NH3-N and 2,4-DCP removal from recycled paper wastewater in a pilot-scale granular activated carbon sequencing batch biofilm reactor (GAC-SBBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mohd Hafizuddin; Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Abdul Rahman, Rakmi; Hasan Kadhum, Abdul Amir

    2013-05-30

    In this study, the potential of a pilot-scale granular activated carbon sequencing batch biofilm reactor (GAC-SBBR) for removing chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) from recycled paper wastewater was assessed. For this purpose, the response surface methodology (RSM) was employed, using a central composite face-centred design (CCFD), to optimise three of the most important operating variables, i.e., hydraulic retention time (HRT), aeration rate (AR) and influent feed concentration (IFC), in the pilot-scale GAC-SBBR process for recycled paper wastewater treatment. Quadratic models were developed for the response variables, i.e., COD, NH3-N and 2,4-DCP removal, based on the high value (>0.9) of the coefficient of determination (R(2)) obtained from the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The optimal conditions were established at 750 mg COD/L IFC, 3.2 m(3)/min AR and 1 day HRT, corresponding to predicted COD, NH3-N and 2,4-DCP removal percentages of 94.8, 100 and 80.9%, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Multidimensionality of behavioural phenotypes in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meager, Justin J; Fernö, Anders; Skjæraasen, Jon Egil; Järvi, Torbjörn; Rodewald, Petra; Sverdrup, Gisle; Winberg, Svante; Mayer, Ian

    2012-06-25

    Much of the inter-individual variation observed in animal behaviour is now attributed to the existence of behavioural phenotypes or animal personalities. Such phenotypes may be fundamental to fisheries and aquaculture, yet there have been few detailed studies of this phenomenon in exploited marine animals. We investigated the behavioural and neuroendocrine responses of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.), to situations reflecting critical ecological challenges: predator attacks and territorial challenges. Both hatchery-reared and wild fish were tested and behavioural profiles were compared with baseline conditions. We then used an objective, multivariate approach, rather than assigning individuals along one-dimensional behavioural axes, to examine whether distinct behavioural phenotypes were present. Our results indicate that two distinct behavioural phenotypes were evident in fish from each background. In hatchery-reared fish, phenotypes displayed divergent locomotor activity, sheltering, brain monoamine concentrations and responses to competitive challenges. In wild fish, phenotypes were distinguished primarily by locomotor activity, sheltering and responsiveness to predator stimuli. Hatcheries presumably represent a more stressful social environment, and social behaviour and neuroendocrine responses were important in discerning behavioural phenotypes in hatchery fish, whereas antipredator responses were important in discerning phenotypes in wild fish that have previously encountered predators. In both fish types, behavioural and physiological traits that classified individuals into phenotypes were not the same as those that were correlated across situations. These results highlight the multidimensionality of animal personalities, and that the processes that regulate one suite of behavioural traits may be very different to the processes that regulate other behaviours. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mercury Cycling in Salt Marsh Pond Ecosystems: Cape Cod, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, P. M.; Gonneea, M. E.; Lamborg, C. H.; Kroeger, K. D.; Swarr, G.; Vadman, K. J.; Baldwin, S.; Brooks, T. W.; Green, A.

    2014-12-01

    We are measuring total mercury (HgT) and monomethylmercury (CH3Hg+ or MMHg) in pore water, surface water, and sediment cores from two salt marsh pond systems on the south shore of Cape Cod, MA to characterize the distribution of mercury species and to identify features that influence mercury speciation and transport. Sage Lot Pond is relatively undisturbed and has low nitrogen loading (12 kg ha-1 y-1). It is part of the Waquoit Bay National Estuarine Reserve and is surrounded by undeveloped wooded uplands. In contrast, Great Pond is highly impacted. Nitrogen loading to the site is elevated (600 kg ha-1 y-1) and the marsh is adjacent to a large residential area. In both systems, a 1 to 2 m organic-rich peat layer overlies the permeable sand aquifer. Groundwater in this region is typically oxic, where pore water within salt marsh peat is suboxic to anoxic. We hypothesize that redox gradients at the transition from the root zone to peat and at the peat-sand interface may provide habitat for MMHg-producing anaerobic bacteria. Preliminary results from a 2-m nearshore depth profile at Sage Lot Pond indicate HgT in groundwater within the sand aquifer occurred primarily in the > 0.2 μm fraction, with unfiltered concentrations exceeding 100 pM. Filtered (fraction of filtered HgT in peat pore water. Although MMHg in both groundwater and pore water remained around 1 pM throughout our depth profile, we observed an increase in sediment MMHg (0.3 to 1.6 μg/kg) at the peat-sand interface. MMHg comprised ~50% of the HgT concentration in pore water suggesting mercury in the salt marsh peat is biologically available.

  15. [Rapid determination of COD in aquaculture water based on LS-SVM with ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-Mei; Zhang, Hai-Liang

    2014-10-01

    Ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopy was studied for the rapid determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD), which was an indicator to measure the concentration of organic matter in aquaculture water. In order to reduce the influence of the absolute noises of the spectra, the extracted 135 absorbance spectra were preprocessed by Savitzky-Golay smoothing (SG), EMD, and wavelet transform (WT) methods. The preprocessed spectra were then used to select latent variables (LVs) by partial least squares (PLS) methods. Partial least squares (PLS) was used to build models with the full spectra, and back- propagation neural network (BPNN) and least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) were applied to build models with the selected LVs. The overall results showed that BPNN and LS-SVM models performed better than PLS models, and the LS-SVM models with LVs based on WT preprocessed spectra obtained the best results with the determination coefficient (r2) and RMSE being 0. 83 and 14. 78 mg · L(-1) for calibration set, and 0.82 and 14.82 mg · L(-1) for the prediction set respectively. The method showed the best performance in LS-SVM model. The results indicated that it was feasible to use UV/Vis with LVs which were obtained by PLS method, combined with LS-SVM calibration could be applied to the rapid and accurate determination of COD in aquaculture water. Moreover, this study laid the foundation for further implementation of online analysis of aquaculture water and rapid determination of other water quality parameters.

  16. Sulfamethoxazole and COD increase abundance of sulfonamide resistance genes and change bacterial community structures within sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xueping; Pang, Weihai; Dou, Chunling; Yin, Daqiang

    2017-05-01

    The abundant microbial community in biological treatment processes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) may potentially enhance the horizontal gene transfer of antibiotic resistance genes with the presence of antibiotics. A lab-scale sequencing batch reactor was designed to investigate response of sulfonamide resistance genes (sulI, sulII) and bacterial communities to various concentrations of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of wastewater. The SMX concentrations (0.001 mg/L, 0.1 mg/L and 10 mg/L) decreased with treatment time and higher SMX level was more difficult to remove. The presence of SMX also significantly reduced the removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen, affecting the normal function of WWTPs. All three concentrations of SMX raised both sulI and sulII genes with higher concentrations exhibiting greater increases. The abundance of sul genes was positive correlated with treatment time and followed the second-order reaction kinetic model. Interestingly, these two genes have rather similar activity. SulI and sulII gene abundance also performed similar response to COD. Simpson index and Shannon-Weiner index did not show changes in the microbial community diversity. However, the 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing results showed the bacterial community structures varied during different stages. The results demonstrated that influent antibiotics into WWTPs may facilitate selection of ARGs and affect the wastewater conventional treatment as well as the bacteria community structures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Destruction of a Magnetized Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    completely.Amplifying EncountersFor stars that survive their encounter with the black hole, Guillochon and McCourt find that the process of partial disruption and re-accretion can amplify the magnetic field of the star by up to a factor of 20. Repeated encounters of the star with the black hole could amplify the field even more.The authors suggest an interesting implication of this idea: a population of highly magnetized stars may have formed in our own galactic center, resulting from their encounters with the supermassive black hole Sgr A*.A turbulent magnetic field forms after a partial stellar disruption and re-accretion of the tidal tails. [Adapted from Guillochon McCourt 2017]Effects in DestructionFor stars that are completely shredded and form a tidal stream after their encounter with the black hole, the authors find that the magnetic field geometry straightens within the stream of debris. There, the pressure of the magnetic field eventually dominates over the gas pressure and self-gravity.Guillochon and McCourt find that the fields new configuration isnt ideal for powering jets from the black hole but it is strong enough to influence how the stream interacts with itself and its surrounding environment, likely affecting what we can expect to see from these short-lived events.These simulations have clearly demonstrated the need to further explore the role of magnetic fields in the disruptions of stars by black holes.BonusCheck out the full (brief) video from one of the simulations by Guillochon and McCourt (be sure to watch it in high-res!). It reveals the evolution of a stars magnetic field configuration as the star is partially disrupted by the forces of a supermassive black hole and then re-accretes.CitationJames Guillochon and Michael McCourt 2017 ApJL 834 L19. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/834/2/L19

  18. Uranium supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spriggs, M J

    1976-01-01

    Papers were presented on the pattern of uranium production in South Africa; Australian uranium--will it ever become available; North American uranium resources, policies, prospects, and pricing; economic and political environment of the uranium mining industry; alternative sources of uranium supply; whither North American demand for uranium; and uranium demand and security of supply--a consumer's point of view. (LK)

  19. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  20. Training guidelines in non-destructive testing techniques. 1991 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    Non-destructive testing methods (NDT), by their very nature, allow components to be fully examined for properties or flaws without interfering with their usefulness. This grouping of inspection methods has grown from a handful of primitive techniques practised by artists to a widely known discipline which is an essential part of quality control, largely as a result of the standards demanded by the nuclear and aerospace industries. Recognizing the need for an international publication of NDT training syllabi, the IAEA Consultants Meeting on ''Qualification and Certification of NDT Personnel'' (Milan, 20-21 May 1986), recommended that the Agency publish the guidelines developed by Regional Working Group of the Latin America and Caribbean project. It was first issued in English in 1987 and has now been re-edited in English and Spanish and enlarged by the addition of programmes for other techniques

  1. Training guidelines in non-destructive testing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    Non-destructive testing methods (NDT), by their very nature, allow components to be fully examined for properties or flaws without interfering with their usefulness. This grouping of inspection methods has grown from a handful of primitive techniques practised by artists to a widely known discipline which is an essential part of quality control, largely as a result of the standards demanded by the nuclear and aerospace industries. Recognizing the need for an international publication of NDT training syllabi, the IAEA Consultants Meeting on ''Qualification and Certification of NDT Personnel'' (Milan, 20-21 May 1986), recommended that the Agency publish the guidelines developed by Regional Working Group of the Latin America and Caribbean project. It was first issued in English in 1987 and has now been re-edited in English and Spanish and enlarged by the addition of programmes for other techniques

  2. Destruction of metallic foils under laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhlov, N.P.; Lisitsyn, Yu.V.; Mineev, V.N.; Ivanov, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental results are presented which illustrate the process of destruction of aluminium, lead and tantalum foils under irradiation of a neodymium laser, working in free generation regime with a power density varying from 5.10 5 - 5.10 6 wt/sq.cm. Calorimeters and photocells sensitive to the radiation with lambda=1.06 have been used for measuring the energy and recording the shape of the radiation pulse incident onto the target and passing through the disintegration products. The weight of the target has been determined prior to and after the experiment to find out the weight of Δm material expelled from the target. Rates of product scattering and a target destruction period, an amount of the material expelled and parameters of the radiation passing through the disintegration products have been determined as a function of the power density and an angle of the radiation incidence on the surface of the specimens. Average densities and absorption coefficients of the disintegration products of the foils under study have been assessed. A comparison of the characteristics of the metal foil (t 1 j) destruction in Pb-Ta-Al series with the metal thermal properties in this series shows that the destruction characteristics periodically vary as heat capacity, thermal conduction, evaporation heat and melting heat alter. A period of the target destruction becomes longer and the expelled mass smaller as the aforesaid thermal properties of the metals in Pb-Ta-Al series intensity [ru

  3. Destruction as a Step in Heidegger's Phenomenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J Safian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most controversial issues in Heidegger’s philosophy is his claim that western philosophy tradition has overlooked the issue of Being. Heidegger’s attempt is to reveal the origins of this negligence by means of destruction. However, it seems that through such claim Heidegger aims to destroy and disvalue this tradition. In addition to defining and explaining destruction, our purpose in this article is to show that Heidegger’s goal is not to destroy the tradition of philosophy but the term destruction refers to a process which is a step in Heidegger’s phenomenology by means of which one can conceive and perceive Being better because only through such destruction ontology can fully assure itself in a phenomenological way of the genuine character of its concepts. The necessity of doing destruction in Heidegger’s thought has also been discussed and his persistence on it has been shown in two of his works, one belongs to early and another to later Heidegger.

  4. Asian oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesharaki, F.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined global oil market development and the role of Asian demand. It discussed plateau change versus cyclical movement in the global oil market; supply and demand issues of OPEC and non-OPEC oil; if high oil prices reduce demand; and the Asian oil picture in the global context. Asian oil demand has accounted for about 50 per cent of the global incremental oil market growth. The presentation provided data charts in graphical format on global and Asia-Pacific incremental oil demand from 1990-2005; Asia oil demand growth for selected nations; real GDP growth in selected Asian countries; and, Asia-Pacific oil production and net import requirements. It also included charts in petroleum product demand for Asia-Pacific, China, India, Japan, and South Korea. Other data charts included key indicators for China's petroleum sector; China crude production and net oil import requirements; China's imports and the share of the Middle East; China's oil exports and imports; China's crude imports by source for 2004; China's imports of main oil products for 2004; India's refining capacity; India's product balance for net-imports and net-exports; and India's trade pattern of oil products. tabs., figs

  5. Spatio-temporal dynamics of cod nursery areas in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, H.-H.; von Dewitz, B.; Lehmann, A.; Bergström, U.; Hüssy, K.

    2017-06-01

    In this study the drift of eastern Baltic cod larvae and juveniles spawned within the historical eastern Baltic cod spawning grounds was investigated by detailed drift model simulations for the years 1971-2010, to examine the spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental suitability in the nursery areas of juvenile cod settlement. The results of the long-term model scenario runs, where juvenile cod were treated as simulated passively drifting particles, enabled us to find strong indications for long-term variations of settlement and potentially the reproduction success of the historically important eastern Baltic cod nursery grounds. Only low proportions of juveniles hatched in the Arkona Basin and in the Gotland Basin were able to settle in their respective spawning ground. Ocean currents were either unfavorable for the juveniles to reach suitable habitats or transported the juveniles to nursery grounds of neighboring subdivisions. Juveniles which hatched in the Bornholm Basin were most widely dispersed and showed the highest settlement probability, while the second highest settlement probability and horizontal dispersal was observed for juveniles originating from the Gdansk Deep. In a long-term perspective, wind-driven transport of larvae/juveniles positively affected the settlement success predominately in the Bornholm Basin and in the Bay of Gdansk. The Bornholm Basin has the potential to contribute on average 54% and the Bay of Gdansk 11% to the production of juveniles in the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, transport of juveniles surviving to the age of settlement with origin in the Bornholm Basin contributed on average 13 and 11% to the total settlement in the Arkona Basin and in the Gdansk Deep, respectively. The time-series of the simulated occupied juvenile cod habitat in the Bornholm Basin and in the Gdansk Deep showed a similar declining trend as the Fulton's K condition factor of demersal 1-group cod, which may confirm the importance of oxygen-dependent habitat

  6. Potential of hydrolysis of particulate COD in extended anaerobic conditions to enhance biological phosphorous removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabari, P; Yuan, Q; Oleszkiewicz, J A

    2016-11-01

    The effect of anaerobic hydrolysis of particulate COD (pCOD) on biological phosphorous removal in extended anaerobic condition was investigated through (i) sequencing batch reactors (SBR)s with anaerobic hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 0.8, 2, and 4 h; (ii) batch tests using biomass from a full scale biological nutrient removal (BNR) plant; and (iii) activated sludge modeling (BioWin 4.1 simulation). The results from long-term SBRs operation showed that phosphorus removal was correlated to the ratio of filtered COD (FCOD) to total phosphorus (TP) in the influent. Under conditions with low FCOD/TP ratio (average of 20) in the influent, extending anaerobic HRT to 4 h in the presence of pCOD did not significantly improve overall phosphorous removal. During the period with high FCOD/TP ratio (average of 37) in the influent, all SBRs removed phosphorous completely, and the long anaerobic HRT did not have negative effect on overall phosphorous removal. The batch tests also showed that pCOD at different concentration during 4 h test did not affect the rate of anaerobic phosphorus release. The rate of anaerobic hydrolysis of pCOD was significantly low and extending the anaerobic HRT was ineffective. The simulation (BioWin 4.1) of SBRs with low influent FCOD/TP ratio showed that the default kinetics of anaerobic hydrolysis in ASM2d overestimated phosphorous removal in the SBRs (high anaerobic hydrolysis of pCOD). The default anaerobic hydrolysis rate in BioWin 4.1 (ten times lower) could produce similar phosphorous removal to that in the experiment. Results showed that the current kinetics of anaerobic hydrolysis in ASM2d could lead to considerable error in predicting phosphorus removal in processes with extended anaerobic HRT. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2377-2385. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Uranium supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    This report covers the period 1983 to 1995. It draws together the industry's latest views on future trends in supply and demand, and sets them in their historical context. It devotes less discussion than its predecessors to the technical influences underpinning the Institute's supply and demand forecasts, and more to the factors which influence the market behaviour of the industry's various participants. As the last decade has clearly shown, these latter influences can easily be overlooked when undue attention is given to physical imbalances between supply and demand. (author)

  8. On energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.

    1977-01-01

    Since the energy crisis, a number of energy plans have been proposed, and almost all of these envisage some kind of energy demand adaptations or conservation measures, hoping thus to escape the anticipated problems of energy supply. However, there seems to be no clear explanation of the basis on which our foreseeable future energy problems could be eased. And in fact, a first attempt at a more exact definition of energy demand and its interaction with other objectives, such as economic ones, shows that it is a highly complex concept which we still hardly understand. The article explains in some detail why it is so difficult to understand energy demand

  9. Orbital roof encephalocele mimicking a destructive neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsuhaibani, Adel H; Hitchon, Patrick W; Smoker, Wendy R K; Lee, Andrew G; Nerad, Jeffrey A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this case report is to report an orbital roof encephalocele mimicking a destructive orbital neoplasm. Orbital roof encephalocele is uncommon but can mimic neoplasm. One potential mechanism for the orbital roof destruction is a post-traumatic "growing orbital roof fracture." The growing fracture has been reported mostly in children but can occur in adults. Alternative potential etiologies for the encephalocele are discussed, including Gorham syndrome. Orbital roof encephalocele is uncommon in adults, and the findings can superficially resemble an orbital neoplasm. Radiographic and clinical features that might suggest the correct diagnosis include a prior history of trauma, overlying frontal lobe encephalomalacia without significant mass effect or edema, and an orbital roof defect. The "growing fracture" mechanism may be a potential explanation for the orbital roof destruction in some cases.

  10. Collision-induced destructive quantum interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xihua; Sun Zhenrong; Zhang Shi'an; Ding Liang'en; Wang Zugeng

    2005-01-01

    We conduct theoretical studies on the collision-induced destructive quantum interference of two-colour two-photon transitions in an open rhomb-type five-level system with a widely separated doublet by the density matrix approach. The effects of the collision-induced decay rates, the ratio of the transition dipole moments and the energy separation of the doublet on the interference are analysed. It is shown that a narrow dip appears in the excitation spectrum due to the collision-induced destructive interference, and that the narrow interference dip still exists even when the collision broadening is comparable to the energy separation of the doublet. The physical origin of the collision-induced destructive quantum interference is analysed in the dressed-atom picture

  11. Application of integrated ozone and granular activated carbon for decolorization and chemical oxygen demand reduction of vinasse from alcohol distilleries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadavifar, Mojtaba; Younesi, Habibollah; Zinatizadeh, Ali Akbar; Mahdad, Faezeh; Li, Qin; Ghasemi, Zahra

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the treatment of the distilleries vinasse using a hybrid process integrating ozone oxidation and granular activated carbons (GAC) in both batch and continuous operation mode. The batch-process studies have been carried out to optimize initial influent pH, GAC doses, the effect of the ozone (O3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal of the distilleries vinasse. The continuous process was carried out on GAC and ozone treatment alone as well as the hybrid process comb both methods to investigate the synergism effectiveness of the two methods for distilleries vinasse COD reduction and color removal. In a continuous process, the Yan model described the experimental data better than the Thomas model. The efficiency of ozonation of the distilleries vinasse was more effective for color removal (74.4%) than COD removal (25%). O3/H2O2 process was not considerably more effective on COD and color removal. Moreover, O3/GAC process affected negatively on the removal efficiency by reducing COD and color from distilleries vinasse. The negative effect decreased by increasing pH value of the influent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Non-destructive testing. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farley, J.M.; Nichols, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    The book entitled 'Non-destructive Testing' Volume 2, contains the proceedings of the fourth European Conference, organized by the British Institute of Non-Destructive Testing and held in London, September 1987. The volume contains seven chapters which examine the reliability of NDT, the economics of NDT and the use of NDT in:- civil engineering; oil, gas, coal and petrochemical industries; iron and steel industries; aerospace industry; and the nuclear and electricity supply industries. The seven chapters contain 78 papers, of which 19 are selected for INIS and indexed separately. (U.K.)

  13. Non-destructive testing of electronic parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widenhorn, G.

    1980-01-01

    The requirements on quality, safety, faultlessness and reliability of electric components increase because of the high complexity of the appliances in which they are used. By means of examples a survey is given on the common non-destructive testing methods, testing operation and evaluation of test results on electric components which must meet in their application high requirements on quality and reliability. Defective components, especially those with hidden failures are sorted out by non-destructive testing and the failure frequency of the appliances and plants in testing and operation is greatly reduced. (orig.) [de

  14. Thermographic and potentiometric research on thermal destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mel' nichuk, A.Yu.; Fialkov, B.S.; Zazharov, A.G.; Lemke, E.R.

    1981-03-01

    Analyses of thermal effects and electric potential during the thermal destruction of various types of solid fuels were conducted by means of thermography and electron-ion phenomena determination. The characteristics of coals of various ranks, and of graphite and coke are presented. Thermograms and potential curves are graphed. The studies showed a certain correlation between the thermograms and potential change curves of the solid phase. The character of the potential curves and intensity of their peaks depends on the type of sample and makes an evaluation on the charged state of the products of destruction possible. (8 refs.) (In Russian)

  15. European Non Destructive Examination Forum (ENDEF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffrennes, M.; Engl, G.; Estorff, U. von

    1998-01-01

    Non destructive examination (NDE) during fabrication, Pre-service inspection (PSI) and In service inspection (ISI) are considered key issues for the safe use of nuclear energy. They are important elements of plant lifetime management which is a critical item in decision making on nuclear policies. The European non destructive examination forum (ENDEF) founded by European Commission provides a platform for open discussion between representatives of the European industries with the purpose to establish cooperation between EU, Central and Eastern European Countries and New Independent States in the field of NDE and ISI

  16. Sizewell: UK power demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Sizewell Inquiry was about whether the next power stations to be built in the UK should be nuclear or coal and, if nuclear, PWRs or AGRs. During the period of the Inquiry forecasts of demand for electricity were low. Now, however, it seems that the forecast demand is much increased. This uncertainty in demand and the wide regional variations are examined in some detail. Facts and figures on electricity sales (area by area) are presented. Also the minutes of supply lost per consumer per year. These show that security of supply is also a problem. It is also shown that the way electricity is used has changed. Whilst electricity generation has been changing to large-scale, centralised power stations the demand patterns may make smaller scale, quickly-constructed units more sensible. The questions considered at the Sizewell Inquiry may, indeed, no longer be the right ones. (UK)

  17. CodY Promotes Sporulation and Enterotoxin Production by Clostridium perfringens Type A Strain SM101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jihong; Freedman, John C; Evans, Daniel R; McClane, Bruce A

    2017-03-01

    Clostridium perfringens type D strains cause enterotoxemia and enteritis in livestock via epsilon toxin production. In type D strain CN3718, CodY was previously shown to increase the level of epsilon toxin production and repress sporulation. C. perfringens type A strains producing C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) cause human food poisoning and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Sporulation is critical for C. perfringens type A food poisoning since spores contribute to transmission and resistance in the harsh food environment and sporulation is essential for CPE production. Therefore, the current study asked whether CodY also regulates sporulation and CPE production in SM101, a derivative of C. perfringens type A food-poisoning strain NCTC8798. An isogenic codY -null mutant of SM101 showed decreased levels of spore formation, along with lower levels of CPE production. A complemented strain recovered wild-type levels of both sporulation and CPE production. When this result was coupled with the earlier results obtained with CN3718, it became apparent that CodY regulation of sporulation varies among different C. perfringens strains. Results from quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis clearly demonstrated that, during sporulation, codY transcript levels remained high in SM101 but rapidly declined in CN3718. In addition, abrB gene expression patterns varied significantly between codY -null mutants of SM101 and CN3718. Compared to the levels in their wild-type parents, the level of abrB gene expression decreased in the CN3718 codY -null mutant strain but significantly increased in the SM101 codY -null mutant strain, demonstrating CodY-dependent regulation differences in abrB expression between these two strains. This difference appears to be important since overexpression of the abrB gene in SM101 reduced the levels of sporulation and enterotoxin production, supporting the involvement of AbrB repression in regulating C. perfringens sporulation. Copyright © 2017

  18. A demanding market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, M.

    1997-01-01

    The article relates to the oil and natural gas market, and it gives a survey of proved reserves at the end of 1996 worldwide. The long term trend of increasing world energy demand has seen a major rise during 1996 when global consumption grew by 3%. But worldwide demand, excluding the Former Soviet Union, shows this figure increasing further to 3.7% for the whole of last year according to statistics. 3 figs

  19. Maximum power demand cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, L.

    1998-01-01

    The charging for a service is a supplier's remuneration for the expenses incurred in providing it. There are currently two charges for electricity: consumption and maximum demand. While no problem arises about the former, the issue is more complicated for the latter and the analysis in this article tends to show that the annual charge for maximum demand arbitrarily discriminates among consumer groups, to the disadvantage of some [it

  20. The effect of pH and operation mode for COD removal of slaughterhouse wastewater with Anaerobic Batch Reactor (ABR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Octoviane Dyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of industrial wastes in large quantities was not in accordance with today's standards of waste into environmental issues that must be overcome with proper treatment. Similarly, the abattoir wastewater that contains too high organic compounds and suspended solids. The amount of liquid waste disposal Slaughterhouse (SW with high volume also causes pollution. The research aim to resolve this problem by lowering the levels of BOD-COD to comply with effluent quality standard. Anaerobic process is the right process for slaughterhouse wastewater treatment because of high content of organic compounds that can be utilized by anaerobic bacteria as a growth medium. Some research has been conducted among abattoir wastewater treatment using anaerobic reactors such as ABR, UASB and ASBR. Our research focuses on the search for the optimum results decline effluent COD levels to match the quality standards limbah and cow rumen fluid with biodigester ABR (Anaerobic Batch Reactor. The variables used were PH of 6, 7, and 8, as well as the concentration ratio of COD: N is 400:7; 450:7, and 500:7. COD value is set by the addition of N derived from urea [CO(NH2 2]. COD levels will be measured daily by water displacement technique. The research’s result for 20 days seen that optimum PH for biogas production was PH 7,719 ml. The optimum PH for COD removal is PH 6, 72.39 %. The operation mode COD:N for biogas production and COD removal is 500:7, with the production value is 601 ml and COD removal value is 63.85 %. The research’s conclusion, the PH optimum for biogas production was PH 7, then the optimum PH for COD removal is PH 6. The optimum operation mode COD:N for biogas production and COD removal was 500:7

  1. COD fractions of leachate from aerobic and anaerobic pilot scale landfill reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilgili, M. Sinan; Demir, Ahmet; Akkaya, Ebru; Ozkaya, Bestamin

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important problems with designing and maintaining a landfill is managing leachate that generated when water passes through the waste. In this study, leachate samples taken from aerobic and anaerobic landfill reactors operated with and without leachate recirculation are investigated in terms of biodegradable and non-biodegradable fractions of COD. The operation time is 600 days for anaerobic reactors and 250 days for aerobic reactors. Results of this study show that while the values of soluble inert COD to total COD in the leachate of aerobic landfill with leachate recirculation and aerobic dry reactors are determined around 40%, this rate was found around 30% in the leachate of anaerobic landfill with leachate recirculation and traditional landfill reactors. The reason for this difference is that the aerobic reactors generated much more microbial products. Because of this condition, it can be concluded that total inert COD/total COD ratios of the aerobic reactors were 60%, whereas those of anaerobic reactors were 50%. This study is important for modeling, design, and operation of landfill leachate treatment systems and determination of discharge limits

  2. Mapping the spawning grounds of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) by direct and indirect means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Clive J; Taylor, Martin; Dickey-Collas, Mark; Fossum, Petter; Kraus, Gerd; Rohlf, Norbert; Munk, Peter; van Damme, Cindy J G; Bolle, Loes J; Maxwell, David L; Wright, Peter J

    2008-07-07

    Despite recent evidence for sub-stock structuring, North Sea cod are assessed as a single unit. As a consequence, knowledge of sub-stock trends is poor. In particular, there are no recent evaluations of which spawning grounds are active. Here we report results from the first ichthyoplankton survey to cover the whole North Sea. Also, this survey, conducted in 2004, was the first to make extensive use of DNA-based molecular methods to unambiguously identify early developmental stage cod eggs. We compare the findings from the plankton survey with estimated egg production inferred from the distribution of mature cod in contemporaneous trawl surveys. Results from both approaches were in general agreement and showed hot spots of egg production around the southern and eastern edges of the Dogger Bank, in the German Bight, the Moray Firth and to the east of the Shetlands. These areas broadly coincide with known spawning locations from the period 1940 to 1970. We were, however, unable to directly detect significant numbers of cod eggs at the historic spawning ground off Flamborough (northeast coast of England). The results demonstrate that most of the major spawning grounds of cod in the North Sea are still active but that some localized populations may have been reduced to the point where it is now difficult to detect the presence of eggs in the plankton.

  3. Stable isotope evidence for late medieval (14th-15th C origins of the eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua fishery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Orton

    Full Text Available Although recent historical ecology studies have extended quantitative knowledge of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua exploitation back as far as the 16th century, the historical origin of the modern fishery remains obscure. Widespread archaeological evidence for cod consumption around the eastern Baltic littoral emerges around the 13th century, three centuries before systematic documentation, but it is not clear whether this represents (1 development of a substantial eastern Baltic cod fishery, or (2 large-scale importation of preserved cod from elsewhere. To distinguish between these hypotheses we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis to determine likely catch regions of 74 cod vertebrae and cleithra from 19 Baltic archaeological sites dated from the 8th to the 16th centuries. δ(13C and δ(15N signatures for six possible catch regions were established using a larger sample of archaeological cod cranial bones (n = 249. The data strongly support the second hypothesis, revealing widespread importation of cod during the 13th to 14th centuries, most of it probably from Arctic Norway. By the 15th century, however, eastern Baltic cod dominate within our sample, indicating the development of a substantial late medieval fishery. Potential human impact on cod stocks in the eastern Baltic must thus be taken into account for at least the last 600 years.

  4. Creative Destruction in Libraries: Designing our Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caro Pinto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In Brief: Joseph Schumpeter defines creative destruction as a “process of industrial mutation that incessantly revolutionizes the economic structure from within, incessantly destroying the old one, incessantly creating a new one.” As libraries struggle with how to position themselves to thrive in the digital age, how can we balance the traditional elements of librarianship like […

  5. Unceratainty of Heisenberg in Universe Destruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Jumini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Qur'an is a guidence which explaines all about the universe to human being. The discovery of science has been able to explain the truth of the Qur'an scientifically. One of which is the principle of Heisenberg's uncertainty in the event of the universe destruction. The purpose of this research is to know: 1 Science's view of the event of the universe destruction (Big Crunch in Qur’an [Al Infithaar]: 1-3, and How the relation of Heisenberg’s uncertainty principles and the law of thermodynamics II toward  the collapse of the universe (Big Crunch based on Scientific views and the Quran. This research is a qualitative research using library research method which analyzes the related books directly or indirectly. The results of the analysis stated that: 1 The concentration of mass, which is big enough, relates to some of the laws of physics, those are: Relativity, Heisenberg's uncertainty principles, and the law of Thermodynamic II; 2 The universe will return at its sole point, i.e; the absence of the universe; 3 The destruction of the universe is the destruction of the order of the universe which then the stars fall scatteredly because of the gravitational force that prevents them disappears, the balance of the universe diminishes, decreases and becomes uncertain, and eventually disappears.

  6. New tasks for non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The proceedings contain 29 lectures and 43 posters which were presented in Trier at the annual meeting of the DGZfP in May 1990. The contributions report on further development of non-destructive testing methods towards more reliability, both of inspections and with regard to interpretation of the results. (MM) [de

  7. Complete destructive interference of partially coherent fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gbur, G.J.; Visser, T.D.; Wolf, E.

    2004-01-01

    A three-point source model is used to study the interference of wavefields which are mutually partially coherent. It is shown that complete destructive interference of the fields is possible in such a "three-pinhole interferometer" even if the sources are not fully coherent with respect to each

  8. Utilization of radiation in non destructive tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, R.T.; Jesus, E.F.O. de; Junqueira, M.M.; Matos, J.A. de; Castello Branco, L.M.; Barros Junior, J.D.; Borges, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory from COPPE/UFRJ has been developed techniques for using nuclear radiations to obtain images for non-destructive materials testing and medicine. With this objective, some prototypes of transmission computerized tomography systems using parallel beans and fan beans, with computer automation, including the mathematical process of image reprocessing and presentation in videos or printers are constructed [pt

  9. POTENSI HAYATI SERAT PURUN TIKUS (ELEOCHARIS DULCIS DALAM PROSES ADSORPSI KANDUNGAN LOGAM BERAT MERKURI (HG, TSS DAN COD PADA LIMBAH CAIR PERTAMBANGAN EMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chairul Irawan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Activity of gold mining in Kalimantan potentially can give waste that include into “Bahan Beracun Berbahaya (B3” such as mercury. An effort to make out this contamination is adsorption method. Eleocharis dulcis contain high amount of cellulose, about 40,92% so it can be used as an adsorbent. The purpose of this research are studying the capability of eleocharis dulcis as a natural adsorbent, studying the process of biocomposite making from eleocharis dulcis with iron oxide nanoparticle, and studying the influent of result iron oxide nanoparticle added to biocomposite in order to make a lower amount of heavy metal mercury (Hg, Total Suspended Solid (TSS dan Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD in waste water of gold mining. Eleocharis dulcis (PT through delignification process use 1% NaOH solution and then the PT-D is made to become biocomposite with iron oxide nanoparticle apply “one-pot solvothermal reaction” method. The biocomposite have two variation: without amina cluster added (PT-M and with amina cluster added (PT-MA. It’s characterization are consist of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. Adsorption process is applied for 8 hours with mixing rate is 150 rpm. Analysis after adsorption process including three methods: AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer method for Hg analysis, titrimetric method for COD, and gravimetric method for TSS. The result of adsorption process for mercury (Hg, COD, and TSS are optimally at pH 7 which the value of their effectiveness are 65,04%, 80%, and 81,25%. The maximum amount of Hg adsorption capacity for PT-D, PT-M, and PT-MA respectively are 6,504 mg/g, 6,984 mg/g, and 6,911 mg/g. The addition of iron oxide nanoparticle can increase adsorben capability of eleocharis dulcis.

  10. Correlation of COD and BOD of domestic wastewater with the power output of bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A M; Ataullah,; Shaheen, A; Ahmad, I; Malik, F; Shahid, H A [Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Campus, University Road, Karachi-75300 (Pakistan). Research Laboratory of Bioenergy, Department of Chemistry

    2011-04-15

    This research article deals with the studies on the development of the correlation of COD, BOD, and BOD/sub 5/ of domestic wastewater (DWW), and fermented domestic wastewater (FDWW) with the power output of the microbial fuel cell (MFC). The fermentation of DWW was carried out with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and yogurt bacteria (Streptococcus lactis) to produce biohydrogen which was converted to the electrical energy through the development of microbial fuel cell (MFC). The values of COD, BOD, and BOD/sub 5/ for yogurt fermented domestic wastewater (Yogurt-FDWW) were found to be greater than the values of yeast fermented domestic wastewater (Yeast-FDWW). The power output of DWW and FDWW was increased with the increase in COD, BOD and BOD/sub 5/ values. The main objective of this article is to develop the renewable alternative of fossil fuels which are the major cause of global warming and global pollution. (author)

  11. Correlation of COD and BOD of domestic wastewater with the power output of bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.M.; Ataullah; Shaheen, A.; Ahmad, I.; Malik, F.; Shahid, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    This research article deals with the studies on the development of the correlation of COD, BOD, and BOD/sub 5/ of domestic wastewater (DWW), and fermented domestic wastewater (FDWW) with the power output of the microbial fuel cell (MFC). The fermentation of DWW was carried out with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and yogurt bacteria (Streptococcus lactis) to produce biohydrogen which was converted to the electrical energy through the development of microbial fuel cell (MFC). The values of COD, BOD, and BOD/sub 5/ for yogurt fermented domestic wastewater (Yogurt-FDWW) were found to be greater than the values of yeast fermented domestic wastewater (Yeast-FDWW). The power output of DWW and FDWW was increased with the increase in COD, BOD and BOD/sub 5/ values. The main objective of this article is to develop the renewable alternative of fossil fuels which are the major cause of global warming and global pollution. (author)

  12. Escape windows to improve the size selectivity in the Baltic cod trawl fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Holst, René; Foldager, L.

    2002-01-01

    A rapid decrease of the stock of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) has provided the incentive to improve the size selectivity in the trawl fishery. Use of escape windows is permitted in the legislation to give means of improving the size selectivity of cod as an alternative to a traditional standard codend....... The history of the use of escape windows in the Baltic Sea cod fishery is reviewed. The present escape windows do not function optimally. The objective of this new experiment was to compare an improved design of escape window, which is placed in the upper panel, with that of standard codend. Three standard...... of the codend selectivity was formulated to analyse the results and determine the effects of codend type, mesh size and other recorded variables. L50 and SR increased significantly with the mesh size. L50 was significantly increased and SR significantly reduced for a window codend with the same window mesh size...

  13. Evaluation of chemical markers for age validation of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua otoliths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Stötera

    2015-11-01

    Baltic cod were intraperitoneally injected with the different chemicals and kept for 47 days in netpens. The lowest mortality and best ring formation was observed at 100mg/kg cod wet weight compared to 50 and 25mg/kg wet weight (TET only. Preliminary analysis suggests that the simultaneous injection of TET and STR decreases the visibility of TET-rings. This is probably due to a binding interaction between both markers in the body of the fish, so that less TET is bound in the otolith. The use of tetracycline hydrochloride in the concentrations of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg fish were considered the most appropriate to mark Baltic cod for age validation in large-scale mark-recapture experiments. TET and STR should not be injected together.

  14. Removal of COD and turbidity to improve wastewater quality using electrocoagulation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Faiqun Niam; Fadil Othman; Johan Sohaili; Zulfa Fauzia

    2007-01-01

    Electrocoagulation (EC) is becoming a popular process to be used for wastewater treatment. The removal of COD and turbidity from wastewater by EC using iron (Fe) electrode material was investigated in this paper. Several working parameters, such as pH, current density, and operating time were studied in an attempt to achieve a higher removal capacity. Wastewater sample was made from milk powder with initial COD of 1140 mgL -1 and turbidity of 491 NTU. Current density was varied from 3.51 to 5.62 mA cm -2 , and operating time of between 30 and 50 minutes. The results show that the effluent wastewater was very clear and its quality exceeded the direct discharge standard. The removal efficiencies of COD and turbidity were high, being more than 65 % and 95 %. In addition, the experimental results also show that the electrocoagulation can neutralize pH of wastewater. (author)

  15. Optimizing removal of cod from water by catalytic ozonation of cephalexin using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, J.; Amin, N.S.; Zahoor, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) has been used to optimize the effect of circulation rates, ozone supply, cephalexin (CEX) concentration, and granular activated carbon (GAC) dose on removal of COD from solution. According to statistical analysis, all of the input variables exerted significant influence on COD removal, however, the effect of interaction variables was not found to be significant on comparative basis. Further, the developed quadratic regression model based on obtained results emphasized the significance of individual terms and little of interaction terms. The values of r/sup 2/ (0.959), adjusted r/sup 2/ (0.902) obtained by analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicates the significance of quadratic model in predicting desired response. The maximum of 70% of COD was removed in these experiments and optimized value according to main effect of variables was 60%. (author)

  16. Spatial and Temporal Patterns in the Cod Fisheries of the North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Hayden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atlantic Cod Gadus morhua has been subject to commercial exploitation since the thirteenth century. An analysis of cod fisheries over space and time reveals a pattern of serial depletion that reflects the cross-scale interaction of fish population structure, economic incentives, developments in fishing technology, and government efforts to limit access to fishing areas. Three case studies from Newfoundland and Labrador, the larger Northwest Atlantic, and the Gulf of Maine illustrate a pattern of fish population depletion followed by expansion of fishing activity that repeats at a range of scales. The meta-population structure of cod populations allows overharvesting, even when strict but broadscale controls are in place. The results argue for the reform of fisheries management to incorporate governance that more closely reflects the scale of the local components of metapopulations.

  17. Association between nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum invasion of cod larvae and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Bahlool, Qusay Z. M.; Kuhn, Jesper

    Parasitic nematodes of the superfamily Ascaridoidea are distributed worldwide also with numerous representatives in fish. They have an important role to play in the aquatic environment and may affect survivability of fish. The life cycle of many of these fish infecting roundworm species includes...... invertebrates and fish species and for some species also higher vertebrate hosts. We have recently demonstrated that fry of North Sea cod has a high prevalence of infection with regard to the nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum and it was indicated that these infections could affect survival of cod and thereby......, lapillus otoliths were removed, polished and the number of growth zones in each otolith counted by light microscopy. Each growth zone indicates one day of the fish life span. Covariance analysis demonstrated highly significant differences (p≤ 0.001) between the growth rate of infected and uninfected cod...

  18. Spatio-temporal variability of the North Sea cod recruitment in relation to temperature and zooplankton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Nicolas

    Full Text Available The North Sea cod (Gadus morhua, L. stock has continuously declined over the past four decades linked with overfishing and climate change. Changes in stock structure due to overfishing have made the stock largely dependent on its recruitment success, which greatly relies on environmental conditions. Here we focus on the spatio-temporal variability of cod recruitment in an effort to detect changes during the critical early life stages. Using International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS data from 1974 to 2011, a major spatio-temporal change in the distribution of cod recruits was identified in the late 1990s, characterized by a pronounced decrease in the central and southeastern North Sea stock. Other minor spatial changes were also recorded in the mid-1980s and early 1990s. We tested whether the observed changes in recruits distribution could be related with direct (i.e. temperature and/or indirect (i.e. changes in the quantity and quality of zooplankton prey effects of climate variability. The analyses were based on spatially-resolved time series, i.e. sea surface temperature (SST from the Hadley Center and zooplankton records from the Continuous Plankton Recorder Survey. We showed that spring SST increase was the main driver for the most recent decrease in cod recruitment. The late 1990s were also characterized by relatively low total zooplankton biomass, particularly of energy-rich zooplankton such as the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, which have further contributed to the decline of North Sea cod recruitment. Long-term spatially-resolved observations were used to produce regional distribution models that could further be used to predict the abundance of North Sea cod recruits based on temperature and zooplankton food availability.

  19. PEMANFAATAN SPUIT BEKAS SEBAGAI MEDIA BIOFILTRASI DALAM MENURUNKAN KADAR BOD DAN COD AIR LIMBAH LAUNDRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilawati Susilawati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Utilization Spuit Used As Media biofilters on Reducing levels of BOD and COD Wastewater Laundry. The aim of this study was to test the ability of the media syringe biofiltration method used in lowering levels of BOD and COD in waste water laundry Hospital Dr. Soedarso Pontianak. This research is a quasi-experimental research design with one group pretest-posttest. Laboratory results mean BOD levels before processing is 103.63 mg/L and the average after processing into 46.41 mg/ L, with a value of 55.21 % effectiveness. While the average COD level before processing is 413.70 mg / L and the average after processing into a 195.88 mg/L with a value of 45.92% effectiveness. Expected to other researchers to control the pH and blowers before treatment and during treatment, as it will affect the final result. Abstrak : Pemanfaatan Spuit Bekas Sebagai Media Biofiltrasi Dalam Menurunkan Kadar BOD dan COD Air Limbah Laundry. Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk menguji kemampuan metode biofiltrasi dengan media spuit bekas pakai dalam menurunkan kadar BOD dan COD pada air limbah laundry RSUD Dr. Soedarso Pontianak. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimen semu dengan rancangan penelitian one group pre test post test. Hasil laboratorium rata-rata kadar BOD sebelum pengolahan yaitu 103.63 mg/L dan rata-rata setelah pengolahan menjadi 46.41 mg/L, dengan nilai efektivitas 55,21 %. Sedangkan rata-rata kadar COD sebelum pengolahan yaitu 413.70 mg/L dan rata-rata setelah pengolahan menjadi 195.88 mg/L dengan nilai efektivitas 45,92 %. Diharapkan kepada peneliti lain untuk mengontrol pH dan blower sebelum perlakuan dan pada saat perlakuan, jika melakukan penelitian sejenis karena akan mempengaruhi hasil akhir.

  20. Degradation of ATP and glycogen in cod ( Gadus morhua ) muscle during freezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappeln, Gertrud; Jessen, Flemming

    2001-01-01

    Changes in ATP, IMP, lactate and glycogen contents in the muscle of cod were followed during freezing at temperatures of -20C and -45C. ATP degradation was accompanied by a corresponding increase in IMP content. Simultaneous measurement of temperature showed that at both freezing rates......, the greatest decrease in ATP content was observed when the temperature reached -0.8C. Glycolysis occurred during freezing of cod as indicated by an increase in lactate content. The changes found in all measured metabolites were more pronounced when freezing was performed at a slow rate compared to a fast rate...

  1. Otolith microstructure analysis to resolve seasonal patterns of hatching and settlement in western Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehberg-Haas, Sabine; Hammer, Cornelius; Hillgruber, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies showed that Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) settle to demersal life at a given size, while the annulus is formed seasonally, irrespective of size. The goal of this study was to examine the timing of check formation in juvenile Baltic cod otoliths to validate macrostructural ageing...... and to differentiate between true annuli and secondary structures such as settlement checks. Otoliths were collected from fish off Fehmarn Island in 2008 and 2009, and were examined for macrostructural and microstructural patterns using light and scanning electron microscopy. All fish examined were age-0. Back...

  2. Modelling and simulation of size selectivity in diamond mesh trawl cod-ends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Bent

    of the fishing gear. The cod-end is the rearmost part of a trawl where catch accumulates and in which most of the size selection is known to take place. To date, the main method used to assess the selectivity of trawl cod-ends has been to run sea trials followed by statistical analysis of the obtained......Within many fisheries there is a widespread discard of fish. Furthermore, there are several fisheries where fish are caught before reaching the optimal size, leading to an adverse exploitation of the resources. One way to achieve a more optimal exploitation is to improve the size selectivity...

  3. The effect of carbon dioxide on growth of juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moran, Damian; Støttrup, Josianne

    2011-01-01

    A trial was undertaken to investigate how exposure to graded hypercapnia affected the growth performance of juvenile (15-80 g) Atlantic cod. Juveniles were grown at 20‰ salinity and 10 °C for 55 days under three hypercapnic regimes: low (2 ± 0.9 mg L−1 CO2, 0.6 mm Hg, 1000 μatm), medium (8 ± 0.5 mg...... experiments using marine fish species. The test concentrations were recalculated from the reported carbonate chemistry conditions, and indicated that the CO2 concentration effect threshold may have been overestimated in two of these studies. Our study suggests that juvenile Atlantic cod are more susceptible...

  4. Linking lipid dynamics with the reproductive cycle in Baltic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjbek, Maria; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2012-01-01

    ovaries and decreased in late maturing and spawning fish, most likely due to their antioxidant protection activity. The fatty acid composition of cod liver reflected its clupeid prey. The ratio of 18:1n-9 to DHA was almost twice as high in sprat as in herring and indicated the ratio of sprat and herring...... with cod ovarian development in the central Baltic Sea, and may be associated with the delay in spawning and affect egg and larval survival; however, this needs further verification in experimental studies....

  5. Fishing gear-induced skin ulcerations in Baltic cod, Gadus morhua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellergaard, Stig; Bagge, O.

    1998-01-01

    In 1982 a high prevalence of skin ulcerations was observed in Baltic cod in the vicinity of the Danish island of Bornholm. In March the prevalence varied from G to 13%, and in May it had increased to between 26 and 48%. The ulcerations had a sequential development. The initial stage appeared...... from the nets, combined with bilateral occurrence of the ulcers, strongly indicates that the skin ulcers were induced by the fishing gear. Features of the pathology could be linked to the temporary retention of cod in trawl meshes....

  6. Eastern Baltic cod in distress: biological changes and challenges for stock assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Hjelm, Joakim; Behrens, Jane

    2015-01-01

    The eastern Baltic (EB) cod (Gadus morhua) stock was depleted and overexploited for decades until the mid-2000s, when fishing mortality rapidly declined and biomass started to increase, as shown by stock assessments. These positive developments were partly assigned to effective management measures...... that the stock is in distress. In this study, we (i) summarize the knowledge of recent changes in cod biology and ecosystem conditions, (ii) describe the subsequent challenges for stock assessment, and (iii) highlight the key questions where answers are urgently needed to understand the present stock status...

  7. UK Nuclear Workforce Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John

    2017-01-01

    UK Nuclear Sites: DECOMMISSIONING - 26 Magnox Reactors, 2 Fast Reactors; OPERATIONAL - 14 AGRs, 1 PWR; 9.6 GWe Total Capacity. Nuclear Workforce Demand • Total workforce demand is expected to grow from ~88,000 in 2017 to ~101,000 in 2021 • Average “inflow” is ~7,000 FTEs per annum • 22% of the workforce is female (28% in civil, 12% in defence) • 81% generic skills, 18% nuclear skills, 1% subject matter experts • 3300 trainees total in SLCs and Defence Enterprise (16% graduate trainees) • At peak demand on Civils Construction, over 4,000 workers will be required on each nuclear new build site • Manufacturing workforce is expected to rise from around 4,000 in 2014 to 8,500 at the peak of onsite activity in 2025

  8. Demand Modelling in Telecommunications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chvalina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the existing possibilities for using Standard Statistical Methods and Artificial Intelligence Methods for a short-term forecast and simulation of demand in the field of telecommunications. The most widespread methods are based on Time Series Analysis. Nowadays, approaches based on Artificial Intelligence Methods, including Neural Networks, are booming. Separate approaches will be used in the study of Demand Modelling in Telecommunications, and the results of these models will be compared with actual guaranteed values. Then we will examine the quality of Neural Network models. 

  9. DemandStat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    DemandStat is an accurate and up-to-date international statistics database dedicated to energy demand, with an unrivaled level of details for powerful market analysis. It provides detailed consumption statistics (30 sectors) on all energies, detailed 2003 data and historical annual data since 1970, frequent data revision and update (2 updates options), 150 data sources gathered and expertized, all data on a single database Consistent and homogeneous statistics, in line with all major data providers (IEA, Eurostat, ADB, OLADE, etc), no ruptures in time-series with easy request building and data analysis and reactive support from data experts. (A.L.B.)

  10. Education on Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Lis; Hende, Merete

    2015-01-01

    Dette notat beskriver nogle af resultaterne fra programmet "Education on Demand' i projektet Det erhvervsrettede Uddannelseslaboratorium. Programmet har haft fokus på udfordringer og forandringsbehov i uddannelsesinstitutioner og -systemet. Herunder har det beskæftiget sig særligt med de to temat......Dette notat beskriver nogle af resultaterne fra programmet "Education on Demand' i projektet Det erhvervsrettede Uddannelseslaboratorium. Programmet har haft fokus på udfordringer og forandringsbehov i uddannelsesinstitutioner og -systemet. Herunder har det beskæftiget sig særligt med de...

  11. Nonconventional concrete hollow blocks evaluation by destructive and non-destructive testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Rodrigues

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate cementitious matrices properties by partial replacement of Portland cement by silica fume (SF or by rice husk ash (RHA, and their application in nonbearing hollow blocks, tested by destructive and non-destructive methods. The following mixtures were produced: reference (100% of Portland cement and Portland cement replacement (10% by mass with SF or RHA. The non-destructive testing showed that the highest values of UPV were obtained for SF-based blocks and RHA-based blocks. The destructive test showed better results for SF-based blocks, but there was no statistical difference between the RHA-based and control ones.

  12. Cod and rainbow trout as freeze-chilled meal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Nielsen, Jette; Jørgensen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Meal elements' are elements of a meal, e.g. portions of pre-fried meat, sauces, frozen fish or pre-processed vegetables typically prepared industrially. The meal elements are distributed to professional satellite kitchens, where the staff can combine them into complete meals. Freeze......-chilling is a process consisting of freezing and frozen storage followed by thawing and chilled storage. Combining the two would enable the manufacturer to produce large quantities of frozen meal elements to be released into the chill chain according to demand. We have studied the influence of freeze...... days of chilled storage, and the corresponding time for rainbow trout was 10 days. After this period the sensory quality decreased and chemical indicators of spoilage were seen to increase. CONCLUSION: The consistent quality during storage and the high-quality shelf life are practically applicable...

  13. Causality in demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Jensen, Frank; Setälä, Jari

    2011-01-01

    to fish demand. On the German market for farmed trout and substitutes, it is found that supply sources, i.e. aquaculture and fishery, are not the only determinant of causality. Storing, tightness of management and aggregation level of integrated markets might also be important. The methodological...

  14. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babusiaux, D

    2004-07-01

    Following the military intervention in Iraq, it is taking longer than expected for Iraqi exports to make a comeback on the market. Demand is sustained by economic growth in China and in the United States. OPEC is modulating production to prevent inventory build-up. Prices have stayed high despite increased production by non-OPEC countries, especially Russia. (author)

  15. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2006-07-01

    The year 2004 saw a change in the oil market paradigm that was confirmed in 2005. Despite a calmer geopolitical context, prices continued to rise vigorously. Driven by world demand, they remain high as a result of the saturation of production and refining capacity. The market is still seeking its new equilibrium. (author)

  16. Oil supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rech, O.

    2006-01-01

    The year 2004 saw a change in the oil market paradigm that was confirmed in 2005. Despite a calmer geopolitical context, prices continued to rise vigorously. Driven by world demand, they remain high as a result of the saturation of production and refining capacity. The market is still seeking its new equilibrium. (author)

  17. The demand for euros

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Roelands, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the demand for euros using panel data for 10 euro area countries covering the period from 1999 to 2008. Monetary aggregates are constructed to ensure that money is a national concept by excluding deposits owned by non-residents and including external deposits owned by

  18. Oil supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusiaux, D.

    2004-01-01

    Following the military intervention in Iraq, it is taking longer than expected for Iraqi exports to make a comeback on the market. Demand is sustained by economic growth in China and in the United States. OPEC is modulating production to prevent inventory build-up. Prices have stayed high despite increased production by non-OPEC countries, especially Russia. (author)

  19. Oil supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rech, O.

    2004-01-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  20. Textbook Factor Demand Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joe C.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that teachers and textbook graphics follow the same basic pattern in illustrating changes in demand curves when product prices increase. Asserts that the use of computer graphics will enable teachers to be more precise in their graphic presentation of price elasticity. (CFR)

  1. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2004-07-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  2. Effects of mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) derived from cod liver oil on H295R steroidogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montano, M.; Zimmer, K.E.; Dahl, E.; Berge, V.; Olsaker, I.; Skaare, J.U.; Murk, A.J.; Ropstad, E.; Verhaegen, S.

    2011-01-01

    Crude cod liver oil and liver oil supplements are consumed as a source of vitamin A, D and polyunsaturated fatty acids; during winter and early pregnancy. Crude cod liver oil however constitutes a considerable source of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This paper aimed at characterizing and

  3. Lipid biomarkers : Linking the utilization of frontal plankton biomass to enhanced condition of juvenile North Sea cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    St. John, Michael; Lund, T.

    1996-01-01

    , hatched and the N1 nauplii from these different feeding regimes fed to post yolk-sac larval North Sea cod. Post yolk-sac larval cod required 8 d on either a Heterocapsa- or Skeletonema-based food chain before tracer Lipid signals (the ratio of the lipids 16:1 omega 7 to 16:0) in the larvae began to change...

  4. The third serine proteinase with chymotrypsin specificity isolated from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is a type-II elastase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgeirsson, B; Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Thórólfsson, M

    1998-01-01

    -Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide, but inactive against the typical elastase substrates succinyl-Ala-Ala-Ala-p-nitroanilide and orcein-elastin. Comparison of the kinetic properties of the cod elastase C with bovine chymotrypsin and cod chymotrypsin variants A and B, using succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide, showed a lower catalytic...

  5. 75 FR 52478 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation of Pacific cod specified from trawl catcher... catcher vessel Pacific cod fishery is currently open, it is important to immediately inform the industry... and efficient operation of this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing season, and to...

  6. Freshness assessment of thawed and chilled cod fillets packed in modified atmosphere using near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøknæs, Niels; Jensen, K.N.; Andersen, Charlotte Møller

    2002-01-01

    Near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectra was recorded of 105 samples of cod mince prepared from chill stored thawed cod fillets of varying quality in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Traditional chemical, physical, microbiological and sensory quality methods developed for assessing fresh fish...

  7. The Evaluation of Removal Efficiency of COD Due to Water Contaminated by Gasoline by Granular Active Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Salmani

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: We can conclude from this study that the activated carbon is an appropriate adsorbent for decreasing of COD due to gasoline contamination in water. The use of this adsorbent can well decrease COD of water contamination due to gasoline at times of 30 min.

  8. 76 FR 73513 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Revisions to Pacific Cod Fishing in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... term of the permit. Third, it requires an operator of any Federally permitted pot or hook-and-line C/P... catching a greater amount of Pacific cod in the parallel fishery than has been allocated to their sector from the BSAI total allowable catch. Maintaining Pacific cod catch amounts within BSAI sector...

  9. 77 FR 8177 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Using Pot Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels using pot gear in the... season allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to vessels using pot gear in...

  10. 77 FR 14305 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Jig Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... Using Jig Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels using jig gear in the... season allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to vessels using jig gear in...

  11. 77 FR 6683 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... Using Pot Gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels using pot gear in the... season allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to vessels using pot gear in...

  12. 76 FR 44699 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Parts 679 and 680 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska... 0648-AY53 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of... competition among sectors and support stability in the Pacific cod fishery. This rule would also limit access...

  13. 76 FR 37763 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ...-AY53 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of Alaska... the uncertainty regarding the distribution of Pacific cod catch, enhance stability among the sectors... available for public review and comment. The groundfish fisheries in the exclusive economic zone of the Gulf...

  14. Thawed cod fillets spoil less rapidly than unfrozen fillets when stored under modified atmosphere at 2 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldager, H S; Bøknaes, N; Osterberg, C; Nielsen, J; Dalgaard, P

    1998-09-01

    The effect of two months of frozen storage at -20 degrees C on the spoilage characteristics and shelf life of thawed and modified atmosphere packed (MAP) cod fillets stored at 2 degrees C was studied. Thawed MAP cod fillets were compared with fresh cod fillets stored in CO2-containing modified atmospheres with and without added oxygen. The shelf life of 11 to 12 days in the fresh MAP cod was extended to more than 20 days in the thawed MAP cod at 2 degrees C. This shelf life extension was most likely due to the inactivation of the spoilage bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum during frozen storage as reflected both in chemical analyses and sensory evaluation. In contrast to fresh MAP cod fillets no significant production of trimethylamine occurred and almost no amine odor and taste were detected during 20 days of chill storage of thawed MAP cod fillets. The use of frozen fillets as raw material not only provides a more stable product in MAP but also allows much greater flexibility for production and distribution. However, a slightly increased concentration of dimethylamine, a larger drip loss, and detection of weak frozen storage flavor were observed in the thawed MAP cod fillets.

  15. Co-distribution of seabirds and their polar cod prey near the ice edge in southern Baffin Bay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LeBlanc, Mathieu; Gauthier, S; Mosbech, Anders

    species, and age-1 polar cod found in bird stomachs were likely individuals associated to ice. At a large scale of hundreds of kilometers, seabirds and age-0 polar cod were more abundant in ice-covered habitats (30 to 100% ice concentration). At medium and small scale of 12.5 and 1 km respectively...

  16. Theoretical study of the influence of twine thickness on haddock selectivity in diamond mesh cod-ends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Bent; O'Neill, F.G.

    2006-01-01

    Using the cod-end simulation model PRESEMO, the influence of twine thickness on cod-end selectivity is investigated. The reduction of lateral mesh opening that arises as a result of both twine bending stiffness and the physical presence of the twine is considered. While it is shown that this lead...

  17. Electricity demand in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gam, Imen; Ben Rejeb, Jaleleddine

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the global electricity demand in Tunisia as a function of gross domestic product in constant price, the degree of urbanization, the average annual temperature, and the real electricity price per Kwh. This demand will be examined employing annual data over a period spanning almost thirty one years from 1976 to 2006. A long run relationship between the variables under consideration is determined using the Vector Autoregressive Regression. The empirical results suggest that the electricity demand in Tunisia is sensitive to its past value, any changes in gross domestic product and electricity price. The electricity price effects have a negative impact on long-run electricity consumption. However, the gross domestic product and the past value of electricity consumption have a positive effect. Moreover, the causality test reveals a unidirectional relationship between price and electricity consumption. Our empirical findings are effective to policy makers to maintain the electricity consumption in Tunisia by using the appropriate strategy. - Highlights: ► This paper examined the electricity demand in Tunisia in the long-run. ► The empirical analysis revealed that in the long-run the electricity demand is affected by changes in its past value, GDP in constant price and real electricity price. ► There is a unidirectional relationship between price and electricity consumption, that is to say, that the electricity price causes the consumption. ► Those results suggest that a pricing policy can be an effective instrument to rationalize the electricity consumption in Tunisia in the long-run.

  18. Economic importance of non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loebert, P.

    1979-01-01

    On May 21 to 23, 1979, the annual meeting of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefung took place in Lindau near the Bodensee lake. About 600 experts from Germany and abroad participated in the meeting, whose general subject was 'The Economic Importance of Non-Destructive Testing'. Theoretical problems and practical investigations were discussed in a number of papers on special subjects. Apart from the 33 papers, there was also a poster show with 53 stands with texts, drawings, diagrams, and figures where the authors informed those interested on the latest state of knowledge in testing. The short papers were read in six sessions under the headings of rentability of non-destructive testing, X-ray methods, electromagnetic methods, and ultrasonic methods 1 and 2. (orig.) [de

  19. The Creation and Destruction of Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    ‘A welcome contribution to scholarly economic and public policy debates, The Creation and Destruction of Social Capital is written for advanced students yet offers insights critical to better understanding micro and macro economics alike.' - Willis M. Buhle, The Midwest Book Review ‘The Svendsens...... in to crafting this study.' - From the foreword by Elinor Ostrom Is social capital the ‘missing link' in economics? In this vital new book, the authors argue that the ‘forgotten' production factor of social capital is as crucial in economic decision-making as the other more traditional factors of production...... such as physical, financial and human capital. They attempt to bridge the gap between theory and reality by examining the main factors that determine entrepreneurship, co-operative movements and the creation and destruction of social capital....

  20. Non-destructive control of castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutault, J.; Mascre, C.

    1978-01-01

    The object of non-destructive control in foundries is to verify the metal structure, the absence of unacceptable discontinuity, total tightness, etc. This leads to a range of very varied controls according to the importance of the series, the quality level required by the specifications, the nature of the alloy. The originality of the solutions which are imperative for castings is shown through examples: casting of high quality complex forms in short series; very thick unit parts; very large series of parts requiring on efficient automation of non-destructive control. Lastly the publishing of testing methods and interpretating rules, which are the base of a friendly understanding between constructors and founders are recalled [fr

  1. Non-destructive control in nuclear construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banus; Barbier; Launay

    1978-01-01

    Having recalled the characteristics of the fundamental components of the main primary circuit of nuclear boilers (900 MW) and the means appropriated for their control, it is recalled that the 'French Electricity Board's specifications and control rules' often prescribe more severe criteria than those existing in the U.S.A. Then practical examples of non-destructive controls concerning the steam generator end plates, vessel stainless steel linings, pump attachements, steam generator pipes are given [fr

  2. Polonium-210 as Weapon for Mass Destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koteng, A.O.

    2010-01-01

    Properties of Po-210 make it possible for its use as weapon of mass destruction. Po-210 occurs naturally in minute quantities in the human body, in Uranium ore (< 0.1 mg Po-210 / ton ) and as a product of Radon-222 gas decay chain. Po-210 also occurs as deposition on vegetation (tobacco leaves). Po-210 is produced by bombardment of Bi-209 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Russia produces 8 grams per year for export to USA market

  3. Destructive quantum interference in spin tunneling problems

    OpenAIRE

    von Delft, Jan; Henley, Christopher L.

    1992-01-01

    In some spin tunneling problems, there are several different but symmetry-related tunneling paths that connect the same initial and final configurations. The topological phase factors of the corresponding tunneling amplitudes can lead to destructive interference between the different paths, so that the total tunneling amplitude is zero. In the study of tunneling between different ground state configurations of the Kagom\\'{e}-lattice quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnet, this occurs when the spi...

  4. Development of non-destructive testing. Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A National Scheme for the qualification and certification of Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) personnel in various methods has been established as the first stage of implementation. Systematic training in such methods as radiography (RT), ultrasonics (UT), magnetic particles (MT), liquid penetrant (PT) and eddy currents (ET) at levels I, II and some at III has been initiated and should be continued. Direct link with the industry and continuous effort to extend practical applications is strongly recommended

  5. The effect of COD loading on the granule-based enhanced biological phosphorus removal system and the recoverability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shenjing; Sun, Peide; Zheng, Wei; Chen, Lujun; Zheng, Xiongliu; Han, Jingyi; Yan, Tao

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the effect of varied COD loading (200, 400, 500, 600 and 800 mg L(-1)) on stability and recoverability of granule-based enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) system was investigated during continuously 53-d operation. Results showed that COD loading higher than 500 mg L(-1) could obviously deteriorate the granular EBPR system and result in sludge bulking with filamentous bacteria. High COD loading also changed the transformation patterns of poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and glycogen in metabolism process of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) and inhibited the EPS secretion, which completely destroyed the stability and integrality of granules. Results of FISH indicated that glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) and other microorganisms had a competitive advantage over PAOs with higher COD loading. The community composition and EBPR performance were recovered irreversibly in long time operation when COD loading was higher than 500 mg L(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Technological Parameters and Fishing Ground on Quality Attributes of Thawed, Chilled Cod Fillets Stored in Modified Atmosphere Packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøknæs, Niels; Østerberg, Carsten; Sørensen, Rie

    2001-01-01

    . The parameters investigated were: (1) packaging in modified atmosphere during frozen storage, (2)frozen storage period and temperature, (3),fishing ground and chill storage temperature, together with (4) the addition of trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) and sodium chloride (NaCl) to cod fillets before freezing......Effects were studied of various technological parameters and fishing ground on quality attributes of thawed, chilled cod fillets stored in modified atmosphere packaging Frozen fillets of Baltic Sea and Barents Sea cod, representing two commercial fishing grounds, were used as raw material...... of Baltic Sea cod. Therefore, addition of trimethylamine oxide and NaCl to Baltic Sea cod fillets was evaluated and shown to protect P, phosphoreum against fro::en storage inactivation and this explained the observed differences in growth of the spoilage bacteria and trimethylamine production between thawed...

  7. Oceanographic influences on the distribution of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua , during spawning in the Bornholm Basin of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Lehmann, K.M.; St. John, Michael

    1998-01-01

    proportion of males to females. On the basin slopes, aggregations of cod were found near the bottom. These individuals were mainly immature and maturing stages with an increasing proportion of females to males with size. Salinity and oxygen conditions were found to be the major factors influencing...... the vertical and horizontal distribution of adult cod. Abundance of immature cod was also positively related to decreasing bottom depths. The effect of temperature was minor. The observed size- and sex-dependent spawning aggregation patterns, in association with habitat volume and stock size, may influence cod......The Baltic Sea is a stratified, semi-enclosed sea typified by a low-salinity surface layer and a deep saline layer of varying volume, salinity, temperature and oxygen concentration. The relationships between these oceanographic factors and the distribution of Baltic cod are presented, utilizing...

  8. Early MRI findings of rapidly destructive coxarthrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Wataru; Itoi, Eiji; Yamada, Shin

    2002-01-01

    Rapidly destructive coxarthrosis (RDC) is known to affect elderly women, but its etiology is unknown. This is the first report to our knowledge, based on a search of the English literature, that reveals the entire process of hip destruction from the onset to the terminal stage of RDC, in an 80-year-old woman. Radiographic evaluation showed subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head at an early stage of this disease. An MRI examination within a month of the onset of hip pain showed the entire femoral head with low intensity on T1-weighted images and high intensity on T2-weighted images, and a small low-intensity band at the subchondral area of the lateral weight-bearing portion of the head. These findings are consistent with subchondral insufficiency fracture and associated bone marrow edema. The lesion developed into a deep and large erosion at the superolateral portion of the femoral head, the process being observed on both roentgenograms and MRI. These findings were confirmed during total hip arthroplasty. This case suggests that subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head may be a preceding sign of destruction of the femoral head. (orig.)

  9. Weapons of mass destruction - current security threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durdiak, J.; Gafrik, A.; Pulis, P.; Susko, M.

    2005-01-01

    This publication brings a complex and comprehensive view of the weapons of mass destruction phenomenon in the context of present military and political situation. It emphasizes the threat posed by proliferation of these destructive devices and their carriers as well as the threat present in their possession by unpredictable totalitarian regimes or terrorist groups. The publication is structured into four basic parts: Introduction Into The Topic, Nuclear Weapons, Chemical Weapons and Biological Weapons. The Introduction reflects the latest developments on the field of military technologies, which lead to the development of new destructive devices with characteristics comparable to basic types of WMDs - nuclear, chemical and biological. Based on the definition of WMD as 'weapon systems with enormous impact causing mass destruction, population, equipment and material losses', the modern mass destruction devices are assorted here, such as ecological, radiological and beam weapons, aerosol and container intelligent ammunition, the outburst of dangerous chemical substances from infrastructure, non-conventional weapons and military devices. The Nuclear Weapons part depicts the most destructive device of mass destruction mankind ever invented in close detail. It maps the history of most significant discoveries in nuclear physics, development and construction of the first nuclear weapons, accumulation of nuclear warheads and their carriers in the Cold war era, attempts of nuclear disarmament and reducing the number of nuclear weapons in possession of superpowers and their proliferation in the world's crisis regions including North Korea and Iran. The chapters devoted to theoretical grounds and physical principles of nuclear and thermonuclear weapons' functioning, the main categories and types, as well as destructive effects and consequences of use contain an adequate mathematical apparatus. This chapter's conclusion brings the overview of nuclear armament of states that

  10. DETERMINANTS DESTRUCTIVE TO BUSINESS CONDUCT TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Anatol’evna Loginova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the determinants of destructive behavior in the transport business with the aim to identify their causes and to clarify the features of influence on them by all business stakeholders in transport. It is shown that the key determinants are: submission to the will of one business entity to another, the implementation of state support only in distressed periods of functioning of transport organizations, business obligations to the state are often perceived as a back-breaking businessmen, unfair, unnecessary. The main conclusions of the work are reduced to the following recommendations: to form a focused pulse of the state in support of the transport business; improve enforcement culture; more efficient use of the transport business capital. The goal – to identify the cause of the destructive business behavior and clarify the characteristics of their research on the part of all stakeholders in the transport sector. Method or methodology of work: in the article used analytical methods, and statistical analysis methods. Results for: received informative pictures that describe deterministic minanaty-destructive conduct business on the road, on the basis of which developed recommendations to neutralize their influence on the behavior of entrepreneurs. Application of results: the results the expediency applied differently businesses and government agencies operating in the field of transport.

  11. Perbedaan Efektivitas Zeolit Dan Manganese Greensand Untuk Menurunkan Kadar Fosfat Dan Chemical Oxygen Demand Limbah Cair “Laundry Zone” Di Tembalang

    OpenAIRE

    Lavina, Dahona Lenthe; Sulistyani, Sulistyani; Rahadjo, Mursid

    2016-01-01

    Laundry business is a business in clothes washing services. Preliminary test results show that the levels of phosphate and COD laundry liquid wastes is 12,36 mg/l and 5.920 mg/l. These levels exceeded the water quality standard of waste that phosphate concentration of 2 mg/l and COD concentration of 100 mg/l. This research aimed to determine the difference effectiveness of zeolite and manganese greensand to decrease phosphate and chemical oxygen demand on waste "laundry zone" in Tembalang. T...

  12. Factors determining variations in otolith microincrement width of demersal juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Mosegaard, Henrik; Hinrichsen, H.H.

    2003-01-01

    by comparison with laboratory-reared individuals, and to investigate the factors determining variation in these increments. The different increment-width patterns were identified with a method based on the widths of consecutive increments. Otolith increment widths of juvenile cod were found to be highly...

  13. Sensory characteristics of different cod products related to consumer preferences and attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Green-Petersen, D.; Hyldig, G.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) was used to analyse the sensory quality of eight cod products, different with regard to origin (wild/farmed), storage time (short/extended) and storage method (fresh/frozen/packed in modified atmosphere). At the same time, 378 consumers in four European

  14. The membrane action mechanism of novel antimicrobial peptide COD isolated from the venom of bee

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čujová, Sabína; Slaninová, Jiřina; Fučík, Vladimír; Monincová, Lenka; Voburka, Zdeněk; Čeřovský, Václav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 42, Suppl. 1 (2013), S164-S164 ISSN 0175-7571. [European Biophysics Congress EBSA /9./. 13.07.2013-17.07.2013, Lisbon] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : antimicrobial peptides * COD Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  15. The invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi poses no direct threat to Baltic cod eggs and larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Titelman, Josefin; Hansson, Lars Johan

    2011-01-01

    conducted laboratory incubation experimentsand video observations to quantify feeding rates on Baltic cod eggs and larvae. Ingestion rates increased with codlarvae concentrations up to 8 prey L21, beyond which ingestion remained constant. Neither Mnemiopsis size noregg concentration (1–16 prey L21) affected...... feeding rates on cod eggs. Observed feeding rates pooled from allexperiments conducted at nonsaturating prey concentrations were low, with the highest volume-specific clearanceon , 4.5-d-old yolk-sac larvae (0.05 6 0.02 L (mL Mnemiopsis)21 h21), and lower rates on 4.5–8-d-old larvae(0.02 6 0.02 L (m......L Mnemiopsis)21 h21) and eggs (0.02 6 0.03 L (mL Mnemiopsis)21 h21). When offered Artemiasalina and cod eggs simultaneously, Mnemiopsis passively selected against cod eggs. Video recordings showed thateggs did not trigger the capture response that Mnemiopsis shows toward motile prey, and ingested eggs were...

  16. 76 FR 15888 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Cape Cod National Seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... flora and fauna, the physiographic conditions and the historic sites and structures be permanently... wild cranberry bogs provide a glimpse into Cape Cod's past and continuing life ways. The Seashore... Military Reservation, have their own special regulations that have different dates than the standard dates...

  17. Acoustically Induced Streaming Flows near a Model Cod Otolith and their Potential Implications for Fish Hearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotas, Charlotte W [ORNL; Rogers, Peter [Georgia Institute of Technology; Yoda, Minami [Georgia Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    The ears of fishes are remarkable sensors for the small acoustic disturbances associated with underwater sound. For example, each ear of the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) has three dense bony bodies (otoliths) surrounded by fluid and tissue, and detects sounds at frequencies from 30 to 500 Hz. Atlantic cod have also been shown to localize sounds. However, how their ears perform these functions is not fully understood. Steady streaming, or time-independent, flows near a 350% scale model Atlantic cod otolith immersed in a viscous fluid were studied to determine if these fluid flows contain acoustically relevant information that could be detected by the ear s sensory hair cells. The otolith was oscillated sinusoidally at various orientations at frequencies of 8 24 Hz, corresponding to an actual frequency range of 280 830 Hz. Phaselocked particle pathline visualizations of the resulting flows give velocity, vorticity, and rate of strain fields over a single plane of this mainly two-dimensional flow. Although the streaming flows contain acoustically relevant information, the displacements due to these flows are likely too small to explain Atlantic cod hearing abilities near threshold. The results, however, may suggest a possible mechanism for detection of ultrasound in some fish species.

  18. Glycolysis and ATP degradation in cod ( Gadus morhua ) at subzero temperatures in relation to thaw rigor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappeln, Gertrud; Jessen, Flemming

    2001-01-01

    Glycolysis was shown to occur during freezing of cod of decrease in glycogen and an increase in lactate. In addition, the ATP content decreased during freezing. Synthesis of ATP was measured as degradation of glycogen. During storage at -9 and - 12 degreesC it was found that degradation of ATP...

  19. Eel, cod and seatrout harvest in Danish recreational fishing during 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz; Storr-Paulsen, Marie

    , it was estimated that 80 t [Relative standard error (RSE)=6%] eel, close to 1,300 t (RSE=5 %) cod and 400 t (RSE=5 %) seatrout (including freshwater catches) was harvested in the recreational fishery. Eel is almost exclusively taken in the passive gear fykenet fishery and seatrout was mainly caught by anglers...

  20. Impact of hypoxia on consumption of Baltic cod in a multispecies stock assessment context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teschner, E.C.; Kraus, G.; Neuenfeldt, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is characterised by a heterogeneous oceanographic environment. The deep water layers forming the habitat of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) are subjected to frequently occurring pronounced anoxic conditions. Adverse oxygen conditions result in physiological stress for organi......The Baltic Sea is characterised by a heterogeneous oceanographic environment. The deep water layers forming the habitat of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) are subjected to frequently occurring pronounced anoxic conditions. Adverse oxygen conditions result in physiological stress...... for organisms living under these conditions. For cod e.g. a direct relationship between oxygen availability and food intake with a decreasing ingestion rate at hypoxia could be revealed. In the present study, the effects of oxygen deficiency on consumption rates were investigated and how these translate...... to stock size estimates in multi-species models. Based on results from laboratory experiments, a model was fitted to evacuation rates at different oxygen levels and integrated into the existing consumption model for Baltic cod. Individual mean oxygen corrected consumption rates were 0.1–10.9% lower than...

  1. Genomic Sequencing of Ranaviruses Isolated from Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Steckler, Natalie K.; Subramaniam, Kuttichantran

    2016-01-01

    Ranaviruses have been isolated from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) in Denmark. Phylogenomic analyses revealed that these two ranaviruses are nearly identical and form a distinct clade at the base of the ranavirus tree branching off near other fish ranaviruses....

  2. Characterization of the Escherichia coli codBA operon encoding cytosine permease and cytosine deaminase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, S; Kilstrup, M; Barilla, K

    1992-01-01

    . A two-codon overlap between the two reading frames indicates that they constitute an operon. Transcription of the operon was found to be regulated by exogenous purines. Polypeptides specified by each of the two reading frames were expressed in minicells, and the codB gene product was found to be highly...

  3. Male size composition affects male reproductive variance in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. spawning aggregations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte

    2006-01-01

    Estimates of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua reproductive success, determined using experimental spawning groups and genetic paternity assignment of offspring, showed that within-group variance in male size correlated positively with the degree of male mating skew, predicting a decrease in male reprodu...

  4. Differential expression of immune and stress genes in the skin of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caipang, C.M.A.; Lazado, C.C.; Brinchmann, M.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Kiron, V.

    2011-01-01

    The present study describes the transcriptional profiles of selected immune and stress genes with putative important roles in the cutaneous immune defense of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). In addition it shows differential expression of many genes at the dorsal and ventral sides of fish, in general

  5. Challenging ICES age estimation protocols: lessons learned from the eastern Baltic cod stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Radtke, Krzysztof; Plikshs, Maris

    2016-01-01

    Over the recent decades, the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) has set guidelines for best practise quality control of age estimation procedures. The applicability of these guidelines is assessed by reviewing the ageing issues of eastern Baltic cod (EBC) as a case study....

  6. Eastern Baltic cod in distress: biological changes and challenges for stock assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Hjelm, Joakim; Behrens, Jane

    2015-01-01

    The eastern Baltic (EB) cod (Gadus morhua) stock was depleted and overexploited for decades until the mid-2000s, when fishing mortality rapidly declined and biomass started to increase, as shown by stock assessments. These positive developments were partly assigned to effective management measure...

  7. Application of a structured decision making process for nitrogen pollution management on Cape Cod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant release of reactive nitrogen into coastal water bodies has resulted in declining water quality in Southern New England. The Three Bays Preservation Association, in collaboration with the Cape Cod Commission, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and local water resou...

  8. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions 5 Table 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 5 Table 5 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion...

  9. Mapping the spawning grounds of North Sea cod ( Gadus morhua ) by direct and indirect means

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, C.J.; Taylor, M.; Dickey-Collas, M.

    2008-01-01

    Despite recent evidence for sub-stock structuring, North Sea cod are assessed as a single unit. As a consequence, knowledge of sub-stock trends is poor. In particular, there are no recent evaluations of which spawning grounds are active. Here we report results from the first ichthyoplankton survey...

  10. Distribution and drift of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua ) eggs and larvae in Greenland offshore waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Hovgård, Holger

    2002-01-01

    Catches of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) eggs and larvae from 45 national and international ichthyoplankton surveys conducted in Greenland offshore waters during the period 1950 to 1984 have been compiled and re-analysed. Southeast and Southwest Greenland were identified as im- portant spawning areas...

  11. Mapping the spawning grounds of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) by direct and indirect means

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, C.J.; Taylor, M.; Dickey-Collas, M.; Fossum, P.; Kraus, G.; Rohlf, N.; Damme, van C.J.G.; Bolle, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite recent evidence for sub-stock structuring, North Sea cod are assessed as a single unit. As a consequence, knowledge of sub-stock trends is poor. In particular, there are no recent evaluations of which spawning grounds are active. Here we report results from the first ichthyoplankton survey

  12. Evaluation of farmed cod products by a trained sensory panel and consumers in different test settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Thorsdottir, F.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.; Kole, A.; Thorsdottir, I.

    2010-01-01

    Sensory characteristics of farmed cod exposed to low or conventional stress levels prior to slaughter were evaluated by a trained sensory panel. Consumers in two different settings, central location test (CLT) and home-use test (HUT), also tasted the products and rated them according to overall

  13. Assessing impacts of simulated oil spills on the Northeast Arctic cod fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, JoLynn; Vikebø, Frode; Howell, Daniel; Broch, Ole Jacob; Nepstad, Raymond; Augustine, Starrlight; Skeie, Geir Morten; Bast, Radovan; Juselius, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    We simulate oil spills of 1500 and 4500m 3 /day lasting 14, 45, and 90days in the spawning grounds of the commercial fish species, Northeast Arctic cod. Modeling the life history of individual fish eggs and larvae, we predict deviations from the historical pattern of recruitment to the adult population due to toxic oil exposures. Reductions in survival for pelagic stages of cod were 0-10%, up to a maximum of 43%. These reductions resulted in a decrease in adult cod biomass of <3% for most scenarios, up to a maximum of 12%. In all simulations, the adult population remained at full reproductive potential with a sufficient number of juveniles surviving to replenish the population. The diverse age distribution helps protect the adult cod population from reductions in a single year's recruitment after a major oil spill. These results provide insights to assist in managing oil spill impacts on fisheries. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Allometric relationships to liver tissue concentrations of cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes in Atlantic cod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, Nicholas A.; Nøst, Therese H.; Andrade, Hector; Christensen, Guttorm

    2014-01-01

    Spatial distribution and relationship of allometric measurements (length, weight and age) to liver concentrations of cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes (cVMS) including octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclosiloxane (D6) in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) collected near the community of Tromsø in Northern Norway were assessed. These congeners were benchmarked against known persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs 153 and 180) to assess accumulation behavior of cVMS. D5 was the dominate cVMS detected in all fish livers with lipid normalized concentrations up to 10 times or greater than those observed for PCB 153 and 180. D4 and D6 concentration were negatively correlated with fish length and weight, indicating a greater elimination capacity compared to uptake processes with increasing fish size for these chemicals. These results indicate relationships between allometric measurements and cVMS concentrations may account for concentration variations observed within fish and should be assessed in future studies evaluating cVMS bioaccumulation potential. - Highlights: • cVMS spatial distribution investigated within cod surrounding an Arctic community. • Highest cVMS concentrations detected in biota collected near human settlements. • Cod liver concentrations of D5 were higher compared to PCBs. • D4 and D6 liver concentrations were negatively correlated with fish length/weight. - Liver concentrations of cVMS congeners decreased with increasing fish length and weight in Atlantic cod collected near emission sources of cVMS

  15. Three-way modelling of NMR relaxation profiles from thawed cod muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristina Nedenskov; Guldager, Helle Skov; Jørgensen, Bo Munk

    2002-01-01

    Low-field 1H nuclear magnetic resonance transverse relaxation was used to measure water mobility and distribution in cod stored at -20°C or -30°C for up to 12 months and subsequently from 0 to 21 days in modified atmosphere at +2°C. The relaxation profiles were decomposed by parallel factor analy...

  16. Why is age determination of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) so difficult?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin

    2010-01-01

    to a consistent pattern the following year, and overlap was not influenced by sex or fish size. The results suggest that otolith opacity in Baltic cod is not associated with seasonal patterns in daily increment structure and that traditional age determination based on otolith opacity yields highly uncertain...

  17. Degradation of ATP and glycogen in cod ( Gadus morhua ) muscle during freezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappeln, Gertrud; Jessen, Flemming

    2001-01-01

    , the greatest decrease in ATP content was observed when the temperature reached -0.8C. Glycolysis occurred during freezing of cod as indicated by an increase in lactate content. The changes found in all measured metabolites were more pronounced when freezing was performed at a slow rate compared to a fast rate...

  18. Do North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) fisheries maintain high catch rates at low stock size?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Andersen, Bo Sølgaard

    2008-01-01

    This study presents all investigation of the relationship between stock size of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) and catch rates in seven commercial fishing fleets. The shape of the relationship was estimated using a model allowing both density-dependent changes in catchability and bias...

  19. Extrusion of Contracaecum osculatum nematode larvae from the liver of cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, S.; Barlaup, L.; Mohammadkarami, A.

    2017-01-01

    Baltic cod livers have during recent years been found increasingly and heavily infected with third-stage larvae of Contracaecum osculatum. The infections are associated with an increasing population of grey seals which are final hosts for the parasite. Heavy worm burdens challenge utilization...

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR FISH CANNED PATE'S COD-FISH SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Efremova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Fish and seafood play an important role in a balanced diet. The most reliable method of preservation is the production of canned fish. Cod fishery considered traditional objects of the North Basin, which catches in recent years stored at a consistently high level. They are represented, mainly cod, haddock, pollack, whiting. Lately there has been a tendency to increase yield loaves (polar bib. The aim of this work - the development of technology - canned pate's cod fish species with the addition of plant materials. We used the adopted research microbiological, chemical and physical methods. The weight proportion of water, lipids, protein, mineral raw determined according to State standard 7636-85. Developed a technology - canned pate's cod fish species with the addition of plant materials. Optimized formulation is set to sterilization. Experimentally determined parameters of quality canned and given comprehensive assessment nutritional value of new products, organoleptic, physico-chemical, biochemical and microbiological tests showed that canned pates of Gadidae species of fish with vegetables, meet all safety requirements and are characterized, along with excellent consumer properties, high nutritional value. Based on the results of the research complex developed technical documentation for production of canned vegetables, pates of Gadidae species.

  1. OLDAPS - obsidian least destructive analysis provenancing system: an application study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eder, F.

    2013-01-01

    The natural volcanic glass obsidian is one of the classical objects of archaeometric analyses. Obsidian is generally described as a relatively homogeneous material and although the number of applicable geological sources is limited, numerous obsidian finds have been found all over the world far away from any natural outcrop. Reliable provenancing by means of the highly specific chemical composition, the 'chemical fingerprint', can provide information about trading routes, extension of territory, long-distance contacts and the mobility of prehistoric people. Several museum collections contain large numbers of unidentified obsidian finds. Therefore, a novel scientific approach for provenancing obsidian artefacts found in archaeological contexts is demanded. The establishment of the Obsidian Least Destructive Analysis Provenancing System (OLDAPS) contributes to both conservation and prehistoric research by ensuring a minimum of destruction to gain a maximum of information. Obsidian samples of seven archaeologically relevant geological obsidian sources in Central and Southern Europe were characterized by the application of three different methods: Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) comprising of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE) Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) The reproducibility and accuracy of analytical data is demonstrated by the excellent agreement between determined analytical results and certified values of glassy reference material BAM-S005B. The combination of methods shows a maximum element spectrum composed of 42 elements and reveals the most characteristic -key elements-, in particular Ti, Co, As, Rb, Ba, Eu and U, by which all seven obsidian sources are cleary discriminable. OLDAPS developed the following analytical strategy to provenance archaeological obsidian, which most likely stem from Central or Southern Europe: The application

  2. Responding to Destructive Interpersonal Interactions: A way forward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Responding to Destructive Interpersonal Interactions: A way forward for ... cultural intolerance and other destructive interpersonal interactions and relationships clearly ... This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

  3. ODS Destruction in the United States and Abroad - February 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    This technical report provides information on sources, destruction technologies, and best practices for recovery, collection, transport, and destruction of ozone-depleting substances and other fluorinated compounds such as HFCs

  4. Use of existing hydrographic infrastructure to forecast the environmental spawning conditions for Eastern Baltic cod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Dewitz, Burkhard; Tamm, Susanne; Höflich, Katharina; Voss, Rüdiger; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald

    2018-01-01

    The semi-enclosed nature and estuarine characteristics, together with its strongly alternating bathymetry, make the Baltic Sea prone to much stronger interannual variations in the abiotic environment, than other spawning habitats of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Processes determining salinity and oxygen conditions in the basins are influenced both by long term gradual climate change, e.g. global warming, but also by short-term meteorological variations and events. Specifically one main factor influencing cod spawning conditions, the advection of highly saline and well-oxygenated water masses from the North Sea, is observed in irregular frequencies and causes strong interannual variations in stock productivity. This study investigates the possibility to use the available hydrographic process knowledge to predict the annual spawning conditions for Eastern Baltic cod in its most important spawning ground, the Bornholm Basin, only by salinity measurements from a specific location in the western Baltic. Such a prediction could serve as an environmental early warning indicator to inform stock assessment and management. Here we used a hydrodynamic model to hindcast hydrographic property fields for the last 40+ years. High and significant correlations were found for months early in the year between the 33m salinity level in the Arkona Basin and the oxygen-dependent cod spawning environment in the Bornholm Basin. Direct prediction of the Eastern Baltic cod egg survival in the Bornholm Basin based on salinity values in the Arkona Basin at the 33 m depth level is shown to be possible for eggs spawned by mid-age and young females, which currently predominate the stock structure. We recommend to routinely perform short-term predictions of the Eastern Baltic cod spawning environment, in order to generate environmental information highly relevant for stock dynamics. Our statistical approach offers the opportunity to make best use of permanently existing infrastructure in the

  5. Utilização de regressão multivariada para avaliação espectrofotométrica da demanda química de oxigênio em amostras de relevância ambiental Use of multivariate regression in spectrophotometric evaluation of chemical oxigen demand in samples of environmental relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Peralta-Zamora

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a partial least squares regression routine was used to develop a multivariate calibration model to predict the chemical oxygen demand (COD in substrates of environmental relevance (paper effluents and landfill leachates from UV-Vis spectral data. The calibration models permit the fast determination of the COD with typical relative errors lower by 10% with respect to the conventional methodology.

  6. Aggregated Demand Modelling Including Distributed Generation, Storage and Demand Response

    OpenAIRE

    Marzooghi, Hesamoddin; Hill, David J.; Verbic, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    It is anticipated that penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) in power systems will increase further in the next decades mainly due to environmental issues. In the long term of several decades, which we refer to in terms of the future grid (FG), balancing between supply and demand will become dependent on demand actions including demand response (DR) and energy storage. So far, FG feasibility studies have not considered these new demand-side developments for modelling future demand. I...

  7. Daily rhythmicity of clock gene transcripts in atlantic cod fast skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo C Lazado

    Full Text Available The classical notion of a centralized clock that governs circadian rhythmicity has been challenged with the discovery of peripheral oscillators that enable organisms to cope with daily changes in their environment. The present study aimed to identify the molecular clock components in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua and to investigate their daily gene expression in fast skeletal muscle. Atlantic cod clock genes were closely related to their orthologs in teleosts and tetrapods. Synteny was conserved to varying degrees in the majority of the 18 clock genes examined. In particular, aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like 2 (arntl2, RAR-related orphan receptor A (rora and timeless (tim displayed high degrees of conservation. Expression profiling during the early ontogenesis revealed that some transcripts were maternally transferred, namely arntl2, cryptochrome 1b and 2 (cry1b and cry2, and period 2a and 2b (per2a and per2b. Most clock genes were ubiquitously expressed in various tissues, suggesting the possible existence of multiple peripheral clock systems in Atlantic cod. In particular, they were all detected in fast skeletal muscle, with the exception of neuronal PAS (Per-Arnt-Single-minded domain-containing protein (npas1 and rora. Rhythmicity analysis revealed 8 clock genes with daily rhythmic expression, namely arntl2, circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (clock, npas2, cry2, cry3 per2a, nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1 (nr1d1, and nr1d2a. Transcript levels of the myogenic genes myogenic factor 5 (myf5 and muscleblind-like 1 (mbnl1 strongly correlated with clock gene expression. This is the first study to unravel the molecular components of peripheral clocks in Atlantic cod. Taken together, our data suggest that the putative clock system in fast skeletal muscle of Atlantic cod has regulatory implications on muscle physiology, particularly in the expression of genes related to myogenesis.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus hyaluronidase is a CodY-regulated virulence factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibberson, Carolyn B; Jones, Crystal L; Singh, Shweta; Wise, Matthew C; Hart, Mark E; Zurawski, Daniel V; Horswill, Alexander R

    2014-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive pathogen that causes a diverse range of bacterial infections. Invasive S. aureus strains secrete an extensive arsenal of hemolysins, immunomodulators, and exoenzymes to cause disease. Our studies have focused on the secreted enzyme hyaluronidase (HysA), which cleaves the hyaluronic acid polymer at the β-1,4 glycosidic bond. In the study described in this report, we have investigated the regulation and contribution of this enzyme to S. aureus pathogenesis. Using the Nebraska Transposon Mutant Library (NTML), we identified eight insertions that modulate extracellular levels of HysA activity. Insertions in the sigB operon, as well as in genes encoding the global regulators SarA and CodY, significantly increased HysA protein levels and activity. By altering the availability of branched-chain amino acids, we further demonstrated CodY-dependent repression of HysA activity. Additionally, through mutation of the CodY binding box upstream of hysA, the repression of HysA production was lost, suggesting that CodY is a direct repressor of hysA expression. To determine whether HysA is a virulence factor, a ΔhysA mutant of a community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) USA300 strain was constructed and found to be attenuated in a neutropenic, murine model of pulmonary infection. Mice infected with this mutant strain exhibited a 4-log-unit reduction in bacterial burden in their lungs, as well as reduced lung pathology and increased levels of pulmonary hyaluronic acid, compared to mice infected with the wild-type, parent strain. Taken together, these results indicate that S. aureus hyaluronidase is a CodY-regulated virulence factor. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Characterization of Atlantic cod spawning habitat and behavior in Icelandic coastal waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy B Grabowski

    Full Text Available The physical habitat used during spawning may potentially be an important factor affecting reproductive output of broadcast spawning marine fishes, particularly for species with complex, substrate-oriented mating systems and behaviors, such as Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. We characterized the habitat use and behavior of spawning Atlantic cod at two locations off the coast of southwestern Iceland during a 2-d research cruise (15-16 April 2009. We simultaneously operated two different active hydroacoustic gear types, a split beam echosounder and a dual frequency imaging sonar (DIDSON, as well as a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV. A total of five fish species were identified through ROV surveys: including cusk Brosme brosme, Atlantic cod, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus, lemon sole Microstomus kitt, and Atlantic redfish Sebastes spp. Of the three habitats identified in the acoustic surveys, the transitional habitat between boulder/lava field and sand habitats was characterized by greater fish density and acoustic target strength compared to that of sand or boulder/lava field habitats independently. Atlantic cod were observed behaving in a manner consistent with published descriptions of spawning. Individuals were observed ascending 1-5 m into the water column from the bottom at an average vertical swimming speed of 0.20-0.25 m s(-1 and maintained an average spacing of 1.0-1.4 m between individuals. Our results suggest that cod do not choose spawning locations indiscriminately despite the fact that it is a broadcast spawning fish with planktonic eggs that are released well above the seafloor.

  10. Characterization of Atlantic cod spawning habitat and behavior in Icelandic coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Timothy B.; Boswell, Kevin M.; McAdam, Bruce J.; Wells, R. J. David; Marteinsdóttir, Gudrún

    2012-01-01

    The physical habitat used during spawning may potentially be an important factor affecting reproductive output of broadcast spawning marine fishes, particularly for species with complex, substrate-oriented mating systems and behaviors, such as Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. We characterized the habitat use and behavior of spawning Atlantic cod at two locations off the coast of southwestern Iceland during a 2-d research cruise (15–16 April 2009). We simultaneously operated two different active hydroacoustic gear types, a split beam echosounder and a dual frequency imaging sonar (DIDSON), as well as a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV). A total of five fish species were identified through ROV surveys: including cusk Brosme brosme, Atlantic cod, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus, lemon sole Microstomus kitt, and Atlantic redfish Sebastes spp. Of the three habitats identified in the acoustic surveys, the transitional habitat between boulder/lava field and sand habitats was characterized by greater fish density and acoustic target strength compared to that of sand or boulder/lava field habitats independently. Atlantic cod were observed behaving in a manner consistent with published descriptions of spawning. Individuals were observed ascending 1–5 m into the water column from the bottom at an average vertical swimming speed of 0.20–0.25 m s−1 and maintained an average spacing of 1.0–1.4 m between individuals. Our results suggest that cod do not choose spawning locations indiscriminately despite the fact that it is a broadcast spawning fish with planktonic eggs that are released well above the seafloor.

  11. Sulphur demand growing. [Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-20

    Sulfur markets look better going into 1975 than they have for several years, as North American demand growth is being filled largely by elemental sulfur producers and overseas. Demand is rising as fast as the capacity of Canadian transportation and handling facilities. It will take a long time to make much of a dent in the total Alberta stockpile of 14 million long tons at the end of 1974, with involuntary production from sour gas plants exceeding sales volume since 1972. However, there is some encouragement in the approaching peakout of production combined with a substantial increase in price since the low point of the cycle at the beginning of 1973, and a predicted rise of at least 20% in domestic (North American) sales this year over 1974.

  12. Development of technology for gourmet smoked products from cod species using enzyme preparation from hepatopancreas of snow crab Chionoecetes opilio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Shkuratova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At the Food Production Department of Murmansk State Technical University (MSTU was developed a technology of production of smoked fish products with the use of air-flue mixture, produced in an infrared smoke generator under conditions of low-temperature pyrolysis of wood chips with an initial moisture content of 40 to 60% and a bulk density of from 104 to 154 kg/m3. A method of producing smoke and its hardware design enabled to securely control the temperature of the smoke receiving smoking environment, which guarantees a minimum content of threat to human health of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (РАНs. The developed technology involves short cycle smoked salted semi – fish fillets and allows to obtain finished products with excellent organoleptic properties. The content of РАНs in finished products less than 0.0002 microgram/kg, which is significantly below the maximum permissible concentrations (MPC according to the requirements of SаnРiN 2.3.2.1078 (less than 0.001 mg/kg product and according to the requirements of TR CU 021/2011 (0.005 mg/kg product. This technology successfully implemented in production at fish processing plants in Murmansk region. However, marketing research has shown that the market for smoked fish in the Murmansk region is characterized by a narrow range, which affects consumer demand and reduces the competitiveness of the regional enterprises-manufacturers of smoked products. To solve this problem it is offered to expand the range of smoked fish products due to use of non-traditional Smoking techniques raw materials – fillet of cod fish (saithe, haddock, cod. To improve consumer properties of products, in particular, to improve the indicator of “consistency: and "juiciness" of the proposed use on the stage of the salting of prefabricated enzyme preparation from hepatopancreas of snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio, added to brine with density of 1.18 to 1.2 g/сm3 at a dosage of 0.04%, the curing time of

  13. Ontario demand response scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, I.H.

    2005-09-01

    Strategies for demand management in Ontario were examined via 2 scenarios for a commercial/institutional building with a normal summertime peak load of 300 kW between 14:00 and 18:00 during a period of high electricity demand and high electricity prices. The first scenario involved the deployment of a 150 kW on-site generator fuelled by either diesel or natural gas. The second scenario involved curtailing load by 60 kW during the same periods. Costs and benefits of both scenarios were evaluated for 3 groups: consumers, system operators and society. Benefits included electricity cost savings, deferred transmission capacity development, lower system prices for electricity, as well as environmental changes, economic development, and a greater sense of corporate social responsibility. It was noted that while significant benefits were observed for all 3 groups, they were not substantial enough to encourage action, as the savings arising from deferred generation capacity development do not accrue to individual players. The largest potential benefit was identified as lower prices, spread across all users of electricity in Ontario. It was recommended that representative bodies cooperate so that the system-wide benefits can be reaped. It was noted that if 10 municipal utilities were able to have 250 commercial or institutional customers engaged in distributed response, then a total peak demand reduction of 375 MW could be achieved, representing more than 25 per cent of Ontario's target for energy conservation. It was concluded that demand response often involves the investment of capital and new on-site procedures, which may affect reactions to various incentives. 78 refs., 10 tabs., 5 figs

  14. Household electricity demand profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A 1-min resolution household electricity load model is presented. •Model adapts a bottom-up approach with single appliance as the main building block. •Load profiles are used to analyse the flexibility potential of household appliances. •Load profiles can be applied in other domains, .......g. building energy simulations. •The demand level of houses with different number of occupants is well captured....

  15. Energy demand patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, L; Schipper, L; Meyers, S; Sathaye, J; Hara, Y

    1984-05-01

    This report brings together three papers on energy demand presented at the Energy Research Priorities Seminar held in Ottawa on 8-10 August 1983. The first paper suggests a framework in which energy demand studies may be organized if they are to be useful in policy-making. Disaggregation and the analysis of the chain of energy transformations are possible paths toward more stable and reliable parameters. The second paper points to another factor that leads to instability in sectoral parameters, namely a changeover from one technology to another; insofar as technologies producing a product (or service) vary in their energy intensity, a technological shift will also change the energy intensity of the product. Rapid technological change is characteristic of some sectors in developing countries, and may well account for the high aggregate GDP-elasticities of energy consumption observed. The third paper begins with estimates of these elasticities, which were greater than one for all the member countries of the Asian Development Bank in 1961-78. The high elasticities, together with extreme oil dependence, made them vulnerable to the drastic rise in the oil price after 1973. The author distinguishes three diverging patterns of national experience. The oil-surplus countries naturally gained from the rise in the oil price. Among oil-deficit countries, the newly industrialized countries expanded their exports so rapidly that the oil crisis no longer worried them. For the rest, balance of payments adjustments became a prime concern of policy. Whether they dealt with the oil bill by borrowing, by import substitution, or by demand restraint, the impact of energy on their growth was unmistakable. The paper also shows why energy-demand studies, and energy studies in general, deserve to be taken seriously. 16 refs., 4 figs., 18 tabs.

  16. Migration and Tourism Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Carlos LEITÃO

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study considers the relationship between immigration and Portuguese tourism demand for the period 1995-2008, using a dynamic panel data approach. The findings indicate that Portuguese tourism increased significantly during the period in accordance with the values expected for a developed country. The regression results show that income, shock of immigration, population, and geographical distance between Portugal and countries of origin are the main determinants of Portuguese tourism.

  17. Demand scenarios, worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, A [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Center for Technology, Policy and Industrial Development and the MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Existing methods are inadequate for developing aggregate (regional and global) and long-term (several decades) passenger transport demand scenarios, since they are mainly based on simple extensions of current patterns rather than causal relationships that account for the competition among transport modes (aircraft, automobiles, buses and trains) to provide transport services. The demand scenario presented in this paper is based on two empirically proven invariances of human behavior. First, transport accounts for 10 to 15 percent of household total expenditures for those owning an automobile, and around 5 percent for non-motorized households on average (travel money budget). Second, the mean time spent traveling is approximately one hour per capita per day (travel time budget). These two budgets constraints determine the dynamics of the scenario: rising income increases per capita expenditure on travel which, in turn, increase demand for mobility. Limited travel time constraints travelers to shift to faster transport systems. The scenario is initiated with the first integrated historical data set on traffic volume in 11 world regions and the globe from 1960 to 1990 for all major modes of motorized transport. World average per capita traffic volume, which was 1,800 kilometers in 1960 and 4,2090 in 1990, is estimated to rise to 7,900 kilometers in 2020 - given a modest average increase in Gross World Product of 1.9% per year. Higher economic growth rates in Asian regions result in an increase in regional per capita traffic volume up to a factor of 5.3 from 1990 levels. Modal splits continue shifting to more flexible and faster modes of transport. At one point, passenger cars can no longer satisfy the increasing demand for speed (i.e. rising mobility within a fixed time budget). In North America it is estimated that the absolute traffic volume of automobiles will gradually decline starting in the 2010s. (author) 13 figs., 6 tabs., 35 refs.

  18. Facing towards or Turning away from Destructive Narcissism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Denis; Skogstad, Helga

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed theoretical discussion of destructive narcissism in relation to Freud and Rosenfeld and later theorists. In destructive narcissism, the destructiveness is itself idealised and overrides "the vital functions which serve the purpose of self-preservation" (Freud, S., 1914, "On narcissism" S.E. 14: 87)--a feature which…

  19. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine...

  20. Supply and demand perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trienekens, Pieter

    1999-01-01

    The outlook for the European gas market is one of steady growth. This growth will manifest itself in all regions and in all sectors of the market, but most strongly in the power generating sector. To meet future demand, it is necessary to bring gas to Western Europe from remote sources in Russia, North Africa and Norway. These new gas supplies require heavy investments in production and transportation, which can only be undertaken on the basis of long-term take-or-pay contracts. Famous examples of such contracts are the development of the Troll field, the Yamal-Europe pipeline connection, and the bringing on stream of Nigerian LNG for Europe. Tensions are likely to arise between the nature of these long-term gas contracts and the dynamic nature of demand in the gas market, and more specifically in the main growth market, the power sector. The presentation further elaborates on the tensions underlying supply and demand in the years to come

  1. COD removal from pulp and paper effluents by Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP); COD:n vaehentaeminen aop-menetelmaellae metsaeteollisuuden jaetevesistae - EKY 04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, K; Wikberg, H [Kemira Chemicals Oy, Vaasa (Finland)

    1999-12-31

    The aim of this project is to develop a process where COD from pulp and paper industry can be removed by an AOP process. AOP is a process utilizing the oxidation power of the hydroxyl radical, which can be produced in many different ways. Compared to evaporation and membrane techniques, the benefits of this process are lack of condense, concentrate and sludge. It is a very simple process, based on adjusting the COD removal by means of hydrogen peroxide dosage. The study focuses on using heterogeneous catalyst together with hydrogen peroxide to produce hydroxyl radicals in order to remove COD at low temperatures (< 100 deg C) and normal pressures. The project started by screening catalysts able to perform this task in laboratory scale. Later on pilot scale equipment will be constructed for use in pulp and paper mill trials. The project will be carried out during 1997-1999. The study started by screening the possibilities of different catalysts together with hydrogen peroxide to remove phenols from a model water. Sofar, about hundred catalysts have been screened. These tests show that many of the heterogeneous catalysts are working, but most of them have actually dissolved in the water and `translated` to homogenous catalysts. This means that they cannot be used in this project. A few catalysts have been found to meet the targets for synthetic phenol waters. Next step will be to test these catalysts on actual water samples from pulp and paper mills, and after that a pilot and full-scale trial will be planned. In these trials we will find out which mill streams are possible to treat, and the cost/performances of a system totally based on the catalyst in use. Also, measurements of catalyst leaching and clogging will be made during these tests. The last test series is planned to be a full-scale trial. (orig.)

  2. COD removal from pulp and paper effluents by Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP); COD:n vaehentaeminen aop-menetelmaellae metsaeteollisuuden jaetevesistae - EKY 04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, K.; Wikberg, H. [Kemira Chemicals Oy, Vaasa (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The aim of this project is to develop a process where COD from pulp and paper industry can be removed by an AOP process. AOP is a process utilizing the oxidation power of the hydroxyl radical, which can be produced in many different ways. Compared to evaporation and membrane techniques, the benefits of this process are lack of condense, concentrate and sludge. It is a very simple process, based on adjusting the COD removal by means of hydrogen peroxide dosage. The study focuses on using heterogeneous catalyst together with hydrogen peroxide to produce hydroxyl radicals in order to remove COD at low temperatures (< 100 deg C) and normal pressures. The project started by screening catalysts able to perform this task in laboratory scale. Later on pilot scale equipment will be constructed for use in pulp and paper mill trials. The project will be carried out during 1997-1999. The study started by screening the possibilities of different catalysts together with hydrogen peroxide to remove phenols from a model water. Sofar, about hundred catalysts have been screened. These tests show that many of the heterogeneous catalysts are working, but most of them have actually dissolved in the water and `translated` to homogenous catalysts. This means that they cannot be used in this project. A few catalysts have been found to meet the targets for synthetic phenol waters. Next step will be to test these catalysts on actual water samples from pulp and paper mills, and after that a pilot and full-scale trial will be planned. In these trials we will find out which mill streams are possible to treat, and the cost/performances of a system totally based on the catalyst in use. Also, measurements of catalyst leaching and clogging will be made during these tests. The last test series is planned to be a full-scale trial. (orig.)

  3. Inhibition of haemoglobin-mediated lipid oxidation in washed cod muscle and cod protein isolates by Fucus vesiculosus extract and fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Tao; Jonsdottir, Rosa; Kristinsson, Hordur

    2010-01-01

    washed cod muscle and protein isolates, phlorotannin-enriched ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction showed higher inhibitory effect than crude 80% ethanol (EtOH) extract. The addition of oligomeric phlorotannin-rich subfraction (LH-2) separated by Sephadex LH-20 chromatography, completely inhibited...... similar level of TPC and chemical antioxidant activities as oligomeric subfraction LH-2, it was far less efficient in model systems. These results suggest that other factors rather than the intrinsic reactivity toward radicals could be responsible for the inhibitory effect of phlorotannins on lipid...

  4. Physical basis of destruction of concrete and other building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleymanova, L. A.; Pogorelova, I. A.; Kirilenko, S. V.; Suleymanov, K. A.

    2018-03-01

    In the article the scientifically-grounded views of authors on the physical essence of destruction process of concrete and other materials are stated; it is shown that the mechanism of destruction of materials is similar in its essence during the mechanical, thermal, physical-chemical and combined influences, and that in its basis Newton's third law lays. In all cases destruction consists in decompaction of structures, loosening of the internal bonds in materials, in the further integrity damage and their division into separate loosely-bound (full destruction) and unbound with each other (incomplete destruction) elements, which depends on the kind of external influence and perfection of materials structure.

  5. Non-destructive and destructive examination of the retired North Anna 2 Reactor Pressure Vessel Head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahluwalia, Kawaljit; Barnes, Robert; Rao, Gutti; Cattant, Francois; Peat, Noel

    2006-09-01

    Stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 and nickel-based weld materials has been the single biggest challenge facing the PWR industry. A fundamental and thorough knowledge was needed to properly explain this phenomenon and develop appropriate mitigation strategies. Non Destructive Examination (NDE) of the North Anna Unit 2 Reactor Vessel Head (RVH) during the 2002 fall outage identified widespread crack indications in the Alloy 600 CRDM penetrations and associated Alloy 182 and 82 J-groove attachment welds. When the Utility decided to replace the RVH, a rare opportunity was provided to the industry to undertake in-depth studies of representative defective CRDM penetrations from a retired RVH. Accordingly, the Materials Reliability Program, undertook a two-phase program on the retired North Anna 2 Alloy 600 RVH. The first phase involved selection and removal of six penetrations from the RVH and penetration decontamination, replication and laboratory NDE. The second phase consisted of a detailed destructive examination of penetration number 54. This paper provides a summary of work undertaken during this program. Criteria for selection of penetrations for removal and procedures used in removal of the penetrations are described. Extreme care was undertaken in decontamination of the penetrations to facilitate laboratory NDE. Penetration number 54 was then subjected to destructive examination to establish a correlation between NDE findings (from both field and laboratory inspections) and actual flaws. Additional objectives of the destructive examination included mechanistic assessment of defect formation and investigation of the annulus environment and wastage characterization. Data obtained from these studies is invaluable in validating safety assessment statements by developing the correlation between field NDE and actual defects. In addition, information gathered from non-destructive and destructive examinations is used to assess accuracy of the NDE techniques

  6. Comparative study of destructive and non-destructive methods in the activation analysis of rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, M.B.A.

    1978-01-01

    A comparative study between non-destructive thermal neutron activation analysis and activation analysis with radiochemical group separation is made Both methods are applied to the determination of trace elements minor and major elements in rocks. The treatment of the rocks, with special reference to the problems related to grinding and contamination by foreign elements is described. The choice of standards for multielement trace activation analysis is discussed. Two types of computer programs for the evalution of data obtained through Ge-li detector counting are used. All the phases of the destructive and non destructive analysis are described. In the destructive analysis, an adaptation of the group separation scheme developed by Morrison et al for the activation analysis of geological samples is made. The changes introduced make the radiochemical separation simpler and more rapid. Both destructive and non destructive methods are tested by means of the analysis of the United States Geological Survey standard rock AGV-1, which has been analysed by many authors. The same procedure is then applied to some alcaline rocks taken from the apatite mine of Jacupiranga, in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The knowledge of the trace element concentration in these rocks is important for geochemical studies. A detailed study of the possible interferences encountered in the neutron activation analysis of these rocks is made, considering the interferences due to major activities, and to the proximity of the several gamma ray energies of the radioisotopes produced. Finally, the comparative study between the two methods is presented, using statistical tests for the quantitative evalution of results. (Author) [pt

  7. Destruction of Refractory Carbon in Protoplanetary Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Dana E.; Blake, Geoffrey A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bergin, Edwin A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1107 (United States); Ciesla, Fred J. [Department of Geophysical Sciences, The University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Visser, Ruud [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Lee, Jeong-Eun [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, 1732, Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17104 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-10

    The Earth and other rocky bodies in the inner solar system contain significantly less carbon than the primordial materials that seeded their formation. These carbon-poor objects include the parent bodies of primitive meteorites, suggesting that at least one process responsible for solid-phase carbon depletion was active prior to the early stages of planet formation. Potential mechanisms include the erosion of carbonaceous materials by photons or atomic oxygen in the surface layers of the protoplanetary disk. Under photochemically generated favorable conditions, these reactions can deplete the near-surface abundance of carbon grains and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by several orders of magnitude on short timescales relative to the lifetime of the disk out to radii of ∼20–100+ au from the central star depending on the form of refractory carbon present. Due to the reliance of destruction mechanisms on a high influx of photons, the extent of refractory carbon depletion is quite sensitive to the disk’s internal radiation field. Dust transport within the disk is required to affect the composition of the midplane. In our current model of a passive, constant- α disk, where α = 0.01, carbon grains can be turbulently lofted into the destructive surface layers and depleted out to radii of ∼3–10 au for 0.1–1 μ m grains. Smaller grains can be cleared out of the planet-forming region completely. Destruction may be more effective in an actively accreting disk or when considering individual grain trajectories in non-idealized disks.

  8. Spatio-temporal dynamics of a fish predator: Density-dependent and hydrographic effects on Baltic Sea cod population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Bartolino

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms of spatial population dynamics is crucial for the successful management of exploited species and ecosystems. However, the underlying mechanisms of spatial distribution are generally complex due to the concurrent forcing of both density-dependent species interactions and density-independent environmental factors. Despite the high economic value and central ecological importance of cod in the Baltic Sea, the drivers of its spatio-temporal population dynamics have not been analytically investigated so far. In this paper, we used an extensive trawl survey dataset in combination with environmental data to investigate the spatial dynamics of the distribution of the Eastern Baltic cod during the past three decades using Generalized Additive Models. The results showed that adult cod distribution was mainly affected by cod population size, and to a minor degree by small-scale hydrological factors and the extent of suitable reproductive areas. As population size decreases, the cod population concentrates to the southern part of the Baltic Sea, where the preferred more marine environment conditions are encountered. Using the fitted models, we predicted the Baltic cod distribution back to the 1970s and a temporal index of cod spatial occupation was developed. Our study will contribute to the management and conservation of this important resource and of the ecosystem where it occurs, by showing the forces shaping its spatial distribution and therefore the potential response of the population to future exploitation and environmental changes.

  9. Meeting increased demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Andrew

    2004-07-01

    New Zealand is a little country with a little economy but with a population that's rapidly aging. New Zealand's population is only 4.3 million people. It's GDP is only $US58.6 billion (2002). New Zealand's expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP is not out of line with that of other countries. As a nation we have been increasing expenditure on health over recent years. In 1990 we spent 7% of GDP on health. In 1995 that increased to 7.65% and is now 8.3%. However, in per capita terms our expenditure on health does not compare so well with like countries. The size of New Zealand's economy is restricting what our country spends on health. Health is already the second highest demand on the New Zealand tax dollar. The tolerance of New Zealanders would be challenged if a Government attempted to increase taxes further to meet the growing demands for expenditure on health, but at the same time the population's expectations are increasing. This is the challenging situation we face today. What lies ahead? Like all industrialized countries New Zealand is facing an aging population. The population below age 40 is decreasing, but it is increasing significantly over that age. 16% of the population is currently aged over 60. By 2051 this proportion will almost double to just over 31%. Coupled with the aging population is increased awareness and expectations, as access to options for treatment and technology becomes readily accessible to the population through such media as the internet. The extent of the impact of the aging population can be clearly represented by focusing on one specialty such as orthopaedics. The New Zealand Orthopaecic Association undertook a study in July 2003 which concluded (among other things) that as a result of the projected aging of the population, over the next 50 years: Musculo-skeletal operations will increase by over 30%. The number of hip replacements will nearly double. The incidence of osteoporosis will increase by a massive 201%. The number

  10. Radioisotopes in non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1976-12-01

    After defining nondestructive testing (NDT) and comparing this concept with destructive testing, a short description is given of NDT methods other than radiologic. The basic concepts of radiologic methods are discussed and the principles of radiography are explained. Radiation sources and gamma radiography machines are next reviewed and radiographic inspection of weldings and castings is described. A brief description is given of the radiographic darkroom and accessories. Other radioisotope methods, such as neutron radiography, are shortly reviewed. Cost estimations for radioisotopic equipment conclude the report. (author)

  11. Safeguards and Non-destructive Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carchon, R.; Bruggeman, M.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on safeguards and non-destructive assay includes: (1) various activities to assure nuclear materials accountancy; (2) contributes to the implementation of Integrated Safeguards measures in Belgium and to assist the IAEA through the Belgian Support Programme; (3) renders services to internal and external customers in the field of safeguards; (4) improves passive neutron coincidence counting techniques for waste assay and safeguards verification measurements by R and D on correlation algorithms implemented via software or dedicated hardware; (5) improves gamma assay techniques for waste assay by implementing advanced scanning techniques and different correlation algorithms; and (6) develops numerical calibration techniques. Major achievements in these areas in 2000 are reported

  12. Non-destructive testing: significant facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espejo, Hector; Ruch, Marta C.

    2006-01-01

    In the last fifty years different organisations, both public and private, have been assigned to the mission of introducing into the country the most relevant aspects of the modern technological discipline 'Non Destructive Testing' (NDT) through a manifold of activities, such as training and education, research, development, technical assistance and services, personnel qualification/certification and standardisation. A review is given of the significant facts in this process, in which the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission, CNEA, played a leading part, a balance of the accomplishments is made and a forecast of the future of the activity is sketched. (author) [es

  13. Ionizing radiations for non-destructive evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Baldev; Venkataraman, B.

    1989-01-01

    A state of the art of major non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques based on ionising radiations is presented. These techniques are broadly classified into three categories, namely, radiography, radiation gaging and analytical applications. The basic principles behind each method are explained and salient features of each technique which make it suitable for a particular task are described. Several illustrative applications drawn from the nuclear industry are given. The monograph is intended to serve as an introductory guide to scientist and engineers engaged in NDT activities. (M.G.B.). 32 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Destructive hydrogenation of carbonaceous material, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-07-30

    A process is described for the destructive hydrogenation of solid distillable carbonaceous material, consisting of mixing the raw material in a paste by means of a mixture practically free from asphalt, from an oil obtained initially from the products coming out of the reaction space as vapor, particularly heavy oil, and oils obtained by pushing just to the state of pitch or coke the distillation of all the products which come out of the reaction space in any state but the vapor and which restrain some of the raw material intact and part of the products.

  15. Fingerprint extraction from interference destruction terahertz spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Shen, Jingling

    2010-10-11

    In this paper, periodic peaks in a terahertz absorption spectrum are confirmed to be induced from interference effects. Theoretically, we explained the periodic peaks and calculated the locations of them. Accordingly, a technique was suggested, with which the interference peaks in a terahertz spectrum can be eliminated and therefore a real terahertz absorption spectrum can be obtained. Experimentally, a sample, Methamphetamine, was investigated and its terahertz fingerprint was successfully extracted from its interference destruction spectrum. This technique is useful in getting samples' terahertz fingerprint spectra, and furthermore provides a fast nondestructive testing method using a large size terahertz beam to identify materials.

  16. Non-Destructive Testing for Concrete Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tengku Sarah Tengku Amran; Noor Azreen Masenwat; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) is a technique to determine the integrity of a material, component or structure. It is essential in the inspection of alteration, repair and new construction in the building industry. There are a number of non-destructive testing techniques that can be applied to determine the integrity of concrete in a completed structure. Each has its own advantages and limitations. For concrete, these problems relate to strength, cracking, dimensions, delamination, and inhomogeneities. NDT is reasonably good and reliable tool to measure the property of concrete which also gives the fair indication of the compressive strength development. This paper discussed the concrete inspection using combined methods of NDT. (author)

  17. Psychopathology and tobacco demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Aston, Elizabeth R; Zvolensky, Michael J; Abrantes, Ana M; Metrik, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Behavioral economic measurement of the relative value of tobacco (Cigarette Purchase Task; CPT) is used to examine individual differences in motivation for tobacco under certain contexts. Smokers with psychopathology, relative to those without, may demonstrate stronger demand for tobacco following a period of smoking deprivation, which could account for disparate rates of smoking and cessation among this subgroup. Participants (n=111) were community-recruited adult daily smokers who completed the CPT after a deprivation period of approximately 60min. Presence of psychopathology was assessed via clinical interview; 40.5% (n=45) of the sample met criteria for past-year psychological diagnosis. Specifically, 31.5% (n=35) had an emotional disorder (anxiety/depressive disorder), 17.1% (n=19) had a substance use disorder, and 19.1% of the sample had more than one disorder. Smokers with any psychopathology showed significantly higher intensity (demand at unrestricted cost; $0) and O max (peak expenditure for a drug) relative to smokers with no psychopathology. Intensity was significantly higher among smokers with an emotional disorder compared to those without. Smokers with a substance use disorder showed significantly higher intensity and O max , and lower elasticity, reflecting greater insensitivity to price increases. Having≥2 disorders was associated with higher intensity relative to having 1 or no disorders. Findings suggest that presence of psychopathology may be associated with greater and more persistent motivation to smoke. Future work is needed to explore the mechanism linking psychopathology to tobacco demand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ethane supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamerson, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Estimates are given for ethane production, chiefly from the Gulf Coast area. Increase in interregional transfers are predicted. Comparisons from 1992 through 1995 are made. The author concludes the following: ethane will be supply limited over the decade of the 90's; values will be over competing feedstocks; minimum practical demands will be close to available supply; regional relationships will reflect pipeline tariffs; purity ethane/EP spreads may narrow with new Mt. Belvieu fractionation capacity; new domestic supplies will back out imports; and Ethane's share of ethylene production may drop over the period

  19. [Pollution load and the first flush effect of BOD5 and COD in urban runoff of Wenzhou City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Bi, Chun-juan; Chen, Zhen-lou; Zhou, Dong

    2013-05-01

    Four typical rainfalls were monitored in two different research areas of Wenzhou Municipality. Concentrations of BOD5 and COD in six different urban runoffs were measured. In addition the event mean concentration (EMC), M (V) curve and BOD5/COD of pollutant were calculated. The results showed that concentrations of BOD5 and COD in different urban runoffs of Wenzhou ranged from ND to 69.21 mg x L(-1) and ND to 636 mg x L(-1). Concentrations of BOD5 and COD in different urban runoffs were decreasing over time, so it is greatly significant to manage the initial runoff for reducing organic pollution. Judged by EMC of BOD5 and COD in these five rainfalls, concentrations of pollutant in some urban runoffs were out of the integrated wastewater discharge standard. If these runoffs flowed into river, it would cause environmental pressure to the next level receiving water bodies. According to the M (V) curve, the first flush effect of COD in most urban runoffs was common; while the first flush effect of BOD5 was same as that of COD. The result also showed that organic pollution was serious at the beginning of runoff. The underlying surface type could affect the concentration of BOD5 and COD in urban runoff. While the results of BOD5/COD also suggested that biodegradation was considered as one of the effective ways to decrease the pollution load of organics in urban runoff, and the best management plans (BMPs) should be selected for various urban runoff types for the treatment of organic pollution.

  20. Feasibility of Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS of Atlantic Cod with Seafloor Scattering Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita D. Jain

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently reported declines in the population of Atlantic cod have led to calls for additional survey methods for stock assessments. In combination with conventional line-transect methods that may have ambiguities in sampling fish populations, Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS has been shown to have a potential for providing accurate stock assessments (Makris N.C., et al. Science 2009, 323, 1,734–1,737; 54th Northeast Regional Stock Assessment Workshop (54th SAW US Department of Commerce, Northeast Fisheries Science Center, 2012. The use of OAWRS technology enables instantaneous wide-area sensing of fish aggregations over thousands of square kilometers. The ratio of the intensity of scattered returns from fish versus the seafloor in any resolution cell typically determines the maximum fish detection range of OAWRS, which then is a function of fish population density, scattering amplitude and depth distribution, as well as the level of seafloor scattering. With the knowledge of oceanographic parameters, such as bathymetry, sound speed structure and attenuation, we find that a Rayleigh–Born volume scattering approach can be used to efficiently and accurately estimate seafloor scattering over wide areas. From hundreds of OAWRS measurements of seafloor scattering, we determine the Rayleigh–Born scattering amplitude of the seafloor, which we find has a ƒ2,4 frequency dependence below roughly 2 kHz in typical continental shelf environments along the US northeast coast. We then find that it is possible to robustly detect cod aggregations across frequencies at and near swim bladder resonance for observed spawningconfigurations along the U.S. northeast coast, roughly the two octave range 150–600 Hzfor water depths up to roughly 100 m. This frequency range is also optimal for long-rangeocean acoustic waveguide propagation, because it enables multimodal acoustic waveguidepropagation with minimal acoustic absorption and forward

  1. Road infrastructure and demand induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Hovgesen, Henrik Harder; Lahrmann, Harry

    2006-01-01

    a long screenline is used to measure the development in aggregate demand in selected corridors. The paper analyses demand induction by establishing time series of aggregate demand that is compared with the national traffic index. Significant trend breaks in the association between aggregate demand...... in the corridors and the national index, following the opening of motorways or bridges, indicates demand induction by infrastructure expansion in a number of instances. Lack of significant trend breaks following opening year is found in peripheral areas where major population centres are missing. This indicates...... the necessity of some latent demand within suitable travel range for new infrastructure elements to produce significant amounts of induced demand. Estimates of demand induction as a percentage of the realised demand five years after opening are between 10% and 67% for new motorway sections depending...

  2. Demand response in energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skytte, K.; Birk Mortensen, J.

    2004-11-01

    Improving the ability of energy demand to respond to wholesale prices during critical periods of the spot market can reduce the total costs of reliably meeting demand, and the level and volatility of the prices. This fact has lead to a growing interest in the short-run demand response. There has especially been a growing interest in the electricity market where peak-load periods with high spot prices and occasional local blackouts have recently been seen. Market concentration at the supply side can result in even higher peak-load prices. Demand response by shifting demand from peak to base-load periods can counteract the market power in the peak-load. However, demand response has so far been modest since the current short-term price elasticity seems to be small. This is also the case for related markets, for example, green certificates where the demand is determined as a percentage of the power demand, or for heat and natural gas markets. This raises a number of interesting research issues: 1) Demand response in different energy markets, 2) Estimation of price elasticity and flexibility, 3) Stimulation of demand response, 4) Regulation, policy and modelling aspects, 5) Demand response and market power at the supply side, 6) Energy security of supply, 7) Demand response in forward, spot, ancillary service, balance and capacity markets, 8) Demand response in deviated markets, e.g., emission, futures, and green certificate markets, 9) Value of increased demand response, 10) Flexible households. (BA)

  3. Larval and small juvenile cod Gadus morhua concentrated in the highly productive areas of a shelf break front

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Larsson, P.O.; Danielsen, D.

    1995-01-01

    describe the identified nursery areas of larvae/juveniles and analyse the connection between the distribution of cod and hydrographical (frontal) characteristics of the areas. A total area of 67000 km(2) was covered by stations in a 10 x 10 nautical mile grid. Salinity, temperature, NO3+NO2 and chlorophyll...... part of the investigation area, and within the zone of the front we observed enhanced primary production and abundance of both phyto- and zooplankton. The distribution of larval and juvenile cod was also related to the hydrography, the abundance of cod peaked within a restricted zone...

  4. Multi-decadal responses of a cod (Gadus morhua) population to human-induced trophic changes, fishing, and climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; MacKenzie, Brian; Köster, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    to changes in fish populations can be analyzed with empirical data. In this study we investigate how climate variability and multiple human impacts (fishing, marine mammal hunting, eutrophication) have affected multi-decadal scale dynamics of cod in the Baltic Sea during the 20th century.We document...... significant climate-driven variations in cod recruitment production at multi-annual timescales, which had major impacts on population dynamics and the yields to commercial fisheries. We also quantify the roles of marine mammal predation, eutrophication, and exploitation on the development of the cod...

  5. Effect of netting direction and number of meshes around on size selection in the codend for Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienbeck, Harald; Herrmann, Bent; Moderhak, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    We investigated experimentally the effect that turning the netting direction 90° (T90) and halving the number of meshes around in the circumference in a diamond mesh codend had on size selection of Baltic cod. The results generally agreed with predictions of a previous simulation-based study. Both...... modifications had a significant positive effect on the size selection of cod. The best selection results were obtained for a codend in which both factors were applied together. For that codend, very little between-haul variation in cod size selection was detected, especially compared to the reference codend...

  6. Demand for electrical energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergougnoux, J.; Fouquet, D.

    1983-01-01

    The different utilizations of electric energy are reviewed in the residential and tertiary sectors, in the industry. The competitive position of electricity in regard to other fuels has been strengthned by the sudden rise in the price of oil in 1973-1974 and 1979-1980. The evolution of electricity prices depended on the steps taken to adjust the electricity generation system. The substitution of electricity applications for hydro-carbons is an essential point of energy policy. The adjustment at all times, at least cost and most reliability, of the supply of electricity to the demand for it is a major problem in the design and operation of electric systems. National demand for power at a given moment is extremely diversified. Electricity consumption presents daily and seasonal variations, and variations according to the different sectors. Forecasting power requirements is for any decision on operation or investment relating to an electrical system. Load management is desirable (prices according to the customers, optional tariffs for ''peak-day withdrawal''). To conclude, prospects for increased electricity consumption are discussed [fr

  7. Rapidly Destructive Inflammatory Arthritis of the Hip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Shu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly destructive coxarthrosis (RDC is a rare syndrome that involves aggressive hip joint destruction within 6–12 months of symptom onset with no single diagnostic laboratory, pathological, or radiographic finding. We report an original case of RDC as an initial presentation of seronegative rheumatoid arthritis (RA in a 57-year-old Caucasian woman presenting with 6 months of progressive right groin pain and no preceding trauma or chronic steroid use. Over 5 months, she was unable to ambulate and plain films showed complete resorption of the right femoral head and erosion of the acetabulum. There were inflammatory features seen on computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. She required a right total hip arthroplasty, but arthritis in other joints showed improvement with triple disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD therapy and almost complete remission with the addition of adalimumab. We contrast our case of RDC as an initial presentation of RA to 8 RDC case reports of patients with established RA. Furthermore, this case highlights the importance of obtaining serial imaging to evaluate a patient with persistent hip symptoms and rapid functional deterioration.

  8. Non-destructive testing; Examenes no destructivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calva, Mauricio; Loske, Achim [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    The application of non-destructive testing (NDT) in several technical and industrial fields is pointed out, standing out its utilization in the detection of future failures without affecting the examined element. Likewise, the different types of NDTs and their processes, such as x-rays, ultrasoud, magnetic particles, induced currents, penetrating fluids, and optical means, are described. The Non-Destructive Tests Laboratory of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), plans to create new and more reliable systems independent from the operator`s capacity, to contribute to fulfill the inspection and quality control needs of the generating Mexican power plants. [Espanol] Se senala la aplicacion de los examenes no destructivos (END) a diversos campos tecnicos e industriales, destacando su utilizacion en la deteccion de futuras fallas sin afectar el elemento examinado. Asimismo, se describen los diferentes tipos de END y sus procesos, tales como radiografia, ultrasonido, particulas magneticas, corrientes inducidas, liquidos penetrantes y metodos opticos. El Laboratorio de Pruebas no Destructivas, del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), planea crear sistemas novedosos mas confiables, que no dependan de la capacidad del operador, para contribuir a satisfacer las necesidades de inspeccion y control de calidad que se presentan en las plantas generadoras de energia mexicanas.

  9. Developments in non-destructive beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    With the large average beam currents being achieved in accelerators and storage rings, there is an increasing need for non-destructive beam diagnostic devices. For continuous beams, position monitors of the capacitive pick-up type are replaced by resonant devices that respond to the transverse displacement of the beam centroid. Bunch length monitors of the SLAC type using resonant cavities operating in the TM 010 mode can be used for continuous beams. The more detailed information derivable from beam profile scanners requires development of improved non-destructive devices. Profile monitors which scan the visible light produced by high current beams may be more reliable than ones using the residual ionization if the light intensity from gas molecules following nonionizing collisions with beam particles gives a measure of the beam current density independent of the local electron density. The intense Balmer series lines from neutral hydrogen beams have been used successfully to measure beam profiles. At CRNL and at LASL, beam light profile monitors are being developed for high average current accelerators. Three or more projections will be recorded to allow tomographic reconstruction of the two-dimensional beam current density. Light detection is either by intensified Reticons or ISIT vidicons. The use of three or more beam light monitors on a beam transport line will also permit estimates of the transverse emittance to be made through the reconstruction technique

  10. Non-destructive testing; Examenes no destructivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calva, Mauricio; Loske, Achim [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    The application of non-destructive testing (NDT) in several technical and industrial fields is pointed out, standing out its utilization in the detection of future failures without affecting the examined element. Likewise, the different types of NDTs and their processes, such as x-rays, ultrasoud, magnetic particles, induced currents, penetrating fluids, and optical means, are described. The Non-Destructive Tests Laboratory of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), plans to create new and more reliable systems independent from the operator`s capacity, to contribute to fulfill the inspection and quality control needs of the generating Mexican power plants. [Espanol] Se senala la aplicacion de los examenes no destructivos (END) a diversos campos tecnicos e industriales, destacando su utilizacion en la deteccion de futuras fallas sin afectar el elemento examinado. Asimismo, se describen los diferentes tipos de END y sus procesos, tales como radiografia, ultrasonido, particulas magneticas, corrientes inducidas, liquidos penetrantes y metodos opticos. El Laboratorio de Pruebas no Destructivas, del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), planea crear sistemas novedosos mas confiables, que no dependan de la capacidad del operador, para contribuir a satisfacer las necesidades de inspeccion y control de calidad que se presentan en las plantas generadoras de energia mexicanas.

  11. EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION CATALYST TESTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HALGREN DL

    2008-01-01

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) main treatment train includes the peroxide destruction module (PDM) where the hydrogen peroxide residual from the upstream ultraviolet light/hydrogen peroxide oxidation unit is destroyed. Removal of the residual peroxide is necessary to protect downstream membranes from the strong oxidizer. The main component of the PDM is two reaction vessels utilizing granular activated carbon (GAC) as the reaction media. The PDM experienced a number of operability problems, including frequent plugging, and has not been utilized since the ETF changed to groundwater as the predominant feed. The unit seemed to be underperforming in regards to peroxide removal during the early periods of operation as well. It is anticipated that a functional PDM will be required for wastewater from the vitrification plant and other future streams. An alternate media or methodology needs to be identified to replace the GAC in the PDMs. This series of bench scale tests is to develop information to support an engineering study on the options for replacement of the existing GAC method for peroxide destruction at the ETF. A number of different catalysts will be compared as well as other potential methods such as strong reducing agents. The testing should lead to general conclusions on the viability of different catalysts and identify candidates for further study and evaluation

  12. Low-temperature transitions in cod and tuna determined by differential scanning calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristina Nedenskov; Jørgensen, Bo; Nielsen, Jette

    2003-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry measurements have revealed different thermal transitions in cod and tuna samples. Transition temperatures detected Lit -11degreesC, -15degreesC and -21degreesC were highly dependent on the annealing temperature. In tuna muscle an additional transition was observed...... at -72degreesC. This transition appeared differently than the thermal events observed at higher temperatures, as it spanned a broad temperature interval of 25degreesC. The transition was comparable to low-temperature glass transitions reported in protein-rich systems. No transition at this low...... temperature was detected in cod samples. The transitions observed at higher temperatures (-11degreesC to -21degreesC) may possibly stein from a glassy matrix containing muscle proteins. However, the presence of a glass transition at - 11degreesC was in disagreement with the low storage stability at -18degrees...

  13. Modeling the cod larvae drift in the Bornholm Basin in summer 1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, H.H.; Lehmann, A.; St. John, Michael

    1997-01-01

    , initial fields of temperature, salinity and cod larvae concentration for the Bornholm Basin were constructed by objective analysis using observations taken during a research survey in early July, 1994. Outside the Bornholm Basin generalized hydrographic features of the Baltic Sea were utilized....... In general, most of the hydrographic features observed during the second research cruise are correctly simulated, with variations mainly attributed to the prescribed initial conditions outside the Bornholm Basin. Results from larval sampling during the second cruise could not entirely confirm the modeled......A combined 3-D physical oceanographic model and a field sampling program was performed in July and August 1994 to investigate the potential drift of larval Baltic cod from the center of spawning effort in the Bornholm Basin, Baltic Sea. The goal of this exercise was to predict the drift...

  14. Hydrographic influence on the spawning habitat suitability of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, K.; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Huwer, B.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrographic influence on the spawning habitat suitability of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 69: 1736–1743.Recruitment variability of marine fish is influenced by the reproductive potential of the stock (i.e. stock characteristics and abundance) and the survival...... of early life stages, mediated by environmental conditions of both a physical (water temperature, salinity and oxygen conditions, ocean currents) and a biological nature (i.e. food, predators). The objective of this study is to assess the importance of variability in environmental conditions within...... allowing survival of western Baltic cod eggs indicates that favourable conditions predominantly occurred during the late spawning season in April/May, while minimum survival rates could be expected from January to March. Unsuitable time periods and habitats exhibiting the highest mortality rates...

  15. CcpA and CodY Coordinate Acetate Metabolism in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Nam; Burne, Robert A

    2017-04-01

    In the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans , phosphotransacetylase (Pta) and acetate kinase (Ack) convert pyruvate into acetate with the concomitant generation of ATP. The genes for this pathway are tightly regulated by multiple environmental and intracellular inputs, but the basis for differential expression of the genes for Pta and Ack in S. mutans had not been investigated. Here, we show that inactivation in S. mutans of ccpA or codY reduced the activity of the ackA promoter, whereas a ccpA mutant displayed elevated pta promoter activity. The interactions of CcpA with the promoter regions of both genes were observed using electrophoretic mobility shift and DNase protection assays. CodY bound to the ackA promoter region but only in the presence of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). DNase footprinting revealed that the upstream region of both genes contains two catabolite-responsive elements ( cre1 and cre2 ) that can be bound by CcpA. Notably, the cre2 site of ackA overlaps with a CodY-binding site. The CcpA- and CodY-binding sites in the promoter region of both genes were further defined by site-directed mutagenesis. Some differences between the reported consensus CodY binding site and the region protected by S. mutans CodY were noted. Transcription of the pta and ackA genes in the ccpA mutant strain was markedly different at low pH relative to transcription at neutral pH. Thus, CcpA and CodY are direct regulators of transcription of ackA and pta in S. mutans that optimize acetate metabolism in response to carbohydrate, amino acid availability, and environmental pH. IMPORTANCE The human dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans is remarkably adept at coping with extended periods of carbohydrate limitation during fasting periods. The phosphotransacetylase-acetate kinase (Pta-Ack) pathway in S. mutans modulates carbohydrate flux and fine-tunes the ability of the organisms to cope with stressors that are commonly encountered in the oral cavity. Here, we

  16. Prediction of chemical, physical and sensory data from process parameters for frozen cod using multivariate analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Iben Ellegaard; Jensen, H.S.; Bøknæs, Niels

    1998-01-01

    Physical, chemical and sensory quality parameters were determined for 115 cod (Gadus morhua) samples stored under varying frozen storage conditions. Five different process parameters (period of frozen storage, frozen storage. temperature, place of catch, season for catching and state of rigor) were...... varied systematically at two levels. The data obtained were evaluated using the multivariate methods, principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression. The PCA models were used to identify which process parameters were actually most important for the quality of the frozen cod....... PLS models that were able to predict the physical, chemical and sensory quality parameters from the process parameters of the frozen raw material were generated. The prediction abilities of the PLS models were good enough to give reasonable results even when the process parameters were characterised...

  17. Chemical surface disinfection of eggs of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overton, J L; Bruun, Morten Sichlau; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2010-01-01

    The effect of two disinfectants on eggs and larvae of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua, was investigated. The eggs were disinfected for 10 min using various concentrations of either glutaraldehyde (100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg L−1) or iodophor (10, 50, 100 and 150 mg L−1), 1–4-days post......-fertilization. Bactericidal effect of disinfection, survival to hatching, hatching success and larval abnormalities were assessed. Larval survival was recorded at 5-, 10- and 15-days post-hatch (dph). Although Baltic cod eggs have an unusually thin chorion, they could tolerate surface disinfection. A reduction in bacterial...... growth was observed with increased concentrations of disinfectant (3.0 × 107–1.6 × 101 CFU mL−1). Abnormalities in newly hatched larvae were not related to disinfection. Survival of the yolk sac larvae was significantly better for eggs treated with 400 mg L−1 glutaraldehyde for 10 min at 10 and 15 dph...

  18. Male reproductive competition in spawning aggregations of cod ( Gadus morhua , L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte; Hansen, Michael Møller; Loeschcke, V.

    2002-01-01

    Reproductive competition may lead to a large skew in reproductive success among individuals. Very few studies have analysed the paternity contribution of individual males in spawning aggregations of fish species with huge census population sizes. We quantified the variance in male reproductive...... success in spawning aggregations of cod under experimental conditions over an entire spawning season. Male reproductive success was estimated by microsatellite-based parentage analysis of offspring produced in six separate groups of spawning cod. In total, 1340 offspring and 102 spawnings distributed...... across a spawning season were analysed. Our results show that multiple males contributed sperm to most spawnings but that paternity frequencies were highly skewed among males, with larger males on average siring higher proportions of offspring. It was further indicated that male reproductive success...

  19. Genome architecture enables local adaptation of Atlantic cod despite high connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barth, Julia M I; Berg, Paul R; Jonsson, Per R.

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation to local conditions is a fundamental process in evolution; however, mechanisms maintaining local adaptation despite high gene flow are still poorly understood. Marine ecosystems provide a wide array of diverse habitats that frequently promote ecological adaptation even in species...... characterized by strong levels of gene flow. As one example, populations of the marine fish Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) are highly connected due to immense dispersal capabilities but nevertheless show local adaptation in several key traits. By combining population genomic analyses based on 12K single......-nucleotide polymorphisms with larval dispersal patterns inferred using a biophysical ocean model, we show that Atlantic cod individuals residing in sheltered estuarine habitats of Scandinavian fjords mainly belong to offshore oceanic populations with considerable connectivity between these diverse ecosystems. Nevertheless...

  20. Chemometrics-assisted spectrophotometry method for the determination of chemical oxygen demand in pulping effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Honglei; Chen, Yuancai; Zhan, Huaiyu; Fu, Shiyu

    2011-04-01

    A new method has been developed for the determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in pulping effluent using chemometrics-assisted spectrophotometry. Two calibration models were established by inducing UV-visible spectroscopy (model 1) and derivative spectroscopy (model 2), combined with the chemometrics software Smica-P. Correlation coefficients of the two models are 0.9954 (model 1) and 0.9963 (model 2) when COD of samples is in the range of 0 to 405 mg/L. Sensitivities of the two models are 0.0061 (model 1) and 0.0056 (model 2) and method detection limits are 2.02-2.45 mg/L (model 1) and 2.13-2.51 mg/L (model 2). Validation experiment showed that the average standard deviation of model 2 was 1.11 and that of model 1 was 1.54. Similarly, average relative error of model 2 (4.25%) was lower than model 1 (5.00%), which indicated that the predictability of model 2 was better than that of model 1. Chemometrics-assisted spectrophotometry method did not need chemical reagents and digestion which were required in the conventional methods, and the testing time of the new method was significantly shorter than the conventional ones. The proposed method can be used to measure COD in pulping effluent as an environmentally friendly approach with satisfactory results.

  1. Chemical Oxygen Demand abatement in sewage using Micro-Aeration Enhanced Ecological Floating Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongle; Zhou, Gaofeng; Liu, Yiqing; Tan, Jiancong; Fu, Yongsheng

    2018-02-01

    The traditional ecological floating bed combined with micro-aeration system and artificial medium was developed for the removal of contaminants and remediation of surface water. This micro-aeration enhanced ecological floating bed (MAEEFB) consisted of aeration unit, microbial processing unit and aquatic plant unit. Batch experiments were conducted in different operating conditions on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the sewage using MAEEFB. The removal rate of COD by MAEEFB, enhanced ecological floating bed (EEFB) and traditional ecological floating bed (TEFB) in the same reaction conditions was 59.2%, 56.9% and 30.6%, respectively, indicating that the combination of micro-aeration system and artificial medium could enhance the removal efficiency of COD in TEFB. In MAEEFB, the aeration intensity should be designed reasonablely considering both treatment efficiency and operation cost. Only increasing the specific surface area of the packing cannot effectively improve the purification efficiency of water. Factors like packing material, ability of intercepting organics and complicated extent of microorganisms attaching on the packing should also be considered.

  2. Integrating the Fenton's Process with Biofiltration by to Reduce Chemical Oxygen Demand of Winery Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipolo, Marco; Martins, Rui C; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M; Costa, Raquel

    2017-03-01

    The discharge of poorly decontaminated winery wastewater remains a serious environmental problem in many regions, and the industry is welcoming improved treatment methods. Here, an innovative decontamination approach integrating Fenton's process with biofiltration by Asian clams is proposed. The potential of this approach was assessed at the pilot scale using real effluent and by taking an actual industrial treatment system as a benchmark. Fenton peroxidation was observed to remove 84% of the effluent's chemical oxygen demand (COD), reducing it to 205 mg L. Subsequent biofiltration decreased the effluent's COD to approximately zero, well below the legal discharge limit of 150 mg L, in just 3 d. The reduction of the effluent's organic load through Fenton's process did not decrease its toxicity toward , but the effluent was much less harmful after biofiltration. The performance of the treatment proposed exceeded that of the integrated Fenton's process-sequencing batch reactor design implemented in the winery practice, where a residence time of around 10 d in the biological step typically results in 80 to 90% of COD removal. The method proposed is effective and compatible with typical winery budgets and potentially contributes to the management of a nuisance species. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. Coastal landforms and processes at the Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts—A primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Graham S.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Adams, Mark

    2015-12-17

    Anyone who spends more than a few days on Cape Cod (the Cape) quickly becomes a coastal geologist, quickly learning the rhythms of daily tides and the seasonal cycles of beaches growing and being swept away by storms; swimmers and surfers track how the breakers appear, and dog-walkers notice the hard-packed sand blanketed overnight by an airy layer that leaves deep labored tracks.

  4. Exploring the Effect of Phage Therapy in Preventing Vibrio anguillarum Infections in Cod and Turbot Larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbo, Nanna; Rønneseth, Anita; Kalatzis, Panos G.

    2018-01-01

    The aquaculture industry is suffering from losses associated with bacterial infections by opportunistic pathogens. Vibrio anguillarum is one of the most important pathogens, causing vibriosis in fish and shellfish cultures leading to high mortalities and economic losses. Bacterial resistance to a...... KVP40, demonstrating that the phage could also reduce mortality imposed by the background population of pathogens. Overall, phage-mediated reduction in mortality of cod and turbot larvae in experimental challenge assays with V. anguillarum pathogens suggested that application of broad...

  5. Dismantlement and destruction of chemical, nuclear and conventional weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, N.T.

    1997-01-01

    The safe destruction and dismantling of chemical, nuclear and conventional weapons is of fundamental importance to the security of all countries represented in this volume. Expertise in the field is not confined to one country or organisation: all can benefit from each other. There is an ever present danger of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction: approximately two dozen countries have ongoing programmes to develop or acquire such weapons, and many are also gaining the capability to build air-surface delivery systems. But much can be done to prevent proliferation by reducing leakage of materials and know-how and by solving the problems of the destruction of surplus weapons systems, which has now come to be a key issue. In 13 sessions of the workshop attention was paid to (1) Dismantlement and Destruction of Chemical, Nuclear and Conventional Weapons; (2) Status of Implementation of Arms Control Treaties and Voluntary Commitments; (3) National Perspectives on Cooperation in Disarmament; (4) Stocktaking of National and Bilateral Disposal/Destruction Programmes: Chemical Weapons; (5) Stocktaking of National and Bilateral Disposal/Destruction Programmes: Nuclear Weapons; (6) Stocktaking of National and Bilateral Disposal/Destruction Programmes: Conventional Weapons. Session; (7) Experience with Currently Employed Chemical Destruction Technologies; (8) Alternative Chemical Destruction Technologies; (9) Deactivation, Dismantlement and Destruction of Delivery Systems and Infrastructure for Nuclear Weapons; (10) Storage, Safeguarding and Disposition of Fissile Materials; (11) Technologies for Conversion and Civil Use of Demilitarized Materials; (12) International Organizations; and (13) Environmental Challenges Posed by Chemical and Nuclear Disarmament

  6. A comparison between destructive and non-destructive techniques in determining coating thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, F. I.; Suryanto; Ani, M. H.; Mahmood, M. H.

    2018-01-01

    Measuring coating thickness is an important part in research works related to coating applications. In general, techniques for measuring coating thickness may be divided into destructive and non-destructive methods which are commonly used depending on the applications. The objective of this study is to compare two methods measuring the coating thickness of electroplating copper coating on the austenitic stainless-steel substrate. The electroplating was carried out in a solution containing 200 g/L CuSO4, 100 g/L H2SO4 at room temperature and current of 40mA/cm2 during 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mins as coating periods. And the coating thickness was measured by two methods, cross sectional analysis as a destructive technique and weight gain as a non-destructive technique. The results show that at 20 mins coating time interval, the thickness measured by cross sectional method was 16.67 μm and by weight gain method was 17.37 μm, with difference of 0.7 μm and percentage error of 4.11%. This error increased to 5.27% at 100mins time interval, where the values of the thickness measured by cross sectional and weight gain were 86.33 μm and 81.9 μm respectively, and the difference was 4.43 μm. Moreover, though the weight gain method is fast and gives the indication for the termination of a coating process, information regarding the uniformity, porosity and the presence of cracks cannot be obtained. On the other hand, determining the coating thickness using destructive method will damage the sample.

  7. Demand for male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Emily; Bishai, David

    2012-10-01

    The biological basis for male contraception was established decades ago, but despite promising breakthroughs and the financial burden men increasingly bear due to better enforcement of child support policies, no viable alternative to the condom has been brought to market. Men who wish to control their fertility must rely on female compliance with contraceptives, barrier methods, vasectomy or abstinence. Over the last 10 years, the pharmaceutical industry has abandoned most of its investment in the field, leaving only nonprofit organisations and public entities pursuing male contraception. Leading explanations are uncertain forecasts of market demand pitted against the need for critical investments to demonstrate the safety of existing candidate products. This paper explores the developments and challenges in male contraception research. We produce preliminary estimates of potential market size for a safe and effective male contraceptive based on available data to estimate the potential market for a novel male method.

  8. Animating the Ethical Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Jensen, Thessa; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenge of attaining ethical user stances during the design process of products and services and proposes animation-based sketching as a design method, which supports elaborating and examining different ethical stances towards the user. The discussion is qualified...... by an empirical study of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) in a Triple Helix constellation. Using a three-week long innovation workshop, U- CrAc, involving 16 Danish companies and organisations and 142 students as empirical data, we discuss how animation-based sketching can explore not yet existing user...... dispositions, as well as create an incentive for ethical conduct in development and innovation processes. The ethical fulcrum evolves around Løgstrup’s Ethical Demand and his notion of spontaneous life manifestations. From this, three ethical stances are developed; apathy, sympathy and empathy. By exploring...

  9. Rewarding yet demanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkedal, S T B; Torsting, A M B; Møller, T

    2016-01-01

    in a logbook. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure was used to initiate and guide the intervention and the Canadian Model of Client-Centred Enablement for the client-therapist relationship. RESULTS: Participants described the intervention, which presupposed a certain level of patient readiness...... design comprising an eight-week client-centred occupational therapy intervention with semi-structured interviews with five of the six clients out of 10 who completed the intervention. Braun and Clark's thematic analysis was applied to the transcripts. Adherence rate and dropouts were recorded......, as demanding. Participants valued engaging in real-life occupations while anchoring new strategies but also the occupational therapist's role in dealing with failure. Participants felt the intervention assisted in their recovery process and enabled them to engage in meaningful occupations. CONCLUSION...

  10. PROOF on Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malzacher, Peter; Manafov, Anar

    2010-01-01

    PROOF on Demand (PoD) is a set of utilities, which allows starting a PROOF cluster at user request, on any resource management system. It provides a plug-in based system, which allows to use different job submission frontends, such as LSF or gLite WMS. Main components of PoD are the PROOFAgent and the PAConsole. PROOFAgent provides the communication layer between the PROOF master on the local machine and the PROOF workers on the remote resources, possibly behind a firewall. PAConsole provides a user-friendly GUI, which is used to setup, manage, and shutdown the dynamic PROOF cluster. Installation is simple and doesn't require administrator privileges, and all the processes run in user space. PoD gives users, who don't have a centrally-administrated static PROOF cluster at their institute, the possibility to enjoy the full power of interactive analysis with PROOF.

  11. Historical ecology provides new insights for ecosystem management: Eastern Baltic cod case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Ojaveer, Henn; Eero, Margit

    2011-01-01

    A recent historical marine ecological case study (cod in the eastern Baltic Sea) is used to show how long-term data and knowledge of fluctuations can contribute to revisions of fishery management policy. The case study first developed new longer analytical time series of spawner biomass and recru......A recent historical marine ecological case study (cod in the eastern Baltic Sea) is used to show how long-term data and knowledge of fluctuations can contribute to revisions of fishery management policy. The case study first developed new longer analytical time series of spawner biomass...... catch data from the late 1500s to early 1600s also contributed new perspectives to cod population dynamics under alternative ecosystem forcings. These new perspectives have contributed, and will likely continue to contribute to new management policies (e.g., revision of fishery management reference...... points), which should lead to higher sustainability of the population and fishery yields, and improved overall ecosystem health. These perspectives will likely continue to provide baseline information as ICES and the EU develop new policies based on maximum sustainable yield concepts....

  12. Reduction of COD in wastewater from an organized tannery industrial region by Electro-Fenton process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurt, Ugur; Apaydin, Omer; Gonullu, M. Talha

    2007-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have led the way in the treatment of aqueous waste and are rapidly becoming the chosen technology for many applications. In this paper, COD reduction potential of leather tanning industry wastewaters by Electro-Fenton (EF) oxidation, as one of the AOPs, was experimentally evaluated. The wastewater sample was taken from an outlet of an equalization basin in a common treatment plant of an organized tannery industrial region in Istanbul, Turkey. Treatment of the wastewater was carried out by an electrochemical batch reactor equipped with two iron electrodes, which were connected parallel to each other. The oxidation process was studied for optimization of H 2 O 2 and the electricity consumptions were observed at different contact times under different pH conditions (3.0, 5.0 and 7.2). In each case, electricity consumption for decreased COD mass was estimated. In this process, COD was reduced by 60-70% within 10 min. By taking into consideration the local sewerage discharge limit, applicability of EF process for the tannery wastewaters was evaluated

  13. Reduction of COD in wastewater from an organized tannery industrial region by Electro-Fenton process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt, Ugur [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: ukurt@yildiz.edu.tr; Apaydin, Omer [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: apaydin@yildiz.edu.tr; Gonullu, M. Talha [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: gonul@yildiz.edu.tr

    2007-05-08

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have led the way in the treatment of aqueous waste and are rapidly becoming the chosen technology for many applications. In this paper, COD reduction potential of leather tanning industry wastewaters by Electro-Fenton (EF) oxidation, as one of the AOPs, was experimentally evaluated. The wastewater sample was taken from an outlet of an equalization basin in a common treatment plant of an organized tannery industrial region in Istanbul, Turkey. Treatment of the wastewater was carried out by an electrochemical batch reactor equipped with two iron electrodes, which were connected parallel to each other. The oxidation process was studied for optimization of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and the electricity consumptions were observed at different contact times under different pH conditions (3.0, 5.0 and 7.2). In each case, electricity consumption for decreased COD mass was estimated. In this process, COD was reduced by 60-70% within 10 min. By taking into consideration the local sewerage discharge limit, applicability of EF process for the tannery wastewaters was evaluated.

  14. Integrative genomic analysis identifies isoleucine and CodY as regulators of Listeria monocytogenes virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior Lobel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular bacterial pathogens are metabolically adapted to grow within mammalian cells. While these adaptations are fundamental to the ability to cause disease, we know little about the relationship between the pathogen's metabolism and virulence. Here we used an integrative Metabolic Analysis Tool that combines transcriptome data with genome-scale metabolic models to define the metabolic requirements of Listeria monocytogenes during infection. Twelve metabolic pathways were identified as differentially active during L. monocytogenes growth in macrophage cells. Intracellular replication requires de novo synthesis of histidine, arginine, purine, and branch chain amino acids (BCAAs, as well as catabolism of L-rhamnose and glycerol. The importance of each metabolic pathway during infection was confirmed by generation of gene knockout mutants in the respective pathways. Next, we investigated the association of these metabolic requirements in the regulation of L. monocytogenes virulence. Here we show that limiting BCAA concentrations, primarily isoleucine, results in robust induction of the master virulence activator gene, prfA, and the PrfA-regulated genes. This response was specific and required the nutrient responsive regulator CodY, which is known to bind isoleucine. Further analysis demonstrated that CodY is involved in prfA regulation, playing a role in prfA activation under limiting conditions of BCAAs. This study evidences an additional regulatory mechanism underlying L. monocytogenes virulence, placing CodY at the crossroads of metabolism and virulence.

  15. Vitamin D, cod-liver oil, sunlight, and rickets: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, Kumaravel

    2003-08-01

    Rickets, a disease of vitamin D deficiency, is rarely confronted by the practicing pediatrician in the United States today. At the turn of the 20th century, rickets was rampant among the poor children living in the industrialized and polluted northern cities of the United States. With the discovery of vitamin D and the delineation of the anti-rachitic properties of cod-liver oil by the 1930s, it became possible to not only treat but also eradicate rickets in the United States. Rickets was a common disease in 17th century England. Frances Glisson's treatise on rickets published in 1650, a glorious contribution to English medicine, described the clinical and anatomic features of rickets in great detail. The exact etiology of rickets had been elusive until the 1920s. During the Glissonian era, rickets was a mysterious disease. By the late 19th and early 20th century, faulty diet or faulty environment (poor hygiene, lack of fresh air and sunshine) or lack of exercise was implicated in its etiology. Animal experiments, appreciation of folklore advocating the benefits of cod-liver oil, and the geographical association of rickets to lack of sunshine were all relevant factors in the advancement of knowledge in the conquest of this malady. In this article, the history of rickets pertaining to the discovery of vitamin D, cod-liver oil, and sunlight is reviewed.

  16. Removal of colour and COD from wastewater containing acid blue 22 by electrochemical oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panizza, Marco [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e di Processo ' G.B. Bonino' , Universita degli Studi di Genova, p.le J.F. Kennedy 1, 16129 Genova (Italy)], E-mail: marco.panizza@unige.it; Cerisola, Giacomo [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e di Processo ' G.B. Bonino' , Universita degli Studi di Genova, p.le J.F. Kennedy 1, 16129 Genova (Italy)

    2008-05-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of synthetic wastewater containing acid blue 22 on a boron-doped diamond electrode (BDD) was studied, using cyclic voltammetry and bulk electrolysis. The influence of current density, dye concentration, flow rate, and temperature was investigated, in order to find the best conditions for COD and colour removal. It was found that, during oxidation, a polymeric film, causing BDD deactivation, was formed in the potential region of water stability, and that it was removed by anodic polarisation at high potentials in the region of O{sub 2} evolution. Bulk electrolysis results showed that the electrochemical process was suitable for completely removing COD and effectively decolourising wastewaters, due to the production of hydroxyl radicals on the diamond surface. In particular, under optimal experimental conditions of flow rates (i.e. 300 dm{sup 3} h{sup -1}) and current density (i.e. 20 mA cm{sup -2}), 97% of COD was removed in 12 h electrolysis, with 70 kWh m{sup -3}energy consumption.

  17. Removal of colour and COD from wastewater containing acid blue 22 by electrochemical oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panizza, Marco; Cerisola, Giacomo

    2008-01-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of synthetic wastewater containing acid blue 22 on a boron-doped diamond electrode (BDD) was studied, using cyclic voltammetry and bulk electrolysis. The influence of current density, dye concentration, flow rate, and temperature was investigated, in order to find the best conditions for COD and colour removal. It was found that, during oxidation, a polymeric film, causing BDD deactivation, was formed in the potential region of water stability, and that it was removed by anodic polarisation at high potentials in the region of O 2 evolution. Bulk electrolysis results showed that the electrochemical process was suitable for completely removing COD and effectively decolourising wastewaters, due to the production of hydroxyl radicals on the diamond surface. In particular, under optimal experimental conditions of flow rates (i.e. 300 dm 3 h -1 ) and current density (i.e. 20 mA cm -2 ), 97% of COD was removed in 12 h electrolysis, with 70 kWh m -3 energy consumption

  18. Understanding Global Supply Chains and Seafood Markets for the Rebuilding Prospects of Northern Gulf Cod Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Khan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although fisheries production and seafood trade are global in scope, with billions of dollars in exports, the rebuilding of collapsed fisheries often focus on national fisheries policy and management measures, with little attention to global supply chains and international consumer markets. Even with two moratoria and two decades of policy changes since the Northern Gulf cod fisheries collapsed in eastern Canada, rebuilding has stalled and the fishing industry and coastal communities continue to undergo challenges with economic viability and resource sustainability. This paper examines and analyzes the global supply chain and marketing dimension of Northern Gulf cod fisheries. Drawing upon fisheries bioeconomics and governance theory, a pre- and post-collapse analysis is undertaken to understand key drivers and institutional mechanisms along global fish supply chains for an effective and successful rebuilding. Findings indicate that the collapse of the cod fishery has cascading effects that go beyond ecosystem changes to new harvesting activities, industry restructuring, supply chain reorganization, new global markets and consumer preference for certified seafood. This suggests that a holistic rebuilding approach is necessary, one that integrates institutional and behavioral changes for both producers and consumers at various scales of fisheries production, political economy issues, as well as cross-scale policies on marine conservation and regional economic development.

  19. Development of new concepts for escape windows to minimise cod catches in Norway lobster fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Frandsen, Rikke; Holst, René

    2010-01-01

    Gear selectivity with regard to cod (Gadus morhua) needs to be improved in the Kattegat and Skagerrak Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) fishery. One way to achieve this goal is to improve the selectivity of an escape window (henceforth window) in the gear. Our gear development focused particul......Gear selectivity with regard to cod (Gadus morhua) needs to be improved in the Kattegat and Skagerrak Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) fishery. One way to achieve this goal is to improve the selectivity of an escape window (henceforth window) in the gear. Our gear development focused...... particularly on moving the window further back, gaining more stability in the codend to avoid loss of Norway lobster through the window, making a relatively narrow section where the window is located, and testing larger mesh sizes in the window. We designed a four panel sorting section—the sorting box......, but no improvement was observed for cod that came into contact with the window after reducing the distance from the window to the codline. The sorting box also showed a high reduction of flatfish and other roundfish species. The retention of Norway lobster above minimum landing size in the sorting box was higher...

  20. A bio-economic analysis of harvest control rules for the Northeast Arctic cod fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikeset, Anne Maria; Richter, Andries P; Dankel, Dorothy J; Dunlop, Erin S; Heino, Mikko; Dieckmann, Ulf; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2013-05-01

    Harvest control rules (HCRs) have been implemented for many fisheries worldwide. However, in most instances, those HCRs are not based on the explicit feedbacks between stock properties and economic considerations. This paper develops a bio-economic model that evaluates the HCR adopted in 2004 by the Joint Norwegian-Russian Fishery Commission to manage the world's largest cod stock, Northeast Arctic cod (NEA). The model considered here is biologically and economically detailed, and is the first to compare the performance of the stock's current HCR with that of alternative HCRs derived with optimality criteria. In particular, HCRs are optimized for economic objectives including fleet profits, economic welfare, and total yield and the emerging properties are analyzed. The performance of these optimal HCRs was compared with the currently used HCR. This paper show that the current HCR does in fact comes very close to maximizing profits. Furthermore, the results reveal that the HCR that maximizes profits is the most precautionary one among the considered HCRs. Finally, the HCR that maximizes yield leads to un-precautionary low levels of biomass. In these ways, the implementation of the HCR for NEA cod can be viewed as a success story that may provide valuable lessons for other fisheries.

  1. A Novel Method for Predicting Anisakid Nematode Infection of Atlantic Cod Using Rough Set Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wąsikowska, Barbara; Sobecka, Ewa; Bielat, Iwona; Legierko, Monika; Więcaszek, Beata

    2018-03-01

    Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua L.) is one of the most important fish species in the fisheries industries of many countries; however, these fish are often infected with parasites. The detection of pathogenic larval nematodes is usually performed in fish processing facilities by visual examination using candling or by digesting muscles in artificial digestive juices, but these methods are both time and labor intensive. This article presents an innovative approach to the analysis of cod parasites from both the Atlantic and Baltic Sea areas through the application of rough set theory, one of the methods of artificial intelligence, for the prediction of food safety in a food production chain. The parasitological examinations were performed focusing on nematode larvae pathogenic to humans, e.g., Anisakis simplex, Contracaecum osculatum, and Pseudoterranova decipiens. The analysis allowed identification of protocols with which it is possible to make preliminary estimates of the quantity and quality of parasites found in cod catches before detailed analyses are performed. The results indicate that the method used can be an effective analytical tool for these types of data. To achieve this goal, a database is needed that contains the patterns intensity of parasite infections and the conditions of commercial fish species in different localities in their distributions.

  2. Assessing the Role of Environmental Factors on Baltic Cod Recruitment, a Complex Adaptive System Emergent Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionysis Krekoukiotis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For decades, fish recruitment has been a subject of intensive research with stock–recruitment models commonly used for recruitment prediction often only explaining a small fraction of the inter-annual recruitment variation. The use of environmental information to improve our ability to predict recruitment, could contribute considerably to fisheries management. However, the problem remains difficult because the mechanisms behind such complex relationships are often poorly understood; this in turn, makes it difficult to determine the forecast estimation robustness, leading to the failure of some relationships when new data become available. The utility of machine learning algorithms such as artificial neural networks (ANNs for solving complex problems has been demonstrated in aquatic studies and has led many researchers to advocate ANNs as an attractive, non-linear alternative to traditional statistical methods. The goal of this study is to design a Baltic cod recruitment model (FishANN that can account for complex ecosystem interactions. To this end, we (1 build a quantitative model representation of the conceptual understanding of the complex ecosystem interactions driving Baltic cod recruitment dynamics, and (2 apply the model to strengthen the current capability to project future changes in Baltic cod recruitment. FishANN is demonstrated to bring multiple stressors together into one model framework and estimate the relative importance of these stressors while interpreting the complex nonlinear interactions between them. Additional requirements to further improve the current study in the future are also proposed.

  3. Using interview-based recall surveys to estimate cod Gadus morhua and eel Anguilla anguilla harvest in Danish recreational fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz; Storr-Paulsen, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Using interview-based recall surveys to estimate cod Gadus morhua and eel Anguilla anguilla harvest in Danish recreational fishing. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 69: 323–330.Marine recreational fishing is a popular outdoor activity in Denmark, practised by both anglers and passive gear fishers....... However, the impact on the targeted stocks is unknown, so to estimate the 2009 harvest of cod Gadus morhua and eel Anguilla anguilla, two separate interview-based surveys were initiated and carried out in 2009/2010. The first recall survey exclusively targeted fishers who had been issued......, in certain areas, the recreational harvest of cod accounted for more than 30% of the total yield. The majority (81%) of the recreational cod harvest was taken by anglers. Eels, however, are almost exclusively caught with passive gear (fykenets) and a total of 104 t year−1 was harvested, which corresponds...

  4. The influence of ozonated time on the degree of depreciation of BOD, COD, TSS and phosphate in hospital liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isyuniarto and Andrianto

    2009-01-01

    The influence of ozonated time towards degree depreciation of Bode, COD, TSS and phosphate in hospital liquid waste was done. This research aim study influence of lime adding and ozone using to reduce of BOD, COD, TSS and phosphate in hospital waste. Added of lime mean for total increase ion OH - , while parameter of ozonization time mean to complete organic compounds oxidation in waste and flock formation. From this research it was found that optimum lime addition was 1.1% (% weight) and ozonization time was 20 minutes. In this condition it was achieved degree of BOD = 18.88 mg/l; COD = 25.68 mg/l, TSS = 80 mg/l and phosphate = 1.52 mg/l. This condition fulfil quality standard decided, that has to BOD = 75 mg/l; COD = 100 mg/l, TSS = 100 mg/l and phosphate = 2.0 mg/l. (author)

  5. Comment Period for Proposed Remedy Selection Plan for Multiple Training Areas located at Joint Base Cape Cod

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is seeking public comment on the EPA’s proposal indicating no further action is needed for multiple Training Areas on the Camp Edwards portion of Joint Base Cape Cod (JBCC).

  6. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Hurst: Contrasting coastal and shelf nursery habitats of Pacific cod in the southeastern Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from a study examining the use of demersal and pelagic habitats in the southeast Bering Sea by age-0 Pacific cod, based on 4 years of demersal trawl...

  7. Improving the size- and species selectivity of cod (Gadus morhua) in demersal mixed-species trawl fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm

    have been published in scientific journals and Paper 3 has been submitted to Fisheries Research. This review will take a broader perspective and will examine the capturing process, which is the basis for the selection process. Moreover, it discusses the existing methods and knowledge in the fields...... different species, including cod, are caught together. Demersal trawling is the predominant fishing method in Denmark, as measured by both catch value and volume. Demersal trawls also account for the highest discard rates of juvenile fish, including cod. The focus of this work was on improving......, and openings. The results show that the morphology-based simulations of size selectivity of cod can be used to explain a large part of both the within-haul and the between-haul variations previously reported from sea trials. The method can further predict the selection parameters (L50 and SR) for cod...

  8. Hydroacoustic resolution of small-scale vertical distribution in Baltic cod Gadus morhua - habitat choise and limits during spawning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaber, Matthias; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Neuenfeldt, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    to cod. The results showed a clear influence of ambient salinity and oxygen concentration on the distribution pattern and distributional limitation of cod during spawning time, and also consistency of data storage tag-derived distribution patterns with those based on individual echotracking. We therefore...... and hence the spatial structure of the ecosystem. Our aim here is to present a method to resolve small-scale distribution on an individual level, as needed for the behaviorally-based prediction of habitat choice and limits. We focused on the small-scale vertical distribution of cod Gadus morhua L....... in the Bornholm Basin, central Baltic Sea, during spawning time in 2 years with different vertical thermohaline and oxygen stratifications. Individual cod were identified by echotracking of real-time in situ hydroacoustic distribution data. In order to resolve and identify hydrographic preferences and limits...

  9. Photocatalysts: ambient temperature destruction of VOCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R [IT Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Photocatalysis was a failure as a solar energy driven organic synthesis technique, but as this study indicates, it has undergone a renaissance as a promising treatment method for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air streams. Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) relies upon the ability of certain semiconductors to be stimulated by UV radiation. UV light excites valence band electrons in the semiconductor catalyst to jump to a conductance band leaving holes in the valence band. The electrons and holes can react with compounds such as organic contaminants present in an air stream. Hallmarks of the technology include rapid destruction kinetics for many VOCs at ambient temperature and efficient use energy in the form of UV-A photons. Studies clearly indicate that PCO is competitive on capital cost and offers significant operating cost savings on selected applications. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  10. Photocatalysts: ambient temperature destruction of VOCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.

    1994-01-01

    Photocatalysis was a failure as a solar energy driven organic synthesis technique, but as this study indicates, it has undergone a renaissance as a promising treatment method for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air streams. Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) relies upon the ability of certain semiconductors to be stimulated by UV radiation. UV light excites valence band electrons in the semiconductor catalyst to jump to a conductance band leaving holes in the valence band. The electrons and holes can react with compounds such as organic contaminants present in an air stream. Hallmarks of the technology include rapid destruction kinetics for many VOCs at ambient temperature and efficient use energy in the form of UV-A photons. Studies clearly indicate that PCO is competitive on capital cost and offers significant operating cost savings on selected applications. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  11. On the destruction of musical instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ravasio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I aim to provide an account of the peculiar reasons that motivate our negative reaction whenever we see musical instruments being mistreated and destroyed. Stephen Davies has suggested that this happens because we seem to treat musical instruments as we treat human beings, at least in some relevant respects. I argue in favour of a different explanation, one that is based on the nature of music as an art form. The main idea behind my account is that musical instruments are not mere tools for the production of art; rather, they are involved in an essential way in artistic appreciation of music. This fact not only grounds our negative reaction to their mistreatment and destruction but also has a normative force that is lacked by the account proposed by Davies.

  12. Destructive hydrogenation of carbonaceous materials, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-02-15

    A process is described for the destructive hydrogenation continuously of solid and infusible carbonaceous substances, consisting of heating the charge to the same temperature as the added hydrogen, under a pressure essentially equal to that of the reaction, from the first to at least 300/sup 0/C, but not more than 440/sup 0/C, while passing the heated charge through a zone the contents of which are equal to about 20 per cent to 40 per cent of that of the reaction space, maintaining the charge for a certain time at the temperature without sensible change in the pressure, then reheating the charge to at least the temperature to prime the reaction and finally to introduce the charge into the reaction space.

  13. Non destructive testing in amusement park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Marrero, Humberto; Hernandez Torres, Debora; Sendoya Puente, Felix; Herrera Palma, Victoria; Suarez Guerra, Yarelis; Moreno Hernandez, Eduardo; Lopez Hernandez, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    In 2006 began the installation of Chinese amusement parks at several places in Havana City. Structural security is one of the principal tasks that should be done, since the beginning of the services of these installations. The use on Non Destructive Testing Techniques (NDT), has to be development and implemented in order to avoid the possibility of failure during services with a consequence threat to safety for the public presented. In this work it is shown the results of application of NDT techniques and recommendations for the quality control of the different welds and mechanical components presented. Techniques as Visual Examination, Liquid Penetrant and Ultrasonic have been used for these purposes in order to obtain a structural diagnostic in the amusement parks. There are also exposed the use and implementation of international recommendations and Standards, which are very rigorous in its applications for the case of recreation industry. This is a consequence to its social service fundamentally to children and teenage people. (Author)

  14. Low cost chemical oxygen demand sensor based on electrodeposited nano-copper film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy H. Hassan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A commercially available copper electrical cable and pure Cu disk were used as substrates for the electrodeposition of copper nanoparticles (nano-Cu. The surface morphology of the prepared nano-Cu/Cu electrodes was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX. The bare copper substrates and the nano-copper modified electrodes were utilized and optimized for electrochemical assay of chemical oxygen demand (COD using glycine as a standard. A comparison was made among the four electrodes (i.e., bare and nano-Cu coated copper cable and pure copper disk as potential COD sensors. The oxidation behavior of glycine was investigated on the surface of the prepared sensors using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV. The results indicate significant enhancement of the electrochemical oxidation of glycine by the deposited nano-Cu. The effects of different deposition parameters, such as Cu2+ concentration, deposition potential, deposition time, pH, and scan rate on the response of the prepared sensors were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the optimal nano-Cu based COD sensor exhibited a linear range of 2–595 mg/L, lower limit of detection (LOD as low as 1.07 mg/L (S/N = 3. The developed method exhibited high tolerance level to Cl− ion where 1.0 M Cl− exhibited minimal influence. The sensor was utilized for the detection of COD in different real water samples. The results obtained were validated using the standard dichromate method.

  15. Cosmological simulation with dust formation and destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Shohei; Hou, Kuan-Chou; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Nagamine, Kentaro; Shimizu, Ikkoh

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the evolution of dust in a cosmological volume, we perform hydrodynamic simulations, in which the enrichment of metals and dust is treated self-consistently with star formation and stellar feedback. We consider dust evolution driven by dust production in stellar ejecta, dust destruction by sputtering, grain growth by accretion and coagulation, and grain disruption by shattering, and treat small and large grains separately to trace the grain size distribution. After confirming that our model nicely reproduces the observed relation between dust-to-gas ratio and metallicity for nearby galaxies, we concentrate on the dust abundance over the cosmological volume in this paper. The comoving dust mass density has a peak at redshift z ˜ 1-2, coincident with the observationally suggested dustiest epoch in the Universe. In the local Universe, roughly 10 per cent of the dust is contained in the intergalactic medium (IGM), where only 1/3-1/4 of the dust survives against dust destruction by sputtering. We also show that the dust mass function is roughly reproduced at ≲ 108 M⊙, while the massive end still has a discrepancy, which indicates the necessity of stronger feedback in massive galaxies. In addition, our model broadly reproduces the observed radial profile of dust surface density in the circum-galactic medium (CGM). While our model satisfies the observational constraints for the dust extinction on cosmological scales, it predicts that the dust in the CGM and IGM is dominated by large (>0.03 μm) grains, which is in tension with the steep reddening curves observed in the CGM.

  16. Evaluation of feed COD/sulfate ratio as a control criterion for the biological hydrogen sulfide production and lead precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, Antonio; Ramirez, Martha; Volke-Sepulveda, Tania; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Armando; Revah, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    The ability of sulfate-reducing bacteria to produce hydrogen sulfide and the high affinity of sulfide to react with divalent metallic cations represent an excellent option to remove heavy metals from wastewater. Different parameters have been proposed to control the hydrogen sulfide production by anaerobic bacteria, such as the organic and sulfate loading rates and the feed COD/SO 4 2- ratio. This work relates the feed COD/SO 4 2- ratio with the hydrogen sulfide production and dissolved lead precipitation, using ethanol as carbon and energy source in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. A maximum dissolved sulfide concentration of 470 ± 7 mg S/L was obtained at a feed COD/SO 4 2- ratio of 2.5, with sulfate and ethanol conversions of approximately 94 and 87%, respectively. The lowest dissolved sulfide concentration (145 ± 10 mg S/L) was observed with a feed COD/SO 4 2- ratio of 0.67. Substantial amounts of acetate (510-1730 mg/L) were produced and accumulated in the bioreactor from ethanol oxidation. Although only incomplete oxidation of ethanol to acetate was observed, the consortium was able to remove 99% of the dissolved lead (200 mg/L) with a feed COD/SO 4 2- ratio of 1.5. It was found that the feed COD/SO 4 2- ratio could be an adequate parameter to control the hydrogen sulfide production and the consequent precipitation of dissolved lead

  17. COD fractions changes in the SBR-type reactor treating municipal wastewater with controlled percentage of dairy sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Struk-Sokołowska Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the influence of percentage of dairy wastewater in the municipal wastewater on the changes of COD fractions during the cycle of SBR-type reactor. The scope of the research included physicochemical analyses of municipal wastewater without dairy wastewater, dairy wastewater, mixture of municipal and dairy wastewater as well as treated sewage. Both the concentrations and the proportions between COD fractions changed in the SBR cycle. In raw municipal and dairy wastewater - XS, insoluble hardly bio-degradable fraction of COD dominated (49.6 and 64.5% respectively. In treated wastewater SI, COD for dissolved compounds that are not biologically decomposed (inert (from 62.1 to 74.6% dominated, while XS fraction was from 19.1 to 24.4%. The consumption rate of organic compounds depended on the type of COD fraction, SBR cycle phase and the percentage of dairy wastewater. The highest rates of organic compounds consumption were noted in the phase of mixing. In the case of fraction SI, no differences in concentration in the SBR cycle time, were found. Concentration of COD in treated wastewater was from 34.8 to 58.9 mgO2·L-1 (efficiency wastewater treatment from 96.0 to 98.6%.

  18. Constructive Deviance, Destructive Deviance and Personality: How do they interrelate?

    OpenAIRE

    Bodankin, Moran; Tziner, Aharon

    2009-01-01

    In recent years deviant behavior in organizations has drawn increasing attention. However, surprisingly little research has focused on constructive rather than destructive deviance. In an attempt to bridge this gap, the present study investigated both constructive and destructive deviance at work and their relationship to employee personality. Using 89 hitech employees, constructive and destructive (interpersonal and organizational) deviance were regressed on the big-five factors of personali...

  19. Aesthetics of destruction in contemporary science fiction cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Warton, John Phillips

    2015-01-01

    Mass destruction imagery within the science fiction film genre is not a new cinematic development. However, a swell of destruction-centred films has emerged since the proliferation of digital technologies and computer-generated imagery that reflect concerns that extend beyond notions of spectacle. Through illusionistic realism techniques, the aesthetics of mass destruction imagery within science fiction cinema can be seen as appropriating the implied veracity of other film trad...

  20. DESTRUCTION OF INTERSTELLAR DUST IN EVOLVING SUPERNOVA REMNANT SHOCK WAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavin, Jonathan D.; Dwek, Eli; Jones, Anthony P.

    2015-01-01

    Supernova generated shock waves are responsible for most of the destruction of dust grains in the interstellar medium (ISM). Calculations of the dust destruction timescale have so far been carried out using plane parallel steady shocks, however, that approximation breaks down when the destruction timescale becomes longer than that for the evolution of the supernova remnant (SNR) shock. In this paper we present new calculations of grain destruction in evolving, radiative SNRs. To facilitate comparison with the previous study by Jones et al., we adopt the same dust properties as in that paper. We find that the efficiencies of grain destruction are most divergent from those for a steady shock when the thermal history of a shocked gas parcel in the SNR differs significantly from that behind a steady shock. This occurs in shocks with velocities ≳200 km s −1 for which the remnant is just beginning to go radiative. Assuming SNRs evolve in a warm phase dominated ISM, we find dust destruction timescales are increased by a factor of ∼2 compared to those of Jones et al., who assumed a hot gas dominated ISM. Recent estimates of supernova rates and ISM mass lead to another factor of ∼3 increase in the destruction timescales, resulting in a silicate grain destruction timescale of ∼2–3 Gyr. These increases, while not able to resolve the problem of the discrepant timescales for silicate grain destruction and creation, are an important step toward understanding the origin and evolution of dust in the ISM

  1. The forms of destructive behavior in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D A Narozhnaia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Personnel have become a key resource of organizations in the contemporary society for the way personnel fulfills its work functions can provide important advantages in the competitive market. However, despite the fact that organizations’ management pays great attention to the development of the constructive forms of work behavior, various forms of destructive behavior in the workplace are quite widespread nowadays. The author uses the concept “destructive labor behavior” to denote such observable actions of employees that hinder achieving organizations’ aims and entail negative consequences. The article analyzes relationships between concepts “destructive labor behavior”, “social behavior” and “organizational behavior”; identifies the most common types of destructive labor behavior, such as absenteeism, theft, sabotage, lowered labor activity, and their key features; considers their negative consequences, such as decreased production, decline in the quality of products or services, conflicts in the team, tensions between workers and employers; analyzes different classifications of the destructive forms of labor behavior. The author concludes that we need a general classification of the destructive forms of labor behavior based on their grouping on three grounds: the essence of the negative consequences of the destructive behavior; the violated legal norms; the causes of the destructive behavior. Moreover, the article identifies three groups of organizational factors that can generate destructive forms of labor behavior - production factors (content, organization and conditions of work, social factors (group relations and psychological (personal characteristics of employees - and provides recommendations to reduce their impact on the organization.

  2. Environment-quality demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfini, M.G.; Leenhouts, H.P.

    1988-12-01

    In the framework of the Environment Quality Requirements (MKE) project a model has been designed in which environment-quality demands have been defined and quantified, and a measuring strategy has been developed. In the model it is required for the quality of the environment that the radionuclide concentration in the various environment compartiments remains limited in order to keep the effective dose equivalence for the 'reference man' under a certain reference level. In order to be able to determine the maximum nuclide concentration it is necessary to quantify the relation between the concentration in the environment and the dose for the people. The quantitative relation between concentration and dose has been established on the base of parameters (Derived Activity Limits (DAL's) which have to be calculated for each environment compartiment, each nuclide and each exposure pathway. This model has been described and, as example, the DAL's have been calculated for the compartiment air (for which the two exposure pathways inhalation and direct radiation were considered). For the other environment compartiments a similar elaboration is needed. The feasibility of application of the MKE-model in the actual practice of measurements in the environment and examination of dose for the population depends upon the possibility for performing nuclide specific measurements in all environment compartiments, the level of the dose resulting from the contamination of the environment and the related accurateness of the measurements

  3. Nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand removal from septic tank wastewater in subsurface flow constructed wetlands: substrate (cation exchange capacity) effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Robert S; Grismer, Mark E

    2014-04-01

    The current article focuses on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) removal performance from synthetic human wastewater as affected by different substrate rocks having a range of porosities and cation exchange capacities (CECs). The aggregates included lava rock, lightweight expanded shale, meta-basalt (control), and zeolite. The first three had CECs of 1 to 4 mequiv/100 gm, whereas the zeolite CEC was much greater (-80 mequiv/100 gm). Synthetic wastewater was gravity fed to each constructed wetland system, resulting in a 4-day retention time. Effluent samples were collected, and COD and nitrogen species concentrations measured regularly during four time periods from November 2008 through June 2009. Chemical oxygen demand and nitrogen removal fractions were not significantly different between the field and laboratory constructed wetland systems when corrected for temperature. Similarly, overall COD and nitrogen removal fractions were practically the same for the aggregate substrates. The important difference between aggregate effects was the zeolite's ammonia removal process, which was primarily by adsorption. The resulting single-stage nitrogen removal process may be an alternative to nitrification and denitrification that may realize significant cost savings in practice.

  4. Spatial analysis of lung, colorectal, and breast cancer on Cape Cod: An application of generalized additive models to case-control data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschengrau Ann

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of geographic information from cancer and birth defect registries has increased public demands for investigation of perceived disease clusters. Many neighborhood-level cluster investigations are methodologically problematic, while maps made from registry data often ignore latency and many known risk factors. Population-based case-control and cohort studies provide a stronger foundation for spatial epidemiology because potential confounders and disease latency can be addressed. Methods We investigated the association between residence and colorectal, lung, and breast cancer on upper Cape Cod, Massachusetts (USA using extensive data on covariates and residential history from two case-control studies for 1983–1993. We generated maps using generalized additive models, smoothing on longitude and latitude while adjusting for covariates. The resulting continuous surface estimates disease rates relative to the whole study area. We used permutation tests to examine the overall importance of location in the model and identify areas of increased and decreased risk. Results Maps of colorectal cancer were relatively flat. Assuming 15 years of latency, lung cancer was significantly elevated just northeast of the Massachusetts Military Reservation, although the result did not hold when we restricted to residences of longest duration. Earlier non-spatial epidemiology had found a weak association between lung cancer and proximity to gun and mortar positions on the reservation. Breast cancer hot spots tended to increase in magnitude as we increased latency and adjusted for covariates, indicating that confounders were partly hiding these areas. Significant breast cancer hot spots were located near known groundwater plumes and the Massachusetts Military Reservation. Discussion Spatial epidemiology of population-based case-control studies addresses many methodological criticisms of cluster studies and generates new exposure

  5. Influence of Kaolin in Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Concrete: Destructive and Non-Destructive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Z.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Ramli, N. Mohd; Burduhos-Nergis, D. D.; Razak, R. Abd

    2018-06-01

    Development of geopolymer concrete is mainly to reduce the production of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) that adverse the natural effect. Fly ash is a by-product collected from electrical generating power plant which resulted from burning pulverized coal. Since fly ash is waste materials, it can be recycled for future advantages particularly as pozzolanic materials in construction industry. This study focused on the feasibility of fly ash based geopolymer concrete to which kaolin has been added. The main constituents of geopolymer production for this study were class F fly ash, sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. The concentration of NaOH solution was fixed at 12 Molar, ratio of fly ash/alkaline activator and sodium silicate/NaOH fixed at 1.5 and 2.5, respectively. Kaolin was added in range 5% to 15% from the mass of fly ash and all the samples were cured at room temperature. Destructive and non-destructive test were performed on geopolymer concrete to evaluate the best mix proportions that yield the highest strength as well as the quality of the concrete. Compressive strength, flexural strength, rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) result have been obtained. It shown that 5% replacement of kaolin contributed to maximum compressive strength and flexural strength of 40.4 MPa and 12.35 MPa at 28 days. These result was supported by non-destructive test for the same mix proportion.

  6. Destruction of high explosives and wastes containing high explosives using the molten salt destruction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhye, R.S.; Brummond, W.A.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process which has been demonstrated for the destruction of HE and HE-containing wastes. MSD has been used by Rockwell International and by Anti-Pollution Systems to destroy hazardous wastes. MSD converts the organic constituents (including the HE) of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water. In the case of HE-containing mixed wastes, any actinides in the waste are retained in the molten salt, thus converting the mixed wastes into low-level wastes. (Even though the MSD process is applicable to mixed wastes, this paper will emphasize HE-treatment.) The destruction of HE is accomplished by introducing it, together with oxidant gases, into a crucible containing a molten salt, such as sodium carbonate, or a suitable mixture of the carbonates of sodium, potassium, lithium and calcium. The temperature of the molten salt can be between 400 to 900 degrees C. The combustible organic components of the waste react with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, nitrogen and steam

  7. Modelling Commodity Demands and Labour Supply with m-Demands

    OpenAIRE

    Browning, Martin

    1999-01-01

    In the empirical modelling of demands and labour supply we often lack data on a full set of goods. The usual response is to invoke separability assumptions. Here we present an alternative based on modelling demands as a function of prices and the quantity of a reference good rather than total expenditure. We term such demands m-demands. The advantage of this approach is that we make maximum use of the data to hand without invoking implausible separability assumptions. In the theory section qu...

  8. Daily Intake of Protein from Cod Residual Material Lowers Serum Concentrations of Nonesterified Fatty Acids in Overweight Healthy Adults: A Randomized Double-Blind Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iselin Vildmyren

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Improved process technologies have allowed fishing vessels to utilize residuals from cod fillet production (head, backbone, skin, cuttings, and entrails and convert this to high-quality protein powders for human consumption. In this double-blind pilot study, 42 healthy overweight or obese adults were randomized to three experimental groups consuming tablets corresponding to 6 g/day of proteins from cod residuals as presscake meal (Cod-PC, presscake and stickwater meal (Cod-PCW, or placebo tablets (control for eight weeks. The primary outcome of this study was changes in metabolites related to glucose regulation in overweight or obese healthy adults after intake of proteins from cod residuals. Cod-PC supplementation decreased postprandial serum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA concentration and increased gene expressions of diglyceride acyltransferase 1 and 2 in subcutaneous adipose tissue compared with controls. Fasting insulin increased while fasting NEFA and 120-min postprandial glucose decreased within the Cod-PC group, but these changes did not differ from the other groups. In conclusion, supplementation with Cod-PC beneficially affected postprandial serum NEFA concentration compared with the other groups in overweight or obese adults. Supplementation with Cod-PCW, which contains a higher fraction of water-soluble protein compared to Cod-PC, did not affect serum markers of glucose regulation.

  9. Satellite monitoring temperature conditions spawning area of the Northeast Arctic cod in the Norwegian Sea and assessment its abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanyushin, George; Bulatova, Tatiana; Klochkov, Dmitriy; Troshkov, Anatoliy; Kruzhalov, Michail

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the attempt to consider the relationship between sea surface anomalies of temperature (SST anomalies °C) in spawning area of the Norwegian Arctic cod off the Lofoten islands in coastal zone of the Norwegian Sea and modern cod total stock biomass including forecasting assessment of future cod generation success. Continuous long-term database of the sea surface temperature (SST) was created on the NOAA satellites data. Mean monthly SST and SST anomalies are computed for the selected area on the basis of the weekly SST maps for the period of 1998-2012. These maps were plotted with the satellite SST data, as well as information of vessels, byoies and coastal stations. All data were classified by spawning seasons (March-April) and years. The results indicate that poor and low middle generations of cod (2001, 2006, 2007) occurred in years with negative or extremely high positive anomalies in the spawning area. The SST anomalies in years which were close to normal or some more normal significances provide conditions for appearance strong or very strong generations of cod (1998, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2009). Temperature conditions in concrete years influence on different indexes of cod directly. So, the mean temperature in spawning seasons in years 1999-2005 was ≈5,0°C and SST anomaly - +0,35°C, by the way average year significances indexes of cod were: total stock biomass - 1425,0 th.t., total spawning biomass - 460,0 th.t., recruitment (age 3+) - 535,0 mln. units and landings - 530,0 th.t. In spawning seasons 2006-2012 years the average data were following: mean SST ≈6,0°C, SST anomaly - +1,29°C, total stock biomass - 2185,0 th.t., total spawning biomass - 1211,0 th.t., recruitment (age 3+) - 821,0 mln. units and landings - 600,0 th.t. The SST and SST anomalies (the NOAA satellite data) characterize increase of decrease in input of warm Atlantic waters which form numerous eddies along the flows of the main warm currents thus creating

  10. Current developments in mechanized non-destructive testing in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeilinger, R.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear power plants require frequent in-service activities to be carried out conscientiously in areas potentially hazardous to human operators (because of the associated radiation exposure), such as non-destructive testing of pressurized components of the steam system. Locations to be inspected in this way include the reactor pressure vessel, core internals, steam generators, pressurizers, and pipes. The codes to be used as a basis of these inspections demand high absolute positioning and repeating accuracy. These requirements can be met by mechanized test procedures. Accordingly, many new applications of, mostly mobile, robots have been developed over the past few years. The innovative control and sensor systems for stationary and mobile robots now on the market offer a potential for economic application in a large number of new areas in inspection, maintenance and service in nuclear power plants. More progress in this area is expected for the near future. Areva NP founded the new NDT Center, NETEC (Non-destructive Examination Technical Center), as a global technical center for non-destructive materials testing. NETEC is to advance research and development of all basic NDT technologies, robotics included. For many years, intelligeNDT has offered solutions and products for a variety of inspection and testing purposes and locations in nuclear power plants and is involved in continuous further development of the experience collected in nuclear power plants on the spot. (orig.)

  11. Supply and demand drive a critical transition to dysfunctional fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryxell, John M; Hilborn, Ray; Bieg, Carling; Turgeon, Katrine; Caskenette, Amanda; McCann, Kevin S

    2017-11-14

    There is growing awareness of the need for fishery management policies that are robust to changing environmental, social, and economic pressures. Here we use conventional bioeconomic theory to demonstrate that inherent biological constraints combined with nonlinear supply-demand relationships can generate threshold effects due to harvesting. As a result, increases in overall demand due to human population growth or improvement in real income would be expected to induce critical transitions from high-yield/low-price fisheries to low-yield/high-price fisheries, generating severe strains on social and economic systems as well as compromising resource conservation goals. As a proof of concept, we show that key predictions of the critical transition hypothesis are borne out in oceanic fisheries (cod and pollock) that have experienced substantial increase in fishing pressure over the past 60 y. A hump-shaped relationship between price and historical harvest returns, well demonstrated in these empirical examples, is particularly diagnostic of fishery degradation. Fortunately, the same heuristic can also be used to identify reliable targets for fishery restoration yielding optimal bioeconomic returns while safely conserving resource abundance. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  12. Global energy demand outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatcher, S.R.

    1999-01-01

    Perhaps the most compelling issue the world will face in the next century is the quality of life of the increasing populations of the poorer regions of the world. Energy is the key to generating wealth and protecting the environment. Today, most of the energy generated comes from fossil fuels and there should be enough for an increase in consumption over the next half century. However, this is likely to be impacted by the Kyoto Protocol on carbon dioxide emissions. Various authoritative studies lead to a global energy demand projection of between 850 to 1070 EJ per year in the mid-21 st century, which is nearly three times as much as the world uses today. The studies further indicate that, unless there is a major thrust by governments to create incentives and/or to levy heavy taxes, the use of fossil fuels will continue to increase and there will be a major increase in carbon dioxide emissions globally. Most of the increase will come from the newly industrializing countries which do not have the technology or financial resources to install non-carbon energy sources such as nuclear power, and the new renewable energy technologies. The real issue for the nuclear industry is investment cost. Developing countries, in particular will have difficulty in raising capital for energy projects with a high installed cost and will have difficulties in raising large blocks of capital. A reduction in investment costs of the order of 50% with a short construction schedule is in order if nuclear power is to compete and contribute significantly to energy supply and the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. Current nuclear power plants and methods are simply not suited to the production of plants that will compete in this situation. Mass production designs are needed to get the benefits of cost reduction. Water cooled reactors are well demonstrated and positioned to achieve the cost reduction necessary but only via some radical thinking on the part of the designers. The reactors of

  13. Promotion and Fast Food Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy J. Richards; Luis Padilla

    2009-01-01

    Many believe that fast food promotion is a significant cause of the obesity epidemic in North America. Industry members argue that promotion only reallocates brand shares and does not increase overall demand. We study the effect of fast food promotion on market share and total demand by estimating a discrete / continuous model of fast food restaurant choice and food expenditure that explicitly accounts for both spatial and temporal determinants of demand. Estimates are obtained using a unique...

  14. Intercity Travel Demand Analysis Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Lu; Hai Zhu; Xia Luo; Lei Lei

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that intercity travel is an important component of travel demand which belongs to short distance corridor travel. The conventional four-step method is no longer suitable for short distance corridor travel demand analysis for the time spent on urban traffic has a great impact on traveler's main mode choice. To solve this problem, the author studied the existing intercity travel demand analysis model, then improved it based on the study, and finally established a combined model...

  15. Job demands-resources model

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, Arnold; Demerouti, Eva

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract* The question of what causes job stress and what motivates people has received a lot of research attention during the past five decades. In this paper, we discuss Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory, which represents an extension of the Job Demands-Resources model (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007; Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001) and is inspired by job design and job stress theories. JD-R theory explains how job demands and resources have unique and multiplicative e...

  16. Explosive destruction of "2"6Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahl, D.; Yamaguchi, H.; Shimizu, H.

    2016-01-01

    The γ-ray emission associated with the radioactive decay of "2"6Al is one of the key pieces of observational evidence indicating stellar nucleosynthesis is an ongoing process in our Galaxy, and it was the first such radioactivity to be detected. Despite numerous efforts in stellar modeling, observation, nuclear theory, and nuclear experiment over the past four decades, the precise sites and origin of Galactic "2"6Al remain elusive. We explore the present experimental knowledge concerning the destruction of "2"6Al in massive stars. The precise stellar rates of neutron-induced reactions on "2"6Al, such as (n,p) and (n,α), have among the largest impacts on the total "2"6Al yield. Meanwhile, reactions involving the short-lived isomeric state of "2"6Al such as radiative proton capture are highly-uncertain at present. Although we presented on-going experimental work from n TOF at CERN with an "2"6Al target, the present proceeding focuses only on the "2"6Al isomeric radioactive beam production aspect and the first experimental results at CRIB.

  17. European Non Destructive Examination Forum (ENDEF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deffrennes, M [EC, DG XVII, Nuclear Energy, Brussels (Belgium); Engl, G [Siemens AG Energieerzeugung KWU, Erlangen (Germany); Estorff, U von [EC, JRC/IAM, Petten (Netherlands)

    1998-11-01

    ENDEF, an initiative of the European Commission, DG XVII (Energy) was well supported by the European industrial institutions working in assistance with nuclear industrial organisations in the CEEC`s (Central and Eastern European Countries) and NIS`s (New Independent States). This Forum provides effectively a platform for open discussion between representatives of industrial actors active in the NDE (Non Destructive Examination)/ISI (In Service Inspection) field with the purpose to establish a co-operation pattern between qualified representatives of the EU (European Union) industry to offer a better co-ordinated and well defined assistance to the CEEC`s and NIS in the field of NDE/ISI, and to lay the ground for further industrial co-operation. ENDEF developed a strategy to follow for the establishment of co-operation projects. This strategy is now used to understand the extent of past or present assistance projects and to identify the areas where more co-operation is needed. ENDEF encourages the creation in the NIS`s and CEEC`s of similar forums in order to increase the co-operation and co-ordination. ENDEF is also working in perfect agreement with the European Network ENIQ, piloted by the European plant operators. This identity of views lead to the leadership by the ENDEF co-ordinator of the ENIQ Task 3 involving Applications of the European Methodology for ISI qualification in the CEEC`s and NIS`s and presently fully integrated in ENDEF. (orig.)

  18. Non Destructive Analysis of Uranium by Radiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf Nampira

    2007-01-01

    Uranium used in nuclear fuel development activity. the Substance use incurred by regulation safeguard. On that account in uranium acceptance conducted by verification of according to document by the specification of goods. Verification done by analysing performed uranium. The activity require by analyse method which simple and rapid analyses and has accurate result of analyses, is hence done by validation of non destructive uranium analysis that is with count gamma radiation from 235 U and product decay from 238 U. Quantitative analysis of uranium in substance determined by through count radiation-g at energy 185.72 keV and the use assess ratio of gamma radiation count from 235 U to 234 Pa to determine isotope content 235 U in substance. The result of analyses were given result of analysis with above correctness storey level 95% and have limit detect equivalent by 0.0174 mg U in U 3 O 8 . This method use at isotope uranium-235 analysis through count gamma radiation comparing method 235 U/ 234 Pa giving accuracy level 95% at sample equivalent uranium its content in 1 g uranium with isotope 235 U smaller than 75 weight percent. (author)

  19. Waste salt recovery, recycle, and destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.G.

    1992-12-01

    Starting in 1943 and continuing into the 1970s, radioactive wastes resulting from plutonium processing at Hanford were stored underground in 149 single shell tanks. Of these tanks, 66 are known or believedto be leaking, and over a period are believed to have leaked about 750,000 gal into the surrounding soil. The bulk of the aqueous solution has been removed and transferred to double shell tanks, none of which are leaking. The waste consists of 37 million gallons of salt cake and sludge. Most of the salt cake is sodium nitrate and other sodium salts. A substantial fraction of the sludge is sodium nitrate. Small amounts of the radionuclides are present in the sludge as oxides or hydroxides. In addition, some of the tanks contain organic compounds and ferrocyanide complexes, many of which have undergone radiolytic induced chemical changes during the years of storage. As part of the Hanford site remediation effort, the tank wastes must be removed, treated, and the residuals must be immobilized and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. Removal methods of the waste from the tanks fall generally into three approaches: dry removal, slurry removal, and solution removed. The latter two methods are likely to result in some additional leakage to the surrounding soil, but that may be acceptable if the tank can be emptied and remediated before the leaked material permeates deeply into the soil. This effort includes three parts: salt splitting, acid separation, and destruction, with initial emphasis on salt splitting

  20. Modelling of fiberglass pipe destruction process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. К. Николаев

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with important current issue of oil and gas industry of using tubes made of high-strength composite corrosion resistant materials. In order to improve operational safety of industrial pipes it is feasible to use composite fiberglass tubes. More than half of the accidents at oil and gas sites happen at oil gathering systems due to high corrosiveness of pumped fluid. To reduce number of accidents and improve environmental protection we need to solve the issue of industrial pipes durability. This problem could be solved by using composite materials from fiberglass, which have required physical and mechanical properties for oil pipes. The durability and strength can be monitored by a fiberglass winding method, number of layers in composite material and high corrosion-resistance properties of fiberglass. Usage of high-strength composite materials in oil production is economically feasible; fiberglass pipes production is cheaper than steel pipes. Fiberglass has small volume weight, which simplifies pipe transportation and installation. In order to identify the efficiency of using high-strength composite materials at oil production sites we conducted a research of their physical-mechanical properties and modelled fiber pipe destruction process.