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  1. Environmental challenges in Nigeria's Delta Region and Agriculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discussed the environmental challenges in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria with emphasis on the impacts on agricultural production. It thus discussed the concepts of Niger-Delta, Environmental pollution, Niger-Delta crises and Agriculture. The paper posits that there are positive relationships between these ...

  2. aranthus cruentus L) in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Experiments were conducted in 1987 and 1988 to study the response of Amaranthus cruentus L. to flooded soils at Ekpoma, situated in-the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of flooding on yield of A. Céiieiìtus. The study revealed that the negative response of the ...

  3. Issues of Human Security and Educational Development in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ololube, Nwachukwu Prince; Kpolovie, Peter James; Amaele, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from documents, observation, interview and questionnaire, we highlighted the role of issues of human security and its impact on the educational development of the Niger Delta region as well as means of enhancing human security in Nigeria. This article is a conceptual and methodological breakthrough in Nigeria's academic landscape where…

  4. Oil and conflicts in the Niger Delta region, Nigeria: facing the facts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE NIGER DELTA Region of Nigeria is the storehouse of Nigeria's crude oil, which accounts for approximately 90% of the country's revenue, providing more than 90% of total exports. Despite this, the people remain poor, marginalized and restive. Resort to conflicts has been taken as the only way of expressing grievances ...

  5. Water Supply Deficiency and Implications for Rural Development in the Niger-Delta Region of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkwocha, E. E.

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the marginalization of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria in terms of infrastructural and social services provision. This study examined the water supply deficiency and its general implications for rural development within the region. Data and other study characteristics were extracted from 501 subjects drawn from…

  6. Towards assessing the social sustainability performance of the petroleum industry in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bubou, GM

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Unresolved social issues between the local community and the petroleum industry plague the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. These concerns are addressed by introducing a social sustainability assessment framework for the petroleum industry. Key...

  7. Acid Rain Phenomenon in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: Economic, Biodiversity, and Public Health Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. C. Nduka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rain samples were collected from Warri and Port Harcourt, two major oil-producing cities of Nigeria in April-June, July-August, and September-October 2005 and 2006. Awka, a “non-oil” city was used as control. Samples were collected from three points, using clean plastic basins fastened to a table, 2 m above ground level and 115 m away from tall buildings and trees. Water samples were filtered and acidity determined using digital pHmeter. The results show that the rain samples were acidic. The pH values for the 2 years under study show that the rainfall in Warri was more acidic than that of Port Harcourt. Oil exploration and other anthropogenic sources may be responsible for the acid rain in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

  8. Oil Exploration and the Dilemma of Unemployment in the Niger-Delta Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwosu Jonathan E

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Niger delta region situated in the southern part of Nigeria covers a territory of about 112,110 km2, which represents about 12 % of the total area of the country. The Niger delta is an oil-rich region, which has led Nigeria to the 12th place among the oil producing countries of the world. The share of crude oil production accounts for 90 % of export revenues and 75% of the total state revenue. However, despite the numerous social and economic achievements of the oil industry, it is considered to be the cause of the unemployment rate growth in the region. Taking into account the abovementioned, the aim of this article is to evaluate the relationship of the crude oil production and high unemployment rate in the Niger Delta. In the article there applied the method of non-experimental research to enable the proportional reflection, method of cluster random choice for distribution of questionnaires and interviewing method for obtaining direct data and information. The results showed that the ecological damage caused by the oil production has had a negative impact on the fishing and agriculture — the main activities of the region rural population. In other words, the threat of oil spills, gas flaring, pollution and other activities associated with oil production are destroying the environment, which is the main home and source of income for a large number of working-age population. Thus, as a result of the depletion of fertile soils, the crop yield drops or completely disappears, forests vanish together with their resources. Rivers and reservoirs are being polluted resulting in the extinction of fish and river fauna, which, in turn, leads to the fact that fishermen and farmers, whose work is directly dependent on environmental conditions, are affected by unemployment. This causes a widespread poverty, unrest and hostile attitude of among young people, as well as the emergence of other social problems prevailing in the region. Unfortunately, the

  9. Adolescents' Knowledge, Attitude and Utilization of Emergency Contraceptive Pills in Nigeria's Niger Delta Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onasoga, Olayinka A; Afolayan, Joel Adeleke; Asamabiriowei, Tariebi Florence; Jibril, Umar Nda; Imam, Abubakar Ayinla

    2016-01-01

    Risky sexual activity among adolescents is on the increase and contraceptive prevalence rate is low which is evidenced by high rate of teenage pregnancy in Bayelsa state, Nigeria. This study assesses the adolescents' knowledge, attitude and utilization of emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) in Amassoma Community, Bayelsa State, in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional research design. A purposive sampling technique was used to select a sample of 220 respondents from the target population. Data were collected using a self-structured questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data generated. Majority of the respondents had high level of knowledge and positive attitude towards emergency contraceptive pills but had low level of utilization. Concerns about what others may say, parental attitude, contraceptive availability, contraceptive accessibility, and peer influences were the major factors that influenced the utilization of contraceptive pills. There was no significant relationship between knowledge and utilization of emergency contraceptive pills, as well as level of knowledge and their utilization of emergency contraceptive pills. Adolescents in the study were more likely to use emergency contraceptive pills, if parents and others reaction to adolescents' contraceptive use were positive about those. Health care professionals, especially nurses, should organize enlightenment programs to educate adolescents, parents and the public on the benefits of adolescents' contraceptives use, especially ECP.

  10. Technical and Economic Efficiency of Palm Oil Marketing in the Niger Delta Region of Southern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Nkasiobi Silas Oguzor

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the structural performance and productive efficiency of palm oil marketing in some selected States in Southern Nigeria. Eighty districts were selected in the Niger Delta Area and data were collected from 1000 palm oil sellers randomly selected in these towns. The tools of analysis were marketing margin, Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient to measure the structural performance while the productive efficiency was measured with the use of the production function analysis using ...

  11. Panacea for Youth Restiveness in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Egbe, Aneozeng A. - Department of Business Administration Cross River. University of .... insecurity and violence that is easily identifiable in the Niger Delta region. These oil and ... start and meticulously nurture its growth to maturity. This is the ...

  12. ABSTRACT The Niger Delta region of Nigeria is a beehive of oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aigbe H.I

    footprints, songs, calls, burrows, nests and trails were estimated to .... Insectivora: The Nigeria musk shrew. (Crocidura nigeriae) is an insect eating rodent. The animal also feeds on other animal life like insects and earthworms. The average density of the ... and arboreal and live within palm plantations especially in Ebocha ...

  13. western niger delta, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    2015-07-21

    Jul 21, 2015 ... River Niger catchment being along the corridors of mangrove and forest region might be responsible for the persistence in the occurrence of mangrove and rain forest pollen Zonocostites ramonae and Retitricolporites irregularis, Canthium spp. throughout the stratigraphic column of the well. REFERENCES.

  14. Precipitation Chemistry and Occurrence of Acid Rain over the Oil-Producing Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kanayo Chukwu Nduka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the nitrate, sulfate, total dissolved solid (TDS, electrical conductivity, total hardness (TH, and bicarbonates of rainwater samples collected from Warri and Port Harcourt between April–June, July–August, and September–October of 2005 and 2006 to depict onset of rainy season, mid-rainy season, and end of rainy season for the two major crude oil–producing cities of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria (although Port Harcourt is also noted for non-oil manufacturing industries. The same was done in Awka, a non-oil producing city in the hinterland of southeastern Nigeria. In each of the cities, rain samples were collected from three points in a triangular equilibrium using a clean plastic basin fastened to a table 2 m above ground level and 115 m away from tall buildings and trees. The parameters were determined after filtering, using their respective standard methods. Averages of 1.50, 1.81, 1.13 and 2.14, 1.50, 1.86 mg/l of nitrate for April–June, July–August, and September–October were recorded for Warri in 2005 and 2006, respectively. While 15.21, 3.23, 22.31 and 20.89, 9.96, and 14.27 mg/l were recorded in Port Harcourt. Sulfate levels for Warri and Port Harcourt for the same periods are follows: 1.38, 1.88, 1.06, 1.50, 1.43, 1.50 and 2.64, 1.15, 5.88, 4.73, 1.90, 1.55 mg/l, respectively. Nitrate levels were higher than sulfate. Other parameters include TDS (5.44, 4.79, 3.30 and 7.63, 3.69, 2.56 mg/l for Warri in 2005 and 2006; 12.57, 2.07, 25.214 and 28.87, 6.73, 7.80 mg/l for Port Harcourt for the same periods. Other parameters also varied in that order for the 2 years in same cities. Crude oil exploration and gas flaring in the Niger Delta, and multiplicity of cottage industries in Awka, impacted on the inorganic ion pollution of the rainwater. This may have public health implications in the region.

  15. Clinico-epidemiological study on canine toxicosis in Effurun/Warri Municipality region of Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundu F. Shima

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to provide fundamental information on both the common toxicants and poisoning episodes in dogs within Effurun/Warri municipality region of Delta State of Nigeria from 2011 to 2014. The collected data were grouped according to age, sex, breed, year of occurrence, and toxicant type. The study revealed that a total of 76 dogs comprising 12 breeds were poisoned by several toxicants such as pesticides (69%; n=52/76, household products (12%; n=9/76, food and ndash;poisons (9%; n=7/76, and snakebite envenomation (3%; n=2/76. Mixed breeds (29%; n=22/76, Alsatian (25%; n=19/76, Rottweiler (16%; n=12/76 and indigenous breed (7%; n=5/76 ranked the topmost breeds accounted for most poison emergencies with human and ndash;related factors incriminated. This study provides useful information on episodes of poisoning in dogs in the studied region. The knowledge of agents involved can help veterinarians for accurate diagnosis, and pet owners to cautiously protect their pets from potentially poisonous substances. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 357-361

  16. SYMMETRIC DETERMINATION OF THE SEVERITY OF PRODUCTIVITY CONSTRAINTS OF FISH FARMERS IN THE TROPICS: A CASE STUDY OF THE NIGER DELTA REGION, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALERIE Solomon

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to fi ll the gap in the dearth of information on systematic approach to ascertain the severity as well as the magnitude of the constraints responsible for the sub-optimal operation of fi sh farming in Nigeria. 120 randomly selected fish farmers from a list of 186 fi sh farmers in the state were interviewed. Participatory appraisal technique and econometric technique were adopted to ascertain the most severe major constraints and also the severity index of each of the sub-constraints that are responsible for the sub-optimal aquaculture operation in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria and the cause of withdrawal from aquaculture by some fi sh farmers. The sub-constraints severity within the major constraints, across the region gave more insight into the causes of the high rate of withdrawals from aquaculture and the decline in aquaculture productivity in the region. How productive the regional aquaculture would be, even in the nearest future, would depend to a large extent on these major factors: production, marketing and advancement in related technology. Unless pragmatic approach is used to reduce the constraints responsible for the high rate of withdrawal, fi sh food security in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria would still be elusive.

  17. Oil and Security in Nigeria: The Niger Delta Crisis | Owolabi | Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines oil and security in Nigeria, with special reference to the crisis-ravaged Niger Delta. Its focus on the Niger Delta and its festering crisis stems from that region's critical importance to Nigeria. As the nation's treasure base, the Niger Delta provides over 80 percent of government revenues, 95 percent of ...

  18. Histopathologic prolife of primary gastrointestinal malignancies in Uyo city (Niger-delta region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel K. Abudu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of gastrointestinal malignancy is gradually increasing. The aim of the study is to investigate age, sex and relative frequencies of various gastrointestinal malignancies diagnosed between January 2007 and December 2014 in the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, and in a Private Specialist Laboratory, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. All histological-diagnosed cases of gastrointestinal malignancies seen during the study period were recruited noting their bio-data and histopathological characteristics. A total of 67 patients aged 6-77 years (mean 58.0, SD 7.4 were enrolled; a male to female ratio of 1.3:1 was recorded. The most common age group and anatomical site affected with gastrointestinal malignancy were 61-70 years (23 cases, 34.3% and colo-rectum cancers (36 cases, 53.7%. The small intestine and stomach were second and third leading anatomic sites involved in gastrointestinal malignancies, accounting for 13 (19.4% and 8 (11.9% cases respectively. Adenocarcinoma accounted for the majority of gastrointestinal malignancies (57 cases, 85.1%. Lymphoma and carcinoid tumor were also common, accounting for 3 (4.5% cases each. Colorectal carcinoma was the most common type of gastrointestinal malignancies (53.7% with adenocarcinoma being the predominant histological subtype of gastrointestinal malignancies.

  19. Household possession, use and non-use of treated or untreated mosquito nets in two ecologically diverse regions of Nigeria – Niger Delta and Sahel Savannah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otsemobor Peju

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current use of treated mosquito nets for the prevention of malaria falls short of what is expected in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, though research within the continent has indicated that the use of these commodities can reduce malaria morbidity by 50% and malaria mortality by 20%. Governments in sub-Sahara Africa are investing substantially in scaling-up treated mosquito net coverage for impact. However, certain significant factors still prevent the use of the treated mosquito nets, even among those who possess them. This survey examines household ownership as well as use and non-use of treated mosquito nets in Sahel Savannah and Niger Delta regions of Nigeria. Methodology This survey employed cross-sectional survey to collect data from households on coverage and use of mosquito nets, whether treated or not. Fever episodes in previous two weeks among children under the age of five were also recorded. The study took place in August 1 – 14 2007, just five months after the March distribution of treated mosquito nets, coinciding with the second raining period of the year and a time of high malaria transmission during the wet season. EPI INFO version 2003 was used in data analysis. Results The survey covered 439 households with 2,521 persons including 739 under-fives, 585 women in reproductive age and 78 pregnant women in Niger Delta Region and Sahel Savannah Region. Of the 439 HHs, 232 had any mosquito nets. Significantly higher proportion of households in the Niger Delta Region had any treated or untreated mosquito nets than those in the Sahel Savannah Region. In the Niger Delta Region, the proportion of under-fives that had slept under treated nets the night before the survey exceeded those that slept under treated nets in the Sahel Savannah Region. Children under the age of five years in the Niger Delta Region were four times more likely to sleep under treated nets than those in the Sahel Savannah Region. Conclusion This study

  20. ABSTRACT The Niger Delta region of Nigeria is a beehive of oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aigbe H.I

    methane and others which include oxides of sulphur and ... already being felt in the region with food insecurity ..... indicate that the wildlife conservation status of the study sites is ... Thus the threshold values of heavy metals deposit in the.

  1. Assessment of the effectiveness of onsite exsitu remediation by enhanced natural attenuation in the Niger Delta region, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okparanma, Reuben N; Azuazu, Ikeabiama; Ayotamuno, Josiah M

    2017-12-15

    This study was conducted to quantify and rank the effectiveness of onsite exsitu remediation by enhanced natural attenuation using soil quality index. The investigation was conducted at three oil spill sites in the Niger Delta (5.317°N, 6.467°E), Nigeria with a predominance of Oxisols. Baseline assessment and a two-step post-remediation monitoring of the sites were conducted. Target contaminants including total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results of the baseline assessment showed that TPH concentrations across the study sites averaged between 5113 and 7640 mg/kg at 0- to 1-m depth, which was higher than the local regulatory value of 5000 mg/kg. The soil quality index across the sites ranged between 68 and 45, suggesting medium to high potential ecological health risks with medium to high priority for remediation. BTEX concentrations followed a similar trend. However, after remediation TPH degraded rapidly initially and then slowly but asymptotically during the post-remediation monitoring period. Then, soil quality index across the study sites ranged between 100 and 58, indicating very low to medium potential ecological health risks. This demonstrates the effectiveness of onsite exsitu remediation by enhanced natural attenuation as a remediation strategy for petroleum-contaminated soils, which holds great promise for the Niger Delta province. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. FROM ANDONI FLATS, NIGER DELTA, NIGERIA.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Nigeria. 2African Regional Aquaculture Centre/Nigeria Institute for. Oceanography and Marine Research, P.M. B. 5122, Port .... dimension due to the increasing emphasis on aquaculture and greater awareness of the pollution of natural ..... Principles and procedure (3rd edn.) Lea and Fabiger, Philadelphia. Chaudhuri, S. H. ...

  3. The European Union and UN Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria: A Study of the Micro Projects Programmes (MPPs in the Niger Delta Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnamdi O. Nwaodu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present Cotonou Accord was signed by the EU, 77, African Caribbean and Pacific (ACP countries towards halving poverty as prescribed by the UN Declaration by 2015. The EU's interventionin the rural communities of the oil producing states of Nigeria (Niger Delta clearly shows her commitment towards the above stated global drive for the eradication of poverty especially in the Third World. Bringing about the establishment of the Micro ProjectProgrammes (MPP3, MPP6 and MPP9 for the nine states of the region between 1999 and 2012 and expended over €210 million on the programmes. Four years after theimplementation of the programmes, arising questions include: to what extent did the EU-MPPs achieve the set goals of poverty reduction in the region? And how sustainable are the achievements of the programmes? Using ex post facto research design, it was found out that amidst numerous challenges the MPPs actually reduced the level of poverty in the region through the provision of over 20,000 micro projects to more than 4000 rural communities in the nine states it covered. It therefore recommended that similar programmes be initiated by all other international development agencies as to speed up the reduction of poverty in the UN targeted areas though behind the originally target period of 2015. The study contends that an effective administrative institutional framework of the EU- MPPs should serve as model to other development agencies not only in Nigeria but across the developing economies of the world.

  4. Infrastructure and Health Care Services in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: A Case Study of Physical Amenities in the Primary Health Care System in Delta State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omuta GED

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the spin-off effects of the urban-based medical services established by the colonial administration was the total neglect of rural communities. Those that existed lacked infrastructure. Even fifty years after independence, this dichotomy has persisted and become more pronounced. The objective of this study is to examine the state of infrastructure in the primary health care centres in Delta State, Nigeria. Methodology: The study was a survey of the infrastructure of all the PHC centres in nine local government areas; three from each of the three senatorial districts. The facilities covered were sources of water supply, sources of electricity, number of functional beds and type of communication facilities. The field date were cleaned up, processed and analysed using SPSS 10.0. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews were also conducted. In order to make the findings policy-relevant, a project steering committee made of researchers and decision makers and a project management committee made of representatives of decision makers, care providers, care seekers and other stakeholders were se up and integrated into the study. Results: There were varying degrees of infrastructural deficiencies. 34.22 per cent of the PHCs had no access to safe water; 51.33 per cent were not connected to the national electricity grid; and 34.22 per cent of the available beds and 40.89 per cent no means of communication whatsoever. Conclusion: Field data and perspectives of stakeholders revealed that the major cause of infrastructural deficiencies was insufficient funding, lopsided allocation of resources and official corruption. Correspondingly, increased and sustained funding; prioritized allocation of resources and targeted upgrading of facilities, were recommended.

  5. A MODEL OF PETROLEUM PIPELINE SPILLAGE DETECTION SYSTEM FOR USE IN THE NIGER DELTA REGION OF NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Okorodudu Franklin Ovuelelolo; Okorodudu, Philip Ogheneogaga; Ekerikevwe Kennedy Irikefe

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, petroleum pipeline vandalism resulting into spillage has become a significant challenge in Nigeria. Citizens are regularly inundated with reported cases of vandalism which often lead to spillage and a drastic reduction in government’s revenue as is currently the case in Nigeria. This paper focuses on the design of petroleum pipeline spillage detection system. The design consists of the power supply unit, the comparator unit, the microcontroller unit, the switching unit, the t...

  6. Economic Efficiency of Artisanal Fishing Households under Oil Pollution Environment in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

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    Gbigbi, TM.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish supplies more than 87% of the animal protein in Nigeria, and more than 90% of coastal communities depend solely on fishing and fisheries related activities for their survival. Available information however, shows that Nigeria's inland water bodies are producing less than 13% of their estimated fishery potential. And domestic demand for fish has never been met by dependence on output from available aquatic sources. Nigeria therefore imports over US$ 200 million worth of frozen fish per annum. The capacity of artisanal fisheries to play its role of bridging this food gap, providing employment and generating income, particularly for the coastal communities in Nigeria, will largely depend on the adoption of appropriate management strategies that will ensure efficiency and sustainability given their debilitating oil pollution environment. This study employed a Cobb- Douglas stochastic frontier cost function to measure the level of economic efficiency and its determinants among these households. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 160 respondents from whom input-output data, prices and socioeconomic characteristics were obtained. The results of the analysis showed that individual levels of economic efficiency ranged from 0.10 - 0.96 with a mean of 0.68. While age, household size and number of fishing trips made in a week decreased, access to credit, membership of co-operative society, and oil spill increased, significantly, the respondents' level of economic inefficiency. These observations particularly suggest that the farmers were yet to harness the potentials of farm credit and membership of cooperative societies in their farm business, perhaps as a result of poverty. We recommend training workshops and seminars to remedy this. There is also the need for policies that could compel oil companies to minimize oil spill within the farmers' fishing environment. The adverse effects of oil spill on the environment and the

  7. The relationship between lung function and indoor air pollution among rural women in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Aniedi Umoh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burning of biomass is widely used by the rural poor for energy generation. Long term exposure to biomass smoke is believed to affect lung function and cause respiratory symptoms. Materials and Methods: Women with long term occupational exposure to burning firewood were recruited from a rural fishing community in Nigeria. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on symptoms of chronic bronchitis and spirometery was performed to measure lung function. Data obtained from the subjects was compared with that from healthy controls. Results: Six hundred and eighty six women were recruited for this study made up of 342 subjects and 346 controls. Sixty eight (19.9% of the subjects had chronic bronchitis compared with eight (2.3% of the controls (χ2 = 54.0, P < 0.001. The subjects had lower values for the lung function as well as the percentage predicted values (P < 0.05. Fish smoking and chronic bronchitis were significantly associated with predicted lung volumes. Conclusion: Chronic exposure to biomass smoke is associated with chronic bronchitis and reduced lung functions in women engaged in fish smoking.

  8. Determination of heavy metals in medicinal plants from the wild and cultivated garden in Wilberforce Island, Niger Delta region, Nigeria

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    Edebi N. Vaikosen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: Adverse effects from herbal medicines may be partly due to the association of heavy metals with medicinal plants. Aims: To determine residual levels of Ni, Cr, Pb and Cd in nine selected medicinal plant species and the surrounding soils collected from the Faculty of Pharmacy medicinal garden and College of Health Sciences residential quarters, Amassoma, Bayelsa state, Nigeria. Methods: Nine plant species: Jatropha tanjorensis, Ipomoea batatas, Celosia argentea, Zea mays, Colocasia esculenta, Corchorus olitorius, Vernonia amygdalina, Ocimum gratissimum and Talinum triangulare were collected with their surrounding soil samples. The samples were dried and subjected to atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS to determine the heavy metal concentrations. Results: The detection frequencies of heavy metals in medicinal plants were: Cd – 100%, Pb – 11%, Ni – 0% and Cr – 0%. The residential quarter was more contaminated than cultivated medicinal garden. Order of residual concentration in bulk soils was Cr > Cd > Ni > Pb. Bioaccumulation factor ranged from 0 – 25.93 for foliar tissues. Cadmium in plant species ranged from 0.23 to 2.44 µg/g with > 88% exceeding the WHO maximum limit for medicinal plant materials. Conclusions: The heavy metal concentrations in medicinal plants were dependent on the collection sites, plant species and physico-chemical properties of soil. Cd exhibited the greatest bioavailability in the investigated plants and soils. Cd and Pb found in plant foliage were due to uptake from soil and aerial deposition, respectively.

  9. Hydrochemistry of surface water and groundwater in the shale bedrock, Cross River Basin and Niger Delta Region, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganje, T. N.; Hursthouse, A. S.; Edet, Aniekan; Stirling, D.; Adamu, C. I.

    2017-05-01

    Water chemistry in the shale bedrock of the Cretaceous-Tertiary of the Cross River and Niger Delta hydrological basins has been investigated using major ions. To carry out a characterization of the water bearing units, 30 and 16 representatives surface and groundwater samples were collected. The evolution of the water is characterized by enhanced content of sodium, calcium and sulphate as a result of leaching of shale rock. The spatial changes in groundwater quality of the area shows an anomalous concentrations of ions in the central parts, while lower values characterize the eastern part of the basin covering Ogoja, Ikom and Odukpani areas. The values of total dissolved solids (TDS) and ions increases down gradient in the direction of groundwater flow. The dissolution of halite and gypsum explains part of the contained Na+, Ca2+, Cl- and SO4 2-, but other processes such as ion exchange, silicate weathering and pyrite oxidation also contribute to water composition. The assessment with contamination indicators such as TDS, hardness, chloride, nitrate and sulphate indicates that the water in area is suitable for human consumption in some locations. Modelling using MINTEQA2 program shows that the water from all the shale water bearing units are under saturated with respect to gypsum.

  10. GIS and Remote Sensing Applications in the Assessment of Change within a Coastal Environment in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund C. Merem

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, the Niger Delta region has experienced rapid growth in population and economicv activity with enormous benefits to the adjacent states and the entire Nigerian society. As the region embarks upon an unprecedented phase of economic expansion in the 21st century, it faces several environmental challenges fuelled partly by the pressures caused by human activities such as oil and gas exploration, housing development, and road construction for transportation, economic development and demographic changes. This continued growth has resulted in environmental problems such as coastal wetland loss, habitat degradation, and water pollution, gas flaring, destruction of forest vegetation as well as a host of other issues. This underscores the urgent need to design new approaches for managing remote costal resources in sensitive tropical environments effectively in order to maintain a balance between coastal resource conservation and rapid economic development in developing countries for sustainability. Notwithstanding previous initiatives, there have not been any major efforts in the literature to undertake a remote sensing and GIS based assessment of the growing incidence of environmental change within coastal zone environments of the study area. This project is an attempt to fill that void in the literature by exploring the applications of GIS and remote sensing in a tropical coastal zone environment with emphasis on the environmental impacts of development in the Niger Delta region of Southern Nigeria. To deal with some of the aforementioned issues, several research questions that are of great relevance to the paper have been posed. The questions include, Have there been any changes in the coastal environment of the study area? What are the impacts of the changes? What forces are responsible for the changes? Has there been any major framework in place to deal with the changes? The prime objective of the paper is to provide a novel

  11. Strategies for Mitigation of Flood Risk in the Niger Delta, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    ABSTRACT: The study has the major objective of evaluating flood risk mitigation strategies in the Niger. Delta, a coastal region of Nigeria that suffers from perennial flooding. The Raper argues that the structural methods of flood control tends to give a false sense of security to flood plain dwellers and thereby encouraging.

  12. Eating Habits of the Elderly in Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The study was undertaken to describe the eating habits of literate elderly in Asaba, urban city in Delta State of Nigeria. Methods: A total of 176 elderly male (62.5%) and female (37.5%) aged 50years and above who attended Medical Lectures of the Ebreme foundation for the elderly were enrolled in this study.

  13. Gambiense Sleeping Sickness In The Abraka Region Of Delta State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gambiense Sleeping Sickness In The Abraka Region Of Delta State, Nigeria: Passive Case Detection (Pcd) At The Baptist Medical Centre (BMC) Eku 1999 – 2004. ... The highest prevalence of infection was among patients aged between 26-35 years with 35.6% infection rate, 23.3 percent was recorded among those aged ...

  14. Acid Rain in Niger Delta Region: Implication on Water Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research focused on the effect of acid rain on the water quality of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Three hundred water samples were collected: 100 water samples from rain, 100 from open wells and 100 from rivers. The water samples were analysed using the paired t-test and multiple correlation analysis to ascertain ...

  15. Mantle electrical conductivity profile of Niger delta region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mantle electrical conductivity-depth profile of the Niger delta region in Nigeria has been determined using solar quiet day ionospheric current (Sq).The magnetometer data obtained in 2010 from geomagnetic stations installed in Lagos by magnetic dataset (MAGDAS) in 2008 and data from magnetometers installed in ...

  16. Enhancing stakeholder participation in the Niger Delta region: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's indigenous people, found in the Niger Delta area, have for many years experienced developmental challenges associated with oil exploration. The region has been perennially engulfed in various forms of agitation pertaining to self-government and resource control. Over the years, attempts to solve these ...

  17. Surveying infections among pregnant women in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F I Buseri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is paucity of epidemiological data on infectious diseases among antenatal mothers in Bayelsa State of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of the serological markers Human immunodeficiency virus-antibody (HIV-Ab, Hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsAg, Hepatitis C virus antibody(HCV-Aand antibodies to T.pallidum among pregnant women in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria. Settings and Design: This is a cross-sectional study which was carried out in Yenagoa city, the heart of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV antibodies were detected by using "Determine" HIV-1/2 test strip (Abbott Laboratories, Japan; hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV and antibodies to T. pallidum were carried out using ACON rapid test strips (ACON Laboratories, USA. All positive samples for HIV, HBV and HCV were confirmed using the Clinotech diagnostic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test kits (Clinotech Laboratories, USA, while all reactive samples to Treponema pallidum antibodies were confirmed by the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA test (Lorne Laboratories Ltd., UK. All test procedures were carried out according to the manufacturers′ instructions. Statistical Analysis Used: The data generated were coded, entered, validated and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS, version 12.0, and Epi info. The seroprevalence of syphilis, HBsAg, HCV and HIV was expressed for the entire study group by age, sex and other demographic features using Pearson chi-square analysis. Values below 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 1,000 apparently healthy pregnant women aged between 15 and 44 years with a mean of 27.34΁5.43 years were screened. In terms of percentage, 89.4% of the subjects were married, and 10.6% were without formal husbands. The overall

  18. sheltered creeks in Niger Delta, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-03-18

    Mar 18, 2015 ... 273 and 115,000 barrels, respectively, making the delta. *Corresponding author. .... content was transferred to savillex digestion bombs and concen- trated hydrochloric ... metals (Zn, Pb and Cu) by flame atomic absorption.

  19. Challenges and opportunities in the design and construction of a GIS-based emission inventory infrastructure for the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagbeja, Mofoluso A; Hill, Jennifer L; Chatterton, Tim J; Longhurst, James W S; Akpokodje, Joseph E; Agbaje, Ganiy I; Halilu, Shaba A

    2017-03-01

    Environmental monitoring in middle- and low-income countries is hampered by many factors which include enactment and enforcement of legislations; deficiencies in environmental data reporting and documentation; inconsistent, incomplete and unverifiable data; a lack of access to data; and technical expertise. This paper describes the processes undertaken and the major challenges encountered in the construction of the first Niger Delta Emission Inventory (NDEI) for criteria air pollutants and CO 2 released from the anthropogenic activities in the region. This study focused on using publicly available government and research data. The NDEI has been designed to provide a Geographic Information System-based component of an air quality and carbon management framework. The NDEI infrastructure was designed and constructed at 1-, 10- and 20-km grid resolutions for point, line and area sources using industry standard processes and emission factors derived from activities similar to those in the Niger Delta. Due to inadequate, incomplete, potentially inaccurate and unavailable data, the infrastructure was populated with data based on a series of best possible assumptions for key emission sources. This produces outputs with variable levels of certainty, which also highlights the critical challenges in the estimation of emissions from a developing country. However, the infrastructure is functional and has the ability to produce spatially resolved emission estimates.

  20. Oil, migration, and the political economy of HIV/AIDS prevention in Nigeria's Niger Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Isidore A

    2013-01-01

    In most of sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS is driven by endemic structural problems such as unemployment, poverty, forced migration, sexual exploitation, and concurrent sexual partnerships. In the Niger Delta of Nigeria, the epidemic is exacerbated by recurring regional conflict and negative environmental externalities resulting from 50 years of oil exploration. This article seeks to identify and analyze potential barriers to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment from oil pollution and other environmental stressors in Nigeria's Niger Delta. We develop a conceptual framework to understand how oil politics and economic systems affect HIV risks in Nigeria. We then evaluate evidence of how environmental exposures can amplify risks. Using 10 semi-structured interviews, with 85 focus group participants, we test the argument that HIV transmission in the Niger Delta is related to a manipulative "divide and rule" power dynamic that characterizes multinational oil companies' role in shaping conflict contours in oil communities. Oil exploration destroys livelihoods, institutions, and values and forces impoverished and illiterate girls and women to migrate or be trafficked to urban centers as child laborers and sex workers. The elevated HIV/AIDS risk in the Niger Delta brings into focus the political economy of resource extraction, globalization, and indigenous, minority rights and struggles.

  1. Nigeria. Petroleum, pollution and poverty in the Niger Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    The oil industry has operated in the Niger Delta in Nigeria for more than half a century - bringing almost no benefit to the people living there. Instead, widespread and unchecked human rights violations have pushed many people deeper into poverty and deprivation, fuelled conflict and led to a pervasive sense of powerlessness and frustration. This multidimensional crisis is driven by many factors - abuses committed by the security forces and militant groups, extensive pollution of land and water, corruption, serious corporate bad practice and government neglect. Nigeria: Petroleum, pollution and poverty in the Niger Delta focuses on one dimension of the crisis: the impact of pollution and environmental damage caused by the oil industry on the human rights of those living in the Niger Delta. Many people in the oil-producing areas of the delta rely on fisheries, subsistence agriculture and associated processing industries for their livelihood. Decades of pollution and environmental damage have resulted in violations of the right to an adequate standard of living - including food and water - violations of the right to gain a living through work, and violations of the right to health. The report examines who is responsible for this situation in a context where multinational oil companies have been operating for decades. It highlights how companies take advantage of the weak regulatory systems that characterize many poor countries, and how the poorest people are often the most vulnerable to exploitation. The people of the Niger Delta have seen their human rights undermined by oil companies that their government can not - or will not - hold to account. They have been systematically denied access to information about how oil exploration and production will affect them, and are repeatedly denied access to justice. The Niger Delta provides a stark case study of the lack of accountability of a government to the people, and of multinational companies' almost total lack of

  2. Using Android and Open Data Kit Technology in Data Management for Research in Resource-Limited Settings in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: Cross-Sectional Household Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleghemi, Sylvester

    2017-01-01

    Background Data collection in Sub-Saharan Africa has traditionally been paper-based. However, the popularization of Android mobile devices and data capture software has brought paperless data management within reach. We used Open Data Kit (ODK) technology on Android mobile devices during a household survey in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Objective The aim of this study was to describe the pros and cons of deploying ODK for data management. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional household survey was carried out by 6 data collectors between April and May 2016. Data were obtained from 1706 persons in 601 households across 6 communities in 3 states in the Niger Delta. The use of Android mobile devices and ODK technology involved form building, testing, collection, aggregation, and download for data analysis. The median duration for data collection per household and per individual was 25.7 and 9.3 min, respectively. Results Data entries per device ranged from 33 (33/1706, 1.93%) to 482 (482/1706, 28.25%) individuals between 9 (9/601, 1.5%) and 122 (122/601, 20.3%) households. The most entries (470) were made by data collector 5. Only 2 respondents had data entry errors (2/1706, 0.12%). However, 73 (73/601, 12.1%) households had inaccurate date and time entries for when data collection started and ended. The cost of deploying ODK was estimated at US $206.7 in comparison with the estimated cost of US $466.7 for paper-based data management. Conclusions We found the use of mobile data capture technology to be efficient and cost-effective. As Internet services improve in Africa, we advocate their use as effective tools for health information management. PMID:29191798

  3. Using Android and Open Data Kit Technology in Data Management for Research in Resource-Limited Settings in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: Cross-Sectional Household Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduka, Omosivie; Akpan, Godwin; Maleghemi, Sylvester

    2017-11-30

    Data collection in Sub-Saharan Africa has traditionally been paper-based. However, the popularization of Android mobile devices and data capture software has brought paperless data management within reach. We used Open Data Kit (ODK) technology on Android mobile devices during a household survey in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The aim of this study was to describe the pros and cons of deploying ODK for data management. A descriptive cross-sectional household survey was carried out by 6 data collectors between April and May 2016. Data were obtained from 1706 persons in 601 households across 6 communities in 3 states in the Niger Delta. The use of Android mobile devices and ODK technology involved form building, testing, collection, aggregation, and download for data analysis. The median duration for data collection per household and per individual was 25.7 and 9.3 min, respectively. Data entries per device ranged from 33 (33/1706, 1.93%) to 482 (482/1706, 28.25%) individuals between 9 (9/601, 1.5%) and 122 (122/601, 20.3%) households. The most entries (470) were made by data collector 5. Only 2 respondents had data entry errors (2/1706, 0.12%). However, 73 (73/601, 12.1%) households had inaccurate date and time entries for when data collection started and ended. The cost of deploying ODK was estimated at US $206.7 in comparison with the estimated cost of US $466.7 for paper-based data management. We found the use of mobile data capture technology to be efficient and cost-effective. As Internet services improve in Africa, we advocate their use as effective tools for health information management. ©Omosivie Maduka, Godwin Akpan, Sylvester Maleghemi. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 30.11.2017.

  4. Knowledge of women’s issues in epilepsy: A survey of residents at a tertiary hospital in Calabar, Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Oparah Sidney Kelechi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reports reveal deficiencies in the knowledge of women related issues in epilepsy, among health care professionals, with consequent inadequate health education and poor health care delivery to this set of patients.Aim: To assess the knowledge of women`s issues in epilepsy among residents at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.Method: Seventy two consenting residents from the Internal medicine, Family Medicine and Obstetrics & Gynecology departments of the hospital,...

  5. Knowledge of women`s issues in epilepsy: a survey of residents at a tertiary hospital in Calabar, Niger delta region of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Williams Uduak; Njoku Charles; Oparah Sidney Kelechi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reports reveal deficiencies in the knowledge of women related issues in epilepsy, among health care professionals, with consequent inadequate health education and poor health care delivery to this set of patients.Aim: To assess the knowledge of women`s issues in epilepsy among residents at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.Method: Seventy two consenting residents from the Internal medicine, Family Medicine and Obstetrics & Gynecology departments of the hospital,...

  6. Factors Associated with Timing of Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy among HIV-1 Infected Adults in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogoina, Dimie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Based on growing evidence mainly from countries outside Sub-Saharan Africa, the World Health Organisation (WHO) now recommends initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected individuals in developing countries when CD4 cell count (CD4+) is ≤ 500cells/ul. Nigeria accounts for about 14% of the estimated HIV/AIDS burden in Sub-Saharan Africa. We evaluated the factors associated with timing of initiation of ART among treatment-ineligible HIV-infected adults from Nigeria. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the hospital records of ART ineligible HIV-infected adults who enrolled into HIV care between January 2008 and December 2012 at two major tertiary hospitals in Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria. Demographic, clinical and laboratories data were obtained at presentation, at each subsequent visit at 6 monthly intervals and at time of initiation of ART. Cox proportional regression and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were used to evaluate independent predictors of time to initiation of ART. Results Amongst the 280 study participants, 70.6% were females, 62.6% had CD4+ ≥500cells/ul, 48.4% had WHO HIV Stage 1 disease and 34.3% were lost to follow up. In a cohort of 180 participants followed up for ≥3months, participants with CD4+ of 351-500cells/ul and stage 2 disease were more likely to start ART earlier than those with CD4+ > 500cells/ul (Hazard ratio [HR]-1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] of 1.0-2.9) and stage 1 disease (HR-2.3 (95% CI-1.3-4.2) respectively. HIV-infected adults with faster CD4+ decay required earlier ART initiation, especially in the first year of follow up. Conclusion ART-ineligible HIV-infected adults on follow up in South-South Nigeria are more likely to require earlier initiation of ART if they have stage 2 HIV disease or CD4+ ≤500cells/ul at presentation. Our findings suggest faster progression of HIV-disease in these groups of individuals and corroborate the growing evidence in support for earlier initiation of ART

  7. Knowledge of women’s issues in epilepsy: A survey of residents at a tertiary hospital in Calabar, Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oparah Sidney Kelechi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reports reveal deficiencies in the knowledge of women related issues in epilepsy, among health care professionals, with consequent inadequate health education and poor health care delivery to this set of patients.Aim: To assess the knowledge of women`s issues in epilepsy among residents at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.Method: Seventy two consenting residents from the Internal medicine, Family Medicine and Obstetrics & Gynecology departments of the hospital, were requested to complete the KOWIE II questionnaire designed to assess knowledge of women`s issues in epilepsy. Results: One fifth of the respondents knew about the effects of sex hormones on seizures. Two fifths knew of the higher incidence of sexual dysfunction among women with epilepsy, the undesirable effects of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs on bone health, and the best choice of anti- epileptic drug in pregnancy. Two thirds knew of reduction in contraceptive efficacy by some AEDs, and the need to administer vitamin K to neonates of women on AEDs. Four fifths knew that women on AEDs should be given folic acid, and that majority of women with epilepsy have healthy children. Half of the respondents knew that women on AEDs can safely breast feed. The overall mean KOWIE II score was 56.7%. Conclusion: The Residents were poorly informed about the issues affecting women with epilepsy. There is need for continuing medical education efforts to bridge the gap in knowledge.

  8. Knowledge of women`s issues in epilepsy: a survey of residents at a tertiary hospital in Calabar, Niger delta region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Uduak

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reports reveal deficiencies in the knowledge of women related issues in epilepsy, among health care professionals, with consequent inadequate health education and poor health care delivery to this set of patients.Aim: To assess the knowledge of women`s issues in epilepsy among residents at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.Method: Seventy two consenting residents from the Internal medicine, Family Medicine and Obstetrics & Gynecology departments of the hospital, were requested to complete the KOWIE II questionnaire designed to assess knowledge of women`s issues in epilepsy. Results: One fifth of the respondents knew about the effects of sex hormones on seizures. Two fifths knew of the higher incidence of sexual dysfunction among women with epilepsy, the undesirable effects of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs on bone health, and the best choice of anti-epileptic drug in pregnancy. Two thirds knew of reduction in contraceptive efficacy by some AEDs, and the need to administer vitamin K to neonates of women on AEDs. Four fifths knew that women on AEDs should be given folic acid, and that majority of women with epilepsy have healthy children. Half of the respondents knew that women on AEDs can safely breast feed. The overall mean KOWIE II score was 56.7%. Conclusion: The Residents were poorly informed about the issues affecting women with epilepsy. There is need for continuing medical education efforts to bridge the gap in knowledge.

  9. Strategies for Mitigation of Flood Risk in the Niger Delta, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strategies for Mitigation of Flood Risk in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... a false sense of security to flood plain dwellers and thereby encouraging investments in flood prone areas.

  10. Nigeria National Petroleum Reserves Asset: Looking Beyond the Niger Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaje, P. N.

    2002-01-01

    Nigeria's current national petroleum reserves asset (proven) put at 28 billion barrels of oil and 150 trillion standard cubic feet of gas derives mainly from the Niger Delta onshore and offshore.However, there are opportunities to tremendously add to this asset from the inland basins. These inland basins have continued to frustrate the efforts of many explorers, principally because of their virginity and far distance from existing infrastructure, and for these reasons, many international companies have turned their focus away from frontier onshore to frontier deep-water and ultra deep-water offshore.Petroleum exploration, particularly in the Sudan and Chad Republics has shown that commercial success can be achieved in our own sector, even if it may take some time to put all the elements together. Some pointers have been found from the successes in the other rifted inland basins and the strategies adopted there have been examined in this paper. Congnizance has also been taken of the relative success of Shell's Kolmani River-1 well (33 billion cubit feet of gas) in the Gongola Basin. The paper went ahead to highlight potential petroleum systems in the different sectors of Nigeria's inland basins.Recommendations have also been put forward, which include amongst others (i) the introduction of a JV arrangement that allows State Governments on the inland basins to participate in the exploration for hydrocarbons in their domains (ii) tie future allocation of offshore blocks to acquisition of at least a block in any of the inland basins (iii) initiate a programme of deep drilling and coring of at least one research well to penetrate the entire sedimentary rock successions in each of the inland basins to facilitate a better understanding of their petroleum geology and benefit future exploration campaigns; to be funded and supervised by the Petroleum Technology Development Fund (PTDF)

  11. Niger Delta Development Commission and Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Niger Delta Development Commission and Sustainable Development of Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: The Case of Rivers State. Goddey Wilson. Abstract. The study is on Niger Delta Development Commission and sustainable development of Niger Delta region of Nigeria, the case of Rivers State. The main objective of the ...

  12. Multiple myeloma in Niger Delta, Nigeria: complications and the outcome of palliative interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwabuko, Ogbonna Collins; Igbigbi, Elizabeth Eneikido; Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Nnoli, Martin Anazodo

    2017-01-01

    Background Multiple myeloma (MM) is one of the hematological malignancies that require palliative care. This is because of the life-threatening nature and the suffering associated with the illness. The aim of this study is to bring to the fore the complications experienced by people living with MM in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria and the outcome of various palliative interventions. Methods This was a 10-year multi-center retrospective study of 26 patients diagnosed and managed in three major centers in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria from January 2003 to December 2012. Information on the clinical, laboratory, radiological data, and palliative treatment was obtained at presentation and subsequently at intervals of 3 months until the patient was lost to follow-up. Result The mean duration from onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 13.12 months (95% CI, 6.65–19.58). A total of 16 (61.5%), eight (30.8%), and two subjects (7.7%) presented in Durie–Salmon (DS) stages III, II, and I, respectively. The complications presented by patients at diagnoses included bone pain (84.6%), anemia (61.5%), nephropathy (23.1%), and hemiplegia (35%). All the patients received analgesics, while 50.0% received blood transfusion, 56.7% had surgery performed, 19% had hemodialysis, and 3.8% received radiotherapy. A total of 10 (38%) patients benefited from bisphosphonates (BPs). A total of 57.6% of patients were on melphalan–prednisone (MP) double regimen, while 19% and 8% patients were on MP–thalidomide and MP–bortezomib triple regimens, respectively. A total of 3.8% of patients at DS stage IIIB disease had autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT). Only 7.6% of the myeloma patients survived up to 5 years post diagnosis. The overall mean survival interval was 39.7 months (95% CI, 32.1–47.2). Conclusion Late diagnosis and inadequate palliative care account for major complications encountered by MM patients in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria. This could be responsible for

  13. Nigeria: Hydrocarbon Curse Fueling Instability in Niger Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Christians and Muslims. 12 The largest ethnic groups are the Hausa-Fulani in theNorth, the Ibo in the Southeast, and the Yoruba in the Southwest. 13 Nigeria...0). AllAfrica.com. "Nigeria: The Fading Culture of Party System in Nigeria." http://allafrica.com/stories/200803190577.htm I (accessed February 9

  14. IMPACTS OF WETLAND DEGRADATION IN NIGER DELTA NIGERIA AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE IN FLOOD CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enwere Chidimma Loveline

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available  Wetlands perform a wide variety of functions that include flood control, ground water recharge, shore line stabilization, storm protection and climate moderation. However, despite these huge wetland functions, it has witnessed poor appreciation and dreadful conditions. Niger Delta has witnessed constant coastal erosion and rising sea level, this has led to large portions of the landmass being eroded. This paper aims to review some environmental effects of flooding in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria to provide the desired knowledge of role that wetlands play in reducing flood impacts. However, having witnessed the flood, the experience opened my eyes to the environmental challenges facing Niger Delta with respect to Wetlands degradation, poor perception of wetland values and functions, poor environmental practices and non-implementation of environmental regulations. This memorable experience rekindled the desire and motivation to seek a solution to wetland degradation with the aim of recognizing significance of wetlands at the centre of achieving both livelihood and biodiversity improvements to address coastal flooding problem.The study therefore concludes that wetlands are very significant in flood control and thus the conservation and restoration of wetlands, should put in place measures to reduce wetland destruction.International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 177-184

  15. Multiple myeloma in Niger Delta, Nigeria: complications and the outcome of palliative interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwabuko OC

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ogbonna Collins Nwabuko,1,2 Elizabeth Eneikido Igbigbi,3 Innocent Ijezie Chukwuonye,4 Martin Anazodo Nnoli5 1Department of Haematology, Federal Medical Center, Umuahia, 2Department of Haematology, College of Health Science, Abia State University, Aba, Abia State, 3Department of Haematology, Blood Transfusion and Immunology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Federal Medical Center, Umuahia, 5Department of Anatomic Pathology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria Background: Multiple myeloma (MM is one of the hematological malignancies that require palliative care. This is because of the life-threatening nature and the suffering associated with the illness. The aim of this study is to bring to the fore the complications experienced by people living with MM in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria and the outcome of various palliative interventions.Methods: This was a 10-year multi-center retrospective study of 26 patients diagnosed and managed in three major centers in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria from January 2003 to December 2012. Information on the clinical, laboratory, radiological data, and palliative treatment was obtained at presentation and subsequently at intervals of 3 months until the patient was lost to follow-up.Result: The mean duration from onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 13.12 months (95% CI, 6.65–19.58. A total of 16 (61.5%, eight (30.8%, and two subjects (7.7% presented in Durie–Salmon (DS stages III, II, and I, respectively. The complications presented by patients at diagnoses included bone pain (84.6%, anemia (61.5%, nephropathy (23.1%, and hemiplegia (35%. All the patients received analgesics, while 50.0% received blood transfusion, 56.7% had surgery performed, 19% had hemodialysis, and 3.8% received radiotherapy. A total of 10 (38% patients benefited from bisphosphonates (BPs. A total of 57.6% of patients were on melphalan

  16. Sustainability Efforts of One Oil Company in Niger Delta of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anosike, Charles Afam

    Environmental degradation and socioeconomic dilemma continue to stigmatize oil production in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Sustainability programs of oil companies often determine the improvement of living conditions in the region. This explanatory qualitative case study, guided by systems thinking theory and sustainable value framework, explored practitioners' perceptions of sustainability programs to identify its impact on business and the host communities. The research question was designed to address how sustainability efforts of a single oil company in the Niger Delta contributed to the business performance and the livelihood of the local people. Research data were gathered from a sample of 20 experienced sustainability practitioners of the oil company, partnering nonprofit organizations, and community leaders through face-to-face semistructured interviews. Data were segmented and categorized. The data analysis process revealed several themes regarding the challenges and shortfalls of sustainability programs in the region. The oil company's understanding of sustainability as programs and projects focused on preserving resources for future generations was not evident in practice. Findings from the study suggested the need for improved inclusiveness of people in driving sustainability projects. Inclusive sustainability should enhance the oil company's contemplation mechanism to ensure eco-saving thinking and processes, which could result in improved quality of life and business performance in the region. The research findings underscore the need for oil multinational corporations (MNCs) to use a business lens in viewing sustainability to achieve sustainable value.

  17. The Dearth of Seismic DHI s in porefill prediction in the Niger Delta - Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olotu, S.; Adimora, V.

    2003-01-01

    Generally, the inerplay between rock and hydrocarbon acoustic properties accounts for the observed seismic amplitude behaviours in reservoir rocks. To a large extent, the variations in these acoustic properties provide the basic ingredients for the interpretation workflow amongst geoscientist. The mis- interpretation of these properties and their behaviours has often translated into millions of dollars of missed opportunities. In the Niger Delta, rock properties do not vary substantially across the delta, but only at the fringes of the delta where higher acoustic properties are observed for those rocks with less porosity and less acoustic contrasts. In t.he presence of hydrocarbons, this phenomenon becomes more complicated with temperature variations and this makes hydrocarbon detection even more difficult. Where temperatures are low, higher density oils are generally found and discrimination between oil and brine diminishes, particularly with near stack/offsets. This is for instance the case in the inland part of the Western Delta where known accumulations are characterised by few amplitude anomalies and sometimes leading to poor discrimination of hydrocarbon pore fills in both the near and stacks. The mechanism of these observed amplitude response at the delta fringes entirely depends on the varying contrasts in rock and fluid properties with varying temperatures. This paper therefore aims at addressing these variations by using AvO calibrated amplitude prediction trend models to improve pore fluid predictions in the Niger Delta exploration. In other words, exploration in Nigeria largely has more to benefit from Amplitude versus Offset studies and that AvO models are essential/diagnostic tools for more accurate porefill predictions in those regions where: Sands are relatively hard in comparison to the surrounding shales. The sands may be ''hidden'' at near offsets but become detectable at far offsets. Soft shales occur. The reflectivity of sands versus hard

  18. Information Needs of Cassava Farmers in Delta State of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Real opportunities for a boom in the production and processing of ... emptive management of the cassava mosaic disease. (CMD), the ... Others are planting method, fertilizer application, weed control ..... Handbook, Ibadan, Nigeria. Nweke, F.T ...

  19. Post traumatic stress in the Niger Delta of Nigeria: A qualitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post traumatic stress in the Niger Delta of Nigeria: A qualitative analysis of narrative of women. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Keywords: Resource-curse, Post-traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD), Psychosocial ... Rwanda (3); Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1); South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3) ...

  20. Socio-economic activities of fisher folk in Niger Delta, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the socio-economic activities and potentials of rural fisher folk in Niger Delta, Nigeria. One thousand and two hundred (1,200) structured questionnaires were administered to fisher folks in one hundred (100) fishing communities, and only one thousand (1000) were retrieved. The questionnaires dealt ...

  1. Political Empowerment of Women through Literacy Education Programmes in EDO and Delta States, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olomukoro, Caroline O.; Adelore, Omobola O.

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the political empowerment of women through literacy education programmes in Edo and Delta States in the South-South Geopolitical zone of Nigeria. A sample of 1022 women was randomly drawn from the different levels of literacy classes organised by the Agency of Adult and Nonformal Education and non-governmental and private…

  2. Uniocular blindness in Delta State Teaching Hospital, Oghara, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Uniocular blindness causes loss of binocular single vision. People with uniocular blindness are potentially at risk of developing binocular blindness. Aim: To determine the prevalence rate, causes and risk factors for uniocular blindness in a teaching hospital in southern Nigeria over a one-year period. Methods: ...

  3. year Review of Patients on DOTS in Delta State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNIBEN

    1Department of Community Medicine, Delta State University Teaching ... Therapy Short-course (DOTS), DOTS plus, and the Stop TB Strategy. ... Methods: In this descriptive records review of years 2011-2015, existing data ... Treatment success rate improved from 68.3% in ..... exploration and social interventions to curb it.

  4. Use of Cybercafe's Services by Households in Delta State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cyber cafés' provide important public services. They provide access to wide range of information through the internet via the computer. The study is centered on the use of cyber cafés by households in Delta State. Services provided by the cyber café's were identified. The study revealed that Household with children under ...

  5. Corruption and oil exploration: expert agreement about the prevention of HIV/AIDS in the Niger Delta of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Isidore A.; Stammen, Ronald M.; Mantell, Joanne E.

    2008-01-01

    The Niger Delta, according to the Nigerian Ministry of Health, has a disproportionately high HIV infection rate, which is double the national average. The United Nations Development Program attributes the spiraling HIV infection rate in the region to poverty, migration and gender inequality. This paper examines two complementary suppositions: Is the high prevalence of HIV in the Niger Delta related to incompetent leadership and corruption? Is it related to the negative effects of oil exploration in the region? Currently, there is a dearth of research on the effectiveness of government programs or the role of the oil industry on the impact of AIDS in Nigeria. To address this gap, we conducted a survey with 27 internationally renowned experts from diverse disciplines using a three-round modified Delphi to formulate consensus about the impact of weak governance and oil corruption on AIDS in the Niger Delta. Results from the Delphi suggest that these factors and others have exacerbated the transmission of HIV in the region. To mitigate the impact of AIDS in the region, efforts to engage oil companies in implementing HIV prevention programs as part of their corporate environmental responsibility to the community are urgently needed. PMID:17906312

  6. Corruption and oil exploration: expert agreement about the prevention of HIV/AIDS in the Niger Delta of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Isidore A; Stammen, Ronald M; Mantell, Joanne E

    2008-08-01

    The Niger Delta, according to the Nigerian Ministry of Health, has a disproportionately high HIV infection rate, which is double the national average. The United Nations Development Program attributes the spiraling HIV infection rate in the region to poverty, migration and gender inequality. This paper examines two complementary suppositions: Is the high prevalence of HIV in the Niger Delta related to incompetent leadership and corruption? Is it related to the negative effects of oil exploration in the region? Currently, there is a dearth of research on the effectiveness of government programs or the role of the oil industry on the impact of AIDS in Nigeria. To address this gap, we conducted a survey with 27 internationally renowned experts from diverse disciplines using a three-round modified Delphi to formulate consensus about the impact of weak governance and oil corruption on AIDS in the Niger Delta. Results from the Delphi suggest that these factors and others have exacerbated the transmission of HIV in the region. To mitigate the impact of AIDS in the region, efforts to engage oil companies in implementing HIV prevention programs as part of their corporate environmental responsibility to the community are urgently needed.

  7. Structural Style and Lead Identification, Northern Depobelt, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ola, P. S.; Adekoya, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    By interpreting biofacies data, wire line log and grid of 2D seismic sections in an integrated manner in some portions of the northern depobelt, Niger delta, the sequence stratigraphic framework of the area was established. This enabled the structural style and genetic sequences of the area to be inferred. Results showed that the depobelt could be I subdivided into minibasins that trend in a NW SE direction and are bounded by synthetic faults in the proximal end and shale diapers in the distal end. All the exploration wells in the area of study, which were drilled on structural highs and were very close to the synthetic faults, turned out to be dry whereas the synclinal lows that resulted from local deposition of sands of the first genetic sequences in each of the minibasins could contain hydrocarbon. Such areas of synclinal lows are hereby proposed, as lead in this study. The intervals are untested and occur faraway from existing wells. By projection the geochemical data of well Oben-1 in the area suggest that the intervals fall within the oil generative window. Characteristic seismic reflection termination patterns, which are predominantly down laps and on laps suggest existence of structural closure for hydrocarbon accumulation within the synclinal lows. This study therefore recommends a reappraisal of these leads using a more focused 3D seismic study. The northern delta depobelt is less risky and inexpensive for oil exploration and exploitation compared with the offshore Niger delta that is gaining more prominence

  8. STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF TIDE ON SEDIMENTATION IN ESTUARIES OF THE NIGER DELTA, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Chizom Dike

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Niger Delta Estuary Nigeria is influenced by tidal currents due to its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean. Tides in the region are mostly semidiurnal, having two high and low water levels each day, with tidal prism ranging from 0.4 to 1.5m. The effects of tidal current reduces with distance inland and are strongest at the inlets with velocity varying from 2.0 to 5.0m/sec. The depth of the Estuary Rivers is controlled by the strength of the tidal currents; areas very close to ocean with stronger tidal effect are very deep; while shallow rivers predominates the hub of the estuary. Tidal current provides the steady supply of energy that moves sediments in and out of the estuaries from the seashore thus determing river bathymetric shapes through modification of existing morphology by eroding or depositing of sediments along the river course, while further sediment deposition is curtailed at the bottom as the estuary gets shallower due to the increasing stirring by waves. Despite all the sediment coming into the estuaries, many canals in the region have remained as open-water bodies, even after some thousand years. This suggests that, the interaction between the tide and the shape of the canal floor helps to regulate long-term sedimentation. However, the Dredged Canals in the Niger Delta estuaries have suffered high siltation rates because of excessive supply of sediments generated by storm/flood waters from upland and disposal of spoils from dredging activities into the water bodies, which causes some imbalance in the estuarine self-cleaning mechanism. Sediment loads entering the mangrove swamp environment are essentially polycentric; suspended fines enter the system both from the sea and the rivers. A mathematical model was formulated to predict and study the behavior of the sea bed levels, tidal heights and currents, in other to understand how they interact with each other. The model was calibrated using data obtained from local field observations

  9. Environmental legal implications of oil and gas exploration in the Niger Delta of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orubebe, Bibobra Bello

    Nigeria is an African country endowed with a wealth of oil and gas resources, and they are mainly found in the core Niger Delta (home to the Ijaw and Ogoni indigenous, ethnic minorities). Since Great Britain granted Nigeria political independence on October 1, 1960, successive Nigerian governments (military and civilian) have been dominated by the majority ethnic groups (Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba, and Ibo). Significantly, the government adopted a socialist-based model of absolute state ownership over oil and gas resources. The socialist model formed the basis of Nigeria's business collaboration with multinational oil and gas corporations from Europe and the United States (notably Shell, Chevron Texaco, Agip, Exxon Mobil, Total, and Elf). This model is fraught with contradictions and has led to unacceptable consequences, including policies that allow exploitation of natural resources without reference to environmental sustainability. When oil was first struck in 1956 at Oloibori (Ijaw area), people thought it would bring prosperity and an improved quality of life. Sadly, the opposite has occurred. Forty-nine years of hardship, agonizing pain, debilitating anger, extreme poverty, poisoned rivers, destroyed occupations, devastated environment, and stunted growth of the youth are the negative impacts of oil and gas exploitation in the Niger Delta. In other words, oil and gas exploration and production have visited a full range of evils---socio-political, economic, and cultural---upon the indigenous Niger Delta people. Furthermore, the wealth extracted from the area is used by the state and multinational corporations to enhance their own wealth and quality of life. Revenue has been conspicuously looted and misappropriated by political leaders at the expense of the Niger Delta environment and its people. This confluence of exploitation and injury has led to social upheavals and armed rebellions, all capable of precipitating the disintegration of the country. In this

  10. Nigeria's Niger Delta: Understanding the Complex Drivers of Violent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    pollution, perceived discriminatory employment practices against locals by ..... payment of royalties and taxes by oil companies to the Biafran government. In response ... or federation account that emphasized the allocative principles of population ..... China, India, Brazil, Malaysia and Korea into the region is perceived as a.

  11. Oil and Blood in the Niger Delta Area of Nigeria: A Critique of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, the political actors who have been presiding over the affairs of the Nigerian state have succeeded in looting and pilfering the collective wealth generated by the region thereby keeping the people and indeed the entire masses of Nigeria in perpetual poverty while the state itself bears the unmistakably the features of a ...

  12. Assessment of environmental change and its socio-economic impacts in the mangrove ecological zone of the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Godstime Kadiri

    The Niger Delta, located in the central part of Southern Nigeria, is endowed with immense Mangrove resources, estimated to be the fourth largest in the world. The term Mangrove refers to salt tolerant species of trees or shrubs that grow on shores and in estuaries located in the coastal tropics and sub-tropical regions of the world. They support highly productive marine food chains. However, Mangrove ecosystems are in serious decline around the world due to the rapid increase in maritime commerce and exploration of mineral resources in the last few decades. These pressures often have immediate consequences on sensitive coastal environments and can potentially impact future human use of coastal space and resources. This dynamic process presents unique opportunities for research to explore the nature and consequences of these pressures. This dissertation focused on the Mangrove ecological zone of the Niger Delta, where resource exploitation and indigenous use of the environment are in direct conflict with important socio-economic implications. Environmental accounting metrics derived from the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework were used to assess changes in the spatial extent of the Niger Delta Mangrove ecosystem and the socio-economic impacts of the observed changes. Landsat remotely sensed satellite data from the mid-1980s through 2003 was used to assess change in the spatial extent of the Mangrove vegetation in the region. A total of 21,340 hectares of Mangrove forest was determined to be lost over the study period. Field research in the region confirmed that this loss was primarily driven by urbanization and activities of the multinational oil and gas corporations operating in the region. To estimate the socio-economic impacts of the Mangrove loss in the region, neoclassical economic valuation and participatory social valuation approaches were adopted. Results from the economic valuation revealed that the net present value of future income

  13. How Rapid Change Affects Deltas in the Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, I.; Bendixen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Deltas form where the river drains into the ocean. Consequently, delta depositional processes are impacted by either changes in the respective river drainage basin or by changes in the regional marine environment. In a warming Arctic region rapid change has occurred over the last few decades in both the terrestrial domain as well as in the marine domain. Important terrestrial controls include 1) change in permafrost possibly destabilizing river banks, 2) strong seasonality of river discharge due to a short melting season, 3) high sediment supply if basins are extensively glaciated, 4) lake outbursts and ice jams favoring river flooding. Whereas in the Arctic marine domain sea ice loss promotes wave and storm surge impact, and increased longshore transport. We here ask which of these factors dominate any morphological change in Arctic deltas. First, we analyze hydrological data to assess change in Arctic-wide river discharge characteristics and timing, and sea ice concentration data to map changes in sea ice regime. Based on this observational analysis we set up a number of scenarios of change. We then model hypothetical small-scale delta formation considering change in these primary controls by setting up a numerical delta model, and combining it dynamically with a permafrost model. We find that for typical Greenlandic deltas changes in river forcing due to ice sheet melt dominate the morphological change, which is corroborated by mapping of delta progradation from aerial photos and satellite imagery. Whereas in other areas, along the North Slope and the Canadian Arctic small deltas are more stable or experienced retreat. Our preliminary coupled model allows us to further disentangle the impact of major forcing factors on delta evolution in high-latitude systems.

  14. Insecurity in the Niger Delta and the Future of Nigeria's Federalism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For over five decades oil from the Niger Delta has been the pivot of the Nigerian economy. However, while other areas enjoyed the benefits of oil revenues, the region has wallowed in misery. This contradiction of wealth without development led to protests for restructuring of the federation to reflect existing structures at ...

  15. Activity concentration and radiological impact assessment of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K in drinking waters from (OML) 30, 58 and 61 oil fields and host communities in Niger Delta region of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agbalagba, E.O.; Avwiri, G.O.; Ononugbo, C.P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K) measured in hand dug wells, boreholes and river waters collected from three oil mineral leases (OML) 30, 58 and 61 oil and gas fields onshore of the Niger delta, using gamma spectroscopy. Fifty-four water samples from the three sources of drinking water supply were collected within the oil fields and host communities and three water samples from a control site. The results showed average activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K as 8.9 ± 1.0, 8.1 ± 0.9 and 39.8 ± 3.3 respectively for hand dug wells, 4.4 ± 0.8, 4.6 ± 0.5 and 28.5 ± 3.0 for borehole water and 8.2 ± 1.0, 6.7 ± 0.7 and 32.1 ± 3.5 for river water respectively. These 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K average are well above the WHO permissible levels of 1.0, 0.1 and 10 BqL −1 respectively and also above the control values. Although the hazard indices calculated are still within their tolerable levels, the estimated committed effective dose due to intake of the sampled water for all the four age groups considered are far above the ICPR 0.1 mSvyr −1 maximum permissible limit. The result indicates some level of water pollution in the studied area. - Highlights: ► The concentration of natural radioactive series nuclides varies widely within oil fields and from one oil field to another in the OML30. ► The radionuclide activity concentrations in most water samples are higher than world average values. ► Calculated hazard indices and committed effective dose to assess the potential radiological health risk in samples are well above their permissible limit. ► The sources of water in these oil fields have been polluted and may cause some health hazard to the public users.

  16. Salinity Impacts on Agriculture and Groundwater in Delta Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D.; Salehin, M.; Jairuddin, M.; Saleh, A. F. M.; Rahman, M. M.; Parks, K. E.; Haque, M. A.; Lázár, A. N.; Payo, A.

    2015-12-01

    Delta regions are attractive for high intensity agriculture due to the availability of rich sedimentary soils and of fresh water. Many of the world's tropical deltas support high population densities which are reliant on irrigated agriculture. However environmental changes such as sea level rise, tidal inundation and reduced river flows have reduced the quantity and quality of water available for successful agriculture. Additionally, anthropogenic influences such as the over abstraction of ground water and the increased use of low quality water from river inlets has resulted in the accumulation of salts in the soils which diminishes crop productivity. Communities based in these regions are usually reliant on the same water for drinking and cooking because surface water is frequently contaminated by commercial and urban pollution. The expansion of shallow tube well systems for drinking water and agricultural use over the last few decades has resulted in mobilisation of salinity in the coastal and estuarine fringes. Sustainable development in delta regions is becoming constrained by water salinity. However salinity is often studied as an independent issue by specialists working in the fields of agriculture, community water supply and groundwater. The lack of interaction between these disciplines often results in corrective actions being applied to one sector without fully assessing the effects of these actions on other sectors. This paper describes a framework for indentifying the causes and impacts of salinity in delta regions based on the source-pathway-receptor framework. It uses examples and scenarios from the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta in Bangladesh together with field measurements and observations made in vulnerable coastal communities. The paper demonstrates the importance of creating an holistic understanding of the development and management of water resources to reduce the impact of salinity in fresh water in delta regions.

  17. Digital Literacy Skills Among Librarians In University Libraries In The 21st Century In Edo And Delta States Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Emiri; Ogochukwu T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Libraries all over the world have been faced with the evolving technological advancement globalization and digitization of information. These have led to library automation digital and virtual libraries. This paper discussed the contemporary digital literacy skills DLS among librarians in university libraries the 21st century in Edo and Delta States of Southern Nigeria. The study was guided by six objectives and research questions and one hypothesis. The design of the study is descri...

  18. Health point prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus and pulmonary tuberculosis among patients in various parts of Delta State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemikalajah, Johnson D.; Okogun, Godwin Ray A.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in the study population in Delta State of Nigeria. Two hundred and five patients suspected of HIV and TB were prospectively studied in Kwale, Agbor and Eku in Delta State of Nigeria from February 2006 to February 2008. Human immunodeficiency virus status was determined using World Health Organization systems II, and Zeihl Nelson staining technique was used for TB screening. A health point prevalence rate of 53.2%, was obtained for HIV, 49.3% for TB, and 16.6% for HIV/TB. The population of HIV positive (p=0.890, p=0.011, p=0.006) and TB positive (p=0.135, p=0.0003, p=0.0001) subjects were statistically significant among the suspected subjects while the HIV/TB positive cases were not statistically significant (p=0.987, p=0.685, p=0.731). Our study showed that HIV and PTB infections remains high in parts of Delta State in Nigeria. (author)

  19. The Utilisation of Facebook for Knowledge Sharing in Selected Local Government Councils in Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzoma Heman Ononye

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: Facebook has made it possible for organisation to embrace social and network centric knowledge processes by creating opportunities to connect, interact, and collaborate with stakeholders. We have witnessed a significant increase in the popularity and use of this tool in many organisations, especially in the private sector. But the utilisation of Facebook in public organisations is at its infancy, with many also believing that the use of Facebook is not a common practice in many public organisations in Nigeria. In spite of this fact, our discernment on the implications of Facebook usage in public organisations in Nigeria, especially organisations at the local level, seem to be remarkably limited. This paper specifically sought to ascertain if Facebook usage influenced inward and outward knowledge sharing in the selected local government councils in Delta State, Nigeria Methodology: The qualitative method was adopted. The study used interview as the primary means of data gathering. The study purposively sampled thirty-six employees as interviewees, twenty from Oshimili South and sixteen from Oshimili North local government councils respectively. The thematic content analysis method was used to analyse interview transcripts. Contribution: This research made distinct contributions to the available literature in social knowledge management, specifically bringing to the fore the intricacies surrounding the use of Facebook for knowledge sharing purposes in the public sector. Findings: The local government councils were yet to appreciate and utilise the interactive and collaborative nature of Facebook in improving stakeholders’ engagement, feedback, and cooperation. Facebook was used for outward knowledge sharing but not for inward knowledge sharing. Recommendations for Practitioners: Local government councils should encourage interaction via Facebook, show willingness to capture knowledge from identifiable sources, and effectively manage

  20. Oil Politics and National Security in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Oil Transparency in the Niger Delta: Improving Public Sector Oil Derived Resource Flows and Utilization in Abia State, Nigeria,” Economies of...against the nine states officially recognized i.e. they exclude Ondo, Abia , and Imo states from being part of the Delta region (figure 1). 125 BBC...Peterside Sofiri Dr, “Oil Transparency in the Niger Delta: Improving Public Sector Oil Derived Resource Flows and Utilization in Abia State, Nigeria

  1. Effect of free maternal health services on maternal mortality: An experience from Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel O Azubuike

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free maternal health care was launched by Delta State Government in 2007. This development was laudable as poverty has been identified as a big hindrance to accessing health care services among mothers in rural communities. There was need, however, to ascertain the effectiveness of this program. Aim: The study aimed at determining maternal mortality rate (MMR from 2005 to 2009, its correlates, obstetric cause of death and to evaluate the effect of free maternal care on MMR. Methodology: MMRs were computed based on all maternal deaths and live births available in summary health report of Ika South local government area from 2005 to 2009. Correlational analysis was done to determine the correlates of MMRs. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16 (USA, 2007 was used in the analysis. Results: There was a reduction in MMR from 932/100,000 in 2005 to 604/100,000 in 2009. This reduction negatively correlated (r =−;0.74, P = 0.15 with an increase in antenatal care registration within the period. The gradual increase in proportion of child delivery in health facilities from 59% in 2007 to 74.6% (2288/3065 in 2009 negatively correlated (r =−;0.5, P = 0.4 with a reduction in MMR from 836/100,000 to 604/100,000. The number of skilled staff employed increased by 36.4% (51/140 since 2005 and negatively correlated (r =−;0.34, P = 0.56 with MMR reduction of 328/100,000 since that period, with the employment of nurses being the stronger correlate (r =−;0.48, P = 0.41. Hemorrhage (44% was the leading obstetric cause of death. Conclusion: The study showed that MMR has been on a gradual downward trend since the introduction of free maternal health services in Delta State, Nigeria.

  2. Law Libraries in the Western Region/State of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okewusi, Peter Agboola

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the establishment of the Western Regional Ministry of Justice in Nigeria and the subsequent development of law libraries to aid that agency. The functions of the ministry, staffing, and services of the law libraries, and the establishment of a printing office for government publications are described. (5 references) (CLB)

  3. ( Camelus dromedarius ) of North east sahel region of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The values for red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and erythrocyte indices were similar to those obtained from camels in Sokoto (North West Region) Nigeria; and also in accord with values published in the literature for Indian camels. Total leucocyte counts were relatively higher but within ...

  4. Human Capital Development in Western Region, Nigeria, 1955-1968

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses sustained approaches, programmes and strategies for human capital development in the defunct Western Region of Nigeria. Three broad approaches were vigorously pursued, namely, education, technical skills development and agriculture. The most enduring legacy was human capital development ...

  5. Preliminary hydrocarbon analysis of crude oils from Umutu/Bomu fields, south west Niger Delta Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Onojake

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven different crude oil samples were collected from two oil fields in the Niger Delta Nigeria. The bulk properties of these crude oils which include API gravity, reid vapour pressure; kinematic viscosity, dynamic viscosity, moisture, gum content and cloud point were analysed. Aliphatic biomarkers were used as supporting tool to deduce the geochemical characteristics such as thermal maturity, depositional environments, source of organic matter and extent of biodegradation. Results show that API° gravity ranged from 29.00° to 85.00°, specific gravity 0.65 to 0.88, 3.00 to 9.00, reid vapour pressure 3.00 to 9.00 kPa, kinematic viscosity 0.90 to 10.10 cSt, dynamic viscosity 0.70 to 8.90 cP, moisture content 0.13% to 26.00%, gum content 6.27 to 45.84 mg/L, cloud point 3.00 to 12.00 °C, pour point −7.00 to 4.00 °C and flash point <30.00 °C. Distribution of n-alkanes (Pr/Ph, and isoprenoide/n-alkanes ratios reflects that the oil samples originated mainly from terrestrial organic sources deposited in an oxic paleoenvironment.

  6. Helminthiasis in Pregnancy in the Niger - Delta Region of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    Kinikanwo Innocent Green, John Dimpka Ojule. Departments of ... Helminthiasis in Pregnancy- Green Kl, et al. Epidemiological surveys ..... Anaemia, iron deficiency, meat consumption and ... vitamin K, boron, chromium, copper, molybdenum ...

  7. Adolescents’ Knowledge, Attitude and Utilization of Emergency Contraceptive Pills in Nigeria’s Niger Delta Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onasoga, Olayinka A.; Afolayan, Joel Adeleke; Asamabiriowei, Tariebi Florence; Jibril, Umar Nda; Imam, Abubakar Ayinla

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Risky sexual activity among adolescents is on the increase and contraceptive prevalence rate is low which is evidenced by high rate of teenage pregnancy in Bayelsa state, Nigeria. This study assesses the adolescents’ knowledge, attitude and utilization of emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) in Amassoma Community, Bayelsa State, in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Methods: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional research design. A purposive sampling technique was used to select a sample of 220 respondents from the target population. Data were collected using a self-structured questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data generated. Results: Majority of the respondents had high level of knowledge and positive attitude towards emergency contraceptive pills but had low level of utilization. Concerns about what others may say, parental attitude, contraceptive availability, contraceptive accessibility, and peer influences were the major factors that influenced the utilization of contraceptive pills. There was no significant relationship between knowledge and utilization of emergency contraceptive pills, as well as level of knowledge and their utilization of emergency contraceptive pills. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Adolescents in the study were more likely to use emergency contraceptive pills, if parents and others reaction to adolescents’ contraceptive use were positive about those. Health care professionals, especially nurses, should organize enlightenment programs to educate adolescents, parents and the public on the benefits of adolescents’ contraceptives use, especially ECP. PMID:28058193

  8. Phenological cues intrinsic in indigenous knowledge systems for forecasting seasonal climate in the Delta State of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitchett, Jennifer M.; Ebhuoma, Eromose

    2017-12-01

    Shifts in the timing of phenological events in plants and animals are cited as one of the most robust bioindicators of climate change. Much effort has thus been placed on the collection of phenological datasets, the quantification of the rates of phenological shifts and the association of these shifts with recorded meteorological data. These outputs are of value both in tracking the severity of climate change and in facilitating more robust management approaches in forestry and agriculture to changing climatic conditions. However, such an approach requires meteorological and phenological records spanning multiple decades. For communities in the Delta State of Nigeria, small-scale farming communities do not have access to meteorological records, and the dissemination of government issued daily to seasonal forecasts has only taken place in recent years. Their ability to survive inter-annual to inter-decadal climatic variability and longer-term climatic change has thus relied on well-entrenched indigenous knowledge systems (IKS). An analysis of the environmental cues that are used to infer the timing and amount of rainfall by farmers from three communities in the Delta State reveals a reliance on phenological events, including the croaking of frogs, the appearance of red millipedes and the emergence of fresh rubber tree and cassava leaves. These represent the first recorded awareness of phenology within the Delta State of Nigeria, and a potentially valuable source of phenological data. However, the reliance of these indicators is of concern given the rapid phenological shifts occurring in response to climate change.

  9. Evaluation of subsoil competence for foundation studies at site III of the Delta State University, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofomola, M. O.; Iserhien-Emekeme, R. E.; Okocha, F. O.; Adeoye, T. O.

    2018-06-01

    An integrated geophysical and geotechnical investigation has been carried out at site III of the Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria. This took place in a bid to generate information on the competence of the soil in withstanding stress and strain emanating from overburden or pore pressure, swelling, cracking and other anthropogenic activity in relation to civil engineering and building structures. An electromagnetic method employing the very low frequency (VLF) technique, and electrical resistivity employing the Wenner and the vertical electrical sounding techniques were used for this study. Soil samples were also collected at depth for geotechnical analysis. Isoresistivity slices generated from the data of 33 VES stations at 1 m showed generally low resistivity values of subsurface earth materials, classified as clayey sand, sandy clay or clay, and ranging from 60-300 Ωm. However, at depths of 3 and 5 m, the result showed a generally high resistivity distribution with values ranging from 500-6000 Ωm, which is an indication of competent Earth materials of fine to coarse grain sand. The results of the liquid limit, plastic limit, plasticity index, cohesion, angle of internal friction and clay content of the soil samples vary from 10%-17%, 18%-29%, 3%-15%, 45-95 KN m-2, 31°-35° and 14%-22% respectively. The low cohesion, low clay content and high angle of internal friction of the soil at the encountered depth makes it competent for engineering foundation. It is concluded that the subsoil in the area, starting at a depth of 3 m, is a competent material for hosting engineering structures.

  10. RURAL FARMERS’ PERCEPTION OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN CENTRAL AGRICULTURAL ZONE OF DELTA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.U. Ofuoku

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Farmer perception of their environment is a factor of climate change. Adaptation to climate change requires farmers to realize that the climate has changed and they must identify useful adaptations and implement them. This study analyzed the per-ception of climate change among rural farmers in central agri-cultural zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Climate change studies often assume certain adaptations and minimal examination of how, when, why, and conditions under which adaptations usually take place in any economic and social systems. The study was conducted by survey method on 131 respondents using struc-tured interview schedule and questionnaire. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and linear regression model to test that education, gender, and farming experience influenced farmers’ perception of climate change. The results showed that the farmers were aware of climate change. The identified causes of climate change were ranging from intensified agriculture, population explosion, increased use of fossil fuel, loss of in-digenous know practice to gas flaring. The effects of climate change on crops and livestocks were also identified by the rural farmers. Many of the farmers adapted to climate change by planting trees, carrying out soil conservation practice, changing planting dates, using different crop varieties, installing fans in livestock pens, and applying irrigation. Almost half of them did not adapt to climate change. The linear regression analysis revealed that education, gender, and farming experience influ-enced farmers’ perception of climate change. The major barriers to adaptation to climate change included lack of information, lack of money, and inadequate land.

  11. Environmental risk factors and health outcomes in selected communities of the Niger delta area, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana, Godson; Sridhar, Mynepalli K C; Bamgboye, Elijah A

    2009-07-01

    The main aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of various health outcomes associated with exposure to environmental risk factors including industrial pollution in selected communities of Nigeria's oil-rich Niger delta area (NDA). The study involved both laboratory experiments and community health surveys using questionnaires and hospital records. A total of 14 air samples, 16 grab soil samples and 18 surface water samples were collected and analyzed for physicochemical parameters including heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using standard methods. A 77-item questionnaire was administered on randomly selected 349 subjects. A five-year record was collected from health facilities located in the two communities. The laboratory results indicated that the median PAH level at Eleme as compared to Ahoada East was higher than the guideline limit 50 ng/l for surface waters. The mean TSP level at Eleme was higher than the level at Ahoada East and the guideline limit 100 microg/m3. The median PAH level at Eleme was higher than the level at Ahoada East and the guideline limit problem (p = 0.044). At Ahoada East commonly consumed aquatic food was highly significantly associated with painful body outgrowth (p fuel types was also highly significantly associated with child deformities (p < 0.0001). Hospital records showed high proportions of respiratory disorder among males (3.85%) and females (4.39%) at Eleme as compared to the proportion of respiratory disorder among males (3.68%) and females (4.18%) at Ahoada East. The study shows that industrial communities such as Eleme, which are exposed to higher levels of air pollution, are more predisposed to respiratory morbidities, skin disorders and other related health risks.

  12. Towards ending conflict and insecurity in the Niger Delta region: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-28

    Aug 28, 2017 ... efforts made by the Federal Government of Nigeria to address conflicts in ... Dr Angela Ajodo-Adebanjoko is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Political ... Conflict Management approach – involving a group of negotiators, both .... in the Niger Delta is one of the worst cases in the world of gas flaring.

  13. Effect of Gas Flaring on the Environment: A Case Study of a Part of Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeem, N. A.; Anifowose, A. Y. B.

    2016-12-01

    Gas flaring is a common practice in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. It releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere and causes reduction in the biodiversity and health status of inhabitants of the environment. This study examines the use of Remote Sensing and GIS in assessing the impact of gas flaring on water quality, land surface temperature (LST), and vegetation cover within the study area. Landsat imageries (1987, 2002 and 2015) covering the study area were utilized in carrying out time series analysis to compare pollution of surface water, land surface temperature and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) changes. The water quality parameters investigated are pH, Nitrate, Lead, Iron, Sulphate and Total Dissolve Solids. The pH and nitrate values obtained were not within the standard limits set by W.H.O.; they range between 4.12-6.04 and 80.50-88.30mg/l respectively. Values range between 0.0-0.04 mg/l for Pb, 0.01-1.20 mg/l for Fe, 39.98-245.60 mg/l for SO4, and 0.0-7.0 mg/l for TDS. The area covered with vegetation reduced from 63.0% to 54.2% and to 46.4%, with the area occupied by unhealthy vegetation increasing from 49.61% to 53.87% and a further decrease to 48.1%. It was also observed that the volume of gas flared had a direct impact on the variation of the land surface temperature with the mean LST of 1987 as 28.1oC, increasing to 31.3oC in 2002 and decreasing to 25.5oC in 2015. The results therefore revealed gas flaring as a significant factor responsible for unfavorable water quality, high temperature variation and the rapid decline in the health of natural vegetation of the study area.

  14. Prevalence and Attitude of Women to Spousal Physical Abuse in Pregnancy in a Niger Delta Community of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine Vincent Umoh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Spousal physical violence in pregnancy is a major public health and human rights concern. Identifying its prevalence and understanding the women’s attitude towards this phenomenon in our environment is key to developing strategies for effective intervention. Methods: This was a cross sectional study of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH, Uyo in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Information was collected using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire instrument. Results: The mean age of respondents was 28.72 ± 4.47 years with a range of 16 – 48 years. The prevalence of spousal physical violence in the current pregnancy was 10.3%. 45.2% of those who experienced violence in the current pregnancy also experienced violence in other pregnancies while 73.7% of those who reported spousal violence in previous pregnancies also experienced violence in the current pregnancy. There was a significant relationship between spousal physical violence and the woman’s number of deliveries/parity (x2 = 16.145, p=0.025, marital status (x2=11.105, p=0.025 and husband’s occupation (x2=12.786, p=0.047. About half of the respondents expressed the view that spousal violence was not excusable under any circumstance while 22.7% believed that it could be excused under certain circumstances. Also 50.0% of those who experienced physical violence in the current pregnancy expressed the view that physical violence can be excusable. Most of the women (65.8% either kept the incidence of abuse secret or just did nothing. None reported to the police. Conclusion: Spousal physical abuse is still prevalent in our society. There is need to enlighten the women on this phenomenon in order to get their cooperation towards its eradication. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 731-736

  15. Population dynamics, delta vulnerability and environmental change: comparison of the Mekong, Ganges–Brahmaputra and Amazon delta regions

    OpenAIRE

    Szabo, S.; Brondizio, E.; Renaud, F.G.; Hetrick, S.; Nicholls, R.; Matthews, Z.; Tessler, Z; Tejedor, A; Sebesvari, Z; Foufoula-Georgiou, E; da Costa, S; Dearing, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical delta regions are at risk of multiple threats including relative sea level rise and human alterations, making them more and more vulnerable to extreme floods, storms, surges, salinity intrusion, and other hazards which could also increase in magnitude and frequency with a changing climate. Given the environmental vulnerability of tropical deltas, understanding the interlinkages between population dynamics and environmental change in these regions is crucial for ensuring efficient pol...

  16. RATING OF SOCIAL MEDIA MARKETING COMPETENCIES POSSESSED BY ENTREPRENEURS IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ezenwafor, J. I.; Onokpaunu, Michel O.; Nna-Emmanuel, Sarah W.

    2017-01-01

    The need for wide utilization of social media marketing for entrepreneurial development in Delta State necessitated this study which sought to determine how competent practicing entrepreneurs are for their use in Delta State. One research question guided the study. A survey research design was adopted. The population consisted of 200 entrepreneurs in Delta North Senatorial District of Delta State. A validated 22 item on a 5-point rating scale questionnaire was used for data collection. Mean a...

  17. Frequency of central nervous system tumors in delta region, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled R Zalata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim of Work: Central nervous system (CNS tumors represent a major public health problem, and their epidemiological data in Egypt have been rather incomplete except for some regional reports. There are no available frequency-based data on CNS tumors in our locality. The objective of this study was to estimate the frequency of CNS tumors in east delta region, Egypt. Materials and Methods: The data were collected during the 8-year period from January 1999 to December 2007 from Pathology Department, Mansoura University, and other referred pathology labs. Examination of HandE stained sections from retrieved paraffin blocks were done in all cases for histopathologic categorization of C.N.S. tumors. Immunohistochemical studies were applied to confirm final histopathologic diagnosis in problematic cases. Results: Intracranial tumors represented 86.7% of cases in comparison to only 13.3% for spinal tumors. Gliomas were the CNS tumors of the highest frequency (35.2%, followed by meningioma (25.6%, pituitary adenoma (11.6% and nerve sheath tumors (6.6%. 10.25% of tumors were of children <15 years. Conclusion: This study provides the largest series of the relative frequency of CNS tumors in Delta region in Egypt till now and may help to give insight into the epidemiology of CNS tumors in our locality.

  18. Catalyzing action towards the sustainability of deltas: deltas as integrated socio-ecological systems and sentinels of regional and global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Tessler, Z. D.; Brondizio, E.; Overeem, I.; Renaud, F.; Sebesvari, Z.; Nicholls, R. J.; Anthony, E.

    2016-12-01

    Deltas are highly dynamic and productive environments: they are food baskets of the world, home to biodiverse and rich ecosystems, and they play a central role in food and water security. However, they are becoming increasingly vulnerable to risks arising from human activities, land subsidence, regional water management, global sea-level rise, and climate extremes. Our Belmont Forum DELTAS project (BF-DELTAS: Catalyzing actions towards delta sustainability) encompasses an international network of interdisciplinary research collaborators with focal areas in the Mekong, Ganges Brahmaputra, and the Amazon deltas. The project is organized around five main modules: (1) developing an analytical framework for assessing delta vulnerability and scenarios of change (Delta-SRES), (2) developing an open-acess, science-based integrative modeling framework for risk assessment and decision support (Delta-RADS), (3) developing tools to support quantitative mapping of the bio-physical and socio-economic environments of deltas and consolidate bio-physical and social data within shared data repositories (Delta-DAT), (4) developing Global Delta Vulnerability Indices (Delta-GDVI) that capture current and projected scenarios for major deltas around the world , and (5) collaborating with regional stakeholders to put the science, modeling, and data into action (Delta-ACT). In this talk, a research summary will be presented on three research domains around which significant collaborative work was developed: advancing biophysical classification of deltas, understanding deltas as coupled socio-ecological systems, and analyzing and informing social and environmental vulnerabilities in delta regions.

  19. Regional Organizations and Opportunity in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    western African franchise known as al’Qaeda in the Magreb (AQIM). 8 So while external terror connections may be immature, they pose a significant...conducting attacks against government institutions and the petroleum industry . While MEND activity has declined since the introduction of a...bi-lateral fashion but conflicted with a regional organization’s training exercises. 76 Rather than pool resources with these organizations, AFRICOM

  20. Hydrology and morphology of two river mouth regions (temperate Vistula Delta and subtropical Red River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pruszak

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative analysis of two different river mouths from two different geographical zones (subtropical and temperate climatic regions. One is the multi-branch and multi-spit mouth of the Red River on the Gulf of Tonkin (Vietnam, the other is the smaller delta of the river Vistula on a bay of the Baltic Sea (Poland. The analysis focuses on the similarities and differences in the hydrodynamics between these estuaries and the adjacent coastal zones, the features of sediment transport, and the long-term morphodynamics of the river outlets. Salinity and water level are also discussed, the latter also in the context of the anticipated global effect of accelerated sea level rise. The analysis shows that the climatic and environmental conditions associated with geographical zones give rise to fundamental differences in the generation and dynamic evolution of the river mouths.

  1. 40 CFR 81.122 - Mississippi Delta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.122 Section 81.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.122 Mississippi Delta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Mississippi Delta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  2. Environmental Law and Underdevelopment in the Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Law and Underdevelopment in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. ... is composed of many ecosystems of great economic and social importance, ... producing companies contribute to the degradation of the environment which in ...

  3. Population structure, biomass and production of the West African lucinid Keletistes rhizoecus (Bivalvia, Mollusca) in Sivibilagbara swamp at Bodo Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zabbey, N.; Hart, A. I.; Wolff, W. J.

    2010-01-01

    The West African lucinid bivalve Keletistes rhizoecus (Oliver, Basteria 50:47-64, 1986) is only known from the Niger Delta in Nigeria. Due to inaccessibility of its habitat population biology, growth parameters, biomass, and annual secondary production are unknown. The danger of oil pollution

  4. Users' Satisfaction with Library Information Resources and Services: A Case Study College of Health Sciences Library Niger Delta University, Amassoma, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemo, Pereware Aghwotu; Ateboh, Benedict Alaowei

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated users' satisfaction with library information resources and services at the College of Health Sciences (CHS) library Niger Delta University, Nigeria. The objective was to determine the level of users satisfaction with library information resources and services. 2 (two) research questions were formulated to guide the study.…

  5. Evaluation of natural radioactivity in soil, sediment and water samples of Niger Delta (Biseni) flood plain lakes, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agbalagba, E.O., E-mail: ezek64@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun (Nigeria); Onoja, R.A. [Dept. of Radiation Biophysics, Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria)

    2011-07-15

    This paper presents the findings of a baseline study undertaken to evaluate the natural radioactivity levels in soil, sediment and water samples in four flood plain lakes of the Niger Delta using a hyper pure germanium (HPGe) detector. The activity profile of radionuclides shows low activity across the study area. The mean activity level of the natural radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K is 20 {+-} 3, 20 {+-} 3 and 180 {+-} 50 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. These values are well within values reported elsewhere in the country and in other countries with similar environments. The study also examined some radiation hazard indices. The mean values obtained are, 76 {+-} 14 Bq kg{sup -1}, 30 {+-} 5.5 {eta}Gy h{sup -1}, 37 {+-} 6.8 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}, 0.17 and 0.23 for Radium Equivalent Activity (Ra{sub eq}), Absorbed Dose Rates (D), Annual Effective Dose Rates (E{sub ff} Dose), External Hazard Index (H{sub ex}) and Internal Hazard Index (H{sub in}) respectively. All the health hazard indices are well below their recommended limits. The soil and sediments from the study area provide no excessive exposures for inhabitants and can be used as construction materials without posing any significant radiological threat to the population. The water is radiologically safe for domestic and industrial use. The paper recommends further studies to estimate internal and external doses from other suspected radiological sources to the population of the Biseni kingdom. - Highlights: > The activity profile of the radionuclides has clearly showed the existence of low activity in the study area. > The average activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K is 20 {+-} 3, 20 {+-} 3 and 185 {+-} 47 Bq kg{sup -1} DW (or L{sup -1}) respectively. > These values compared well with other values obtained within Nigeria and other countries of the world. > The soils and sediments of the area have no immediate health implication on the inhabitants. > This work has

  6. Crude Oil Resource: A Blessing Or Curse To Nigeria – The Case Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude Oil Resource: A Blessing Or Curse To Nigeria – The Case Of The Niger Delta. S Tamuno, JM Felix. Abstract. This paper examines the question as to whether crude oil resource is a blessing or curse to Nigeria: The case of the Niger Delta Region. The paper traces the origin of oil exploration and exploitation from ...

  7. Challenges, Approaches and Experiences from Asian Deltas and the Rhine-Meuse Delta : Regional Training Workshop on Delta Planning and Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wosten, J.H.M.; Douven, W.; Long Phi, H.; Fida Abdullah Khan, M.

    2013-01-01

    River delta's, like the Mekong Delta (Vietnam), Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (Bangladesh), Ayeyarwady Delta (Myanmar), Nile (Egypt) and Ciliwung Delta (Indonesia) are developing rapidly and are characterised by large-scale urbanisation and industrialization processes. They are facing serious planning

  8. Digital Literacy Skills Among Librarians In University Libraries In The 21st Century In Edo And Delta States Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Libraries all over the world have been faced with the evolving technological advancement globalization and digitization of information. These have led to library automation digital and virtual libraries. This paper discussed the contemporary digital literacy skills DLS among librarians in university libraries the 21st century in Edo and Delta States of Southern Nigeria. The study was guided by six objectives and research questions and one hypothesis. The design of the study is descriptive survey and the population consists of all librarians from university libraries in the aforementioned states in Nigeria. The instrument used to generate data is the questionnaire and the date generated was analyzed using simple percentages and frequency count for research questions and SPSS version 14.0. The findings show that electronic mailing social networking use of PDAs mobile phones and internet surfing are the major DLS amongst librarians. It was also discovered that librarians acquired DLS through colleagues assistance trial and error IT programmes and formal education while librarians level of use of DLS is low amongst other findings. Researcher recommends that management of university libraries should provide training for librarians so as to help update their knowledge in application of digital skills and digital skill competence should be giving more attention during recruitment of librarians amongst others.

  9. Towards a delimitation of southwestern Nigeria into hydrological regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunkoya, O. O.

    1988-05-01

    Fifteen third-order drainage basins (1:50,000) on the Basement Complex rocks of southwestern Nigeria are classified into hydrological regions using hydrologic response parameters of average daily mean specific discharge ( QA); daily mean specific discharges equalled or exceeded 90% ( Q90), 50% ( Q50) and 10% ( Q10) of the study period; variability index of flow ( VI); recession constant ( K) of flow from peak discharge at the end of the rainy season to minimum discharge in the dry season; total annual runoff ( RO); total runoff within the dry season ( DSRO); dry season runoff as a percentage of total annual runoff (% DSRO); runoff coefficient ( ROC); and, number of days during the study period when there was no flow ( NFD). An ordination technique and a classification algorithm derived from cluster analysis technique and incorporating the analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests to determine the level of significance of the homogeneity of derived classes, were used to classify the fifteen basins into five hydrologically homogeneous regions. The constituent basins of each region were observed to share common basin geology. It was observed that those drainage basins having at least 50% of their basin area underlain by quartzitic rocks form two groups and have the most desirable or optimal hydrologic response patterns, desirability or optimality being in terms of ability to potentially meet water resource development requirements (i.e. high perennial discharge, low variability and large groundwater contribution to stream flow). The basins predominantly underlain by granite-gneisses and amphibolitic rocks have much poorer hydrologic response patterns. Hydrological regionalization in southwestern Nigeria appears to be influenced by drainage basin geology while percentage area of the basin underlain by massive quartzites could be used as an index of occurrence of desirable hydrologic response pattern.

  10. Issues in regional planning and development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladayo Ramon Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Till date,Nigeria can not boast of a specific, well-formulated, clear regional development policy framework despite several urban planning, development and governance initiatives including passage of regulations at both federal and state government levels that have been undertaken since independence by successive post- colonial governments. Most of the country's claims of regional development are products of other policies, and intentions, which do not have any bearing on, deliberate regional planning policies. Policy and decision-making on development planning often do not incorporate the implications of the ways in which we use land and the consequences for different places (economic planning. The neglect of place, in particular, the way that different policies combine to affect places in different ways (regional planning, has contributed to a range of negative economic, social and environmental outcomes. This paper relies mainly on the secondary data and literature exploration to demonstrate that the little role accorded to spatial planning, especially, regional planning, in the development efforts is largely responsible for the underdevelopment, imbalance, and inequalities in the country, as well as poverty of the citizens. The conclusion of the paper is that regional planning should be an integral part and complementary to economic planning in the national development planning of the country. For regional planning to aid in the development of the country and promote the well-being of the citizens, appropriate recommendations have been included in the paper.

  11. The quest for sustainable livelihoods : women fish traders in Ibaka, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udong, E.E.

    2011-01-01

    The contribution of fisheries to food security in Africa cannot be underestimated. It provides

    over 30 percent of the protein consumed by the Nigerian population. However, Nigeria

    produces only about 45 percent of the fish requirement locally while the shortfall of about

  12. Human Health Impact of Natural and Artificial Radioactivity Levels in the Sediments and Fish of Bonny Estuary, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolaji B. Babatunde

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is widespread contamination of the environment of the Niger Delta, which may include enhanced background levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM due to oil production and rapid urbanization activities. Sediments and seafood from the Bonny estuary, Niger Delta, were collected for the purpose of determining baseline data on artificial and natural radioactivity and estimation of effective doses for the public due to ingestion of seafood from the study area. The highest and lowest activity concentrations were reported for 40K and 137Cs in both sediments and fish samples of the Bonny estuary. There was some evidence of spatial variability in the 40K and 137Cs data, with the latter being the likely result of dredging. Other radionuclides were not significantly different between sites impacted by industrial activities or not. Activity of radionuclides measured in the sediments of the study area were higher than reported elsewhere in the Niger Delta and Nigeria and higher than reported global averages by UNSCEAR. The total highest activity concentration in all fish species of gamma emitting radionuclides was observed for 40K, followed by 238U, 232Th and 226Ra, respectively, while 137Cs had the lowest activity concentration. However, 210Po activities were the most important in terms of dose contribution. Consumption of molluscs at typical rates could result in doses exceeding 1 mSv·y−1. Although this baseline data may not be conclusive on prevailing trends in radioactivity in the study area, higher consumption rates of the species studied may have public health consequences due to effects of low dose ionising radiation.

  13. Regional trade and border markets between Niger, Benin and Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Tenikué, Michel; Kuepié, Mathias

    The objective of this methodological paper is to identify a number of products or sectors whose trade is relevant for border regions in West Africa. Focusing on Niger, Benin and Nigeria, we start with contextualising the importance of border markets by quantifying the changes in the relative values...... and volumes of imports and exports passing through border posts. In a second step, we determine which are the products most commonly found among the imports and exports of the border posts. The study shows that seven products are recognised as being heavily imported, subject to significant trade from large...... traders, and considered as re-export products: building materials, cereals and flour, textile, used clothing, used vehicles, cigarettes and oil....

  14. nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rose

    nigrodigitatus and other environmental segments were collected from five sites along Taylor Creek, southern Nigeria, and some ... The ecological distribution of the log (BCF) values was, for all the heavy metals, ..... Fresenius J. Anal. Chem.

  15. nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rose

    been recognized as one of the most serious threats to the estuarine ... rainforest belt of South-Eastern Nigeria is also the ..... The Cross River Basin: Soil characteristics, Geology, Climate, Hydrology ... intertidal fauna of South Atlantic coastline,.

  16. The quest for sustainable livelihoods : women fish traders in Ibaka, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Udong, E.E.

    2011-01-01

    The contribution of fisheries to food security in Africa cannot be underestimated. It provides over 30 percent of the protein consumed by the Nigerian population. However, Nigeria produces only about 45 percent of the fish requirement locally while the shortfall of about 55 percent is imported. Over 80 percent of the local production is from the artisanal, small scale sector. While several studies have been conducted on the productivity of many water bodies, endemic fish species, diff...

  17. Uses and Gratification of the Internet among Mass Communication Students in Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olise, Festus; Makka, Emotongha Job

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the uses and gratification of the Internet among students in the Department of Mass Communication, Delta State University (DELSU) Abraka. The study became necessary following the influx of and increase in the use of the Internet in education, which portends functional as well as dysfunctional roles on students if not…

  18. School Dropout Pattern among Senior Secondary Schools in Delta State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaja, O. Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of dropout among secondary school students in Delta State. To guide this study, 7 research questions were asked and answered, 3 hypotheses stated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The design of study was ex post facto using the past school attendance registers as the major…

  19. Perceived Sources of Occupational Stress among Primary School Teachers in Delta State of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpochafo, G. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the most prevalent sources of occupational stress and also the demographic variables of gender, age and length of service among primary school teachers in Delta State. Two research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The study used a descriptive survey design. The population was the primary school teachers in…

  20. ECONOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF CONTRIBUTION OF FAMILY POULTRY TO WOMEN’S INCOME IN NIGER-DELTA, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R ALABI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study shows that family poultry husbandry, business activities and paid employment contribute 35%, 30% and 18% respectively to the household income of women in Niger Delta, Nigeria. The average income from family poultry is N16, 784.53 ($124.33, which is about 25% and 50% of national minimum wage and per capita income in Nigeria respectively. The major constraints to the family poultry in the study area are disease and pest, pilfering and lack of capital. The econometric analysis indicates that wage, business and family poultry income are significant determinants of income of women in the study area. The estimated regression coefficients are, 0.35, 0.32 and 0.19 for wage, business and family poultry income respectively. This suggests that if wage income, business income and family poultry income increase by 100%, total income of the women will increase by 35%, 32% and 19% respectively. This indicates that family poultry husbandry has third rating in potentially influencing women income in the study area. It is recommended from the study that the contribution of family poultry to total income of the women can be improved through proper medication and vaccination of their birds with vaccines that are stable under tropical environment. It is also imperative that semi intensive, if not intensive, rearing technology should be considered as a reasonable option if the problem of pilfering is to be addressed. Improving the capital base of the women through formation of cooperating and micro-credit schemes should also be a welcome development in addressing the problem of lack of capital.

  1. Homosexuality amongst migrant oil workers in the Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: To determine the prevalence of homosexuality among migrant oil workers in Niger Delta. Methods: A prospective questionnaire – based study was conducted among migrant oil workers in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The design was to determine the prevalence of homosexuality in the workers in oil workers.

  2. Evaluation of excess lifetime cancer risk and radiological hazard in produced water from some flow stations in Delta State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avwiri, G. O.; Esi, E. O.

    2014-01-01

    The radiological effects and excess lifetime cancer risk of produced water collected from seven oil and gas flow stations (fields onshore) of Delta State, Nigeria were estimated using standard analytical. Twenty- one produced water samples from seven flow stations waste pit were collected within the oil fields using standard methods. The radionuclide concentrations in the produced water samples were measured using gamma spectroscopy method. The average values obtained for representative gamma index, annual effective dose equivalent (outdoor), annual effective dose equivalent (indoor) are 0.104mSv/y, 0.0229mSv/y and 0.03276mSv/y respectively when compared with standard of 1.0mSv/y are all below unity. Excess lifetime cancer risk obtained values ranged from 0.0196mSv/y - 0.0434mSv/y with a mean value of 0.0288mSv/y. When compared with the world average standard (0.29 x 10 -3 ), it was observed that the obtained values are higher than the world allowable average. The absorbed dose rate ranged from 4.570mSv/y to 10.088mSv/y with average value of 6.68mSvy-1 was found to be higher than the UNSCEAR 2000 acceptable standard of 1.5mSvy -1 . The results obtained in this study provides a baseline map of radiological effect and excess lifetime cancer risk levels in the Niger Delta environment and will be used as reference information to assess any changes in this studied area. This subject is important in environmental radiological protection, since produced water are widely been discharged in the environment during oil and gas productions.

  3. Sedimentology and ichnology of Neogene Coastal Swamp deposits in the Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezeh Sunny C.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Often analyses of depositional environments from sparse data result in poor interpretation, especially in multipartite depositional settings such as the Niger Delta. For instance, differentiating channel sandstones, heteroliths and mudstones within proximal environments from those of distal facies is difficult if interpretations rely solely on well log signatures. Therefore, in order to achieve an effective and efficient interpretation of the depositional conditions of a given unit, integrated tools must be applied such as matching core descriptions with wireline log signature. In the present paper cores of three wells from the Coastal Swamp depositional belt of the Niger Delta are examined in order to achieve full understanding of the depositional environments. The well sections comprise cross-bedded sandstones, heteroliths (coastal and lower shoreface and mudstones that were laid down in wave, river and tidal processes. Interpretations were made from each data set comprising gamma ray logs, described sedimentological cores showing sedimentary features and ichnological characteristics; these were integrated to define the depositional settings. Some portions from one of the well sections reveal a blocky gamma ray well log signature instead of a coarsening-upward trend that characterises a shoreface setting while in other wells the signatures for heteroliths at some sections are bell blocky in shaped rather than serrated. Besides, heteroliths and mudstones within the proximal facies and those of distal facies were difficult to distinguish solely on well log signatures. However, interpretation based on sedimentology and ichnology of cores from these facies was used to correct these inconsistencies. It follows that depositional environment interpretation (especially in multifarious depositional environments such as the Niger Delta should ideally be made together with other raw data for accuracy and those based solely on well log signatures should

  4. nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rose

    Geoelectric study of the groundwater potential of Ilara-Mokin in Ondo State Southwestern Nigeria was carried out using electrical resistivity (Vertical Electrical Sounding) method with the view to providing adequate information on the different sub-surface geoelectric layers, structural configuration of the concealed basement ...

  5. Dermatophilus congolensis infection in sheep and goats in Delta region of Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ananda Chitra

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to isolate and identify Dermatophilus congolensis (DC using conventional and molecular diagnostic techniques in scab materials collected from skin infections of sheep and goats in the Delta region of Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 scab samples collected from 18 goats and 2 sheep from Nagapattinam, Thanjavur, and Tiruvarur districts of Tamil Nadu. Smears were made from softened scab materials and stained by either Gram's or Giemsa staining. Isolation was attempted on blood agar plates, and colonies were stained by Gram's staining for morphological identification. Identification was also done by biochemical tests and confirmed by 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the amplified product. Results: The peculiar laddering arrangement of coccoid forms in stained smears prepared from scab materials revealed the presence of DC. Isolated colonies from scab materials of sheep and goats on bovine blood agar plate were small, hemolytic, rough, adherent, and bright orange-yellow in color, but some colonies were white to cream color. Gram-staining of cultured organisms revealed Gram-positive branching filaments with various disintegration stages of organisms. 16S rRNA PCR yielded 500 bp amplicon specific for DC. Sequence analysis of a sheep DC isolate showed 99-100% sequence homology with other DC isolates available in NCBI database, and phylogenetic tree showed a close cluster with DC isolates of Congo, Nigeria, and Angola of Africa. Genes for virulence factors such as serine protease and alkaline ceramidase could not be detected by PCR in any of the DC strains isolated of this study." Conclusion: The presence of dermatophilosis in Tamil Nadu was established from this study.

  6. Dermatophilus congolensis infection in sheep and goats in Delta region of Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitra, M Ananda; Jayalakshmi, K; Ponnusamy, P; Manickam, R; Ronald, B S M

    2017-11-01

    The study was conducted to isolate and identify Dermatophilus congolensis (DC) using conventional and molecular diagnostic techniques in scab materials collected from skin infections of sheep and goats in the Delta region of Tamil Nadu. A total of 20 scab samples collected from 18 goats and 2 sheep from Nagapattinam, Thanjavur, and Tiruvarur districts of Tamil Nadu. Smears were made from softened scab materials and stained by either Gram's or Giemsa staining. Isolation was attempted on blood agar plates, and colonies were stained by Gram's staining for morphological identification. Identification was also done by biochemical tests and confirmed by 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the amplified product. The peculiar laddering arrangement of coccoid forms in stained smears prepared from scab materials revealed the presence of DC. Isolated colonies from scab materials of sheep and goats on bovine blood agar plate were small, hemolytic, rough, adherent, and bright orange-yellow in color, but some colonies were white to cream color. Gram-staining of cultured organisms revealed Gram-positive branching filaments with various disintegration stages of organisms. 16S rRNA PCR yielded 500 bp amplicon specific for DC. Sequence analysis of a sheep DC isolate showed 99-100% sequence homology with other DC isolates available in NCBI database, and phylogenetic tree showed a close cluster with DC isolates of Congo, Nigeria, and Angola of Africa. Genes for virulence factors such as serine protease and alkaline ceramidase could not be detected by PCR in any of the DC strains isolated of this study. The presence of dermatophilosis in Tamil Nadu was established from this study.

  7. Effects of waste drilling fluid on bacterial isolates from a mangrove swamp oilfield location in the Niger delta of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benka-Coker, M.O.; Olumagin, A.

    1996-01-01

    Four bacteria strains isolated from a mangrove swamp oilfield location in the Niger Delta of Nigeria were cultured aerobically in the presence of 1.0% waste drilling fluid, to determine the effect of the waste on their growth. A 2-h lag phase of growth was produced by the waste in cultures of Micrococcus and Pseudomonas species, while the waste increased the lag phases of Alcaligenes and Staphylococcus species to 4 h. The exponential phase of growth of Pseudomonas sp. was depressed by the waste drilling fluid but fluid stimulated the exponential phases of Micrococcus and Alcaligenes spp. There was enhancement of the growth rate of Alcaligenes and Micrococcus spp. while those of Staphylococcus and Pseudonomas spp. were decreased. The depressed growth rates of Staphylococcus and Pseudonomas spp. in the presence of the waste drilling fluid might lead to a decrease in their contribution to the removal of the waste from the environment during spillage or disposal and, therefore, may result in an accumulation of the waste in the environment. (author)

  8. Effects of waste drilling fluid on bacterial isolates from a mangrove swamp oilfield location in the Niger delta of Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benka-Coker, M.O.; Olumagin, A. [Benin Univ. (Nigeria). Dept. of Microbiology

    1996-03-01

    Four bacteria strains isolated from a mangrove swamp oilfield location in the Niger Delta of Nigeria were cultured aerobically in the presence of 1.0% waste drilling fluid, to determine the effect of the waste on their growth. A 2-h lag phase of growth was produced by the waste in cultures of Micrococcus and Pseudomonas species, while the waste increased the lag phases of Alcaligenes and Staphylococcus species to 4 h. The exponential phase of growth of Pseudomonas sp. was depressed by the waste drilling fluid but fluid stimulated the exponential phases of Micrococcus and Alcaligenes spp. There was enhancement of the growth rate of Alcaligenes and Micrococcus spp. while those of Staphylococcus and Pseudonomas spp. were decreased. The depressed growth rates of Staphylococcus and Pseudonomas spp. in the presence of the waste drilling fluid might lead to a decrease in their contribution to the removal of the waste from the environment during spillage or disposal and, therefore, may result in an accumulation of the waste in the environment. (author)

  9. The Niger Delta Region and the Woman's Predicament: A Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    exposes the moral laxity caused by poverty, joblessness and lack of social amenities ... which later transformed to Shell Petroleum Development Company shipped ... Apart from these ecological problems, the Niger Delta region lacks basic.

  10. Towards ending conflict and insecurity in the Niger Delta region: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards ending conflict and insecurity in the Niger Delta region: A collective ... State as conflicts in different parts of the country have continued to make life insecure. ... Findings from the work show that the Federal Government's approach to ...

  11. Depositional history of the reservoir sandstones, Akpor and Apara oilfields, eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amajor, L.C.; Agbaire, D.W. (Port Harcourt Univ. (NG). Dept. of Geology)

    1989-10-01

    A subsurface study of the Agbada Formation in the Akpor and Apara oilfields in the eastern Niger Delta was undertaken in order to determine the depositional development of the reservoir sand-bodies. The study area comprises a maximum of 29 relatively thick sandstones, cyclically interbedded with shales of varying thicknesses. The lowest two sand units, separated by a shale unit and located near the base, produce petroleum from ten wells in both fields. Each sand-body exhibits a coarsening-upward textural gradient. The lower sand-body which is oval-shaped, moderately- to poorly-sorted, fine- to very coarse-grained, carbonaceous, with clay and lignite horizons, is interpreted as a deltaic sand. The unit appears to have migrated landwards, probably as a result of localized transgression, and developed maximum thickness between the two fields. The upper sand is fine-to-pebbly in grain size, well-sorted and glauconitic. Maximum development occurred slightly east of the delta. As the unit prograded in a predominantly southerly direction, genetic currents simultaneously caused it to be channelized. This sand-body is interpreted as an offshore marine bar. The intervening carbonaceous shale is thought to be of lagoonal origin. The pinch-out edges of these sand bodies may constitute prolific stratigraphic traps. (author).

  12. Sources of healthcare financing among surgical patients in a rural Niger Delta practice in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienye, P O; Brisibe, S F; Eke, R

    2011-01-01

    The environmental degradation following crude oil exploration in the Niger Delta has resulted in poverty for local rural dwellers. For those who are ill, if herbal treatments and/or self-medication with orthodox drugs are unsuccessful, the only alternative is expensive medical treatment in clinics. Surgical patients in a rural clinic may have to stay beyond than the normal 7 days if they are unable to pay their hospital bill; because this limits bed availability, there is an impacts on the hospital's economic management. This study aimed to determine the pattern of hospital bill payment among rural surgical patients in a rural Nigerian community, including the sources of finance for bill payment, in order to determine ways to resolve this issue. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural community in the Niger Delta area (Bethesda Clinic Ngo) over 5 years (2005-2009). In the 5 year study period, 3712 patients were seen, of which 229 were surgical patients who consented to the study. Their ages ranged from 4 to 97 years (mean 45.6 ± 13.5 years) and most were fish farmers (79.91%), secondary-school leavers (56.33%) and of the Christian religion (86.03%). The association of these characteristics with a greater than 7 day hospital stay was statistically significant (p sources of finance for the hospital bill were multiple but mainly personal savings (71.18%). Few (3.06%) had knowledge of the National Health Insurance Scheme, but when informed about it 84.28% were willing to enroll. The sources of finance for payment of hospital bills were multiple but the most common were personal savings and family members.

  13. Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-12

    northern Hausa- Fulani, the southwestern Yoruba , and the southeastern Ibo have traditionally been the most politically active and dominant. Almost...Obasanjo, a Yoruba from southwestern Nigeria. The APP and AD nominated Chief Olu Falae, a Yoruba , as their joint candidate for President. A former...country’s development will be hindered until it can reverse its perceived “ culture of impunity for political and economic crimes.”64 Upon taking office

  14. Community structure of spiders in coastal habitats of a Mediterranean delta region (Nestos Delta, NE Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Buchholz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (pp 101-115Habitat zonation and ecology of spider assemblages have been poorly studied in Mediterranean ecosystems. A first analysis of spider assemblages in coastal habitats in the east Mediterranean area is presented. The study area is the 250 km² Nestos Delta, located in East Macedonia in the North-East of Greece. Spiders were caught in pitfall traps at 17 sites from the beginning of April to the end of June 2004. Nonparametric estimators were used to determine species richness and alpha diversity. Ordination analysis (redundancy analysis indicated four clearly separable spider species groups (salt meadows, dunes, mea-dows and floodplain forests, along a soil salinity and moisture gradient. Based on these results we discuss the habitat preferences of these spiders and include the first ecological data on several species.

  15. Benign breast lesions in Bayelsa State, Niger Delta Nigeria: a 5 year multicentre histopathological audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwaezuoke, Stanley Chibuzo; Udoye, Ezenwa Patrick

    2014-01-01

    There has been no previous study to classify benign breast lesions in details based on histopathologically confirmed diagnosis in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. This study therefore aims to review all cases of benign breast lesions seen in all the three centres in Bayelsa State with histopathology services over a five year period for a comprehensive baseline data in our community for management, research and education. This is a multicentre retrospective descriptive study based on histopathological diagnosed benign breast lesions from January 2009 to December 2013. Archival results and slides on benign breast lesions were retrieved and analysed using simple statistical methods. A total of 228 benign breast lesions (68.3%) were seen among 334 histopathologically diagnosed breast diseases. The male to female ratio was 19.7:1. Peak age incidence was the third decade (43%) with a mean age of 29.1years. Fibroadenoma was the most common benign breast disease (BBD) accounting for 45.6% of all the cases followed by fibrocystic change (23.1%). The mean ages of fibroadenoma and fibrocystic change were 23.1years and 31.1years respectively. Inflammatory breast lesions constituted 8.3%. We recorded only 2 cases (0.9%) of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) with no case of atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) within the study period. Gynaecomastia (4%) was the main male breast lesion in the study. Benign breast diseases are the most common breast lesions in Bayelsa State. Fibroadenoma is the most common lesion followed by fibrocystic change. The incidence of atypical hyperplasia recorded was rather low in the state.

  16. Stable Isotope (delta OXYGEN-18, Delta Deuterium, Delta CARBON-13) Dendroclimatological Studies in the Waterloo Region of Southern Ontario, Canada, Between AD 1610 and 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhay, William Mark

    to constrain the paleoclimate interpretations from three species of trees that grew in different hydrologic settings. The inferred climate data, integrated with the hydrological setting of the trees and various climate modifying factors in the Great Lakes basin, generated an independent interpretation of summer and winter conditions in southwestern Ontario for the past 380 years. The inferred evidence indicates that conditions in southwestern Ontario between 1610 and 1750 typified those of "Little Ice Age" Europe by being cooler and drier than present. This probably resulted from a southerly positioning of the Polar Front, with respect to southwestern Ontario, which allowed sub-polar airmasses to dominantly influence this region. A subsequent retreat of the Polar Front north after 1750 allowed for a predominance of sub -tropical airmasses that resulted in warm-moist conditions and an increase in winter precipitation in this area between 1750 and 1850. Another advance of the Polar Front position south, sometime after 1850, renewed cool-dry conditions and reduced winter precipitation amounts in southwestern Ontario until the early twentieth century, after which time, climate ameliorated progressively. Typical of the findings in previous studies, a significant correlation between climate parameters and delta^{13}C_ {cellulose} values is observed for a tree (maple) from a groundwater recharge setting. The correlation is best between MAT and delta^ {13}C_{cellulose} values between 1610 and 1850. The breakdown of this correlation after 1850, due to enriched delta ^{13}C_{cellulose} values, could indicate that the tree is responding to an alteration in soil chemistry occurring due to the fallout of anthropogenically produced atmospheric pollutants. This is because the effects of depleted soil nutrients and/or leached phytotoxins on delta^ {13}C_{cellulose} values in wood cellulose, are similar to ones seen in trees that regularly experience drought stress.

  17. Quasifree pion electroproduction from nuclei in the {Delta} region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, F X [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Wright, L E [Ohio Univ., Inst. of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Dept. of Physics, Athens, OH (United States); Bennhold, C [George Washington Univ., Center for Nuclear Studies, Dept. of Physics, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    We present calculations of the reaction {Alpha} (e, e{sup 1}{pi} N)B in the distorted wave impulse approximation. The reaction allows for the study of the production process in the nuclear medium without being obscured by the details of nuclear transition densities. First, a pion electroproduction operator suitable for nuclear calculations is obtained by extending the Blomqvist-Laget photoproduction operator to the virtual photon case. The operator is gauge invariant, unitary, reference frame independent, and describes the existing data reasonably well. Then it is applied in nuclei to predict nuclear cross sections under a variety of kinematic arrangements. Issues such as the effects of gauge-fixing, the interference of the {Delta} resonance with the background, sensitivities to be guadrupole component of the {Delta} excitation and to the electromagnetic form factors, the role of final-state interactions, are studied in detail. Methods on how to experimentally separate the various pieces in the coincidence cross section are suggested. Finally, the model is compared to recent SLAC experiment. (authors) 35 refs., 22 figs.

  18. Virulence and antimicrobial resistance of common urinary bacteria from asymptomatic students of Niger Delta University, Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebola Onanuga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria frequently occurs among all ages with the possibility of developing into urinary tract infections, and the antimicrobial resistance patterns of the etiologic organisms are essential for appropriate therapy. Thus, we investigated the virulence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of common urinary bacteria in asymptomatic students of Niger Delta University, Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria in a cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Clean catch mid-stream early morning urine samples collected from 200 asymptomatic University students of aged ranges 15–30 years were cultured, screened and common bacteria were identified using standard microbiological procedures. The isolates were screened for hemolysin production and their susceptibility to antibiotics was determined using standard disc assay method. Results: A total prevalence rate of 52.0% significant bacteriuria was detected and it was significantly higher among the female with a weak association (χ2 = 6.01, phi = 0.173, P = 0.014. The Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus isolates were most frequently encountered among the isolated bacteria and 18 (12.7% of all the bacterial isolates produced hemolysins. All the bacterial isolates exhibited 50–100% resistance to the tested beta-lactam antibiotics, tetracycline and co-trimoxazole. The isolated bacteria were 85-100% multi-drug resistant. However, most of the isolates were generally susceptible to gentamicin and ofloxacin. The phenotypic detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases was 9 (9.6% among the tested Gram-negative bacterial isolates. Conclusions: The observed high proportions of multidrug resistant urinary bacteria among asymptomatic University students call for the need of greater control of antibiotic use in this study area.

  19. Chemical fingerprinting and diagnostic ratios of Agbada-1 oil spill impacted sites in Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Onojake

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Detailed compositional analysis by gas chromatography–flame ionization detection (GC–FID was employed to elucidate an oil spill in the Niger delta by fingerprinting technique. Distribution patterns of normal alkanes and isoprenoids show nC8 to nC40 petroleum hydrocarbons. The diagnostic ratios such as Pr/Ph ranged from 1.52 to 2.17; Pr/nC17 ranged from 0.31 to 0.51; Ph/nC18 ranged from 0.14 to 0.99; nC25/nC18 ranged from 0.93 to 3.52; CPI ranged from 0.97 to 1.13; (Pr + nC17/(Ph + nC18 ranged from 1.10 to 2.25; Ph/anth ranged from 0.28 to 1.11; BaA/Ch ranged from 0.57 to 2.90; Fl/Py ranged from 1.24 to 2.90. The ratio Fl/Py which is greater than unity (>1 is an indication of the petrogenic source of PAHs. Statistical analyses such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis were also applied as supporting tools. PCA loadings and scores plots carried out on selected parameters obtained from the analysis of the oil spill show that PC1 and PC2 together represented 95.4% (55.8% and 39.6% respectively of the variability. The high similarity level of the results obtained from the cluster analysis which is 98%, shows that the spilled oil originated from a common source.

  20. HIV status of partners of HIV positive pregnant women in different regions of Nigeria: matters arising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagay, A S; Onakewhor, J; Galadanci, H; Emuveyan, E E

    2006-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the pattern of HIV sero-status of Partners of HIV Positive Pregnant Women in three different regions of Nigeria and to explore the implications for HIV prevention interventions. The Site Coordinators of PMTCT programs in three Nigerian cities obtained data of the HIV status of the partners of HIV positive pregnant women. The selection of Benin City, Jos and Kano was made after consideration of their ethnic, religious and cultural representation of Nigeria. Benin City represents a traditional southern Nigeria city, Kano a traditional northern city and Jos, a middle-belt, ethnically diverse cosmopolitan setting. The data were analyzed using frequencies. A total of 500 partners of HIV infected pregnant women were tested for HIV using Determine Abbott test kits. Positive results were confirmed using Western blot or a second rapid test kit. The city-by-city results showed that in Benin City (Southern Nigeria), 78.8% (104/132) of the partners were HIV negative (sero-discordant), Jos (Middle-Belt) had 48.4% (103/213) sero-discordance while Kano (Northern Nigeria) recorded a sero-discordance rate of only 7.7% (12/155). These results indicate that the dynamics of HIV transmission in marital settings in Nigeria are different in the various regions of the country. Socio-cultural and religious settings play a significant role in HIV transmission among couples. These findings should guide prevention interventions in order to achieve maximal impact.

  1. Process analysis of regional aerosol pollution during spring in the Pearl River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qi; Lan, Jing; Liu, Yiming; Wang, Xuemei; Chan, Pakwai; Hong, Yingying; Feng, Yerong; Liu, Yexin; Zeng, Yanjun; Liang, Guixiong

    2015-12-01

    A numerical simulation analysis was performed for three air pollution episodes in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region during March 2012 using the third-generation air quality modeling system Models-3/CMAQ. The results demonstrated that particulate matter was the primary pollutant for all three pollution episodes and was accompanied by relatively low visibility in the first two episodes. Weather maps indicate that the first two episodes occurred under the influence of warm, wet southerly air flow systems that led to high humidity throughout the region. The liquid phase reaction of gaseous pollutants resulted in the generation of fine secondary particles, which were identified as the primary source of pollution in the first two episodes. The third pollution episode occurred during a warming period following a cold front. Relative humidity was lower during this episode, and coarse particles were the major pollution contributor. Results of process analysis indicated that emissions sources, horizontal transport and vertical transport were the primary factors affecting pollutant concentrations within the near-surface layer during all three episodes, while aerosol processes, cloud processes, horizontal transport and vertical transport had greater influence at approximately 900 m above ground. Cloud processes had a greater impact during the first two pollution episodes because of the higher relative humidity. In addition, by comparing pollution processes from different cities (Guangzhou and Zhongshan), the study revealed that the first two pollution episodes were the result of local emissions within the PRD region and transport between surrounding cities, while the third episode exhibited prominent regional pollution characteristics and was the result of regional pollutant transport.

  2. Regional controls on geomorphology, hydrology, and ecosystem integrity in the Orinoco Delta, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, A.G.; Meade, R.H.; White, W.A.; Guevara, E.H.; Gibeaut, J.; Smyth, R.C.; Aslan, A.; Tremblay, T.

    2002-01-01

    Interacting river discharge, tidal oscillation, and tropical rainfall across the 22,000 km2 Orinoco delta plain support diverse fresh and brackish water ecosystems. To develop environmental baseline information for this largely unpopulated region, we evaluate major coastal plain, shallow marine, and river systems of northeastern South America, which serves to identify principal sources and controls of water and sediment flow into, through, and out of the Orinoco Delta. The regional analysis includes a summary of the geology, hydrodynamics, sediment dynamics, and geomorphic characteristics of the Orinoco drainage basin, river, and delta system. Because the Amazon River is a major source of sediment deposited along the Orinoco coast, we summarize Amazon water and sediment input to the northeastern South American littoral zone. We investigate sediment dynamics and geomorphology of the Guiana coast, where marine processes and Holocene history are similar to the Orinoco coast. Major factors controlling Orinoco Delta water and sediment dynamics include the pronounced annual flood discharge; the uneven distribution of water and sediment discharge across the delta plain; discharge of large volumes of water with low sediment concentrations through the Rio Grande and Araguao distributaries; water and sediment dynamics associated with the Guayana littoral current along the northeastern South American coast; inflow of large volumes of Amazon sediment to the Orinoco coast; development of a fresh water plume seaward of Boca Grande; disruption of the Guayana Current by Trinidad, Boca de Serpientes, and Gulf of Paria; and the constriction at Boca de Serpientes. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Climate optimized planting windows for cotton in the lower Mississippi Delta region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unique, variable summer climate of the lower Mississippi Delta region poses a critical challenge to cotton producers in deciding when to plant for optimized production. Traditional 2- to 4-year agronomic field trials conducted in this area fail to capture the effects of long-term climate variabiliti...

  4. SECURITY RISKS, MYTHS IN A TRANSITIONING SUB-NATIONAL REGIONAL ECONOMY (CROSS RIVER STATE AND IMAGINATIVE GEOGRAPHIES OF NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. UKWAYI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of an “international community” through accumulation of perceived risks that contrasts with those risks (of considerably lower levels of seriousness compared to those perceived constitutes one of the interesting (or intriguing subjects of risks and disaster studies surrounding the 9/11 era. The constructions of “imaginative geographies”, have frequently been biased in the practices that underlie the mapping of the foreign places tend to put-down the affected regions in their “paintings” for the global community. The latter are subsequently “demonized” in their ratings of competence for participating in world trade, tourism, travel, among other social/cultural, and economic and political activities. The objective of this article is to highlight how the exaggeration of risks (contrasted to actually existing/lived risks, practices that are frequently associated with such adverse “imaginative geographies” poses sub-national regional development dilemma in Nigeria’s Niger Delta. We trace the roots of adverse “imaginative geographies” of Nigeria to the Abacha dictatorship (1993-1997. Then we highlight the mixed characteristics of the Niger Delta conditions during the “return of positive image recapture” by Nigeria’s federal government (re-democratisation of the Fourth Republic, 1999-present, re-branding campaigns; as well as adverse conditions present. Most significantly, we show that despite these adversities, a combination of favorable geographical size, differentiation, sub-national regional security programme formulation and management taking aims at diversification have created “large oases” of peace and security in Cross River State, a part of the Niger Delta that has been completely unscathed by insurgencies of the nearby sub-national region and further away national origin. Apart from identifying sub-national regions qualifying for delisting from “adverse imaginative geographies” due to

  5. Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health in the Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has been an increasing awareness of the need to pay special focus on the adolescent and their sexual and reproductive health. This article reviews the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents in the Niger Delta region (NDR) of Nigeria. The objective is to bring to focus these important issues in the region.

  6. The search for environmental justice in the Niger Delta and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Right from the beginning Man has been given the privilege by his Creator to tender the earth and take dominion over his environment. But for the impoverished people of the Niger Delta region, the mainstay of Nigeria's oil wealth, the situation is ironically abysmal. The region has been the scene of protest, sometimes ...

  7. Electromagnetic interactions in the {Delta}-resonance region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersson, Rolf

    1995-03-01

    Cross sections for some electro- and photoinduced spallation reactions on {sup 27}Al and {sup 51}V are measured in the energy region 130 MeV to 580 MeV with the activation method. Comparisons are made with calculations based on the Dalitz formalism for virtual photon spectra, and Monte Carlo calculations based on a cascade evaporation model, respectively. By use of Bremsstrahlung with end-point energies from threshold to 750 MeV, the yields for photo- production of{pi}{sup -}leading to ground and isomeric states in {sup 197}Hg are measured with the activation method. The activity from the Hg-isotopes were measured after a chemical separation of Hg from the target material. The yields and isomeric ratios are compared with impulse approximation calculations. For the photoproduction of {sup 195m}Hg and {sup 192}Hg from {sup 197}Au, the yields were measured. The experimental mean cross sections are compared with data from other experiments and with cascade evaporation calculations. Cross sections for the reaction {sup 14}N({gamma},{pi}{sup -}){sup 14}O are calculated by use of the DWIA, and compared with experimental cross sections for the same reaction by use of the activation method. The cross sections were deduced by the photon difference method together with a smoothing procedure. Different assumptions are made for the theoretical calculations. Absolute cross sections for inclusive electron scattering on H, D, Be, Al and Si are measured for low values of the momentum transfer Q{sup 2} at the scattering angle 10 deg. The incident electron energies were 3 MeV, 6 MeV, and 7 GeV. Through the fitting of A{sub eff}/A=A{sup {epsilon}}, with {epsilon} as a free parameter, to experimental data it is shown than A{sub eff}

  8. Field reconnaissance and estimation of petroleum hydrocarbon and heavy metal contents of soils affected by the Ebocha-8 oil spillage in Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Leo C; Onojake, Chukunedum M

    2006-04-01

    Field reconnaissance of the Ebocha-8 oil spill-affected site at Obiobi/Obrikom in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria was carried out to assess the extent of damage to the terrestrial ecosystem and delimit the epicenter of oil spillage. Following three successive reconnaissance surveys, the area to be sampled was delimited (200 x 200 m2), and soil samples were collected using the grid method from three replicate quadrats at two depths, surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm). A geographically similar area located 50 m adjacent to the oil-polluted area was used as a reference (control) site. Total hydrocarbon content (THC) and heavy metal concentrations were later determined in the laboratory by extraction and spetrophotemetric techniques. Generally, the THC of soils at surface and subsurface depths of the oil-polluted plots was 2.06 x 10(4) +/- 4.97 x 10(3) mg/kg and 1.67 x 10(3) +/- 3.61 x 10(2) mg/kg soil, respectively, (no overlap in standard errors at 95% confidence limit) while concentrations of heavy metals(Pb, Cd, V, Cu and Ni) were enhanced, especially at the surface. The high levels of THC and heavy metals may predispose the site, which hitherto served as arable agricultural land, to impaired fertility and possible conflagration. When concentrations of heavy metals reach the levels obtained in this study, they may become toxic to plants or possibly bio-accumulate, thus leading to toxic reactions along the food chain. While the spilled-oil may have contributed to the enhanced levels of the metals in the affected soils, physico-chemical properties of the soils, mobility of metals, and the intense rainfall and flooding that preceded the period of study may have also contributed in part to their enhanced concentrations. The presence of high hydrocarbon content may cause oxygen deprivation, which may result in the death of soil fauna by asphyxiation. There is, therefore, an urgent need to clear the affected site of these excess hydrocarbon deposits so as to

  9. The Niger Delta Crisis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2013-09-28

    Sep 28, 2013 ... Department of History & International Studies, Delta State University, Abraka,. Nigeria. .... democracy implies popular power. That is ... Okonta (2006:5) draws attention to Anna Zalik's treatise called 'Petro-Vio- lence' and ...

  10. Electron beam asymmetry measurements from exclusive pi0 electroproduction in the Delta(1232) resonance region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Joo

    2003-05-01

    The polarized longitudinal-transverse structure function sigma_LT'in the p(e,e'p)pi^0 reaction has been measured for the first time in the Delta(1232) resonance region for invariant mass W = 1.1 - 1.3 GeV and at four-momentum transfer Q^2 = 0.40 and 0.65 GeV^2. Data were taken at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) using longitudinally polarized electrons at an energy of 1.515 GeV. This newly measured sigma_LT' provides new and unique information on the interference between resonant and non-resonant amplitudes in the Delta(1232) resonance region. The comparison to recent phenomenological calculations shows sensitivity to the description of non-resonant amplitudes and higher resonances.

  11. Water Management Strategy in Assessing the Water Scarcity in Northern Western Region of Nile Delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrouk, Badr; Arafa, Salah; Gemajl, Khaled

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable development in the Nile Delta of Egypt is retarded by serious environmental problems, where land-use and land-cover of the region are subjected to continuous changes; including shoreline changes either by erosion or accretion, subsidence of the delta, as well as by sea level rise due to climate change. The current research attempts to; (1) study the vulnerability of the northern western region of the Nile Delta coastal zone to climate change/sea level rise while setting basic challenges, review adaptation strategies based on adaptation policy framework, and highlight recommended programs for preparedness to climate change, (2) study the scarcity of water resources in the area of study with review of the socioeconomic impacts and the critical need of establishing desalination plants with new standards assessing the environmental situation and population clusters, and (3) monitor of the brine water extracted from the desalination plants and injected to subsurface strata. This monitoring process is divided into 3 main directions: 1) studying the chemical characteristics of water extracted from the water desalinations plants qualitatively and quantitatively. 2) mapping the subsurface of which that brine water will be injected to it and the flow directions and effects using resistivity data, and 3) using GIS and suitable numerical models in order to study the effect, volume, flow of the brine water and its long term environmental impacts on the area. The results indicate that the area is particularly vulnerable to the impact of SLR, salt water intrusion, the deterioration of coastal tourism and the impact of extreme dust storms. This in turn will directly affect the agricultural productivity and human settlements in coastal zones. The paper presents different scenarios for water management and recommends the most suitable scenarios in order to establish a core for water management strategy in the region according to existing socio-economic and environmental

  12. Distribution of ABO and Rh-D blood groups in the Benin area of Niger-Delta: Implication for regional blood transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enosolease Mathew

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ABO and Rhesus (Rh blood group antigens are hereditary characters and are useful in population genetic studies, in resolving medico-legal issues and more importantly in compatibility test in blood transfusion practice. Data on frequency distribution of ABO and Rh-D in Niger-Delta region of Nigeria are not available; hence we made an attempt to retrospectively analyze the records on the blood donors, transfusion recipients and patients attending antenatal care or some other medical interventions. Over a twenty-year period between 1986 and 2005, a total of 160,431 blood samples were grouped for ABO and Rh-D at the blood bank of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Blood group distribution among these samples showed phenotypes A, B, AB and O as 23.72%, 20.09%, 2.97% and 53.22%, respectively. The Rh-D negative phenotype was found among 6.01% of the samples tested.

  13. Identifying hotspots and management of critical ecosystem services in rapidly urbanizing Yangtze River Delta Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenbo; Gibbs, David; Zhang, Lang; Ferrier, Graham; Cai, Yongli

    2017-04-15

    Rapid urbanization has altered many ecosystems, causing a decline in many ecosystem services, generating serious ecological crisis. To cope with these challenges, we presented a comprehensive framework comprising five core steps for identifying and managing hotspots of critical ecosystem services in a rapid urbanizing region. This framework was applied in the case study of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) Region. The study showed that there was large spatial heterogeneity in the hotspots of ecosystem services in the region, hotspots of supporting services and regulating services aggregately distributing in the southwest mountainous areas while hotspots of provisioning services mainly in the northeast plain, and hotspots of cultural services widespread in the waterbodies and southwest mountainous areas. The regionalization of the critical ecosystem services was made through the hotspot analysis. This study provided valuable information for environmental planning and management in a rapid urbanizing region and helped improve China's ecological redlines policy at regional scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Laser fluorimetric determination of uranium in environmental samples from Nile Delta and adjacent regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shawky, S.; Ibrahiem, N.; Farouk, A.; Ghods, A.

    1994-01-01

    Total uranium content was determined in soil and plant samples obtained from various areas in the Nile Delta. Samples taken from east and west of the delta, Suez canal cities and from the Alexandria region were analysed using laser fluorimetry (LF). Uranium was extracted from digested samples with methyl-isobutyl ketone and measured using a laser fluorimeter. The radium content of the same soil samples was determined using gamma spectroscopy. The uranium content of plant samples was determined using LF, since this technique has a detection limit lower than that of GS. Uranium content in the samples varied between 0.6-4.4 μg/g for soil and 0.032-0.17 μg/g for plant tissue. (author)

  15. PRICE TRANSMISSION AND HOUSEHOLDS DEMAND ELASTICITY FOR FROZEN FISH UNDER FUEL SUBSIDY REFORM IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achoja Felix Odemero

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel subsidy removal is assumed to translate to general increase in the cost of operating business such as fish marketing.The response of price of fish and corresponding demand elasticity are welfare issues worthy of investigation in Nigeria. The present study evaluates price transmission in fish marketing system by analysing the response of fish market indices to fuel subsidy reform in Nigeria. Primary data collected with structured questionnaire from purposively selected 78 frozen fish marketers, were analysed with descriptive statistics and regression model. A test of hypothesis shows a significant price transmission of about 100% (P < 0.05. Marketing cost increased by 31.8% and profitability dropped by 24.20%, confirming negative effect of new price regime. The result further revealed a 0.05% drop in quantity of frozen fish demanded by households. It was recommended that economic measures should be introduced by the government to cushion the effect of fuel policy removal.

  16. Sex Education and Teenage Pregnancy in the Niger Delta: Implications for Secondary School Biology Curriculum in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Marie Onovroghene

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies show that when Nigerian adolescent girls, especially those in the Niger Delta, become pregnant they drop out of school and may never go back again but become low level labourers or miscreants to the society. This study investigated the extent of teenagers involvement in sex, pre-disposition of females to pregnancy in the Niger…

  17. Self Efficacy and Some Demographic Variables as Predictors of Occupational Stress among Primary School Teachers in Delta State of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpochafo, G. O.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated self efficacy and some demographic variables as predictors of occupational stress among primary school teachers in Delta State. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey design that utilized an expost-facto research type. A sample of one hundred and twenty primary school…

  18. Haemangiomas of the maxillofacial region in Benin City, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-two patients with haemangiomas of the oro-facial region who presented at the department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, UBTH, were studied. There was a preponderance of females (72.7%) over males (27.3%) and most (59.1%) patients were in the 11-31-year age group, with a median age of 25.0 years.

  19. Challenges and Approaches in Delta Planning and Management - Sharing experiences from SE Asian Deltas and the Rhine-Meuse Delta -Report on Regional Training Workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long Phi, H.; Fida Abdullah Khan, M.; Wosten, J.H.M.; Douven, W.

    2014-01-01

    The training workshop consisted of a balanced mix of lectures on specific delta topics, work on group assignments, group and plenary discussions, and group presentations. Due to high professional level of the participants the discussions often reached the level of a policy dialogue among equals

  20. International Trade, Pollution Accumulation and Sustainable Growth: A VAR Estimation from the Pearl River Delta Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hui; Tian, Lu

    2018-03-01

    In order to investigate international trade influence in the regional environment. This paper constructs a vector auto-regression (VAR) model and estimates the equations with the environment and trade data of the Pearl River Delta Region. The major mechanisms to the lag are discussed and the fit simulation of the environmental change by the international impulse is given. The result shows that impulse of pollution-intensive export deteriorates the environment continuously and impulse of such import improves it. These effects on the environment are insignificantly correlated with contemporary regional income but significantly correlative to early-stage trade feature. To a typical trade-dependent economy, both export and import have hysteresis influence in the regional environment. The lagged impulse will change environmental development in the turning point, maximal pollution level and convergence.

  1. Markovian Model in High Order Sequence Prediction From Log-Motif Patterns in Agbada Paralic Section, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olabode, S. O.; Adekoya, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    Markovian model in the elucidation of high order sequence was applied to repetitive events of regressive and transgressive phases in the Agbada paralic section Niger Delta. The repetitive events are made up of delta front, delta topset and fluvio-deltaic sediments. The sediments consist of sands, sandstones, siltstones and shales in various proportions. Five wells: MN1, AA1, NP2, NP6 and NP8 were studied.Summary of biostratigraphic report and well log-motif patterns was used to delineate the third order depositional sequences in the wells.Various Markovian properties - observed transition frequency matrix, observed transition probability matrix, fixed probability vector, expected random matrix (randomised transition matrix) and difference matrix were determined for stacked high order sequence (high frequency cyclic events) nested within the third-order sequences using the log-motif patterns for the various sand bodies and shales. Flow diagrams were constructed for each of the depositional sequences to know the likely occurrence of number of cycles.Upward transition matrix between the log-motif patterns and flow diagram to elucidate cyclicity show that the overall regressive sequence of the Niger Delta has been modified by deltaic depositional elements and fluctuations in sea level. The predictions of higher order sequence within third order sequences from Markovian Properties provide good basis for correlation within the depositional sequences. The model has also been used to decipher the dominant depositional processes during the formation of the sequences. Discrete reservoir intervals and seal potentials within the sequences were also predicted from the flow diagrams constructed

  2. Vehicular Road Deaths in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Car and truck passenger and pillion passengers were at more risk of dying than the drivers and cyclists respectively. The ratio was 3:1 in car and truck users and 2:1 in motorcycle users. The 10 – 49 years age group suffered the greatest setback constituting 66.5% of the victims. The male/female ratio was 1.4:1 and the ...

  3. Urbanization signatures in strong versus weak precipitation over the Pearl River Delta metropolitan regions of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Weibiao; Chen Sheng; Wen Zhiping; Wang Baomin; Chen Guixing; Sha Weimin; Luo Cong; Feng Yerong

    2011-01-01

    We assess the issues of urban effects on the precipitation over the Pearl River Delta (PRD) metropolitan regions of China. The spatial and temporal variations of strong versus weak precipitation over the PRD and surrounding nonurban areas are investigated. The results show that the urbanization signatures in strong precipitation are significantly different from those in weak precipitation over the urban areas. The PRD experiences more strong precipitation but less weak precipitation compared to surrounding nonurban regions. In addition, the strong precipitation over the PRD displays a pronounced seasonal variation. The seasonality of weak precipitation, however, is much weaker over the PRD compared to the surrounding nonurban regions. Moreover, a strengthening in the precipitation intensity, a reduction in the rainfall frequency and an increase in the convective precipitation as well as the afternoon precipitation are found over the urban areas, which are probably associated with the abundance in strong precipitation and the deficit in weak precipitation over the PRD.

  4. A Regional Survey of River-plume Sedimentation on the Mississippi River Delta Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, A. J.; Bentley, S. J.; Xu, K.; Georgiou, I. Y.; Maloney, J. M.; Miner, M. D.; Chaytor, J. D.; Smith, J.

    2017-12-01

    Many studies of the Mississippi River and Delta (MRD) have shown historic declines in sediment load reaching the main river distributaries over the last few decades. Recent studies also reported that 50% of the suspended load during floods is sequestered within the delta. While the impact of declining sediment load on wetland loss is well documented, submarine sedimentary processes on the delta front during this recent period of declining sediment load are understudied. To better understand modern sediment dispersal and deposition across the Mississippi River Delta Front, 31 multicores were collected in June 2017 from locations extending offshore from Southwest Pass, South Pass, and Pass a Loutre (the main river outlets) in water depths of 25-280 m. Core locations were selected based on multibeam bathymetry and morphology collected by the USGS in May 2017; the timing of collection coincided with the end of annual peak discharge on the Mississippi River. This multi-agency survey is the first to study delta-front sedimentary processes regionally with such a wide suite of tools. Target locations for coring included the dominant depositional environments: mudflow lobes, gullies, and undisturbed prodelta. Cores were subsampled at 2 cm intervals and analyzed for Beryllium-7 activity via gamma spectrometry; in such settings, Be-7 can be used as a tracer of sediment recently delivered from fluvial origin. Results indicate a general trend of declining Be-7 activity with increasing distance from source, and in deeper water. Inshore samples near Southwest Pass show the deepest penetration depth of Be-7 into the sediment (24-26 cm), which is a preliminary indicator of rapid seasonal sedimentation. Nearshore samples from South Pass exhibited similar Be-7 penetration depths, with results near Pass a Loutre to 14-16 cm depth. Be-7 remains detectable to 2 cm in water 206 m deep, approximately 20 km from South Pass. Sediment dispersal remains impressive offshore from all three

  5. An assessment of high risk sexual behaviour and HIV transmission among migrant oil workers in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwauche, C A; Akani, C I

    2006-06-01

    A cross--sectional behavioural survey undertaken amongst migrant oil-workers of an oil exploration outfit operating in the Niger-Delta of Nigeria with the aim of assessing the interplay of migrancy, high-risk sexual behaviour and HIV transmission. A total of 300 randomly selected migrant oil workers were assessed using structured questionnaires to evaluate key high - risk sexual behavioral parameters such as multiplicity of sexual partners, bisexuality (closet homosexuality), high grade sexual behaviour and lesbianism. Sampling period was two months with a control cohort of 200. The prevalence of high risk sexual behaviour (HRSB) amongst the migrant oil workers was found to be 7.7% while low-risk sexual behaviour (LRSB) was 92.3%. There was no record of HRSB in the control group. We did not also encounter any lesbian sexual orientation in this study. The distribution of HRSB amongst the migrant oil workers showed that the commonest variety was bisexuality (closet homosexuality) with 10(43.5%) followed by high-risk sexual behaviour 7(30.4%), while the least common was multiplicity of sexual partners with 6 (26.1%). Furthermore, majority of these individuals 19 (82.6%) were above the age of 35 years. The index of condom-use and acceptance was high. Here 14 (60.9%) found condom-use convenient while 13 (56.5%) regularly used the condom. This study confirms the existence of HRSB among migrant oil workers in the Niger delta. It is therefore advisable to focus interventionist and prevention programmes on this group which appear to be pivotal in the transmission and spread of HIV/AIDS in this environment.

  6. Oral and maxillofacial surgical conditions in Nigeria. | Adebayo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Niger Delta region comprises 9 of the 36 states in the Federal Republic of Nigeria. ... 2000 and 2004, our center offered specialized maxillofacial surgical services to ... Ratio of male to female patients was 1.7:1 while patients were aged between 9 ... Health promotion activities are needed to improve awareness for early

  7. Conflict and Food Insecurity in Nigeria and Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2017 ... The Niger Delta region has experienced environmental conflict, and the rise of ... negatively impacted on agricultural productivity and distribution networks from the ...... The Case of Nigeria', Nordic Journal of African Studies 8 (2): 73–88. Imaseun, E.

  8. Regional contribution to PM1 pollution during winter haze in Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lili; Yu, Hongxia; Ding, Aijun; Zhang, Yunjiang; Qin, Wei; Wang, Zhuang; Chen, Wentai; Hua, Yan; Yang, Xiaoxiao

    2016-01-15

    To quantify regional sources contributing to submicron particulate matter (PM1) pollution in haze episodes, on-line measurements combining two modeling methods, namely, positive matrix factorization (PMF) and backward Lagrangian particle dispersion modeling (LPDM), were conducted for the period of one month in urban Nanjing, a city located in the western part of Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of China. Several multi-day haze episodes were observed in December 2013. Long-range transport of biomass burning from the southwestern YRD region largely contributed to PM1 pollution with more than 25% of total organics mass in a lasting heavy haze. The LPDM analysis indicates that regional transport is a main source contributing to secondary low-volatility production. The high-potential source regions of secondary low-volatility production are mainly located in areas to the northeast of the city. High aerosol pollution was mainly contributed by regional transport associated with northeastern air masses. Such regional transport on average accounts for 46% of total NR-PM1 with sulfate and aged low-volatility organics being the largest fractions (>65%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiological assessment of natural radionuclides in soil within and around crude oil flow and gas compression stations in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ademola, J.A.; Atare, E.E.

    2010-01-01

    Natural radionuclide concentrations in soil samples collected within and around crude oil flow and gas compression stations in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The mean activity concentrations of 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th varied from 30.1 ± 3.0 to 59.0 ± 17.1, B.D.L. to 8.8 ± 2.3 and 7.9 ± 3.7 to 10.9 ± 1.9 Bq.kg-1, respectively. The 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th contents of the soil samples are very low compared with the world average for natural background area. The absorbed dose rate and effective dose ranged from 6.9 to 11.1 n Gy.h-1 and 8.5 to 13.6 μSv.y-1, respectively. The annual gonadal dose equivalent rate ranged from 48.9 to 77.5 μSv.y-1, which is lower than the world average of 0.30 mSv.y-1. The radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index of the soil samples were below the recommended limits of 370 Bq.kg-1 and unity, respectively. The results obtained reveal that there is no significant radiation hazard due to natural radionuclides of the soil samples in the studied areas. (authors)

  10. Investigation of the variation of the specific heat capacity of local soil samples from the Niger delta, Nigeria with moisture content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofoegbu, C.O.; Adjepong, S.K.

    1987-11-01

    Results of an investigation of the variation, with moisture content, of the specific heat capacity of samples of three texturally different types of soil (clayey, sandy and sandy loam) obtained from the Niger delta area of Nigeria, are presented. The results show that the specific heat capacities of the soils studied, increase with moisture content. This increase is found to be linear for the entire range of moisture contents considered (0-25%), in the case of the sandy loam soil while for the clayey and sandy soils the specific heat capacity is found to increase linearly with moisture content up to about 15% after which the increase becomes parabolic. The rate of increase of specific heat capacity with moisture content appears to be highest in the clayey soil and lowest in the sandy soil. It is thought that the differences in the rates of increase of specific heat capacity with moisture content, observed for the soils, reflect the soils' water-retention capacities. (author) 3 refs, 5 figs

  11. A survey study on gastrointestinal parasites of stray cats in northern region of Nile delta, Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda E Khalafalla

    Full Text Available A survey study on gastrointestinal parasites in 113 faecal samples from stray cats collected randomly from Kafrelsheikh province, northern region of Nile delta of Egypt; was conducted in the period between January and May 2010. The overall prevalence was 91%. The results of this study reported seven helminth species: Toxocara cati (9%, Ancylostoma tubaeforme (4%, Toxascaris leonina (5%, Dipylidium caninum (5%, Capillaria spp. (3%, Taenia taeniformis (22% and Heterophyes heterophyes (3%, four protozoal species: Toxoplasma gondii (9%, Sarcocyst spp. (1%, Isospora spp. (2% and Giardia spp. (2% and two arthropod species; Linguatula serrata (2% and mites eggs (13%. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites may continue to rise due to lack of functional veterinary clinics for cat care in Egypt. Therefore, there is a need to plan adequate control programs to diagnose, treat and control gastrointestinal parasites of companion as well as stray cats in the region.

  12. A Survey Study on Gastrointestinal Parasites of Stray Cats in Northern Region of Nile Delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalafalla, Reda E.

    2011-01-01

    A survey study on gastrointestinal parasites in 113 faecal samples from stray cats collected randomly from Kafrelsheikh province, northern region of Nile delta of Egypt; was conducted in the period between January and May 2010. The overall prevalence was 91%. The results of this study reported seven helminth species: Toxocara cati (9%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (4%), Toxascaris leonina (5%), Dipylidium caninum (5%), Capillaria spp. (3%), Taenia taeniformis (22%) and Heterophyes heterophyes (3%), four protozoal species: Toxoplasma gondii (9%), Sarcocyst spp. (1%), Isospora spp. (2%) and Giardia spp. (2%) and two arthropod species; Linguatula serrata (2%) and mites eggs (13%). The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites may continue to rise due to lack of functional veterinary clinics for cat care in Egypt. Therefore, there is a need to plan adequate control programs to diagnose, treat and control gastrointestinal parasites of companion as well as stray cats in the region. PMID:21760884

  13. Regional dynamics of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Pearl River Delta, China: Implications and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kai; Zhang Baozhong; Li Shaomeng; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2011-01-01

    The mass transport budgets of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) in the Pearl River Delta, South China were calculated based on previously collected data. Residual p,p'-DDT, mostly related to historical use, has largely settled into soil (780,000 kg), while the soil BDE-209 inventory (44,000 kg) is considerably smaller. Conversely, large amounts of BDE-209 currently used in numerous commercial products have resulted in a much higher atmospheric depositional flux of BDE-209 (28,100 kg/yr) relative to p,p'-DDT (310 kg/yr). The soil inventory of p,p'-DDT is predicted to decrease to half of its current value after 22 years, and the percent area containing soil p,p'-DDT at levels exceeding the effects range-medium (27 ng/g) will decrease from 40% to 20%. Finally, soil BDE-209 inventory will reach an equilibrium value of 940 tons in ∼60 years, when BDE-209 levels in 50% of soil will be above an equivalent risk guideline value (125 ng/g). - Highlights: → Transport budgets of p,p'-DDT and BDE-209 in the Pearl River Delta were built. → Dry aerial deposition is the dominant route to transport p,p'-DDT and BDE-209. → Soil inventory of p,p'-DDT is much larger than that of BDE-209. → Soil inventory of p,p'-DDT would decline to half of its current value in 22 years. → Soil BDE-209 inventory is expected to reach an equilibrium value in ∼60 years. - Regional dynamics of p,p'-DDT and BDE-209 in the Pearl River Delta (South China) are examined and used to predict temporal variances.

  14. Alienation and Militancy in the Niger Delta: Hostage Taking and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the linkages between alienation and militancy in Nigeria's Niger Delta region, and the dilemma the Nigerian State faces in dealing with the menace of hostage taking of oil workers in the region by militant groups. To achieve this objective, the paper critically discusses the centrality of alienation in the ...

  15. frequency analysis of rainfall for flood control in patani, delta state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The Niger Delta Region of Nigeria is within the mangrove forest region and is crisscrossed by ... especially in Forcados, some oil wells have been lost to ... rainfall depths and the assessment of the rarity of .... hydrological data shows that peak rainfall occurs around .... magnitude and as output the observed maximum rainfall.

  16. Time series analysis of ambient air concentrations in Alexandria and Nile delta region, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI Raev, M.; Shalaby, E.A.; Ghatass, Z.F.; Marey, H.S.

    2007-01-01

    Data collected from the Air Monitoring Network of Alexandria and Delta (EEAA/EIMP-program), were analyzed. Emphasis is given to indicator pollutants PM 10 , NO 2 , SO 2 , O 3 and CO. Two sites have been selected in Alexandria (IGSR and Shohada) and three sites in Delta region (Kafr Elzyat, Mansoura and Mahalla) for analysis of three years from 2000-2002. Box -Jenkins modeling has been used mainly for forecasting and assessing relative importance of various parameters or pollutants. Results showed that, the autoregressive (AR) order for all series ranged from 0-2 except NO 2 at Mansoura site. Also the moving average order ranged from 0-2 except CO at IGSR site. Nitrogen dioxide and Ozone at IGSR site have the same ARIMA model which is (0, 1, and 2). Cross correlation analysis has revealed important information on the dynamics, chemistry and interpretation of ambient pollution. Cross-correlation functions of SO 2 and PM 10 at IGSR sites suggest that, sulfur dioxide has been adsorbed on the surface of particulates which has an alkaline nature. This enhances the oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfate, which results in low levels of SO 2 in spite of the presence of sources

  17. Impact of emission control on regional air quality in the Pearl Delta River region, southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Xuejiao, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Pearl River Delta (PRD) in China has been suffering from air quality issues and the government has implemented a series of strategies in controlling emissions. In an attempt to provide scientific support for improving air quality, the paper investigates the concerning past-to-present air quality data and assesses air quality resulting from emission control. Statistical data revealed that energy consumption doubled from 2004 to 20014 and vehicle usage increased significantly from 2006 to 2014. Due to the effect of control efforts, primary emission of SO2, NOx and PM2.5 decreased resulting in ambient concentrations of SO2, NO2 and PM10 decreased by 66%, 20% and 24%, respectively. However, O3 increased 19% because of the increase of VOC emission. A chemical transport model, the Community Multi-scale Air Quality, was employed to evaluate the responses of nitrate, ammonium, SOA, PM2.5 and O3 to changes in NOx, VOC and NH3 emissions. Three scenarios, a baseline scenario, a CAP scenario (control strength followed as past tendency), and a REF scenario (strict control referred to latest policy and plans), were conducted to investigate the responses and mechanisms. NOx controlling scenarios showed that NOx, nitrate and PM2.5 reduced by 1.8%, 0.7% and 0.2% under CAP and reduced by 7.2%, 1.8% and 0.3% under REF, respectively. The results indicated that reducing NOx emission caused the increase of atmospheric oxidizability, which might result in a compensation of PM2.5 due to the increase of nitrate or sulfate. NH3 controlling scenarios showed that nitrate was sensitive to NH3 emission in PRD, with nitrate decreased by 0 - 10.6% and 0 - 48% under CAP and REF, respectively. Since controlling NH3 emissions not only reduced ammonium but also significantly reduced nitrate, the implement of NH3 controlling strategy was highly suggested. The VOC scenarios revealed that though SOA was not the major component of PM2.5, controlling VOC emission might take effect in southwestern PRD

  18. Crude Oil, a Blessing and Impediment in Niger Delta Polity: Tanure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Special Edition 2011 > ... Oil has constituted a physical problem to Delta State and Nigeria as a whole. ... impediment in Delta of Nigeria; Economic growth constraints, socio-political problems and Neo-colonialism; and finally,

  19. growth pattern and the industrial development of the lagos region, nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickson Dare Ajayi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the nature, growth and spatial pattern of industries within the Lagos Region. Industrial activities in this region grew progressively over the year from mere brickwork, palm oil mills, printing press, soap factory, and metal container factory to capital intensive manufacturing. Indeed, the number of industrial establishments increased from 122 in 1962 to 637 in 1993. Lagos developed into Nigeria's leading industrial center; especially following the expansion in its service and administrative sectors. Whereas, chemicals and pharmaceutical; and basic metal, iron and steel and fabricated metal products industry groups dominate in industrial scene, wood and wood products (including furniture; and non-metallic mineral products are rare. The spatial pattern shows that industrial establishments vary amongst the industrial estates/areas, and also among the industry groups. Ikeja/Ogballsheri industrial estate/area dominates the industrial scene.

  20. Science-policy interplay: Air quality management in the Pearl River Delta region and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Liuju; Louie, Peter K. K.; Zheng, Junyu; Yuan, Zibing; Yue, Dingli; Ho, Josephine W. K.; Lau, Alexis K. H.

    2013-09-01

    The information provided by the scientific studies and control measures implemented in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of China reveals that tremendous progress has been made in the understanding of regional air pollution issues and the deployment of mitigation measures for alleviating these problems. Given the unparalleled rapid economic growth in the PRD over the past two decades, such progress was only made possible by strong, science-based support and the partnerships between government and research institutions in the region and overseas. Researchers from these partnership programs and related studies have deployed cutting-edge expertise and experience in various crucial mainland China and mainland China/Hong Kong-level projects. China recognizes the importance of protecting the environment and cleaning up the air in the pursuit of sustainable growth and economic development. To avoid falling into a cycle of event-driven clean-up efforts, China has recently taken a major step and updated the national ambient air quality standards. Clearly, China is implementing an increasing number of evidence-based policies to address air pollution problems. Thus, to bring a fresh impetus at a national level, the PRD must maintain and augment the Hong Kong-mainland collaborative momentum, inducing a "whole-China" effort to clean up air pollution. To strengthen the science-based support system and ensure continuous and concerted effort in implementing the regional multi-pollutant control strategy, there must be an overarching and integral Hong Kong-Guangdong science consortium framework supporting the formulation of regional policy and control measures built on common goals under the "one country, two systems" principle. The "PRD Approach" of the air quality management regime reflected regional cooperative efforts in synchronous air pollutant control, catalyzed the crucial role of information disclosure and subtly transformed the air quality management approach to overcome

  1. STUDIES ON THE OCCURRENCE AND DAMAGE BY YAM TUBER BEETLES (HETEROLIGUS SPP IN ANIOCHA AND OSHIMILI AREAS OF DELTA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F TOBIH

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A two-year (2001 and 2002 studies to evaluate the occurrence, population distribution and damage by yam beetles: Heteroligus spp was undertaken in four Local Government Areas in Delta State, Nigeria namely: Oshimili South and North, Aniocha South and North. Beetle population were sampled from farmers fields using light traps in selected locations in the Council areas. Sampling period was April to December for both years. Data collected were number of beetles caught per month, damage indices such as number and size of beetle feeding holes, percentage tuber attacked and tuber yield. Beetle occurrence began in May and were encountered till November. Peak population of beetle occurred in August across the location for the two-year trials. Beetle species comprised of H. meles Billb and H. appiusBurm with the former, the most abundant species regarding the number caught across the locations. Oshimili North and South had higher beetle feeding holes significant at (P < 0.05 than Aniocha South and North for both years and across the locations. No significant difference in size of feeding hole but in terms of percentage tuber attacked, Oshimili South showed higher attack significantly different than Aniocha North both in 2001 and 2002 but not significantly higher than attacked in Oshimili North and Aniocha South in 2001. However, there were no significant difference in the yield of tuber across the locations and for the two-year period. Yam beetle is still a serious insect pest of yam and the two species responsible for tuber damages are H. meles Billb and H. appius Burm in these areas.

  2. Socio-demographic characteristics of adults screened for human immunodeficiency virus infection in Ahoada-East local government area in the Niger Delta of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azuonwu Obi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, the pathogen responsible for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the most significant emerging infectious disease is causing health, social, and developmental problems to mankind. Aims, Setting and Design: This is a cross-sectional study to evaluate the socio-demographic characteristics of adults screened for HIV infection in Ahoada Community in Rivers State in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Materials and Methods: HIV antibodies were detected using "Determine" (Abbott Laboratories, Japan, Start-Pak (Chembio Diagnostics, USA and SD Bioline HIV-1/2 kits (Standard Diagnostics, Korea. All test procedures were carried out according to the manufacturers′ instructions. Subjects included 152 consecutively recruited adults consisting of 955 females and 566 males aged 18-54 years with a mean age of 36.25΁7.02 years. Statistical Analysis: Data were entered and analyzed using statistical package SPSS version 9. A P-value ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant in all statistical comparisms. Results and Conclusion: Out of a total of 1521 persons screened for HIV infection, 162 persons tested positive for HIV (10.6%. HIV infection was higher among females (10.9% compared to males (10.1% and in the 25-34 and 45-60 years age groups (11.1% (P= 0.08. HIV-1 was the predominant subtype (74% compared to 26% for dual HIV-1 and 2. This study indicates the urgent need for both government and non-governmental organizations to intensify awareness campaign programme to reduce the spread of the HIV infection in the area with emphasis on behavioral change and economic empowerment of the people as well as provision of universal access to antiretroviral therapy for those with HIV infection.

  3. Assessment of radionuclide concentration and absorbed dose from consumption of community water supplies in oil and gas producing areas in delta State Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchokossa, P.; Olomo, J.B.; Balogun, F.A.

    2010-01-01

    A survey of radioactivity concentration in water supplies used for domestic and industrial purposes in the oil and gas producing communities of Delta State, Nigeria was carried out using a well-calibrated High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector system. The study area was partitioned into ten sections and a total of two samples per partition were collected for analysis. Samples of water from a non-producing area 14 were also collected as control. In all, a total number of forty three samples were collected and analyzed. Each sample was acidified at the rate of 10 ml of 11 M HCI per litre of water to prevent the absorption of radionuclides into the wall of the container and sealed in a properly cleaned container for at least one month so as to attain a state of secular radioactive equilibrium before analysis. The photo peaks observed with reliable regularity belong to the naturally occurring series-decay radionuclide headed by 238U and 232Th, as well as the non-series decay type 40K. The mean specific activity obtained for 40K was 49.15±15.35 BqL-1 with a range of 6.03 and 177.04 Bq L-1 while for 226Ra, the mean specific activity was 3.36±1.28 Bq L-1 with a range of 1.29 and 12.08 BqL-1 and the mean specific activity for 228Ra was 3.21± 2.69 BqL-1 with a range of 1.61 and 9.83 BqL-1 and the total annual effective dose did not show any significant health impact. (author)

  4. VOCs and OVOCs distribution and control policy implications in Pearl River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Peter K. K.; Ho, Josephine W. K.; Tsang, Roy C. W.; Blake, Donald R.; Lau, Alexis K. H.; Yu, Jian Zhen; Yuan, Zibing; Wang, Xinming; Shao, Min; Zhong, Liuju

    2013-09-01

    Ambient air measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) were conducted and characterised during a two-year grid study in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of southern China. The present grid study pioneered the systematic investigation of the nature and characteristics of complex VOC and OVOC sources at a regional scale. The largest contributing VOCs, accounting over 80% of the total VOCs mixing ratio, were toluene, ethane, ethyne, propane, ethene, butane, benzene, pentane, ethylbenzene, and xylenes. Sub-regional VOC spatial characteristics were identified, namely: i) relatively fresh pollutants, consistent with elevated vehicular and industrial activities, around the PRD estuary; and ii) a concentration gradient with higher mixing ratios of VOCs in the west as compared with the eastern part of PRD. Based on alkyl nitrate aging determination, a high hydroxyl radical (OH) concentration favoured fast hydrocarbon reactions and formation of locally produced ozone. The photochemical reactivity analysis showed aromatic hydrocarbons and alkenes together consisted of around 80% of the ozone formation potential (OFP) among the key VOCs. We also found that the OFP from OVOCs should not be neglected since their OFP contribution was more than one-third of that from VOCs alone. These findings support the choice of current air pollution control policy which focuses on vehicular sources but warrants further controls. Industrial emissions and VOCs emitted by solvents should be the next targets for ground-level ozone abatement.

  5. Vulnerabilities and Adapting Irrigated and Rainfed Cotton to Climate Change in the Lower Mississippi Delta Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saseendran S. Anapalli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activities continue to emit potential greenhouse gases (GHG into the atmosphere leading to a warmer climate over the earth. Predicting the impacts of climate change (CC on food and fiber production systems in the future is essential for devising adaptations to sustain production and environmental quality. We used the CSM-CROPGRO-cotton v4.6 module within the RZWQM2 model for predicting the possible impacts of CC on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum production systems in the lower Mississippi Delta (MS Delta region of the USA. The CC scenarios were based on an ensemble of climate projections of multiple GCMs (Global Climate Models/General Circulation Models for climate change under the CMIP5 (Climate Model Inter-comparison and Improvement Program 5 program, that were bias-corrected and spatially downscaled (BCSD at Stoneville location in the MS Delta for the years 2050 and 2080. Four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP drove these CC projections: 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5 (these numbers refer to radiative forcing levels in the atmosphere of 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5 W·m−2, representing the increasing levels of the greenhouse gas (GHG emission scenarios for the future, as used in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change-Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC-AR5. The cotton model within RZWQM2, calibrated and validated for simulating cotton production at Stoneville, was used for simulating production under these CC scenarios. Under irrigated conditions, cotton yields increased significantly under the CC scenarios driven by the low to moderate emission levels of RCP 2.6, 4.5, and 6.0 in years 2050 and 2080, but under the highest emission scenario of RCP 8.5, the cotton yield increased in 2050 but declined significantly in year 2080. Under rainfed conditions, the yield declined in both 2050 and 2080 under all four RCP scenarios; however, the yield still increased when enough rainfall was received to meet the water requirements of the crop (in

  6. Financial Performance of Hospitals in the Mississippi Delta Region Under the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program and Hospital Value-based Purchasing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsueh-Fen; Karim, Saleema; Wan, Fei; Nevola, Adrienne; Morris, Michael E; Bird, T Mac; Tilford, J Mick

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies showed that the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP) and the Hospital Value-based Purchasing Program (HVBP) disproportionately penalized hospitals caring for the poor. The Mississippi Delta Region (Delta Region) is among the most socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in the United States. The financial performance of hospitals in the Delta Region under both HRRP and HVBP remains unclear. To compare the differences in financial performance under both HRRP and HVBP between hospitals in the Delta Region (Delta hospitals) and others in the nation (non-Delta hospitals). We used a 7-year panel dataset and applied difference-in-difference models to examine operating and total margin between Delta and non-Delta hospitals in 3 time periods: preperiod (2008-2010); postperiod 1 (2011-2012); and postperiod 2 (2013-2014). The Delta hospitals had a 0.89% and 4.24% reduction in operating margin in postperiods 1 and 2, respectively, whereas the non-Delta hospitals had 1.13% and 1% increases in operating margin in postperiods 1 and 2, respectively. The disparity in total margins also widened as Delta hospitals had a 1.98% increase in postperiod 1, but a 0.30% reduction in postperiod 2, whereas non-Delta hospitals had 1.27% and 2.28% increases in postperiods 1 and 2, respectively. The gap in financial performance between Delta and non-Delta hospitals widened following the implementation of HRRP and HVBP. Policy makers should modify these 2 programs to ensure that resources are not moved from the communities that need them most.

  7. Characteristics of carbonaceous aerosol in PM 2.5: Pearl Delta River Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H.; Ho, K. F.; Lee, S. C.; Tsang, P. K.; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Zou, C. W.; Zou, S. C.; Cao, J. J.; Xu, H. M.

    2012-02-01

    Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) were made at four sampling sites, namely Guangzhou (GZ), Zhaoqing (ZQ), PolyU Campus (PU) and Hok Tsui (HT), in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region between 14 August 2006 and 28 August 2007. The highest concentrations of total carbon (TC) were found at the medium-scale roadside site (PU) and the lowest were found at the regional-scale site (HT). Among the four sampling sites, the average WSOC at ZQ showed the highest concentrations, while the lowest were seen at HT. OC and EC concentrations revealed spring/summer minima and autumn/winter maxima at all sites except PU, which had a consistently high EC concentration all over the year. The highest WSOC/OC ratio was found at ZQ with an average of 0.41, suggesting that the OC was more oxidized in the atmosphere of the semi-rural site. The lowest WSOC/OC was found at the roadside site of PU. Moreover, the WSOC/OC ratio increased in autumn, when the photochemical reactions are the most active in the PRD region. This can be attributed to aging and atmospheric processing of the organic compounds during their transportation, or to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Average annual secondary organic carbon (SOC) concentrations in PM2.5 were estimated to be 2.2 and 3.5 μg m- 3 for GZ and ZQ, comprising 33.5% and 42.8% of the corresponding OC concentrations, respectively. The results indicate that SOC is significant in the PRD region, and its formation mostly occurs within the region.

  8. Characterization and Fate of Dissolved Organic Matter in the Lena Delta Region, Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves-Araujo, R.; Stedmon, C. A.; Heim, B.; Dubinenkov, I.; Kraberg, A.; Moiseev, D.; Bracher, A.

    2016-02-01

    Connectivity between the terrestrial and marine environment in the Artic is changing as a result of climate change, influencing both freshwater budgets and the supply of carbon to the sea. This study characterizes the optical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) within the Lena Delta region and evaluates the behavior of DOM across the fresh water-marine gradient. Six fluorescent components (four humic-like; one marine humic-like; one protein-like) were identified by Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) with a clear dominance of allochthonous humic-like signals. Colored DOM (CDOM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were highly correlated and had their distribution coupled with hydrographical conditions. Higher DOM concentration and degree of humification were associated with the low salinity waters of the Lena River. Values decreased towards the higher salinity Laptev Sea shelf waters. Results demonstrate different responses of DOM mixing in relation to the vertical structure of the water column, as reflecting the hydrographical dynamics in the region. Two mixing curves for DOM were apparent. In surface waters above the pycnocline there was a sharper decrease in DOM concentration in relation to salinity indicating removal. In the bottom water layer the DOM decrease within salinity was less. We propose there is a removal of DOM occurring primarily at the surface layer, which is likely driven by photodegradation and flocculation.

  9. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) measurements in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Shao, Min; Lu, Sihua; Chang, Chih-Chung; Wang, Jia-Lin; Chen, Gao

    2008-03-01

    We measured levels of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at seven sites in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of China during the Air Quality Monitoring Campaign spanning 4 October to 3 November 2004. Two of the sites, Guangzhou (GZ) and Xinken (XK), were intensive sites at which we collected multiple daily canister samples. The observations reported here provide a look at the VOC distribution, speciation, and photochemical implications in the PRD region. Alkanes constituted the largest percentage (>40%) in mixing ratios of the quantified VOCs at six sites; the exception was one major industrial site that was dominated by aromatics (about 52%). Highly elevated VOC levels occurred at GZ during two pollution episodes; however, the chemical composition of VOCs did not exhibit noticeable changes during these episodes. We calculated the OH loss rate to estimate the chemical reactivity of all VOCs. Of the anthropogenic VOCs, alkenes played a predominant role in VOC reactivity at GZ, whereas the contributions of reactive aromatics were more important at XK. Our preliminary analysis of the VOC correlations suggests that the ambient VOCs at GZ came directly from local sources (i.e., automobiles); those at XK were influenced by both local emissions and transportation of air mass from upwind areas.

  10. Options for integrated resource management in the Mackenzie Delta-Beaufort Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.E.

    1991-02-01

    Examples of consultative activities and environmental protection measures are reviewed which have been employed in the Mackenzie Delta/Beaufort Sea region by one or more petroleum operators to achieve successful integrated land use during the past 20 years. The review illustrates how petroleum operators, in cooperation with local residents and communities, have planned and adapted specific aspects of different projects to address and resolve environmental and community concerns, and provides an overview of the measures that can be employed to achieve integrated land use planning guidelines for future projects. The review focuses on specific groups of renewable resources and the applicable measures that have been used to reduce industrial impacts to these resources which are very important to local residents. Community consultation processes in the planning region have been successfully used by local residents, government, and industry to identify concerns associated with petroleum projects, and to develop appropriate measures to address these concerns. Environmental protection planning measures are described for cultural and historical resources, air quality, noise, freshwater quality, marine water quality, terrain and soils, fisheries, and terrestrial and marine wildlife. General measures as well as specific protection procedures such as the beluga whale protection plan and oil spill contingency plans are discussed. Although some environmental accidents have occurred during petroleum exploration and drilling activities, evidence suggests that petroleum activity has been able to proceed with no detectable long-term impacts to the environment. 30 refs., 1 fig

  11. Emergy Synthesis and Regional Sustainability Assessment: Case Study of Pan-Pearl River Delta in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guomin Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, emergy analysis is used in association with the ternary diagrams and geographic information system (GIS tools to improve the evaluation of sustainability for the Pan-Pearl River Delta (PPRD region. Emergy accounting of PPRD is estimated, and various emergy-based indicators are reported. Ternary diagrams are drawn to provide a graphical representation of the emergy accounting data. Finally, the GIS tools are employed to assist in the emergy-based spatial analysis, and emergy density based on flat land area is mapped to reflect the intensity of emergy use in human activity areas. Results show the following: (1 the current development path of the PPRD region, with the value of emergy sustainability index (ESI = 0.227 significantly lower than one, is unsustainable in the long run; (2 Guangdong has the lowest ESI value (0.071, and the ESI values of Fujian, Guangxi, Hunan and Jiangxi are lower than 0.5, indicating that the economy in these provinces overly relies on non-renewable and imported resources; (3 Guizhou has a high emergy yield rate and is thus the main energy supplier in PPRD; and (4 among the nine provinces in PPRD, only Hainan has an ESI value (2.145 higher than one.

  12. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in the Western Delta region of River Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswara Rao, P. V.; Appa Rao, S.; Subba Rao, N.

    2017-05-01

    The present study on geochemical evolution of groundwater is taken up to assess the controlling processes of water chemistry in the Western Delta region of the River Godavari (Andhra Pradesh), which is one of the major rice-producing centers in India. The study region is underlain by coarse sand with black clay (buried channels), black silty clay of recent origin (floodplain) and gray/white fine sand of modern beach sediment of marine source (coastal zone), including brown silty clay with fine sand (paleo-beach ridges). Groundwater is mostly brackish and very hard. It is characterized by Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+:HCO3 - > Cl- > SO4 2- > NO3 -, Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+:Cl- > HCO3 - > SO4 2-, and Mg2+ > Na+ > Ca2+ > or Cl- > or > SO4 2- facies. The ionic relations (Ca2+ + Mg2+:HCO3 -, Ca2+ + Mg2+:SO4 2- + HCO3 -, Na+ + K+:TC, Na+ + K+:Cl- + SO4 2-, HCO3 -:TC, HCO3 -:Ca2+ + Mg2+, Na+:Cl- and Na+:Ca2+) indicate that the rock weathering, mineral dissolution, evaporation and ion exchange are the processes to control the aquifer chemistry. Anthropogenic and marine sources are also the supplementary factors for brackish water quality. These observations are further supported by Gibbs mechanisms that control the water chemistry. Thus, the study suggests that the initial quality of groundwater of geogenic origin has been subsequently modified by the influences of anthropogenic and marine sources.

  13. Simulation of the Impacts of Urbanization on Winter Meteorological Fields over the Pearl River Delta Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naixing Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influences of urbanization on weather in Guangdong Province, China, were studied using the Weather Research and Forecasting model from 31 December 2009 through 3 January 2010. Model outputs were compared with extensive monitoring of meteorological data to examine the simulation ability. Model results between tests (with and without land-use change show that the urbanization had major effects on meteorological fields across nearly the entire Pearl River Delta region and particularly in urban areas. Studied fields (wind speed, temperature, precipitation, and sensible and latent heat fluxes were affected by the urbanization of the PRD region. The major influences occurred in urban areas, where wind speeds decreased greatly, while the daytime surface upward sensible heat flux clearly increased. Unlike the sensible heat flux, the latent heat flux had a nonmonotonic increase or decrease. As a consequence of the two heat fluxes, 2-m temperature varied with location and time. Change of precipitation was complex. The main rain band became more concentrated, while precipitation decreased upwind of the urban area and increased downwind.

  14. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC measurements in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-chung Chang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We measured levels of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs at seven sites in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region of China during the Air Quality Monitoring Campaign spanning 4 October to 3 November 2004. Two of the sites, Guangzhou (GZ and Xinken (XK, were intensive sites at which we collected multiple daily canister samples. The observations reported here provide a look at the VOC distribution, speciation, and photochemical implications in the PRD region. Alkanes constituted the largest percentage (>40% in mixing ratios of the quantified VOCs at six sites; the exception was one major industrial site that was dominated by aromatics (about 52%. Highly elevated VOC levels occurred at GZ during two pollution episodes; however, the chemical composition of VOCs did not exhibit noticeable changes during these episodes. We calculated the OH loss rate to estimate the chemical reactivity of all VOCs. Of the anthropogenic VOCs, alkenes played a predominant role in VOC reactivity at GZ, whereas the contributions of reactive aromatics were more important at XK. Our preliminary analysis of the VOC correlations suggests that the ambient VOCs at GZ came directly from local sources (i.e., automobiles; those at XK were influenced by both local emissions and transportation of air mass from upwind areas.

  15. RETRIEVAL OF MINERAL ABUNDANCES OF THE DELTA REGION IN EBERSWALDE, MARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Eberswalde Crater, a hotspot of Mars exploration, possesses an unambiguous hydrological system. However, little research has been performed on the large-scale mineral abundances retrieval in this region. Hence, we employed hyperspectral unmixing technology to quantitatively retrieve mineral abundances of the delta region in Eberswalde. In this paper, the single-scattering albedos were calculated by the Hapke bidirectional reflectance function from Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM data (FRT000060DD and CRISM spectral library respectively, and a sparse unmixing algorithm was adopted to quantitatively retrieve mineral abundances. The abundance maps show that there are six kinds of minerals (pyroxene, olivine, plagioclase, siderite, diaspore, and tremolite. By comparing minerals spectra obtained from images with corresponding spectra in spectral library, we found the similar trend in both curves. Besides, the mineral abundance maps derived in this study agree well spatially with CRISM parameter maps. From the perspective of mineralogy, the instability of pyroxene and olivine indicates the area in which they distribute is close to provenance, and the original provenance is ultrabasic rock (e.g. peridotite and basic rock (e.g. gabbro, respectively. And minerals, existing in the area of alluvial fan, also distribute in the outside of alluvial fan, which might be caused by fluid transportation.

  16. Assessing Niger-Delta Wetland Resources: A Case-Study of Mangrove Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwan, R. H.; Ndimele, P. E.; Whenu, O. O.; Anetekhai, M. A.; Essien-Ibok, M. A.; Erondu, E. S.

    2016-02-01

    The Niger Delta is located in the Atlantic coast of Southern Nigeria and is the world's second largest delta with a coastline of about 450km. The Niger Delta region occupies a surface area of about 112,110km2, representing about 12% of Nigeria's total surface area. The Delta's environment can be broken down into four ecological zones: coastal barrier islands, mangrove swamp forests, freshwater swamps, and lowland rainforests. The mangrove swamps of Niger Delta, which is the largest delta in Africa constitute the dominant wetland ecosystem in the Niger Delta region and covers an area of about 1,900km2. Mangroves constitute important nurseries for fishes, crustaceans, sponges, algae and other invertebrates, and also acts as a sink, retaining pollutants from contaminated tidal water. The Niger Delta mangrove together with the creeks and rivers are a major source of food and livelihood for about 30 million people, which represents more than 17% of Nigeria's population. Other ecosystem services provided by this unique environment are flood control, ground water re-fill, reservoir of biodiversity, fuel wood, cultural values etc. This ecosystem also plays important role in climate change mitigation because of its high blue carbon sequestration potential. This is particularly important because of continuous gas flaring in Niger Delta from petroleum operations, which releases carbon dioxide among other gases into the atmosphere. This wetland is potentially a good site for ecotourism and also qualifies to be a world heritage site and Ramsar site if proper steps are taken. The benefits derivable from this fragile ecosystem are under severe threat by anthropogenic stressors. These include the installation of pipelines and seismic exploration by oil companies, crude oil pollution, deforestation, urbanization etc. This paper discusses the extent of depletion and loss of mangrove ecosystem in the Niger Delta region and the value of its goods and services.

  17. Emission inventory of anthropogenic air pollutants and VOC species in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Huang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop an emission inventory for major anthropogenic air pollutants and VOC species in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region for the year 2007. A "bottom-up" methodology was adopted to compile the inventory based on major emission sources in the sixteen cities of this region. Results show that the emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, PM10, PM2.5, VOCs, and NH3 in the YRD region for the year 2007 are 2392 kt, 2293 kt, 6697 kt, 3116 kt, 1511 kt, 2767 kt, and 459 kt, respectively. Ethylene, mp-xylene, o-xylene, toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 2,4-dimethylpentane, ethyl benzene, propylene, 1-pentene, and isoprene are the key species contributing 77 % to the total ozone formation potential (OFP. The spatial distribution of the emissions shows the emissions and OFPs are mainly concentrated in the urban and industrial areas along the Yangtze River and around Hangzhou Bay. The industrial sources, including power plants other fuel combustion facilities, and non-combustion processes contribute about 97 %, 86 %, 89 %, 91 %, and 69 % of the total SO2, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, and VOC emissions. Vehicles take up 12.3 % and 12.4 % of the NOx and VOC emissions, respectively. Regarding OFPs, the chemical industry, domestic use of paint & printing, and gasoline vehicles contribute 38 %, 24 %, and 12 % to the ozone formation in the YRD region.

  18. High resolution of black carbon and organic carbon emissions in the Pearl River Delta region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Junyu; He, Min; Shen, Xingling; Yin, Shasha; Yuan, Zibing

    2012-11-01

    A high-resolution regional black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) emission inventory for the year 2009 was developed for the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, China, based on the collected activity data and the latest emission factors. PM(2.5), BC and OC emissions were estimated to be 303 kt, 39 kt and 31 kt, respectively. Industrial processes were major contributing sources to PM(2.5) emissions. BC emissions were mainly from mobile sources, accounting for 65.0%, while 34.1% of OC emissions were from residential combustion. The primary OC/BC ratios for individual cities in the PRD region were dependent on the levels of economic development due to differences in source characteristics, with high ratios in the less developed cities and low ratios in the central and southern developed areas. The preliminary temporal profiles were established, showing the highest OC emissions in winter and relatively constant BC emissions throughout the year. The emissions were spatially allocated into grid cells with a resolution of 3 km × 3 km. Large amounts of BC emissions were distributed over the central-southern PRD city clusters, while OC emissions exhibited a relatively even spatial distribution due to the significant biomass burning emissions from the outlying area of the PRD region. Uncertainties in carbonaceous aerosol emissions were usually higher than in other primary pollutants like SO(2), NO(x), and PM(10). One of the key uncertainty sources was the emission factor, due to the absence of direct measurements of BC and OC emission rates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. NTS radiological assessment project: comparison of delta-surface interpolation with kriging for the Frenchman Lake region of area 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, T.A. Jr.

    1981-08-01

    The primary objective of this report is to compare the results of delta surface interpolation with kriging on four large sets of radiological data sampled in the Frenchman Lake region at the Nevada Test Site. The results of kriging, described in Barnes, Giacomini, Reiman, and Elliott, are very similar to those using the delta surface interpolant. The other topic studied is in reducing the number of sample points and obtaining results similar to those using all of the data. The positive results here suggest that great savings of time and money can be made. Furthermore, the delta surface interpolant is viewed as a contour map and as a three dimensional surface. These graphical representations help in the analysis of the large sets of radiological data

  20. Temporal fluctuation of multidrug resistant salmonella typhi haplotypes in the mekong river delta region of Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E Holt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available typhoid fever remains a public health problem in Vietnam, with a significant burden in the Mekong River delta region. Typhoid fever is caused by the bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi, which is frequently multidrug resistant with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolone-based drugs, the first choice for the treatment of typhoid fever. We used a GoldenGate (Illumina assay to type 1,500 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and analyse the genetic variation of S. Typhi isolated from 267 typhoid fever patients in the Mekong delta region participating in a randomized trial conducted between 2004 and 2005.the population of S. Typhi circulating during the study was highly clonal, with 91% of isolates belonging to a single clonal complex of the S. Typhi H58 haplogroup. The patterns of disease were consistent with the presence of an endemic haplotype H58-C and a localised outbreak of S. Typhi haplotype H58-E2 in 2004. H58-E2-associated typhoid fever cases exhibited evidence of significant geo-spatial clustering along the Sông H u branch of the Mekong River. Multidrug resistance was common in the established clone H58-C but not in the outbreak clone H58-E2, however all H58 S. Typhi were nalidixic acid resistant and carried a Ser83Phe amino acid substitution in the gyrA gene.the H58 haplogroup dominates S. Typhi populations in other endemic areas, but the population described here was more homogeneous than previously examined populations, and the dominant clonal complex (H58-C, -E1, -E2 observed in this study has not been detected outside Vietnam. IncHI1 plasmid-bearing S. Typhi H58-C was endemic during the study period whilst H58-E2, which rarely carried the plasmid, was only transient, suggesting a selective advantage for the plasmid. These data add insight into the outbreak dynamics and local molecular epidemiology of S. Typhi in southern Vietnam.

  1. Ethics of Care: A Panacea to the Niger-Delta Crises. | Eribo | Lwati ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the relevance of 'ethics of care' in the furtherance of a harmonious relationship between the Federal government, multi-national oil companies with the indigenous communities in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria. The paper is of the view that when the 'ethics of care' is properly applied to the ...

  2. Palaeomagnetism of lower cretaceous tuffs from Yukon-Kuskokwim delta region, western Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globerman, B.R.; Coe, R.S.; Hoare, J.M.; Decker, J.

    1983-01-01

    During the past decade, the prescient arguments1-3 for the allochthoneity of large portions of southern Alaska have been corroborated by detailed geological and palaeomagnetic studies in south-central Alaska 4-9 the Alaska Peninsula10, Kodiak Island11,12 and the Prince William Sound area13 (Fig. 1). These investigations have demonstrated sizeable northward displacements for rocks of late Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, and early Tertiary age in those regions, with northward motion at times culminating in collision of the allochthonous terranes against the backstop of 'nuclear' Alaska14,15. A fundamental question is which parts of Alaska underwent significantly less latitudinal translation relative to the 'stable' North American continent, thereby serving as the 'accretionary nucleus' into which the displaced 'microplates'16 were eventually incorporated17,18? Here we present new palaeomagnetic results from tuffs and associated volcaniclastic rocks of early Cretaceous age from the Yukon-Kuskokwin delta region in western Alaska. These rocks were probably overprinted during the Cretaceous long normal polarity interval, although a remagnetization event as recent as Palaeocene cannot be ruled out. This overprint direction is not appreciably discordant from the expected late Cretaceous direction for cratonal North America. The implied absence of appreciable northward displacement for this region is consistent with the general late Mesozoic-early Tertiary tectonic pattern for Alaska, based on more definitive studies: little to no poleward displacement for central Alaska, though substantially more northward drift for the 'southern Alaska terranes' (comprising Alaska Peninsula, Kodiak Island, Prince William Sound area, and Matunuska Valley) since late Cretaceous to Palaeocene time. ?? 1983 Nature Publishing Group.

  3. Environmental lead pollution threatens the children living in the Pearl River Delta region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianmin; Tong, Yongpeng; Xu, Jiazhang; Liu, Xiaoli; Li, Yulan; Tan, Mingguang; Li, Yan

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study is to determine children's blood lead levels and identify sources of lead exposure. Childhood lead exposure constitutes a major pediatric health problem today in China. A blood lead screening survey program for children in the age group of 2-12 years residing in Pearl River Delta region, south of China, was carried out from Dec 2007 to Jan 2008. Blood lead levels and lead isotope ratios of a total of 761 participants were assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Measurements of urban environmental samples for source identification of children lead exposure were also performed. The geometric mean value of the children's blood lead levels was 57.05 μg/L, and 9.6% of them were higher than 100 μg/L. The blood lead levels were still much higher than those in developed countries. Based on the data of environmental lead source inventories, lead isotopic tracing revealed that there is about 6.7% past used gasoline Pb embedded in Shenzhen residential dust and about 15.6% in Guangzhou dust, respectively.

  4. GPS-seismograms reveal amplified shaking in California's San Joaquin Delta region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, I. A.

    2014-12-01

    The March 10, 2014, the Mw6.8 Ferndale earthquake occurred off the coast of Northern California, near the Mendocino Triple Junction. Aftershocks suggest a northeast striking fault plane for the strike-slip earthquake, oriented such that the California coast is roughly perpendicular to the rupture plane. Consequently, large amplitude Love waves were observed at seismic stations and continuous GPS stations throughout Northern California. While GPS is less sensitive then broadband instruments, in Northern California their station density is much higher, potentially providing valuable detail. A total of 269 GPS stations that have high-rate (1 sps) data available were used to generate GPS-seismograms. These include stations from the Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) network, the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO, operated by UNAVCO), and the USGS, Menlo Park. The Track software package was used to generate relative displacements between pairs of stations, determined using Delaunay triangulation. This network-based approach allows for higher precision than absolute positioning, because common noise sources, in particular atmospheric noise, are cancelled out. A simple least-squares network adjustment with a stable centroid constraint is performed to transform the mesh of relative motions into absolute motions at individual GPS stations. This approach to generating GPS-seismograms is validated by the good agreement between time series records at 16 BARD stations that are co-located with broadband seismometers from the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN). While the distribution of peak dynamic displacements is dominated in long periods by the radiation pattern, at shorter periods other patterns become visible. In particular, stations in the San Joaquin Delta (SJD) region show higher peak dynamic displacements than those in surrounding areas, as well as longer duration shaking. SJD stations also have higher dynamic displacements on the radial component than surrounding

  5. Applying Sediment Cores and Nuclear Techniques for Pollution Assessment in the Bonny/new Calabar River Estuary, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omokheyeke, O.; Sikoki, F.; Abdelmourhit, L.

    2015-01-01

    Sediment cores were collected from the Bonny Estuary in August 2011 to archive pollution records over the last 80 years. Three sampling locations were selected and used for assessing the extent of pollution in the estuary. Alpha and gamma spectrometer in conjunction with the constant rate of supply (CRS) model were deployed to establish the age of the sediment and the data were validated using 137 Cs profiles and events that occurred within the region. The results of the activities of naturally occurring radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K) ranged between 15 ± 2 and 34 ± 3 Bq kg -1 ; 32 ± 5 and 48 ± 6 Bq kg -1 ; 264 ± 29 and 462 ± 36 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The profiles of stations 1 and 2 exhibited a relatively constant activity but that of station 3 showed significant decrease with depth which was appropriate for radiometric dating. CRS model displayed an increase in the bulk sediment accumulation over the past 80 years, with special reference to 1938, 1955, 1973 1997 and 2004. The cesium-137 profile was in agreement with the CRS established ages. The sedimentation rates obtained ranged from 0.019 to 0.034 gcm -2 y -1 . The data further revealed that minor and major environmental perturbations occurred in the early 1970s and late 1990s respectively. Core profiles of total hydrocarbon content ranged from 0.001 to 130.80 ppm and total phosphorus 0.01 to 0.499 mg/g. The observed profiles had peaks corresponding chronologically to severe environmental perturbations resulting from massive oil spills and substantial delivery of phosphorus from agricultural runoffs between early 1970s and early 2000s. It is therefore surmised that since the advent of industrial activities the estuary has been subject to perturbations and contamination from human activities which has resulted in adverse fluctuations in environment conditions. (author)

  6. Linking biochemical perturbations in tissues of the African catfish to the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Ovia River, Niger Delta region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obinaju, Blessing E.; Graf, Carola; Halsall, Crispin; Martin, Francis L.

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a pollution issue in the Niger Delta region due to oil industry activities. PAHs were measured in the water column of the Ovia River with concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1055.6 ng L −1 . Attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy detected alterations in tissues of the African catfish (Heterobranchus bidorsalis) from the region showed varying degrees of statistically significant (P < 0.0001, P < 0.001, P < 0.05) changes to absorption band areas and shifts in centroid positions of peaks. Alteration patterns were similar to those induced by benzo[a]pyrene in MCF-7 cells. These findings have potential health implications for resident local communities as H. bidorsalis constitutes a key nutritional source. The study provides supporting evidence for the sensitivity of infrared spectroscopy in environmental studies and supports their potential application in biomonitoring. - Highlights: • PAHs measured in the water column of the Ovia River (Nigeria). • ATR-FTIR spectroscopy detects alterations in tissues of the African catfish (Heterobranchus bidorsalis). • Spectral alteration similar to those induced by benzo[a]pyrene in MCF-7 cells. • Alterations in tissues of African catfish (H. bidorsalis) a function of exposure to waterborne PAHs. • Vibrational spectroscopy techniques detect minimal changes induced by environmental exposures. - Spatial and temporal analyses by biospectroscopy techniques of African catfish (Heterobranchus bidorsalis) tissues suggest that detected alterations can reflect fluctuating exposures to PAHs

  7. Non-methane hydrocarbon characteristics of motor vehicular emissions in the Pearl River Delta region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wai Yan

    2007-12-01

    Air pollution problem in Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region has raised much concern from the public in recent years. The primary aim of this research is to use field measurement data to characterize non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) in emission from motor vehicles. Fuel vapor compositions for several commonly used vehicular fuels in Hong Kong, Macau, Guangzhou and Zhuhai were analyzed in 2003, and they are believed to be the first one reported for the PRD region. These profiles were used to study the impact of evaporative loss of the fuels on air quality. From the roadside and tunnel samples collected in the four cities mentioned above from 2000 to 2003, results showed that vehicular engine combustion was a main NMHC source, while gasoline evaporative losses also contributed much to the total NMHC emission, besides, LPG leakage was also found to be significant from the tunnel measurement data collected in Hong Kong. Characteristics of vehicular engine exhaust emissions were also studied. Measurements of diesel emission showed a large influence on the emission profile due to the change of diesel compositions. The E/E ratios implied that gasoline-powered vehicles in Hong Kong were equipped with well functioning catalysts, while those in Guangzhou and Zhuhai, especially the motorcycles, were found dirtier in NMHC emission. Although the E/E ratios showed that private cars in Hong Kong had high combustion efficiency, the existence of significant amounts of unburned gasoline in their exhaust stream pointed out that they still had low fuel economy. From the results of a simple model, it was found that the evaporative losses of gasoline and LPG contributed much to the total NMHC pollution from vehicle. The preliminary results from the dynamometer study conducted in Hong Kong showed large variations of exhaust characteristics for private cars and taxis during different driving speeds. The results can be used as scientific basis for regulatory parties in

  8. Sources and characteristics of carbonaceous aerosol in two largest cities in Pearl River Delta Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jingchun; Tan, Jihua; Cheng, Dingxi; Bi, Xinhui; Deng, Wenjing; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo; Wong, M. H.

    PM 2.5 samples were collected at five sites in Guangzhou and Hong Kong, Pearl River Delta Region (PRDR), China in both summer and winter during 2004-2005. Elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in these samples were measured. The OC and EC concentrations ranked in the order of urban Guangzhou > urban Hong Kong > background Hong Kong. Total carbonaceous aerosol (TCA) contributed less to PM 2.5 in urban Guangzhou (32-35%) than that in urban Hong Kong (43-57%). The reason may be that, as an major industrial city in South China, Guangzhou would receive large amount of inorganic aerosol from all kinds of industries, however, as a trade center and seaport, urban Hong Kong would mainly receive organic aerosol and EC from container vessels and heavy-duty diesel trucks. At Hong Kong background site Hok Tsui, relatively lower contribution of TCA to PM 2.5 may result from contributions of marine inorganic aerosol and inland China pollutant. Strong correlation ( R2=0.76-0.83) between OC and EC indicates minor fluctuation of emission and the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in urban Guangzhou. Weak correlation between OC and EC in Hong Kong can be related to the impact of the long-range transported aerosol from inland China. Averagely, secondary OC (SOC) concentrations were 3.8-5.9 and 10.2-12.8 μg m -3, respectively, accounting for 21-32% and 36-42% of OC in summer and winter in Guangzhou. The average values of 4.2-6.8% for SOA/ PM 2.5 indicate that SOA was minor component in PM 2.5 in Guangzhou.

  9. Gender and High School Organization: Insights on Leadership Styles in the Niger Delta Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta A. Opara

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The position of the school principal as a leader is incontrovertible. The problems that plagues the school system are so numerous that those who are within the educational system are so overwhelmed not to talk of outsiders who are poised to ask such a pertinent question like “are the principals leading the schools well?” If the principals among the male and female are sophisticated with the theories and practice of management, to what extent do they quantitatively involve the rightful leadership styles to direct the affairs of their various schools? The sex of the principal has equally become very important in a study of this nature. Every person within the school system looks forward to the principals to give the appropriate leadership for others to follow. The sex of the principal from previous experience reveals that the strength of character and dynamism is needed to achieve or reach some administrative goals.The female principals may be intimidated by the enormity of the school problems and get carried away or accept the situation as it is. This study examined the quality valuation among the male and female principals in their choice of leadership styles in Rivers State of the Niger Delta region. The principals, the teachers and the student were all required to make their contributions to ascertain what style of leadership that is commonly adopted by the male on the one hand and the female principals on the other. The analysed data shows that the female principals qualitatively involve the democratic style of leadership than the men. The female principals also involve their staff in decision-making than does the male counterpart, the male principals, who adopted the democratic and the autocratic styles of leadership are quicker at the management of crises in schools than the female principals.

  10. Light Absorption of Brown Carbon Aerosol in the Pearl River Delta Region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.

    2015-12-01

    X.F. Huang, J.F. Yuan, L.M. Cao, J. Cui, C.N. Huang, Z.J. Lan and L.Y. He Key Laboratory for Urban Habitat Environmental Science and Technology, School of Environment and Energy, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen 518055, ChinaCorresponding author. Tel.: +86 755 26032532; fax: +86 755 26035332. E-mail address: huangxf@pku.edu.cn (X. F. Huang). Abstract: The strong spectral dependence of light absorption of brown carbon (BrC) aerosol has been recognized in recent decades. The Absorption Angstrom Exponent (AAE) of ambient aerosol was widely used in previous studies to attribute light absorption of brown carbon at shorter wavelengths, with a theoretical assumption that the AAE of black carbon (BC) aerosol equals to unit. In this study, the AAE method was improved by statistical extrapolation based on ambient measurements in the polluted seasons in typical urban and rural areas in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of China. A three-wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS-3) and an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) were used to explore the relationship between the ambient measured AAE and the ratio of organic aerosol to BC aerosol, in order to extract the more realistic AAE by pure BC aerosol, which were found to be 0.86, 0.82 and 1.02 at 405nm and 0.70, 0.71, and 0.86 at 532nm in the campaigns of urban-winter, urban-fall, and rural-fall, respectively. Roadway tunnel experiment results further supported the effectiveness of the obtained AAE for pure BC aerosol. In addition, biomass burning experiments proved higher spectral dependence of more-BrC environment and further verified the reliability of the instruments' response. Then, the average light absorption contribution of BrC aerosol was calculated to be 11.7, 6.3 and 12.1% (with total relative uncertainty of 7.5, 6.9 and 10.0%) at 405nm and 10.0, 4.1 and 5.5% (with total relative uncertainty of 6.5, 8.6 and 15.4%) at 532nm of the three campaigns, respectively. These results indicate that the

  11. Strategies for Developing Drought Tolerant Cowpea varieties for the Semi-Arid regions of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyaku, M. F.

    2000-10-01

    Drought, meaning the deviation of the total amount and or distribution of precipitation from the normal is an important factor that cause untold human suffering as well as social and economic loss for any nation. Its effects are often felt by places so remote from the area of occurrence. In the agricultural sector, where its effect are most felt, drought risk greatly reduce investment in agriculture. This will no doubt contribute to national food insecurity and social unrest. Of the measures often prescribed to combat the menace of drought include the development and planting of drought resistant/tolerant crop varieties. This paper discusses the strategies for developing drought tolerant cowpea varieties for the drought-prone regions of Nigeria. These strategies include the introduction and screening of candidate drought tolerant cowpea germplasm and their utilization in developing new improved genotypes. The screening of populations will be carried out by adopting novel screening techniques in the lab as well as in the field. In addition to utilizing existing genetic variation to develop varieties with tolerance to drought, new sources of variation will be created artificially for the various traits known to confer tolerance to drought in cowpea. In creating genetic variability for drought tolerance traits artificially, the potential of irradiation induced mutation will be exploited

  12. Regional severe particle pollution and its association with synoptic weather patterns in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Lei; Xie, Min; Gao, Da; Wang, Tijian; Fang, Dexian; Liu, Qian; Huang, Anning; Peng, Liwen

    2017-11-01

    Regional air pollution is significantly associated with dominant weather systems. In this study, the relationship between the particle pollution over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region and weather patterns is investigated. First, the pollution characteristics of particles in the YRD are studied using in situ monitoring data (PM2.5 and PM10) in 16 cities and Terra/MODIS AOD (aerosol optical depth) products collected from December 2013 to November 2014. The results show that the regional mean value of AOD is high in the YRD, with an annual mean value of 0.71±0.57. The annual mean particle concentrations in the cities of Jiangsu Province all exceed the national air quality standard. The pollution level is higher in inland areas, and the highest concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 are 79 and 130 µg m-3, respectively, in Nanjing. The PM2.5 : PM10 ratios are typically high, thus indicating that PM2.5 is the overwhelmingly dominant particle pollutant in the YRD. The wintertime peak of particle concentrations is tightly linked to the increased emissions during the heating season as well as adverse meteorological conditions. Second, based on NCEP (National Center for Environmental Prediction) reanalysis data, synoptic weather classification is conducted and five typical synoptic patterns are objectively identified. Finally, the synthetic analysis of meteorological fields and backward trajectories are applied to further clarify how these patterns impact particle concentrations. It is demonstrated that air pollution is more or less influenced by high-pressure systems. The relative position of the YRD to the anti-cyclonic circulation exerts significant effects on the air quality of the YRD. The YRD is largely influenced by polluted air masses from the northern and the southern inland areas when it is located at the rear of the East Asian major trough. The significant downward motion of air masses results in stable weather conditions, thereby hindering the diffusion of air

  13. Economical Utilization of Associated Gas in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Obayopo Alimi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil production is often accompanied by associated natural gas as valuable by-product of oil processing. Large amount of this vital energy component is flared during these processes, mostly in developing countries. For a longer period of time more gas is flares in Nigeria than anywhere else in Africa and second to Russian in the world, with daily estimates of roughly 2.5 billion cubic feet. This is equivalent to around 40% of all Africa´s natural gas consumption, and annual financial loss to Nigeria is about 1.8 billion Euros. Gas flaring contributes to major environmental pollution problems, which affects oil producing areas of the Niger Delta in Nigeria. This research attempts to look into the environmental issues in the region and proposes possible solutions, with recommendations that will contribute to improve associated gas utilization. This study describes gas to liquid (GTL conversion technology as a sustainable option to utilize associated gas in Nigeria, and also evaluates the economic attractiveness of the process. This conversion technology could contribute to total elimination of gas flaring and reduces the overdependence on importation of refined products (petrol, diesel and kerosene from foreign countries into Nigeria.

  14. The situation in the Niger Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitalis, E.

    2007-01-01

    An energy issue for the United States and a political challenge for Europe, Nigeria is experiencing growing instability and is on the verge of civil war; the ecosystem and the population of the Niger Delta are the main victims. The State, corrupt, is powerless to contain the rising violence and redistribute the proceeds of oil sales. It is high time for oil-consuming countries, starting with the United States, to concern themselves with stabilizing the region. Europe must contribute to the lasting development of this country. (author)

  15. Determination of uranium in environmental samples from the Nile delta and the adjacent regions of Egypt using laser fluorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shawky, S; Ibrahim, N; Farouk, A [National research Center for Nuclear safety and radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority, cairo (Egypt); Ghods, A [IAEA Laboratories, Chemistry Unit., A 244 Seibersdorf, (Austria)

    1995-10-01

    Total uranium content was determined in soil and plant samples taken from various areas in the Nile delta. Samples from east and west of the delta, the suez canal` cities and from alexandria region were analyzed using laser fluorimetry (LF). Uranium was extracted from digested ashed samples with methyl-isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and measured using laser fluorimeter. The radium content of the same soil samples was determined using gamma spectrometry (GS). The uranium content of plant samples was determined using (LF), since it has a detection limit lower than of (GS). The uranium content varied between 0.6-4.4{mu}g/g and 0.032-0.17 {mu}g/g for soil and plant samples respectively. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Determination of uranium in environmental samples from the Nile delta and the adjacent regions of Egypt using laser fluorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shawky, S.; Ibrahim, N.; Farouk, A.; Ghods, A.

    1995-01-01

    Total uranium content was determined in soil and plant samples taken from various areas in the Nile delta. Samples from east and west of the delta, the suez canal' cities and from alexandria region were analyzed using laser fluorimetry (LF). Uranium was extracted from digested ashed samples with methyl-isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and measured using laser fluorimeter. The radium content of the same soil samples was determined using gamma spectrometry (GS). The uranium content of plant samples was determined using (LF), since it has a detection limit lower than of (GS). The uranium content varied between 0.6-4.4μg/g and 0.032-0.17 μg/g for soil and plant samples respectively. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  17. [Emission factors and PM chemical composition study of biomass burning in the Yangtze River Delta region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xi-Bin; Huang, Cheng; Lou, Sheng-Rong; Qiao, Li-Ping; Wang, Hong-Li; Zhou, Min; Chen, Ming-hua; Chen, Chang-Hong; Wang, Qian; Li, Gui-Ling; Li, Li; Huang, Hai-Ying; Zhang, Gang-Feng

    2014-05-01

    The emission characteristics of five typical crops, including wheat straw, rice straw, oil rape straw, soybean straw and fuel wood, were investigated to explore the gas and particulates emission of typical biomass burning in Yangzi-River-Delta area. The straws were tested both by burning in stove and by burning in the farm with a self-developed measurement system as open burning sources. Both gas and fine particle pollutants were measured in this study as well as the chemical composition of fine particles. The results showed that the average emission factors of CO, NO, and PM2,5 in open farm burning were 28.7 g.kg -1, 1.2 g.kg-1 and 2.65 g kg-1 , respectively. Due to insufficient burning in the low oxygen level environment, the emission factors of stove burning were higher than those of open farm burning, which were 81.9 g kg-1, 2. 1 g.kg -1 and 8.5 gkg -1 , respectively. Oil rape straw had the highest emission factors in all tested straws samples. Carbonaceous matter, including organic carbon(OC) and element carbon(EC) , was the foremost component of PM2, 5from biomass burning. The average mass fractions of OC and EC were (38.92 +/- 13.93)% and (5.66 +/-1.54)% by open farm burning and (26.37 +/- 10. 14)% and (18.97 +/- 10.76)% by stove burning. Water soluble ions such as Cl-and K+ had a large contribution. The average mass fractions of CI- and K+ were (13.27 +/-6. 82)% and (12.41 +/- 3.02)% by open farm burning, and were (16.25 +/- 9.34)% and (13.62 +/- 7.91)% by stove burning. The K +/OC values of particles from wheat straw, rice straw, oil rape straw and soybean straw by open farm burning were 0. 30, 0. 52, 0. 49 and 0. 15, respectively, which can be used to evaluate the influence on the regional air quality in YRD area from biomass burning and provide direct evidence for source apportionment.

  18. Assessment of regional air quality resulting from emission control in the Pearl River Delta region, southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N; Lyu, X P; Deng, X J; Guo, H; Deng, T; Li, Y; Yin, C Q; Li, F; Wang, S Q

    2016-12-15

    To evaluate the impact of emission control measures on the air quality in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of South China, statistic data including atmospheric observations, emissions and energy consumptions during 2006-2014 were analyzed, and a Weather Research and Forecasting - Community Multi-scale Air Quality (WRF-CMAQ) model was used for various scenario simulations. Although energy consumption doubled from 2004 to 2014 and vehicle number significantly increased from 2006 to 2014, ambient SO 2 , NO 2 and PM 10 were reduced by 66%, 20% and 24%, respectively, mainly due to emissions control efforts. In contrast, O 3 increased by 19%. Model simulations of three emission control scenarios, including a baseline (a case in 2010), a CAP (a case in 2020 assuming control strength followed past control tendency) and a REF (a case in 2020 referring to the strict control measures based on recent policy/plans) were conducted to investigate the variations of air pollutants to the changes in NO x , VOCs and NH 3 emissions. Although the area mean concentrations of NO x , nitrate and PM 2.5 decreased under both NO x CAP (reduced by 1.8%, 0.7% and 0.2%, respectively) and NO x REF (reduced by 7.2%, 1.8% and 0.3%, respectively), a rising of PM 2.5 was found in certain areas as reducing NO x emissions elevated the atmospheric oxidizability. Furthermore, scenarios with NH 3 emission reductions showed that nitrate was sensitive to NH 3 emissions, with decreasing percentages of 0-10.6% and 0-48% under CAP and REF, respectively. Controlling emissions of VOCs reduced PM 2.5 in the southwestern PRD where severe photochemical pollution frequently occurred. It was also found that O 3 formation in PRD was generally VOCs-limited while turned to be NO x -limited in the afternoon (13:00-17:00), suggesting that cutting VOCs emissions would reduce the overall O 3 concentrations while mitigating NO x emissions in the afternoon could reduce the peak O 3 levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  19. Estimating Air Particulate Matter Using MODIS Data and Analyzing Its Spatial and Temporal Pattern over the Yangtze Delta Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The deteriorating air quality in the Yangtze delta region is attracting growing public concern. In this paper, seasonal estimation models of the surface particulate matter (PM were established by using aerosol optical thickness (AOT retrievals from the moderate resolution imaging spectro-radiometer (MODIS on board NASA’s Terra satellite. The change of the regional distribution of the atmospheric mixed layer, relative humidity and meteorological elements have been taken into account in these models. We also used PM mass concentrations of ground measurements to evaluate the estimation accuracy of those models. The results show that model estimation of PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations were in good agreement with the ground-based observation of PM mass concentrations (p < 0.01, the R2 value of the PM2.5 concentrations experimental model for four seasons are 0.48, 0.62, 0.61 and 0.52 respectively. The R2 value of PM10 concentrations experimental model for four seasons are 0.57, 0.56, 0.64 and 0.68 respectively. At the same time, spatial and temporal variations of PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations were analysed over the Yangtze delta region from 2000 to 2013. The results show that PM2.5 and PM10 show a trend of increase in the Yangtze delta region from 2000 to 2013 and change periodically. The maximum mass concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 was in January–February, and the minimum was in July–August. The highest values of PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentration are in the region of urban agglomeration which is grouped to a delta-shaped region by Shanghai, Hangzhou and Nanjing, while the low values are in the forest far away from the city. PM mass concentration over main cities and rural areas increased gradually year by year, and were increasing more quickly in urban areas than in rural areas.

  20. Students' participation in Hult Prize and their decision for entrepreneurship: Data gathered from Hult Prize 2018 regional finals in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwatobi, Stephen; Oshokoya, Damilare; Atayero, Aderemi; Oludayo, Olumuyiwa; Nsofor, Colette; Oyebode, Adeola

    2018-08-01

    This data article is an expression of data that reflects how students' participation in the Hult Prize 2018 regional finals affects their decision to become entrepreneurs. The primary data was sourced using a questionnaire developed with Google doc form. Out of 120 students that participated in the Hult Prize 2018 regional finals in Nigeria, 103 of them responded. Their responses are as presented in this article. Such will be relevant to researchers who want to find out why students desire to become entrepreneurs and the best approach and timing to enable them.

  1. A coincidence measurement of the D(gamma, pp pi(-)) cross section in the region of the Delta resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quraan, Maher A.

    Photonuclear reactions are excellent means for understanding final state interactions (FSI). The photon interacts only electromagnetically, allowing a clean separation of the strong interaction channels in the final state. The availability of high duty factor electron machines and large acceptance detectors in the past decade have allowed a further investigation of these effects covering wider regions of phase space. In this experiment, we have successfully measured the D(/gamma, pp/pi/sp-) reaction cross section at the Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory (SAL) utilizing the Saskatchewan- Alberta Large Acceptance Detector (SALAD). This is the first measurement of the /gamma D /to pp/pi/sp--cross section covering a wide range of phase space with an attempt to study the FSI's and the /Delta - N interaction that has successfully reproduced the normalizations. The cross section for this reaction is compared to the calculation of J. M. Laget. Laget's theory is quite successful in describing the shapes of the distributions. as well as the overall magnitude of the cross section. The different FSI's and the /Delta - N interaction have an overall effect of 10%-15% on the single differential cross section, with the calculation that includes /Delta - N interaction having the best normalization compared to the data.

  2. A regional GNSS-VTEC model over Nigeria using neural networks: A novel approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Okoh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A neural network model of the Global Navigation Satellite System – vertical total electron content (GNSS-VTEC over Nigeria is developed. A new approach that has been utilized in this work is the consideration of the International Reference Ionosphere's (IRI's critical plasma frequency (foF2 parameter as an additional neuron for the network's input layer. The work also explores the effects of using various other input layer neurons like disturbance storm time (DST and sunspot number. All available GNSS data from the Nigerian Permanent GNSS Network (NIGNET were used, and these cover the period from 2011 to 2015, for 14 stations. Asides increasing the learning accuracy of the networks, the inclusion of the IRI's foF2 parameter as an input neuron is ideal for making the networks to learn long-term solar cycle variations. This is important especially for regions, like in this work, where the GNSS data is available for less than the period of a solar cycle. The neural network model developed in this work has been tested for time-varying and spatial performances. The latest 10% of the GNSS observations from each of the stations were used to test the forecasting ability of the networks, while data from 2 of the stations were entirely used for spatial performance testing. The results show that root-mean-squared-errors were generally less than 8.5 TEC units for all modes of testing performed using the optimal network. When compared to other models, the model developed in this work was observed to reduce the prediction errors to about half those of the NeQuick and the IRI model.

  3. Numerical model to quantify biogenic volatile organic compound emissions: The Pearl River Delta region as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuemei; Situ, Shuping; Chen, Weihua; Zheng, Junyu; Guenther, Alex; Fan, Qi; Chang, Ming

    2016-08-01

    This article compiles the actual knowledge of the biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions estimated using model methods in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, one of the most developed regions in China. The developed history of BVOC emission models is presented briefly and three typical emission models are introduced and compared. The results from local studies related to BVOC emissions have been summarized. Based on this analysis, it is recommended that local researchers conduct BVOC emission studies systematically, from the assessment of model inputs, to compiling regional emission inventories to quantifying the uncertainties and evaluating the model results. Beyond that, more basic researches should be conducted in the future to close the gaps in knowledge on BVOC emission mechanisms, to develop the emission models and to refine the inventory results. This paper can provide a perspective on these aspects in the broad field of research associated with BVOC emissions in the PRD region. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. South Local Government Area, Delta S

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    environs, Aniocha- South Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria was carried out with a view to determining the ... supply for physical industrial development to achieve maximum human .... the Schlumberger O' Neil software package.

  5. Caribbean piracy and youth restiveness in Niger delta: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our aim in this paper is to make a comparative analysis of Caribbean piracy and youth restiveness in Niger Delta of Nigeria. It will not be out of place to carry out such an analysis having seen, heard or read of the ongoing chaos, insecurity in the. Niger Delta Zone in Nigeria. We have to look at the past to find out such similar

  6. The situation in the Niger Delta; La situation dans le delta du Niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitalis, E

    2007-07-15

    An energy issue for the United States and a political challenge for Europe, Nigeria is experiencing growing instability and is on the verge of civil war; the ecosystem and the population of the Niger Delta are the main victims. The State, corrupt, is powerless to contain the rising violence and redistribute the proceeds of oil sales. It is high time for oil-consuming countries, starting with the United States, to concern themselves with stabilizing the region. Europe must contribute to the lasting development of this country. (author)

  7. Regional review: the hydrology of the Okavango Delta, Botswana-processes, data and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milzow, C.; Kgotlhang, L.; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The wetlands of the Okavango Delta accommodate a multitude of ecosystems with a large diversity in fauna and flora. They not only provide the traditional livelihood of the local communities but are also the basis of a tourism industry that generates substantial revenue for the whole of Botswana....... For the global community, the wetlands retain a tremendous pool of biodiversity. As the upstream states Angola and Namibia are developing, however, changes in the use of the water of the Okavango River and in the ecological status of the wetlands are to be expected. To predict these impacts, the hydrology...

  8. Divergent Developmental Trajectories and Strategic Coupling in the Pearl River Delta: Where Is a Sustainable Way of Regional Economic Growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper interprets regional economic sustainability in the context of the globalization of late-coming regions. Drawing upon the concept of strategic coupling from economic geography, this paper proposes two types of strategic coupling, captive and proactive coupling, for better understanding regional sustainability and resilience through the experiences of the Pearl River Delta in China. It finds that sub-regional economies under captive coupling become highly dependent on exogenous growth and are vulnerable to external shocks. This trajectory looks less sustainable according to the general understanding, but it interestingly shows better resilience during and after the 2008 global financial crisis. In contrast, the ones under proactive coupling are less volatile, but growing much slower and are less resilient. By reporting these regional economic dynamics, this paper argues that sustainability in late-coming regions cannot be explained by either intra-regional forces or the means of global integration alone. In contrast, it has to be explained by the combination of both; the alleged strategic coupling in which economic growth and learning happens. This paper thus calls for greater attention to strategic coupling, the trade-off of globalization and resilience for understanding regional sustainability, rather than purely focusing on resource utilization and ecological balance.

  9. Integrating community perceptions and cultural diversity in social impact assessment in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nzeadibe, Thaddeus Chidi, E-mail: chidi.nzeadibe@unn.edu.ng [Department of Geography, University of Nigeria, 410001 Nsukka (Nigeria); Ajaero, Chukwuedozie Kelechukwu [Demography and Population Studies Programme, The University of Witwatersrand Johannesburg (South Africa); Okonkwo, Emeka Emmanuel; Okpoko, Patrick Uche [Department of Archaeology and Tourism, University of Nigeria, 410001 Nsukka (Nigeria); Akukwe, Thecla Iheoma [Department of Geography, University of Nigeria, 410001 Nsukka (Nigeria); Njoku-Tony, Roseline Feechi [Department of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri (Nigeria)

    2015-11-15

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Act of 1992 aimed to make the environment a central theme in development in Nigeria. Nevertheless, the extent of engagement with local cultures in the Nigerian EIA process is not statutorily guaranteed. While most EIAs in Nigeria have been for oil and gas projects in the Niger Delta, and have focused strongly on the biophysical environment, socio-economic and cultural aspects have remained marginal. The palpable neglect of community perceptions and cultural diversity in social impact assessment (SIA) in this region prone to conflict has tended to alienate the people in the decision-making process. Thus, despite claims to compliance with regulatory requirements for EIAs, and numerous purported sustainable development initiatives by international oil companies (IOCs), the region continues to face multiple sustainability challenges. This paper situates local perceptions and cultural diversity in participatory development and canvasses the integration of community perceptions and cultural diversity into SIA in the Niger Delta region. It is argued that doing this would be critical to ensuring acceptance and success of development actions within the context of local culture while also contributing to sustainable development policy in the region. - Highlights: • Nigeria EIA Act aimed to make the environment central to development in Nigeria. • Engagement with local communities in the process is not statutorily guaranteed. • SIAs in Nigeria neglect community perceptions and cultural diversity. • Article canvasses integrating community perceptions and cultural diversity in SIA. • Local acceptance in context of culture would yield sustainable development outcomes.

  10. Integrating community perceptions and cultural diversity in social impact assessment in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nzeadibe, Thaddeus Chidi; Ajaero, Chukwuedozie Kelechukwu; Okonkwo, Emeka Emmanuel; Okpoko, Patrick Uche; Akukwe, Thecla Iheoma; Njoku-Tony, Roseline Feechi

    2015-01-01

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Act of 1992 aimed to make the environment a central theme in development in Nigeria. Nevertheless, the extent of engagement with local cultures in the Nigerian EIA process is not statutorily guaranteed. While most EIAs in Nigeria have been for oil and gas projects in the Niger Delta, and have focused strongly on the biophysical environment, socio-economic and cultural aspects have remained marginal. The palpable neglect of community perceptions and cultural diversity in social impact assessment (SIA) in this region prone to conflict has tended to alienate the people in the decision-making process. Thus, despite claims to compliance with regulatory requirements for EIAs, and numerous purported sustainable development initiatives by international oil companies (IOCs), the region continues to face multiple sustainability challenges. This paper situates local perceptions and cultural diversity in participatory development and canvasses the integration of community perceptions and cultural diversity into SIA in the Niger Delta region. It is argued that doing this would be critical to ensuring acceptance and success of development actions within the context of local culture while also contributing to sustainable development policy in the region. - Highlights: • Nigeria EIA Act aimed to make the environment central to development in Nigeria. • Engagement with local communities in the process is not statutorily guaranteed. • SIAs in Nigeria neglect community perceptions and cultural diversity. • Article canvasses integrating community perceptions and cultural diversity in SIA. • Local acceptance in context of culture would yield sustainable development outcomes

  11. Linking Backbarrier Lacustrine Stratigraphy with Spatial Dynamics of Shoreline Retreat in a Rapidly Subsiding Region of the Mississippi River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, M.; Liu, K. B.; Bianchette, T. A.; Yao, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The shoreline along the northern Gulf of Mexico is rapidly retreating as coastal features of abandoned Mississippi River delta complexes erode and subside. Bay Champagne is located in the Caminada-Moreau headland, a region of shoreline west of the currently active delta that has one of the highest rates of retreat and land loss. As a result, this site has transitioned from a stable, circular inland lake several kilometers from the shore to a frequently perturbed, semi-circular backbarrier lagoon, making it ideal to study the environmental effects of progressive land loss. Analyses of clastic layers in a series of sediment cores collected at this site over the past decade indicate the lake was less perturbed in the past and has become increasingly more sensitive to marine incursion events caused by tropical cyclones. Geochemical and pollen analyses of these cores also reveal profound changes in environmental and chemical conditions in Bay Champagne over the past century as the shoreline has retreated. Through relating stratigraphy to spatial changes observed from satellite imagery, this study attempts to identify the tipping point at which Bay Champagne began the transition from an inland lake to a backbarrier environment, and to determine the rate at which this transition occurred. Results will be used to develop a model of the environmental transition experienced by a rapidly retreating coastline and to predict how other regions of the Mississippi River deltaic system could respond to future shoreline retreat.

  12. Tropospheric aerosols radiation feedback on the climate of Pearl River Delta Region using an air quality model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduka, I. C.

    2016-12-01

    The Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, one of the most vibrant economic regions in China has been witnessing rapid population, economic and structural growth and development. It is also one of the regions mostly polluted with trace gases and particulates. Recent reviews show large uncertainties in climate modification studies, indicating the need for further investigations, such as the role of tropospheric aerosols on direct and indirect climate modification. The aim of this research is to appraise the impacts of tropospheric aerosols on the climate of PRD region. An integrated air quality downscale meteorology and air quality from regional scale (27km) to local scale (3km). The model will be evaluated for both meteorology and air quality by comparing model results with measurements. The radiative forcing of tropospheric aerosols will also be determined so as to estimate the feedbacks and impacts on the climate. This research, when completed, is expected to improve our understanding of tropospheric aerosol-cloud thermodynamic interactions at regional and local scales, thus enhancing our knowledge of the regional and local climate system, which is anticipated to provide critical references for formulating sustainable environment and air quality policies.

  13. Source areas and chemical composition of fine particulate matter in the Pearl River Delta region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, G. S. W.; Bergin, M. H.; Salmon, L. G.; Yu, J. Z.; Wan, E. C. H.; Zheng, M.; Zeng, L. M.; Kiang, C. S.; Zhang, Y. H.; Lau, A. K. H.; Schauer, J. J.

    Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) was measured for 4 months during 2002-2003 at seven sites located in the rapidly developing Pearl River Delta region of China, an area encompassing the major cities of Hong Kong, Shenzhen and Guangzhou. The 4-month average fine particulate matter concentration ranged from 37 to 71 μg m -3 in Guangdong province and from 29 to 34 μg m -3 in Hong Kong. Main constituents of fine particulate mass were organic compounds (24-35% by mass) and sulfate (21-32%). With sampling sites strategically located to monitor the regional air shed patterns and urban areas, specific source-related fine particulate species (sulfate, organic mass, elemental carbon, potassium and lead) and daily surface winds were analyzed to estimate influential source locations. The impact of transport was investigated by categorizing 13 (of 20 total) sampling days by prevailing wind direction (southerly, northerly or low wind-speed mixed flow). The vicinity of Guangzhou is determined to be a major source area influencing regional concentrations of PM 2.5, with levels observed to increase by 18-34 μg m -3 (accounting for 46-56% of resulting particulate levels) at sites immediately downwind of Guangzhou. The area near Guangzhou is also observed to heavily impact downwind concentrations of lead. Potassium levels, related to biomass burning, appear to be controlled by sources in the northern part of the Pearl River Delta, near rural Conghua and urban Guangzhou. Guangzhou appears to contribute 5-6 μg m -3 of sulfate to downwind locations. Guangzhou also stands out as a significant regional source of organic mass (OM), adding 8.5-14.5 μg m -3 to downwind concentrations. Elemental carbon is observed to be strongly influenced by local sources, with highest levels found in urban regions. In addition, it appears that sources outside of the Pearl River Delta contribute a significant fraction of overall fine particulate matter in Hong Kong and Guangdong province. This is evident

  14. A regional coupled surface water/groundwater model of the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Gumbricht, T.; Kinzelbach, W.

    2006-01-01

    In the endorheic Okavango River system in southern Africa a balance between human and environmental water demands has to be achieved. The runoff generated in the humid tropical highlands of Angola flows through arid Namibia and Botswana before forming a large inland delta and eventually being...... of a surface water flow component based on the diffusive wave approximation of the Saint- Venant equations, a groundwater component, and a relatively simple vadose zone component for calculating the net water exchange between land and atmosphere. The numerical scheme is based on the groundwater simulation......, spectacular wildlife, and a first- class tourism infrastructure, depend on the combined effect of the highly seasonal runoff in the Okavango River and variable local climate. The annual fluctuations in the inflow are transformed into vast areas of seasonally inundated floodplains. Water abstraction...

  15. Analysis of Parents/Teachers Perception of the Use of Corporal Punishment in Primary Schools in Delta and Edo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbe, Joseph O.

    2015-01-01

    The study was meant to analyze Parents and Teachers perception of the use of corporal punishment in primary schools in Edo/Delta state. The purpose was to find time out parents and teachers opinion on the need for continuity or to discontinue the use of corporal punishment among primary school pupils. The method was a descriptive study with the…

  16. Survey of heavy metals in sediments of Kolo creek in the Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1Department of Chemical Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. 2Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. ..... Tecate River, Mexico. Environ. Geol.

  17. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in thirty typical soil profiles in the Yangtze River Delta region, east China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping, L.F.; Luo, Y.M.; Zhang, H.B.; Li, Q.B.; Wu, L.H.

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were quantified in 30 soil profiles from the Yangtze River Delta Region, in east China. Relative concentrations of PAH compounds with different benzene rings and ratios of fluoranthene to fluoranthene plus pyrene and benz(a)anthracene to benz(a)anthracene plus chrysene were used to identify the possible sources of soil PAHs. Total concentrations of 15 PAHs in topsoils ranged from 8.6 to 3881 μg kg -1 with an average of 397 μg kg -1 . Half of the soil samples were considered to be contaminated with PAHs (>200 μg kg -1 ) and two sampling sites were heavily polluted by PAHs with concentrations >1000 μg kg -1 . Phenanthrene was found in soils below a depth of 100 cm in half of the sampling sites, but the detectable ratio of benzo(a)pyrene decreased sharply from 100% in topsoil to 0 in the 4th horizon. - The information was provided on levels, distributions, and possible sources of PAHs in the soils of Yangtze River Delta area

  18. Electrocution attributed to supernatural forces in the Niger delta region of Nigeria: a report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleye-Fubara, D; Etebu, E N

    2005-01-01

    Accidental deaths from electrocution in this environment are sometimes related to charm and witchcraft caused by one's enemies. The aim of this article is to highlight the problems of beliefs and accidental electrocution. We report three cases of accidental electrocution which was believed to be associated with traditional beliefs of witchcraft and charm. Autopsy findings in two cases showed characteristic electric burns (the joule burn which is the area of entry) without obvious organ changes. The third case revealed no burn but investigation of the scene of incidence and other sources of information are consistent with a diagnosis of electrocution. Post mortem examination can assist to dispel misconception and unnecessary belief on cause of death in our community.

  19. MULTI-WAVELENGTH STUDY OF A DELTA-SPOT. I. A REGION OF VERY STRONG, HORIZONTAL MAGNETIC FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeggli, S. A., E-mail: sarah.jaeggli@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar Physics Laboratory, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-02-10

    Active region NOAA 11035 appeared in 2009 December, early in the new solar activity cycle. This region achieved a delta sunspot (δ spot) configuration when parasitic flux emerged near the rotationally leading magnetic polarity and traveled through the penumbra of the largest sunspot in the group. Both visible and infrared imaging spectropolarimetry of the magnetically sensitive Fe i line pairs at 6302 and 15650 Å show large Zeeman splitting in the penumbra between the parasitic umbra and the main sunspot umbra. The polarized Stokes spectra in the strongest field region display anomalous profiles, and strong blueshifts are seen in an adjacent region. Analysis of the profiles is carried out using a Milne–Eddington inversion code capable of fitting either a single magnetic component with stray light or two independent magnetic components to verify the field strength. The inversion results show that the anomalous profiles cannot be produced by the combination of two profiles with moderate magnetic fields. The largest field strengths are 3500–3800 G in close proximity to blueshifts as strong as 3.8 km s{sup −1}. The strong, nearly horizontal magnetic field seen near the polarity inversion line in this region is difficult to understand in the context of a standard model of sunspot magnetohydrostatic equilibrium.

  20. MULTI-WAVELENGTH STUDY OF A DELTA-SPOT. I. A REGION OF VERY STRONG, HORIZONTAL MAGNETIC FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeggli, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Active region NOAA 11035 appeared in 2009 December, early in the new solar activity cycle. This region achieved a delta sunspot (δ spot) configuration when parasitic flux emerged near the rotationally leading magnetic polarity and traveled through the penumbra of the largest sunspot in the group. Both visible and infrared imaging spectropolarimetry of the magnetically sensitive Fe i line pairs at 6302 and 15650 Å show large Zeeman splitting in the penumbra between the parasitic umbra and the main sunspot umbra. The polarized Stokes spectra in the strongest field region display anomalous profiles, and strong blueshifts are seen in an adjacent region. Analysis of the profiles is carried out using a Milne–Eddington inversion code capable of fitting either a single magnetic component with stray light or two independent magnetic components to verify the field strength. The inversion results show that the anomalous profiles cannot be produced by the combination of two profiles with moderate magnetic fields. The largest field strengths are 3500–3800 G in close proximity to blueshifts as strong as 3.8 km s −1 . The strong, nearly horizontal magnetic field seen near the polarity inversion line in this region is difficult to understand in the context of a standard model of sunspot magnetohydrostatic equilibrium

  1. Source apportionment and health effect of NO_x over the Pearl River Delta region in southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xingcheng; Yao, Teng; Li, Ying; Fung, Jimmy C.H.; Lau, Alexis K.H.

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most notorious atmospheric pollutants, NO_x not only promotes the formation of ozone but also has adverse health effects on humans. It is therefore of great importance to study the sources of NO_x and its effects on human health. The Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx) modeling system and ozone source apportionment technology (OSAT) were used to study the contribution of NO_x from different emission sources over southern China. The results indicate that heavy duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) and industrial point sources are the two major local NO_x sources, accounting for 30.8% and 18.5% of local NO_x sources, respectively. In Hong Kong, marine emissions contributed around 43.4% of local NO_x in 2011. Regional transport is another important source of this pollutant, especially in February and November, and it can contribute over 30% of ambient NO_x on average. Power plant point emission is an significant regional source in Zhuhai, Zhongshan and Foshan. The total emission sources are estimated to cause 2119 (0–4405) respiratory deaths and 991 (0–2281) lung cancer deaths due to long-term exposure to NO_x in the Pearl River Delta region. Our results suggest that local governments should combine their efforts and vigorously promote further reduction of NO_x emissions, especially for those sources that make a substantial contribution to NO_x emissions and affect human health: HDDV, LDGV, industrial point sources and marine sources. - Highlights: • WRF-CAMx modeling system with OSAT was used to study the source of NO_x over Pearl River Delta region in China. • The results indicated that local emission and regional transportation are important contributors for NO_x in this region. • Heavy duty diesel vehicle, marine emission and industrial point source are three important contribution sectors. • Long-term exposure to NO_x is estimated to cause 2119 respiratory deaths and 991 lung cancer deaths in PRD during 2011. - Result indicated that heavy duty

  2. Helicity dependence of the {gamma}d{yields} {pi}NN reactions in the {delta}-resonance region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, J.; Arends, H.J.; Beck, R.; Heid, E.; Jahn, O.; Lang, M.; Martinez-Fabregate, M.; Schwamb, M.; Tamas, G.; Thomas, A. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Altieri, S.; Panzeri, A.; Pinelli, T. [INFN, Pavia (Italy); Universita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Pavia (Italy); Annand, J.R.M.; McGeorge, J.C.; Protopopescu, D.; Rosner, G. [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Blackston, M.A.; Weller, H.R. [Duke University, Department of Physics, Durham, NC (United States); Bradtke, C.; Dutz, H.; Klein, F.; Rohlof, C. [Universitaet Bonn, Physikalisches Institut, Bonn (Germany); Braghieri, A.; Pedroni, P. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Hose, N. d' [DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Fix, A. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Kondratiev, R.; Lisin, V. [Academy of Science, INR, Moscow (Russian Federation); Meyer, W.; Reicherz, G. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Insitut fuer Experimentalphysik, Bochum (Germany); Rostomyan, T. [Universiteit Gent, Subatomaire en Stralingsfysica, Gent (Belgium); INFN, Pavia (Italy); Ryckbosch, D. [Universiteit Gent, Subatomaire en Stralingsfysica, Gent (Belgium)

    2010-05-15

    The helicity dependence of the differential cross-section for the {gamma}d{yields}{pi}NN reactions has been measured for the first time in the {delta} -resonance region. The measurement was performed with the large-acceptance detector DAPHNE at the tagged photon beam facility of the MAMI accelerator in Mainz. The data show that the main reaction mechanisms for the {pi}{sup {+-}} NN channels are the quasi-free N {pi} processes on one bound nucleon with nuclear dynamics playing a minor role. On the contrary, for the {pi}{sup 0}np channel nuclear mechanisms involving the reabsorption of the photoproduced {pi}{sup 0} by the np pair have to be taken into account to reproduce the experimental data. (orig.)

  3. Radiological Study Investigation of the Black Sand Region of the North-East of the Nile Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moafy, W.A.; El-Tahawy, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    Within a comprehensive radiological investigation of the Mediterranean cost of Egypt an environmental radiation survey of the black sand region of the North-East of Nile Delta was carried out. The activity concentration of the natural 226 Ra , 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K for 18 soil samples, 25 shore sediment samples and 6 bottom sediment samples were determined using gamma spectrometers based on HpGe detector and were found to reach 193 Bq/kg for 226 Ra and 267 Bq/kg of 232 Th for some shore sediment samples. Ten sea water samples were analyzed using laser fluorimetry technique after applying a radiochemical separation procedure and the determined total uranium concentration in these samples was found to be in the range (5.2-21.8) mBq/lt.

  4. Analyzing Powers of Inelastic dp-Scattering in the Energy Region of Delta and Roper Resonances Excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Malinina, L V; Augustyniak, W; Boivin, M; Boyard, J L; Dahl, R; Drews, M; Ellegaard, C; Fahri, L; Gaarde, C; Hennino, T; Jourdain, J C; Kagarlis, M A; Kravtsov, A V; Künne, R A; Larsen, J C; Morsch, P; Mylnikov, V A; Orichtchin, E M; Perdrisat, C F; Piskunov, N M; Prokofiev, A N; Punjabi, V; Radvanyi, P; Ramstein, B; Razmyslovich, B V; Roy-Stephan, M; Sitnik, I M; Skousen, M; Strokovsky, E A; Tkach, I I; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E; Volkov, S S; Zhdanov, A A; Zupranski, P

    2001-01-01

    A study of inelastic scattering of polarized 3.73 GeV/c deuterons on protons in the energy region of the Roper N*(1440) and the {DELTA}(1232) resonances excitation has been performed in an exclusive experiment at LNS (Laboratoire National SATURNE, Saclay, France) using the SPES-{pi} setup.Tensor and vector analyzing powers of pion production for the reactions d + p {\\to} d + n + pi^{+}, d + p {\\to} d + p + pi^{0}, d + p {\\to} d + N + pi pi have been measured as functions of the squared deuteron 4-momentum transfer t, of the effective mass of the subsystems (N pi), (N pi pi) and of the pion emission angle. A strong dependence of these analyzing powers upon the pion emission angle is observed. It is found that A_{yy} values for the considered reaction channels are systematically larger than the known inclusive {p (d, d {\\prime}) X} world data at the nearest beam energy.

  5. City-specific vehicle emission control strategies to achieve stringent emission reduction targets in China's Yangtze River Delta region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Bin; Wu, Xiaomeng; Shu, Jiawei; Hao, Jiming

    2017-01-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region is one of the most prosperous and densely populated regions in China and is facing tremendous pressure to mitigate vehicle emissions and improve air quality. Our assessment has revealed that mitigating vehicle emissions of NOx would be more difficult than reducing the emissions of other major vehicular pollutants (e.g., CO, HC and PM 2.5 ) in the YRD region. Even in Shanghai, where the emission control implemented are more stringent than in Jiangsu and Zhejiang, we observed little to no reduction in NOx emissions from 2000 to 2010. Emission-reduction targets for HC, NOx and PM 2.5 are determined using a response surface modeling tool for better air quality. We design city-specific emission control strategies for three vehicle-populated cities in the YRD region: Shanghai and Nanjing and Wuxi in Jiangsu. Our results indicate that even if stringent emission control consisting of the Euro 6/VI standards, the limitation of vehicle population and usage, and the scrappage of older vehicles is applied, Nanjing and Wuxi will not be able to meet the NOx emissions target by 2020. Therefore, additional control measures are proposed for Nanjing and Wuxi to further mitigate NOx emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Assessment of transboundary environmental effects in the Pearl River Delta Region: Is there a role for strategic environmental assessment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsden, Simon

    2011-01-01

    China's EIA Law does not require transboundary proposals to be assessed, despite recognition of this globally, for example in the Espoo Convention and Kiev Protocol, and in the European EIA and SEA Directives. In a transboundary context assessment within a state is unusual, as regulating these effects is primarily about the relationship between states. However where a state has more than one legal system such as in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) Region of southern China, transboundary effects should also be addressed. Yet despite the geographical connections between Guangdong Province in mainland China (where the EIA Law applies) and the Hong Kong and Macau Special Administrative Regions (which have their own provisions, neither of which requires transboundary assessments), EIA and SEA are carried out separately. Coordinated or joint approaches to transboundary assessment are generally absent, with the legal autonomy of Hong Kong and Macau a major constraint. As a result institutional responses at the policy level have developed. The article considers global experiences with regulating transboundary EIA and SEA, and analyses potential application to land use, transport and air and water planning in the PRD Region. If applied, benefits may include prevention or mitigation of cumulative effects, broader public participation, and improvements to environmental governance. The PRD Region experience may encourage China to conduct and coordinate EIA and SEA processes with neighbouring states, which has been non-existent or extremely limited to date.

  7. The Niger Delta Region and the Woman's Predicament: A Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through the machination of patriarchy and culture, Agary exposes women in the region as victims of circumstances beyond their making and further expounds the racial prejudice in the region. The women in Agary's fiction are treated with suspicion and exploited by local and foreign men. This paper seeks to explore the ...

  8. Accumulation, transfer, and environmental risk of soil mercury in a rapidly industrializing region of the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Biao; Yan, Lianxiang; Sun, Weixia; Zhao, Yongcun; Shi, Xuezheng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture; Wang, Mei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture; Graduate Univ. of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Weindorf, David C. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). AgCenter

    2011-06-15

    Purpose: Mercury (Hg) accumulation and transfer in soil ecosystems has been altered on local, regional, and even global scales, and their environmental risk has increasingly been a concern to the public and the scientific community. Materials and methods: A county level region in Zhangjiagang County, the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of China and a factory with Hg-contaminated wastewater discharging within the region were selected to study the accumulation, bioavailability, and transfer of Hg from different sources in soils and crops under rapid industrialization, urbanization, and intensive agricultural activities. Regional soil samples close to and away from factories and local soil and crop samples around a typical factory were collected in the YRD region of China. Soil and crop Hg and basic soil properties were examined. Results and discussion: Significant soil Hg accumulation was found in soils away from factories regardless of Cambosols (Entisols) and Anthrosols (Inceptisols), while the mobile HCl-extractable Hg (HCl-Hg) were greater in soils closer to factories due to a decrease and increase in soil pH and organic matter. A high level of soil total Hg (T-Hg) was found around the factory, and soil and crop Hg accumulation in the vicinity of the factory was localized with an exponential decrease as distance away from the wastewater discharge outlet increased. Although Hg accumulated in these soils, the T-Hg levels at only a few sampling sites in acidic Anthrosols area were found to exceed the second most stringent critical value of Chinese Environmental Quality Standards for Soils. Conclusions: Considering the cessation of Hg-containing agrochemicals and limitation of effects of industrial activities on Hg accumulation, more attention should be paid to the changes in soil properties and crop rotations than controlling the pathways of Hg entering soils because the current environmental risk is mobilization of accumulated soil Hg. (orig.)

  9. Oil Exploration and Ethnic Militia activities in the Niger Delta Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    dominant source of livelihood of the people in the region. The exploration .... ranging from freedom fighting and Nationalism to activities bordering on criminality. This paper .... a kind of private army whose members are enrolled on military lives ...

  10. The Impact of the Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing on Deep Convection and Air Quality in the Pearl River Delta Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Yim, Steve H. L.; Wang, C.; Lau, N. C.

    2018-05-01

    Literature has reported the remarkable aerosol impact on low-level cloud by direct radiative forcing (DRF). Impacts on middle-upper troposphere cloud are not yet fully understood, even though this knowledge is important for regions with a large spatial heterogeneity of emissions and aerosol concentration. We assess the aerosol DRF and its cloud response in June (with strong convection) in Pearl River Delta region for 2008-2012 at cloud-resolving scale using an air quality-climate coupled model. Aerosols suppress deep convection by increasing atmospheric stability leading to less evaporation from the ground. The relative humidity is reduced in middle-upper troposphere due to induced reduction in both evaporation from the ground and upward motion. The cloud reduction offsets 20% of the aerosol DRF. The weaker vertical mixing further increases surface aerosol concentration by up to 2.90 μg/m3. These findings indicate the aerosol DRF impact on deep convection and in turn regional air quality.

  11. Profitability and constraints in the marketing of poultry birds in Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profitability and constraints in the marketing of poultry birds in Delta central agricultural zone, Delta state, Nigeria. ... Randomly selected 54 poultry bird marketers were surveyed in 5 major markets. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  12. Influence of synoptic condition and holiday effects on VOCs and ozone production in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhengning; Huang, Xin; Nie, Wei; Chi, Xuguang; Xu, Zheng; Zheng, Longfei; Sun, Peng; Ding, Aijun

    2017-11-01

    Both anthropogenic emission and synoptic conditions play important roles in ozone (O3) formation and accumulation. In order to understand the influence of synoptic condition and holiday effects on ozone production in the Yangtze River Delta region, China, concentrations of speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and O3 as well as other relevant trace gases were simultaneously measured at the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES) in Nanjing around the National Day holidays of China in 2014, which featured substantial change of emissions and dominated by typical anti-cyclones. Different groups of VOC species and their chemical reactivities were comprehensively analyzed. We observed clear diurnal variations of short alkenes during the measurement period, considerable amount of short alkenes were observed during night (more than 10 ppb) while almost no alkenes were measured during daytime, which might be attributed to different chemical processes. The obvious enhancement of the VOC tracers during the National Day holidays (Oct. 1st-Oct. 7th) indicated that the holiday effect strongly influenced the distribution of VOC profile and chemical reactivity in the atmosphere. At the same time, two meso-scale anticyclone processes were also observed during the measurement period. The synoptic condition contributed to the accumulation of VOCs and other precursors, which consequently impacted the ozone production in this region. The integrated influence of synoptic and holiday effects was also analyzed with an Observation Based Model (OBM) based on simplified MCM (Master Chemical Mechanism) chemical mechanism. The calculated relative increment reactivity (RIR) of different VOC groups revealed that during the holidays, this region was in VOC-limited regime and the variation of RIR shows a close linkage to the development and elimination of anti-cyclones, indicating an in-negligible contribution of synoptic effect toward ozone production in this

  13. Factors Influencing the Improved Academic Success in Literacy at the Knowledge Is Power Program School in the Delta Region According to Administrator, Teacher, and Student Perceptions: Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kimberly Jonetta

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the factors that have influenced the literacy success of the Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) students in the low-income, poverty stricken Delta Region of a mid-south state. The study examined the progress made since the implementation of the KIPP Program and the influence the program has made upon student…

  14. Factors Influencing the Improved Academic Success in Literacy at the Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) Schools in the Delta Region According to Adult Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kimberly J.; Holt, Carleton R.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored factors that have influenced literacy success of Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) students in the low-income, poverty stricken Delta Region of Arkansas. The study examined progress made since implementation of the KIPP Program and the influence the program had made upon student achievement in literacy at the…

  15. Connections between Compton scattering and pion photoproduction in the delta region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, N.C.; Benmerrouche, M.

    1992-01-01

    Using textbook tools like analyticity, unitarity and optical theorem, the authors discuss the relationship between pion-nucleon scattering, pion photoproduction and Compton scattering in the Δ(1232) resonance region. They review the relevant data and draw conclusions pertinent to the QCD-inspired models. 27 refs

  16. [Prediction and simulation of urban area expansion in Pearl River Delta Region under the RCPs climate scenarios].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Oun-ou; Deng, Xiang-zheng; Ke, Xin-li; Zhao, Chun-hong; Zhang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    The sizes and number of cities in China are increasing rapidly and complicated changes of urban land use system have occurred as the social economy develops rapidly. This study took the urban agglomeration of Pearl River Delta Region as the study area to explore the driving mechanism of dynamic changes of urban area in the urbanization process under the joint influence of natural environment and social economic conditions. Then the CA (cellular automata) model was used to predict and simulate the urban area changes until 2030 under the designed scenarios of planning and RCPs (representative concentration pathways). The results indicated that urbanization was mainly driven by the non-agricultural population growth and social-economic development, and the transportation had played a fundamental role in the whole process, while the areas with high elevation or steep slope restricted the urbanization. Besides, the urban area would keep an expanding trend regardless of the scenarios, however, the expanding speed would slow down with different inflection points under different scenarios. The urban expansion speed increased in the sequence of the planning scenario, MESSAGE scenario and AIM scenario, and that under the MESSAGE climate scenario was more consistent with the current urban development trend. In addition, the urban expansion would mainly concentrate in regions with the relatively high urbanization level, e.g., Guangzhou, Dongguan, Foshan, Shenzhen, Zhanjiang and Chaoshan.

  17. From fresh to marine waters: characterization and fate of dissolved organic matter in the Lena River delta region, Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael eGonçalves-Araujo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Connectivity between the terrestrial and marine environment in the Artic is changing as a result of climate change, influencing both freshwater budgets and the supply of carbon to the sea. This study characterizes the optical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM within the Lena Delta region and evaluates the behavior of DOM across the fresh water-marine gradient. Six fluorescent components (four humic-like; one marine humic-like; one protein-like were identified by Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC with a clear dominance of allochthonous humic-like signals. Colored DOM (CDOM and dissolved organic carbon (DOC were highly correlated and had their distribution coupled with hydrographical conditions. Higher DOM concentration and degree of humification were associated with the low salinity waters of the Lena River. Values decreased towards the higher salinity Laptev Sea shelf waters. Results demonstrate different responses of DOM mixing in relation to the vertical structure of the water column, as reflecting the hydrographical dynamics in the region. Two mixing curves for DOM were apparent. In surface waters above the pycnocline there was a sharper decrease in DOM concentration in relation to salinity indicating removal. In the bottom water layer the DOM decrease within salinity was less. We propose there is a removal of DOM occurring primarily at the surface layer, which is likely driven by photodegradation and flocculation.

  18. A compilation of U.S. Geological Survey pesticide concentration data for water and sediment in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta region: 1990–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Beginning around 2000, abundance indices of four pelagic fishes (delta smelt, striped bass, longfin smelt, and threadfin shad) within the San Francisco Bay and Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta began to decline sharply (Sommer and others, 2007). These declines collectively became known as the pelagic organism decline (POD). No single cause has been linked to this decline, and current theories suggest that combinations of multiple stressors are likely to blame. Contaminants (including current-use pesticides) are one potential stressor being investigated for its role in the POD (Anderson, 2007). Pesticide concentration data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at multiple sites in the delta region over the past two decades are critical to understanding the potential effects of current-use pesticides on species of concern as well as the overall health of the delta ecosystem. In April 2010, a compilation of contaminant data for the delta region was published by the State Water Resources Control Board (Johnson and others, 2010). Pesticide occurrence was the major focus of this report, which concluded that “there was insufficient high quality data available to make conclusions about the potential role of specific contaminants in the POD.” The report cited multiple sources; however, data collected by the USGS were not included in the publication even though these data met all criteria listed for inclusion in the report. What follows is a summary of publicly available USGS data for pesticide concentrations in surface water and sediments within the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta region from the years 1990 through 2010. Data were retrieved though the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) database, a publicly available online-data repository (U.S. Geological Survey, 1998), and from published USGS reports (also available online at http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/). The majority of the data were collected in support of two long term USGS monitoring programs

  19. Estimation of health and economic costs of air pollution over the Pearl River Delta region in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xingcheng; Yao, Teng; Fung, Jimmy C H; Lin, Changqing

    2016-10-01

    The Pearl River Delta region (PRD) is the economic growth engine of China and also one of the most urbanized regions in the world. As a two-sided sword, rapid economic development causes air pollution and poses adverse health effects to the citizens in this area. This work estimated the negative health effects in the PRD caused by the four major ambient pollutants (SO2, NO2, O3 and PM10) from 2010 to 2013 by using a log linear exposure-response function and the WRF-CMAQ modeling system. Economic loss due to mortality and morbidity was evaluated by the value of statistical life (VSL) and cost of illness (COI) methods. The results show that the overall possible short-term all-cause mortality due to NO2, O3 and PM10 reached the highest in 2013 with the values being 13,217-22,800. The highest total economic loss, which ranged from 14,768 to 25,305million USD, occurred in 2013 and was equivalent to 1.4%-2.3% of the local gross domestic product. The monthly profile of cases of negative health effects varied by city and the types of ambient pollutants. The ratio of mortality attributed to air pollutants to total population was higher in urban areas than in rural areas. People living in the countryside should consider the possible adverse health effects of urban areas before they plan a move to the city. The results show that the health burden caused by the ambient pollutants over this region is serious and suggest that tighter control policies should be implemented in the future to reduce the level of air pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of sea water inundation along Daboo creek area in Indus Delta Region, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Ibrahim; Zafar, Hina; Shahzad, Muhammad I.; Meraj, Mohsin; Kazmi, Jamil H.

    2017-12-01

    Indus Deltaic Region (IDR) in Pakistan is an erosion vulnerable coast due to the high deep water wave energy. Livelihood of millions of people depends on the fisheries and mangrove forests in IDR. IDR consists of many creeks where Daboo is a major creek located at southeast of the largest city of Pakistan, Karachi. Unfortunately, there has been no detailed study to analyze the damages of sea water intrusion at a large temporal and spatial scale. Therefore, this study is designed to estimate the effects of sea water inundation based on changing sea water surface salinity and sea surface temperature (SST). Sea surface salinity and SST data from two different surveys in Daboo creek during 1986 and 2010 are analyzed to estimate the damages and extent of sea water intrusion. Mean salinity has increased 33.33% whereas mean SST decreased 13.79% from 1987 to 2010. Spatio-temporal analysis of creek area using LANDSAT 5 Thematic mapper (TM) data for the years 1987 and 2010 shows significant amount of erosion at macro scale. Creek area has increased approximately 9.93% (260.86 m2 per year) which is roughly equal to 60 extensive sized shrimp farms. Further Land Use Land Cover (LULC) analyses for years 2001 and 2014 using LANDSAT 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) has indicated 42.3% decrease in cultivated land. Wet mud flats have spread out at the inner mouth of creek with enormous increase of 123.3%. Significant sea water intrusion has increased the area of barren land by 37.9%. This also resulted in overall decrease of 6.7% in area covered by mangroves. Therefore, this study recorded a significant evidence of sea water intrusion in IDR that has caused serious damages to community living in the area, economical losses. Additionally, it has also changed the environment by reducing creek biological productivity as reported by earlier studies over other regions of the world.

  1. Trends of tropospheric NO2 over the Yangtze River Delta region and the possible linkage to rapid urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mingliang; Zhang, Deying; Liu, Qiyang; Song, Yue; Zhou, Jiayuan; Shi, Runhe; Gao, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Over the past decade, China has experienced a rapid increase in urbanization. The urban built-up areas (population) of Shanghai increased by 16.1% (22.9%) from 2006 to 2015. This study aims to analyze the variations of tropospheric NO2 over Yangtze River Delta region and the impacts of rapid urbanization during 2006-2015. The results indicate that tropospheric NO2 vertical column density (VCD) of all cities in the study area showed an increasing trend during 2006-2011 whereas a decreasing trend during 2011-2015. Most cities showed a lower tropospheric NO2 VCD value in 2015 compared to that in 2006, except for Changzhou and Nantong. Shanghai and Ningbo are two hotspots where the tropospheric NO2 VCD decreased most significantly, at a rate of 22% and 19%, respectively. This effect could be ascribed to the implementation of harsh emission control policies therein. Similar seasonal variability was observed over all cities, with larger values observed in the summer and smaller values shown in the winter. Further investigations show that the observed increasing trend of tropospheric NO2 during 2006-2011 could be largely explained by rapid urbanization linked to car ownership, GDP, power consumption, population and total industrial output. Such effect was not prominent after 2011, mainly due to the implementation of emission control strategies.

  2. The forecasting research of early warning systems for atmospheric pollutants: A case in Yangtze River Delta region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yiliao; Qin, Shanshan; Qu, Jiansheng; Liu, Feng

    2015-10-01

    The issue of air quality regarding PM pollution levels in China is a focus of public attention. To address that issue, to date, a series of studies is in progress, including PM monitoring programs, PM source apportionment, and the enactment of new ambient air quality index standards. However, related research concerning computer modeling for PM future trends estimation is rare, despite its significance to forecasting and early warning systems. Thereby, a study regarding deterministic and interval forecasts of PM is performed. In this study, data on hourly and 12 h-averaged air pollutants are applied to forecast PM concentrations within the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of China. The characteristics of PM emissions have been primarily examined and analyzed using different distribution functions. To improve the distribution fitting that is crucial for estimating PM levels, an artificial intelligence algorithm is incorporated to select the optimal parameters. Following that step, an ANF model is used to conduct deterministic forecasts of PM. With the identified distributions and deterministic forecasts, different levels of PM intervals are estimated. The results indicate that the lognormal or gamma distributions are highly representative of the recorded PM data with a goodness-of-fit R2 of approximately 0.998. Furthermore, the results of the evaluation metrics (MSE, MAPE and CP, AW) also show high accuracy within the deterministic and interval forecasts of PM, indicating that this method enables the informative and effective quantification of future PM trends.

  3. Mapping Social Vulnerability to Air Pollution: A Case Study of the Yangtze River Delta Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many frequent and severe air pollution incidents have emerged across the vast parts of China recently. The identification of factors and mapping social vulnerability has become extremely necessary for environmental management and sustainable development. However, studies associating social vulnerability with air pollution remain sparse. With reference to research achievements of social vulnerability, this study made a new trial regarding social vulnerability assessment to air pollution. With the projection pursuit cluster (PPC model, the top three factors contributing to social vulnerability index (SVI were discovered and SVI and SVI dimensions (susceptibility, exposure, and adaptability were evaluated. Results revealed that adaptability values are higher than susceptibility and exposure values. SVI is in a poor condition as, for the whole region, most values belong to the high-medium level. High SVI values mainly appear in the northern and the southern ends of study area. SVI in Shanghai is lower than in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces. On the scale of prefecture-level city, it can be found that the low-value centers of SVI always occurred in urban core areas. The spatial variation and inequality in social vulnerability provide policy-makers a scientific basis for air pollution prevention and sustainable management.

  4. Indoor External Radiation Risk in Densely Populated Regions of Southern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ife-Adediran, Oluwatobi O.; Uwadiae, Iyobosa B.

    2018-05-01

    It is known that certain types of building materials contain significant concentrations of natural radionuclides; consequently, exposure to indoor background radiation is from the combined radioactivity from the soil as well as building materials; indoor exposures therefore have higher radiation hazard potentials than outdoor exposures in this regard and hence, need to be monitored. In this paper, an evaluation of background ionizing radiation from different buildings in Lagos and Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria was carried out to determine the exposure rate of the general public to indoor ionizing radiation. 630 in situ measurements from the different buildings were taken using a Geiger Muller counter (model GQ-320 Plus). The indoor dose rates (i.e., 50-120 nGy/h) were within the world average values while the Annual Effective Dose for most of the buildings were above the world average AED for indoor gamma exposure from building materials. The mean AED for Lagos and Ibadan due to indoor exposures were 0.37 and 0.39 mSv/y with Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk of 0.99E-3 and 1.05E-3, respectively.

  5. Contamination profiles of perfluoroalkyl substances in five typical rivers of the Pearl River Delta region, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chang-Gui; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, You-Sheng; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Peng, Feng-Jiao; Huang, Guo-Yong

    2014-11-01

    A survey on contamination profiles of eighteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) was performed via high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for surface water and sediments from five typical rivers of the Pearl River Delta region, South China in summer and winter in 2012. The total concentrations of the PFASs in the water phase of the five rivers ranged from 0.14 to 346.72 ng L(-1). The PFAS concentrations in the water phase were correlated positively to some selected water quality parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) (0.7913) and conductivity (0.5642). The monitoring results for the water samples showed significant seasonal variations, while those for the sediment samples showed no obvious seasonal variations. Among the selected 18 PFASs, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was the dominant PFAS compound both in water and sediment for two seasons with its maximum concentration of 320.5 ng L(-1) in water and 11.4 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) in sediment, followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) with its maximum concentration of 26.48 ng L(-1) in water and 0.99 ng g(-1) dw in sediment. PFOS and PFOA were found at relatively higher concentrations in the Shima River and Danshui River than in the other three rivers (Xizhijiang River, Dongjiang River and Shahe River). The principal component analysis for the PFASs concentrations in water and sediment separated the sampling sites into two groups: rural and agricultural area, and urban and industrial area, suggesting the PFASs in the riverine environment were mainly originated from industrial and urban activities in the region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. What is wrong in Nigeria?; Security Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nodland, Arild

    2009-07-01

    Despite massive government efforts at putting an end to crime and militancy targeting its petroleum industry, Nigeria's oil production is still falling. Daily crude output now hovers around the 1.7 million barrels per day mark, perhaps even lower, as MEND - a network of militant groups saying they are fighting for the rights of the Niger Delta's people - has picked up hatchet. Again. The government's declared ambition of pumping 4 million barrels by next year is not only a distant dream, it is a delirious illusion. (Author)

  7. Integrated Studies of a Regional Ozone Pollution Synthetically Affected by Subtropical High and Typhoon System in the Yangtze River Delta Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, M.; Shu, L.

    2017-12-01

    Severe high ozone (O3) episodes usually have close relations to synoptic systems. A regional continuous O3 pollution episode was detected over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region in China during August 7-12, 2013, in which the O3 concentrations in more than half of the cities exceeded the national air quality standard. By means of the observational analysis and the WRF/CMAQ numerical simulation, the characteristics and the essential impact factors of the typical regional O3 pollution are investigated. The observational analysis shows that the atmospheric subsidence dominated by Western Pacific subtropical high plays a crucial role in the formation of high-level O3. In addition, when the YRD cities at the front of Typhoon Utor, the periphery circulation of typhoon system can enhance the downward airflows and cause more serious air pollution. But when the typhoon system weakens the subtropical high, the prevailing southeasterly surface wind leads to the mitigation of the O3 pollution. The Integrated Process Rate (IPR) analysis incorporated in CMAQ is applied to further illustrate the combined influence of subtropical high and typhoon system in this O3 episode. The results show that the vertical diffusion (VDIF) and the gas-phase chemistry (CHEM) are two major contributors to O3 formation. On August 10-11, the cities close to the sea are apparently affected by the typhoon system, with the contribution of VDIF increasing to 28.45 ppb/h in Shanghai and 19.76 ppb/h in Hangzhou. When the YRD region is under the control of the typhoon system, the contribution values of all individual processes decrease to a low level in all cities. These results provide an insight for the O3 pollution synthetically impacted by the Western Pacific subtropical high and the tropical cyclone system.

  8. Research on the Synergy Degree of China Yangtze River Delta Region Technology Innovation System Evolution from the Perspective of Technology Innovation Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Bin Feng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper divides technology innovation system into research and development input subsystem, technology research and development subsystem and technology application subsystem from the perspective of technology innovation chain, combining with the system theory. Then selects the corresponding ordinal variables, makes an empirical analysis to the synergy degree of Yangtze River delta regional technology innovation system evolution by complex system synergy degree model which based on the data of 2002-2009. The results show that the development of synergy degree of the technology innovation system appears a rising trend and the technology application subsystem is the key factor of direction and degree of synergy development in the evolution process of regional technology innovation system in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Finally, this paper analyzes the characteristics and causes of synergy degree’s evolution, and puts forward the corresponding policy recommendations to different problems.

  9. Investigation of carbonyl compound sources at a rural site in the Yangtze River Delta region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Chen, Wentai; Shao, Min; Lu, Sihua; Zeng, Limin; Hu, Min

    2015-02-01

    Carbonyl compounds are important intermediates in atmospheric photochemistry, but their primary sources are still not understood well. In this work, carbonyls, hydrocarbons, and alkyl nitrates were continuously measured during November 2011 at a rural site in the Yangtze River Delta region of China. Mixing ratios of carbonyls and hydrocarbons showed large fluctuations during the entire measurement. The average level for total measured volatile organic compounds during the pollution episode from 25th to 27th November, 2011 was 91.6 ppb, about 7 times the value for the clean period of 7th-8th, November, 2011. To preliminarily identify toluene sources at this site, the emission ratio of toluene to benzene (T/B) during the pollution episode was determined based on photochemical ages derived from the relationship of alkyl nitrates to their parent alkanes. The calculated T/B was 5.8 ppb/ppb, significantly higher than the values of 0.2-1.7 ppb/ppb for vehicular exhaust and other combustion sources, indicating the dominant influence of industrial emissions on ambient toluene. The contributions of industrial sources to ambient carbonyls were then calculated using a multiple linear regression fit model that used toluene and alkyl nitrates as respective tracers for industrial emission and secondary production. During the pollution episode, 18.5%, 69.0%, and 52.9% of measured formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acetone were considered to be attributable to industrial emissions. The emission ratios relative to toluene for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acetone were determined to be 0.10, 0.20 and 0.40 ppb/ppb, respectively. More research on industrial carbonyl emission characteristics is needed to understand carbonyl sources better. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Resource intensification and osteoarthritis patterns: changes in activity in the prehistoric Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheverko, Colleen M; Bartelink, Eric J

    2017-10-01

    Ethnohistoric accounts and archaeological research from Central California document a shift from the use of lower-cost, high-ranked resources (e.g., large game) toward the greater use of higher-cost, low-ranked resources (e.g., acorns and small seeds) during the Late Holocene (4500-200 BP). The subsistence transition from higher consumption of large game toward an increased reliance on acorns was likely associated with increases in levels of logistical mobility and physical activity. This study predicts that mobility and overall workload patterns changed during this transition to accommodate new food procurement strategies and incorporate new dietary resources during the Late Holocene in Central California. Osteoarthritis prevalence was scored in the shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee of adult individuals (n = 256) from seven archaeological sites in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta region. Comparisons were made between osteoarthritis prevalence, sex, age-at-death, and time period using ANCOVAs. The results of this study indicate significant increases in osteoarthritis prevalence in the hip of adult males and females during the Late Period (1200-200 BP), even after correcting for the cumulative effects of age. No differences were observed between the sexes or between time periods for the shoulder, elbow, and knee joints. The temporal increase in hip osteoarthritis supports the hypothesis that there was an increasing need for greater logistical mobility over time to procure key resources away from the village sites. Additionally, the lack of sex differences in osteoarthritis prevalence may suggest that females and males likely performed similar levels of activity during these periods. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Assessing the impacts of seasonal and vertical atmospheric conditions on air quality over the Pearl River Delta region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Cheuk Hei Marcus; Yim, Steve Hung Lam; Rothenberg, Daniel; Wang, Chien; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Chen, Yongqin David; Lau, Ngar Cheung

    2018-05-01

    Air pollution is an increasingly concerning problem in many metropolitan areas due to its adverse public health and environmental impacts. Vertical atmospheric conditions have strong effects on vertical mixing of air pollutants, which directly affects surface air quality. The characteristics and magnitude of how vertical atmospheric conditions affect surface air quality, which are critical to future air quality projections, have not yet been fully understood. This study aims to enhance understanding of the annual and seasonal sensitivities of air pollution to both surface and vertical atmospheric conditions. Based on both surface and vertical meteorological characteristics provided by 1994-2003 monthly dynamic downscaling data from the Weather and Research Forecast Model, we develop generalized linear models (GLMs) to study the relationships between surface air pollutants (ozone, respirable suspended particulates, and sulfur dioxide) and atmospheric conditions in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. Applying Principal Component Regression (PCR) to address multi-collinearity, we study the contributions of various meteorological variables to pollutants' concentration levels based on the loading and model coefficient of major principal components. Our results show that relatively high pollutant concentration occurs under relatively low mid-level troposphere temperature gradients, low relative humidity, weak southerly wind (or strong northerly wind) and weak westerly wind (or strong easterly wind). Moreover, the correlations vary among pollutant species, seasons, and meteorological variables at various altitudes. In general, pollutant sensitivity to meteorological variables is found to be greater in winter than in other seasons, and the sensitivity of ozone to meteorology differs from that of the other two pollutants. Applying our GLMs to anomalous air pollution episodes, we find that meteorological variables up to mid troposphere (∼700 mb) play an important role in

  12. Partial-wave analysis of the reaction $K^{-}$ p -> $\\overline{K} \\delta$ (1230) in the energy region 1915–2170 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Litchfield, P J; Baillon, Paul; Albrecht, A; Putzer, A

    1974-01-01

    A partial-wave analysis has been carried out on the reaction K/sup -/p to K/sup -/ Delta /sup +/(1230) to K/sup -/p pi /sup 0/ in the centre of mass energy region 1915-2170 MeV. The Sigma (2030) is observed with an amplitude at resonance of 0.16+or-0.03. Strong formation of the /sup 3///sub 2//sup -/ Sigma (1940) is also indicated. (9 refs).

  13. Blood lead level is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the Yangtze River Delta region of China in the context of rapid urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hualing; Chen, Chi; Wang, Ningjian; Chen, Yi; Nie, Xiaomin; Han, Bing; Li, Qin; Xia, Fangzhen; Lu, Yingli

    2017-08-31

    China has undergone rapid urbanization in the past three decades. We aimed to report blood lead level (B-Pb) in the most rapidly urbanized Yangtze River Delta Region of China, and explore the association B-Pb and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our data source was the SPECT-China study. We enrolled 2011 subjects from 6 villages in the Yangtze River Delta Region. Lead was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. According to abdominal ultrasound, residents were divided into normal and NAFLD groups. In total, 824 (41.0%) were diagnosed with NAFLD. Medians (interquartile range) of B-Pb were 5.29 μg/dL (3.60-7.28) [0.25 μmol/L (0.17-0.35)] for men and 4.49 μg/dL (2.97-6.59) [0.22 μmol/L (0.14-0.32)] for women. In both genders, the NAFLD group had significantly greater B-Pb than normal group (both P Yangtze River Delta Region were much higher than in developed countries. Elevated B-Pb was associated with an increased risk of NAFLD, especially in women.

  14. The role of economic analysis in groundwater management in semi-arid regions: the case of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Gayatri

    The aim of this paper is to use an economic framework to derive decision making rules for river basin management with a focus on groundwater resources. Using an example from northern Nigeria, the paper provides an example of how decision making for sustainable water resources management may be facilitated by comparing net benefits and costs across a river basin. It is argued that economic tools can be used to assess the value of water resources in different uses, identify and analyze management scenarios, and provide decision rules for the sustainable use and management of surface and ground water resources in the region. L'objet de cet article est l'utilisation d'un cadre économique pour établir des règles de prise de décision pour la gestion d'un bassin versant prenant en compte les ressources en eau souterraine. À partir d'un exemple du Nigéria septentrional, cet article explique comment une prise de décision pour la gestion durable de ressources en eau peut être facilitée en comparant les bénéfices nets et les coûts sur tout le bassin versant. Il est montré que les outils économiques peuvent être utilisés pour établir la valeur des ressources en eau dans les différents usages, pour identifier et analyser des scénarios de gestion et pour fournir des règles de décision pour un usage et une gestion durables des ressources en eaux de surface et souterraines dans la région. El objetivo de este artículo es utilizar un enfoque económico para deducir reglas de toma de decisión en la gestión de cuencas, haciendo énfasis en los recursos subterráneos. Por medio de un ejemplo del Norte de Nigeria, se ilustra cómo la toma de decisiones orientadas a la gestión sustentable de los recursos hídricos puede ser facilitada si se compara los beneficios netos y los costes en toda la cuenca. Se argumenta que las herramientas económicas pueden servir para establecer el valor de los recursos hídricos destinados a usos diferentes, para identificar y

  15. Natural emissions under future climate condition and their effects on surface ozone in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Shu, Lei; Wang, Ti-jian; Liu, Qian; Gao, Da; Li, Shu; Zhuang, Bing-liang; Han, Yong; Li, Meng-meng; Chen, Pu-long

    2017-02-01

    The natural emissions of ozone precursors (NOx and VOCs) are sensitive to climate. Future climate change can impact O3 concentrations by perturbing these emissions. To better estimate the variation of natural emissions under different climate conditions and understand its effect on surface O3, we model the present and the future air quality over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region by running different simulations with the aid of the WRF-CALGRID model system that contains a natural emission module. Firstly, we estimate the natural emissions at present and in IPCC A1B scenario. The results show that biogenic VOC emission and soil NOx emission over YRD in 2008 is 657 Gg C and 19.1 Gg N, respectively. According to climate change, these emissions in 2050 will increase by 25.5% and 11.5%, respectively. Secondly, the effects of future natural emissions and meteorology on surface O3 are investigated and compared. It is found that the variations in meteorological fields can significantly alter the spatial distribution of O3 over YRD, with the increases of 5-15 ppb in the north and the decreases of -5 to -15 ppb in the south. However, only approximately 20% of the surface O3 increases caused by climate change can be attributed to the natural emissions, with the highest increment up to 2.4 ppb. Finally, Ra (the ratio of impacts from NOx and VOCs on O3 formation) and H2O2/HNO3 (the ratio between the concentrations of H2O2 and HNO3) are applied to study the O3 sensitivity in YRD. The results show that the transition value of H2O2/HNO3 will turn from 0.3 to 0.5 in 2008 to 0.4-0.8 in 2050. O3 formation in the YRD region will be insensitive to VOCs under future climate condition, implying more NOx need to be cut down. Our findings can help us understand O3 variation trend and put forward the reasonable and effective pollution control policies in these famous polluted areas.

  16. Delta-associated molluscan life and death assemblages in the northern Adriatic Sea: Implications for paleoecology, regional diversity and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Kristina; Zuschin, Martin

    2013-01-15

    Life-death (LD) studies of shelly macrofauna are important to evaluate how well a fossil assemblage can reflect the original living community, but can also serve as a proxy for recent ecological shifts in marine habitats and in practice this has to be distinguished using taphonomic preservation pattern and estimates of time-averaging. It remains to be rigorously evaluated, however, how to distinguish between sources of LD disagreement. In addition, death assemblages (DAs) also preserve important information on regional diversity which is not available from single censuses of the life assemblages (LAs). The northern Adriatic Sea is an ecosystem under anthropogenic pressure, and we studied the distribution and abundance of living and dead bivalve and gastropod species in the physically stressful environments (tidal flat and shallow sublittoral soft bottoms) associated with the delta of the Isonzo River (Gulf of Trieste). Specifically we evaluated the fidelity of richness, evenness, abundance, habitat discrimination and beta diversity. A total of 10,740 molluscs from fifteen tidal flat and fourteen sublittoral sites were analyzed for species composition and distribution of living and dead molluscs. Of 78 recorded species, only eleven were numerically abundant. There were many more dead than living individuals and rarefied species richness in the DA was higher at all spatial scales, but the differences are lower in habitats and in the region than at individual stations. Evenness was always higher in death assemblages, and probably due to temporally more variable LAs the differences are stronger in the sublittoral habitats. Distinct assemblages characterized intertidal and sublittoral habitats, and the distribution and abundance of empty shells generally corresponded to that of the living species. Death assemblages have lower beta diversity than life assemblages, but empty shells capture compositional differences between habitats to a higher degree than living shells

  17. Lowstand Turbidites and Delta Systems of the Itararé Group in the Vidal Ramos region (SC, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gimena Puigdomenech

    Full Text Available Turbidites have captioned the attention of sedimentologists during the last decades due their importance as hydrocarbon reservoirs. However, their relationship to delta systems still deserves further studies. This paper presents examples from a late deglacial to early post-glacial deltaic and turbidite strata exposed in the surroundings of Vidal Ramos (Santa Catarina State, Brazil, southern portion of the Paraná Basin. There, the uppermost part of the Mafra Formation and the Rio do Sul Formation onlap the Proterozoic basement and comprises an up to 360 m thick package. It includes (base to top black shales, mass transport deposits (MTD and sandy turbidites (Mafra Formation as well as thin bedded turbidites (tbt, including one interval of black shales and sandy turbidites, overlain by proximal delta front sandstones (Rio do Sul Formation. The analysis of the succession shows two more than 150 m thick coarsening-upwards deltaic successions composed of turbidite sand sheets at their base (prodelta, followed by partially collapsed thin bedded turbidites (delta slope wedge and delta front sandstones. Both turbidite sand-sheets abruptly overlay black shale intervals related to maximum flooding surfaces and therefore record correlative conformities. A detailed stratigraphic section elaborated from the correlation of four logs (1/100 suggests that distal delta front sands includes both thin bedded turbidites and wave reworked sands whereas the proximal delta front was dominated by long-lived underflows (hyperpycnal flows. The succession suggests that the most expressive turbidite beds (base of the delta systems have resulted from relative sea-level falls (early lowstand whereas the thin-bedded turbidites were related to the development of the late lowstand wedge. Black shales represent the transgressive systems tract and HST were not deposited or preserved in the area. High sediment supply associated with lowstand tracts could explain the occasional

  18. Integrated studies of a regional ozone pollution synthetically affected by subtropical high and typhoon system in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Severe high ozone (O3 episodes usually have close relations to synoptic systems. A regional continuous O3 pollution episode was detected over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region in China during 7–12 August 2013, in which the O3 concentrations in more than half of the cities exceeded the national air quality standard. The maximum hourly concentration of O3 reached 167.1 ppb. By means of the observational analysis and the numerical simulation, the characteristics and the essential impact factors of the typical regional O3 pollution are comprehensively investigated. The observational analysis shows that the atmospheric subsidence dominated by the western Pacific subtropical high plays a crucial role in the formation of high-level O3. The favorable weather conditions, such as extremely high temperature, low relative humidity and weak wind speed, caused by the abnormally strong subtropical high are responsible for the trapping and the chemical production of O3 in the boundary layer. In addition, when the YRD cities are at the front of Typhoon Utor, the periphery circulation of typhoon system can enhance the downward airflows and cause worse air quality. However, when the typhoon system weakens the subtropical high, the prevailing southeasterly surface wind leads to the mitigation of the O3 pollution. The integrated process rate (IPR analysis incorporated in the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ model is applied to further illustrate the combined influence of subtropical high and typhoon system in this O3 episode. The results show that the vertical diffusion (VDIF and the gas-phase chemistry (CHEM are two major contributors to O3 formation. During the episode, the contributions of VDIF and CHEM to O3 maintain the high values over the YRD region. On 10–12 August, the cities close to the sea are apparently affected by the typhoon system, with the contribution of VDIF increasing to 28.45 ppb h−1 in Shanghai and 19.76 ppb h−1 in

  19. {Delta}{sup 14}C level of annual plants and fossil fuel derived CO{sub 2} distribution across different regions of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, X.T.; Ding, X.F.; Fu, D.P. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology and Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhou, L.P. [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, Department of Geography, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liu, K.X., E-mail: kxliu@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology and Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-01-15

    The {sup 14}C level in annual plants is a sensitive tracer for monitoring fossil fuel derived CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere. Corn leave samples were selected from different regions of China, including high mountains in the Tibetan Plateau, grassland in Inner Mongolia, and inland and coastal cities during the summer of 2010. The {sup 14}C/{sup 12}C ratio of the samples was measured with the NEC compact AMS system at the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University. The fossil fuel derived CO{sub 2} was estimated by comparing the measured {Delta}{sup 14}C values of corn leave samples to background atmospheric {Delta}{sup 14}C level. The influences of topography, meteorological conditions and carbon cycling processes on the fossil fuel derived CO{sub 2} concentration are considered when interpreting the data. Our results show a clear association of the low {Delta}{sup 14}C values with regions where human activities are intensive.

  20. Epidemiology of bovine fascioliasis in the Nile Delta region of Egypt: Its prevalence, evaluation of risk factors, and its economic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelgawad S. El-Tahawy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study focuses on the risk factors associated with the prevalence of Fasciola affecting cattle population in three provinces belonging to the Nile Delta of Egypt and to estimate the economic losses as a result of fascioliasis. Materials and Methods: From January 2015 to end of December 2015, records of 21 farms (4976 cattle were analyzed to screen the prevalence of fascioliasis among cattle farms, to identify its associated risk factors and its economic impacts on Nile Delta region of Egypt. Results: The overall prevalence of fascioliasis in the Nile Delta region of Egypt was 9.77%. The prevalence of fascioliasis was found to be statistically significantly associated with age, sex, breed, and type of farms. The highest prevalence was observed in 3 age groups (8.35%. In terms of body condition scores, cattle with medium and poor conditions were associated with fascioliasis more than those with good body condition. Besides, cattle raised in organic farms were associated with lower risk of fascioliasis than those in conventional farms. The prevalence of fascioliasis was noted more prominent in districts with moderate temperatures and with relative humidity (>60%. The annual overall costs for fascioliasis were estimated to be 221.2 USD/cow due to the significant reduction in body weight, reduction in milk production, and the treatment costs for fascioliasis. Conclusion: The results provided could be helpful for improving the control and preventive strategies.

  1. Epidemiology of bovine fascioliasis in the Nile Delta region of Egypt: Its prevalence, evaluation of risk factors, and its economic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tahawy, Abdelgawad S.; Bazh, Eman K.; Khalafalla, Reda E.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study focuses on the risk factors associated with the prevalence of Fasciola affecting cattle population in three provinces belonging to the Nile Delta of Egypt and to estimate the economic losses as a result of fascioliasis. Materials and Methods: From January 2015 to end of December 2015, records of 21 farms (4976 cattle) were analyzed to screen the prevalence of fascioliasis among cattle farms, to identify its associated risk factors and its economic impacts on Nile Delta region of Egypt. Results: The overall prevalence of fascioliasis in the Nile Delta region of Egypt was 9.77%. The prevalence of fascioliasis was found to be statistically significantly associated with age, sex, breed, and type of farms. The highest prevalence was observed in 3 age groups (8.35%). In terms of body condition scores, cattle with medium and poor conditions were associated with fascioliasis more than those with good body condition. Besides, cattle raised in organic farms were associated with lower risk of fascioliasis than those in conventional farms. The prevalence of fascioliasis was noted more prominent in districts with moderate temperatures and with relative humidity (>60%). The annual overall costs for fascioliasis were estimated to be 221.2 USD/cow due to the significant reduction in body weight, reduction in milk production, and the treatment costs for fascioliasis. Conclusion: The results provided could be helpful for improving the control and preventive strategies. PMID:29184371

  2. Epidemiology of bovine fascioliasis in the Nile Delta region of Egypt: Its prevalence, evaluation of risk factors, and its economic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tahawy, Abdelgawad S; Bazh, Eman K; Khalafalla, Reda E

    2017-10-01

    This study focuses on the risk factors associated with the prevalence of Fasciola affecting cattle population in three provinces belonging to the Nile Delta of Egypt and to estimate the economic losses as a result of fascioliasis. From January 2015 to end of December 2015, records of 21 farms (4976 cattle) were analyzed to screen the prevalence of fascioliasis among cattle farms, to identify its associated risk factors and its economic impacts on Nile Delta region of Egypt. The overall prevalence of fascioliasis in the Nile Delta region of Egypt was 9.77%. The prevalence of fascioliasis was found to be statistically significantly associated with age, sex, breed, and type of farms. The highest prevalence was observed in 3 age groups (8.35%). In terms of body condition scores, cattle with medium and poor conditions were associated with fascioliasis more than those with good body condition. Besides, cattle raised in organic farms were associated with lower risk of fascioliasis than those in conventional farms. The prevalence of fascioliasis was noted more prominent in districts with moderate temperatures and with relative humidity (>60%). The annual overall costs for fascioliasis were estimated to be 221.2 USD/cow due to the significant reduction in body weight, reduction in milk production, and the treatment costs for fascioliasis. The results provided could be helpful for improving the control and preventive strategies.

  3. Fatal gunshots to the head and neck regions in Benin City, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the magnitude of fatal gunshot injuries to the head and neck in Benin City. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a prospective study of fatal gun shots to the head and neck region with respect to age, sex, intent for the gunshots, type of gun, area of the head and neck affected and who did the ...

  4. Estimate of anthropogenic halocarbon emission based on measured ratio relative to CO in the Pearl River Delta region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Using a GC/FID/MS system, we analyzed the mixing ratio of 16 halocarbon species in more than 100 air samples collected in 2004 from the Pearl River Delta (PRD region of southern China. The results revealed that there are elevated mixing ratios for most of halocarbons, especially for HClC = CCl2 (trichloroethylene, TCE, CH2Cl2 (dichloromethane, DCM, CH3 Br (bromomethane, HCFC-22, CHCl3 (trichloromethane, CCl4 (tetrachloromethane, Cl2C = CCl2 (perchloroethylene, PCE, CH3CCl3 (methyl chloroform, MCF, and CFC-12. Comparisons were done with the data from TRACE-P and ALE/GAGE/AGAGE experiments, we found that the large variability in mixing ratios (relative standard deviation ranged from 9.31 % to 96.55 % of the halocarbons suggested substantial local emissions from the PRD region in 2004. Correlations between the mixing ratio of each species and carbon monoxide (CO was examined, and then the emission of each halocarbon was quantified based on scaling the optimized CO emission inventory with the slope of the regression line fitted to each species relative to CO. The calculated results revealed that mass of CH2Cl2 (7.0 Gg, CH3CCl3 (6.7 Gg, and Cl2C = CCl2 (2.3 Gg accounted for about 62.9 % of total halocarbon emissions, it suggested a significant contribution from solvent use in the PRD region. Emissions of HCFC-22 (3.5 Gg, an alternative refrigerant to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs, were about 2.3 times greater than those of CFC-12 (1.6 Gg. CFC-12 and HCFC-22 accounted for 21.5 % of total emissions of halocarbons, so that the refrigerant would be the second largest source of halocarbons. However, the ratio approach found only minor emissions of CFCs, such as CFC-11, and the emission of CFC-114 and CFC-113 were close to zero. Emissions of other anthropogenic halocarbons, such as CCl

  5. Linking biochemical perturbations in tissues of the African catfish to the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Ovia River, Niger Delta region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obinaju, Blessing E; Graf, Carola; Halsall, Crispin; Martin, Francis L

    2015-06-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a pollution issue in the Niger Delta region due to oil industry activities. PAHs were measured in the water column of the Ovia River with concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1055.6 ng L(-1). Attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy detected alterations in tissues of the African catfish (Heterobranchus bidorsalis) from the region showed varying degrees of statistically significant (Pinfrared spectroscopy in environmental studies and supports their potential application in biomonitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimation of Thermal Conductivity in the North- Western Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermal conductivity estimates are computed from nineteen petroleum wells in the north-western Niger Delta, Nigeria, using a geometric mean model. Sonic and gamma-ray logs were digitised and used in the estimation of in situ conductivity. The Niger Delta is composed of three major diachronous lithostratigraphic units of ...

  7. Performance comparison among the major healthcare financing systems in six cities of the Pearl River Delta region, mainland China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C S Wong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The healthcare system of mainland China is undergoing drastic reform and the optimal models for healthcare financing for provision of primary care will need to be identified. This study compared the performance indicators of the community health centres (CHCs under different healthcare financing systems in the six cities of the Pearl River Delta region. METHODS: Approximately 300 hypertensive patients were randomly recruited from the computerized chronic disease management records provided by one CHC in each of the six cities in 2011 using a multi-stage cluster random sampling method. The major outcome measures included the treatment rate of hypertension, defined as prescription of ≥ one antihypertensive agent; and the control rate of hypertension, defined as systolic blood pressure levels <140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure levels <90 mmHg in patients without diabetes mellitus, or <130/80 mmHg among patients with concomitant diabetes. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted with these two measures as outcome variables, respectively, controlling for patients' socio-demographic variables. The financing system (Hospital- vs. Government- vs. private-funded was the independent variable tested for association with the outcomes. RESULTS: From 1,830 patients with an average age of 65.9 years (SD 12.8, the overall treatment and control rates were 75.4% and 20.2%, respectively. When compared with hospital-funded CHCs, patients seen in the Government-funded (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.462, 95% C.I. 0.325-0.656 and private-funded CHCs (AOR 0.031, 95% C.I. 0.019-0.052 were significantly less likely to be prescribed antihypertensive medication. However, the Government-funded CHC was more likely to have optimal BP control (AOR 1.628, 95% C.I. 1.157-2.291 whilst the privately-funded CHC was less likely to achieve BP control (AOR 0.146, 95% C.I. 0.069-0.310, irrespective of whether antihypertensive drugs were prescribed. CONCLUSIONS

  8. Insights into characteristics, sources, and evolution of submicron aerosols during harvest seasons in the Yangtze River delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. J.; Tang, L. L.; Wang, Z.; Yu, H. X.; Sun, Y. L.; Liu, D.; Qin, W.; Canonaco, F.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Zhang, H. L.; Zhou, H. C.

    2015-02-01

    Atmospheric submicron particulate matter (PM1) is one of the most significant pollution components in China. Despite its current popularity in the studies of aerosol chemistry, the characteristics, sources and evolution of atmospheric PM1 species are still poorly understood in China, particularly for the two harvest seasons, namely, the summer wheat harvest and autumn rice harvest. An Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) was deployed for online monitoring of PM1 components during summer and autumn harvest seasons in urban Nanjing, in the Yangtze River delta (YRD) region of China. PM1 components were shown to be dominated by organic aerosol (OA, 39 and 41%) and nitrate (23 and 20%) during the harvest seasons (the summer and autumn harvest). Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the ACSM OA mass spectra resolved four OA factors: hydrocarbon-like mixed with cooking-related OA (HOA + COA), fresh biomass-burning OA (BBOA), oxidized biomass-burning-influenced OA (OOA-BB), and highly oxidized OA (OOA); in particular the oxidized BBOA contributes ~80% of the total BBOA loadings. Both fresh and oxidized BBOA exhibited apparent diurnal cycles with peak concentration at night, when the high ambient relative humidity and low temperature facilitated the partitioning of semi-volatile organic species into the particle phase. The fresh BBOA concentrations for the harvests are estimated as BBOA = 15.1 × (m/z 60-0.26% × OA), where m/z (mass-to-charge ratio) 60 is a marker for levoglucosan-like species. The (BBOA + OOA-BB)/ΔCO, (ΔCO is the CO minus background CO), decreases as a function of f44 (fraction of m/z 44 in OA signal), which might indicate that BBOA was oxidized to less volatile OOA, e.g., more aged and low volatility OOA (LV-OOA) during the aging process. Analysis of air mass back trajectories indicates that the high BB pollutant concentrations are linked to the air masses from the western (summer harvest) and southern (autumn harvest) areas.

  9. Verification of Properties of Concrete Reinforcement Bars: Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    ribbed steel bars used in Nigeria's structural concrete practice to relevant ... cases of structural failure have recently become frequent, especially ... Page 4 ..... Nwabuokei S.O.(2007) “The Nigerian Steel Industry: Delta Steel Company.

  10. Accounting for Peace and Economic Development in Nigeria, the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accounting for Peace and Economic Development in Nigeria, the Niger-Delta Case. ... roads, efficient communication systems, portable water, employment opportunities, ... Keywords: Accounting for peace; cost of peace keeping; Economic ...

  11. Delta Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Mette

    . The warming air temperature affects the soil temperature and permafrost thaws and destabilizes the material in the coastal zone. In Greenland, the warming temperature lowers the surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet and more material is transported to the coastal zone. The sea ice extent is thinning...... of a fjord and the second type is a wider fan-shaped open delta. Most deltas are directly coupled to the Greenland Ice Sheet or local icecaps and are highly influenced by the dynamics in the catchments. It is demonstrated how a modern changing climate directly affects delta dynamics, and that Greenlandic...... deltas are prograding, contrary to the global trend showing eroding Arctic coasts. Moreover, it is revealed that the increasing proglacial freshwater runoff, caused by a lowering of the surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet is the main determining agent in delta progradation. The final part...

  12. CLUSTERING AND THE NATURE OF RELATIONSHIP AMONGST FIRMS IN THE LAGOS REGION, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAGBOHUNKA Adejompo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Regional cluster, a geographically bounded concentration of interdependent firms, is the best environment to fostering a strong relationship amongst firms which can lead to amazing technological and industrial expansion. This paper underscores clustering and the resultant nature of relationship amongst firms, using the Lagos region as a case study. One hundred and three questionnaire were administered in twelve industrial estates; one questionnaire in each of the firm. This connotes that all the firms in the industrial estates were successfully covered in the questionnaire administration, which was administered. A descriptive statistical analytical technique was adopted. The paper has reveals the types of working relationship amongst firms in the Lagos region which includes; raw materials purchase, subcontract, collaboration in research and development, sales promotion, transportation, power supply, water supply, security, waste treatment, telecommunication, ports and shipping as well as labour supply. The paper found out that raw materials purchase/supply was more striking amongst the working relationship types. Also, the paper has revealed services sharing amongst the firms and transport as the most dominant. The most important location advantage was the market facilities. The analysis of variance carried out in relation to variation in clustering amongst the firms at 0.05% level was significant. The paper concluded that industrial cluster if encouraged, will lead to increase working relationship, which in turn have the capability of boosting, promoting and encouraging economies of clustering. Cluster concepts spatially emphasize inter-firm relations that facilitate innovative activity, which is recognized as a driving force of sustained economic growth. It is therefore recommended that these clustering of firms should be made viable, encouraged and strengthened through government investment in the industrial sector, making the location

  13. DELTAS: A new Global Delta Sustainability Initiative (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2013-12-01

    Deltas are economic and environmental hotspots, food baskets for many nations, home to a large part of the world population, and hosts of exceptional biodiversity and rich ecosystems. Deltas, being at the land-water interface, are international, regional, and local transport hubs, thus providing the basis for intense economic activities. Yet, deltas are deteriorating at an alarming rate as 'victims' of human actions (e.g. water and sediment reduction due to upstream basin development), climatic impacts (e.g. sea level rise and flooding from rivers and intense tropical storms), and local exploration (e.g. sand or aggregates, groundwater and hydrocarbon extraction). Although many efforts exist on individual deltas around the world, a comprehensive global delta sustainability initiative that promotes awareness, science integration, data and knowledge sharing, and development of decision support tools for an effective dialogue between scientists, managers and policy makers is lacking. Recently, the international scientific community proposed to establish the International Year of Deltas (IYD) to serve as the beginning of such a Global Delta Sustainability Initiative. The IYD was proposed as a year to: (1) increase awareness and attention to the value and vulnerability of deltas worldwide; (2) promote and enhance international and regional cooperation at the scientific, policy, and stakeholder level; and (3) serve as a launching pad for a 10-year committed effort to understand deltas as complex socio-ecological systems and ensure preparedness in protecting and restoring them in a rapidly changing environment. In this talk, the vision for such an international coordinated effort on delta sustainability will be presented as developed by a large number of international experts and recently funded through the Belmont Forum International Opportunities Fund. Participating countries include: U.S., France, Germany, U.K., India, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Brazil, Bangladesh

  14. Landcover Change, Land Surface Temperature, Surface Albedo and Topography in the Plateau Region of North-Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakirudeen Odunuga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the change in some environmental parameters in the Plateau region of North-Central Nigeria (Barakinladi, Jos, and Kafachan environs using the nexus of landcover change, land surface temperature, surface albedo, and topography. The study employed both remote sensing and statistical techniques for the period between 1986 and 2014 to analyze the dynamics between and within these environmental variables. In Barakinladi, the built up landcover change is highest (increasing from 39.53% to 47.59% between 1986 and 2014; LST ranges from 19.09 °C to 38.59 °C in 1986 and from 22.68 °C and 41.68 °C in 2014; and the albedo ranges between 0.014 and 0.154 in 1986 and 0.017 and 0.248 in 2014. In Jos, the built-up landcover occupied 34.26% in 1986 and 36.67% in 2014; LST values range between 20.83 °C and 41.33 °C in 1986 and between 21.61 °C and 42.64 °C in 2014; and the albedo ranges between 0.003 and 0.211 in 1986 and 0.15 and 0.237 in 2014. In Kafachan area, the built up landcover occupied 32.95% in 1986 and 39.01% in 2014. Urbanization and agricultural activities, including animal grazing, were responsible for the gradual loss in vegetation and increasing average LST and albedo. The results also revealed that changing landcover and topography have a relationship with surface albedo and land surface temperature, thereby impacting significantly on ecosystem services delivered by the natural system.

  15. Bioluminescent hydrocarbonclastic bacteria of the Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of three petroleum hydrocarbons (Mobil SAE 40 Engine Oil, Diesel and Bonny light Crude Oil) by four bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio harveyi, V. fisheri, Photobacterium leiognathi and P. Phosphoreum isolated from the Bonny estuary in the Niger Delta, Nigeria was investigated. Microbial utilization was monitored ...

  16. The migrant as a factor in regional development--the case of Ghana returnees in Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegbola, O

    1976-09-01

    The role of the returnee migrant in the development of the Savannah region of Western Nigeria is examined within the framework of a general hypothesis about the characteristics of the migrants and nonmigrants. From the socioeconomic data on these groups, significant differences emerge. It is assumed that return migrants are more enterprising than nonmigrants and that the type of skills acquired by migrants are those needed for development. 91% of return migrants are not involved in primary activities (e.g., farming) and have a better socioeconomic status even if they do return to agriculture. The majority have learned skills, organized cooperative unions, accumulated money and are given government loans on their return. They returnees as a group tend to establish "footloose" industries, speak more languages, have attained some Western type education (53% are literate), own a radio (90%), read newspapers and correspond with their colleagues who have moved to other parts of the country. Over 66% use modern credit facilities in banks and 23% insure their shops against risks of fire and theft. Educational levels of the children of migrants are significantly higher than nonmigrant's children; 78% of the return migrants had formulated plans for their children's future compared to 42% of the nonmigrants. Therefore, the return migrant represents a net gain in skills and entrepreneurship on the basis of which a spatial settlement strategy for the regeneration of the less developed parts of the country could be planned. Strategies for wide diffusion or concentration of the returnees in one area are rejected. The paper recommends settling a minimum of 1000 returnees in a central development unit surrounded by settlements in a region with a population density of 100/square mile. Services should be prioritized and emphasis placed on the marketing of food crops. 1 such development is described in Ogbomosho district in the Savannah region. Policy implications examined include the

  17. Development of a global river-coastal coupling model and its application to flood simulation in Asian mega-delta regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeuchi, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Yamazaki, Dai; Muis, Sanne; Ward, Philip; Verlaan, Martin; Winsemius, Hessel; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2017-04-01

    The world's mega-delta regions and estuaries are susceptible to various water-related disasters, such as river flooding and storm surge. Moreover, simultaneous occurrence of them would be more devastating than a situation where they occur in isolation. Therefore, it is important to provide information about compound risks of fluvial and coastal floods at a large scale, both their statistical dependency as well as their combined resulting flooding in delta regions. Here we report on a first attempt to address this issue globally by developing a method to couple a global river model (CaMa-Flood) and a global tide and surge reanalysis (GTSR) dataset. A state-of-the-art global river routing model, CaMa-Flood, was modified to represent varying sea levels due to tides and storm surges as downstream boundary condition, and the GTSR dataset was post-processed to serve as inputs to the CaMa-Flood river routing simulation and a long-term simulation was performed to incorporate the temporal dependency between coastal tide and surge on the one hand, and discharge on the other. The coupled model was validated against observations, showing better simulation results of water levels in deltaic regions than simulation without GTSR. For example in the Ganges Delta, correlation coefficients were increased by 0.06, and root mean square errors were reduced by 0.22 m. Global coupling simulations revealed that storm surges affected river water levels in coastal regions worldwide, especially in low-lying flat areas with increases in water level larger than 0.5 m. By employing enhanced storm surge simulation with tropical storm tracks, we also applied the model to examine impacts of past hurricane and cyclone storm events on river flood inundation.

  18. Falling Standards of Education in Nigeria: An Empirical Evidence in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Falling Standards of Education in Nigeria: An Empirical Evidence in Delta State of Nigeria. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... the results are often devastating leading especially to poor quality output and wastage which in ... annual budget, inculcation of the tenets of traditional education, and utilization of research ...

  19. Development Of Rainfall Erosivity Map For Nigeria | Ogedengbe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The indices were used to develop a rainfall erosivity map or Nigeria. The map reveals that Nigeria may be broadly divided into five major erosion risk zones. The south-western part is generally in the low erosion zone, with the exception of the coastal portion of Lagos, Ondo, Edo and Delta states. The south-east and central ...

  20. Estimating Runoff and Soil Moisture Deficit in Guinea Savannah Region of Nigeria using Water Balance Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Adesiji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of runoff and soil moisture deficit in Guinea Savannah region using semi arid model based on soil water balance technique (SAMBA was carried out. The input to the SAMBA model are daily rainfall, daily evapotranspiration, type and date of planting of crop, and soil parameters. The estimated runoff was validated with field measurement taken in a 67.23 ha catchment in the study area. The annual rainfall for the year under study (2009 is 1356.2 mm, the estimated annual evapotranspiration. runoff and recharge are 638mm, 132.93mm, and 447.8mm respectively. Recharge was experienced 23 days after a significant depth of rainfall was recorded. For the crop growth in the catchment, the soil was cropped with a pepper and the growth monitored from the planting to the harvesting. The crop enjoyed so much moisture throughout the growing period as Total Available Water in the soil is greater than Soil Moisture Deficit (TAW>SMD. The model results show that the larger percentage of the total annual rainfall was lost to evaporation and recharge during the growing season. The low runoff and high recharge are attributed to soil characteristics of the area and moderate terrain of the study area.

  1. Modeling of the anthropogenic heat flux and its effect on regional meteorology and air quality over the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Xie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic heat (AH emissions from human activities caused by urbanization can affect the city environment. Based on the energy consumption and the gridded demographic data, the spatial distribution of AH emission over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region is estimated. Meanwhile, a new method for the AH parameterization is developed in the WRF/Chem model, which incorporates the gridded AH emission data with the seasonal and diurnal variations into the simulations. By running this upgraded WRF/Chem for 2 typical months in 2010, the impacts of AH on the meteorology and air quality over the YRD region are studied. The results show that the AH fluxes over the YRD have been growing in recent decades. In 2010, the annual-mean values of AH over Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang are 14.46, 2.61 and 1.63 W m−2, respectively, with the high value of 113.5 W m−2 occurring in the urban areas of Shanghai. These AH emissions can significantly change the urban heat island and urban-breeze circulations in the cities of the YRD region. In Shanghai, 2 m air temperature increases by 1.6 °C in January and 1.4 °C in July, the PBLH (planetary boundary layer height rises up by 140 m in January and 160 m in July, and 10 m wind speed is enhanced by 0.7 m s−1 in January and 0.5 m s−1 in July, with a higher increment at night. The enhanced vertical movement can transport more moisture to higher levels, which causes the decrease in water vapor at ground level and the increase in the upper PBL (planetary boundary layer, and thereby induces the accumulative precipitation to increase by 15–30 % over the megacities in July. The adding of AH can impact the spatial and vertical distributions of the simulated pollutants as well. The concentrations of primary air pollutants decrease near the surface and increase at the upper levels, due mainly to the increases in PBLH, surface wind speed and upward air vertical movement. But surface O3

  2. Modeling of the anthropogenic heat flux and its effect on regional meteorology and air quality over the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Liao, Jingbiao; Wang, Tijian; Zhu, Kuanguang; Zhuang, Bingliang; Han, Yong; Li, Mengmeng; Li, Shu

    2016-05-01

    Anthropogenic heat (AH) emissions from human activities caused by urbanization can affect the city environment. Based on the energy consumption and the gridded demographic data, the spatial distribution of AH emission over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region is estimated. Meanwhile, a new method for the AH parameterization is developed in the WRF/Chem model, which incorporates the gridded AH emission data with the seasonal and diurnal variations into the simulations. By running this upgraded WRF/Chem for 2 typical months in 2010, the impacts of AH on the meteorology and air quality over the YRD region are studied. The results show that the AH fluxes over the YRD have been growing in recent decades. In 2010, the annual-mean values of AH over Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang are 14.46, 2.61 and 1.63 W m-2, respectively, with the high value of 113.5 W m-2 occurring in the urban areas of Shanghai. These AH emissions can significantly change the urban heat island and urban-breeze circulations in the cities of the YRD region. In Shanghai, 2 m air temperature increases by 1.6 °C in January and 1.4 °C in July, the PBLH (planetary boundary layer height) rises up by 140 m in January and 160 m in July, and 10 m wind speed is enhanced by 0.7 m s-1 in January and 0.5 m s-1 in July, with a higher increment at night. The enhanced vertical movement can transport more moisture to higher levels, which causes the decrease in water vapor at ground level and the increase in the upper PBL (planetary boundary layer), and thereby induces the accumulative precipitation to increase by 15-30 % over the megacities in July. The adding of AH can impact the spatial and vertical distributions of the simulated pollutants as well. The concentrations of primary air pollutants decrease near the surface and increase at the upper levels, due mainly to the increases in PBLH, surface wind speed and upward air vertical movement. But surface O3 concentrations increase in the urban areas, with maximum

  3. Beam-helicity associated electroproduction of real photons ep {yields} e{gamma}{pi}N in the {Delta}-resonance region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). 2. Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Laboratory of Physics; Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Argentina); Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY Zeuthen (Germany)] [and others; Collaboration: HERMES Collaboration

    2013-10-15

    The beam-helicity asymmetry in associated electroproduction of real photons, ep {yields} e{gamma}{pi}N, in the {Delta}(1232)-resonance region is measured using the longitudinally polarized HERA positron beam and an unpolarized hydrogen target. Azimuthal Fourier amplitudes of this asymmetry are extracted separately for two channels, ep {yields} e{gamma}{pi}{sup 0}p and ep {yields} e{gamma}{pi}{sup +}n, from a data set collected with a recoil detector. All asymmetry amplitudes are found to be consistent with zero.

  4. Spatial and temporal characteristics of warm season convection over Pearl River Delta region, China, based on 3 years of operational radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingchao; Zhao, Kun; Xue, Ming

    2014-11-01

    This study examines the temporal and spatial characteristics and distributions of convection over the Pearl River Delta region of Guangzhou, China, during the May-September warm season, using, for the first time for such a purpose, 3 years of operational Doppler radar data in the region. Results show that convective features occur most frequently along the southern coast and the windward slope of the eastern mountainous area of Pearl River Delta, with the highest frequency occurring in June and the lowest in September among the 5 months. The spatial frequency distribution pattern also roughly matches the accumulated precipitation pattern. The occurrence of convection in this region also exhibits strong diurnal cycles. During May and June, the diurnal distribution is bimodal, with the maximum frequency occurring in the early afternoon and a secondary peak occurring between midnight and early morning. The secondary peak is much weaker in July, August, and September. Convection near the coast is found to occur preferentially on days when a southerly low-level jet (LLJ) exists, especially during the Meiyu season. Warm, moist, and unstable air is transported from the ocean to land by LLJs on these days, and the lifting along the coast by convergence induced by differential surface friction between the land and ocean is believed to be the primary cause for the high frequency along the coast. In contrast, the high frequency over mountainous area is believed to be due to orographic lifting of generally southerly flows during the warm season.

  5. Feasibility of Rainwater Harvesting to fulfill potable water demand using quantitative water management in low-lying delta regions of Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, A.; Hossain, F.

    2016-12-01

    Low-lying deltas of Asian region are usually densely populated and located in developing countries situated at the downstream end of major rivers. Extensive dam construction by the upstream countries has now caused water scarcity in large portions of low-lying deltas. Most inhabitants depend on shallow tube well for safe drinking water that tend to suffer from water quality issues (e.g. Arsenic contamination). In addition, people also get infected from water borne diseases like Cholera and Typhoid due to lack of safe drinking water. Developing a centralized piped network based water supply system is often not a feasible option in rural regions. Due to social acceptability, environment friendliness, lower capital and maintenance cost, rainwater harvesting can be the most sustainable option to supply safe drinking water in rural areas. In this study, first we estimate the monthly rainfall variability using long precipitation climatology from satellite precipitation data. The upper and lower bounds of monthly harvestable rainwater were estimated for each satellite precipitation grid. Taking this lower bound of monthly harvestable rainwater as input, we use quantitative water management concept to determine the percent of the time of the year potable water demand can be fulfilled. Analysis indicates that a 6 m³ reservoir tank can fulfill the potable water demand of a 6 person family throughout a year in almost all parts of this region.

  6. Thermal comfort characteristics of some selected building materials in the regional setting of Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Fasogbon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In Ile-Ife, it is very common to see quite a lot of local people engaging in mud bricks moulding, concrete block making, mud house construction and the bricklaying profession in general. These have particular bearing on the economy and the political situation of the people involved as in the profession there is set of rules and regulations guiding the rate and procedure for carrying out any such moulding or construction work. Considering the importance of this, the present study investigated the thermal performance of some selected building materials in the ancient city of Ile-Ife in Nigeria. The work demonstrated how a building envelope responds to outdoor conditions through graphic illustrations. This was followed by constructing three physical building models, with model 1 constructed of mud bricks, model 2 constructed of concrete blocks and model 3 constructed of cast concrete. Each of the models was first roofed with galvanised Iron roofing sheets, later with aluminium roofing sheets and finally with asbestos roofing. Readings were taken by inserting TGP-4500 Data loggers into appropriate positions. The results showed that internal temperatures in the mud-brick and cast concrete buildings remained fairly stable despite external diurnal fluctuations. Humidity data collected also showed that fluctuations in external humidity levels do not affect humidity levels within the mud-brick and cast concrete structures significantly. On the other hand, the structure made of concrete blocks responded more to external fluctuations in temperature and humidity. Moreover, humidity levels in the cast concrete building were the least, followed by those in the mud-brick house; while the concrete block structure had the highest level of humidity. It was also discovered that aluminium roofing gave the highest internal temperature, followed by galvanised iron roofing and the least was seen with asbestos roofing. For external diurnal fluctuations, building model

  7. [Characteristics of atmospheric NO2 in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and the Yangtze River Delta analyzed by satellite and ground observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Li, Ling-Jun; Liu, Yang

    2012-11-01

    The interannual variability of NO2 levels in two major Chinese economic regions, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) economic circle and the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), were studied using multiple years of OMI-retrieved NO2 columns and ground measurements. The NO2 columns were comparable in the two regions, which were - 50% higher than the BTH and YRD regional background and two times higher than the Asia-Europe continental background. Satellite data showed that the high NO2 regions scattered around Beijing and Shanghai in summer, and the coverage of high NO2 regions increased in spring and merged in winter, affecting the entire eastern China. Ground level NO2 concentrations in the urban centers of Beijing and Shanghai were also comparable, which were - 10 times greater than the regional background and 1 000 times higher than the Asia-Europe continental background. As industries gradually migrated out of the urban centers, the NO2 concentrations in Beijing and Shanghai decreased, but the regional background NO2 concentration in BTH and YRD increased. It reflected in part the impact of NO2 emission reductions related to fossil fuel combustion as a result of air quality control measures in BTH and YRD. NO2 levels during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games and the Shanghai World Expo 2010 decreased temporarily, but bounced back quickly afterwards, indicating that sustainable air quality improvement can only be achieved through long-term regional efforts.

  8. Variation in agricultural CO2 fluxes during the growing season, collected from more than ten eddy covariance towers in the Mississippi Delta Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkle, B.; Suvocarev, K.; Reba, M. L.; Novick, K. A.; White, P.; Anapalli, S.; Locke, M. A.; Rigby, J.; Bhattacharjee, J.

    2016-12-01

    Agriculture is unique as an anthropogenic activity that plays both a large role in carbon and water cycling and whose management activities provide a key opportunity for responses to climate change. It is therefore especially crucial to bring field observations into the modeling community, test remote sensing products, encourage policy debate, and enable carbon offsets markets that generate revenue and fund climate-smart activities. The accurate measurement of agricultural CO2 exchange - both primary productivity and ecosystem respiration - in concert with evapotranspiration provides crucial information on agro-ecosystem functioning and improves our predictive capacity for estimating the impacts of climate change. In this study we report field measurements from more than 10 eddy covariance towers in the Lower Mississippi River Basin taken during the summer months of 2016. Many towers, some recently deployed, are being aggregated into a regional network known as Delta-Flux, which will ultimately include 15-20 towers by 2017. Set in and around the Mississippi Delta Region within Louisiana, Arkansas, and Mississippi, the network will collect flux, micrometeorological, and crop yield data in order to construct estimates of regional CO2 exchange. These time-series data are gap-filled using statistical and process-based models to generate estimates of summer CO2 flux. The tower network is comprised of sites representing widespread agriculture production, including rice, cotton, corn, soybean, and sugarcane; intensively managed pine forest; and bottomland hardwood forest. Unique experimental production practices are represented in the network and include restricted water use, bioenergy, and by-product utilization. Several towers compose multi-field sites testing innovative irrigation or management practices. Current mapping of agricultural carbon exchange - based on land cover layers and fixed crop emission factors - suggests an unconstrained carbon flux estimate in this

  9. Effect of technology on librarians in academic libraries in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of technology on librarians working in academic libraries in Nigeria with particular reference to Delta State. The descriptive survey design was adopted. The twelve (12) tertiary institutions libraries in Delta State were used for the study. The purposive sampling technique ...

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in upstream riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta, China: An assessment of regional input sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kai; Liang Bo; Wang Jizhong; Guan Yufeng; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2012-01-01

    Water samples collected from upstream tributaries of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and from locations within the PRD (South China) were analyzed for 27 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Average concentrations (aqueous plus particulate) of total 27 PAHs (Σ 27 PAH), 16 priority PAHs designated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) except naphthalene (Σ 15 PAH), and the seven carcinogenic PAHs (Σ 7 PAH) classified by the USEPA were 260 ± 410, 130 ± 310, and 15 ± 12 ng/L, respectively. Riverine PAHs were predominantly generated from coal and vegetation combustion, coke production, vehicle exhausts, and petroleum residues, accounting for 28%, 25%, 22% and 21%, respectively, on average. Upstream riverine fluxes of Σ 27 PAH and Σ 15 PAH amounted to 38.9 and 12.9 tons/year, respectively. The net contributions of Σ 27 PAH and Σ 15 PAH from sources within the PRD were estimated at 21.4 and 21.0 tons/year, respectively. - Highlights: ► Upstream PAH levels were lower than downstream PAHs and pose low ecological risk. ► Riverine PAHs are predominantly pyrogenic. ► Parent PAHs in Pearl River are mainly derived from within the PRD. ► The 15 priority PAHs were mainly generated within the Pearl River Delta. - The 15 priority PAHs are mainly generated within the PRD while the other 12 PAHs from upstream areas.

  11. Environmental Impact Assessment Process for Oil, Gas and Mining Projects in Nigeria: A Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Ingelson and Chilenye Nwapi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas development projects are well known to have damaging environmental effects, and that is especially true in the Niger Delta region. Since the enactment of the Environmental Impact Assessment Act in Nigeria in 1992, there has been a general perception that EIAs are seldom carried out in the region. This article presents a critical analysis of legislation and practice concerning the environmental impact assessment (EIA process for oil and gas projects in Nigeria, the world’s twelfth largest producer of crude oil. It discusses a range of reasons why the impacts of oil and gas projects are not being managed well, despite the legal requirements for EIAs. A review of Nigeria’s environmental governance is presented along with a comprehensive discussion of the EIA process and its significant deficiencies. We argue that the EIA system for oil and gas projects in Nigeria reflects tokenism, resulting in the concentration of benefits of developments in big corporations and government officials. The EIA process in Nigeria faces many challenges that must be addressed in order to improve its effectiveness and alleviate the environmental burdens on this rich oil-producing region.

  12. Sahel, North-West Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    impact depending on location, adaptation capacity and other socioeconomic factors. The Sudano-Sahel Nigeria is one of the vulnerable regions to climate ..... takes place, whereas, little or no cloud development or precipitation occur to the.

  13. Mercury methylation, export and bioaccumulation in rice agriculture - model results from comparative and experimental studies in 3 regions of the California Delta, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham-Myers, L.; Fleck, J.; Eagles-Smith, C.; Ackerman, J.

    2013-12-01

    Seasonally flooded wetland ecosystems are often poised for mercury (Hg) methylation, thus becoming sources of methylmercury (MeHg) to in situ and downstream biota. The seasonal flooding associated with cultivation of rice (Oryza sativa) also generates MeHg, which may be stored in sediment or plants, bioaccumulated into fauna, degraded or exported, depending on hydrologic and seasonal conditions. While many U.S. waters are regulated for total Hg concentrations based on fish targets, California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta) will soon implement the first MeHg total maximum daily load (TMDL) control program. Since 2007, a conceptual model (DRERIP-MCM) and several ecosystem-level studies have been advanced to better understand the mechanisms behind Hg methylation, export and bioaccumulation within Delta wetlands, including rice agriculture. Three Delta rice-growing regions (Yolo Bypass, Cosumnes River, Central Delta) of varied soil characteristics, mining influences and hydrology, were monitored over full crop years to evaluate annual MeHg dynamics. In addition to fish tissue Hg accumulation, a broad suite of biogeochemical and hydrologic indices were assessed and compared between wetland types, seasons, and regions. In general, Delta rice fields were found to export MeHg during the post-harvest winter season, and promote MeHg uptake in fish and rice grain during the summer growing season. As described in a companion presentation (Eagles-Smith et al., this session), the experimental Cosumnes River study suggests that rice-derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fuels MeHg production and uptake into aquatic foodwebs. Explicit DRERIP-MCM linkages for the role of rice-DOC in MeHg production, export and bioaccumulation were verified across two summers (2011, 2012): rice biomass and root productivity influenced porewater DOC availability and microbial processes, which drove sediment MeHg production and flux to surface water, promoting MeHg bioaccumulation in fish

  14. Direct estimates of cause-specific mortality fractions and rates of under-five deaths in the northern and southern regions of Nigeria by verbal autopsy interview.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeyinka Adewemimo

    Full Text Available Nigeria's under-five mortality rate is the eighth highest in the world. Identifying the causes of under-five deaths is crucial to achieving Sustainable Development Goal 3 by 2030 and improving child survival. National and international bodies collaborated in this study to provide the first ever direct estimates of the causes of under-five mortality in Nigeria. Verbal autopsy interviews were conducted of a representative sample of 986 neonatal and 2,268 1-59 month old deaths from 2008 to 2013 identified by the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Cause of death was assigned by physician coding and computerized expert algorithms arranged in a hierarchy. National and regional estimates of age distributions, mortality rates and cause proportions, and zonal- and age-specific mortality fractions and rates for leading causes of death were evaluated. More under-fives and 1-59 month olds in the South, respectively, died as neonates (N = 24.1%, S = 32.5%, p<0.001 and at younger ages (p<0.001 than in the North. The leading causes of neonatal and 1-59 month mortality, respectively, were sepsis, birth injury/asphyxia and neonatal pneumonia, and malaria, diarrhea and pneumonia. The preterm delivery (N = 1.2%, S = 3.7%, p = 0.042, pneumonia (N = 15.0%, S = 21.6%, p = 0.004 and malaria (N = 34.7%, S = 42.2%, p = 0.009 fractions were higher in the South, with pneumonia and malaria focused in the South East and South South; while the diarrhea fraction was elevated in the North (N = 24.8%, S = 13.2%, p<0.001. However, the diarrhea, pneumonia and malaria mortality rates were all higher in the North, respectively, by 222.9% (Z = -10.9, p = 0.000, 27.6% (Z = -2.3, p = 0.020 and 50.6% (Z = -5.7, p = 0.000, with the greatest excesses in older children. The findings support that there is an epidemiological transition ongoing in southern Nigeria, suggest the way forward to a similar transition in the North, and can help guide maternal, neonatal and child health

  15. Direct estimates of cause-specific mortality fractions and rates of under-five deaths in the northern and southern regions of Nigeria by verbal autopsy interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewemimo, Adeyinka; Kalter, Henry D; Perin, Jamie; Koffi, Alain K; Quinley, John; Black, Robert E

    2017-01-01

    Nigeria's under-five mortality rate is the eighth highest in the world. Identifying the causes of under-five deaths is crucial to achieving Sustainable Development Goal 3 by 2030 and improving child survival. National and international bodies collaborated in this study to provide the first ever direct estimates of the causes of under-five mortality in Nigeria. Verbal autopsy interviews were conducted of a representative sample of 986 neonatal and 2,268 1-59 month old deaths from 2008 to 2013 identified by the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Cause of death was assigned by physician coding and computerized expert algorithms arranged in a hierarchy. National and regional estimates of age distributions, mortality rates and cause proportions, and zonal- and age-specific mortality fractions and rates for leading causes of death were evaluated. More under-fives and 1-59 month olds in the South, respectively, died as neonates (N = 24.1%, S = 32.5%, pbirth injury/asphyxia and neonatal pneumonia, and malaria, diarrhea and pneumonia. The preterm delivery (N = 1.2%, S = 3.7%, p = 0.042), pneumonia (N = 15.0%, S = 21.6%, p = 0.004) and malaria (N = 34.7%, S = 42.2%, p = 0.009) fractions were higher in the South, with pneumonia and malaria focused in the South East and South South; while the diarrhea fraction was elevated in the North (N = 24.8%, S = 13.2%, prates were all higher in the North, respectively, by 222.9% (Z = -10.9, p = 0.000), 27.6% (Z = -2.3, p = 0.020) and 50.6% (Z = -5.7, p = 0.000), with the greatest excesses in older children. The findings support that there is an epidemiological transition ongoing in southern Nigeria, suggest the way forward to a similar transition in the North, and can help guide maternal, neonatal and child health programming and their regional and zonal foci within the country.

  16. Spatio-temporal characteristics of the extreme precipitation by L-moment-based index-flood method in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yixing; Chen, Haishan; Xu, Chong-Yu; Xu, Wucheng; Chen, Changchun; Sun, Shanlei

    2016-05-01

    The regionalization methods, which "trade space for time" by pooling information from different locations in the frequency analysis, are efficient tools to enhance the reliability of extreme quantile estimates. This paper aims at improving the understanding of the regional frequency of extreme precipitation by using regionalization methods, and providing scientific background and practical assistance in formulating the regional development strategies for water resources management in one of the most developed and flood-prone regions in China, the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region. To achieve the main goals, L-moment-based index-flood (LMIF) method, one of the most popular regionalization methods, is used in the regional frequency analysis of extreme precipitation with special attention paid to inter-site dependence and its influence on the accuracy of quantile estimates, which has not been considered by most of the studies using LMIF method. Extensive data screening of stationarity, serial dependence, and inter-site dependence was carried out first. The entire YRD region was then categorized into four homogeneous regions through cluster analysis and homogenous analysis. Based on goodness-of-fit statistic and L-moment ratio diagrams, generalized extreme-value (GEV) and generalized normal (GNO) distributions were identified as the best fitted distributions for most of the sub-regions, and estimated quantiles for each region were obtained. Monte Carlo simulation was used to evaluate the accuracy of the quantile estimates taking inter-site dependence into consideration. The results showed that the root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) were bigger and the 90 % error bounds were wider with inter-site dependence than those without inter-site dependence for both the regional growth curve and quantile curve. The spatial patterns of extreme precipitation with a return period of 100 years were finally obtained which indicated that there are two regions with highest precipitation

  17. A novel chromosome region maintenance 1-independent nuclear export signal of the large form of hepatitis delta antigen that is required for the viral assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C H; Chang, S C; Wu, C H; Chang, M F

    2001-03-16

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a satellite virus of hepatitis B virus, as it requires hepatitis B virus for virion production and transmission. We have previously demonstrated that sequences within the C-terminal 19-amino acid domain flanking the isoprenylation motif of the large hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg-L) are important for virion assembly. In this study, site-directed mutagenesis and immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that in the absence of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg), the wild-type HDAg-L was localized in the nuclei of transfected COS7 cells. Nevertheless, in the presence of HBsAg, the HDAg-L became both nuclei- and cytoplasm-distributed in about half of the cells. An HDAg-L mutant with a substitution of Pro-205 to alanine could neither form HDV-like particles nor shift the subcellular localization in the presence of HBsAg. In addition, nuclear trafficking of HDAg-L in heterokaryons indicated that HDAg-L is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein. A proline-rich HDAg peptide spanning amino acid residues 198 to 210, designated NES(HDAg-L), can function as a nuclear export signal (NES) in Xenopus oocytes. Pro-205 is critical for the NES function. Furthermore, assembly of HDV is insensitive to leptomycin B, indicating that the NES(HDAg-L) directs nuclear export of HDAg-L to the cytoplasm via a chromosome region maintenance 1-independent pathway.

  18. Unique regional distribution of delta 4-3-ketosteroid-5 alpha-oxidoreductase and associated epididymal morphology in the marsupial, Didelphis virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelce, W R; Krause, W J; Ganjam, V K

    1987-09-01

    The epididymal epithelial ultrastructure has been described in the adult male North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Morphological results have suggested that absorptive activity is prominent in the proximal epididymal region by virtue of numerous microvilli, an endocytotic complex, dense granules, and multivesicular bodies in the apical cytoplasm. In contrast, the middle and distal epididymal regions exhibit ultrastructural features indicative of protein synthesis such as large invaginated euchromatic nuclei, large nucleoli, and increased amounts of granular endoplasmic reticulum. It is in the middle and distal epididymal regions where sperm head rotation and sperm pairing take place. Epididymal delta 4-3-ketosteroid-5 alpha-oxidoreductase (5 alpha-reductase) activity also has been measured. It has been found that the level of enzyme activity differs significantly (p less than 0.01) between the proximal, middle, and distal epididymal regions. Enzyme-specific activity has been found to be highest in the middle region (47.6 +/- 5.4 picomoles 5 alpha-reduced androgens formed/b/mg protein), lower in the distal region (18.3 +/- 0.7 picomoles 5 alpha-reduced androgens formed/b/mg protein), with little activity (2.4 +/- 1.2 picomoles 5 alpha-reduced androgens formed/h/mg protein) found in the proximal epididymal region. This regional distribution of enzyme activity differs markedly from that reported for eutherian mammals. Both the suggested epididymal protein synthetic and secretory activity and the level of epididymal 5 alpha-reductase activity appear to correlate regionally with the morphological changes that occur in the opossum spermatozoa as they transit the epididymis.

  19. Spatio-temporal analysis of the extreme precipitation by the L-moment-based index-flood method in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yixing; Chen, Haishan; Xu, Chongyu; Xu, Wucheng; Chen, Changchun

    2014-05-01

    The regionalization methods which 'trade space for time' by including several at-site data records in the frequency analysis are an efficient tool to improve the reliability of extreme quantile estimates. With the main aims of improving the understanding of the regional frequency of extreme precipitation and providing scientific and practical background and assistance in formulating the regional development strategies for water resources management in one of the most developed and flood-prone regions in China, the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, in this paper, L-moment-based index-flood (LMIF) method, one of the popular regionalization methods, is used in the regional frequency analysis of extreme precipitation; attention was paid to inter-site dependence and its influence on the accuracy of quantile estimates, which hasn't been considered for most of the studies using LMIF method. Extensive data screening of stationarity, serial dependence and inter-site dependence was carried out first. The entire YRD region was then categorized into four homogeneous regions through cluster analysis and homogenous analysis. Based on goodness-of-fit statistic and L-moment ratio diagrams, Generalized extreme-value (GEV) and Generalized Normal (GNO) distributions were identified as the best-fit distributions for most of the sub regions. Estimated quantiles for each region were further obtained. Monte-Carlo simulation was used to evaluate the accuracy of the quantile estimates taking inter-site dependence into consideration. The results showed that the root mean square errors (RMSEs) were bigger and the 90% error bounds were wider with inter-site dependence than those with no inter-site dependence for both the regional growth curve and quantile curve. The spatial patterns of extreme precipitation with return period of 100 years were obtained which indicated that there are two regions with the highest precipitation extremes (southeastern coastal area of Zhejiang Province and the

  20. The diet of wintering Barn Owls (Tyto alba in the region of Histria, the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÁNDOR D. Attila

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Barn Owl (Tyto alba is a common nocturnal predator of agro-ecosystems and it is widely distributed, especially in European countryside. The species uses human artifacts, ruins, barns, attics, towers for breeding and roosting, these sites can provide researchers with hundreds of pellets, thus its diet is well known. A first assessment of the diet and food selection was made for the southern part of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve in the wintering period, in a unique wetland-grassland complex, with large areas of steppes. Mammals dominated the diet spectrum, with the shrews (Soricidae being the most frequent (48.3%, followed by the mice (Muridae, and the voles (Arvicolinae. The mammalian component of the diet is important also in terms of biomass (97.8 %. The most valuable species is the Sibling Vole (Microtus epiroticus equalling 25.5 % of all biomass consumed, followed by the Common White-toothed Shrew (Crocidura suaveolens and the Mound-building Mouse (Mus spicilegus. Birds and amphibians made up a small portion of the diet, both in terms of occurrence and of biomass. Three species of birds were captured, the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus being the most important. The results suggest that the Barn Owl is a specialized feeder relying on small mammals and completing its diet with other prey only occasionally.

  1. Environmental conditions and vegetation recovery at abandoned drilling mud sumps in the Mackenzie Delta region, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, J.F. [Saskatchewan Univ., Regina, SK (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2008-06-15

    Decadal scale impacts of exploratory oil and gas drilling activities on native plant communities in the lower Arctic tundra were investigated. The study used historical data from oil and gas exploration activities in the Mackenzie River Delta to assess changes in vegetation composition and environmental gradients at 7 drilling mud sumps located in the Kendall Island Bird Sanctuary. Over a period of 3 decades, the sumps had developed vegetation coverage equivalent in mass to vegetation in undisturbed areas. However, bare soil was observed at ponded sites where salt crusts had formed. The vegetation was composed of forbs, grasses, and tall shrubs that were distinct from surrounding low shrub communities. The area of vegetation around the sump was larger in upland and saline environments. Water around the sumps was associated with thaw subsidence that occurred after construction activities. Changes in drainage, surface salt concentrations, and active-layer depths were seen as the most significant factors in the resulting plant communities. 31 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  2. the search for environmental justice in the niger delta and corporate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLAWUYI

    Keywords: Environmental Justice, Niger Delta, Corporate Accountability, Torts, kiobel .... U.S. Courts to Victims of Corporate Human Rights Abuses', 146 Columbia ... 7 Amokaye O.G., Environmental Law and Practice in Nigeria (Lagos, Unilag ...

  3. Wildlife based business activities in Ogbe–Ijaw market of Delta state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wildlife based business activities in Ogbe–Ijaw market of Delta state, Nigeria. ... of procuring the products, channels for marketing the products, and risks involved in procuring wildlife products sold in the market. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  4. The feeding ecology of schilbeid catfishes in river Ase, Niger delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feeding ecology of schilbeid catfishes in river Ase, Niger delta, Southern Nigeria. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... in feeding intensity were described for Eutropius niloticus and Schilbe mystus which had adequate data.

  5. Air Quality Measurements And Characterization - A Resource For Sustainable Development In Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugwuanyi, J. U

    2002-01-01

    My assignment in this paper is to present an overview of a proposed research work on air quality measurements and characterization in Nigeria, using Niger Delta region and Benue State as a case study. A preliminary study indicates that ambient air quality in the country far exceeds the international Ambient Air Quality Standards (AAQS). And, there is a strong indication that concentration levels of particle mass, elements, and organic compounds, et alia. are being elevated and that daily respiratory-related emergency visits could be correlated with the ambient and aerosol concentrations. Indeed, the environmental impact matrices of tile patients versus airborne diseases in Benue State indicate that the inferno is already affecting the quality of life and productivity of the people. Observations also show that the Niger Delta's main environmental challenges result from gas flaring, oil spills and deforestation. Although the monetary losses due to air pollution in Nigeria is yet to be quantified, Nigeria loses about $ 2.5 billion per annum due to gas flaring alone. The paper presents background to the problem, program of work/methodology, Physics of air pollutants, energy conservation (material balances), air pollutants and associated diseases, anticipated benefits of the proposed research and its relevance to the nation building

  6. Sustaining Small Scale Farming: Evidence of Poverty and income Disparity among Rural Farming Households in South-South Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday B. Akpan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of poverty is evidenced among rural farm households in developing societies. As a result of persistence poverty among rural farm households, there is a sudden upsurge in agricultural livelihood diversification and rural-urban migration resulting in high rate of urban unemployment. To help generate suitable policy variables to help tackle this rampaging issue in the South- south region of Nigeria, this study specifically analyses poverty and income inequality as well as identified determinants of poverty among rural farm households in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 390 rural farm household heads spread across the rural areas of the State. Combination of sampling methods was employed to sample cross-sectional data from respondents. The study used descriptive tools and regression analysis (Tobit regressions to analyse information collected. The socio-economic analysis reveals that most farming household heads were male; an average of 12.3 years of formal was discovered; social capital formation was poor, while average age stood at 42.5 years. About 33.08 % of male headed households and 22.05 % of female-headed households live below poverty line in the study area. Income inequality index revealed 0.4210 for male headed households and 0.4531 for the female counterpart. The Tobit model estimates revealed that, household head farming experience, years in the social organisation, a level of formal education, farm and non-farm income were negative drivers of rural poverty in the region. Household’s age, household size, structure of land ownership and gender were positive drivers of poverty among rural farming households. It is recommended that sound family welfare packages should be implemented in the rural communities. Also, the social capital formation should be promoted among rural farming households, while adult education policies should be re-visited. The government of the region should also improve educational

  7. Contaminated land and wetland remediation in Nigeria: Opportunities for sustainable livelihood creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, K; Zabbey, N

    2018-10-15

    The Niger Delta region of Nigeria is one of the most crude oil impacted deltas globally. The region has experienced over five decades of oil related contamination of the total environment (air, soil, water and biota). In 2011, UNEP released a seminal report on oil impact on Ogoniland environments, which up scaled demands for urgent clean up and restoration of degraded bio-resource rich environments of the Niger Delta, starting from Ogoniland. The Nigerian Government demonstrated renewed political will to remediate contaminated sites in Ogoniland with a launch of the clean-up exercise in June 2016. Stakeholders' expectations from the clean-up include not only environmental remediation but also restoration and creation of sustainable livelihood opportunities to reduce poverty in the region. Most studies have focused on the environmental restoration aspect and identified bioremediation as the likely appropriate remediation approach for Ogoniland, given its low environmental footprints, and low-cost burden on the weak and overstretched economy of Nigeria. This study mapped opportunities for sustainable livelihood creation during the Ogoniland remediation and restoration exercise. Given the value chain of bioremediation and its ancillary activities, the study analysed opportunities and mechanisms for skilled and unskilled job creation and prospects for sustainable livelihoods and knock-on effects. It is anticipated that the clean-up process would lead to economic prosperity and mitigate resource-driven conflicts in the Niger Delta. The study provides an exemplar for waste-to-wealth transformation in regions where natural resource mining has impacted communities, and has dislocated local economies and age-old livelihood structures. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Aquifers in the Sokoto basin, northwestern Nigeria, with a description of the general hydrogeology of the region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H.R.; Ogilbee, William

    1973-01-01

    The Sokoto Basin of northwestern Nigeria lies in the sub-Saharan Sudan belt of west Africa in a zone of savannah-type vegetation. Rainfall, averaging about 30 inches annually in much of the basin, occurs chiefly in a wet season which lasts from May to October. A prolonged dry season extending from October to April is dominated by dusty harmattan winds from the northeast. April and May are the hottest months, when temperatures occasionally reach 105?F. Flow in streams of the Sokoto Basin is mostly overland runoff. Only in a few reaches, fed by ground-water discharge from the sedimentary rocks, are streams perennial. In the River Zamfara basin, ground-water discharge contributes almost 1 inch of the average 3.33 inches of total annual runoff. In the vicinity of Sokoto, the River Rima flows throughout the year sustained by spring discharge from perched ground water in limestone of the Kalambaina Formation. On the crystalline terrane where most of the streams rise, total annual runoff may exceed 5 inches, very little of which is ground-water discharge. The sedimentary rocks of the basin range in age from Cretaceous to Tertiary and are composed mostly of interbedded sand, clay, and some limestone; the beds dip gently toward the northwest. Alluvium of Quaternary age underlies the lowlands of the River Sokoto (now Sokoto) and its principal tributaries. These rocks contain three important artesian aquifers, in addition to regional unconfined ground-water bodies in all the principal outcron areas, and a perched water body in the outcrop of the Kalambaina Formation. Artesian aquifers occur at depth in the Gundumi Formation, the Rima Group, and the Gwandu Formation and are separated from one another by clay beds in the lower part of the Rima Group and the Dange Formation. In outcrop, clay in the Dange Formation also supports the perched water of the Kalambaina Formation. The Gundumi Formation, resting on the basement complex, is composed of varicolored clay, sand, and gravel

  9. The political economy of oil and the Niger Delta crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ighodaro, Osaro O.

    This study is about the burgeoning crisis in Nigeria's Oil Producing Niger Delta region. Discerning the intersecting contributive factors to the crisis, this dissertation suggests that the Niger Delta crisis is symptomatic of challenges to development in Nigeria. Due to the insidious colonial/neo-colonial practices of subjugation, and exploitation of the host communities, it is suggested that the extractive, super-profit motive of Shell, the concomitant environmental degradation, corruption of a bellicose state, ethnic conflict and suffering of the masses are outcomes of a long historically debilitating relationship with international capital which causes irreparable retardation to the host communities. From cash crop economy to a mono-oil economy resources are removed from the communities and used to enhance the colonial state and their post-colonial harbingers of misery. Hence, the indigenous people claim that the Niger Delta is in a crisis, and they are willing to confront the triple alliance of multinational oil companies like Shell, the Nigerian State and the local elite so long as these allies of subjugation continue to neglect the goose that lays the proverbial golden egg (oil that is). Theoretically, a hybrid Political Economy approach was adopted as the over-aching framework for the study, while Dependency theory, modified by what I have called African Transformative scholarly perspective, served as the conceptual tool. Primary and secondary sources of data, including personal observation, interviews, official government documents and other publications were utilized for this analysis. In view of recommendations, it is suggested that first, the Nigerian state should assume decisive and unflinching leadership in holding oil companies responsible for their activities in the host communities; second, oil companies (like Shell) should see themselves as an integral part of the host communities; invest in their development by providing employment opportunities

  10. Identifying the impacts of climate on the regional transport of haze pollution and inter-cities correspondence within the Yangtze River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hang; Huang, Zhongwen; Zhang, Jingjing; Zhang, Huiling; Chen, Jinsheng; Zhang, Han; Tong, Lei

    2017-09-01

    Regional haze pollution has become an important environmental issue in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region. Regional transport and inter-influence of PM 2.5 among cities occurs frequently as a result of the subtropical monsoon climate. Backward trajectory statistics indicated that a north wind prevailed from October to March, while a southeast wind predominated from May to September. The temporal relationships of carbon and nitrogen isotopes among cities were dependent on the prevailing wind direction. Regional PM 2.5 pollution was confirmed in the YRD region by means of significant correlations and similar cyclical characteristics of PM 2.5 among Lin'an, Ningbo, Nanjing and Shanghai. Granger causality tests of the time series of PM 2.5 values indicate that the regional transport of haze pollutants is governed by prevailing wind direction, as the PM 2.5 concentrations from upwind area cities generally influence that of the downwind cities. Furthermore, stronger correlation coefficients were identified according to monsoon pathways. To clarify the impacts of the monsoon climate, a vector autoregressive (VAR) model was introduced. Variance decomposition in the VAR model also indicated that the upwind area cities contributed significantly to PM 2.5 in the downwind area cities. Finally, we attempted to predict daily PM 2.5 concentrations in each city based on the VAR model using data from all cities and obtained fairly reasonable predictions. These indicate that statistical methods of the Granger causality test and VAR model have the potential to evaluate inter-influence and the relative contribution of PM 2.5 among cities, and to predict PM 2.5 concentrations as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Monitoring evolving urban cluster systems using DMSP/OLS nighttime light data: a case study of the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao; Yang, Shan; Wang, Shuguang; Shen, Yan

    2017-10-01

    The assessment of the dynamic urban structure has been affected by lack of timely and accurate spatial information for a long period, which has hindered the measurements of structural continuity at the macroscale. Defense meteorological satellite program's operational linescan system (DMSP/OLS) nighttime light (NTL) data provide an ideal source for urban information detection with a long-time span, short-time interval, and wide coverage. In this study, we extracted the physical boundaries of urban clusters from corrected NTL images and quantitatively analyzed the structure of the urban cluster system based on rank-size distribution, spatial metrics, and Mann-Kendall trend test. Two levels of urban cluster systems in the Yangtze River Delta region (YRDR) were examined. We found that (1) in the entire YRDR, the urban cluster system showed a periodic process, with a significant trend of even distribution before 2007 but an unequal growth pattern after 2007, and (2) at the metropolitan level, vast disparities exist in four metropolitan areas for the fluctuations of Pareto's exponent, the speed of cluster expansion, and the dominance of core cluster. The results suggest that the extracted urban cluster information from NTL data effectively reflect the evolving nature of regional urbanization, which in turn can aid in the planning of cities and help achieve more sustainable regional development.

  12. An optimized data fusion method and its application to improve lateral boundary conditions in winter for Pearl River Delta regional PM2.5 modeling, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhijiong; Hu, Yongtao; Zheng, Junyu; Zhai, Xinxin; Huang, Ran

    2018-05-01

    Lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) are essential for chemical transport models to simulate regional transport; however they often contain large uncertainties. This study proposes an optimized data fusion approach to reduce the bias of LBCs by fusing gridded model outputs, from which the daughter domain's LBCs are derived, with ground-level measurements. The optimized data fusion approach follows the framework of a previous interpolation-based fusion method but improves it by using a bias kriging method to correct the spatial bias in gridded model outputs. Cross-validation shows that the optimized approach better estimates fused fields in areas with a large number of observations compared to the previous interpolation-based method. The optimized approach was applied to correct LBCs of PM2.5 concentrations for simulations in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region as a case study. Evaluations show that the LBCs corrected by data fusion improve in-domain PM2.5 simulations in terms of the magnitude and temporal variance. Correlation increases by 0.13-0.18 and fractional bias (FB) decreases by approximately 3%-15%. This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying data fusion to improve regional air quality modeling.

  13. Personnel radiation dose assessment using a novel dosimeter in the department of radiology and dentistry in a medical facility in Delta State, South-South Nigeria: Our experience in the last 4 years

    OpenAIRE

    Omojola, Akintayo Daniel; Akpochafor, Michael Onoride; Adeneye, Samuel Olaolu; Aniekop, Ukeme Pius; Anizor, Margaret Idongesit; Ekpo, Mary-Ann Etim; Madu, Chibuzor Bede

    2018-01-01

    Objectives. Large percentagesof X-ray facilities in Nigeria do not use radiation monitoring device; a fewpercentage that use them do not evaluate or carryout out assessment programs toascertain the detriment to occupationally exposed workers. This study was aimedat evaluating dose reports from 2013 to 2016 for personnel who operate  radiation facilities and those that workwithin radiation field during certain X-ray procedures/examinations in thedepartment of radiology and dentistry respective...

  14. Variation of particle number size distributions and chemical compositions at the urban and downwind regional sites in the Pearl River Delta during summertime pollution episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, D. L.; Hu, M.; Wu, Z. J.; Guo, S.; Wen, M. T.; Nowak, A.; Wehner, B.; Wiedensohler, A.; Takegawa, N.; Kondo, Y.; Wang, X. S.; Li, Y. P.; Zeng, L. M.; Zhang, Y. H.

    2010-10-01

    In order to characterize the features of particulate pollution in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in the summer, continuous measurements of particle number size distributions and chemical compositions were simultaneously performed at Guangzhou urban site (GZ) and Back-garden downwind regional site (BG) in July 2006. Particle number concentration from 20 nm to 10 μm at BG was (1.7±0.8)×104 cm-3, about 40% lower than that at GZ, (2.9±1.1)×104 cm-3. The total particle volume concentration at BG was 94±34 μm3 cm-3, similar to that at GZ, 96±43 μm3 cm-3. More 20-100 nm particles, significantly affected by the traffic emissions, were observed at GZ, while 100-660 nm particle number concentrations were similar at both sites as they are more regional. PM2.5 values were similar at GZ (69±43 μg m-3) and BG (69±58 μg m-3) with R2 of 0.71 for the daily average PM2.5 at these two sites, indicating the fine particulate pollution in the PRD region to be regional. Two kinds of pollution episodes, the accumulation pollution episode and the regional transport pollution episode, were observed. Fine particles over 100 nm dominated both number and volume concentrations of total particles during the late periods of these pollution episodes. Accumulation and secondary transformation are the main reasons for the nighttime accumulation pollution episode. SO42-, NO3- accounted for about 60% in 100-660 nm particle mass and PM2.5 increase. When south or southeast wind prevailed in the PRD region, regional transport of pollutants took place. Regional transport contributed about 30% to fine particulate pollution at BG during a regional transport case. Secondary transformation played an important role during regional transport, causing higher increase rates of secondary ions in PM1.0 than other species and shifting the peaks of sulfate and ammonium mass size distributions to larger sizes. SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+ accounted for about 70% and 40% of PM1.0 and PM2.5, respectively.

  15. Strong Transverse Photosphere Magnetic Fields and Twist in Light Bridge Dividing Delta Sunspot of Active Region 12673

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Haimin; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Liu, Chang; Ahn, Kwangsu; Toriumi, Shin; Cao, Wenda

    2018-01-01

    Solar Active Region (AR) 12673 is the most flare productive AR in the solar cycle 24. It produced four X-class flares including the X9.3 flare on 06 September 2017 and the X8.2 limb event on 10 September. Sun and Norton (2017) reported that this region had an unusual high rate of flux emergence, while Huang et al. (2018) reported that the X9.3 flare had extremely strong white-light flare emissions. Yang at al. (2017) described the detailed morphological evolution of this AR. In this report, w...

  16. Conflicts over land in the Niger river delta region of Mali : exploring the usefulness of SAM and CGE models to study participatory natural resource management in agricultural and pastoral systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaboré, Pato Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The thesis deals with management of natural resources in the Niger Delta region of Mali. Climate changes and human activities have led to degradation of natural resources, whereas the demographic pressure increases. As a result, a social restructuring takes place: farmers are going to keep more

  17. Connecting the 'workshop of the world': intra- and extra-service networks of the Pearl River Delta city-region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Kloosterman, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Most research on globalization and city-regions in developing countries has focused on manufacturing activities, disregarding the considerable growth of producer services. Drawing on the Interlocking Network Model, this article presents a first analysis of the intra- and extra-service networks of

  18. Emerging Requirements for U.S. Counterinsurgency: An Examination of the Insurgency in the Niger River Delta Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Economic, Social, Infrastructure and Information Operations SALW Small Arms and Light Weapons WHO World Health Organization WWF World Wildlife...order to be successful in even marginally conducting COIN in the NRD, either in partnership with the GoN and regional neighbors, or unilaterally in

  19. Assessing a cross-border logistics policy using a performance measurement system framework: the case of Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David W. C.; Choy, K. L.; Chow, Harry K. H.; Lin, Canhong

    2014-06-01

    For the most rapidly growing economic entity in the world, China, a new logistics operation called the indirect cross-border supply chain model has recently emerged. The primary idea of this model is to reduce logistics costs by storing goods at a bonded warehouse with low storage cost in certain Chinese regions, such as the Pearl River Delta (PRD). This research proposes a performance measurement system (PMS) framework to assess the direct and indirect cross-border supply chain models. The PMS covers four categories including cost, time, quality and flexibility in the assessment of the performance of direct and indirect models. Furthermore, a survey was conducted to investigate the logistics performance of third party logistics (3PLs) at the PRD regions, including Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong. The significance of the proposed PMS framework allows 3PLs accurately pinpoint the weakness and strengths of it current operations policy at four major performance measurement categories. Hence, this helps 3PLs further enhance the competitiveness and operations efficiency through better resources allocation at the area of warehousing and transportation.

  20. Rising global burden of breast cancer: the case of sub-Saharan Africa (with emphasis on Nigeria) and implications for regional development: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azubuike, Samuel O; Muirhead, Colin; Hayes, Louise; McNally, Richard

    2018-03-22

    Despite mortality from breast cancer in Africa being higher than in high income countries, breast cancer has not been extensively studied in the region. The aim of this paper was to highlight the rising burden of breast cancer with an emphasis on sub-Saharan Africa as well as trends, characteristics, controversies and their implications for regional development. A review of published studies and documents was conducted in Medline, Scopus, Pubmed and Google using combinations of key words-breast neoplasm, breast cancer, cancer, incidence, mortality, Africa, Nigeria. Graphical and frequency analyses were carried out on some of the incidence and mortality figures retrieved from published papers and the GLOBOCAN website. Globally, about 25% and 15% of all new cancer cases and cancer deaths respectively among females were due to breast cancer. Africa currently had the highest age-standardized breast cancer mortality rate globally, with the highest incidence rates being recorded within the sub-Saharan African sub-region. Incidence trends such as inherently aggressive tumour and younger age profile had been subject to controversies. Certain factors such as westernized diet, urbanization and possibly increasing awareness had been implicated, though their specific contributions were yet to be fully established. Unless urgent action is taken, breast cancer will compound sub-Saharan Africa's disease burden, increase poverty and gender inequality as well as reverse the current global gains against maternal and neonatal mortality.

  1. Application effects of coated urea and urease and nitrification inhibitors on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from a subtropical cotton field of the Mississippi delta region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Zhou; Wang, Jim J.; Liu, Shuai; Zhang, Zengqiang; Dodla, Syam K.; Myers, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization affects both ammonia (NH 3 ) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that have implications in air quality and global warming potential. Different cropping systems practice varying N fertilizations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of applications of polymer-coated urea and urea treated with N process inhibitors: NBPT [N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide], urease inhibitor, and DCD [Dicyandiamide], nitrification inhibitor, on NH 3 and GHG emissions from a cotton production system in the Mississippi delta region. A two-year field experiment consisting of five treatments including the Check (unfertilized), urea, polymer-coated urea (ESN), urea + NBPT, and urea + DCD was conducted over 2013 and 2014 in a Cancienne loam (Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, nonacid, hyperthermic Fluvaquentic Epiaquepts). Ammonia and GHG samples were collected using active and passive chamber methods, respectively, and characterized. The results showed that the N loss to the atmosphere following urea-N application was dominated by a significantly higher emission of N 2 O-N than NH 3 -N and the most N 2 O-N and NH 3 -N emissions were during the first 30–50 days. Among different N treatments compared to regular urea, NBPT was the most effective in reducing NH 3 -N volatilization (by 58–63%), whereas DCD the most significant in mitigating N 2 O-N emissions (by 75%). Polymer-coated urea (ESN) and NBPT also significantly reduced N 2 O-N losses (both by 52%) over urea. The emission factors (EFs) for urea, ESN, urea-NBPT, urea + DCD were 1.9%, 1.0%, 0.2%, 0.8% for NH 3 -N, and 8.3%, 3.4%, 3.9%, 1.0% for N 2 O-N, respectively. There were no significant effects of different N treatments on CO 2 -C and CH 4 -C fluxes. Overall both of these N stabilizers and polymer-coated urea could be used as a mitigation strategy for reducing N 2 O emission while urease inhibitor NBPT for reducing NH 3 emission in the subtropical cotton production system of the

  2. [Investigation on sanitation of freshwater aquaculture environments and Clonorchis sinensis intermediate host infection in a city of Pearl River Delta region, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Wang; Le, Luo; Xue-Qin, Chen; Lei, Li; Yue-Yi, Fang

    2017-10-19

    To understand the current status of the sanitation of freshwater aquaculture environments, and Clonorchis sinensis infection of freshwater fish in the aquaculture and market in a city of Pearl River Delta region, so as to provide the evidence for formulating the prevention and control strategy of clonorchiasis sinensis. In 2016, based on the distribution of freshwater aquaculture, 36 freshwater fish ponds among 14 towns were selected for sampling and investigation, and 10-20 pieces were collected from each pond. Besides, 3 aquatic product wholesale markets were included, among which 3-6 stalls were selected from each market, and 20-30 pieces were collected from each stall. The metacercaria in the fish was examined by the digestion method. In the 36 fish ponds, there were no toilets with the stool being drained into fish ponds directly, and there was only one pond with duck sheds with the stool being drained into fish ponds directly. Totally 437 pieces of freshwater fish from ponds were detected, with a metacercaria positive rate of 4.35% (19/437). The metacercaria positive fish were distributed in 50% (7/14) of towns and 25% (9/36) ponds. The positive rates of crucian carp, grass carp, dace, aristichthysnobilis, and tilapia were 13.95% (6/43), 4.76% (9/189), 4.44 (2/45), 1.55% (2/129), and 0 (0/31) respectively, with statistically significant difference ( χ 2 = 13.46, P = 0.01). Totally 307 pieces of freshwater fish were collected from the wholesale markets, with a total positive rate of 1.95% (6/307). The positive rate of grass carp and aristichthysnobilis were 3.20% (4/125) and 2.78% (2/72) respectively, and no positive samples were found in crucian carp, dace and tilapia, with no statistically significant difference among the different fish in the infection rate (Fisher exact P = 0.75). The sanitation of freshwater aquaculture environments in a city of Pearl River Delta region is relative good. However, there are different degrees of Clonorchis sinensis

  3. Factors affecting marsh vegetation at the Liberty Island Conservation Bank in the Cache Slough region of the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, James L.; Drexler, Judith Z.

    2017-07-07

    The Liberty Island Conservation Bank (LICB) is a tidal freshwater marsh restored for the purpose of mitigating adverse effects on sensitive fish populations elsewhere in the region. The LICB was completed in 2012 and is in the northern Cache Slough region of the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta. The wetland vegetation at the LICB is stunted and yellow-green in color (chlorotic) compared to nearby wetlands. A study was done to investigate three potential causes of the stunted and chlorotic vegetation: (1) improper grading of the marsh plain, (2) pesticide contamination from agricultural and urban inputs upstream from the site, (3) nitrogen-deficient soil, or some combination of these. Water samples were collected from channels at five sites, and soil samples were collected from four wetlands, including the LICB, during the summer of 2015. Real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS) elevation surveys were completed at the LICB and north Little Holland Tract, a closely situated natural marsh that has similar hydrodynamics as the LICB, but contains healthy marsh vegetation.The results showed no significant differences in carbon or nitrogen content in the surface soils or in pesticides in water among the sites. The elevation survey indicated that the mean elevation of the LICB was about 26 centimeters higher than that of the north Little Holland Tract marsh. Because marsh plain elevation largely determines the hydroperiod of a marsh, these results indicated that the LICB has a hydroperiod that differs from that of neighboring north Little Holland Tract marsh. This difference in hydroperiod contributed to the lower stature and decreased vigor of wetland vegetation at the LICB. Although the LICB cannot be regraded without great expense, it could be possible to reduce the sharp angle of the marsh edge to facilitate deeper and more frequent tidal flooding along the marsh periphery. Establishing optimal elevations for restored wetlands is necessary for obtaining

  4. Uyo, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Centre for Research and Information on Substance Abuse (CRISA), Uyo, Nigeria;. 2Public Works Department ... youth HIV/AIDS risk behavior was confirmed {X2 (4) = 39.91, p < 0.05}. Results also .... versities and colleges being primary victims. (Abiodun, 1991 ... psychological, physiological or physical dis- tress when he ...

  5. Identifying the impacts of climate on the regional transport of haze pollution and inter-cities correspondence within the Yangtze River Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Hang; Huang, Zhongwen; Zhang, Jingjing; Zhang, Huiling; Chen, Jinsheng; Zhang, Han; Tong, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Regional haze pollution has become an important environmental issue in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region. Regional transport and inter-influence of PM 2.5 among cities occurs frequently as a result of the subtropical monsoon climate. Backward trajectory statistics indicated that a north wind prevailed from October to March, while a southeast wind predominated from May to September. The temporal relationships of carbon and nitrogen isotopes among cities were dependent on the prevailing wind direction. Regional PM 2.5 pollution was confirmed in the YRD region by means of significant correlations and similar cyclical characteristics of PM 2.5 among Lin'an, Ningbo, Nanjing and Shanghai. Granger causality tests of the time series of PM 2.5 values indicate that the regional transport of haze pollutants is governed by prevailing wind direction, as the PM 2.5 concentrations from upwind area cities generally influence that of the downwind cities. Furthermore, stronger correlation coefficients were identified according to monsoon pathways. To clarify the impacts of the monsoon climate, a vector autoregressive (VAR) model was introduced. Variance decomposition in the VAR model also indicated that the upwind area cities contributed significantly to PM 2.5 in the downwind area cities. Finally, we attempted to predict daily PM 2.5 concentrations in each city based on the VAR model using data from all cities and obtained fairly reasonable predictions. These indicate that statistical methods of the Granger causality test and VAR model have the potential to evaluate inter-influence and the relative contribution of PM 2.5 among cities, and to predict PM 2.5 concentrations as well. - Graphical abstract: The above figures clearly show that the variation of PM 2.5 concentrations at a city could be Granger cause for the corresponding changes at the other cities. Panel A and B represent the statistically significant correlations during winter time for 2014 and 2015 respectively

  6. Malaria in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Malaria prevalence studies had been undertaken in many parts of Nigeria but there is probably no data available from the far North Western region. This research study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, monthly distribution of malaria in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria in order to generate base-.

  7. Collective violence and attitudes of women toward intimate partner violence: Evidence from the Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antai Diddy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Niger Delta region of Nigeria has been undergoing collective violence for over 25 years, which has constituted a major public health problem. The objectives of this study were to investigate the predictors of women's attitudes toward intimate partner violence in the Niger Delta in comparison to that of women in other parts of Nigeria. Methods The 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey was used for this study. Respondents were selected using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling procedure through which 3725 women were selected and interviewed. These women contributed 6029 live born children born to the survey. Internal consistency of the measure of the women's attitudes towards intimate partner violence against a woman was assessed using Cronbach's alpha (α. Percentage distributions of the relevant characteristics of the respondents were carried out, and multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to measure the magnitude and direction of the relationship between the outcome and predictor variables were expressed as odds ratios (OR and statistical significance was determined at the 95 percent confident interval level (CI. Results Tolerance for intimate partner violence among the women in the Niger delta (47 percent was higher than that of women from the rest of the country (42 percent. Rural residence, lower household wealth, lower status occupations, and media access (newspaper and radio were associated with lower risk of justifying IPV among the women in the Niger Delta. In contrast full or partial autonomy in household decisions regarding food to be cooked, and access to television were associated with a lower risk of justifying violence. Conclusion The increased justification of intimate partner violence among the women in the Niger Delta could be explained by a combination of factors, among which are cognitive dissonance theory (attitudes that do not fit with other opinions they hold as a means of

  8. Analyzing powers of inelastic dp-scattering in the energy region of delta and roper resonances excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinina, L.V.; Alkhazov, G.D.; Augustyniak, W.

    2001-01-01

    A study of inelastic scattering of polarized 3.73 GeV/c deuterons on protons in the energy region of the Roper N* (1440) and the Δ(1232) resonances excitation has been performed in an exclusive experiment at LNS (Laboratoire National SATURNE, Saclay, France) using the SPES4-π setup. Tensor and vector analyzing powers of pion production for the reactions d+p→d+n+π + , d+p→d+p+π 0 , d+p→d+N+ππ have been measured as functions of the squared deuteron 4-momentum transfer t, of the effective mass of the subsystems (Nπ), (Nππ) and of the pion emission angle. A strong dependence of these analyzing powers upon the pion emission angle is observed. It is found that A yy values for the considered reaction channels are systematically larger than the known inclusive p(d,d')X world data at the nearest beam energy

  9. Speciated OVOC and VOC emission inventories and their implications for reactivity-based ozone control strategy in the Pearl River Delta region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Jiamin; Zheng, Junyu; Li, Rongrong; Huang, Xiaobo; Zhong, Zhuangmin; Zhong, Liuju; Lin, Hui

    2015-10-15

    The increasing ground-ozone (O3) levels, accompanied by decreasing SO2, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations benefited from air pollution control measures implemented in recent years, initiated a serious challenge to control Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, China. Speciated VOC emission inventory is fundamental for estimating Ozone Formation Potentials (OFPs) to identify key reactive VOC species and sources in order to formulate efficient O3 control strategies. With the use of the latest bulk VOC emission inventory and local source profiles, this study developed the PRD regional speciated Oxygenated Volatile Organic Compound (OVOC) and VOC emission inventories to identify the key emission-based and OFP-based VOC sources and species. Results showed that: (1) Methyl alcohol, acetone and ethyl acetate were the major constituents in the OVOC emissions from industrial solvents, household solvents, architectural paints and biogenic sources; (2) from the emission-based perspective, aromatics, alkanes, OVOCs and alkenes made up 39.2%, 28.2%, 15.9% and 10.9% of anthropogenic VOCs; (3) from the OFP-based perspective, aromatics and alkenes become predominant with contributions of 59.4% and 25.8% respectively; (4) ethene, m/p-xylene, toluene, 1,2,4-trimethyl benzene and other 24 high OFP-contributing species were the key reactive species that contributed to 52% of anthropogenic emissions and up to 80% of OFPs; and (5) industrial solvents, industrial process, gasoline vehicles and motorcycles were major emission sources of these key reactive species. Policy implications for O3 control strategy were discussed. The OFP cap was proposed to regulate VOC control policies in the PRD region due to its flexibility in reducing the overall OFP of VOC emission sources in practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Migration in Deltas: An Integrated Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert J.; Hutton, Craig W.; Lazar, Attila; Adger, W. Neil; Allan, Andrew; Arto, Inaki; Vincent, Katharine; Rahman, Munsur; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Sugata, Hazra; Ghosh, Tuhin; Codjoe, Sam; Appeaning-Addo, Kwasi

    2017-04-01

    Deltas and low-lying coastal regions have long been perceived as vulnerable to global sea-level rise, with the potential for mass displacement of exposed populations. The assumption of mass displacement of populations in deltas requires a comprehensive reassessment in the light of present and future migration in deltas, including the potential role of adaptation to influence these decisions. At present, deltas are subject to multiple drivers of environmental change and often have high population densities as they are accessible and productive ecosystems. Climate change, catchment management, subsidence and land cover change drive environmental change across all deltas. Populations in deltas are also highly mobile, with significant urbanization trends and the growth of large cities and mega-cities within or adjacent to deltas across Asia and Africa. Such migration is driven primarily by economic opportunity, yet environmental change in general, and climate change in particular, are likely to play an increasing direct and indirect role in future migration trends. The policy challenges centre on the role of migration within regional adaptation strategies to climate change; the protection of vulnerable populations; and the future of urban settlements within deltas. This paper reviews current knowledge on migration and adaptation to environmental change to discern specific issues pertinent to delta regions. It develops a new integrated methodology to assess present and future migration in deltas using the Volta delta in Ghana, Mahanadi delta in India and Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta across India and Bangladesh. The integrated method focuses on: biophysical changes and spatial distribution of vulnerability; demographic changes and migration decision-making using multiple methods and data; macro-economic trends and scenarios in the deltas; and the policies and governance structures that constrain and enable adaptation. The analysis is facilitated by a range of

  11. Assessing School Facilities in Public Secondary Schools in Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated school facilitates in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria. The purpose of the study was to find out the state of the facilities, the types of maintenance carried out on the facilities by school administrators, the factors encouraging school facilities depreciation and the roles of school ...

  12. Ibani (Niger Delta) Traditional Religion and Social Morality | Jaja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ibani is of the Ijo extraction in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. The belief in a Supreme Being called Tamuno but also on multitude of deities because of the environment in which they live. They believe that these deities perform social functions that stabilize society. Ibani cosmology revolve round the tripod – God, deities and ...

  13. Perceptions, Attitudes and Practices on Schistosomiasis in Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of the study reported here was to assess the knowledge, attitude/perception and practices of the people in Oshimili South and Ndokwa Northeast Local Government Areas of Delta State in Nigeria. A cross-sectional study of 400 randomly selected persons aged ≥15 years was undertaken using a uniform ...

  14. training needs of school inspectors for quality instruction in delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    www.globaljournalseries.com; Info@globaljournalseries.com ... 29. Jude Ekuevugbe Omorigho, Post Primary Education Board, Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria. ... Effective communication training for school .... Decision. Inspectors. 3.12. 0.25. Important. Headmasters. 2.96. 0.11. Table 3, shows that the individual means.

  15. The Economic Dimensions of the Niger Delta Ethnic Conflicts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a descriptive analysis of the remote and immediate causes of the armed ethnic conflicts in the Niger Delta in Nigeria and attempts to proffer a strategic approach rather than the use of brute force in managing the conflicts. The study revealed that the underlying cause of the conflict is the prolonged ...

  16. Comparative Noise Pollution Study Of Some Major Towns In Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative noise pollution studies have been carried out in some major towns in Delta State, Nigeria using a PIONneer 65 noise dosimeter. The noise measurements were taken at ten points within each of the towns at an interval of 30 minutes during the peak period of the day and at the cool of the night. The results ...

  17. Numerical groundwater-flow modeling to evaluate potential effects of pumping and recharge: implications for sustainable groundwater management in the Mahanadi delta region, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sasmita; Jha, Madan K.

    2017-12-01

    Process-based groundwater models are useful to understand complex aquifer systems and make predictions about their response to hydrological changes. A conceptual model for evaluating responses to environmental changes is presented, considering the hydrogeologic framework, flow processes, aquifer hydraulic properties, boundary conditions, and sources and sinks of the groundwater system. Based on this conceptual model, a quasi-three-dimensional transient groundwater flow model was designed using MODFLOW to simulate the groundwater system of Mahanadi River delta, eastern India. The model was constructed in the context of an upper unconfined aquifer and lower confined aquifer, separated by an aquitard. Hydraulic heads of 13 shallow wells and 11 deep wells were used to calibrate transient groundwater conditions during 1997-2006, followed by validation (2007-2011). The aquifer and aquitard hydraulic properties were obtained by pumping tests and were calibrated along with the rainfall recharge. The statistical and graphical performance indicators suggested a reasonably good simulation of groundwater flow over the study area. Sensitivity analysis revealed that groundwater level is most sensitive to the hydraulic conductivities of both the aquifers, followed by vertical hydraulic conductivity of the confining layer. The calibrated model was then employed to explore groundwater-flow dynamics in response to changes in pumping and recharge conditions. The simulation results indicate that pumping has a substantial effect on the confined aquifer flow regime as compared to the unconfined aquifer. The results and insights from this study have important implications for other regional groundwater modeling studies, especially in multi-layered aquifer systems.

  18. Second Byurakan spectral sky survey. II. Results for region centered on alpha 09h50m, delta +55 deg 00 arcmin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markarian, B.E.; Stepanian, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    The second list of objects in the Second Biurakan Spectral Sky Survey of the region centered on alpha 09h50m, delta +55 deg 00 arcmin is given. The list contains data on 110 objects and galaxies of a peculiar physical nature and 24 blue stars. The observations were made with the 40-52 arcsec Schmidt telescope of the Biurakan Astrophysical Observatory with a set of three objective prisms using Kodak IIIaJ and IIIaF emulsions sensitized in nitrogen. The area is found to contain 20 quasar candidates and four Seyfert galaxies, 27 blue stellar objects, 24 galaxies with an appreciable ultraviolet continuum, and 39 emission galaxies without appreciable ultraviolet radiation. The surface brightness of the quasars and Seyferts on the considered area down to the limiting magnitude 19.5 M is more than 1.5 per square degree with allowance for the already known quasars. The surface density of emission galaxies is about four per square degree. 7 references

  19. Understanding culture in territorial management and its implications for spatial planning. The case of floodplain management in urbanised delta regions in the Netherlands and Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwanna Rongwiriyaphanich

    2014-08-01

    to investigate whether culture is an important element (or context variable explaining planning practices and territorial management outcomes in different settings. These perspectives are the analysis
that assumes a stable state of culture (a synchronic perspective and the analysis that considers culture as dynamic and interrelating with other context variables (a diachronic perspective. Findings derived from the analysis of the case studies based on these two perspectives help draw theoretical conclusions about how planners may deal with culture in order to improve planning practices. The study investigates territorial development processes in the context of floodplain management in urbanised delta regions. This specific context is selected because of its strong relations between physical attributes and spatial planning activities. The analysis is carried out based on a comparative approach at two levels. At the cross-national level, the Rhine-Meuse delta region in the Netherlands and the Chaophraya delta region in Thailand are used as case studies. The comparative approach is useful for this study because culture can be best understood in a relative form. The sub- national analysis emphasises comparison of floodplain management in three selected districts in the Chaophraya delta region. The two levels of analysis are carried out in order to understand whether the influences of cultures on planning practices and territorial management outcomes at different scales of development are affected by similar elements. Besides the theoretical contribution, this study also contributes methodologically through development of a common conceptual framework that can be applied to the analysis of various issues in territorial management, which is not limited only to the subject studied here. The framework is also expected to be applicable for the analysis of territorial management in a diverse range of cultural settings. The findings derived from a synchronic analytical

  20. The Source, Spatial Distribution and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soil from the Pearl River Delta Based on the National Multi-Purpose Regional Geochemical Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingyan; Guo, Shuhai; Wu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The data on the heavy metal content at different soil depths derived from a multi-purpose regional geochemical survey in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) were analyzed using ArcGIS 10.0. By comparing their spatial distributions and areas, the sources of heavy metals (Cd, Hg, As and Pb) were quantitatively identified and explored. Netted measuring points at 25 ×25 km were set over the entire PRD according to the geochemical maps. Based on the calculation data obtained from different soil depths, the concentrations of As and Cd in a large area of the PRD exceeded the National Second-class Standard. The spatial disparity of the geometric centers in the surface soil and deep soil showed that As in the surface soil mainly came from parent materials, while Cd had high consistency in different soil profiles because of deposition in the soil forming process. The migration of Cd also resulted in a considerable ecological risk to the Beijiang and Xijiang River watershed. The potential ecological risk index followed the order Cd ≥ Hg > Pb > As. According to the sources, the distribution trends and the characteristics of heavy metals in the soil from the perspective of the whole area, the Cd pollution should be repaired, especially in the upper reaches of the Xijiang and Beijiang watershed to prevent risk explosion while the pollution of Hg and Pb should be controlled in areas with intense human activity, and supervision during production should be strengthened to maintain the ecological balance of As.

  1. Environmental accounting: A tool for promoting environmental management in the Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Uwuigne Uwalomwa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Oil exploration and exploitation has over the last four decades impacted disastrously on the socio-physical environment of the Niger Delta oil-bearing communities in Nigeria. This invariably is responsible for the social unrest in the host communities. In response to various pressures by environmental lobby groups, companies have began to realize the need for the integration of environmental reporting practice in their annual report. To this end, this paper studied exploratively the extent to which the introduction of environmental accounting practice will help in bringing about an improved environmental sustainability and an effective environmental management system in the Niger delta region of Nigeria. The paper concludes that the integration and the disclosure of environmental liabilities will to a large extent reduce the social unrest in these areas. This in return will help organizations to maximize the efficient use of their resources, minimize environmental liabilities and demonstrate a good corporate image. The paper therefore recommends that accountants and environmental experts should pool their skills to form a multi-disciplinary team to address environmental issues.

  2. Process analysis of regional ozone formation over the Yangtze River Delta, China using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A high O3 episode was detected in urban Shanghai, a typical city in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region in August 2010. The CMAQ integrated process rate method is applied to account for the contribution of different atmospheric processes during the high pollution episode. The analysis shows that the maximum concentration of ozone occurs due to transport phenomena, including vertical diffusion and horizontal advective transport. Gas-phase chemistry producing O3 mainly occurs at the height of 300–1500 m, causing a strong vertical O3 transport from upper levels to the surface layer. The gas-phase chemistry is an important sink for O3 in the surface layer, coupled with dry deposition. Cloud processes may contribute slightly to the increase of O3 due to convective clouds or to the decrease of O3 due to scavenging. The horizontal diffusion and heterogeneous chemistry contributions are negligible during the whole episode. Modeling results show that the O3 pollution characteristics among the different cities in the YRD region have both similarities and differences. During the buildup period, the O3 starts to appear in the city regions of the YRD and is then transported to the surrounding areas under the prevailing wind conditions. The O3 production from photochemical reaction in Shanghai and the surrounding area is most significant, due to the high emission intensity in the large city; this ozone is then transported out to sea by the westerly wind flow, and later diffuses to rural areas like Chongming island, Wuxi and even to Nanjing. The O3 concentrations start to decrease in the cities after sunset, due to titration of the NO emissions, but ozone can still be transported and maintain a significant concentration in rural areas and even regions outside the YRD region, where the NO emissions are very small.

  3. Evaluating the ecological association of casino industry economic development on community health status: a natural experiment in the Mississippi delta region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honoré, Peggy A; Simoes, Eduardo J; Moonesinghe, Ramal; Wang, Xueyuan; Brown, Lovetta

    2007-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to examine for associations of casino industry economic development on improving community health status and funding for public health services in two counties in the Mississippi Delta Region of the United States. An ecological approach was used to evaluate whether two counties with casino gaming had improved health status and public health funding in comparison with two noncasino counties in the same region with similar social, racial, and ethic backgrounds. Variables readily available from state health department records were used to develop a logic model for guiding analytical work. A linear regression model was built using a stepwise approach and hierarchical regression principles with many dependent variables and a set of fixed and nonfixed independent variables. County-level data for 23 variables over an 11-year period were used. Overall, this study found a lack of association between the presence of a casino and desirable health outcomes or funding for public health services. Changes in the environment were made to promote health by utilizing gaming revenues to build state-of-the-art community health and wellness centers and sports facilities. However, significant increases in funding for local public health services were not found in either of the counties with casinos. These findings are relevant for policy makers when debating economic development strategies. Analysis similar to this should be combined with other routine public health assessments after implementation of development strategies to increase knowledge of health outcome trends and shifts in socioeconomic position that may be expected to accrue from economic development projects.

  4. Detection of potentially novel paramyxovirus and coronavirus viral RNA in bats and rats in the Mekong Delta region of southern Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto, A; Anh, P H; Carrique-Mas, J J; Simmonds, P; Van Cuong, N; Tue, N T; Van Dung, N; Woolhouse, M E; Smith, I; Marsh, G A; Bryant, J E; Thwaites, G E; Baker, S; Rabaa, M A

    2018-02-01

    Bats and rodents are being increasingly recognized as reservoirs of emerging zoonotic viruses. Various studies have investigated bat viruses in tropical regions, but to date there are no data regarding viruses with zoonotic potential that circulate in bat and rat populations in Viet Nam. To address this paucity of data, we sampled three bat farms and three wet markets trading in rat meat in the Mekong Delta region of southern Viet Nam. Faecal and urine samples were screened for the presence of RNA from paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses and filoviruses. Paramyxovirus RNA was detected in 4 of 248 (1%) and 11 of 222 (4.9%) bat faecal and urine samples, respectively. Coronavirus RNA was detected in 55 of 248 (22%) of bat faecal samples; filovirus RNA was not detected in any of the bat samples. Further, coronavirus RNA was detected in 12 of 270 (4.4%) of rat faecal samples; all samples tested negative for paramyxovirus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the bat paramyxoviruses and bat and rat coronaviruses were related to viruses circulating in bat and rodent populations globally, but showed no cross-species mixing of viruses between bat and rat populations within Viet Nam. Our study shows that potentially novel variants of paramyxoviruses and coronaviruses commonly circulate in bat and rat populations in Viet Nam. Further characterization of the viruses and additional human and animal surveillance is required to evaluate the likelihood of viral spillover and to assess whether these viruses pose a risk to human health. © 2017 The Authors. Zoonoses and Public Health Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. High time-resolved elemental components in fine and coarse particles in the Pearl River Delta region of Southern China: Dynamic variations and effects of meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shengzhen; Davy, Perry K; Wang, Xuemei; Cohen, Jason Blake; Liang, Jiaquan; Huang, Minjuan; Fan, Qi; Chen, Weihua; Chang, Ming; Ancelet, Travis; Trompetter, William J

    2016-12-01

    Hourly-resolved PM 2.5 and PM 10-2.5 samples were collected in the industrial city Foshan in the Pearl River Delta region, China. The samples were subsequently analyzed for elemental components and black carbon (BC). A key purpose of the study was to understand the composition of particulate matter (PM) at high-time resolution in a polluted urban atmosphere to identify key components contributing to extreme PM concentration events and examine the diurnal chemical concentration patterns for air quality management purposes. It was found that BC and S concentrations dominated in the fine mode, while elements with mostly crustal and oceanic origins such as Si, Ca, Al and Cl were found in the coarse size fraction. Most of the elements showed strong diurnal variations. S did not show clear diurnal variations, suggesting regional rather than local origin. Based on empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) method, 3 forcing factors were identified contributing to the extreme events of PM 2.5 and selected elements, i.e., urban direct emissions, wet deposition and a combination of coarse mode sources. Conditional probability functions (CPF) were performed using wind profiles and elemental concentrations. The CPF results showed that BC and elemental Cl, K, Fe, Cu and Zn in the fine mode were mostly from the northwest, indicating that industrial emissions and combustion were the main sources. For elements in the coarse mode, Si, Al, K, Ca, Fe and Ti showed similar patterns, suggesting same sources such as local soil dust/construction activities. Coarse elemental Cl was mostly from the south and southeast, implying the influence of marine aerosol sources. For other trace elements, we found vanadium (V) in fine PM was mainly from the sources located to the southeast of the measuring site. Combined with CPF results of S and V in fine PM, we concluded shipping emissions were likely an important elemental emission source. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. The Economic Dimensions of the Niger Delta Ethnic Conflicts (Pp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    1970, the price of international oil stepped upwards following the Middle. Eastern Yom Kippur .... Over the years, the pleas of the Niger Delta people for accommodation are ignored or .... In a labour surplus region like the Niger Delta, budget.

  7. Sub-clinical mastitis and associated risk factors on lactating cows in the Savannah Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shittu Aminu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-clinical mastitis limits milk production and represents an important barrier to profitable livestock economics worldwide. Milk production from cows in Nigeria is not at optimum levels in view of many factors including sub-clinical mastitis. Results The overall herd-level prevalence rate for SCM was 85.33% (256/300 heads of cows while the quarter-level prevalence rate of SCM was 43.25% (519/1,200 quarters. The prevalence of SCM was 50.67%, 43.67%, 39.67% and 39.13% for the left fore-quarter, right hind-quarter, left hind-quarter and right fore-quarter, respectively. The Rahaji breed had the highest prevalence of SCM with 65.91% (29/44, while the White Fulani breed had the least with 32.39% (57/176. A total of 32.33% (97/300 had only one mammary quarter affected, 30.33% (91/300 had two quarters affected, 16.00% (48/300 had three quarters affected while 6.67% (20/300 had all the four quarters affected. A total of 53.00% had SCM in multiple quarters (159/300. The risk of SCM decreased significantly among young lactating cows compared to older animals (OR = 0.283; P P = 0.013; 95% CI = 1.557; 43.226. Improved sanitation (washing hands before milking will decrease the risk of SCM (OR = 0.173; P = 0.003; 95% CI = 0.054; 0.554. Conclusion SCM is prevalent among lactating cows in the Nigerian Savannah; and this is associated with both animal characteristics (age, breed and individual milk quarters and milking practices (hand washing.Good knowledge of the environment and careful management of the identified risk factors with improved sanitation should assist farm managers and veterinarians in implementing preventative programmes to reduce the incidence of SCM.

  8. Community participation and environmental decision-making in the Niger Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomokai, Rosemary; Sheate, William R.

    2004-01-01

    The participation of communities in the process of environmental decision-making in Nigeria and the Niger Delta region in particular is a relatively new process. There are many practical problems ranging from financial support, methods used and the willingness of identified stakeholders to participate. This paper seeks to highlight recent developments in community participation and environmental decision-making in the Niger Delta, using the EIA Decree of 1992 as a reference point. The EIA Decree of 1992 is the only legislation that refers to participation of the communities when environmental decisions are being made. The study reported here aimed to examine differences and similarities between the identified stakeholders interviewed in the research, in order to highlight areas of improvement that will encourage positive changes to the process and foster better relations between the stakeholders. The paper provides a brief background to community participation in the Niger Delta region and reports on the research approach adopted. Interviews with stakeholders in the EIA process were undertaken to provide a better understanding of public participation in practice under the EIA Decree. While participation was found to be now firmly on the agenda, there is still much to do to engender greater awareness of EIA and the potential benefits participation can hold

  9. Application effects of coated urea and urease and nitrification inhibitors on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from a subtropical cotton field of the Mississippi delta region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Zhou [College of Resources and Environment, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi (China); School of Plant, Environment & Soil Sciences, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Wang, Jim J., E-mail: jjwang@agcenter.lsu.edu [School of Plant, Environment & Soil Sciences, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Liu, Shuai [College of Resources and Environment, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi (China); School of Plant, Environment & Soil Sciences, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Zhang, Zengqiang, E-mail: zqzhang@nwsuaf.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environment, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi (China); Dodla, Syam K.; Myers, Gerald [School of Plant, Environment & Soil Sciences, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization affects both ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that have implications in air quality and global warming potential. Different cropping systems practice varying N fertilizations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of applications of polymer-coated urea and urea treated with N process inhibitors: NBPT [N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide], urease inhibitor, and DCD [Dicyandiamide], nitrification inhibitor, on NH{sub 3} and GHG emissions from a cotton production system in the Mississippi delta region. A two-year field experiment consisting of five treatments including the Check (unfertilized), urea, polymer-coated urea (ESN), urea + NBPT, and urea + DCD was conducted over 2013 and 2014 in a Cancienne loam (Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, nonacid, hyperthermic Fluvaquentic Epiaquepts). Ammonia and GHG samples were collected using active and passive chamber methods, respectively, and characterized. The results showed that the N loss to the atmosphere following urea-N application was dominated by a significantly higher emission of N{sub 2}O-N than NH{sub 3}-N and the most N{sub 2}O-N and NH{sub 3}-N emissions were during the first 30–50 days. Among different N treatments compared to regular urea, NBPT was the most effective in reducing NH{sub 3}-N volatilization (by 58–63%), whereas DCD the most significant in mitigating N{sub 2}O-N emissions (by 75%). Polymer-coated urea (ESN) and NBPT also significantly reduced N{sub 2}O-N losses (both by 52%) over urea. The emission factors (EFs) for urea, ESN, urea-NBPT, urea + DCD were 1.9%, 1.0%, 0.2%, 0.8% for NH{sub 3}-N, and 8.3%, 3.4%, 3.9%, 1.0% for N{sub 2}O-N, respectively. There were no significant effects of different N treatments on CO{sub 2}-C and CH{sub 4}-C fluxes. Overall both of these N stabilizers and polymer-coated urea could be used as a mitigation strategy for reducing N{sub 2}O emission while urease inhibitor NBPT for reducing NH{sub 3} emission

  10. Satellite and ground detection of very dense smoke clouds produced on the islands of the Paraná river delta that affected a large region in Central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipiña, A.; Salum, G. M.; Crinó, E.; Piacentini, R. D.

    2012-03-01

    Intense fires were produced on the Paraná river delta islands, Argentina, during most part of 2008, by a combination of an exceptionally dry period and the farmers' use of a fire land-cleaning technique. In April 2008, those fires significantly affected the nearby regions and their inhabitants, from Rosario city to Buenos Aires mega-city. In this work we present satellite as well as ground Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) at 550 nm data obtained during the propagation of pollution clouds to the central zone of Argentina. The highest value (1.18) was registered at Buenos Aires by atmospheric remote sensing, using the satellite instrument MODIS/Terra on April 18th 2008 at 10:35 local time (= UT - 3 h). On the same day, ground air quality detectors also measured in this city the highest Total Suspended Particle (TSP) value of the month, 2.02 mg/m3. The AOD(550) daily variation at Rosario Astronomical Observatory, which is located near the Paraná riverside, was derived by combining solar ultraviolet erythemal irradiance data (measured with a YES biometre) with model calculations. On April 25th 2008, from 12:00 to 15:30 local time, a rather high and constant AOD(550) value was registered, with a mean value of (0.90 ± 0.21). Cities located on the side of the Rosario-Buenos Aires highway (San Nicolás, Baradero and San Pedro) were also affected, showing a mean AOD(550) between the Rosario and Buenos Aires values. The particulate matter was collected with gridded samplers placed on the Paraná river islands as well as at the Rosario Observatory. They were analysed with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and mainly showed a biological origin. Even if normally large particles travel small distances from the source, organic aerosol in the range of 40-100 μm and complex asymmetric structures were registered several kilometres away from the aerosol sources on the islands. Another event of intense UV index attenuation (98.6%) occurred on September 18th 2008, due to very dense

  11. High-resolution sampling and analysis of ambient particulate matter in the Pearl River Delta region of southern China: source apportionment and health risk implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shengzhen; Davy, Perry K.; Huang, Minjuan; Duan, Jingbo; Wang, Xuemei; Fan, Qi; Chang, Ming; Liu, Yiming; Chen, Weihua; Xie, Shanju; Ancelet, Travis; Trompetter, William J.

    2018-02-01

    Hazardous air pollutants, such as trace elements in particulate matter (PM), are known or highly suspected to cause detrimental effects on human health. To understand the sources and associated risks of PM to human health, hourly time-integrated major trace elements in size-segregated coarse (PM2.5-10) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter were collected at the industrial city of Foshan in the Pearl River Delta region, China. Receptor modeling of the data set by positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to identify six sources contributing to PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations at the site. Dominant sources included industrial coal combustion, secondary inorganic aerosol, motor vehicles and construction dust along with two intermittent sources (biomass combustion and marine aerosol). The biomass combustion source was found to be a significant contributor to peak PM2.5 episodes along with motor vehicles and industrial coal combustion. Conditional probability function (CPF) analysis was applied to estimate the source locations using the PMF-resolved source contribution coupled with the surface wind direction data. Health exposure risk of hazardous trace elements (Pb, As, Si, Cr, Mn and Ni) and source-specific values were estimated. The total hazard quotient (HQ) of PM2.5 was 2.09, higher than the acceptable limit (HQ = 1). The total carcinogenic risk (CR) was 3.37 × 10-3 for PM2.5, which was 3 times higher than the least stringent limit (1.0 × 10-4). Among the selected trace elements, As and Pb posed the highest non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks to human health, respectively. In addition, our results show that the industrial coal combustion source is the dominant non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk contributor, highlighting the need for stringent control of this source. This study provides new insight for policy makers to prioritize sources in air quality management and health risk reduction.

  12. Assessing Urban Sustainability Using a Multi-Scale, Theme-Based Indicator Framework: A Case Study of the Yangtze River Delta Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban sustainability is a great concern worldwide. However, how to evaluate urban sustainability is still a big challenge because sustainable development is multifaceted and scale dependent, which demands various assessment methods and indicators that often do not reach a consensus. In this study, we assessed urban sustainability of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD, China during 2000–2014 at two spatial scales (corresponding to the administrative levels of province and prefecture. A theme-based indicator framework, cluster analysis and Mann–Kendall test were used for urban sustainability assessment. Our results showed that the overall (OS, social (SS, and economic sustainability (EcS scores for two provinces and sixteen prefectural cities increased from 2000 to 2014 in general, but the environmental sustainability (EnS scores decreased over time. According to the performance of SS, EnS and EcS at the prefectural level, three distinct city clusters were identified: Cluster 1 with high SS and EcS but low EnS; Cluster 2 with low SS and EcS but high EnS; and Cluster 3 with moderate SS, EnS and EcS. The three sustainability dimensions—society, environment and economy—all changed over time and differed among cities at the two administrative levels. Our results implied that, according to the “strong sustainability” perspective, the cities of the YRD became less sustainable or unsustainable because the social and economic progresses were at the expense of the environment. The level of urban sustainability was lower at the provincial level than the prefectural level, implying that the problems of unsustainability are even greater at the provincial level than the prefectural level in the YRD region.

  13. The effects of mariculture on heavy metal distribution in sediments and cultured fish around the Pearl River Delta region, south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Peng; Wu, Sheng-Chun; Zhang, Jin; Cao, Yucheng; Yu, Shen; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-04-01

    Thirty-six sediment samples were collected from six mariculture sites and corresponding reference sites (approximately 200-300 m away from each mariculture site) to study the effects of mariculture on heavy metal: copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) distribution in sediments and cultured fish around the Pearl River Delta region, south China. The mean concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb in all mariculture sediment samples were 109, 273, 99 and 33 mg/kg, compared with 63, 209, 56 and 23 mg/kg for reference sediment samples, respectively. The Pollution Load Index of sediment for each site was over 1, implying substantial heavy metal pollution. The results of principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis indicate that marine aquaculture activities have enriched the surface sediments underneath mariculture rafts with Cu, Zn and Pb, possibly due to the accumulation of unconsumed fish feeds, fish excreta and antifouling paints (except Cr). Two kinds of fish feeds, feed pellets and trash fish commonly used in Hong Kong were analyzed. The concentrations of Zn and Cu contained in feed pellets were significantly higher (p trash fish due to addition of these elements as growth promoters during pellet production. However, the Pb content in trash fish (due to contamination) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in feed pellets. Three cultured fish species, namely red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) and snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii), were collected from each mariculture site for metal analysis. Lead concentrations in 21 fish samples exceeded the Chinese safety guideline (0.5 mg/kg, GB18406.4-2001), indicating that Pb contamination in cultured fish would be a public health concern. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. An examination of historic inorganic sedimentation and organic matter accumulation in several marsh types within the Mobile Bay and and Mobile-Tensaw River Delta region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher G.; Osterman, Lisa E.; Poore, Richard Z.

    2013-01-01

    Mass accumulation rates (MAR; g cm-2 y-1), linear sedimentation rates (LSR; cm y-1), and core geochronology derived from excess lead-210 (210Pb) profiles and inventories measured in six sediment cores collected from marsh sites from the MobileTensaw River Delta and Mobile Bay region record the importance of both continuous and event-driven inorganic sedimentation over the last 120 years. MAR in freshwater marshes varied considerably between sites and through time (0.24 and 1.31 g cm-2 y-1). The highest MARs occurred in the 1950s and 1960s and correspond to record discharge events along the Mobile and Tensaw Rivers. In comparison, MAR at salt marsh sites increased almost threefold over the last 120 years (0.05 to 0.18 g cm-2 y-1 or 0.23 to 0.48 cm y-1). From 1880 to 1960, organic accumulation remained fairly constant (20%), while intermittent pulses of high inorganic sedimentation were observed following 1960. The pulses in inorganic sedimentation coincide with several major hurricanes (e.g., Hurricanes Camille, Fredric, Georges, and Ivan). The nearly threefold increase in MAR in salt marshes during the last 120 years would thus appear to be partially dependent on inorganic sedimentation from storm events. This study shows that while hurricanes, floods, and other natural hazards are well-known threats to human infrastructure and coastal ecosystems, these events also transport sediment to marshes that help abate other pressures such as sea-level rise (SLR) and subsidence.

  15. A climate-based prediction model in the high-risk clusters of the Mekong Delta region, Vietnam: towards improving dengue prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Dung; Talukder, Mohammad Radwanur Rahman; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2016-10-01

    To develop a prediction score scheme useful for prevention practitioners and authorities to implement dengue preparedness and controls in the Mekong Delta region (MDR). We applied a spatial scan statistic to identify high-risk dengue clusters in the MDR and used generalised linear-distributed lag models to examine climate-dengue associations using dengue case records and meteorological data from 2003 to 2013. The significant predictors were collapsed into categorical scales, and the β-coefficients of predictors were converted to prediction scores. The score scheme was validated for predicting dengue outbreaks using ROC analysis. The north-eastern MDR was identified as the high-risk cluster. A 1 °C increase in temperature at lag 1-4 and 5-8 weeks increased the dengue risk 11% (95% CI, 9-13) and 7% (95% CI, 6-8), respectively. A 1% rise in humidity increased dengue risk 0.9% (95% CI, 0.2-1.4) at lag 1-4 and 0.8% (95% CI, 0.2-1.4) at lag 5-8 weeks. Similarly, a 1-mm increase in rainfall increased dengue risk 0.1% (95% CI, 0.05-0.16) at lag 1-4 and 0.11% (95% CI, 0.07-0.16) at lag 5-8 weeks. The predicted scores performed with high accuracy in diagnosing the dengue outbreaks (96.3%). This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of a dengue prediction score scheme derived from complex statistical models for high-risk dengue clusters. We recommend a further study to examine the possibility of incorporating such a score scheme into the dengue early warning system in similar climate settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Population redistribution in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, A

    1984-07-01

    One of the major consequences of the reorganization of Nigeria from 4 states into 12 states in 1967 and then into 19 states in the late 1970s was the redistribution of the Nigerian population. Prior to 1967 Nigeria's rural population migrated primarily to the 4 state capitals of Kaduna, Ibadan, Enugu, Benin City and to the federal capital of Lagos. The creation of additional states, each with their own capital, provided new urban environments where migrants from rural areas were afforded opportunities for employment and social mobility. Between 1960-1980, World Bank estimates indicate that 1) population in Nigerian cityes of over 500,000 population increased from 22-57%; 2) the number of cities with a population of 500,000 or more increased from 2 to 9 and 3) the urban population increased from 13-20%. Given Nigeria's estimated population growth rate of 3.6%/year, it is imperative that the goverment continue its decentralization efforts. Tables show 1) population by region based on the 1963 census; 2) estimated population of the 19 state capitals for 1963 and 1975; and 3) estimated population of the areas included in each of the 19 states for 196o, 1977, 1979, and 19819

  17. Pattern and prevalence of neonatal thrombocytopenia in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaccheaus A Jeremiah

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Zaccheaus A Jeremiah1, Justina E Oburu21Hematology and Blood Transfusion Science Unit, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria; 2Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: In Port Harcourt, evidence-based guidelines for platelet transfusion therapy in neonatal patients are yet to be defined and the prevalence and pattern of neonatal thrombocytopenia has not yet been reported.Methods: Platelet counts of 132 neonatal patients admitted into the special care baby unit (SCBU at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital in Nigeria were assessed using the International Committee on Standards in Hematology (ICSH approved manual procedures for hemocytometry.6Study design: This is a cross sectional study carried out on neonates to determine the prevalence and pattern of neonatal thrombocytopenia.Results: The median platelet count of the neonates was 97.0 × 109/L (interquartile range [IQR] 50–152 while the mean age was 61.7 hours (range 1–336 hours. The overall prevalence of neonatal thrombocytopenia was 53.0%. Mild thrombocytopenia (platelet count 51–100 × 109/L was found in 39.4% of the neonates, 12.1% had moderate thrombocytopenia (platelet count 30–50 × 109/L, while severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count <30 × 109/L was detected in 1.5% of the neonates. Of these, 84.84% of the cases occurred within 72 hours (early onset. The most common clinical diagnosis among the neonates was severe birth asphyxia (33.3%, followed by neonatal jaundice (19.7%, neonatal sepsis (16.7%, low birth weight (13.6%, anemia and bleeding (6.1%, and other clinical conditions (10.6%. There was no association between clinical diagnosis and thrombocytopenia (Fisher’s exact test = 10.643; P = 0.923.Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of early onset neonatal thrombocytopenia

  18. Health manpower development in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFubara KG

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Kalada G McFubara,1 Elizabeth R Edoni,2 Rose E Ezonbodor-Akwagbe21Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, 2Department of Community Health Nursing, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, NigeriaBackground: Health manpower is one of the critical factors in the development of a region. This is because health is an index of development. Bayelsa State has a low level of health manpower. Thus, in this study, we sought to identify factors necessary for effective development of health manpower.Methods: Three methods were used to gather information, ie, face-to-face interviews, postal surveys, and documentary analysis. Critical incidents were identified, and content and thematic analyses were conducted.Results: There is no full complement of a primary health care workforce in any of the health centers in the state. The three health manpower training institutions have the limitations of inadequate health care educators and other manpower training facilities, including lack of a teaching hospital.Conclusion: Accreditation of health manpower training institutions is a major factor for effective development of health manpower. Public officers can contribute to the accreditation process by subsuming their personal interest into the state's common interest. Bayelsa is a fast-growing state and needs a critical mass of health care personnel. To develop this workforce requires a conscious effort rich in common interests in the deployment of resources.Keywords: health manpower, development, health care education

  19. Detection of formaldehyde emissions from an industrial zone in the Yangtze River Delta region of China using a proton transfer reaction ion-drift chemical ionization mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Diao, Yiwei; Zhang, Bingjie; Wang, Weiwei; Ren, Xinrong; Yang, Dongsen; Wang, Ming; Shi, Xiaowen; Zheng, Jun

    2016-12-01

    A proton transfer reaction ion-drift chemical ionization mass spectrometer (PTR-ID-CIMS) equipped with a hydronium (H3+O) ion source was developed and deployed near an industrial zone in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of China in spring 2015 to investigate industry-related emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Air pollutants including formaldehyde (HCHO), aromatics, and other trace gases (O3 and CO) were simultaneously measured. Humidity effects on the sensitivity of the PTR-ID-CIMS for HCHO detection were investigated and quantified. The performances of the PTR-ID-CIMS were also validated by intercomparing with offline HCHO measurement technique using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone (DNPH) cartridges and the results showed fairly good agreement (slope = 0.81, R2 = 0.80). The PTR-ID-CIMS detection limit of HCHO (10 s, three-duty-cycle averages) was determined to be 0.9-2.4 (RH = 1-81.5 %) parts per billion by volume (ppbv) based on 3 times the standard deviations of the background signals. During the field study, observed HCHO concentrations ranged between 1.8 and 12.8 ppbv with a campaign average of 4.1 ± 1.6 ppbv, which was comparable with previous HCHO observations in other similar locations of China. However, HCHO diurnal profiles showed few features of secondary formation. In addition, time series of both HCHO and aromatic VOCs indicated strong influence from local emissions. Using a multiple linear regression fit model, on average the observed HCHO can be attributed to secondary formation (13.8 %), background level (27.0 %), and industry-related emissions, i.e., combustion sources (43.2 %) and chemical productions (16.0 %). Moreover, within the plumes the industry-related emissions can account for up to 69.2 % of the observed HCHO. This work has provided direct evidence of strong primary emissions of HCHO from industry-related activities. These primary HCHO sources can potentially have a strong impact on local and regional air pollution formation

  20. Landless female peasants living in resettlement residential areas in China have poorer quality of life than males: results from a household study in the Yangtze River Delta region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ying; Li, Shuqin

    2014-05-15

    Urbanization has accelerated in China, and a large amount of arable land has been transformed into urban land. Moreover, the number of landless peasants has continually increased. Peasants lose not only their land, but also a series of rights and interests related with land. The problems of landless peasants have been long-standing; however, only a few studies have examined their health or quality of life (QOL). This paper assesses the QOL of landless peasants in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, analyzes gender differences, and explores health inequity. Data are derived from household samples in six resettlement residential areas of three cities (Nanjing, Hangzhou, and Yangzhou) in the YRD region (N = 1,500; the effective rate = 82.4%). This study uses the short version of World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) scale to measure the QOL of landless peasants, and performs confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and analyze gender differences in QOL on the basis of CFA. First, we use Analysis of Variance and Non-parametric Tests to test if the differences of mean value of testing generals have statistical significances. Results shows significant differences occur between the impacts of different genders on the four domains of QOL (physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment). The internal reliability of the WHOQOL-BREF scale is good (Cronbach's alpha > 0.8), and the four domains of QOL are connected with each other. Second, scores in each QOL domain are commonly low, whereas the scores of females are much lower, indicating a poorer QOL than that of males. Third, results of the CFA of the QOL domains and their related observed variables indicate a good model fit. Fourth, results imply that the order of importance of the four domains (psychological health (males = 26.74%, females = 27.17%); social relationships (males = 26.23%, females = 25.35%); environment (males = 25

  1. Example from Ilorin City, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2013-01-28

    Jan 28, 2013 ... Abstract. Ilorin is one of the major cities in Nigeria today and its growing strength in ... any city growth and development. ... The study area ... road network resulting in the city enveloping many of the smaller settlements .... Emerging Communities: A case of a Local Government Area of ... Regional Planning.

  2. Nutrition intervention program and childhood malnutrition: a comparative study of two rural riverine communities in bayelsa state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, W; Ordinioha, B; Abuwa, Pnc

    2013-07-01

    The prevalence of malnutrition is high in the Niger delta region of Nigeria, in spite of the region's oil wealth and nutrition intervention programs have been found to be effective in similar circumstance. This study is to assess the nutrition intervention program, implemented by UNICEF in some rural communities of Bayelsa State, one of the six States in the Niger delta region of Nigeria. The study was carried out in 2009 in Toruorua and Gbaranbiri, two rural riverine communities, in Baylesa State. Toruorua benefited from the nutrition intervention program of UNICEF between 1999 and 2008, while Gbaranbiri did not benefit. A comparative, cross-sectional study design was used, with the data collected using anthropometry and semi-structured questionnaire, administered on 105 respondents, chosen with the cluster sampling technique, popularized by UNICEF, from each of the study communities. Data were analyzed using EPI-INFO version 2002, Microsoft Excel software, and manually. Differences between the study communities were tested using the student's t-test for means, and Chi-square test for proportions. Significant values were set at P childhood malnutrition.

  3. Post induced abortion morbidity and mortality in Oleh, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the maternal morbidity and mortality among 87patient treated at the Central Hospital, Oleh, Delta State, Nigeria, for complications of induced abortion from January 1st 2004 to December 31st 2008. The total number of maternal admissions and deaths, over the period ...

  4. Effects of lithology on geothermal gradient on the southeast Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the effects of lithologic formations on geothermal gradients is carried out in the south-east Niger Delta, Nigeria, using continuous temperature and lithologic log data from closely-spaced petroleum wells. The gradient profiles obtained for the deep wells, logged to depths between 6500 ft (1981m) and 8500ft ...

  5. Otolith analysis of pre-restoration habitat use by Chinook salmon in the delta-flats and nearshore regions of the Nisqually River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind-Null, Angie; Larsen, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The Nisqually Fall Chinook population is one of 27 salmon stocks in the Puget Sound (Washington) evolutionarily significant unit listed as threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA). Extensive restoration of the Nisqually River delta ecosystem is currently taking place to assist in recovery of the stock as juvenile Fall Chinook salmon are dependent on the estuary. A pre-restoration baseline that includes the characterization of life history strategies, estuary residence times, growth rates, and habitat use is needed to evaluate the potential response of hatchery and natural origin Chinook salmon to restoration efforts and to determine restoration success. Otolith analysis was selected as a tool to examine Chinook salmon life history, growth, and residence in the Nisqually River estuary. Previously funded work on samples collected in 2004 (marked and unmarked) and 2005 (unmarked only) partially established a juvenile baseline on growth rates and length of residence associated with various habitats (freshwater, forested riverine tidal, emergent forested transition, estuarine emergent marsh, delta-flats and nearshore). However, residence times and growth rates for the delta-flats (DF) and nearshore (NS) habitats have been minimally documented due to small sample sizes. The purpose of the current study is to incorporate otolith microstructural analysis using otoliths from fish collected within the DF and NS habitats during sampling years 2004-08 to increase sample size and further evaluate between-year variation in otolith microstructure. Our results from this analysis indicated the delta-flats check (DFCK) on unmarked and marked Chinook samples in 2005-08 varied slightly in appearance from that seen on samples previously analyzed only from 2004. A fry migrant life history was observed on otoliths of unmarked Chinook collected in 2005, 2007, and 2008. Generally, freshwater mean increment width of unmarked fish, on average, was smaller compared to marked

  6. The Portrayal of Liberation and the Niger Delta Question in Arnold Udoka’s Akon, Long Walk to a Dream and Iyene: A Dance Drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Egbudu Akung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria’s Niger Delta has become a thorny issue in the multidisciplinary intellectual discourse in the sense that local inequalities have assumed global dimensions. Human rights have been violated by the Nigerian government and global multi-national oil companies in such a way that make the Niger delta an environmental disaster zone. This problem has spawned local insurrections in the Niger Delta as multinational oil companies have had to either quit the zone or re-organize their modus operandi, with a general impact on Nigeria’s economy. From the time of the state-murdered Ogoni writer and environmentalist, Ken Saro Wiwa and Adaka Boro before him, these problems have been articulated through various forms of political and literary expressions. One of such literary expressions is Arnold Udoka’s plays which form the bases for analysis of the issues in this paper. Using the Marxist paradigm which enables inter-disciplinarily, this study takes a deeper look at the many variations of inequalities that have led to the Niger Delta problem. One of such is the gender question in the Niger Delta which Arnold Udoka articulates in Akon, which investigates the place of women in the political liberation of Nigeria, particularly in the Niger Delta region. There is also the Niger Delta question in Long Walk to a Dream which explores the struggle of the people of this region to live a meaningful life in the midst of their environmental challenges. Iyene on the other hand looks at the global dimension of multinational companies and the local elites in resolving the Niger Delta question, which has become a wasteland. This is particularly so because the Nigerian Land Use Act vests the ownership of land on the government which in turn has led to multiple violations of the peoples’ rights. It is therefore the position of this paper that the armed struggle, militancy, kidnapping in the Niger Delta are different manifestations of the aspiration of the violated

  7. Two Component Decomposition of Dual Polarimetric HH/VV SAR Data: Case Study for the Tundra Environment of the Mackenzie Delta Region, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Ullmann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates a two component decomposition technique for HH/VV-polarized PolSAR (Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar data. The approach is a straight forward adaption of the Yamaguchi decomposition and decomposes the data into two scattering contributions: surface and double bounce under the assumption of a negligible vegetation scattering component in Tundra environments. The dependencies between the features of this two and the classical three component Yamaguchi decomposition were investigated for Radarsat-2 (quad and TerraSAR-X (HH/VV data for the Mackenzie Delta Region, Canada. In situ data on land cover were used to derive the scattering characteristics and to analyze the correlation among the PolSAR features. The double bounce and surface scattering features of the two and three component scattering model (derived from pseudo-HH/VV- and quad-polarized data showed similar scattering characteristics and positively correlated-R2 values of 0.60 (double bounce and 0.88 (surface scattering were observed. The presence of volume scattering led to differences between the features and these were minimized for land cover classes of low vegetation height that showed little volume scattering contribution. In terms of separability, the quad-polarized Radarsat-2 data offered the best separation of the examined tundra land cover types and will be best suited for the classification. This is anticipated as it represents the largest feature space of all tested ones. However; the classes “wetland” and “bare ground” showed clear positions in the feature spaces of the C- and X-Band HH/VV-polarized data and an accurate classification of these land cover types is promising. Among the possible dual-polarization modes of Radarsat-2 the HH/VV was found to be the favorable mode for the characterization of the aforementioned tundra land cover classes due to the coherent acquisition and the preserved co-pol. phase. Contrary, HH/HV-polarized and VV

  8. C1-C2 alkyl aminiums in urban aerosols: Insights from ambient and fuel combustion emission measurements in the Yangtze River Delta region of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Wenchao; Ren, Lili; Zhao, Yi; Zhou, Luyu; Dai, Liang; Ge, Xinlei; Kong, Shaofei; Yan, Qin; Xu, Honghui; Jiang, Yujun; He, Jun; Chen, Mindong; Yu, Huan

    2017-01-01

    We measured low molar-mass alkyl aminiums (methylaminium, dimethylaminium, ethylaminium and diethylaminium) in urban aerosols in the Yangtze River Delta region of eastern China in August 2014 and from November 2015 to May 2016. After examining artifact formation on sample filters, methylaminium, dimethylaminium and ethylaminium concentrations were quantified. The three C1-C2 aminiums exhibited a unimodal size distribution that maximized between 0.56 and 1.0 μm. Their concentrations in PM 2.5 were 5.7 ± 3.2 ng m −3 , 7.9 ± 5.4 ng m −3 and 20.3 ± 16.6 ng m −3 , respectively, with higher concentrations during the daytime and in warm seasons. On new particle growth days, amine uptake to particles larger than 56 nm was barely enhanced. The molar ratios of individual aminium/NH 4 + in PM 2.5 were on the order of 10 −4 and 10 −3 . Aminiums were thus far less to out-compete ammonium (NH 4 + ) in neutralizing acidic species in particle sizes down to 56 nm. Abundant nitrate (NO 3 − /SO 4 2− molar ratio = ∼3) and its correlation to methylaminium and ethylaminium implied that nitrate might be more important aminium salt than sulfate in urban aerosols of this area. Direct measurement of particle-phase amine emission from coal and biomass burning showed that coal burning is an important atmospheric amine source, considering coal burning is top-ranked particulate matter source in China. - Highlights: • Aminium concentration showed seasonal and diurnal variations in urban aerosols of our area. • Nitrate was more important aminium salt than sulfate in urban aerosols of our area. • Particle-phase amine emission from coal burning is an important atmospheric amine source. • Amine uptake to particles larger than 56 nm was barely enhanced on new particle growth events. • Aminiums cannot out-compete ammonium in neutralizing acidic species in urban aerosols with particle sizes down to 56 nm. - Aminiums cannot out-compete ammonium in

  9. Observations and Impacts of Permafrost Thaw in the Lower Yukon River Basin and Yukon Delta Region: the Importance of Local Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman-Mercer, N. M.; Elder, K.; Toohey, R.; Mutter, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    In regions of the arctic and subarctic baseline measurements of permafrost dynamics are lacking and scientific research can be especially expensive when remote sensing techniques are utilized. This research demonstrated the importance of local observations, a powerful tool for understanding landscape change, such as permafrost dynamics. Fifty-five interviews were recently conducted with community members in four villages of the lower Yukon River Basin and Yukon Delta to understand local environmental and landscape changes and the impacts these changes may be having on the lives and livelihoods of these communities. The interviews were semi-structured and focused on many climate and landscape change factors including knowledge of permafrost in their community or the surrounding landscape. All positive respondents stated that they believe the permafrost is thawing. The research revealed that residents of the arctic and subarctic interact with permafrost in a variety of ways. Some people utilize permafrost to store food resources and have found that they have to dig deeper presently than in their youth in order to find ground cold enough. Others are involved in digging graves and report encountering easier excavation in recent years. Subsistence hunters and gatherers travel long distances by snowmobile and boat, and have noticed slumping ground, eroding river banks and coast lines, as well as land that seems to be rising. Finally, all residents of the arctic and subarctic interact with permafrost in terms of the stability of their homes and other infrastructure. Many interview participants complained of their houses leaning and needing more frequent adjustment than in the past. Indigenous residents of the arctic and subarctic have intimate relationships with their landscape owing to their subsistence lifestyle and are also connected to the landscape of the past through the teachings of their elders. Further, arctic and subarctic communities will sustain the majority

  10. High-resolution sampling and analysis of air particulate matter in the Pear River Delta region of Southern China: source apportionment and health risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S.; Day, P. K.; Wang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Hazardous air pollutants, such as trace elements in particulate matters (PM), are known or highly suspected to cause detrimental effects on human health. To understand the sources and associated risks of PM to human health, hourly time-integrated major trace elements in size-segregated coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter were collected and examined in an industrial city of Foshan in the Pearl River Delta region, China. Receptor modeling of the dataset by positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to identify six sources contributing to PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations at the site. Dominant sources included industrial coal combustion, secondary inorganic aerosol, motor vehicles and construction dust along with two intermittent sources, biomass combustion and marine aerosol. The biomass combustion source was found to be a significant contributor to peak PM2.5 episodes along with motor vehicles and industrial coal combustion. Conditional probability function (CPF) was applied to estimate the local source effects from wind direction using the PMF-resolved source contribution coupled with the surface wind direction data. Health exposure risk for hazardous trace elements (Pb, As, Cr, Ni, Zn, V, Cu, Mn, Fe) and source-specific values were estimated. The total hazard quotient (total HQ =HI) of PM2.5 was 2.09, which is two times higher than the acceptable limit (HQ = 1). The total carcinogenic risk was 3.37*10-3 for PM2.5, which was three orders higher than the acceptable limit (i.e. 1.0*10-6). Among the selected trace elements, As and Pb posed the highest non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks for human health, respectively. In additional, our results showed that industrial coal combustion source was the dominant non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks contributor, highlighting the need for stringent control of this source. This study can provide new insight for policy makers to prioritize sources in air quality management and health risk reduction.

  11. High-resolution sampling and analysis of ambient particulate matter in the Pearl River Delta region of southern China: source apportionment and health risk implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hazardous air pollutants, such as trace elements in particulate matter (PM, are known or highly suspected to cause detrimental effects on human health. To understand the sources and associated risks of PM to human health, hourly time-integrated major trace elements in size-segregated coarse (PM2.5–10 and fine (PM2.5 particulate matter were collected at the industrial city of Foshan in the Pearl River Delta region, China. Receptor modeling of the data set by positive matrix factorization (PMF was used to identify six sources contributing to PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations at the site. Dominant sources included industrial coal combustion, secondary inorganic aerosol, motor vehicles and construction dust along with two intermittent sources (biomass combustion and marine aerosol. The biomass combustion source was found to be a significant contributor to peak PM2.5 episodes along with motor vehicles and industrial coal combustion. Conditional probability function (CPF analysis was applied to estimate the source locations using the PMF-resolved source contribution coupled with the surface wind direction data. Health exposure risk of hazardous trace elements (Pb, As, Si, Cr, Mn and Ni and source-specific values were estimated. The total hazard quotient (HQ of PM2.5 was 2.09, higher than the acceptable limit (HQ = 1. The total carcinogenic risk (CR was 3.37 × 10−3 for PM2.5, which was 3 times higher than the least stringent limit (1.0 × 10−4. Among the selected trace elements, As and Pb posed the highest non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks to human health, respectively. In addition, our results show that the industrial coal combustion source is the dominant non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk contributor, highlighting the need for stringent control of this source. This study provides new insight for policy makers to prioritize sources in air quality management and health risk reduction.

  12. Delta Plaza kohvik = Delta Plaza cafe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Pärnu mnt 141 asuva kohviku Delta Plaza sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Tiiu Truus ja Marja Viltrop (Stuudio Truus OÜ). Tiiu Truusi tähtsamate tööde loetelu. Büroohoone Delta Plaza arhitektid Marika Lõoke ja Jüri Okas (AB J. Okas & M. Lõoke)

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF FIRMS STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS ON THE DEGREE OF AGGLOMERATION ECONOMIES ENJOYED AMONGST FIRMS IN THE LAGOS REGION, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAGBOHUNKA Adejompo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Agglomeration economies is a potent tool in socio-economic revamping, rejuvenation and sustenance of regions, this is as a result of the impulse it transmitted through the multiplier effect it is capable of generated. Therefore, this paper underscores the influence of firms structural characteristics on the degree of agglomeration economies enjoyed amongst firms, using the Lagos region as a case study. The first stage in the collection of primary data involves the reconnaissance survey, thereafter one hundred and three questionnaire were administered in twelve industrial estates; one questionnaire in each of the firm. The paper reveals the following structural characteristics as germane to industrial enterprise; age of firms, areal plant size (m², capacity utilization (in percentage, and Labour size and firms investment. The paper has also found out those agglomeration economies enjoyed ranges from transportation, labour, power supply, to joint water supply. The Roy’s Largest Root test employed to test for the significance of the canonical correlations at 0.05 significant levels shows the calculated F-value 3.5247 and the tabulated F-value 2.90. This suggests that the degree of agglomeration economies enjoyed by firms is significantly explained by the size and structural characteristics of the firms. The paper therefore recommends more and active government participation in the industrial scene, given the necessary support for the expansion of firm’s structural characteristics which will lead to increase agglomeration economies enjoyed by these firms.

  14. delta-vision

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Delta Vision is intended to identify a strategy for managing the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta as a sustainable ecosystem that would continue to support environmental...

  15. Blood lead concentrations as a result of retained lead pellets in the craniomaxillofacial region in Benin City, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edetanlen, B E; Saheeb, B D

    2016-06-01

    Patients who survive gunshot wounds often retain pellets in their bodies, which cause delayed morbidity from lead poisoning, and even death. Our aim was to find out whether there is a high concentration of lead in the blood of patients who have asymptomatic retention of lead pellets in the craniomaxillofacial region. We prospectively studied 28 patients who were admitted to our hospital with gunshot injuries to the region, and 28 control subjects. Each was originally recruited three days after injury. The control subjects were chosen from people who lived in the same household or worked in the same place as the patients. Any previous exposure to lead was excluded. Blood samples were collected three days and three months after injury and analysed for the presence of lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean (SD) age for both patients and control subjects was 33 (12) years. The mean (SD) and range of concentrations of lead in patients three days after injury was 0.11 (0.07), range 0.01-0.32μmol/L, while those of the control subjects were 0.03 (0.02) and 0-0.06, respectively. Three months after injury, the mean (SD) and range of concentrations of the patients were 0.30 (0.11) and 0.12-0.59μmol/L, while those of the control subjects were 0-1.25 and 0.12 (0.006) μmol/L, respectively (p= 0.000). The study showed a higher mean blood lead concentration in patients with gunshot injuries than in control subjects, but lower than the threshold values published by the Centers for Disease Control/Occupational Health and Safety Administration in the United States. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Complex rearrangements within the human J delta-C delta/J alpha-C alpha locus and aberrant recombination between J alpha segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baer, R.; Boehm, T.; Yssel, H.; Spits, H.; Rabbitts, T. H.

    1988-01-01

    We have examined DNA rearrangements within a 120 kb cloned region of the human T cell receptor J delta-C delta/J alpha-C alpha locus. Three types of pattern emerge from an analysis of T cell lines and clones. Firstly, cells with two rearrangements within J delta-C delta; secondly, cells with one

  17. Simulating dynamics of {delta}{sup 13}C of CO{sub 2} in the planetary boundary layer a boreal forest region: covariation between surface fluxes and atmospheric mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Baozhang; Chen, Jing M. [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Tans, Pieter P. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Huang, Lin [Environment Canada, Toronto, ON (Canada). Atmospheric Science and Technology Directorate

    2006-11-15

    Stable isotopes of CO{sub 2} contain unique information on the biological and physical processes that exchange CO{sub 2} between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. Ecosystem exchange of carbon isotopes with the atmosphere is correlated diurnally and seasonally with the planetary boundary layer (PBL) dynamics. The strength of this kind of covariation affects the vertical gradient of {delta}{sup 13}C and thus the global {delta}{sup 13}C distribution pattern. We need to understand the various processes involved in transport/diffusion of carbon isotope ratio in the PBL and between the PBL and the biosphere and the troposphere. In this study, we employ a one-dimensional vertical diffusion/transport atmospheric model (VDS), coupled to an ecosystem isotope model (BEPS-EASS) to simulate dynamics of {sup 13}CO{sub 2} in the PBL over a boreal forest region in the vicinity of the Fraserdale (FRD) tower (49 deg 52 min 29.9 sec N, 81 deg 34 min 12.3 sec W) in northern Ontario, Canada. The data from intensive campaigns during the growing season in 1999 at this site are used for model validation in the surface layer. The model performance, overall, is satisfactory in simulating the measured data over the whole course of the growing season. We examine the interaction of the biosphere and the atmosphere through the PBL with respect to {delta}{sup 13}C on diurnal and seasonal scales. The simulated annual mean vertical gradient of {delta}{sup 13}C in the PBL in the vicinity of the FRD tower was about 0.025% in 1999. The {delta}{sup 13}C vertical gradient exhibited strong diurnal (29%) and seasonal (71%) variations that do not exactly mimic those of CO{sub 2}. Most of the vertical gradient (96.5% {+-}) resulted from covariation between ecosystem exchange of carbon isotopes and the PBL dynamics, while the rest (3.5%{+-}) was contributed by isotopic disequilibrium between respiration and photosynthesis. This disequilibrium effect on {delta}{sup 13}C of CO{sub 2} dynamics in PBL

  18. Simulating dynamics of (delta){sup 13}C of CO{sub 2} in the planetary boundary layer a boreal forest region: covariation between surface fluxes and atmospheric mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Baozhang; Chen, Jing M. [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Tans, Pieter P. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Huang, Lin [Environment Canada, Toronto, ON (Canada). Atmospheric Science and Technology Directorate

    2006-11-15

    Stable isotopes of CO{sub 2} contain unique information on the biological and physical processes that exchange CO{sub 2} between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. Ecosystem exchange of carbon isotopes with the atmosphere is correlated diurnally and seasonally with the planetary boundary layer (PBL) dynamics. The strength of this kind of covariation affects the vertical gradient of (delta){sup 13}C and thus the global (delta){sup 13}C distribution pattern. We need to understand the various processes involved in transport/diffusion of carbon isotope ratio in the PBL and between the PBL and the biosphere and the troposphere. In this study, we employ a one-dimensional vertical diffusion/transport atmospheric model (VDS), coupled to an ecosystem isotope model (BEPS-EASS) to simulate dynamics of {sup 13}CO{sub 2} in the PBL over a boreal forest region in the vicinity of the Fraserdale (FRD) tower (49 deg 52 min 29.9 sec N, 81 deg 34 min 12.3 sec W) in northern Ontario, Canada. The data from intensive campaigns during the growing season in 1999 at this site are used for model validation in the surface layer. The model performance, overall, is satisfactory in simulating the measured data over the whole course of the growing season. We examine the interaction of the biosphere and the atmosphere through the PBL with respect to (delta){sup 13}C on diurnal and seasonal scales. The simulated annual mean vertical gradient of (delta){sup 13}C in the PBL in the vicinity of the FRD tower was about 0.025% in 1999. The (delta){sup 13}C vertical gradient exhibited strong diurnal (29%) and seasonal (71%) variations that do not exactly mimic those of CO{sub 2}. Most of the vertical gradient (96.5% {+-}) resulted from covariation between ecosystem exchange of carbon isotopes and the PBL dynamics, while the rest (3.5%{+-}) was contributed by isotopic disequilibrium between respiration and photosynthesis. This disequilibrium effect on (delta){sup 13}C of CO{sub 2} dynamics in PBL

  19. Biomagnification of some heavy and essential metals in sediments, fishes and crayfish from Ondo State coastal region, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaolu, S.S.; Olaofe, O.

    2005-01-01

    The bio magnifications levels of some essential (Fe, Zn, Cu) and toxic metals (Pb, Ni, Cd, Cr, Co, Mn) were determined in sediments, three kinds of fish (Oreochromis niloticus, Synodonthis sp., and Clarias gariepinus) and crayfish from the Ondo State coastal region. The metal bio magnification in the fish and crayfish was several times greater than in water, while that in the sediments was several thousand-folds greater than in both the organisms and water. Among the metals examined in water, Fe was the most abundant with average values of 146.7 and 74.3 mg/1, respectively, for wet and dry seasons, while Co was the least with average values of 2.4 and 1.6 mg/1. In the sediments, concentrations of Pb, Ni, Fe, Cr, Co and Mn in the wet season were relatively higher than those obtained for the dry season. Fe with an average of 50.9 mg/kg in C, gariepinus was the most abundant metal in the fish samples, while Cu with an average value of 0.3 mg/kg in O. niloticus was the least. The metal bio magnification for most of the metals for both seasons was found to vary widely from one location to the other. This was confirmed by the coefficient of variation that ranged from 31% to 144% and 29% to 130% in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. The present study has shown that fish, crayfish and sediments can be used to monitor the pollution level of metals in the Nigerian coastal water. (author)

  20. Rise and Fall of one of World's largest deltas; the Mekong delta in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minderhoud, P. S. J.; Eslami Arab, S.; Pham, H. V.; Erkens, G.; van der Vegt, M.; Oude Essink, G.; Stouthamer, E.; Hoekstra, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Mekong delta is the third's largest delta in the world. It is home to almost 20 million people and an important region for the food security in South East Asia. As most deltas, the Mekong delta is the dynamic result of a balance of sediment supply, sea level rise and subsidence, hosting a system of fresh and salt water dynamics. Ongoing urbanization, industrialization and intensification of agricultural practices in the delta, during the past decades, resulted in growing domestic, agricultural and industrial demands, and have led to a dramatic increase of fresh water use. Since the year 2000, the amount of fresh groundwater extracted from the subsurface increased by 500%. This accelerated delta subsidence as the groundwater system compacts, with current sinking rates exceeding global sea level rise up to an order of magnitude. These high sinking rates have greatly altered the sediment budget of the delta and, with over 50% of the Mekong delta surface elevated less than 1 meter above sea level, greatly increase vulnerability to flooding and storm surges and ultimately, permanent inundation. Furthermore, as the increasingly larger extractions rapidly reduce the fresh groundwater reserves, groundwater salinization subsequently increases. On top of that, dry season low-flows by the Mekong river cause record salt water intrusion in the delta's estuarine system, creating major problems for rice irrigation. We present the work of three years research by the Dutch-Vietnamese `Rise and Fall' project on land subsidence and salinization in both groundwater and surface water in the Vietnamese Mekong delta.

  1. Nigeria: Current Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ploch, Lauren

    2007-01-01

    ... a significant degree of national pride and belief in Nigeria as a state. After 16 years of military rule, Nigeria made a transition to civilian governance in 1999, when Olusegun Obasanjo, a former general, was elected president...

  2. IDRC in Nigeria

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    including Nigeria, have access to essen - tial medical ... Nigerian Institute of Social and. Economic ... firm specializing in digital technologies ... the University of Southern Maine, US. Nigeria has ... the authorities, the media, and the population.

  3. PM{sub 2.5} acidity at a background site in the Pearl River Delta region in fall-winter of 2007–2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Xiaoxin [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Shenzhen Research Institute, Hong Kong Polytechnic University (China); Guo, Hai, E-mail: ceguohai@polyu.edu.hk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Shenzhen Research Institute, Hong Kong Polytechnic University (China); Wang, Xinming, E-mail: wangxm@gig.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Ding, Xiang; He, Quanfu; Liu, Tengyu; Zhang, Zhou [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • 24-h PM{sub 2.5} samples were collected in fall-winter of 2007–2012. • The annual reduction trends of [H{sup +}]{sub total} and [H{sup +}]{sub in-situ} of PM{sub 2.5} was −32 ± 1.5 and −9 ± 1.7 nmol m{sup −3}, respectively. • On hazy days, the concentration of OM showed significant enhancement when [H{sup +}]{sub in-situ} ranged from 85 to 240 nmol m{sup −3}. • [H{sup +}]{sub in-situ} presented a close relationship with NO{sub 3}{sup −} formation mechanisms in low and high acidity of PM{sub 2.5}. - Abstract: Based on field observations and thermodynamic model simulation, the annual trend of PM{sub 2.5} acidity and its characteristics on non-hazy and hazy days in fall-winter of 2007–2012 in the Pearl River Delta region were investigated. Total acidity ([H{sup +}]{sub total}) and in-situ acidity ([H{sup +}]{sub in-situ}) of PM{sub 2.5} significantly decreased (F-test, p < 0.05) at a rate of −32 ± 1.5 nmol m{sup −3} year{sup −1} and −9 ± 1.7 nmol m{sup −3} year{sup −1}, respectively. The variation of acidity was mainly caused by the change of the PM{sub 2.5} component, i.e., the decreasing rates of [H{sup +}]{sub total} and [H{sup +}]{sub in-situ} due to the decrease of sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}) exceeded the increasing rate caused by the growth of nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup −}). [H{sup +}]{sub total}, [H{sup +}]{sub in-situ} and liquid water content on hazy days were 0.9–2.2, 1.2–3.5 and 2.0–3.0 times those on non-hazy days, respectively. On hazy days, the concentration of organic matter (OM) showed significant enhancement when [H{sup +}]{sub in-situ} increased (t-test, p < 0.05), while this was not observed on non-hazy days. Moreover, when the acidity was low (i.e., R = [NH{sub 4}{sup +}]/(2 × [SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}] + [NO{sub 3}{sup −}]) > 0.6), NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} was most likely formed via homogenous reaction. When the acidity was high (R ≤ 0.6), the gas-phase formation of NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} was

  4. To what extent can China’s near-term air pollution control policy protect air quality and human health? A case study of the Pearl River Delta region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Xujia; Hong, Chaopeng; Zheng, Yixuan; Zheng, Bo; Guan, Dabo; Zhang, Qiang; Gouldson, Andy; He, Kebin

    2015-01-01

    Following a series of extreme air pollution events, the Chinese government released the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan in 2013 (China’s State Council 2013). The Action Plan sets clear goals for key regions (i.e. cities above the prefecture level, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Province, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta) and establishes near-term control efforts for the next five years. However, the extent to which the Action Plan can direct local governments’ activities on air pollution control remains unknown. Here we seek to evaluate the air quality improvement and associated health benefits achievable under the Action Plan in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) area from 2012 to 2017. Measure-by-measure quantification results show that the Action Plan would promise effective emissions reductions of 34% of SO 2 , 28% of NO x , 26% of PM 2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter), and 10% of VOCs (volatile organic compounds). These emissions abatements would lower the PM 2.5 concentration by 17%, surpassing the 15% target established in the Action Plan, thereby avoiding more than 2900 deaths and 4300 hospital admissions annually. We expect the implementation of the Action Plan in the PRD would be productive; the anticipated impacts, however, fall short of the goal of protecting the health of local residents, as there are still more than 33 million people living in places where the annual mean ambient PM 2.5 concentrations are greater than 35 μg m −3 , the interim target-3 of the World Health Organization (WHO). We therefore propose the next steps for air pollution control that are important not only for the PRD but also for all other regions of China as they develop and implement effective air pollution control policies. (letter)

  5. To what extent can China’s near-term air pollution control policy protect air quality and human health? A case study of the Pearl River Delta region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xujia; Hong, Chaopeng; Zheng, Yixuan; Zheng, Bo; Guan, Dabo; Gouldson, Andy; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin

    2015-10-01

    Following a series of extreme air pollution events, the Chinese government released the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan in 2013 (China’s State Council 2013). The Action Plan sets clear goals for key regions (i.e. cities above the prefecture level, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Province, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta) and establishes near-term control efforts for the next five years. However, the extent to which the Action Plan can direct local governments’ activities on air pollution control remains unknown. Here we seek to evaluate the air quality improvement and associated health benefits achievable under the Action Plan in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) area from 2012 to 2017. Measure-by-measure quantification results show that the Action Plan would promise effective emissions reductions of 34% of SO2, 28% of NOx, 26% of PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter), and 10% of VOCs (volatile organic compounds). These emissions abatements would lower the PM2.5 concentration by 17%, surpassing the 15% target established in the Action Plan, thereby avoiding more than 2900 deaths and 4300 hospital admissions annually. We expect the implementation of the Action Plan in the PRD would be productive; the anticipated impacts, however, fall short of the goal of protecting the health of local residents, as there are still more than 33 million people living in places where the annual mean ambient PM2.5 concentrations are greater than 35 μg m-3, the interim target-3 of the World Health Organization (WHO). We therefore propose the next steps for air pollution control that are important not only for the PRD but also for all other regions of China as they develop and implement effective air pollution control policies.

  6. Delta antibody radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kselikova, M; Urbankova, J

    1985-11-15

    The principle and procedure are described of the radioimmunoassay of delta antibody (delta-Ab) using the ABBOTT ANTI-DELTA kit by Abbott Co. A description is given of the kit, the working procedure and the method of evaluation. The results are reported of the incidence of delta-Ab in sera of patients with viral hepatitis B, in haemophiliacs, carriers of the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and blood donors. The presence was detected of delta-Ab in one HBsAg carrier. The necessity is emphasized of delta-Ab determinations in the blood of donors in view of the antibody transfer with blood and blood preparations.

  7. Education, Horizontal Inequalities and Ethnic Relations in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukiwo, Ukoha

    2007-01-01

    The article focuses on the role of higher education in generating or mitigating inequality among ethno-regional groups and its impact on ethnic relations with evidence from Nigeria. It shows that access to education in Nigeria has been politicised. This is because of the perceived role of education in engendering political and socio-economic…

  8. Western Nigeria development board: modified Colonial agency for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The government of the Western Region of Nigeria set up the Western Nigeria Development Corporation (WNDC), which operated with relatively extensive autonomy under the oversight of the Ministry of Trade and Industry. Over fourteen partnerships were formed through a network of efforts involving Ministry of Trade and ...

  9. Tidal controls on river delta morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoitink, A. J. F.; Wang, Z. B.; Vermeulen, B.; Huismans, Y.; Kästner, K.

    2017-09-01

    River delta degradation has been caused by extraction of natural resources, sediment retention by reservoirs, and sea-level rise. Despite global concerns about these issues, human activity in the world’s largest deltas intensifies. Harbour development, construction of flood defences, sand mining and land reclamation emerge as key contemporary factors that exert an impact on delta morphology. Tides interacting with river discharge can play a crucial role in the morphodynamic development of deltas under pressure. Emerging insights into tidal controls on river delta morphology suggest that--despite the active morphodynamics in tidal channels and mouth bar regions--tidal motion acts to stabilize delta morphology at the landscape scale under the condition that sediment import during low flows largely balances sediment export during high flows. Distributary channels subject to tides show lower migration rates and are less easily flooded by the river because of opposing non-linear interactions between river discharge and the tide. These interactions lead to flow changes within channels, and a more uniform distribution of discharge across channels. Sediment depletion and rigorous human interventions in deltas, including storm surge defence works, disrupt the dynamic morphological equilibrium and can lead to erosion and severe scour at the channel bed, even decades after an intervention.

  10. Delta hedging strategies comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Giovanni, Domenico; Ortobelli, S.; Rachev, S.T.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we implement dynamic delta hedging strategies based on several option pricing models. We analyze different subordinated option pricing models and we examine delta hedging costs using ex-post daily prices of S&P 500. Furthermore, we compare the performance of each subordinated model...

  11. Connectivity in river deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, P.; Hiatt, M. R.; Sendrowski, A.

    2016-12-01

    Deltas host approximately half a billion people and are rich in ecosystem diversity and economic resources. However, human-induced activities and climatic shifts are significantly impacting deltas around the world; anthropogenic disturbance, natural subsidence, and eustatic sea-level rise are major causes of threat to deltas and in many cases have compromised their safety and sustainability, putting at risk the people that live on them. In this presentation, I will introduce a framework called Delta Connectome for studying connectivity in river deltas based on different representations of a delta as a network. Here connectivity indicates both physical connectivity (how different portions of the system interact with each other) as well as conceptual (pathways of process coupling). I will explore several network representations and show how quantifying connectivity can advance our understanding of system functioning and can be used to inform coastal management and restoration. From connectivity considerations, the delta emerges as a leaky network that evolves over time and is characterized by continuous exchanges of fluxes of matter, energy, and information. I will discuss the implications of connectivity on delta functioning, land growth, and potential for nutrient removal.

  12. Comparison of landfarming amendments to improve bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in Niger Delta soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, David M; Okoro, Samson; van Gils, Juami; van Spanning, Rob; Bonte, Matthijs; Hutchings, Tony; Linden, Olof; Egbuche, Uzoamaka; Bruun, Kim Bye; Smith, Jonathan W N

    2017-01-01

    Large scale landfarming experiments, using an extensive range of treatments, were conducted in the Niger-Delta, Nigeria to study the degradation of oil in contaminated soils. In this work the effect of nutrient addition, biosurfactant, Eisenia fetida (earthworm) enzyme extract, bulking and sorption

  13. Current status and temporal trend of heavy metals in farmland soil of the Yangtze River Delta Region: Field survey and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Diwei; Zhan, Yu; Zhou, Wenjun; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-12-01

    While the spatial distributions of heavy metals in farmland soil of China have been comprehensively delineated, their temporal trends are rarely investigated but are important for environmental risk management. In this study, the current status and temporal trends of heavy metals in the farmland soil of Yangtze River Delta (YRD) were evaluated through field survey and meta-analysis. The field survey conducted in 2014 showed that the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Ni in the farmland topsoil were 0.23 ± 0.14, 37.63 ± 15.60, 25.83 ± 41.62, 88.38 ± 43.30, and 29.21 ± 12.41 mg kg -1 (mean ± standard deviation), respectively. The heavy metals showed relatively higher concentrations on the borders among Zhejiang, Jiangsu, and Shanghai. In the meta-analysis, we selected 68 published studies related to heavy metal pollution in farmland topsoil of YRD from 2000 to the year (2014) when the field survey was conducted. The results show an increasing trend for Cd (p soil remediation are needed to protect food safety and ecosystem from heavy metal pollution, especially Cd. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigating the Impacts of Landuse-landcover (LULC Change in the Pearl River Delta Region on Water Quality in the Pearl River Estuary and Hong Kong’s Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Xi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Water quality information in the coastal region of Hong Kong and the Pearl River Estuary (PRE is of great concern to the local community. Due to great landuse-landcover (LULC changes with rapid industrialization and urbanization in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region, water quality in the PRE has worsened during the last 20 years. Frequent red tide and harmful algal blooms have occurred in the estuary and its adjacent coastal waters since the 1980s and have caused important economic losses, also possibly threatening to the coastal environment, fishery, and public health in Hong Kong. In addition, recent literature shows that water nutrients in Victoria Harbor of Hong Kong have been proven to be strongly influenced by both the Pearl River and sewage effluent in the wet season (May to September, but it is still unclear how the PRE diluted water intrudes into Victoria Harbor. Due to the cloudy and rainy conditions in the wet season in Hong Kong, ASAR images will be used to monitor the PRE river plumes and track the intruding routes of PRE water nutrients. In this paper, we first review LULC change in the PRD and then show our preliminary results to analyze water quality spatial and temporal information from remote observations with different sensors in the coastal region and estuary. The study will also emphasizes on time series of analysis of LULC trends related to annual sediment yields and critical source areas of erosion for the PRD region since the 1980s.

  15. Cryptosporidium Zoonosis in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Cryptosporidium Zoonosis in Nigeria. Ayinmode, A. B. and Fagbemi B. O. Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology,. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. ABSTRACT: Cryptosporidium is a coocidian parasite that infects a wide range of vertebrate hosts including man.

  16. African Journals Online: Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 221 ... The journal publishes contributions of research, clinical, counselling and theoretical interest. ... of the Medical and Dental Consultants Association of Nigeria (MDCAN) ... and related disciplines in Nigeria, Africa and internationally. ... perforation after surgical intervention in a tertiary health institution ...

  17. (SMEs) in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... Nigeria, project financing can be secured in Central bank of Nigeria, state ... governments also finance projects for different sectors of the economy ... International Monetary Fund (I.M.F) is a similar body of World Bank that is.

  18. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Hepatitis D (Delta agent) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the ...

  19. Delta 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skott, Jeppe; Skott, Charlotte Krog; Jess, Kristine

    DELTA 2.0 er en ny og helt opdateret udgave af Delta, der i ti år været brugt i matematiklærernes grund-, efter- og videreuddannelse. DELTA 2.0 er seriens almene fagdidaktik. Der er også fagdidaktiske overvejelser i de øvrige bøger i serien, men de er knyttet til specifikt matematisk indhold. DELTA...... 2.0 behandler mere generelle matematikdidaktiske problemstillinger såsom læringsteoretiske overvejelser i forbindelse med matematik, centrale aspekter af det at undervise i matematik og digitale teknologier som værktøj til at støtte elevers faglige læring af matematik....

  20. The Niger Delta Environmental Crisis in Nigeria: A Perspective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gold

    2012-07-26

    Jul 26, 2012 ... This erratic behaviour has negative impact on the production of oil and ... government as it interrupts the steady flow of capital to the national treasury ... Key Words: Environmental, Crisis, Oil Spillage, Gas Flaring, Amnesty.

  1. Information Needs of Cassava Farmers in Delta State of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    farming and food system in Africa. ... Within the agricultural sector, cassava has remained the major crop cultivated by Nigerian ... and land preparation methods, seed treatment, time ... of traditional or peasant agriculture of farmers must.

  2. Sediment record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Liaohe River Delta wetland, Northeast China: Implications for regional population migration and economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chuanliang; Lin, Tian; Ye, Siyuan; Ding, Xigui; Li, Yuanyuan; Guo, Zhigang

    2017-03-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of a 210 Pb-dated sediment core extracted from the Liaohe River Delta wetland were measured to reconstruct the sediment record of PAHs and its response to human activity for the past 300 years in Northeast China. The concentrations of the 16 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority PAHs (∑16PAHs) ranged from 46 to 1167 ng g -1 in this sediment core. The concentrations of the 16 PAHs (especially 4- and 5+6-ring PAHs) after the 1980s (surface sediments 0-6 cm) were one or two orders of magnitudes higher than those of the down-core samples. The exponential growth of 4-ring and 5+6-ring PAH concentrations after the 1980s responded well to the increased energy consumption and number of civil vehicles resulting from the rapid economic development in China. Prior to 1950, relatively low levels of the 16 PAHs and a high proportion of 2+3-ring PAHs was indicative of biomass burning as the main source of the PAHs. A significant increase in the 2 + 3 ring PAH concentration from the 1860s-1920s was observed and could be attributed to a constant influx of population migration into Northeast China. It was suggested that the link between historical trend of PAHs and population or energy use involves two different economic stages. Typically, in an agricultural economy, the greater the population size, the greater the emission of PAHs from biomass burning, while in an industrial economy, the increase in sedimentary PAH concentrations is closely related to increasing energy consumption of fossil fuels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gender issues in human trafficking in Edo State, Nigeria | Osezua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender issues in human trafficking in Edo State, Nigeria. ... in order to capture family dynamics and power relations and women status in ... The paper concluded that efforts targeted towards eradicating existing gender inequality in the region ...

  4. Rural Urban Interaction to Cope with Climate Change (Nigeria ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    . Site internet. http://www.nest.org.ng/. Extrants. Rapports. Triggering Rural-Urban Interactions to Cope With Climate Change: An Adaptation Experiment In Aba and its Region, Southeastern Nigeria - Final Technical Report. Rapports.

  5. All projects related to Nigeria | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... a pilot project conducted in and around the city of Aba, Southeastern Nigeria. ... Topic: REGIONAL INTEGRATION, MIGRATION, REMITTANCES, Poverty alleviation ... advocacy and networking organization based in India, with resource centres ... SMALL ENTERPRISES, MEDIUM ENTERPRISES, TRADE AGREEMENTS.

  6. Urban Road Transportation in Nigeria From 1960 To 2006 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    The nature of urban road transportation problems in Nigeria as at today can .... study. These are: Road network development between 1960 and 2006 ... roads in the Western region was tarred, ..... other smaller transport system (in this case.

  7. Child Rearing Practices in Nigeria: Implications for Mental Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Child Rearing Practices in Nigeria: Implications for Mental Health. ... over time are important, especially as this region is undergoing rapid transformation. ... Through policy and aggressive health education, traditional child rearing practices in ...

  8. Specific DNA binding of a potential transcriptional regulator, inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase-related protein VII, to the promoter region of a methyl coenzyme m reductase I-encoding operon retrieved from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus strain DeltaH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzato, Naoya; Enoki, Miho; Sato, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Kohei; Matsui, Toru; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2008-10-01

    Two methyl coenzyme M reductases (MCRs) encoded by the mcr and mrt operons of the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus DeltaH are expressed in response to H(2) availability. In the present study, cis elements and trans-acting factors responsible for the gene expression of MCRs were investigated by using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and affinity particle purification. A survey of their operator regions by EMSA with protein extracts from mrt-expressing cultures restricted them to 46- and 41-bp-long mcr and mrt upstream regions, respectively. Affinity particle purification of DNA-binding proteins conjugated with putative operator regions resulted in the retrieval of a protein attributed to IMP dehydrogenase-related protein VII (IMPDH VII). IMPDH VII is predicted to have a winged helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif and two cystathionine beta-synthase domains, and it has been suspected to be an energy-sensing module. EMSA with oligonucleotide probes with unusual sequences showed that the binding site of IMPDH VII mostly overlaps the factor B-responsible element-TATA box of the mcr operon. The results presented here suggest that IMPDH VII encoded by MTH126 is a plausible candidate for the transcriptional regulator of the mcr operon in this methanogen.

  9. Process analysis and sensitivity study of regional ozone formation over the Pearl River Delta, China, during the PRIDE-PRD2004 campaign using the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ modeling system is used to simulate the ozone (O3 episodes during the Program of Regional Integrated Experiments of Air Quality over the Pearl River Delta, China, in October 2004 (PRIDE-PRD2004. The simulation suggests that O3 pollution is a regional phenomenon in the Pearl River Delta (PRD. Elevated O3 levels often occurred in the southwestern inland PRD, Pearl River estuary (PRE, and southern coastal areas during the 1-month field campaign. Three evolution patterns of simulated surface O3 are summarized based on different near-ground flow conditions. More than 75% of days featured interactions between weak synoptic forcing and local sea-land circulation. Integrated process rate (IPR analysis shows that photochemical production is a dominant contributor to O3 enhancement from 09:00 to 15:00 local standard time in the atmospheric boundary layer over most areas with elevated O3 occurrence in the mid-afternoon. The simulated ozone production efficiency is 2–8 O3 molecules per NOx molecule oxidized in areas with high O3 chemical production. Precursors of O3 originating from different source regions in the central PRD are mixed during the course of transport to downwind rural areas during nighttime and early morning, where they then contribute to the daytime O3 photochemical production. The sea-land circulation plays an important role on the regional O3 formation and distribution over PRD. Sensitivity studies suggest that O3 formation is volatile-organic-compound-limited in the central inland PRD, PRE, and surrounding coastal areas with less chemical aging (NOx/NOy>0.6, but is NOx-limited in the rural southwestern PRD with aged air (NOx/NOy<0.3.

  10. Indigenous Knowledge of Herbal Medicines among Adolescents in Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alade, Gideon O.; Okpako, Ese; Ajibesin, Kola’ K.; Omobuwajo, Olanrewaju R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of herbal medicines in Nigeria is on the increase. Documented Population based data on the use of herbal medicinal products and indigenous knowledge among the younger generations are lacking in Nigeria and Africa at large. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the extent of use and general knowledge of herbal medicines among adolescents in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Methods: The study covered a total of Two hundred and twenty-eight adolescents randomly selected in Senior Secondary Schools (SSS 1-3) in Amassoma using a semi structured questionnaire/Interview and informal conversation on the respondents. Findings: Nearly all (97%) the respondents have had contact with herbs. Less than 1% had contact with herbs through formal education (teachers/literatures). Stimulation of interest was majorly through parents (53%). Grandparents were the highest (46%) of custodian of indigenous knowledge. Parents were the next (39.7%). Only 39% of the respondents would prefer the use of herbal medicine to modern medicine. Fever was the main ailment mentioned followed by eye ailment and stomach ache. Vernonia amygdalina was the main plant for the treatment of fever. Conclusion: The study revealed that parents are the major custodians of knowledge being transferred to the younger generation and little or none is learnt from Schools. There is therefore the need to include the study of herbal medicines in School’s curricula especially at SS 2 and SS 3 since they are matured enough to appreciate the importance of Herbal medicine so as to prepare them for the promotion of herbal medicine in future and to preserve our indigenous knowledge. PMID:26234964

  11. Nigeria | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · What we do · Regions and countries · Sub-Saharan Africa ... This service allows professionals to offer an improved level of service to their patients. We also fund effective and influential economic research in Nigeria. ... revitalize the health care system to deliver effective, efficient, and equitable primary health care in ...

  12. SEASONAL PREDICTION OF PRECIPITATION OVER NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

    nificant difference between the means of predicted and observed seasonal rainfall amount for all ... and the Gulf of Guinea in the north, east, west ... from the northern part to the southern part of ... and Savanna regions of Nigeria than the other.

  13. Deriving Spatio-Temporal Development of Ground Subsidence Due to Subway Construction and Operation in Delta Regions with PS-InSAR Data: A Case Study in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqiang Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Subways have been an important method for relieving traffic pressures in urban areas, but ground subsidence, during construction and operation, can be a serious problem as it may affect the safety of its operation and that of the surrounding buildings. Thus, conducting long-term ground deformation monitoring and modeling for subway networks are essential. Compared with traditional geodetic methods, the Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PS-InSAR technique offers wider coverage and denser measurements along subway lines. In this study, we mapped the surface deformation of the Guangzhou subway network with Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR and Phased Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR data using the Interferometric Point Target Analysis (IPTA technique. The results indicate that newly excavated tunnels have regional subsidence with an average rate of more than 8 mm/year, as found on Lines Two, Three, Six, and GuangFo (GF. Furthermore, we determined the spatio-temporal subsidence behavior of subways with PALSAR in delta areas using Peck’s formula and the logistic time model. We estimated the tunneling-related parameters in soft soil areas, which had not been previously explored. We examined a section of line GF, as an example, to estimate the ground settlement trough development. The results showed the maximum settlement increased from −5.2 mm to −23.6 mm and its ground loss ratio ranged from 1.5–8.7% between 13 July 2008 and 19 January 2011. In addition, we found that the tunnels in line GF will become stable after a period of about 2300 days in peak subsidence areas. The results show that the proposed approach can help explain the dynamic ground subsidence along a metro line. This study can provide references for urban subway projects in delta areas, and for the risk assessment of nearby buildings and underground pipelines along metro lines.

  14. An annotated list of Fishes from the Niger Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeseman, M.

    1963-01-01

    At the end of November 1960, the Leiden Museum received an interesting collection of animals, mostly fishes, from the Niger delta. All specimens were collected by Mr. H. J. G. Beets, at the time employed by Shell B.P. — Delta Investigations, during the period May to August 1960, and in the region

  15. An Appraisal Of Public Branch Libraries In Nigeria: The Case Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Appraisal Of Public Branch Libraries In Nigeria: The Case Of Delta State Public Branch Libraries. ... In these years, there has not been any significant developmental growth in physical, material and human resources to match the parallel growth in information need and use of the society in which they are located.

  16. Information Needs and Seeking Behaviours of Nurses: A Survey of Two Hospitals in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baro, Emmanuel E.; Ebhomeya, Loveth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the information needs of nurses in two hospitals in Nigeria and the ways in which they went about attempting to meet those needs. Design/methodology/approach: The study is a descriptive survey of nurses at the Federal Medical Center (FMC), Yenagoa, and Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital…

  17. Globalization and the uneven application of international regulatory standard : the case of oil exploration in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adalikwu, J.

    2008-07-01

    This study was conducted to increase the awareness of the current economic situation that exists in the Niger Delta, a region that has been devastated by the activities of oil multinational corporations (MNCs). In particular, the study linked the Obelle and Obagi communities to the political economy of global capital which creates inequalities that divide societies into hierarchies of the rich and poor. The strategies adopted by the people to improve the negative consequences of oil exploration in the communities were also examined. The researcher postulated that there is a relationship between the uneven application of international and national regulations in oil production by MNCs and environmental degradation. A critical ethnographic paradigm was used to explore and explain the processes of globalization that affect the people's lives and means of livelihood. Data were collected and analyzed using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Data was then analyzed using several methods, such as statistics based on cross-tabulation, analysis of themes that emerged from interviews, and Atlas.ti 5.0 qualitative analysis computer programme to show the relationship between variables that emerged from the study. The study revealed that resource exploitation by oil MNCs in Obagi/Obelle communities of the Nigeria Delta, together with the Nigerian government, has resulted in economic expropriation, political disenfranchisement, social instability and environmental damage.

  18. OPEC abandons quotas, more violence in Nigeria and British give away gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2006-01-01

    OPEC ministers meeting in Vienna on 11th September agreed to leave the production ceiling unchanged at 28 mn bpd. The cartel, however, is to move away from formal quotas to a system of adjusting total production to world demand. The change recognizes the fact that many OPEC countries cannot produce their full quota allowances. The new policy is described by OPEC as trying ''to ensure that supply and demand (remain) in balance with prices at reasonable levels''. ''Reasonable levels'' were not defined in the communique, but most ministers agreed they should be in the region to $60-65/bbl. The oil markets were sceptical and prices fell below $60, reaching a seven-month low at the start of October. Nigeria announced a production cut of 120,000 bpd, though this may be a recognition of the difficulty of producing oil there at present. During September, the country was plagued by further violence in the Niger Delta, including attacks on oil workers, kidnappings and sabotage to oil installations. Oil workers went on strike for two days, threatening further walk-outs. By late September, nearly 875,000 bpd of production was estimated shut-in as a result of the current unrest. Shell said it had suspended plans to repair damaged facilities in the Niger Delta because of the continuing high level of violence. (author)

  19. Hepatitis delta genotypes in chronic delta infection in the northeast of Spain (Catalonia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrina, M; Buti, M; Jardi, R; Quer, J; Rodriguez, F; Pascual, C; Esteban, R; Guardia, J

    1998-06-01

    Based on genetic analysis of variants obtained around the world, three genotypes of the hepatitis delta virus have been defined. Hepatitis delta virus variants have been associated with different disease patterns and geographic distributions. To determine the prevalence of hepatitis delta virus genotypes in the northeast of Spain (Catalonia) and the correlation with transmission routes and clinical disease, we studied the nucleotide divergence of the consensus sequence of HDV RNA obtained from 33 patients with chronic delta hepatitis (24 were intravenous drug users and nine had no risk factors), and four patients with acute self-limited delta infection. Serum HDV RNA was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction technique and a fragment of 350 nucleotides (nt 910 to 1259) was directly sequenced. Genetic analysis of the nucleotide consensus sequence obtained showed a high degree of conservation among sequences (93% of mean). Comparison of these sequences with those derived from different geographic areas and pertaining to genotypes I, II and III, showed a mean sequence identity of 92% with genotype I, 73% with genotype II and 61% with genotype III. At the amino acid level (aa 115 to 214), the mean identity was 87% with genotype I, 63% with genotype II and 56% with genotype III. Conserved regions included the RNA editing domain, the carboxyl terminal 19 amino acids of the hepatitis delta antigen and the polyadenylation signal of the viral mRNA. Hepatitis delta virus isolates in the northeast of Spain are exclusively genotype I, independently of the transmission route and the type of infection. No hepatitis delta virus subgenotypes were found, suggesting that the origin of hepatitis delta virus infection in our geographical area is homogeneous.

  20. Vulnerability and Resilience of the Niger Delta Coastal Communities to Pollution and Environmental Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndimele, P. E.; Whenu, O. O.; Anwan, H. R.; Anetekhai, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    The Niger Delta is Africa's largest delta consisting of the third largest mangrove forest in the world and covering 70,000km2 of Nigeria land mass. This delta is the largest wetland in Africa and among the ten most important wetland and marine ecosystems in the world. The delta is home to all of Nigeria's endemic or near-endemic mammal species and to six IUCN Red List mammals. The Niger Delta harbours globally outstanding fish fauna and displays exceptional evolutionary phenomena with its higher taxonomic endemism and distinct species assemblages. The Niger delta is blessed with abundance of natural and human resources, including the majority of Nigeria's oil and gas deposits, good agricultural land, extensive forests, excellent fisheries as well as a well-developed industrial base, a large labour force and a vibrant private sector. However, this fragile but rich ecosystem is seriously threatened by increased industrial pollution, resource over-exploitation and environmental degradation caused by over six decades of oil exploitation. Aquatic life has been destroyed with the pollution of traditional fishing grounds, exacerbating hunger and poverty in fishing communities. The multifarious use of the delta has led to human-induced changes in biota, habitats and landscapes necessitating the development of a holistic policy that considers all the interacting factors in the ecosystem. Taking a systems approach incorporating an understanding of The Ecosystem Approach, vulnerability, resilience, the DPSIR framework, ecosystem services and societal benefits are integrated in order to evolve a management tool that will result in sustainable resource exploitation, improvement in living standards of locals and restoration of the ecosystem.

  1. General, kappa, delta and mu opioid receptor antagonists mediate feeding elicited by the GABA-B agonist baclofen in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens shell in rats: reciprocal and regional interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Patricia; Shimonova, Lyudmila; Khaimov, Arthur; Borukhova, Yaffa; Ilyayeva, Ester; Ranaldi, Robert; Bodnar, Richard J

    2012-03-14

    Food intake is significantly increased following administration of agonists of GABA and opioid receptors into the nucleus accumbens shell (NACs) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). GABA-A or GABA-B receptor antagonist pretreatment within the VTA or NACs differentially affects mu-opioid agonist-induced feeding elicited from the same site. Correspondingly, general or selective opioid receptor antagonist pretreatment within the VTA or NACs differentially affects GABA agonist-induced feeding elicited from the same site. Regional interactions have been evaluated in feeding studies by administering antagonists in one site prior to agonist administration in a second site. Thus, opioid antagonist-opioid agonist and GABA antagonist-GABA agonist feeding interactions have been identified between the VTA and NACs. However, pretreatment with GABA-A or GABA-B receptor antagonists in the VTA failed to affect mu opioid agonist-induced feeding elicited from the NACs, and correspondingly, these antagonists administered in the NACs failed to affect mu opioid-induced feeding elicited from the VTA. To evaluate whether regional and reciprocal VTA and NACs feeding interactions occur for opioid receptor modulation of GABA agonist-mediated feeding, the present study examined whether feeding elicited by the GABA-B agonist, baclofen microinjected into the NACs was dose-dependently blocked by pretreatment with general (naltrexone: NTX), mu (beta-funaltrexamine: BFNA), kappa (nor-binaltorphamine: NBNI) or delta (naltrindole: NTI) opioid antagonists in the VTA, and correspondingly, whether VTA baclofen-induced feeding was dose-dependently blocked by NACs pretreatment with NTX, BFNA, NBNI or NTI in rats. Bilateral pairs of cannulae aimed at the VTA and NACs were stereotaxically implanted in rats, and their food intakes were assessed following vehicle and baclofen (200 ng) in each site. Baclofen produced similar magnitudes of increased food intake following VTA and NACs treatment. Baclofen

  2. Special Education in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abang, Theresa B.

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses the special education system in Nigeria, focusing on integration; training of special educators; medical, health, and welfare services for children with disabilities; recreational facilities; employment opportunities; national planning; and problems and successes. (JDD)

  3. seeking behavior in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... India, Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo ... but knowledge of vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) was poor in both areas. ... proportions of rural women utilized nutritional counseling (p=0.005) and treatment of ...

  4. practice in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs Musa

    current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients." This paper ... Services, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. Following this .... isolated and powerless if they fail to integrate .... services and safe guarding high.

  5. Measurements of energy behaviour of spin-dependent np—observables over 1.2-3.7 GeV energy region Dubna ``Delta-Sigma'' Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharov, V. I.; Anischenko, N. G.; Antonenko, V. G.; Averichev, S. A.; Azhgirey, L. S.; Bartenev, V. D.; Bazhanov, N. A.; Belyaev, A. A.; Blinov, N. A.; Borisov, N. S.; Borzakov, S. B.; Borzunov, Yu. T.; Bushuev, Yu. P.; Chernenko, L. P.; Chernykh, E. V.; Chumakov, V. F.; Dolgh, S. A.; Fedorov, A. N.; Fimushkin, V. V.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Golovanov, L. B.; Gurevich, G. M.; Guriev, D. K.; Janata, A.; Kirillov, A. D.; Kolomiets, V. G.; Komogorov, E. V.; Kovalenko, A. D.; Kovalev, A. I.; Krasnov, V. A.; Krstonoshich, P.; Kuzmin, E. S.; Kuzmin, N. A.; Ladygin, V. P.; Lazarev, A. B.; Lehar, F.; de Lesquen, A.; Liburg, M. Yu.; Livanov, A. N.; Lukhanin, A. A.; Maniakov, P. K.; Matafonov, V. N.; Matyushevsky, E. A.; Moroz, V. D.; Morozov, A. A.; Neganov, A. B.; Nikolaevsky, G. P.; Nomofilov, A. A.; Panteleev, Tz.; Pillpenko, Yu. K.; Pisarev, I. L.; Plis, Yu. A.; Polunin, Yu. P.; Prokofiev, A. N.; Prytkov, V. Yu.; Rukoyatkin, P. A.; Schedrov, V. A.; Schevelev, O. N.; Shilov, S. N.; Shindin, R. A.; Slunecka, M.; Slunečková, V.; Starikov, A. Yu.; Stoletov, G. D.; Strunov, L. N.; Svetov, A. L.; Usov, Yu. A.; Vasiliev, T.; Volkov, V. I.; Vorobiev, E. I.; Yudin, I. P.; Zaitsev, I. V.; Zhdanov, A. A.; Zhmyrov, V. N.

    2005-01-01

    New accurate data on the neutron-proton spin-dependent total cross section difference Δ σ L( np) at the neutron beam kinetic energies 1.4, 1.7, 1.9 and 2.0 GeV are presented. A number of physical and methodical results on investigation of an elastic np→pn charge exchange process over a few GeV region are also presented. Measurements were carried out at the Synchrophasotron and Nuclotron of the Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energies of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research.

  6. The Niger Delta Amnesty Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A. Okonofua

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The armed conflict between militias and government forces in Nigeria’s Niger Delta region has spanned for more than two decades, defying all solutions. A disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR program was established in August 2015 in effort to end the violence and has remained in place. It is a radically different approach from past approaches that displayed zero tolerance to all political challenges to oil production or the allocation of oil profits. The approach appeared to be immediately successful in that it forced a ceasefire, engaged militants in planned programs to rehabilitate and reintegrate them into civilian society, and opened up the oil wells (many of which had been shut due to the crisis with the effect of increasing government revenue, which depends 85% on oil exports. Yet, few studies have attempted to understand the dynamics within the country that are responsible for the design and implementation of this broad policy shift or to understand whether and how the current initiative is able to end the conflict and institute peace beyond the short term. This study, therefore, is important because it provides a critical perspective that anticipates and explains emerging issues with the Niger Delta Amnesty Program, which have implications for DDR adaptation and implementation all over the world. Ultimately, the research demonstrates how the DDR program both transforms the Niger Delta conflict and becomes embroiled in intense contestations not only about the mechanism for transforming the targeted population but also whether and how the program incorporates women who are being deprioritized by the program.

  7. First measurement of target and double spin asymmetries for polarized e- polarized p --> e p pi0 in the nucleon resonance region above the Delta(1232)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biselli, Angela; Burkert, Volker; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Asryan, Gegham; Avagyan, Harutyun; Baghdasaryan, Hovhannes; Baillie, Nathan; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Baltzell, Nathan; Battaglieri, Marco; Bedlinskiy, Ivan; Bellis, Matthew; Benmouna, Nawal; Berman, Barry; Blaszczyk, Lukasz; Bookwalter, Craig; Boyarinov, Sergey; Bosted, Peter; Bradford, Robert; Branford, Derek; Briscoe, William; Brooks, William; Bultmann, S.; Bueltmann, Stephen; Butuceanu, Cornel; Calarco, John; Careccia, Sharon; Carman, Daniel; Casey, Liam; Chen, Shifeng; Cheng, Lu; Cole, Philip; Collins, Patrick; Coltharp, Philip; Crabb, Donald; Crede, Volker; Dale, Daniel; Dashyan, Natalya; De Masi, Rita; De Vita, Raffaella; De Sanctis, Enzo; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Deur, Alexandre; Dhamija, Seema; Dickson, Richard; Djalali, Chaden; Dodge, Gail; Doughty, David; Dugger, Michael; Dzyubak, Oleksandr; Egiyan, Hovanes; Elfassi, Lamiaa; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Eugenio, Paul; Fedotov, Gleb; Feuerbach, Robert; Fersch, Robert; Forest, Tony; Fradi, Ahmed; Garcon, Michel; Gavalian, Gagik; Gevorgyan, Nerses; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Giovanetti, Kevin; Girod, Francois-Xavier; Goetz, John; Gohn, Wesley; Gothe, Ralf; Graham, Lewis; Griffioen, Keith; Guidal, Michel; Guler, Nevzat; Guo, Lei; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hakobyan, Hayk; Hanretty, Charles; Hassall, Neil; Hicks, Kenneth; Hleiqawi, Ishaq; Holtrop, Maurik; Hyde, Charles; Ilieva, Yordanka; Ireland, David; Ishkhanov, Boris; Isupov, Evgeny; Ito, Mark; Jenkins, David; Jo, Hyon-Suk; Johnstone, John; Joo, Kyungseon; Juengst, Henry; Kalantarians, Narbe; Keller, Dustin; Kellie, James; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kim, Wooyoung; Klein, Andreas; Klein, Franz; Kossov, Mikhail; Krahn, Zebulun; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuhn, Joachim; Kuhn, Sebastian; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Viacheslav; Lachniet, Jeff; Laget, Jean; Langheinrich, Jorn; Lawrence, David; Livingston, Kenneth; Lu, Haiyun; MacCormick, Marion; Markov, Nikolai; Mattione, Paul; McKinnon, Bryan; McNabb, John; Mecking, Bernhard; Mestayer, Mac; Meyer, Curtis; Mibe, Tsutomu; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Mirazita, Marco; Mokeev, Viktor; Moreno, Brahim; Moriya, Kei; Morrow, Steven; Moteabbed, Maryam; Munevar Espitia, Edwin; Mutchler, Gordon; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Nasseripour, Rakhsha; Niccolai, Silvia; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Niczyporuk, Bogdan; Niroula, Megh; Niyazov, Rustam; Nozar, Mina; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ostrovidov, Alexander; Park, Kil; Park, Seungkyung; Pasyuk, Evgueni; Paterson, Craig; Pereira, Sergio; Pierce, Joshua; Pivnyuk, Nikolay; Pogorelko, Oleg; Pozdnyakov, Sergey; Price, John; Prok, Yelena; Protopopescu, Dan; Raue, Brian; Ricco, Giovanni; Ripani, Marco; Ritchie, Barry; Rosner, Guenther; Rossi, Patrizia; Sabatie, Franck; Saini, Mukesh; Salamanca, Julian; Salgado, Carlos; Santoro, Joseph; Sapunenko, Vladimir; Schott, Diane; Schumacher, Reinhard; Serov, Vladimir; Sharabian, Youri; Sharov, Dmitri; Shvedunov, Nikolay; Smith, Elton; Sober, Daniel; Sokhan, Daria; Stavinskiy, Aleksey; Stepanyan, Samuel; Stepanyan, Stepan; Stokes, Burnham; Stoler, Paul; Strakovski, Igor; Strauch, Steffen; Taiuti, Mauro; Tedeschi, David; Tkabladze, Avtandil; Tkachenko, Svyatoslav; Todor, Luminita; Ungaro, Maurizio; Vineyard, Michael; Vlassov, Alexander; Watts, Daniel; Weinstein, Lawrence; Weygand, Dennis; Williams, M.; Wolin, Elliott; Wood, Michael; Yegneswaran, Amrit; Yurov, Mikhail; Zana, Lorenzo; Zhang, Jixie; Zhao, Bo; Zhao, Zhiwen

    2008-10-01

    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.78.045204
    The exclusive channel polarized proton(polarized e,e prime p)pi0 was studied in the first and second nucleon resonance regions in the Q2 range from 0.187 to 0.770 GeV2 at Jefferson Lab using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). Longitudinal target and beam-target asymmetries were extracted over a large range of center-of-mass angles of the pi0 and compared to the unitary isobar model MAID, the dynamic model by Sato and Lee, and the dynamic model DMT. A strong sensitivity to individual models was observed, in particular for the target asymmetry and in the higher invariant mass region. This data set, once included in the global fits of the above models, is expected to place strong constraints on the electrocoupling amplitudes A_{1/2} and S_{1/2} for the Roper resonance N(1400)P11, and the N(1535)S11 and N(1520)D13 states.

  8. Women of Niger Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion Dept

    The Indispensability of Women in Conflict Resolution in the Niger Delta ... The situation leads to a shift in gender roles with a dramatic increase in the number of women .... organization is to work in partnership with the Nigerian Government and the .... that “women are the impartial arbitrators in family or clan disputes or.

  9. Conservative Delta Hedging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    an exact method for converting such intervals into arbitrage based prices of financial derivatives or industrial or contractual options. We call this...procedure conservative delta hedging . As existing procedures are of an ad hoc nature, the proposed approach will permit an institution’s man agement a greater oversight of its exposure to risk.

  10. Mystery of the delta(980)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahn, R.N.; Landshoff, P.V.

    1986-01-01

    The apparent conflict between the dominance of the decay delta->etaπ in D->deltaπ and its absence in iota->deltaπ is analyzed. Explicit models are presented in which the nearby Kanti K threshold plays an important role in resolving the conflict. (orig.)

  11. Using portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and GIS to assess environmental risk and identify sources of trace metals in soils of peri-urban areas in the Yangtze Delta region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Jing; Wang, Dejian; Wang, Can; Zhang, Gang; Yao, Lipeng

    2014-08-01

    Portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometry may be very suitable for a fast and effective environmental assessment and source identification of trace metals in soils. In this study, topsoils (0-10 cm) at 139 sites were in situ scanned for total trace metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) and arsenic concentrations by PXRF in a typical town in Yangtze Delta region of Jiangsu province, China. To validate the utility of PXRF, 53 samples were collected from the scanning sites for the determination of selected trace metals using conventional methods. Based on trace metal concentrations detected by in situ PXRF, the contamination extent and sources of trace metals were studied via geo-accumulation index, multivariate analysis and geostatistics. The trace metal concentrations determined by PXRF were similar to those obtained via conventional chemical analysis. The median concentration of As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in soils were 10.8, 56.4, 41.5, 43.5, 33.5, and 77.7 mg kg(-1), respectively. The distribution patterns of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were mostly affected by anthropogenic sources, while As was mainly derived from lithogenic sources. Overall, PXRF has been successfully applied to contamination assessment and source identification of trace metals in soils.

  12. The efficacy of disinfectants on abattoirs’ Candida albicans isolates in Niger Delta region [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/R96jeA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwayemisi A Olorode

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of common disinfectants- these are (parachlorometaxylenol dettol, savlon purit and jik (sodium hypochlorite on Candida albicans isolated from displaying and cutting tables in five different abattoirs in Port Harcourt (Niger Delta region; the abattoirs include Trans Amadi, Agip, Woji, Rumuokoro, and Rumuodara. This research was carried out between January 2005 and June 2006. Swab samples were collected from abattoirs cutting tables with sterile swab sticks and immediately transferred and cultured in the laboratory on a selective medium Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA. The disinfectants’ concentrations were prepared at 10%, 20%, 40%, and 70%, in triplicates and the mean values calculated. 0.5 Mc Farland turbidity method of standardization and Agar diffusion method were used for disinfectants testing of the isolates. Statistical analysis of the data showed no significant difference in the effectiveness of these disinfectants at (p<0.05. In conclusion, this study has shown that savlon and dettol were the most potent antimicrobial agents at 10% concentration on Candida albicans isolates when compared with purit and jik in this study, hence they are good sanitizing agents to be applied on the abattoirs cutting tables, before meat products can be displayed for sale.

  13. Multi-criteria ranking and receptor modelling of airborne fine particles at three sites in the Pearl River Delta region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Adrian J; Ayoko, Godwin A; Guo, Hai

    2011-01-15

    The multi-criteria decision making methods, Preference Ranking Organization METHods for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE) and Graphical Analysis for Interactive Assistance (GAIA), and the two-way Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor model were applied to airborne fine particle compositional data collected at three sites in Hong Kong during two monitoring campaigns held from November 2000 to October 2001 and November 2004 to October 2005. PROMETHEE/GAIA indicated that the three sites were worse during the later monitoring campaign, and that the order of the air quality at the sites during each campaign was: rural site>urban site>roadside site. The PMF analysis on the other hand, identified 6 common sources at all of the sites (diesel vehicle, fresh sea salt, secondary sulphate, soil, aged sea salt and oil combustion) which accounted for approximately 68.8±8.7% of the fine particle mass at the sites. In addition, road dust, gasoline vehicle, biomass burning, secondary nitrate, and metal processing were identified at some of the sites. Secondary sulphate was found to be the highest contributor to the fine particle mass at the rural and urban sites with vehicle emission as a high contributor to the roadside site. The PMF results are broadly similar to those obtained in a previous analysis by PCA/APCS. However, the PMF analysis resolved more factors at each site than the PCA/APCS. In addition, the study demonstrated that combined results from multi-criteria decision making analysis and receptor modelling can provide more detailed information that can be used to formulate the scientific basis for mitigating air pollution in the region. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Reducing mother-to-child transmission of HIV: findings from an early infant diagnosis program in south-south region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoje Chukwuemeka

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early diagnosis of HIV in infants provides a critical opportunity to strengthen follow-up of HIV-exposed children and assure early access to antiretroviral (ARV treatment for infected children. This study describes findings from an Early Infant Diagnosis (EID program and the effectiveness of a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT intervention in six health facilities in Cross-River and Akwa-Ibom states, south-south Nigeria. Methods This was a retrospective study. Records of 702 perinatally exposed babies aged six weeks to 18 months who had a DNA PCR test between November 2007 and July 2009 were reviewed. Details of the ARV regimen received to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT, breastfeeding choices, HIV test results, turn around time (TAT for results and post test ART enrolment status of the babies were analysed. Results Two-thirds of mother-baby pairs received ARVs and 560 (80% babies had ever been breastfed. Transmission rates for mother-baby pairs who received ARVs for PMTCT was 4.8% (CI 1.3, 8.3 at zero to six weeks of age compared to 19.5% (CI 3.0, 35.5 when neither baby nor mother received an intervention. Regardless of intervention, the transmission rates for babies aged six weeks to six months who had mixed feeding was 25.6% (CI 29.5, 47.1 whereas the transmission rates for those who were exclusively breastfed was 11.8% (CI 5.4, 18.1. Vertical transmission of HIV was eight times (AOR 7.8, CI: 4.52-13.19 more likely in the sub-group of mother-baby pairs who did not receive ARVS compared with mother-baby pairs that did receive ARVs. The median TAT for test results was 47 days (IQR: 35-58. A follow-up of 125 HIV positive babies found that 31 (25% were enrolled into a paediatric ART program, nine (7% were known to have died before the return of their DNA PCR results, and 85 (67% could not be traced and were presumed to be lost-to-follow-up. Conclusion Reduction of MTCT of HIV is possible with

  15. Uranium development in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karniliyus, J.; Egieya, J.

    2014-01-01

    Nigeria uranium exploration started in 1973. Uranium was found in seven states of the country; Cross River, Adamawa, Taraba, Plateau, Bauchi, Kogi and Kano. Three government agencies were involved. At the end of the various exploration campaigns in 2001, the uranium reserve was estimated at about 200 t U. The Grade ranges from 0.63% - 0-9% at a vertical depth between 130 – 200 m. Currently, the Nigeria Atomic Energy Commission activated in 2006 is charged with the responsibility among others to prospect for and mine radioactive minerals. The main aim of this poster presentation is to review the development of uranium in Nigeria with a view to encourage local and international investors to develop and exploit these deposits. Nigeria is located on latitude 100 N and longitude 80 E surrounded in the north by Niger and Chad, in the east by Cameroun and in the west by the Benin Republic. Available data indicated the viability of mineral investment in the Nigerian uranium resources. With the current economic reforms and investment incentives in Nigeria, interested investors are highly welcome to take advantage of developing these mineral resources. (author)

  16. Petroleum Business in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dublin-Green, W. F.

    1997-01-01

    The petroleum industry is vital to the health of the Nigerian economy as it accounts for over 80% of Nigeria's total export earnings and about 70% of total government revenue. Nigeria has an oil reserve base of 21 billion barrels and gas reserve of 120 trillion cubic feet. With natural gas becoming the worlds fastest growing energy resource, the Nigerian Government has put in place a program to grow her oil reserve base to over 25 billion barrels and significantly increase her gas reserves. An earlier commitment made in 1990 to increase Nigeria's oil reserve base from a level of 16 to 20 billion barrels by 1995 was achieved well ahead of time. This success was largely due to financial incentives offered investors. This healthy business climate still prevails. This paper presents the investment opportunities that Nigeria offers genuine investors in both the upstream and downstream sectors of the industry and defines the legal/regulatory requirements for doing business in Nigeria. We try to give an insight into specific government policies that help to create an enabling environment for investors in the upstream and downstream sectors of the petroleum industry. We showcase the 5 (five) major sedimentary basins with enormous oil and gas potential where exploration/exploitation risks are rated medium to low. We focus on the environment and government's efforts to enforce the rules and guidelines that govern the policy termed the Environment, Safety and Standards. We recognize that the business challenges of the third millennium will dictate new alliances and partnerships that will survive and thrive only in a climate that is safe for the investor. This is the business climate we throw open in Nigeria for investors to come in and do business with us

  17. An exploratory qualitative study on perceptions about mosquito bed nets in the Niger Delta: what are the barriers to sustained use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvin KT

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Kathleen T Galvin1, Nick Petford2, Frances Ajose3, Dai Davies41Bournemouth University, Talbot Campus, Fern Barrow, Poole, Dorset, UK; 2University of Northampton, Northampton, UK; 3Department of Medicine, Lagos State University and The Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria; 4Niger Delta Development Initiative, Poole, Dorset, UKBackground: The effectiveness of malaria control programs is determined by an array of complex factors, including the acceptability and sustained use of preventative measures such as the bed net. A small-scale exploratory study was conducted in several locations in the Niger Delta region, Nigeria, to discover barriers against the use of bed nets, in the context of a current drive to scale up net use in Nigeria.Methods: A qualitative approach with a convenience sample was used. One to one interviews with mostly male adult volunteers were undertaken which explored typical living and sleeping arrangements, and perceptions about and barriers against the use of the mosquito prevention bed net.Results: Several key issues emerged from the qualitative data. Bed nets were not reported as widely used in this small sample. The reasons reported for lack of use included issues of convenience, especially net set up and dismantling; potential hazard and safety concerns; issues related to typical family composition and nature of accommodation; humid weather conditions; and perceptions of cost and effectiveness. Most barriers to net use concerned issues about everyday practical living and sleeping arrangements and perceptions about comfort. Interviewees identified were aware of malaria infection risks, but several also indicated certain beliefs that were barriers to net use.Conclusions: Successful control of malaria and scale up of insecticide-treated net coverage relies on community perceptions and practice. This small study has illuminated a number of important everyday life issues, which remain barriers to

  18. Losing ground in mega-deltas: basin-scale response to existential threats to the Mekong Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, M. E.; Kondolf, G. M.; Schmitt, R. J. P.; Carling, P. A.; Darby, S. E.; Bizzi, S.; Castelletti, A.; Cochrane, T. A.; Gibson, S.; Kummu, M.; Oeurng, C.; Rubin, Z.; Wild, T. B.

    2017-12-01

    The Mekong Delta is, in terms of the number of livelihoods it supports, its economic importance, and in its vulnerability to climate change and sinking lands, one of the world's critically threatened mega-deltas. Livelihoods depend on the mere existence of the delta, but also on ecosystem services provided by the delta's drainage basin spanning 795,000 km2 in six abutting countries. These ecosystem services include delivery of sand required to build delta land in the face of rising sea-levels and sediment bound nutrients, provision of spawning habitat for fish that are ultimately harvested in the delta, and hydrologic regulation driving the delta's unique flood-pulse regime. However, while the delta is mainly located in Vietnam, the basin of the Mekong River is shared among China, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam. In the context of the region's dynamic growth, individual countries are pushing their own development agendas, which include extensive dam building, in-channel sand mining, construction of dykes and canals, and groundwater pumping, all of which contribute to subsidence and erosion of the Delta. Our synthesis of recent research indicates that most of the Mekong's delta land will likely fall below sea-level by 2100 as result of these drivers, exacerbating the impacts of global climatic changes. In this context, local infrastructural projects and changes in land- and water-management may temporarily mitigate some negative effects, but do not address the existential threat to the delta as a whole. To prevent, or at least substantially postpone, the drowning of the Mekong Delta requires identification of the key drivers and immediate concerted management actions on the basin-scale to change the trajectory of subsidence and sediment deficit. A specific challenge is to find the institutional arrangements in this transnational context that could support the needed management changes and equitably distribute costs and impacts. The Mekong Delta is

  19. LIVER TRANSPLANTATION IN HEPATITIS DELTA: SOUTH AMERICA EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Souza LIMA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The Amazon region is one of the main endemic areas of hepatitis delta in the world and the only one related to the presence of genotype 3 of the delta virus. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the profile, mortality and survival of cirrhotic patients submitted to liver transplantation for chronic hepatitis delta virus and compare with those transplanted by hepatitis B virus monoinfection. METHODS: Retrospective, observational and descriptive study. From May 2002 to December 2011, 629 liver transplants were performed at the Walter Cantídio University Hospital, of which 29 patients were transplanted due to cirrhosis caused by chronic delta virus infection and 40 by hepatitis B chronic monoinfection. The variables analyzed were: age, sex, MELD score, Child-Pugh score, upper gastrointestinal bleeding and hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence before the transplantation, perioperative platelet count, mortality and survival. RESULTS: The Delta Group was younger and all came from the Brazilian Amazon Region. Group B presented a higher proportion of male patients (92.5% compared to Group D (58.6%. The occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding before transplantation, MELD score, and Child-Pugh score did not show statistical differences between groups. The occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality were higher in the hepatitis B Group. The survival in 4 years was 95% in the Delta Group and 75% in the B Group, with a statistically significant difference (P=0.034. Patients with hepatitis delta presented more evident thrombocytopenia in the pre-transplantation and in the immediate postoperative period. CONCLUSION: The hepatitis by delta virus patients who underwent liver transplantation were predominantly male, coming from the Brazilian Amazon region and with similar liver function to the hepatitis B virus patients. They had a lower incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma, more marked perioperative thrombocytopenia levels and frequent

  20. Incidence of Herdsmen Militancy in Southern Nigeria: A Threat-Import Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchenna Simeon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the threat implication of the incidence of Fulani herdsmen militancy in Southern Nigeria. Though engaged in nomadic cattle grazing, the militant group in Nigeria otherwise referred to as Fulani Herdsmen were known to be operating predominantly within the Middle Belt region of Northern Nigeria where they have been at daggers drawn with the native settled farmers. In recent times however, these nomadic pastoralists have aggressively expanded the frontiers of their operation to Southern Nigeria, unleashing mayhem against the host communities. Drawing from qualitative analysis of data collected through primary and secondary sources, this paper argues that the unbridled escalation of herders’ belligerence against the communities of Southern Nigeria would not only endanger state security but threaten the corporate existence of Nigeria. It therefore recommends that government at all levels should promulgate legislations outlawing open grazing of cattle while urging herders to establish ranches for their cattle.

  1. Civic Education as a Collaborative Dimension of Social Studies Education in Attainment of Political Ethics in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dania, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigated Civic Education as a collaborative dimension of Social Studies Education in attainment of political ethics in Nigeria. The study adopted the survey research design. The sample for the study consisted of 580 Social Studies teachers selected from thirty secondary schools in the three senatorial districts of Delta State. The…

  2. canned beverages in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    5.0 mg/l set by United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The selenium levels ... eyes, and bones (ATSDR, 1990). Selenium is a metal ... 3.30. Seoul, South Korea. Three Crown Milk. 3.21. Lagos, Nigeria. Luna Milk. 2.95. Jedda ..... and acute effects of copper in drinking water and beverages.Rev. Environ ...

  3. (UBE) in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    the effective management of Universal Basic Education in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. The hypotheses formulated ... administrators' literacy in financial management has no effect on the effective management of UBE. ... through free basic education schemes was held in Paris (Obanya, 2001,. 2002). Also, in April, 2002 in ...

  4. estimation of precipitable water vapour in nigeria using surface

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    For the purpose of this work, Nigeria was divided into four climatic regions and for each region empirical models of the form PWV (T ) and PWV (RH) were found; where T was the surface dew- d d point temperature ... its effect on the atmospheric temperature and .... making contact with the coastal land, the clouds will then ...

  5. Thermostatted delta f

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The delta f simulation method is revisited. Statistical coarse-graining is used to rigorously derive the equation for the fluctuation delta f in the particle distribution. It is argued that completely collisionless simulation is incompatible with the achievement of true statistically steady states with nonzero turbulent fluxes because the variance of the particle weights w grows with time. To ensure such steady states, it is shown that for dynamically collisionless situations a generalized thermostat or W-stat may be used in lieu of a full collision operator to absorb the flow of entropy to unresolved fine scales in velocity space. The simplest W-stat can be implemented as a self-consistently determined, time-dependent damping applied to w. A precise kinematic analogy to thermostatted nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) is pointed out, and the justification of W-stats for simulations of turbulence is discussed. An extrapolation procedure is proposed such that the long-time, steady-state, collisionless flux can be deduced from several short W-statted runs with large effective collisionality, and a numerical demonstration is given

  6. People of the Delta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregoire, L.

    2007-09-15

    The potential impacts of both global warming and the $16 billion Mackenzie pipeline project on communities in the Mackenzie Delta were discussed. A consortium of oil and gas developers is now planning to exploit the natural gas reserves located near the mouth of the Delta, whose largest town is Inuvik. The project is expected to place a significant burden on the resources and infrastructure of the town, which currently has a population of 6000. The community, comprised of a diverse international population and an Inuit majority, is largely in favour of the pipeline project. The Inuvialuit people have invested a significant amount of time to ensure that the project, which was stalled due to land claims in 1977, benefits their communities. Public hearings are now being held to consider the potential environmental and socio-economic impacts of the project. Separate hearings are also being held to consider the project's design. The pipeline project includes 3 natural gas production facilities, a gas-processing facility, a pipeline gathering system, a 480 km natural gas liquids pipeline to the Northwest Territories, and a 1220 km natural gas pipeline to northern Alberta. The pipeline will be buried to minimize environmental impacts. The project is expected to create 8200 jobs at the height of its construction. However, communities located near the site of the natural gas reserves, such as the town of Tuktoyaktuk are now threatened by soil erosion that has been attributed to global warming. 21 figs.

  7. Phenotypic expressions of CCR5-Delta 32/Delta 32 homozygosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, GT; Carrington, M; Beeler, JA; Dean, M; Aledort, LM; Blatt, PM; Cohen, AR; DiMichele, D; Eyster, ME; Kessler, CM; Konkle, B; Leissinger, C; Luban, N; O'Brien, SJ; Goedert, JJ; O'Brien, TR

    1999-01-01

    Objective: As blockade of CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) has been proposed as therapy for HIV-1, we examined whether the CCR5-Delta 32/Delta 32 homozygous genotype has phenotypic expressions other than those related to HIV-1. Design: Study subjects were white homosexual men or men with hemophilia

  8. Peat compaction in deltas : implications for Holocene delta evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselen, S.

    2010-01-01

    Many deltas contain substantial amounts of peat, which is the most compressible soil type. Therefore, peat compaction potentially leads to high amounts of subsidence in deltas. The main objective of this research was to quantify subsidence due to peat compaction in Holocene fluvial-deltaic settings

  9. Mida pakub Delta? / Teele Kurm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurm, Teele

    2011-01-01

    Politsei- ja Piirivalveamet võtab kasutusele ühise Siseministeeriumi infotehnoloogia- ja arenduskeskuse ning Webmedia AS koostööna loodud dokumendihaldussüsteemi Delta. Kust sai Delta oma nime? Projekti "Dokumendihaldussüsteemi juurutamine Siseministeeriumi haldusalas" eesmärgid

  10. Recent scientific advances and their implications for sand management near San Francisco, California: the influences of the ebb tidal delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, Daniel M.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Dallas, Kate; Elias, Edwin; Erikson, Li H.; Eshleman, Jodi; Hansen, Jeff; Hsu, Tian Jian; Shi, Fengyan

    2011-01-01

    Recent research in the San Francisco, California, U.S.A., coastal region has identified the importance of the ebb tidal delta to coastal processes. A process-based numerical model is found to qualitatively reproduce the equilibrium size and shape of the delta. The ebb tidal delta itself has been contracting over the past century, and the numerical model is applied to investigate the sensitivity of the delta to changes in forcing conditions. The large ebb tidal delta has a strong influence upon regional coastal processes. The prominent bathymetry of the ebb tidal delta protects some of the coast from extreme storm waves, but the delta also focuses wave energy toward the central and southern portions of Ocean Beach. Wave focusing likely contributes to a chronic erosion problem at the southern end of Ocean Beach. The ebb tidal delta in combination with non-linear waves provides a potential cross-shore sediment transport pathway that probably supplies sediment to Ocean Beach.

  11. Delta isobars in neutron stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagliara Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of delta isobars in beta-stable matter is regulated by the behavior of the symmetry energy at densities larger than saturation density. We show that by taking into account recent constraints on the density derivative of the symmetry energy and the theoretical and experimental results on the excitations of delta isobars in nuclei, delta isobars are necessary ingredients for the equations of state used for studying neutron stars. We analyze the effect of the appearance of deltas on the structure of neutron stars: as in the case of hyperons, matter containing delta is too soft for allowing the existence of 2M⊙ neutron stars. Quark stars on the other hand, could reach very massive configurations and they could form from a process of conversion of hadronic stars in which an initial seed of strangeness appears through hyperons.

  12. DELTA 3D PRINTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘOVĂILĂ Florin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing is a very used process in industry, the generic name being “rapid prototyping”. The essential advantage of a 3D printer is that it allows the designers to produce a prototype in a very short time, which is tested and quickly remodeled, considerably reducing the required time to get from the prototype phase to the final product. At the same time, through this technique we can achieve components with very precise forms, complex pieces that, through classical methods, could have been accomplished only in a large amount of time. In this paper, there are presented the stages of a 3D model execution, also the physical achievement after of a Delta 3D printer after the model.

  13. Spatio-temporal monitoring of vegetation phenology in the dry sub-humid region of Nigeria using time series of AVHRR NDVI and TAMSAT datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osunmadewa Babatunde Adeniyi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Time series data are of great importance for monitoring vegetation phenology in the dry sub-humid regions where change in land cover has influence on biomass productivity. However few studies have inquired into examining the impact of rainfall and land cover change on vegetation phenology. This study explores Seasonal Trend Analysis (STA approach in order to investigate overall greenness, peak of annual greenness and timing of annual greenness in the seasonal NDVI cycle. Phenological pattern for the start of season (SOS and end of season (EOS was also examined across different land cover types in four selected locations. A significant increase in overall greenness (amplitude 0 and a significant decrease in other greenness trend maps (amplitude 1 and phase 1 was observed over the study period. Moreover significant positive trends in overall annual rainfall (amplitude 0 was found which follows similar pattern with vegetation trend. Variation in the timing of peak of greenness (phase 1 was seen in the four selected locations, this indicate a change in phenological trend. Additionally, strong relationship was revealed by the result of the pixel-wise regression between NDVI and rainfall. Change in vegetation phenology in the study area is attributed to climatic variability than anthropogenic activities.

  14. Spatio-temporal monitoring of vegetation phenology in the dry sub-humid region of Nigeria using time series of AVHRR NDVI and TAMSAT datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunmadewa, Babatunde Adeniyi; Gebrehiwot, Worku Zewdie; Csaplovics, Elmar; Adeofun, Olabinjo Clement

    2018-03-01

    Time series data are of great importance for monitoring vegetation phenology in the dry sub-humid regions where change in land cover has influence on biomass productivity. However few studies have inquired into examining the impact of rainfall and land cover change on vegetation phenology. This study explores Seasonal Trend Analysis (STA) approach in order to investigate overall greenness, peak of annual greenness and timing of annual greenness in the seasonal NDVI cycle. Phenological pattern for the start of season (SOS) and end of season (EOS) was also examined across different land cover types in four selected locations. A significant increase in overall greenness (amplitude 0) and a significant decrease in other greenness trend maps (amplitude 1 and phase 1) was observed over the study period. Moreover significant positive trends in overall annual rainfall (amplitude 0) was found which follows similar pattern with vegetation trend. Variation in the timing of peak of greenness (phase 1) was seen in the four selected locations, this indicate a change in phenological trend. Additionally, strong relationship was revealed by the result of the pixel-wise regression between NDVI and rainfall. Change in vegetation phenology in the study area is attributed to climatic variability than anthropogenic activities.

  15. Primary production in the Delta: Then and now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.; Robinson, April; Richey, Amy; Grenier, Letitia; Grossinger, Robin; Boyer, Katharyn E.; Burau, Jon; Canuel, Elizabeth A.; DeGeorge, John F.; Drexler, Judith Z.; Enright, Chris; Howe, Emily R.; Kneib, Ronald; Mueller-Solger, Anke; Naiman, Robert J.; Pinckney, James L.; Safran, Samuel M.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Simenstad, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the role of restoration in the recovery of the Delta ecosystem, we need to have clear targets and performance measures that directly assess ecosystem function. Primary production is a crucial ecosystem process, which directly limits the quality and quantity of food available for secondary consumers such as invertebrates and fish. The Delta has a low rate of primary production, but it is unclear whether this was always the case. Recent analyses from the Historical Ecology Team and Delta Landscapes Project provide quantitative comparisons of the areal extent of 14 habitat types in the modern Delta versus the historical Delta (pre-1850). Here we describe an approach for using these metrics of land use change to: (1) produce the first quantitative estimates of how Delta primary production and the relative contributions from five different producer groups have been altered by large-scale drainage and conversion to agriculture; (2) convert these production estimates into a common currency so the contributions of each producer group reflect their food quality and efficiency of transfer to consumers; and (3) use simple models to discover how tidal exchange between marshes and open water influences primary production and its consumption. Application of this approach could inform Delta management in two ways. First, it would provide a quantitative estimate of how large-scale conversion to agriculture has altered the Delta's capacity to produce food for native biota. Second, it would provide restoration practitioners with a new approach—based on ecosystem function—to evaluate the success of restoration projects and gauge the trajectory of ecological recovery in the Delta region.

  16. Primary Production in the Delta: Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Cloern

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss3art1To evaluate the role of restoration in the recovery of the Delta ecosystem, we need to have clear targets and performance measures that directly assess ecosystem function. Primary production is a crucial ecosystem process, which directly limits the quality and quantity of food available for secondary consumers such as invertebrates and fish. The Delta has a low rate of primary production, but it is unclear whether this was always the case. Recent analyses from the Historical Ecology Team and Delta Landscapes Project provide quantitative comparisons of the areal extent of 14 habitat types in the modern Delta versus the historical Delta (pre-1850. Here we describe an approach for using these metrics of land use change to: (1 produce the first quantitative estimates of how Delta primary production and the relative contributions from five different producer groups have been altered by large-scale drainage and conversion to agriculture; (2 convert these production estimates into a common currency so the contributions of each producer group reflect their food quality and efficiency of transfer to consumers; and (3 use simple models to discover how tidal exchange between marshes and open water influences primary production and its consumption. Application of this approach could inform Delta management in two ways. First, it would provide a quantitative estimate of how large-scale conversion to agriculture has altered the Delta's capacity to produce food for native biota. Second, it would provide restoration practitioners with a new approach—based on ecosystem function—to evaluate the success of restoration projects and gauge the trajectory of ecological recovery in the Delta region.

  17. Fat-Related Anthropometric Variables and Regional Patterns of Body Size and Adiposity of Adolescents in Aba South LGA, Abia State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eme, Paul Eze; Onuoha, Nnenna Ola; Mbah, Obioma B

    2016-05-04

    This study assessed fat-related anthropometric variables and regional patterns of body size and adiposity of adolescents in Aba South LGA. A total number of 600 adolescents who were secondary school students aged 10 to 19 years wereselected from 61 registered secondary schools. A multi-random sampling technique was used to select the patients. Ethical approval and informed consent were obtained from the patients who participated in the study. Each patient was subjected to weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), and skinfolds measurements using standard methods. Body fat percentage was calculated by the formulas described by Slaughter, Siris, and Shailk equations. Descriptive statistics of frequencies, percentages, mean, and standard deviation were used to examine the gender-specific anthropometric indices. Chi-square and independent t test were also applied to determine the differences between the parameters or variables of the genders at P< .05. The respondents aged 19 years had the highest measurement for triceps (14.60 mm), thigh (35.05 mm), and MUAC (25.95 mm), while those aged 18 years had the highest measurement for suprailiac (15.00 mm) and subscapular (16.94 mm). Females had more fat deposits than males in all the skinfold sites. They also had a significantly (P = .05) higher body fat percentage than males. A multiple regression analysis revealed that maximum calf fat was a strong predictor of body fat percentage of the patients. High prevalence of obesity was found in this study, and the 3 equations of body fat percentage showed similar findings that more females than males had higher body fat percentage. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Bioluminescent hydrocarbonclastic bacteria of the Niger Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-02-19

    Feb 19, 2007 ... 1Health Safety and Environment Shell Petroleum Company of Nigeria, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. 2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, ..... Bergey's The shorter Manual of Determinative.

  19. Auditors’ Usage of Computer Assisted Audit Tools and Techniques: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Appah Ebimobowei; G.N. Ogbonna; Zuokemefa P. Enebraye

    2013-01-01

    This study examines use of computer assisted audit tool and techniques in audit practice in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. To achieve this objective, data was collected from primary and secondary sources. The secondary sources were from scholarly books and journals while the primary source involved a well structured questionnaire of three sections of thirty seven items with an average reliability of 0.838. The data collected from the questionnaire were analyzed using relevant descriptive statist...

  20. Sedimentation patterns in floodplains of the Mekong Delta - Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Manh, Nguyen; Merz, Bruno; Viet Dung, Nguyen; Apel, Heiko

    2013-04-01

    Quantification of floodplain sedimentation during the flood season in the Mekong Delta (MD) plays a very important role in the assessment of flood deposits for a sustainable agro-economic development. Recent studies on floodplain sedimentation in the region are restricted to small pilot sites because of the large extend of the Delta, and the complex channel. This research aims at a quantification of the sediment deposition in floodplains of the whole Mekong Delta, and to access the impacts of the upstream basin development on the sedimentation in the Delta quantitatively. To achieve this, a suspended sediment transport model is developed based on the quasi-2D hydrodynamic model of the whole Mekong Delta developed by Dung et al. (2011). The model is calibrated and validated using observed data derived from several sediment measurement campaigns in channel networks and floodplains. Measured sediment data and hydrodynamic model quantify the spatio-temporal variability of sediment depositions in different spatial units: individual dyke compartments, and the sub-regions Plain of Reeds, Long Xuyen Quadrangle and the area between Tien River and Hau River. It is shown that the distribution of sediment deposition over the delta is highly depended on the flood magnitude, that in turn drives the operation policy of flood control systems in floodplains of the Mekong Delta. Thus, the sedimentation distribution is influenced by the protection level of the dyke systems in place and the distance to the Tien River and Hau River, the main branches of the Mekong in the Delta. This corroborates the main findings derived from data analysis obtained from a small scale test site by Hung et al, (2011, 2012a). Moreover, the results obtained here underlines the importance of the main channels for the sediment transport into the floodplains, and the deposition rate in floodplains is strongly driven by the intake locations and the distance from these to the main channels as well.

  1. Changes in the areal extents of the Athabasca River, Birch River, and Cree Creek Deltas, 1950-2014, Peace-Athabasca Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoney, Kevin; Lee, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Deltas form where riverborne sediment accumulates at the interface of river mouths and their receiving water bodies. Their areal extent is determined by the net effect of processes that increase their extent, such as sediment accumulation, and processes that decrease their extent, such as erosion and subsidence. Through sequential mapping and construction of river discharge and sediment histories, this study examined changes in the subaerial extents of the Cree Creek and Athabasca River Deltas (both on the Athabasca River system) and the Birch River Delta in northern Canada over the period 1950-2014. The purpose of the study was to determine how, when, and why the deltas changed in areal extent. Temporal growth patterns were similar across the Athabasca and Birch River systems indicative of a climatic signal. Little or no areal growth occurred from 1950 to 1968; moderate growth occurred between 1968 and the early to mid-1980s; and rapid growth occurred between 1992 and 2012. Factors that affected delta progradation included dredging, sediment supply, isostatic drowning, delta front bathymetry, sediment capture efficiency, and storms. In relation to sediment delivered, areal growth rates were lowest in the Athabasca Delta, intermediate in the Birch Delta, and highest in the Cree Creek Delta. Annual sediment delivery is increasing in the Cree Creek Delta; there were no significant trends in annual sediment delivery in the Birch and Athabasca Deltas. There was a lag of up to several years between sediment delivery events and progradation. Periods of delta progradation were associated with low water levels of the receiving basins. Predicted climate-change driven declines in river discharge and lake levels may accelerate delta progradation in the region. In the changing ecosystems of northeastern Alberta, inadequate monitoring of vegetation, landforms, and sediment regimes hampers the elucidation of the nature, rate, and causality of ecosystem changes.

  2. Delta Electroproduction in 12-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLauchlan, Steven [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2003-01-01

    The Δ-nucleus potential is a crucial element in the understanding of the nuclear system. Previous electroexcitation measurements in the delta region reported a Q2 dependence of the Δ mass indicating that this potential is dependent on the momentum of the Δ. Such a dependence is not observed for protons and neutrons in the nuclear medium. This thesis presents the experimental study of the electroexcitation of the Δ resonance in 12C, performed using the high energy electron beam at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, and the near 4π acceptance detector CLAS that enables the detection of the full reaction final state. Inclusive, semi inclusive, and exclusive cross sections were measured with an incident electron beam energy of 1.162GeV over the Q2 range 0.175-0.475 (GeV/c)2. A Q2 dependence of the Δ mass was only observed in the exclusive measurements indicating that the Δ-nucleus potential is affected by the momentum of the Δ.

  3. Parametrization of the. delta. residue function. [Complex functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasan, S S [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1976-04-19

    The complex residues at the ..delta..(1236) and ..delta..(1950) poles in the relevant partial-wave amplitudes provide information on the behaviour of the ..delta.. Regge residue function in the resonance region u>0. Attempts to incorporate this information in parametrizations of the residue by functions that are real on the real u-axis result in residues which have unsatisfactory behaviour in the region u<1GeV/sup 2/. The choice of complex functions for the trajectory and residue removes this undesirable feature and provides a better representation of the residue in the resonance region, suggesting that complex parametrizations would be better suited to Regge analyses of near-backward scattering.

  4. in kano state, nigeria 41

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    3Department of Biological Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria ... Government Areas of Kano State, Nigeria, the highest prevalence rate of 64.0% was observed in ... A GIS is a combination of hardware (computers ..... clear vision of the area that requires active and rapid ... Principles of Medicine in Africa 3rd. edition.

  5. Day case surgery in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    practice in Nigeria and how it conforms to ideal practice elsewhere. ... has been an established practice of the pediatric surgery unit of a teaching hospital in South Western Nigeria, for at least two .... and safe anesthetic conditions for surgical procedures, with ..... compete for time and ward space with more major elective.

  6. The perception, beliefs and practices toward genitourinary schistosomiasis by inhabitants of selected endemic areas (Edo/Delta States in south-eastern Nigeria Percepção, crenças e práticas sobre a esquistossomose genito-urinária de habitantes de áreas endêmicas selecionadas (Edo/Estados Delta no sudeste da Nigéria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnamdi Callistus D. Ukwandu

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Well-structured questionnaire on the perception, impression and response to genitourinary bilharziasis (Genitourinary schistosomiasis was administered and explained in local languages: 'Igbo' 'Esan' 'Ezon' Itshekiri and Bini to 33815 inhabitants of selected endemic areas in south-eastern Nigeria from January, 1999 to December, 2001. Out of this number, 3815 (11.3% were properly filled and returned. About 42.0% of the inhabitants admitted knowledge of the disease, while 14 (0.4% knew about the aetiologic agent. About 181 (5.0% who responded, admitted procuring treatment, while 100 (5.0% declined to seek treatment of any sort. The relationships between water-bodies and human activities, and infection were well discussed. Amongst those who admitted knowledge of the disease but no knowledge of its etiologic agent, declined seeking treatment of any kind, but believe the disease is a natural phenomenon in ones developmental stage and therefore of no morbidity and mortality. Laboratory analysis of urine, faeces, semen and HVS was employed to assess questionnaire responses, and in some cases, physical examination was utilized to augment laboratory analysis in confirming urinal diagnosis. Haematuria was only directly related to egg count in the early part of life. Females were significantly haematuric and excreted more ova than males (p Um questionário bem estruturado sobre a percepção e práticas e crenças sobre a esquistossomose genito-urinária foi administrado e explicado em dialetos locais: "Igbo" "Esan" "Ezon" Itshekiri e Bini a 33815 habitantes de áreas endêmicas selecionadas no sudeste da Nigéria, de janeiro de 1999 a dezembro de 2001. Deste total, 3815 (11,3% foram preenchidos adequadamente e devolvidos. Cerca de 42,0% dos habitantes admitiram conhecer a doença, enquanto 14 (0,4% conheciam o agente etiológico. Cerca de 181 (5,0% dos que responderam admitiram ter procurado tratamento, enquanto 100 (5,0% não procuraram tratamento de

  7. Benign breast lesions in Eastern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anyikam, A.; Nzegwn, Martin A.; Olusina, Daniel B.; Okoye, I.; Ozumba, Ben C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to characterize benign breast diseases in Eastern Nigeria and to highlight the age variations of these lesions as base line data. The Department of Morbid Anatomy, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu caters for over 30 million African blacks and receives 2000 surgical pathology specimens yearly. Seven hundred and twenty-two benign breast specimens were analyzed over 5 years from Ist January 2000 to 31 December 2004, out of 1050 breast samples received. Of 1050 breast specimens received, 722 (68.8%) were benign. Fibroadenoma was the most common lesion with 318 cases (44%), occurring at a mean age of 16-32 years. Next were fibrocystic changes with 165 cases (22.9%) at a mean age of 23-45 years. Normal breast in the axillary tail region was seen in 32 cases (4.4%), represented as no pathology, with a mean presentation age of 20-46 years. Low grade Phyllodes tumor had 28 cases (3.9%), presenting at an average mean age of 17-32 years. Lactating adenoma had 19 (2.6%) cases. Other lesions made up less than 3% each. Benign breast lesions peaked at the 20-24 age range and then declined. Most were females. Benign breast lesions occur more frequently than malignant breast lesions with a ratio of 2.3:1 and were presented 20 years earlier than their malignant counterparts. Fibroadenoma was the most common benign lesions followed by fibrocystic disease, similar to the findings in Western Nigeria. In Northern Nigeria, fibrocystic breast disease was more common. (author)

  8. Delta Morphodynamics Matters! Ecosystem Services, Poverty and Morphodynamic Change in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Mega-Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Adger, N.; Allan, A.; Darby, S. E.; Hutton, C.; Matthews, Z.; Rahman, M.; Whitehead, P. G.; Wolf, J.

    2013-12-01

    The world's deltas are probably the most vulnerable type of coastal environment, and they face multiple stresses in the coming decades. These stresses include, amongst others, local drivers due to land subsidence, population growth and urbanisation within the deltas, regional drivers due to changes in catchment management (e.g. upstream land use and dam construction), as well as global climate change impacts such as sea-level rise. At the same time, the ecosystem services of river deltas support high population densities, with around 14% of the global population inhabiting deltas. A large proportion of these people experience extremes of poverty and they are therefore severely exposed to vulnerability from environmental and ecological stress and degradation. In areas close to or below the poverty boundary, both subsistence and cash elements of the economy tend to rely disproportionately heavily on ecosystem services which underpin livelihoods. Therefore, to sustainably manage delta environments they must be viewed as complex social-environmental systems where change is only partially driven by physical drivers such as sea level rise and climate change, and human-induced development activities are also critical. Here we outline a new conceptual framework for the development of methods to understand and characterise the key drivers of change in ecosystem services that affect the environment and economic status of populous deltas, focusing specifically on the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) mega-delta. The GBM delta is characterised by densely populated coastal lowlands with significant poverty, with livelihoods supported to a large extent by natural ecosystems such as the Sunderbahns (the largest mangrove forest in the world). However, the GBM delta is under severe development pressure due to many growing cities. At present the importance of ecosystems services to poverty and livelihoods is poorly understood. This is due to due to the complexity of interactions

  9. Fast delta Hadamard transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.; Weston, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    In many fields (e.g., spectroscopy, imaging spectroscopy, photoacoustic imaging, coded aperture imaging) binary bit patterns known as m sequences are used to encode (by multiplexing) a series of measurements in order to obtain a larger throughput. The observed measurements must be decoded to obtain the desired spectrum (or image in the case of coded aperture imaging). Decoding in the past has used a technique called the fast Hadamard transform (FHT) whose chief advantage is that it can reduce the computational effort from N 2 multiplies of N log 2 N additions or subtractions. However, the FHT has the disadvantage that it does not readily allow one to sample more finely than the number of bits used in the m sequence. This can limit the obtainable resolution and cause confusion near the sample boundaries (phasing errors). Both 1-D and 2-D methods (called fast delta Hadamard transforms, FDHT) have been developed which overcome both of the above limitations. Applications of the FDHT are discussed in the context of Hadamard spectroscopy and coded aperture imaging with uniformly redundant arrays. Special emphasis has been placed on how the FDHT can unite techniques used by both of these fields into the same mathematical basis

  10. Flared gases and other pollutants associated with air quality in industrial areas of Nigeria: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Leo C; Avwiri, Greg O

    2005-10-01

    Nigeria, like any other developing nation, is faced with the twin problem of development without destruction. Industrialization, though an important component of development, has had a large share in the despoilation of air quality in the country by the release of high amounts of pollutants into the atmosphere. Petroleum hydrocarbons from refineries, flared gases, dusts, and fumes of metal-smelting and cement works, odorous gases of chemical and allied industries, carbon monoxide and oxides of sulfur and nitrogen of internal combustion engines, the charred particulates and sulfur dioxide emissions of the steel industries etc., all constitute pollutants or co-pollutants of the Nigerian atmosphere. This review article gives an insight into the phenomenal concentrations of some of these pollutants in the Nigerian atmosphere, which point to their unsafe levels and concomitant health risks. It is against this background that there should be continuous but sound monitoring exercise of the Nigerian environment, devoid of the peculiar mix of politics and science, in order to properly audit the quality of air, especially in areas of heavy industrial pollution. Such checks and balances would provide empirical data to assess the various trade-offs of atmospheric pollution in industrial areas of the country such as the Niger Delta region where oil and gas are produced. There should also be enforcement, thereof, of all existing and/or revised standards or regulations such as the compliance limits of the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) or the erstwhile Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA).

  11. Energy deposition by delta rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigand, F.C.; Braby, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations for proton tracks were extended to projectile with more complex electronic structures which add additional delta ray production processes. An experimental apparatus was used to detect gas gain and resolution for H 2+ and 3 He ++

  12. Nigeria using more condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Marie Stopes International says a project it supports in Nigeria is making good progress in its efforts to promote the use of condoms to protect against STDs and for contraception. The program, which uses social marketing methods, is headed by Stewart Parkinson from the UK. His previous experience has been in the private sector; he has worked in sales, marketing, and advertising for companies like Coca Cola, Budweiser, Securicor, and Mates. "Social marketing," he says, "is simply getting people to buy a product". He sees no clash with more conventional health education practitioners, believing that the two approaches can complement each other. "Much of the work simply involves pointing out the benefits of condoms," says Parkinson. "You can convert large numbers of people to the idea in a short space of time if you get the message right]" Nevertheless, as he points out, the conversion rate usually drops after that. "At first the take-up is from middle-income people, who already have a latent demand for condoms. The poor are harder to reach." He says Nigeria is a very suitable country for a private sector approach to condom promotion, as there is no functioning public sector. He recently paid a visit to Zimbabwe, where the public sector is strong, and agrees that different approaches may be suitable there. The scheme provided 85% of the 65 million condoms used in Nigeria last year. Stewart Parkinson says, "It's working out at only US$5 to provide protection for one couple per year--a very cheap intervention]" full text

  13. Measuring Geographic Distribution of Economic Activity in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measuring Geographic Distribution of Economic Activity in Nigeria Using Gross Domestic Product. ... and environmental factors in planning. There is need for adequate understanding of spatial pattern and centrographic analysis of economic activity to support evidence based economic and regional development policies.

  14. Antimicrobial nature and use of some medicinal plants in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... Forty eight medicinal plants in Nigeria were screened for their antimicrobial ... are capable of producing toxic materials, which may exert some ... is commonly used as a means of evaluating drugs or .... zones of growth inhibition and the diameter of these zones were ..... region of Eastern Ghat, S India. Sci.

  15. Epidemiology of childhood heart failure in Port Harcourt, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome that complicates a variety of childhood illnesses. Recent studies in various parts of Nigeria show a prevalence rate of 5.8-15.5%. There is relatively scant data on heart failure in children in the south-south geo-political region of the country, necessitating this study. Aim: To ...

  16. Pathogenic agents of chronic suppurative otitis media in Ilorin, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Chronic suppurative otitis media is still highly prevalent in our environment, affecting mainly children. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of pathogenic isolates is different from those of other regions of Nigeria with increasing resistance recorded for some organisms. Hence, where possible and available, ...

  17. An Impact Evaluation of Nomadic Education Programme in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assessed the extent of the realization of the objectives of nomadic education programme in the northeast sub-region of Nigeria. The study showed that the programme performed satisfactorily and the impact on the nomads is significant. There are however some major problems militating against effective ...

  18. Ethnic and religious crises in Nigeria: A specific analysis upon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hither and thither by recurrent crises of regional or state illegitimacy, often impairing efforts at ... at the notion of Identity and how it explains the crisis of development and ... network of politically silent identities, coupled with a history of protracted ...... Understanding the emerging trends of terrorism in Nigeria: A case study.

  19. Mali and Nigeria Should be Established as Key Regional Partners of the United States to Further Mutual Interests for Ensuring Long-Term Security and Stability in the Sahel Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    natural resources and markets through the IMF and World Bank’s Structural Adjustment Programs ( SAPs ) during the 1980s. As a result, the security...development- indicators&Type=TABLE&preview=on#. On the macroeconomics spectrum, an economic dependency, poor human resources , and lack of... resources became involved in the region but now find it necessary to protect their interests and homelands from a variety of hybrid threats

  20. Characterizing rainfall parameters which influence erosivity in southeastern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obi, M.E.; Salako, F.K.

    1993-12-01

    An investigation was carried out to characterize some selected parameters which influence rainfall erosivity in southeastern Nigeria. Rainfall amount, distribution, duration, intensity, storm types, energy loads and frequency of rain events in the region were studied using data from stations located in three major agroecological zones. Raindrop size and detaching capacity were evaluated in one of the stations for two months. The mean annual rainfall erosivity values for southeastern Nigeria point to the fact that rainfall tend to be highly erosive. 25 refs, 6 figs, 8 tabs