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Sample records for delta kappa international

  1. A Time for Change: The 42nd Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushaw, William J.; Lopez, Shane J.

    2010-01-01

    This is the latest in a series of polls sponsored by Phi Delta Kappa International with the Gallup Organization. The results of this year's poll are presented along with past results, when applicable, to give both a snapshot of Americans' opinions about their schools and an indication of how those opinions are changing over time. [Commentaries by…

  2. Betting on Teachers: The 43rd Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushaw, William J.; Lopez, Shane J.

    2011-01-01

    This is the latest in a series of polls sponsored by Phi Delta Kappa International with the Gallup organization. Some important findings of this year's poll include: About half of us believe teacher unions are hurting public education, but we're more likely to support teacher union leaders than governors in disputes over teacher collective…

  3. Differential regulation of. mu. , delta, kappa opioid receptors by Mn/sup + +/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szuecs, M.; Oetting, G.M.; Coscia, C.J.

    1986-03-05

    Differential effects of Mn/sup + +/ on three opioid receptor subtypes of rat brain membranes were evaluated. Concentration dependency studies performed with 0.05-20 mM Mn/sup + +/ revealed that only the delta receptors are stimulated at any concentration. The binding of 1 nM /sup 3/H-DAGO was not stimulated by low concentrations (< 1mM) of Mn/sup + +/, and was significantly inhibited at higher concentrations (40% at 20 mM). 1 nM /sup 3/H-EKC (+100nM DAGO and 100nM DADLE) binding was inhibited by Mn/sup + +/ in the entire concentration range. While regulation of ..mu.. receptor binding did not change during postnatal development, delta and kappa binding displayed a pronounced developmental time-dependency. Kappa sites were hardly affected by Mn/sup + +/ at day 5, and adult levels of inhibition were reached only after the third week postnatal. In contrast, 1 nM /sup 3/H-DADLE (+10nM DAGO) binding was most sensitive to Mn/sup + +/ on day 5 after birth (100% stimulation with 5-20 mM). The ED/sub 50/ of Mn/sup + +/ stimulation was unchanged during maturation. These immature delta sites displayed a similar extent of Mn/sup + +/ reversal of Gpp(NH)p inhibition as seen in microsomes, which represent a good model of N/sub i/-uncoupled receptors. These data suggest that ..mu.., delta and kappa receptors are differently coupled to N/sub i/. Moreover, a second divalent cation binding site, in addition to that on N/sub i/ might exist for delta receptors.

  4. Neuroanatomical patterns of the mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors of rat brain as determined by quantitative in vitro autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempel, A.; Zukin, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Highly specific radioligands and quantitative autoradiography reveal strikingly different neuroanatomical patterns for the mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors of rat brain. The mu receptors are most densely localized in patches in the striatum, layers I and III of the cortex, the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampal formation, specific nuclei of the thalamus, the pars reticulata of the substantia nigra, the interpeduncular nucleus, and the locus coeruleus. In contrast, delta receptors are highly confined, exhibiting selective localization in layers I, II, and VIa of the neocortex, a diffuse pattern in the striatum, and moderate concentration in the pars reticulata of the substantia nigra and in the interpeduncular nucleus. delta receptors are absent in most other brain structures. This distribution is unexpected in that the enkephalins, the putative endogenous ligands of the delta receptor, occur essentially throughout the brain. The kappa receptors of rat brain exhibit a third pattern distinct from that of the mu and delta receptors. kappa receptors occur at low density in patches in the striatum and at particularly high density in the nucleus accumbens, along the pyramidal and molecular layers of the hippocampus, in the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus, specific midline nuclei of the thalamus, and hindbrain regions. kappa receptors appear to be uniformly distributed across regions in the neocortex with the exception of layer III, which revealed only trace levels of binding. An important conclusion of the present study is that delta receptors occur at high density only in the forebrain and in two midbrain structures, whereas mu and kappa receptors exhibit discrete patterns in most major brain regions

  5. The 39th Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Lowell C.; Gallup, Alec M.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors report the results of the 39th Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the public's attitudes toward the public schools. This year's report examined the public's assessment of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and its principal strategy, standardized testing. The authors include a summary of key findings and tables showing…

  6. Discrete mapping of brain Mu and delta opioid receptors using selective peptides: Quantitative autoradiography, species differences and comparison with kappa receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, N.A.; Hughes, J. (Addenbrookes Hospital Site, Cambridge (England))

    1989-05-01

    The opioid peptides, (3H)DAGO and (3H)DPDPE, bound to rat and guinea pig brain homogenates with a high, nanomolar affinity and to a high density of mu and delta receptors, respectively. (3H)DAGO binding to mu receptors was competitively inhibited by unlabelled opioids with the following rank order of potency: DAGO greater than morphine greater than DADLE greater than naloxone greater than etorphine much greater than U50488 much greater than DPDPE. In contrast, (3H)DPDPE binding to delta receptors was inhibited by compounds with the following rank order of potency: DPDPE greater than DADLE greater than etorphine greater than dynorphin(1-8) greater than naloxone much greater than U50488 much greater than DAGO. These profiles were consistent with specific labelling of the mu and delta opioid receptors, respectively. In vitro autoradiographic techniques coupled with computer-assisted image analyses revealed a discrete but differential anatomical localization of mu and delta receptors in the rat and guinea pig brain. In general, mu and delta receptor density in the rat exceeded that in the guinea pig brain and differed markedly from that of kappa receptors in these species. However, while mu receptors were distributed throughout the brain with hotspots in the fore-, mid- and hindbrain of the two rodents, the delta sites were relatively diffusely distributed, and were mainly concentrated in the forebrain with particularly high levels within the olfactory bulb (OB), n. accumbens and striatum. Notable regions of high density of mu receptors in the rat and guinea pig brain were the accessory olfactory bulb, striatal patches and streaks, amygdaloid nuclei, ventral hippocampal subiculum and dentate gyrus, numerous thalamic nuclei, geniculate bodies, central grey, superior and inferior colliculi, solitary and pontine nuclei and s. nigra.

  7. Dependence of {delta}E effect on internal stresses in nickel: Experimental results by laser interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chicharro, J.M. [Dept. de Mecanica Aplicada e Ingenieria de Proyectos, E.T.S.I. Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Avd. Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)]. E-mail: josemanuel.chicharro@uclm.es; Bayon, A. [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada a los Recursos Naturales, E.T.S.I. Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c/Rios Rosas, 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Salazar, F. [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada a los Recursos Naturales, E.T.S.I. Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c/Rios Rosas, 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-02-15

    The speckle heterodyne interferometry is applied to the study of the dependence of Young's modulus on both the magnetic field and the internal stresses in a soft ferromagnetic material. Young's modulus is determined from the first natural longitudinal frequency of a slender magnetic rod positioned within a solenoid. Vibration of the sample is detected by an optical heterodyne system with a wide bandwidth. The samples are heated to above the Curie point and then cooled at several rates in order to induce different internal stresses. The study refers to nickel rods 10mm in diameter and 110mm in length. The grain sizes of the samples are also determined and related to changes in {delta}E.

  8. Distribution of mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptor binding sites in the brain of the one-day-old domestic chick (Gallus domesticus): An in vitro quantitative autoradiographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csillag, A.; Bourne, R.C.; Stewart, M.G. (Open Univ., Milton Keynes (England))

    1990-12-15

    Three highly specific opioid ligands--(D-Ala2,Gly-ol)-enkephalin (DAGO) for mu (mu) receptor sites, (D-Pen2,D-Pen5)-enkephalin (DPDPE) for delta (delta) sites, and U-69593 for kappa (kappa) sites--were used to determine the regional distribution of the three major subtypes of opioid receptor binding sites in the brains of 1-day-old domestic chicks by the technique of quantitative receptor autoradiography. While there was a degree of heterogeneity in the binding levels of each of the ligands, some notable similarities existed in the binding of the mu and kappa ligands in several forebrain regions, and in the optic tectum of the midbrain where mu and delta binding was very high. In the forebrain there was a high level of binding of mu and kappa ligands in the hyperstriatum, and for the mu ligand there was a very distinct lamination of binding sites in hyperstriatum accessorium, intercalatum supremum, dorsale and ventrale. Levels of binding of the mu and kappa ligands were also high in nucleus basalis, and (for mu only) in the neostriatum. The distribution of binding of the delta specific ligand in the forebrain showed marked differences to that of mu and kappa, being particularly low in the hyperstriatum and neostriatum. Very high levels of labelling of delta binding sites were, however, found in the nucleus rotundus. Binding of the three ligands was generally low or absent in the cerebellum and medulla, apart from a distinct labelling of the granule cell layer by the mu-ligand. A kinetic analysis was made of the binding of the three ligands to whole forebrain sections using scintillation counting methods.

  9. Chronic nicotine-induced changes in gene expression of delta and kappa-opioid receptors and their endogenous ligands in the mesocorticolimbic system of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugur, Muzeyyen; Kaya, Egemen; Gozen, Oguz; Koylu, Ersin O; Kanit, Lutfiye; Keser, Aysegul; Balkan, Burcu

    2017-09-01

    Delta and kappa opioid receptors (DOR and KOR, respectively) and their endogenous ligands, proenkephalin (PENK) and prodynorphin (PDYN)-derived opioid peptides are proposed as important mediators of nicotine reward. This study investigated the regulatory effect of chronic nicotine treatment on the gene expression of DOR, KOR, PENK and PDYN in the mesocorticolimbic system. Three groups of rats were injected subcutaneously with nicotine at doses of 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 mg/kg/day for 6 days. Rats were decapitated 1 hr after the last dose on day six, as this timing coincides with increased dopamine release in the mesocorticolimbic system. mRNA levels in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), amygdala (AMG), dorsal striatum (DST), nucleus accumbens, and medial prefrontal cortex were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Our results showed that nicotine upregulated DOR mRNA in the VTA at all of the doses employed, in the AMG at the 0.4 and 0.6 mg/kg doses, and in the DST at the 0.4 mg/kg dose. Conversely, PDYN mRNA was reduced in the LHA with 0.6 mg/kg nicotine and in the AMG with 0.4 mg/kg nicotine. KOR mRNA was also decreased in the DST with 0.6 mg/kg nicotine. Nicotine did not regulate PENK mRNA in any brain region studied. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Drones on the delta | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-11-25

    Nov 25, 2016 ... Ghana's Volta River delta is an area vulnerable to climate change, with rising seas and increasingly powerful storms driving flooding and erosion, leaving authorities there questioning whether the best response involves solutions such as sea walls or migration. A group of researchers is using drones to ...

  11. Des drones survolant le delta | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    25 nov. 2016 ... Photo prise par un drone survolant la ville de Fuvemeh. Appeaning-Addo et al. 2015. Les vagues balayant le rivage de Fuvemeh, une ville ghanéenne qui est située près du delta du fleuve Volta et que menacent les inondations et l'érosion des côtes. Par Brian Owens, Canadian Geographic. La région du ...

  12. General, kappa, delta and mu opioid receptor antagonists mediate feeding elicited by the GABA-B agonist baclofen in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens shell in rats: reciprocal and regional interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Patricia; Shimonova, Lyudmila; Khaimov, Arthur; Borukhova, Yaffa; Ilyayeva, Ester; Ranaldi, Robert; Bodnar, Richard J

    2012-03-14

    Food intake is significantly increased following administration of agonists of GABA and opioid receptors into the nucleus accumbens shell (NACs) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). GABA-A or GABA-B receptor antagonist pretreatment within the VTA or NACs differentially affects mu-opioid agonist-induced feeding elicited from the same site. Correspondingly, general or selective opioid receptor antagonist pretreatment within the VTA or NACs differentially affects GABA agonist-induced feeding elicited from the same site. Regional interactions have been evaluated in feeding studies by administering antagonists in one site prior to agonist administration in a second site. Thus, opioid antagonist-opioid agonist and GABA antagonist-GABA agonist feeding interactions have been identified between the VTA and NACs. However, pretreatment with GABA-A or GABA-B receptor antagonists in the VTA failed to affect mu opioid agonist-induced feeding elicited from the NACs, and correspondingly, these antagonists administered in the NACs failed to affect mu opioid-induced feeding elicited from the VTA. To evaluate whether regional and reciprocal VTA and NACs feeding interactions occur for opioid receptor modulation of GABA agonist-mediated feeding, the present study examined whether feeding elicited by the GABA-B agonist, baclofen microinjected into the NACs was dose-dependently blocked by pretreatment with general (naltrexone: NTX), mu (beta-funaltrexamine: BFNA), kappa (nor-binaltorphamine: NBNI) or delta (naltrindole: NTI) opioid antagonists in the VTA, and correspondingly, whether VTA baclofen-induced feeding was dose-dependently blocked by NACs pretreatment with NTX, BFNA, NBNI or NTI in rats. Bilateral pairs of cannulae aimed at the VTA and NACs were stereotaxically implanted in rats, and their food intakes were assessed following vehicle and baclofen (200 ng) in each site. Baclofen produced similar magnitudes of increased food intake following VTA and NACs treatment. Baclofen

  13. International Trade, Pollution Accumulation and Sustainable Growth: A VAR Estimation from the Pearl River Delta Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hui; Tian, Lu

    2018-03-01

    In order to investigate international trade influence in the regional environment. This paper constructs a vector auto-regression (VAR) model and estimates the equations with the environment and trade data of the Pearl River Delta Region. The major mechanisms to the lag are discussed and the fit simulation of the environmental change by the international impulse is given. The result shows that impulse of pollution-intensive export deteriorates the environment continuously and impulse of such import improves it. These effects on the environment are insignificantly correlated with contemporary regional income but significantly correlative to early-stage trade feature. To a typical trade-dependent economy, both export and import have hysteresis influence in the regional environment. The lagged impulse will change environmental development in the turning point, maximal pollution level and convergence.

  14. Uncertainty evaluation in normalization of isotope delta measurement results against international reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meija, Juris; Chartrand, Michelle M G

    2018-01-01

    Isotope delta measurements are normalized against international reference standards. Although multi-point normalization is becoming a standard practice, the existing uncertainty evaluation practices are either undocumented or are incomplete. For multi-point normalization, we present errors-in-variables regression models for explicit accounting of the measurement uncertainty of the international standards along with the uncertainty that is attributed to their assigned values. This manuscript presents framework to account for the uncertainty that arises due to a small number of replicate measurements and discusses multi-laboratory data reduction while accounting for inevitable correlations between the laboratories due to the use of identical reference materials for calibration. Both frequentist and Bayesian methods of uncertainty analysis are discussed.

  15. Exosat/Delta - Demonstrated short-term backup launcher capability through international cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganoung, J. K.; Altmann, G.; Eaton, P.; Kraft, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    The instrumentation, performance parameters, Delta launch implementation, and development program of the Exosat, launched in February 1983 are described. The X ray satellite was integrated into the Delta vehicle over a three month period, and will survey mainly previously observed X ray objects by directing its detectors at them just before they are occulted by the moon. The 120 kg science package, powered by 260 W of power from solar panels, include low- and medium-energy imaging devices. The spacecraft was originally intended for Ariane launch, but scheduling conflicts, plus the need for a polar-type orbit, dictated the use of the Western Space and Missile Center. Maintenance of Delta compatibility throughout the development of the Exosat facilitated the transfer of launch vehicles, as did full existing documentation of the spacecraft and familiarity between the ESA and NASA managers of the development and launch programs, respectively.

  16. 125I-DPDYN, monoiodo [D-Pro10]- dynorphin (1-11), is an effective and useful tool for the study of kappa opioid receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gairin, J.E.; Jomary, C.; Cros, J.; Meunier, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Iodination of the kappa-selective peptide DPDYN, [D-Pro10]-dynorphin (1-11), has been performed. The non radioactive monoiodo derivative of DPDYN retains kappa-selectivity (kappa/mu = 48 and kappa/delta = 140), despite a general but moderate decrease in affinity. Radioiodination of DPDYN leads to the monoiodinated peptide (S.A 700-800 Ci/mmol) which interacts specifically and reversibly with the kappa-sites in guinea-pig cerebellum membranes with high affinity (KD = 0.12-0.18 nM). In guinea-pig brain (mu-delta-kappa) and rabbit cerebellum (kappa much less than mu), 125 I-DPDYN discriminates between kappa- and other (mu, delta) binding sites. We have used this new labelled probe for the direct, precise and rapid (exposure time less than 100 hours) visualization of kappa-sites in guinea-pig and rabbit cerebellar slices using autoradiography

  17. Minimum deltaV Burn Planning for the International Space Station Using a Hybrid Optimization Technique, Level 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station's (ISS) trajectory is coordinated and executed by the Trajectory Operations and Planning (TOPO) group at NASA's Johnson Space Center. TOPO group personnel routinely generate look-ahead trajectories for the ISS that incorporate translation burns needed to maintain its orbit over the next three to twelve months. The burns are modeled as in-plane, horizontal burns, and must meet operational trajectory constraints imposed by both NASA and the Russian Space Agency. In generating these trajectories, TOPO personnel must determine the number of burns to model, each burn's Time of Ignition (TIG), and magnitude (i.e. deltaV) that meet these constraints. The current process for targeting these burns is manually intensive, and does not take advantage of more modern techniques that can reduce the workload needed to find feasible burn solutions, i.e. solutions that simply meet the constraints, or provide optimal burn solutions that minimize the total DeltaV while simultaneously meeting the constraints. A two-level, hybrid optimization technique is proposed to find both feasible and globally optimal burn solutions for ISS trajectory planning. For optimal solutions, the technique breaks the optimization problem into two distinct sub-problems, one for choosing the optimal number of burns and each burn's optimal TIG, and the other for computing the minimum total deltaV burn solution that satisfies the trajectory constraints. Each of the two aforementioned levels uses a different optimization algorithm to solve one of the sub-problems, giving rise to a hybrid technique. Level 2, or the outer level, uses a genetic algorithm to select the number of burns and each burn's TIG. Level 1, or the inner level, uses the burn TIGs from Level 2 in a sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm to compute a minimum total deltaV burn solution subject to the trajectory constraints. The total deltaV from Level 1 is then used as a fitness function by the genetic

  18. Characterization of kappa 1 and kappa 2 opioid binding sites in frog (Rana esculenta) brain membrane preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benyhe, S.; Varga, E.; Hepp, J.; Magyar, A.; Borsodi, A.; Wollemann, M.

    1990-09-01

    The distribution and properties of frog brain kappa-opioid receptor subtypes differ not only from those of the guinea pig brain, but also from that of the rat brain. In guinea pig cerebellum the kappa 1 is the dominant receptor subtype, frog brain contains mainly the kappa 2 subtype, and the distribution of the rat brain subtypes is intermediate between the two others. In competition experiments it has been established that ethylketocyclazocine and N-cyclopropylmethyl-norazidomorphine, which are nonselective kappa-ligands, have relatively high affinities to frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 ligands (Met5)enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 and etorphine also show high affinities to the frog brain. Kappa 1 binding sites measured in the presence of 5 microM/D-Ala2-Leu5/enkephalin represent 25-30% of (3H)ethylketocyclazocine binding in frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 subtype in frog brain resembles more to the mu subtype than the delta subtype of opioid receptors, but it differs from the mu subtype in displaying low affinity toward beta-endorphin and /D-Ala2-(Me)Phe4-Gly5-ol/enkephalin (DAGO). From our data it is evident that the opioid receptor subtypes are already present in the amphibian brain but the differences among them are less pronounced than in mammalian brain.

  19. Characterization of kappa 1 and kappa 2 opioid binding sites in frog (Rana esculenta) brain membrane preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benyhe, S.; Varga, E.; Hepp, J.; Magyar, A.; Borsodi, A.; Wollemann, M.

    1990-01-01

    The distribution and properties of frog brain kappa-opioid receptor subtypes differ not only from those of the guinea pig brain, but also from that of the rat brain. In guinea pig cerebellum the kappa 1 is the dominant receptor subtype, frog brain contains mainly the kappa 2 subtype, and the distribution of the rat brain subtypes is intermediate between the two others. In competition experiments it has been established that ethylketocyclazocine and N-cyclopropylmethyl-norazidomorphine, which are nonselective kappa-ligands, have relatively high affinities to frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 ligands (Met5)enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 and etorphine also show high affinities to the frog brain. Kappa 1 binding sites measured in the presence of 5 microM/D-Ala2-Leu5/enkephalin represent 25-30% of [3H]ethylketocyclazocine binding in frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 subtype in frog brain resembles more to the mu subtype than the delta subtype of opioid receptors, but it differs from the mu subtype in displaying low affinity toward beta-endorphin and /D-Ala2-(Me)Phe4-Gly5-ol/enkephalin (DAGO). From our data it is evident that the opioid receptor subtypes are already present in the amphibian brain but the differences among them are less pronounced than in mammalian brain

  20. Ligand- and cell-dependent determinants of internalization and cAMP modulation by delta opioid receptor (DOR) agonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charfi, Iness; Nagi, Karim; Mnie-Filali, Ouissame; Thibault, Dominic; Balboni, Gianfranco; Schiller, Peter W.; Trudeau, Louis-Eric

    2014-01-01

    Signaling bias refers to G protein-coupled receptor ligand ability to preferentially activate one type of signal over another. Bias to evoke signaling as opposed to sequestration has been proposed as a predictor of opioid ligand potential for generating tolerance. Here we measured whether delta opioid receptor agonists preferentially inhibited cyclase activity over internalization in HEK cells. Efficacy (τ) and affinity (KA) values were estimated from functional data and bias was calculated from efficiency coefficients (log τ/KA). This approach better represented the data as compared to alternative methods that estimate bias exclusively from τ values. Log (τ/KA) coefficients indicated that SNC-80 and UFP-512 promoted cyclase inhibition more efficiently than DOR internalization as compared to DPDPE (bias factor for SNC-80: 50 and for UFP-512: 132). Molecular determinants of internalization were different in HEK293 cells and neurons with βarrs contributing to internalization in both cell types, while PKC and GRK2 activities were only involved in neurons. Rank orders of ligand ability to engage different internalization mechanisms in neurons were compared to rank order of Emax values for cyclase assays in HEK cells. Comparison revealed a significant reversal in rank order for cyclase Emax values and βarr-dependent internalization in neurons, indicating that these responses were ligand-specific. Despite this evidence, and because kinases involved in internalization were not the same across cellular backgrounds, it is not possible to assert if the magnitude and nature of bias revealed by rank orders of maximal responses is the same as the one measured in HEK cells. PMID:24022593

  1. Towards an international Geopark 'Delta' on the border of The Netherlands and Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluiving, Sjoerd; Kooistra, Geert; Kasse, Cornelis; Heskes, Erik; Crombé, Philippe; Meersschaert, Richard; Soens, Tim; Kiden, Patrick; Vos, Peter; van den Berge, Noel

    2017-04-01

    In North-western Europe the rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt have created a giant river delta over the past 3 million years. The area is usually observed by people as a flat and featureless type of terrain, although sometimes unexpected elevation differences and sharp contrasts in landscapes occur. Geological phenomena, or 'geosites', in the Scheldt region, north of Antwerpen (B) and in the southern Netherlands testify from a dynamic landscape showing a range from very old to very young geological processes. Local exposures in Nieuw-Namen show a Pliocene partly indurated beach sediment witnessing coastal beach conditions in the Pliocene epoch as indicated by the presence of Aequipecten opercularis. The very well preserved microfauna, as well as the typical iron sandstone banks reflecting possibly Tertiary soil formation offer a unique geological exposure in the European landscape. Above the beach sands a hiatus of 2.5 million years is exposed, formed by river erosion during ices ages of the Quaternary. The resistent iron-sandstone outcrops are the erosional remains dating from that period. During the last ice age (Weichselian) permafrost conditions have caused frost-crack development, later covered by eolian sands. The sequence is concluded with Holocene soil formation and it represents a geological 'island' where fluvial and tectonic history over 3 million years has made a diverse landscape. Directly north of the Nieuw-Namen site a modern-day tidal regime is present in the Land of Saeftinghe with tidal flats on the flanks of the Westerschelde. The geological monument of Saeftinghe is an excellent example of how the current landscape would be without embankments. The typical Dutch theme of the 'battle against water' in this concept has also gained a growing support from an increasing number of parties. The great diversity in geological processes and resulting landscapes is unprecedented on a global scale and has had its impact on the region's cultural and economic

  2. Plasma membrane cholesterol level and agonist-induced internalization of delta-opioid receptors; colocalization study with intracellular membrane markers of Rab family\

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brejchová, Jana; Vošahlíková, Miroslava; Roubalová, Lenka; Parenti, M.; Mauri, M.; Chernyavskiy, Oleksandr; Svoboda, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 4 (2016), s. 375-396 ISSN 0145-479X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/12/0919 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : cholesterol * plasma membrane * delta-opioid receptor * internalization * Rab proteins Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.576, year: 2016

  3. The Niger Delta Crisis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2013-09-28

    Sep 28, 2013 ... Department of History & International Studies, Delta State University, Abraka,. Nigeria. .... democracy implies popular power. That is ... Okonta (2006:5) draws attention to Anna Zalik's treatise called 'Petro-Vio- lence' and ...

  4. Kappa opioid receptors stimulate phosphoinositide turnover in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Periyasamy, S.; Hoss, W. (Univ. of Toledo, OH (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The effects of various subtype-selective opioid agonists and antagonists on the phosphoinositide (PI) turnover response were investigated in the rat brain. The {kappa}-agonists U-50,488H and ketocyclazocine produced a concentration-dependent increase in the accumulation of IP's in hippocampal slices. The other {kappa}-agonists Dynorphin-A (1-13) amide, and its protected analog D(Ala){sup 2}-dynorphin-A (1-13) amide also produced a significant increase in the formation of ({sup 3}H)-IP's, whereas the {mu}-selective agonists (D-Ala{sup 2}-N-Me-Phe{sup 4}-Gly{sup 5}-ol)-enkephalin and morphine and the {delta}-selective agonist (D-Pen{sup 2,5})-enkephalin were ineffective. The increase in IP's formation elicited by U-50,488H was partially antagonized by naloxone and more completely antagonized by the {kappa}-selective antagonists nor-binaltorphimine and MR 2266. The formation of IP's induced by U-50,488H varies with the regions of the brain used, being highest in hippocampus and amygdala, and lowest in striatum and pons-medullar. The results indicate that brain {kappa}- but neither {mu}- nor {delta}- receptors are coupled to the PI turnover response.

  5. DELTAS: A new Global Delta Sustainability Initiative (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2013-12-01

    Deltas are economic and environmental hotspots, food baskets for many nations, home to a large part of the world population, and hosts of exceptional biodiversity and rich ecosystems. Deltas, being at the land-water interface, are international, regional, and local transport hubs, thus providing the basis for intense economic activities. Yet, deltas are deteriorating at an alarming rate as 'victims' of human actions (e.g. water and sediment reduction due to upstream basin development), climatic impacts (e.g. sea level rise and flooding from rivers and intense tropical storms), and local exploration (e.g. sand or aggregates, groundwater and hydrocarbon extraction). Although many efforts exist on individual deltas around the world, a comprehensive global delta sustainability initiative that promotes awareness, science integration, data and knowledge sharing, and development of decision support tools for an effective dialogue between scientists, managers and policy makers is lacking. Recently, the international scientific community proposed to establish the International Year of Deltas (IYD) to serve as the beginning of such a Global Delta Sustainability Initiative. The IYD was proposed as a year to: (1) increase awareness and attention to the value and vulnerability of deltas worldwide; (2) promote and enhance international and regional cooperation at the scientific, policy, and stakeholder level; and (3) serve as a launching pad for a 10-year committed effort to understand deltas as complex socio-ecological systems and ensure preparedness in protecting and restoring them in a rapidly changing environment. In this talk, the vision for such an international coordinated effort on delta sustainability will be presented as developed by a large number of international experts and recently funded through the Belmont Forum International Opportunities Fund. Participating countries include: U.S., France, Germany, U.K., India, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Brazil, Bangladesh

  6. A note on the kappa statistic for clustered dichotomous data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Yang, Zhao

    2014-06-30

    The kappa statistic is widely used to assess the agreement between two raters. Motivated by a simulation-based cluster bootstrap method to calculate the variance of the kappa statistic for clustered physician-patients dichotomous data, we investigate its special correlation structure and develop a new simple and efficient data generation algorithm. For the clustered physician-patients dichotomous data, based on the delta method and its special covariance structure, we propose a semi-parametric variance estimator for the kappa statistic. An extensive Monte Carlo simulation study is performed to evaluate the performance of the new proposal and five existing methods with respect to the empirical coverage probability, root-mean-square error, and average width of the 95% confidence interval for the kappa statistic. The variance estimator ignoring the dependence within a cluster is generally inappropriate, and the variance estimators from the new proposal, bootstrap-based methods, and the sampling-based delta method perform reasonably well for at least a moderately large number of clusters (e.g., the number of clusters K ⩾50). The new proposal and sampling-based delta method provide convenient tools for efficient computations and non-simulation-based alternatives to the existing bootstrap-based methods. Moreover, the new proposal has acceptable performance even when the number of clusters is as small as K = 25. To illustrate the practical application of all the methods, one psychiatric research data and two simulated clustered physician-patients dichotomous data are analyzed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Effects of CCR5-delta32 and CCR2-64I alleles on disease progression of perinatally HIV-1-infected children: an international meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, John P A; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina G; Rosenberg, Philip S; Goedert, James J; De Rossi, Anita; Espanol, Teresa; Frenkel, Lisa; Mayaux, Marie-Jeanne; Newell, Marie-Louise; Pahwa, Savita G; Rousseau, Christine; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Sei, Shizuko; Sen, Luisa; O'Brien, Thomas R

    2003-07-25

    Among perinatally infected children, the effects of certain alleles of the CCR5 and CCR2 genes on the rate of disease progression remain unclear. We addressed the effects of CCR5-delta32 and CCR2-64I in an international meta-analysis. Genotype data were contributed from 10 studies with 1317 HIV-1-infected children (7263 person-years of follow-up). Time-to-event analyses were performed stratified by study and racial group. Endpoints included progression to clinical AIDS, death, and death after the diagnosis of clinical AIDS. The time-dependence of the genetic effects was specifically investigated. There was large heterogeneity in the observed rates of disease progression between different cohorts. For progression to clinical AIDS, both CCR5-delta32 and CCR2-64I showed overall non-significant trends for protection [hazard ratios 0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58-1.23; and 0.87, 95% CI 0.67-1.14, respectively]. However, analyses of survival showed statistically significant time-dependence. No deaths occurred among CCR5-delta32 carriers in the first 3 years of life, whereas there was no protective effect (hazard ratio 0.95; 95% CI 0.43-2.10) in later years (P=0.01 for the time-dependent model). For CCR2-64I, the hazard ratio for death was 0.69 (95% CI 0.39-1.21) in the first 6 years of life and 2.56 (95% CI 1.26-5.20) in subsequent years (P<0.01 for the time-dependent model). CCR5-delta32 and CCR2-64I offered no clear protection after clinical AIDS had developed. The CCR5-delta32 and CCR2-64I alleles are associated with a decreased risk of death among perinatally infected children, but only for the first years of life.

  8. Biogas Production from Local Biomass Feedstock in the Mekong Delta and Its Utilization for a Direct Internal Reforming Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Shiratori

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fuel-flexible solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC technologies are presently under study in a Vietnam-Japan international joint research project. The purpose of this project is to develop and demonstrate an SOFC-incorporated energy circulation system for the sustainable development of the Mekong Delta region. Lab-scale methane fermentation experiments in this study with a mixture of biomass feedstock collected in the Mekong Delta (shrimp pond sludge, bagasse, and molasses from sugar production recorded biogas production yield over 400 L kgVS−1 with H2S concentration below 50 ppm level. This real biogas was directly supplied to an SOFC without any fuel processing such as desulfurization, methane enrichment and pre-reforming, and stable power generation was achieved by applying paper-structured catalyst (PSC technology.

  9. Circumvention of nuclear factor kappaB-induced chemoresistance by cytoplasmic-targeted anthracyclines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilyeu, Jennifer D; Panta, Ganesh R; Cavin, Lakita G; Barrett, Christina M; Turner, Eddie J; Sweatman, Trevor W; Israel, Mervyn; Lothstein, Leonard; Arsura, Marcello

    2004-04-01

    Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) has been implicated in inducible chemoresistance against anthracyclines. In an effort to improve the cytotoxicity of anthracyclines while reducing their cardiotoxic effects, we have developed a novel class of extranuclear-localizing 14-O-acylanthracyclines that bind to the phorbol ester/diacylglycerol-binding C1b domain of conventional and novel protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, thereby promoting an apoptotic response. Because PKCs have been shown to be involved in NF-kappaB activation, in this report, we determined the mechanism of NF-kappaB activation by N-benzyladriamycin-14-valerate (AD 198) and N-benzyladriamycin-14-pivalate (AD 445), two novel 14-O-acylanthracylines. We show that the induction of NF-kappaB activity in response to drug treatment relies on the activation of PKC-delta and NF-kappaB-activating kinase (NAK), independent of ataxia telengectasia mutated and p53 activities. In turn, NAK activates the IKK complex through phosphorylation of the IKK-2 subunit. We find that neither NF-kappaB activation nor ectopic expression of Bcl-X(L) confers protection from AD 198-induced cell killing. Overall, our data indicate that activation of novel PKC isoforms by cytoplasmic-targeted 14-O-acylanthracyclines promotes an apoptotic response independent of DNA damage, which is unimpeded by inducible activation of NF-kappaB.

  10. Delta Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Mette

    . The warming air temperature affects the soil temperature and permafrost thaws and destabilizes the material in the coastal zone. In Greenland, the warming temperature lowers the surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet and more material is transported to the coastal zone. The sea ice extent is thinning...... of a fjord and the second type is a wider fan-shaped open delta. Most deltas are directly coupled to the Greenland Ice Sheet or local icecaps and are highly influenced by the dynamics in the catchments. It is demonstrated how a modern changing climate directly affects delta dynamics, and that Greenlandic...... deltas are prograding, contrary to the global trend showing eroding Arctic coasts. Moreover, it is revealed that the increasing proglacial freshwater runoff, caused by a lowering of the surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet is the main determining agent in delta progradation. The final part...

  11. Heterologous activation of protein kinase C stimulates phosphorylation of delta-opioid receptor at serine 344, resulting in beta-arrestin- and clathrin-mediated receptor internalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiang, B; Yu, G H; Guo, J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effect of opioid-independent, heterologous activation of protein kinase C (PKC) on the responsiveness of opioid receptor and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our result showed that removing the C terminus of delta opioid receptor (DOR......) containing six Ser/Thr residues abolished both DPDPE- and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced DOR phosphorylation. The phosphorylation levels of DOR mutants T352A, T353A, and T358A/T361A/S363S were comparable to that of the wild-type DOR, whereas S344G substitution blocked PMA-induced receptor......, and ionomycin resulted in DOR internalization that required phosphorylation of Ser-344. Expression of dominant negative beta-arrestin and hypertonic sucrose treatment blocked PMA-induced DOR internalization, suggesting that PKC mediates DOR internalization via a beta-arrestin- and clathrin-dependent mechanism...

  12. Different amounts of ejaculatory activity, a natural rewarding behavior, induce differential mu and delta opioid receptor internalization in the rat's ventral tegmental area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garduño-Gutiérrez, René; León-Olea, Martha; Rodríguez-Manzo, Gabriela

    2013-12-06

    Opioid receptors internalize upon specific agonist stimulation. The in vivo significance of receptor internalization is not well established, partly due to the limited in vivo models used to study this phenomenon. Ejaculation promotes endogenous opioid release which activates opioid receptors at the brain, including the mesolimbic system and medial preoptic area. The objective of the present work was to analyze if there was a correlation between the degree of in vivo mu (MOR) and delta opioid receptor (DOR) internalization in the ventral tegmental area and the execution of different amounts of ejaculatory behavior of male rats. To this aim, we analyzed the brains of rats that ejaculated once or six successive times and of sexually exhausted rats with an established sexual inhibition, using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Results showed that MOR and DOR internalization increased as a consequence of ejaculation. There was a relationship between the amount of sexual activity executed and the degree of internalization for MOR, but not for DOR. MOR internalization was larger in rats that ejaculated repeatedly than in animals ejaculating only once. Significant DOR internalization was found only in animals ejaculating once. Changes in MOR, DOR and beta arrestin2 detection, associated to sexual activity, were also found. It is suggested that copulation to satiety might be useful as a model system to study the biological significance of receptor internalization. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. An Automation Interface for Kappa PC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1999-01-01

    The reports documents an automation interface for Kappa PC. The automation interface can be used to embed Kappa applications in 32-bit Windowsapplications.The interface includes functions for initialising Kappa, for loading an application, for settingvalues, for getting values, and for stopping...

  14. Distribution of kappa opioid receptors in the brain of young and old male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggi, R.; Limonta, P.; Dondi, D.; Martini, L.; Piva, F.

    1989-01-01

    The experiments to be described have been designed in order to: (a) provide new information on the concentrations of opioid kappa receptors in different regions of the brain of the male rats; and (b) to analyze whether the density of brain kappa receptors might be modified by the process of aging. The concentration of kappa receptors was investigated in the hypothalamus, amygdala, mesencephalon, corpus striatum, hippocampus, thalamus, frontal poles, anterior and posterior cortex collected from male rats of 2 and 19 months of age. 3 H-bremazocine (BRZ) was used as the ligand of kappa receptors, after protection of mu and delta receptors respectively with dihydromorphine and d-ala-d-leu-enkephalin. The results obtained show that: (1) in young male rats, the number of kappa opioid receptors is different in the various brain areas examined. (2) Aging exerts little influence on the number of kappa receptors in the majority of the brain structures considered. However in the amygdala and in the thalamus the number of kappa receptors was increased in old animals

  15. The disagreeable behaviour of the kappa statistic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flight, Laura; Julious, Steven A

    2015-01-01

    It is often of interest to measure the agreement between a number of raters when an outcome is nominal or ordinal. The kappa statistic is used as a measure of agreement. The statistic is highly sensitive to the distribution of the marginal totals and can produce unreliable results. Other statistics such as the proportion of concordance, maximum attainable kappa and prevalence and bias adjusted kappa should be considered to indicate how well the kappa statistic represents agreement in the data. Each kappa should be considered and interpreted based on the context of the data being analysed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Kappa statistic for clustered matched-pair data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao; Zhou, Ming

    2014-07-10

    Kappa statistic is widely used to assess the agreement between two procedures in the independent matched-pair data. For matched-pair data collected in clusters, on the basis of the delta method and sampling techniques, we propose a nonparametric variance estimator for the kappa statistic without within-cluster correlation structure or distributional assumptions. The results of an extensive Monte Carlo simulation study demonstrate that the proposed kappa statistic provides consistent estimation and the proposed variance estimator behaves reasonably well for at least a moderately large number of clusters (e.g., K ≥50). Compared with the variance estimator ignoring dependence within a cluster, the proposed variance estimator performs better in maintaining the nominal coverage probability when the intra-cluster correlation is fair (ρ ≥0.3), with more pronounced improvement when ρ is further increased. To illustrate the practical application of the proposed estimator, we analyze two real data examples of clustered matched-pair data. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. From the Mahanadi Delta to Sendai via South America: Building bridges between research, practice and international policy for disaster resilience assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanchiotti, Margherita; Torres, Jair

    2017-04-01

    The concept of disaster resilience has gained momentum in recent decades and major international initiatives, such as the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 and the Paris Agreement, all recognise the importance of fostering community resilience to natural hazards to save lives and reduce losses. Despite significant advances in the policy settings for disaster resilience assessment, the interpretation of the concept itself and its implications for practice and policy remain clouded and more research is needed to gather evidence of what resilience means for governments and communities. This paper aims to bring together the research work the authors have conducted in the field of disaster resilience assessments at their respective institutions (University of Southampton, UK and the UME Graduate School at the Institute for Advanced Studies of Pavia, Italy) with the practical implementation projects and international policy consultations they have been involved in under UNESCO's umbrella. The main findings of a research study conducted as part of the 'Deltas, Vulnerability & Climate Change: Migration & Adaptation' (DECCMA) project to investigate the differential resilience of local communities in the Mahanadi Delta, India using a development approach will be presented. Statistical methods have been employed to identify development hotspots and have been combined with a qualitative analysis of community perceptions of development and the mutual implications of development for disaster resilience to build case studies of community resilience to inform theory, policy and practice. The authors will then discuss the practical implications of this research study for the implementation of UNESCO's 'Enhancing Natural HAzards resilience iN South America' (ENHANS) project, which seeks to train a critical mass of decision-makers, community leaders and experts on disaster risk and resilience assessments in four

  18. Preliminary Estimation of Kappa Parameter in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanko, Davor; Markušić, Snježana; Ivančić, Ines; Mario, Gazdek; Gülerce, Zeynep

    2017-12-01

    Spectral parameter kappa κ is used to describe spectral amplitude decay “crash syndrome” at high frequencies. The purpose of this research is to estimate spectral parameter kappa for the first time in Croatia based on small and moderate earthquakes. Recordings of local earthquakes with magnitudes higher than 3, epicentre distances less than 150 km, and focal depths less than 30 km from seismological stations in Croatia are used. The value of kappa was estimated from the acceleration amplitude spectrum of shear waves from the slope of the high-frequency part where the spectrum starts to decay rapidly to a noise floor. Kappa models as a function of a site and distance were derived from a standard linear regression of kappa-distance dependence. Site kappa was determined from the extrapolation of the regression line to a zero distance. The preliminary results of site kappa across Croatia are promising. In this research, these results are compared with local site condition parameters for each station, e.g. shear wave velocity in the upper 30 m from geophysical measurements and with existing global shear wave velocity - site kappa values. Spatial distribution of individual kappa’s is compared with the azimuthal distribution of earthquake epicentres. These results are significant for a couple of reasons: to extend the knowledge of the attenuation of near-surface crust layers of the Dinarides and to provide additional information on the local earthquake parameters for updating seismic hazard maps of studied area. Site kappa can be used in the re-creation, and re-calibration of attenuation of peak horizontal and/or vertical acceleration in the Dinarides area since information on the local site conditions were not included in the previous studies.

  19. NF-kappaB in Lung Tumorigenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Zhenjian [Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 462 First Avenue, NBV 7N24, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Tchou-Wong, Kam-Meng; Rom, William N., E-mail: william.rom@nyumc.org [Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 462 First Avenue, NBV 7N24, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Road, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States)

    2011-12-14

    The development of lung cancer in humans can be divided into three steps initiation, promotion and progression. This process is driven by alterations in related signal transduction pathways. These pathways signal the aberrant activation of NF-kappaB, a transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes important for lung tumorigenesis. Our current knowledge about the role of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway in the development of lung cancer has been bolstered by animal models demonstrating the connection between K-ras and tobacco induced lung transformation with NF-kappaB. Activation of downstream genes leads to cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, invasion, and metastasis.

  20. NF-kappaB in Lung Tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Zhenjian; Tchou-Wong, Kam-Meng; Rom, William N.

    2011-01-01

    The development of lung cancer in humans can be divided into three steps initiation, promotion and progression. This process is driven by alterations in related signal transduction pathways. These pathways signal the aberrant activation of NF-kappaB, a transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes important for lung tumorigenesis. Our current knowledge about the role of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway in the development of lung cancer has been bolstered by animal models demonstrating the connection between K-ras and tobacco induced lung transformation with NF-kappaB. Activation of downstream genes leads to cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, invasion, and metastasis

  1. A proposition for a UNESCO application for European Geoparks: towards an international Geopark 'Delta' in the Netherlands and Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluiving, Sjoerd; Kooistra, Geert; Kasse, Kees; Heskes, Erik

    2016-04-01

    In North-western Europe the rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt have created a giant river delta over the past 3 million years. The area is usually observed by people as a flat and dull type of terrain, although sometimes unexpected elevation differences and sharp contrasts in landscapes occur. Geological phenomena, or 'geosites', in the Scheldt region, north of Antwerpen (B) and in the southern Netherlands testify from a dynamic landscape showing a range from very old to very young geological processes. Local exposures in Nieuw-Namen show a Pliocene partly indurated beach sediment witnessing coastal beach conditions in the Pliocene epoch as indicated by the presence of Aequipecten opercularis. The very well preserved microfauna, as well as the typical iron sandstone banks reflecting possibly Tertiary soil formation offer a unique geological exposure in the European landscape. Above the beach sands a hiatus of 2.5 million years is exposed, formed by river erosion during ices ages of the Quaternary. The resistent iron-sandstone outcrops are the erosional remains dating from that period. During the last ice age (Weichselian) permafrost conditions have caused frost-crack development, later covered by eolian sands. The sequence is concluded with Holocene soil formation and it represents a geological 'island' where fluvial and tectonic history over 3 million years has made a diverse landscape. Directly north of the Nieuw-Namen site a modern-day tidal regime is present in the Land of Saefthinge with tidal flats on the flanks of the Westerschelde. The hiatus in the geological site Nieuw Namen can be compared to the Brabantse Wal escarpment, which is another unique geomorphological structure, with a steep slope with an elevation difference up to 25 meter that can be followed over more than 30 km. In the slope 1.8 million years old tidal deposits of Tiglian age are exposed, covered by eolian dune deposits that were blown out of the Scheldt valley west of the escarpment during

  2. The Economic Dimensions of the Niger Delta Ethnic Conflicts (Pp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    1970, the price of international oil stepped upwards following the Middle. Eastern Yom Kippur .... Over the years, the pleas of the Niger Delta people for accommodation are ignored or .... In a labour surplus region like the Niger Delta, budget.

  3. Macromolecular complexes of lysozyme with kappa carrageenan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonov, Y.A.; Zhuravleva, I.L.; Cardinaels, R.; Moldenaers, P.

    2018-01-01

    We present a structural study of the complexation and binding of lysozyme (Lys) with kappa carrageenan (kCG) by means of turbidity measurements, phase analysis, dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering, differential scanning microcalorimetry (DSMC), confocal laser scanning (CLSM) microscopy,

  4. COMMD1 regulates the delta epithelial sodium channel ({delta}ENaC) through trafficking and ubiquitination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Tina; Ke, Ying; Ly, Kevin [Department of Physiology, University of Otago, P.O. Box 913, Dunedin 9054 (New Zealand); McDonald, Fiona J., E-mail: fiona.mcdonald@otago.ac.nz [Department of Physiology, University of Otago, P.O. Box 913, Dunedin 9054 (New Zealand)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} The COMM domain of COMMD1 mediates binding to {delta}ENaC. {yields} COMMD1 reduces the cell surface population of {delta}ENaC. {yields} COMMD1 increases the population of {delta}ENaC-ubiquitin. {yields} Both endogenous and transfected {delta}ENaC localize with COMMD1 and transferrin suggesting they are located in early/recycling endosomes. -- Abstract: The delta subunit of the epithelial sodium channel ({delta}ENaC) is a member of the ENaC/degenerin family of ion channels. {delta}ENaC is distinct from the related {alpha}-, {beta}- and {gamma}ENaC subunits, known for their role in sodium homeostasis and blood pressure control, as {delta}ENaC is expressed in brain neurons and activated by external protons. COMMD1 (copper metabolism Murr1 domain 1) was previously found to associate with and downregulate {delta}ENaC activity. Here, we show that COMMD1 interacts with {delta}ENaC through its COMM domain. Co-expression of {delta}ENaC with COMMD1 significantly reduced {delta}ENaC surface expression, and led to an increase in {delta}ENaC ubiquitination. Immunocytochemical and confocal microscopy studies show that COMMD1 promoted localization of {delta}ENaC to the early/recycling endosomal pool where the two proteins were localized together. These results suggest that COMMD1 downregulates {delta}ENaC activity by reducing {delta}ENaC surface expression through promoting internalization of surface {delta}ENaC to an intracellular recycling pool, possibly via enhanced ubiquitination.

  5. (/sup 3/H)diprenorphine binding to kappa-sites in guinea-pig and rat brain: Evidence for apparent heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.S.; Traynor, J.R.

    1989-07-01

    The binding of the unselective opioid antagonist (/sup 3/H)diprenorphine to homogenates prepared from rat brain and from guinea-pig brain and cerebellum has been studied in HEPES buffer containing 10 mM Mg2+ ions. Sequential displacement of bound (/sup 3/H)diprenorphine by ligands with selectivity for mu-, delta-, and kappa-opioid receptors uncovers the multiple components of binding. In the presence of cold ligands that occupy all mu-, delta-, and kappa-sites, opioid binding still remains. This binding represents 20% of total specific sites and is displaced by naloxone. The nature of these undefined opioid binding sites is discussed.

  6. Migration in Deltas: An Integrated Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert J.; Hutton, Craig W.; Lazar, Attila; Adger, W. Neil; Allan, Andrew; Arto, Inaki; Vincent, Katharine; Rahman, Munsur; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Sugata, Hazra; Ghosh, Tuhin; Codjoe, Sam; Appeaning-Addo, Kwasi

    2017-04-01

    consistent scenarios from global to delta scales, developed in consultation with major stakeholders. Initial results suggest that migration decision-making strongly interacts with diverse measures for adaptation of land, water and agricultural management. A key normative challenge is to identify the parameters of successful migration and adaptation across delta regions, to inform policy analysis and formulation. Key words: Deltas, sea-level rise, migration and adaptation Acknowledgement: DECCMA (Deltas, Vulnerability & Climate Change: Migration & Adaptation) project is part of the Collaborative ADAPTATION Research Initiative in Africa and Asia (CARIAA), with financial support from the UK Government's Department for International Development (DFID) and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada.

  7. Gravity Modes Reveal the Internal Rotation of a Post-mass-transfer Gamma Doradus/Delta Scuti Hybrid Pulsator in Kepler Eclipsing Binary KIC 9592855

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z.; Gies, D. R.; Matson, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    We report the discovery of a post-mass-transfer Gamma Doradus/Delta Scuti hybrid pulsator in the eclipsing binary KIC 9592855. This binary has a circular orbit, an orbital period of 1.2 days, and contains two stars of almost identical masses ({M}1=1.72 {M}⊙ ,{M}2=1.71 {M}⊙ ). However, the cooler secondary star is more evolved ({R}2=1.96 {R}⊙ ), while the hotter primary is still on the zero-age-main-sequence ({R}1=1.53 {R}⊙ ). Coeval models from single-star evolution cannot explain the observed masses and radii, and binary evolution with mass-transfer needs to be invoked. After subtracting the binary light curve, the Fourier spectrum shows low-order pressure-mode pulsations, and more dominantly, a cluster of low-frequency gravity modes at about 2 day-1. These g-modes are nearly equally spaced in period, and the period spacing pattern has a negative slope. We identify these g-modes as prograde dipole modes and find that they stem from the secondary star. The frequency range of unstable p-modes also agrees with that of the secondary. We derive the internal rotation rate of the convective core and the asymptotic period spacing from the observed g-modes. The resulting values suggest that the core and envelope rotate nearly uniformly, i.e., their rotation rates are both similar to the orbital frequency of this synchronized binary.

  8. {kappa}-deformed realization of D=4 conformal algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimek, M. [Technical Univ. of Czestochowa, Inst. of Mathematics and Computer Science, Czestochowa (Poland); Lukierski, J. [Universite de Geneve, Department de Physique Theorique, Geneve (Switzerland)

    1995-07-01

    We describe the generators of {kappa}-conformal transformations, leaving invariant the {kappa}-deformed d`Alembert equation. In such a way one obtains the conformal extension of-shell spin spin zero realization of {kappa}-deformed Poincare algebra. Finally the algebraic structure of {kappa}-deformed conformal algebra is discussed. (author). 23 refs.

  9. Astrobee Periodic Technical Review (PTR) Delta 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, Christopher; Smith, Marion F.; Smith, Ernest Everett; Bualat, Maria Gabriele; Barlow, Jonathan Spencer

    2017-01-01

    Astrobee is a free flying robot for the inside of the International Space Station (ISS). The Periodic Technical Review (PTR) delta 3 is the final design review of the system presented to stakeholders.

  10. [{sup 11}C]-MeJDTic: a novel radioligand for {kappa}-opioid receptor positron emission tomography imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poisnel, Geraldine; Oueslati, Farhana; Dhilly, Martine; Delamare, Jerome [Groupe de Developpements Methodologiques en Tomographie par Emission de Positons, DSV/DRM UMR CEA 2E, Universite de Caen-Basse Normandie, Centre Cyceron, 14074 Caen Cedex (France); Perrio, Cecile [Groupe de Developpements Methodologiques en Tomographie par Emission de Positons, DSV/DRM UMR CEA 2E, Universite de Caen-Basse Normandie, Centre Cyceron, 14074 Caen Cedex (France)], E-mail: perrio@cyceron.fr; Debruyne, Daniele [Groupe de Developpements Methodologiques en Tomographie par Emission de Positons, DSV/DRM UMR CEA 2E, Universite de Caen-Basse Normandie, Centre Cyceron, 14074 Caen Cedex (France)], E-mail: debruyne@cyceron.fr; Barre, Louisa [Groupe de Developpements Methodologiques en Tomographie par Emission de Positons, DSV/DRM UMR CEA 2E, Universite de Caen-Basse Normandie, Centre Cyceron, 14074 Caen Cedex (France)

    2008-07-15

    Introduction: Radiopharmaceuticals that can bind selectively the {kappa}-opioid receptor may present opportunities for staging clinical brain disorders and evaluating the efficiency of new therapies related to stroke, neurodegenerative diseases or opiate addiction. The N-methylated derivative of JDTic (named MeJDTic), which has been recently described as a potent and selective antagonist of {kappa}-opioid receptor in vitro, was labeled with carbon-11 and evaluated for in vivo imaging the {kappa}-opioid receptor in mice. Methods: [{sup 11}C]-MeJDTic was prepared by methylation of JDTic with [{sup 11}C]-methyl triflate. The binding of [{sup 11}C]-MeJDTic to {kappa}-opioid receptor was investigated ex vivo by biodistribution and competition studies using nonfasted male CD1 mice. Results: [{sup 11}C]-MeJDTic exhibited a high and rapid distribution in peripheral organs. The uptake was maximal in lung where the {kappa} receptor is largely expressed. [{sup 11}C]-MeJDTic rapidly crossed the blood-brain barrier and accumulated in the brain regions of interest (hypothalamus). The parent ligand remained the major radioactive compound in brain during the experiment. Chase studies with U50,488 (a {kappa} referring agonist), morphine (a {mu} agonist) and naltrindole (a {delta} antagonist) demonstrated that this uptake was the result of specific binding to the {kappa}-opioid receptor. Conclusion: These findings suggested that [{sup 11}C]-MeJDTic appeared to be a promising selective 'lead' radioligand for {kappa}-opioid receptor PET imaging.

  11. Growth laws for delta crevasses in the Mississippi River Delta: observations and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yocum, T. A.; Georgiou, I. Y.

    2016-02-01

    River deltas are accumulations of sedimentary deposits delivered by rivers via a network of distributary channels. Worldwide they are threatened by environmental changes, including subsidence, global sea level rise and a suite of other local factors. In the Mississippi River Delta (MRD) these impacts are exemplified, and have led to proposed solutions to build land that include sediment diversions, thereby reinitiating the delta cycle. While economically efficient, there are too few analogs of small deltas aside from laboratory studies, numerical modeling studies, theoretical approaches, and limited field driven observations. Anthropogenic crevasses in the modern delta are large enough to overcome limitations of laboratory deltas, and small enough to allow for "rapid" channel and wetland development, providing an ideal setting to investigate delta development mechanics. Crevasse metrics were obtained using a combination of geospatial tools, extracting key parameters (bifurcation length and width, channel order and depth) that were non-dimensionalized and compared to river-dominated delta networks previously studied. Analysis showed that most crevasses in the MRD appear to obey delta growth laws and delta allometry relationships, suggesting that crevasses do exhibit similar planform metrics to larger Deltas; the distance to mouth bar versus bifurcation order demonstrated to be a very reasonable first order estimate of delta-top footprint. However, some crevasses exhibited different growth metrics. To better understand the hydrodynamic and geomorphic controls governing crevasse evolution in the MRD, we assess delta dynamics via a suite of field observations and numerical modeling in both well-established and newly constructed crevasses. Our analysis suggests that delta development is affected by the relative influence of external (upstream and downstream) and internal controls on the hydrodynamic and sediment transport patterns in these systems.

  12. Structure of the [delta]-opioid receptor bound to naltrindole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granier, Sébastien; Manglik, Aashish; Kruse, Andrew C.; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Thian, Foon Sun; Weis, William I.; Kobilka, Brian K. (Stanford-MED)

    2012-07-11

    The opioid receptor family comprises three members, the {mu}-, {delta}- and {kappa}-opioid receptors, which respond to classical opioid alkaloids such as morphine and heroin as well as to endogenous peptide ligands like endorphins. They belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, and are excellent therapeutic targets for pain control. The {delta}-opioid receptor ({delta}-OR) has a role in analgesia, as well as in other neurological functions that remain poorly understood. The structures of the {mu}-OR and {kappa}-OR have recently been solved. Here we report the crystal structure of the mouse {delta}-OR, bound to the subtype-selective antagonist naltrindole. Together with the structures of the {mu}-OR and {kappa}-OR, the {delta}-OR structure provides insights into conserved elements of opioid ligand recognition while also revealing structural features associated with ligand-subtype selectivity. The binding pocket of opioid receptors can be divided into two distinct regions. Whereas the lower part of this pocket is highly conserved among opioid receptors, the upper part contains divergent residues that confer subtype selectivity. This provides a structural explanation and validation for the 'message-address' model of opioid receptor pharmacology, in which distinct 'message' (efficacy) and 'address' (selectivity) determinants are contained within a single ligand. Comparison of the address region of the {delta}-OR with other GPCRs reveals that this structural organization may be a more general phenomenon, extending to other GPCR families as well.

  13. People of the Delta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregoire, L.

    2007-09-15

    The potential impacts of both global warming and the $16 billion Mackenzie pipeline project on communities in the Mackenzie Delta were discussed. A consortium of oil and gas developers is now planning to exploit the natural gas reserves located near the mouth of the Delta, whose largest town is Inuvik. The project is expected to place a significant burden on the resources and infrastructure of the town, which currently has a population of 6000. The community, comprised of a diverse international population and an Inuit majority, is largely in favour of the pipeline project. The Inuvialuit people have invested a significant amount of time to ensure that the project, which was stalled due to land claims in 1977, benefits their communities. Public hearings are now being held to consider the potential environmental and socio-economic impacts of the project. Separate hearings are also being held to consider the project's design. The pipeline project includes 3 natural gas production facilities, a gas-processing facility, a pipeline gathering system, a 480 km natural gas liquids pipeline to the Northwest Territories, and a 1220 km natural gas pipeline to northern Alberta. The pipeline will be buried to minimize environmental impacts. The project is expected to create 8200 jobs at the height of its construction. However, communities located near the site of the natural gas reserves, such as the town of Tuktoyaktuk are now threatened by soil erosion that has been attributed to global warming. 21 figs.

  14. Delta Plaza kohvik = Delta Plaza cafe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Pärnu mnt 141 asuva kohviku Delta Plaza sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Tiiu Truus ja Marja Viltrop (Stuudio Truus OÜ). Tiiu Truusi tähtsamate tööde loetelu. Büroohoone Delta Plaza arhitektid Marika Lõoke ja Jüri Okas (AB J. Okas & M. Lõoke)

  15. delta-vision

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Delta Vision is intended to identify a strategy for managing the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta as a sustainable ecosystem that would continue to support environmental...

  16. Does the kappa opioid receptor system contribute to pain aversion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M Cahill

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The kappa opioid receptor (KOR and the endogenous peptide-ligand dynorphin have received significant attention due the involvement in mediating a variety of behavioral and neurophysiological responses, including opposing the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse including opioids. Accumulating evidence indicates this system is involved in regulating states of motivation and emotion. Acute activation of the KOR produces an increase in motivational behavior to escape a threat, however, KOR activation associated with chronic stress leads to the expression of symptoms indicative of mood disorders. It is well accepted that KOR can produce analgesia and is engaged in chronic pain states including neuropathic pain. Spinal studies have revealed KOR-induced analgesia in reversing pain hypersensitivities associated with peripheral nerve injury. While systemic administration of KOR agonists attenuates nociceptive sensory transmission, this effect appears to be a stress-induced effect as anxiolytic agents, including delta opioid receptor agonists, mitigate KOR agonist-induced analgesia. Additionally, while the role of KOR and dynorphin in driving the dysphoric and aversive components of stress and drug withdrawal has been well characterized, how this system mediates the negative emotional states associated with chronic pain is relatively unexplored. This review provides evidence that dynorphin and the KOR system contribute to the negative affective component of pain and that this receptor system likely contributes to the high comorbidity of mood disorders associated with chronic neuropathic pain.

  17. Measurement of Angle Kappa Using Ultrasound Biomicroscopy and Corneal Topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Joon Hyung; Moon, Nam Ju; Lee, Jeong Kyu

    2017-06-01

    To introduce a new convenient and accurate method to measure the angle kappa using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and corneal topography. Data from 42 eyes (13 males and 29 females) were analyzed in this study. The angle kappa was measured using Orbscan II and calculated with UBM and corneal topography. The angle kappa of the dominant eye was compared with measurements by Orbscan II. The mean patient age was 36.4 ± 13.8 years. The average angle kappa measured by Orbscan II was 3.98° ± 1.12°, while the average angle kappa calculated with UBM and corneal topography was 3.19° ± 1.15°. The difference in angle kappa measured by the two methods was statistically significant (p topography to calculate the angle kappa. This method is convenient to use and allows for measurement of the angle kappa without an expensive device. © 2017 The Korean Ophthalmological Society

  18. Evaluation of the kappa-opioid receptor-selective tracer [{sup 11}C]GR103545 in awake rhesus macaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoultz, Bent W. [University of Oslo, Department of Chemistry, Oslo (Norway); Hjornevik, Trine; Willoch, Frode [University of Oslo, Centre for Molecular Biology and Neuroscience and Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Oslo (Norway); Akershus University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Loerenskog (Norway); Marton, Janos [ABX Advanced Biochemical Compounds GmbH, Radeberg (Germany); Noda, Akihiro; Murakami, Yoshihiro; Miyoshi, Sosuke; Nishimura, Shintaro [Medical and Pharmacological Research Center Foundation, Basic Research Department, Hakui City, Ishikawa (Japan); Aarstad, Erik [University College of London, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Drzezga, Alexander [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Matsunari, Ichiro [Medical and Pharmacological Research Center Foundation, Clinical Research Department, Hakui City, Ishikawa (Japan); Henriksen, Gjermund [University of Oslo, Department of Chemistry, Oslo (Norway); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    The recent development in radiosynthesis of the {sup 11}C-carbamate function increases the potential of [{sup 11}C]GR103545, which for the last decade has been regarded as promising for imaging the kappa-opioid receptor ({kappa}-OR) with PET. In the present study, [{sup 11}C]GR103545 was evaluated in awake rhesus macaques. Separate investigations were performed to clarify the OR subtype selectivity of this compound. Regional brain uptake kinetics of [{sup 11}C]GR103545 was studied 0-120 min after injection. The binding affinity and opioid subtype selectivity of [{sup 11}C]GR103545 was determined in cells transfected with cloned human opioid receptors. In vitro binding assays demonstrated a high affinity of GR103545 for {kappa}-OR (K{sub i} = 0.02 {+-}0.01 nM) with excellent selectivity over {mu}-OR (6 x 10{sup 2}-fold) and {delta}-OR (2 x 10{sup 4}-fold). PET imaging revealed a volume of distribution (V{sub T}) pattern consistent with the known distribution of {kappa}-OR, with striatum = temporal cortex > cingulate cortex > frontal cortex > parietal cortex > thalamus > cerebellum. [{sup 11}C]GR103545 is selective for {kappa}-OR and holds promise for use to selectively depict and quantify this receptor in humans by means of PET. (orig.)

  19. Catalyzing action towards the sustainability of deltas: deltas as integrated socio-ecological systems and sentinels of regional and global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Tessler, Z. D.; Brondizio, E.; Overeem, I.; Renaud, F.; Sebesvari, Z.; Nicholls, R. J.; Anthony, E.

    2016-12-01

    Deltas are highly dynamic and productive environments: they are food baskets of the world, home to biodiverse and rich ecosystems, and they play a central role in food and water security. However, they are becoming increasingly vulnerable to risks arising from human activities, land subsidence, regional water management, global sea-level rise, and climate extremes. Our Belmont Forum DELTAS project (BF-DELTAS: Catalyzing actions towards delta sustainability) encompasses an international network of interdisciplinary research collaborators with focal areas in the Mekong, Ganges Brahmaputra, and the Amazon deltas. The project is organized around five main modules: (1) developing an analytical framework for assessing delta vulnerability and scenarios of change (Delta-SRES), (2) developing an open-acess, science-based integrative modeling framework for risk assessment and decision support (Delta-RADS), (3) developing tools to support quantitative mapping of the bio-physical and socio-economic environments of deltas and consolidate bio-physical and social data within shared data repositories (Delta-DAT), (4) developing Global Delta Vulnerability Indices (Delta-GDVI) that capture current and projected scenarios for major deltas around the world , and (5) collaborating with regional stakeholders to put the science, modeling, and data into action (Delta-ACT). In this talk, a research summary will be presented on three research domains around which significant collaborative work was developed: advancing biophysical classification of deltas, understanding deltas as coupled socio-ecological systems, and analyzing and informing social and environmental vulnerabilities in delta regions.

  20. Angle Kappa and its importance in refractive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Moshirfar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Angle kappa is the difference between the pupillary and visual axis. This measurement is of paramount consideration in refractive surgery, as proper centration is required for optimal results. Angle kappa may contribute to MFIOL decentration and its resultant photic phenomena. Adjusting placement of MFIOLs for angle kappa is not supported by the literature but is likely to help reduce glare and haloes. Centering LASIK in angle kappa patients over the corneal light reflex is safe, efficacious, and recommended. Centering in-between the corneal reflex and the entrance pupil is also safe and efficacious. The literature regarding PRK in patients with an angle kappa is sparse but centering on the corneal reflex is assumed to be similar to centering LASIK on the corneal reflex. Thus, centration of MFIOLs, LASIK, and PRK should be focused on the corneal reflex for patients with a large angle kappa. More research is needed to guide surgeons′ approach to angle kappa.

  1. Delta antibody radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kselikova, M; Urbankova, J

    1985-11-15

    The principle and procedure are described of the radioimmunoassay of delta antibody (delta-Ab) using the ABBOTT ANTI-DELTA kit by Abbott Co. A description is given of the kit, the working procedure and the method of evaluation. The results are reported of the incidence of delta-Ab in sera of patients with viral hepatitis B, in haemophiliacs, carriers of the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and blood donors. The presence was detected of delta-Ab in one HBsAg carrier. The necessity is emphasized of delta-Ab determinations in the blood of donors in view of the antibody transfer with blood and blood preparations.

  2. Characterization of kappa opioid binding using dynorphin A1-13 and U69,593 in the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, T.; Shoemaker, W.J. (Univ. of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Previous studies of kappa opioid binding sites have suggested heterogeneous binding to this class of opioid receptors. To further investigate kappa receptor heterogeneity, we analyzed the binding properties of various kappa-selective ligands in rat brain homogenates. Displacement assays were carried out using (3H)bremazocine in the presence of various displacing ligands under mu and delta receptor-blocked conditions. Homologous displacement of (3H)bremazocine produced shallow displacement which best fit a two-site model of drug-receptor interaction. Dynorphin A1-13 and U69,593 exhibited similar biphasic displacement of (3H)bremazocine. Maximal displacement by these ligands, however, represented only approximately 55% of total (3H)bremazocine binding, which suggests the existence of a third component of (3H)bremazocine binding. Biphasic displacement by dynorphin A1-13 was detected in tissue throughout the brain and the spinal cord, whereas the dynorphin-resistant component of (3H)bremazocine binding was uniquely absent in the spinal cord. U50,488H, tifluadom and ethylketocyclazocine appeared to displace from additional, dynorphin-insensitive sites, as their maximal displacement exceeded that seen with either dynorphin A1-13 or U69,593. These results strongly suggest the existence of at least three components of non-mu, non-delta (3H)bremazocine binding in the rat brain: two with differential affinity for dynorphin A1-13 and U69-593 (kappa-1 and kappa-2 sites), and a third (termed here R1) that was further resolved into two binding sites by bremazocine. Preliminary analysis of the R1 component using naloxone revealed one high-affinity site, which may be opiate in nature, and a second site whose binding properties closely resemble those of the sigma receptor described by others.

  3. Quantitative analysis of multiple kappa-opioid receptors by selective and nonselective ligand binding in guinea pig spinal cord: Resolution of high and low affinity states of the kappa 2 receptors by a computerized model-fitting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiberi, M.; Magnan, J.

    1990-01-01

    The binding characteristics of selective and nonselective opioids have been studied in whole guinea pig spinal cord, using a computer fitting method to analyze the data obtained from saturation and competition studies. The delineation of specific binding sites labeled by the mu-selective opioid [3H]D-Ala2,MePhe4,Gly-ol5-enkephalin (Kd = 2.58 nM, R = 4.52 pmol/g of tissue) and by the delta-selective opioid [3H]D-Pen2, D-Pen5-enkephalin (Kd = 2.02 nM, R = 1.47 pmol/g of tissue) suggests the presence of mu and delta-receptors in the spinal cord tissue. The presence of kappa receptors was probed by the kappa-selective opioid [3H]U69593 (Kd = 3.31 nM, R = 2.00 pmol/g of tissue). The pharmacological characterization of the sites labeled by [3H]U69593 confirms the assumption that this ligand discriminates kappa receptors in guinea pig spinal cord. The benzomorphan [3H]ethylketazocine labels a population of receptors with one homogeneous affinity state (Kd = 0.65 nM, R = 7.39 pmol/g of tissue). The total binding capacity of this ligand was not different from the sum of the binding capacities of mu, delta-, and kappa-selective ligands. Under mu- and delta-suppressed conditions, [3H]ethylketazocine still binds to receptors with one homogeneous affinity state (Kd = 0.45 nM, R = 1.69 pmol/g of tissue). Competition studies performed against the binding of [3H]ethylketazocine under these experimental conditions reveal that the pharmacological profile of the radiolabeled receptors is similar to the profile of the kappa receptors labeled with [3H]U69593. Saturation studies using the nonselective opioid [3H]bremazocine demonstrate that this ligand binds to spinal cord membranes with heterogeneous affinities (Kd1 = 0.28 nM, R1 = 7.91 pmol/g of tissue; Kd2 = 3.24 nM, R2 = 11.2 pmol/g of tissue)

  4. Quantitative analysis of multiple kappa-opioid receptors by selective and nonselective ligand binding in guinea pig spinal cord: Resolution of high and low affinity states of the kappa 2 receptors by a computerized model-fitting technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiberi, M.; Magnan, J. (Universite de Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

    1990-05-01

    The binding characteristics of selective and nonselective opioids have been studied in whole guinea pig spinal cord, using a computer fitting method to analyze the data obtained from saturation and competition studies. The delineation of specific binding sites labeled by the mu-selective opioid (3H)D-Ala2,MePhe4,Gly-ol5-enkephalin (Kd = 2.58 nM, R = 4.52 pmol/g of tissue) and by the delta-selective opioid (3H)D-Pen2, D-Pen5-enkephalin (Kd = 2.02 nM, R = 1.47 pmol/g of tissue) suggests the presence of mu and delta-receptors in the spinal cord tissue. The presence of kappa receptors was probed by the kappa-selective opioid (3H)U69593 (Kd = 3.31 nM, R = 2.00 pmol/g of tissue). The pharmacological characterization of the sites labeled by (3H)U69593 confirms the assumption that this ligand discriminates kappa receptors in guinea pig spinal cord. The benzomorphan (3H)ethylketazocine labels a population of receptors with one homogeneous affinity state (Kd = 0.65 nM, R = 7.39 pmol/g of tissue). The total binding capacity of this ligand was not different from the sum of the binding capacities of mu, delta-, and kappa-selective ligands. Under mu- and delta-suppressed conditions, (3H)ethylketazocine still binds to receptors with one homogeneous affinity state (Kd = 0.45 nM, R = 1.69 pmol/g of tissue). Competition studies performed against the binding of (3H)ethylketazocine under these experimental conditions reveal that the pharmacological profile of the radiolabeled receptors is similar to the profile of the kappa receptors labeled with (3H)U69593. Saturation studies using the nonselective opioid (3H)bremazocine demonstrate that this ligand binds to spinal cord membranes with heterogeneous affinities (Kd1 = 0.28 nM, R1 = 7.91 pmol/g of tissue; Kd2 = 3.24 nM, R2 = 11.2 pmol/g of tissue).

  5. Delta hedging strategies comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Giovanni, Domenico; Ortobelli, S.; Rachev, S.T.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we implement dynamic delta hedging strategies based on several option pricing models. We analyze different subordinated option pricing models and we examine delta hedging costs using ex-post daily prices of S&P 500. Furthermore, we compare the performance of each subordinated model...

  6. Connectivity in river deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, P.; Hiatt, M. R.; Sendrowski, A.

    2016-12-01

    Deltas host approximately half a billion people and are rich in ecosystem diversity and economic resources. However, human-induced activities and climatic shifts are significantly impacting deltas around the world; anthropogenic disturbance, natural subsidence, and eustatic sea-level rise are major causes of threat to deltas and in many cases have compromised their safety and sustainability, putting at risk the people that live on them. In this presentation, I will introduce a framework called Delta Connectome for studying connectivity in river deltas based on different representations of a delta as a network. Here connectivity indicates both physical connectivity (how different portions of the system interact with each other) as well as conceptual (pathways of process coupling). I will explore several network representations and show how quantifying connectivity can advance our understanding of system functioning and can be used to inform coastal management and restoration. From connectivity considerations, the delta emerges as a leaky network that evolves over time and is characterized by continuous exchanges of fluxes of matter, energy, and information. I will discuss the implications of connectivity on delta functioning, land growth, and potential for nutrient removal.

  7. Adaptive Delta Management: cultural aspects of dealing with uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Jos; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Hermans, Leon; Kwakkel, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Deltas are generally recognized as vulnerable to climate change and therefore a salient topic in adaptation science. Deltas are also highly dynamic systems viewed from physical (erosion, sedimentation, subsidence), social (demographic), economic (trade), infrastructures (transport, energy, metropolization) and cultural (multi-ethnic) perspectives. This multi-faceted dynamic character of delta areas warrants the emergence of a branch of applied adaptation science, Adaptive Delta Management, which explicitly focuses on climate adaptation of such highly dynamic and deeply uncertain systems. The application of Adaptive Delta Management in the Dutch Delta Program and its active international dissemination by Dutch professionals results in the rapid dissemination of Adaptive Delta Management to deltas worldwide. This global dissemination raises concerns among professionals in delta management on its applicability in deltas with cultural conditions and historical developments quite different from those found in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom where the practices now labelled as Adaptive Delta Management first emerged. This research develops an approach and gives a first analysis of the interaction between the characteristics of different approaches in Adaptive Delta Management and their alignment with the cultural conditions encountered in various delta's globally. In this analysis, first different management theories underlying approaches to Adaptive Delta Management as encountered in both scientific and professional publications are identified and characterized on three dimensions: The characteristics dimensions used are: orientation on today, orientation on the future, and decision making (Timmermans, 2015). The different underlying management theories encountered are policy analysis, strategic management, transition management, and adaptive management. These four management theories underlying different approaches in Adaptive Delta Management are connected to

  8. Novel selective kappa-opioid ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, O M; Jamroz, D; Blaton, N M; De Ranter, C J

    1999-03-15

    The single-crystal X-ray structures of (-)-dimethyl[(2S)-1-(5,6,7,8- tetrahydro-5-oxonaphthalene-2-acetyl)piperidin-2-ylmethyl ]ammonium chloride, C20H29N2O2+.Cl-(BRL-53001A), and (-)-ethylmethyl[(2S)-1-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-5-oxonaphthalene- 2- acetyl)piperidin-2-ylmethyl]-ammonium chloride dihydrate, C21H31N2O2+.Cl-.2H2O (BRL-53188A), have been determined. The two molecules have different conformations in the 1-tetralon-6-ylacetyl residue but the same conformation in the 1-acetyl-2-(dialkylaminomethyl)piperidine moiety. The conformations found are in agreement with the required chemical features for kappa affinity and antinociceptive potency.

  9. Kappa-Electrons Downstream of the Solar Wind Termination Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahr, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    A theoretical description of the solar wind electron distribution function downstream of the termination shock under the influence of the shock-induced injection of overshooting KeV-energetic electrons will be presented. A kinetic phasespace transport equation in the bulk frame of the heliosheath plasma flow is developed for the solar wind electrons, taking into account shock-induced electron injection, convective changes, magnetic cooling processes and whistler wave-induced energy diffusion. Assuming that the local electron distribution under the prevailing Non-LTE conditions can be represented by a local kappa function with a local kappa parameter that varies with the streamline coordinates, we determine the parameters of the resulting, initial kappa distribution for the downstream electrons. From this initial function spectral electron fluxes can be derived and can be compared with those measured by the VOYAGER-1 spacecraft in the range between 40 to 70 KeV. It can then be shown that with kappa values around kappa = 6 one can in fact fit these data very satisfactorily. In addition it is shown that for isentropic electron flows kappa-distributed electrons have to undergo simultaneous changes of both parameters, i.e. kappa and theta, of the electron kappa function. It is also shown then that under the influence of energy sinks and sources the electron flux becomes non-isentropic with electron entropies changing along the streamline.

  10. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Hepatitis D (Delta agent) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the ...

  11. Delta 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skott, Jeppe; Skott, Charlotte Krog; Jess, Kristine

    DELTA 2.0 er en ny og helt opdateret udgave af Delta, der i ti år været brugt i matematiklærernes grund-, efter- og videreuddannelse. DELTA 2.0 er seriens almene fagdidaktik. Der er også fagdidaktiske overvejelser i de øvrige bøger i serien, men de er knyttet til specifikt matematisk indhold. DELTA...... 2.0 behandler mere generelle matematikdidaktiske problemstillinger såsom læringsteoretiske overvejelser i forbindelse med matematik, centrale aspekter af det at undervise i matematik og digitale teknologier som værktøj til at støtte elevers faglige læring af matematik....

  12. Nonequilibrium approach regarding metals from a linearised kappa distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech-Garret, J. L.

    2017-10-01

    The widely used kappa distribution functions develop high-energy tails through an adjustable kappa parameter. The aim of this work is to show that such a parameter can itself be regarded as a function, which entangles information about the sources of disequilibrium. We first derive and analyse an expanded Fermi-Dirac kappa distribution. Later, we use this expanded form to obtain an explicit analytical expression for the kappa parameter of a heated metal on which an external electric field is applied. We show that such a kappa index causes departures from equilibrium depending on the physical magnitudes. Finally, we study the role of temperature and electric field on such a parameter, which characterises the electron population of a metal out of equilibrium.

  13. Kappa Cygnids (KCG) by TV observation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Yasuo

    2017-12-01

    The kappa Cygnids (KCG) and its nearby region were researched by using Japanese automatic TV observation network (SonotaCo network) results for 2007-2016. KCG in 2007 and 2014 were observed with an enhancement of eight times as many meteors than ordinary years at solar longitude 145 degrees. Also the 2013 KCG were enhanced with three times the number of meteors recorded than ordinary years at solar longitude 135 degrees. In years of observed enhanced KCG (2007, 2013, 2014) luminous magnitudes were brighter than in ordinary years. The 2007 and 2014 KCG radiant distributions were similar but shifted 5 degrees to the north in 2013. The 2013 KCG orbital elements were systematically different from 2007 and 2014. If a continuous meteoroid distribution in the solar system causes the enhanced KCG, it is suggested that a distorted `swarm' has been constructed. The annual KCG radiant distribution and distributions of every orbital element have some peaks which indicate a complex meteor shower. Luminous trajectory altitudes in years of observed enhanced KCG were higher than the annual KCG height. August Draconids (AUD) is an annual meteor shower, many meteors of which are decided to also belong to KCG by using the criterion, but each meteor shower is independent because they have different characteristics. AUD radiants on the celestial sphere drift to the west and form an arc lasting till the end of September. I recommend to create a standard to decide for two meteor showers whether they are truly two meteor showers or not.

  14. Nonplanar ion acoustic waves with kappa-distributed electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, Biswajit

    2011-01-01

    Using the standard reductive perturbation technique, nonlinear cylindrical and spherical Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equations are derived for the propagation of ion acoustic solitary waves in an unmagnetized collisionless plasma with kappa distributed electrons and warm ions. The influence of kappa-distributed electrons and the effects caused by the transverse perturbation on cylindrical and spherical ion acoustic waves (IAWs) are investigated. It is observed that increase in the kappa distributed electrons (i.e., decreasing κ) decreases the amplitude of the solitary electrostatic potential structures. The numerical results are presented to understand the formation of ion acoustic solitary waves with kappa-distributed electrons in nonplanar geometry. The present investigation may have relevance in the study of propagation of IAWs in space and laboratory plasmas.

  15. Kappa. -electron capture probability in sup 167 Tm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sree Krishna Murty, G.; Chandrasekhar Rao, M.V.S.; Radha Krishna, K.; Bhuloka Reddy, S.; Satyanarayana, G.; Ramana Rao, P.V.; Sastry, D.L. (Andhra Univ., Visakhapatnam (India). Labs. for Nuclear Research); Chintalapudi, S.N. (Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta (India))

    1990-07-01

    The {Kappa}-electron capture probability in the decay of {sup 167}Tm for the first-forbidden transition 1/2{sup +}{yields}3/2{sup -} was measured using the sum-coincidence method and employing a hyper-pure Ge system. The P{sub {Kappa}} value is found to be 0.835{plus minus}0.029, in agreement with the theoretical value of 0.829. (author).

  16. Women of Niger Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion Dept

    The Indispensability of Women in Conflict Resolution in the Niger Delta ... The situation leads to a shift in gender roles with a dramatic increase in the number of women .... organization is to work in partnership with the Nigerian Government and the .... that “women are the impartial arbitrators in family or clan disputes or.

  17. Conservative Delta Hedging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    an exact method for converting such intervals into arbitrage based prices of financial derivatives or industrial or contractual options. We call this...procedure conservative delta hedging . As existing procedures are of an ad hoc nature, the proposed approach will permit an institution’s man agement a greater oversight of its exposure to risk.

  18. Mystery of the delta(980)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahn, R.N.; Landshoff, P.V.

    1986-01-01

    The apparent conflict between the dominance of the decay delta->etaπ in D->deltaπ and its absence in iota->deltaπ is analyzed. Explicit models are presented in which the nearby Kanti K threshold plays an important role in resolving the conflict. (orig.)

  19. Ordovician and Silurian Phi Kappa and Trail Creek formations, Pioneer Mountains, central Idaho; stratigraphic and structural revisions, and new data on graptolite faunas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dover, James H.; Berry, William B.N.; Ross, Reuben James

    1980-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping in the northern Pioneer Mountains combined with the identification of graptolites from 116 new collections indicate that the Ordovician and Silurian Phi Kappa and Trail Creek Formations occur in a series of thrust-bounded slices within a broad zone of imbricate thrust faulting. Though confirming a deformational style first reported in a 1963 study by Michael Churkin, our data suggest that the complexity and regional extent of the thrust zone were not previously recognized. Most previously published sections of the Phi Kappa and Trail Creek Formations were measured across unrecognized thrust faults and therefore include not only structural repetitions of graptolitic Ordovician and Silurian rocks but also other tectonically juxtaposed lithostratigraphic units of diverse ages as well. Because of this discovery, the need to reconsider the stratigraphic validity of these formations and their lithology, nomenclature, structural distribution, facies relations, and graptolite faunas has arisen. The Phi Kappa Formation in most thrust slices has internal stratigraphic continuity despite the intensity of deformation to which it was subjected. As revised herein, the Phi Kappa Formation is restricted to a structurally repeated succession of predominantly black, carbonaceous, graptolitic argillite and shale. Some limy, light-gray-weathering shale occurs in the middle part of the section, and fine-grained locally pebbly quartzite is present at the base. The basal quartzite is here named the Basin Gulch Quartzite Member of the Phi Kappa. The Phi Kappa redefined on a lithologic basis represents the span of Ordovician time from W. B. N. Berry's graptolite zones 2-4 through 15 and also includes approximately 17 m of lithologically identical shale of Early and Middle Silurian age at the top. The lower contact of the formation as revised is tectonic. The Phi Kappa is gradationally overlain by the Trail Creek Formation as restricted herein. Most of the coarser

  20. Interactions among oscillatory pathways in NF-kappa B signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Michael RH

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sustained stimulation with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha induces substantial oscillations—observed at both the single cell and population levels—in the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B system. Although the mechanism has not yet been elucidated fully, a core system has been identified consisting of a negative feedback loop involving NF-kappa B (RelA:p50 hetero-dimer and its inhibitor I-kappa B-alpha. Many authors have suggested that this core oscillator should couple to other oscillatory pathways. Results First we analyse single-cell data from experiments in which the NF-kappa B system is forced by short trains of strong pulses of TNF-alpha. Power spectra of the ratio of nuclear-to-cytoplasmic concentration of NF-kappa B suggest that the cells' responses are entrained by the pulsing frequency. Using a recent model of the NF-kappa B system due to Caroline Horton, we carried out extensive numerical simulations to analyze the response frequencies induced by trains of pulses of TNF-alpha stimulation having a wide range of frequencies and amplitudes. These studies suggest that for sufficiently weak stimulation, various nonlinear resonances should be observable. To explore further the possibility of probing alternative feedback mechanisms, we also coupled the model to sinusoidal signals with a wide range of strengths and frequencies. Our results show that, at least in simulation, frequencies other than those of the forcing and the main NF-kappa B oscillator can be excited via sub- and superharmonic resonance, producing quasiperiodic and even chaotic dynamics. Conclusions Our numerical results suggest that the entrainment phenomena observed in pulse-stimulated experiments is a consequence of the high intensity of the stimulation. Computational studies based on current models suggest that resonant interactions between periodic pulsatile forcing and the system's natural frequencies may become evident for sufficiently

  1. Physico Chemical Characteristic of Kappa Carrageenan Degraded Using Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizky Febriansyah Siregar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractKappa carrageenan is polysaccharide that widely used in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, textile and printing industries as coagulate agent, stabilizer and gelling agent. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is strong oxidator to degrade polysaccharide. Hydrogen peroxide has some advantades such as cheap, easy to get and savety environment. Degradation method using hydrogen peroxide is a technology based on establishment radical hydoxile reactive that attack the glycosidic of polysaccharides as a result reducing in molecular weight of polysaccharide. The aims of this study were to analyze the effect of hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature and degradation time to molecular weight of refined kappa carrageenan. Structural changes on kappa carrageenan degradation were characterized by viscometer, SEM and FTIR. Hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature and degradation time were significantly reducing molecular weight and changes in the structural function of refined kappa carrageenan. The lowest molecular weight of refined kappa carrageenan degraded was obtained from the treatment 3% of hydrogen peroxide at temperature 80°C and degradation time for 4 hours.

  2. Ion and electron Kappa distribution functions in the plasma sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, P. S.; Stepanova, M. V.; Espinoza, C.; Antonova, E. E.; Valdivia, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    We present a study of ion and electron flux spectra in the Earth's plasma sheet using kappa distribution functions. Satellite data from the THEMIS mission were collected for thousands of crossings through the plasma sheet, between 7 and 35 Re and during the years 2008-2009. The events were separated according to the geomagnetic activity at the time. Our results show the distribution of the kappa index and characteristic energies across the plasma sheet and its evolution with distance to Earth for quiet times and for the substorm expansion and recovery phases. For the ions, it is observed that the kappa values tend to decrease outwards and that this effect is more significant in the dusk sector, where the smallest values are found for distances beyond 15 Re. The main effect of the substorms appears as an enhancement of this behavior. The electrons show a much more homogeneous distribution in quiet times, with a mild tendency for larger kappa values at larger distances. During substorms, the kappa values tend to equalize and appear very homogenous during expansion. However, they exhibit a significant increase in the dusk sector during the recovery substorm phase. Finally, we observe that the characteristic energy of the particles during substorms increases and concentrate at distances less than 15 Re.

  3. Numerical solution of High-kappa model of superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamikhova, R. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We present formulation and finite element approximations of High-kappa model of superconductivity which is valid in the high {kappa}, high magnetic field setting and accounts for applied magnetic field and current. Major part of this work deals with steady-state and dynamic computational experiments which illustrate our theoretical results numerically. In our experiments we use Galerkin discretization in space along with Backward-Euler and Crank-Nicolson schemes in time. We show that for moderate values of {kappa}, steady states of the model system, computed using the High-kappa model, are virtually identical with results computed using the full Ginzburg-Landau (G-L) equations. We illustrate numerically optimal rates of convergence in space and time for the L{sup 2} and H{sup 1} norms of the error in the High-kappa solution. Finally, our numerical approximations demonstrate some well-known experimentally observed properties of high-temperature superconductors, such as appearance of vortices, effects of increasing the applied magnetic field and the sample size, and the effect of applied constant current.

  4. Scalar field propagation in the phi^4 kappa-Minkowski model

    OpenAIRE

    Meljanac, S.; Samsarov, A.; Trampetic, J.; Wohlgenannt, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we use the noncommutative (NC) kappa-Minkowski phi^4 model based on the kappa-deformed star product, ({*}_h). The action is modified by expanding up to linear order in the kappa-deformation parameter a, producing an effective model on commutative spacetime. For the computation of the tadpole diagram contributions to the scalar field propagation/self-energy, we anticipate that statistics on the kappa-Minkowski is specifically kappa-deformed. Thus our prescription in fact repres...

  5. Method for rapidly determining a pulp kappa number using spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhu, Jun Yong

    2002-01-01

    A system and method for rapidly determining the pulp kappa number through direct measurement of the potassium permanganate concentration in a pulp-permanganate solution using spectrophotometry. Specifically, the present invention uses strong acidification to carry out the pulp-permanganate oxidation reaction in the pulp-permanganate solution to prevent the precipitation of manganese dioxide (MnO.sub.2). Consequently, spectral interference from the precipitated MnO.sub.2 is eliminated and the oxidation reaction becomes dominant. The spectral intensity of the oxidation reaction is then analyzed to determine the pulp kappa number.

  6. Receptor tyrosine phosphatase R-PTP-kappa mediates homophilic binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sap, J; Jiang, Y P; Friedlander, D

    1994-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine phosphatases (R-PTPases) feature PTPase domains in the context of a receptor-like transmembrane topology. The R-PTPase R-PTP-kappa displays an extracellular domain composed of fibronectin type III motifs, a single immunoglobulin domain, as well as a recently defined MAM domain (Y...... not require PTPase activity or posttranslational proteolytic cleavage of the R-PTP-kappa protein and is calcium independent. The results suggest that R-PTPases may provide a link between cell-cell contact and cellular signaling events involving tyrosine phosphorylation....

  7. on skin keratinocytes by nuclear factor-kappa B

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-06-21

    Jun 21, 2012 ... Effects of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) on ... AGE levels, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) localization and cell viability were measured in vivo. ..... and related alteration in NF-κB activity, we treated normal cells by ...

  8. An improved Fuzzy Kappa statistic that accounts for spatial autocorrelation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen - Zanker, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    The Fuzzy Kappa statistic expresses the agreement between two categorical raster maps. The statistic goes beyond cell-by-cell comparison and gives partial credit to cells based on the categories found in the neighborhood. When matching categories are found at shorter distances the agreement is

  9. Cdc25A promotes cell survival by stimulating NF-{kappa}B activity through I{kappa}B-{alpha} phosphorylation and destabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hey-Young; Choi, Jiyeon [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, 192-1 Hyoja-2-dong, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young-Wook [Korea Basic Science Institute, Chuncheon Center, Gangwondaehak-gil 1, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Chul, E-mail: bckim@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, 192-1 Hyoja-2-dong, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the antiapoptotic mechanisms of Cdc25A. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smad7 decreases the phosphorylation of I{kappa}B-alpha at Ser-32. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smad7 positively regulates NF-{kappa}B activity through I{kappa}B-alpha ubiquitination. -- Abstract: Cell division cycle 25A (Cdc25A), a dual specificity protein phosphatase, exhibits anti-apoptotic activity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly characterized. Here we report that Cdc25A inhibits cisplatin-induced apoptotic cell death by stimulating nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activity. In HEK-293 cells, Cdc25A decreased protein level of inhibitor subunit kappa B alpha (I{kappa}-B{alpha}) in association with increased serine 32-phosphorylation, followed by stimulation of transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B. Inhibition of NF-{kappa}B activity by chemical inhibitor or overexpression of I{kappa}-B{alpha} in Cdc25A-elevated cancer cells resistant to cisplatin improved their sensitivity to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Our data show for the first time that Cdc25A has an important physiological role in NF-{kappa}B activity regulation and it may be an important survival mechanism of cancer cells.

  10. Thermostatted delta f

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The delta f simulation method is revisited. Statistical coarse-graining is used to rigorously derive the equation for the fluctuation delta f in the particle distribution. It is argued that completely collisionless simulation is incompatible with the achievement of true statistically steady states with nonzero turbulent fluxes because the variance of the particle weights w grows with time. To ensure such steady states, it is shown that for dynamically collisionless situations a generalized thermostat or W-stat may be used in lieu of a full collision operator to absorb the flow of entropy to unresolved fine scales in velocity space. The simplest W-stat can be implemented as a self-consistently determined, time-dependent damping applied to w. A precise kinematic analogy to thermostatted nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) is pointed out, and the justification of W-stats for simulations of turbulence is discussed. An extrapolation procedure is proposed such that the long-time, steady-state, collisionless flux can be deduced from several short W-statted runs with large effective collisionality, and a numerical demonstration is given

  11. Phenotypic expressions of CCR5-Delta 32/Delta 32 homozygosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, GT; Carrington, M; Beeler, JA; Dean, M; Aledort, LM; Blatt, PM; Cohen, AR; DiMichele, D; Eyster, ME; Kessler, CM; Konkle, B; Leissinger, C; Luban, N; O'Brien, SJ; Goedert, JJ; O'Brien, TR

    1999-01-01

    Objective: As blockade of CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) has been proposed as therapy for HIV-1, we examined whether the CCR5-Delta 32/Delta 32 homozygous genotype has phenotypic expressions other than those related to HIV-1. Design: Study subjects were white homosexual men or men with hemophilia

  12. Peat compaction in deltas : implications for Holocene delta evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselen, S.

    2010-01-01

    Many deltas contain substantial amounts of peat, which is the most compressible soil type. Therefore, peat compaction potentially leads to high amounts of subsidence in deltas. The main objective of this research was to quantify subsidence due to peat compaction in Holocene fluvial-deltaic settings

  13. Challenges, Approaches and Experiences from Asian Deltas and the Rhine-Meuse Delta : Regional Training Workshop on Delta Planning and Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wosten, J.H.M.; Douven, W.; Long Phi, H.; Fida Abdullah Khan, M.

    2013-01-01

    River delta's, like the Mekong Delta (Vietnam), Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (Bangladesh), Ayeyarwady Delta (Myanmar), Nile (Egypt) and Ciliwung Delta (Indonesia) are developing rapidly and are characterised by large-scale urbanisation and industrialization processes. They are facing serious planning

  14. Mida pakub Delta? / Teele Kurm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurm, Teele

    2011-01-01

    Politsei- ja Piirivalveamet võtab kasutusele ühise Siseministeeriumi infotehnoloogia- ja arenduskeskuse ning Webmedia AS koostööna loodud dokumendihaldussüsteemi Delta. Kust sai Delta oma nime? Projekti "Dokumendihaldussüsteemi juurutamine Siseministeeriumi haldusalas" eesmärgid

  15. Delta isobars in neutron stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagliara Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of delta isobars in beta-stable matter is regulated by the behavior of the symmetry energy at densities larger than saturation density. We show that by taking into account recent constraints on the density derivative of the symmetry energy and the theoretical and experimental results on the excitations of delta isobars in nuclei, delta isobars are necessary ingredients for the equations of state used for studying neutron stars. We analyze the effect of the appearance of deltas on the structure of neutron stars: as in the case of hyperons, matter containing delta is too soft for allowing the existence of 2M⊙ neutron stars. Quark stars on the other hand, could reach very massive configurations and they could form from a process of conversion of hadronic stars in which an initial seed of strangeness appears through hyperons.

  16. Uus tähendus naistepäevale / Marianne Skardéus, Urve Läänemets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Skardéus, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Rahvusvahelisest naistest haridustöötajate organisatsioonist: Delta Kappa Gamma maailmaorganisatsioon (Delta Kappa Gamma Society International). 8. märtsil avati Tallinna Rahvusraamatukogus selle organisatsiooni esimene Eesti allorganisatsioon.

  17. DELTA 3D PRINTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘOVĂILĂ Florin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing is a very used process in industry, the generic name being “rapid prototyping”. The essential advantage of a 3D printer is that it allows the designers to produce a prototype in a very short time, which is tested and quickly remodeled, considerably reducing the required time to get from the prototype phase to the final product. At the same time, through this technique we can achieve components with very precise forms, complex pieces that, through classical methods, could have been accomplished only in a large amount of time. In this paper, there are presented the stages of a 3D model execution, also the physical achievement after of a Delta 3D printer after the model.

  18. The roles of MCP-1 and protein kinase C delta activation in human eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Sook; Yang, Eun Ju; Kim, In Sik

    2009-12-01

    Idiopathic hypereosinophilc syndrome is a disorder associated with clonally eosinophilic proliferation. The importance of FIP1-like-1-platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha (FIP1L1-PDGFRA) in the pathogenesis and classification of HES has been recently reported. In this study, we investigated the contribution of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/CCL2 to chemotactic activity and protein kinase C delta (PKC delta in the human eosinophilic leukemia cell line EoL-1. These cells express CCR2 protein among the CC chemokine receptors (CCR1-5). MCP-1 induces strong migration of EoL-1 cells and the chemotaxis signal in response to MCP-1 involves a G(i)/G(o) protein, phospholipase C (PLC), PKC delta, p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB. MCP-1 activates p38 MAPK via G(i)/G(o) protein, PLC and PKC delta cascade. MCP-1 also induces NF-kappaB translocation and the activation is inhibited by PKC delta activation. The increase in the basal expression and activity of PKC delta in EoL-1 cells, compared to normal eosinophils, inhibits apoptosis in EoL-1 cells. Anti-apoptotic mechanism of PKC delta is related to inhibition of caspase 3 and caspase 9, but not to FIP1L1-PDGFRA. PKC delta functions as an anti-apoptotic molecule, and is involved in EoL-1 cell movement stimulated by MCP-1. This study contributes to an understanding of MCP-1 in eosinophil biology and pathogenic mechanism of eosinophilic disorders.

  19. NIRS Characterization of Paper Pulps to Predict Kappa Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Moral

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most abundant food crops in the world and its straw stands as an important source of fibres both from an economic and an environmental point of view. Pulp characterization is of special relevance in works involving alternative raw materials, since pulp properties are closely linked to the quality of the final product. One of the analytical techniques that can be used in pulp characterization is near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. The use of NIRS has economic and technical advantages over conventional techniques. This paper aims to discuss the convenience of using NIRS to predict Kappa number in rice straw pulps produced under different conditions. We found that the resulting Kappa number can be acceptably estimated by NIRS, as the errors obtained with that method are similar to those found for other techniques.

  20. Study Of Calcium And Potassium Different Nature Strength Gel Kappa-Carrageenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Петро Васильович Гурський

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of certain organic and mineral salts of potassium and calcium for strength gel kappa-carrageenan. The influence of the mass concentration of individual calcium for strength gels with different content kappa-carrageenan. Grounded mass concentration of some calcium salts for use in the composition of the jelly for sweet and savory dishes based on kappa-carrageenan

  1. Characterization of immunoglobulin A kappa autoantibodies to human lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme-3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijers, R. N.; Oude Elferink, R. P.; Mulder, J.; Kruijswijk, H.

    1987-01-01

    We have purified with a cumulative recovery of 48% from the serum of a patient the immunoglobulin A kappa subunit of the lactate dehydrogenase-immunoglobulin A kappa (LD-IgA kappa) complex. It appears that the pI range of the complex is 5.4-5.8. The Ig part of the complex showed a monoclonal

  2. The Great Diversion: Danube Delta under Human Control (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giosan, L.

    2009-12-01

    Many deltas around the world are suffering from sediment deficits that render them unstable to current and predicted rates of sea level rise. One solution proposed to alleviate the complete or partial drowning of such deltas is the use of river diversions to increase the quantity of sediment supplied to the delta plain to support marsh accretion. We examine the results of a half century old program of diversion in the Danube delta that led to the creation of an extensive diversion channel network akin in scope and size to a natural deltaic network. Danube’s importance as a shipping route increased after the Crimean War in the 1850s; the European Danube Commission was charged with maintaining the Sulina distributary as a shipping channel until 1940s. In the same period, several canals were dug to aid fishing in lakes and bring freshwater to brackish lagoons. After World War II, Communist authorities dramatically increased the number of canals for fishing, fish-farming and reed harvesting. New data on sedimentation rates and estimates of sediment fluxes suggest that the intensive canalization in the second half of the 20th Century led to increased sediment deposition that compensated the decreasing sediment discharge linked to damming within the internal fluvial part of the delta; however, the external marine delta has become increasingly sediment starved during the same interval. We emphasize the similarities and contrasts between the “human-controlled” and natural deltaic channel networks of the Danube delta and discuss the sustainability of the delta as a sediment budget problem within a sea level rise context.

  3. Fast delta Hadamard transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.; Weston, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    In many fields (e.g., spectroscopy, imaging spectroscopy, photoacoustic imaging, coded aperture imaging) binary bit patterns known as m sequences are used to encode (by multiplexing) a series of measurements in order to obtain a larger throughput. The observed measurements must be decoded to obtain the desired spectrum (or image in the case of coded aperture imaging). Decoding in the past has used a technique called the fast Hadamard transform (FHT) whose chief advantage is that it can reduce the computational effort from N 2 multiplies of N log 2 N additions or subtractions. However, the FHT has the disadvantage that it does not readily allow one to sample more finely than the number of bits used in the m sequence. This can limit the obtainable resolution and cause confusion near the sample boundaries (phasing errors). Both 1-D and 2-D methods (called fast delta Hadamard transforms, FDHT) have been developed which overcome both of the above limitations. Applications of the FDHT are discussed in the context of Hadamard spectroscopy and coded aperture imaging with uniformly redundant arrays. Special emphasis has been placed on how the FDHT can unite techniques used by both of these fields into the same mathematical basis

  4. Energy deposition by delta rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigand, F.C.; Braby, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations for proton tracks were extended to projectile with more complex electronic structures which add additional delta ray production processes. An experimental apparatus was used to detect gas gain and resolution for H 2+ and 3 He ++

  5. Niger Delta Development Commission and Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Niger Delta Development Commission and Sustainable Development of Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: The Case of Rivers State. Goddey Wilson. Abstract. The study is on Niger Delta Development Commission and sustainable development of Niger Delta region of Nigeria, the case of Rivers State. The main objective of the ...

  6. $\\delta$-Expansion at Finite Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Rudnei O.

    1996-01-01

    We apply the $\\delta$-expansion perturbation scheme to the $\\lambda \\phi^{4}$ self-interacting scalar field theory in 3+1 D at finite temperature. In the $\\delta$-expansion the interaction term is written as $\\lambda (\\phi^{2})^{ 1 + \\delta}$ and $\\delta$ is considered as the perturbation parameter. We compute within this perturbative approach the renormalized mass at finite temperature at a finite order in $\\delta$. The results are compared with the usual loop-expansion at finite temperature.

  7. Anaerobic Transformation of Furfural by Methanococcus deltae (Delta)LH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, N.; Boopathy, R.; Voskuilen, G.

    1997-01-01

    Methanococcus deltae (Delta)LH was grown on H(inf2)-CO(inf2) in the presence of various concentrations of furfural. Furfural at higher concentrations, namely, 20 and 25 mM, inhibited growth of this organism. At concentration of 5 and 10 mM, no inhibition of growth was observed. The other methanogens in this study were not inhibited by 10 mM furfural. Among the methanogens tested, M. deltae was capable of transforming furfural, whereas Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum Marburg, Methanosarcina barkeri 227, Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus, and Methanobrevibacter ruminantium lacked this capability. One hundred percent removal of furfural was observed within 48 h of incubation in M. deltae cultures. The end product observed during furfural metabolism was furfuryl alcohol. An almost stoichiometric amount of furfuryl alcohol was produced by M. deltae. This transformation is likely to be of value in the detoxification of furfural and in its ultimate conversion to methane and CO(inf2) by anaerobic digestion. PMID:16535618

  8. Behavioral meaningful opioidergic stimulation activates kappa receptor gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Teodorov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The periaqueductal gray (PAG has been reported to be a location for opioid regulation of pain and a potential site for behavioral selection in females. Opioid-mediated behavioral and physiological responses differ according to the activity of opioid receptor subtypes. The present study investigated the effects of the peripheral injection of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 into the dorsal subcutaneous region of animals on maternal behavior and on Oprk1 gene activity in the PAG of female rats. Female Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g at the beginning of the study were randomly divided into 2 groups for maternal behavior and gene expression experiments. On day 5, pups were removed at 7:00 am and placed in another home cage that was distant from their mother. Thirty minutes after removing the pups, the dams were treated with U69593 (0.15 mg/kg, sc or 0.9% saline (up to 1 mL/kg and after 30 min were evaluated in the maternal behavior test. Latencies in seconds for pup retrieval, grouping, crouching, and full maternal behavior were scored. The results showed that U69593 administration inhibited maternal behavior (P < 0.05 because a lower percentage of kappa group dams showed retrieval of first pup, retrieving all pups, grouping, crouching and displaying full maternal behavior compared to the saline group. Opioid gene expression was evaluated using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. A single injection of U69593 increased Oprk1 PAG expression in both virgin (P < 0.05 and lactating female rats (P < 0.01, with no significant effect on Oprm1 or Oprd1 gene activity. Thus, the expression of kappa-opioid receptors in the PAG may be modulated by single opioid receptor stimulation and behavioral meaningful opioidergic transmission in the adult female might occur simultaneously to specific changes in gene expression of kappa-opioid receptor subtype. This is yet another alert for the complex role of the opioid system in

  9. Functional inhibition of NF-kappa B signal transduction in alpha v alpha beta 3 integrin expressing endothelial cells by using RGD-PEG-modified adenovirus with a mutant I kappa B gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogawara, K; Kuldo, JM; Oosterhuis, K; Kroesen, BJ; Rots, MG; Trautwein, C; Kimura, T; Haisma, HJ; Molema, G

    2006-01-01

    In order to selectively block nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B)-dependent signal transduction in angiogenic endothelial cells, we constructed an alpha v beta 3 integrin specific adenovirus encoding dominant negative I kappa B (dnI kappa B) as a therapeutic gene. By virtue of RGD modification of

  10. Selection of antigenic markers on a GFP-C{kappa} fusion scaffold with high sensitivity by eukaryotic ribosome display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongmin, Yang [Institute of Genetics, San Diego, CA 92121-2233 (United States); IgE Therapeutics, Inc., San Diego, CA 92121-2233 (United States); Barankiewicz, Teresa J [Institute of Genetics, San Diego, CA 92121-2233 (United States); IgE Therapeutics, Inc., San Diego, CA 92121-2233 (United States); Mingyue, He [Babraham Institute, Cambridge CB2 4AT (United Kingdom); Taussig, Michael J [Babraham Institute, Cambridge CB2 4AT (United Kingdom); Chen, Swey-Shen [Institute of Genetics, San Diego, CA 92121-2233 (United States) and IgE Therapeutics, Inc., San Diego, CA 92121-2233 (United States)

    2007-07-27

    Ribosome display is a cell-free system permitting gene selection through the physical association of genetic material (mRNA) and its phenotypic (protein) product. While often used to select single-chain antibodies from large libraries by panning against immobilized antigens, we have adapted ribosome display for use in the 'reverse' format in order to select high affinity antigenic determinants against solid-phase antibody. To create an antigenic scaffold, DNA encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was fused to a light chain constant domain (C{kappa}) with stop codon deleted, and with 5' signals (T7 promoter, Kozak) enabling coupled transcription/translation in a eukaryotic cell-free system. Epitopes on either GFP (5') or C{kappa} (3') were selected by anti-GFP or anti-C{kappa} antibodies, respectively, coupled to magnetic beads. After selection, mRNA was amplified directly from protein-ribosome-mRNA (PRM) complexes by in situ PCR followed by internal amplification and reassembly PCR. As little as 10 fg of the 1 kb DNA construct, i.e. approximately 7500 molecules, could be recovered following a single round of interaction with solid-phase anti-GFP antibody. This platform is highly specific and sensitive for the antigen-antibody interaction and may permit selection and reshaping of high affinity antigenic variants of scaffold proteins.

  11. Biomass co-firing for Delta Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2014-01-01

    Electricity generator Delta Electricity has implemented a biomass co-firing program at its Vales Point power station on the Central Coast to reduce its reliance on coal and emissions of CO 2 . The program comprises two parts: direct co-firing with coal of up to 5% biomass; and development of Continuous Biomass Converter (CBC) technology with the Crucible Group to remove technology constraints and enable much higher rates of biomass co-firing. It is talking industrial scale tests. Delta increased biomass co-firing in 2013/14 to 32,000 tonnes, up from just 3,000 tonnes the previous year, and conducted biochar co-firing trials at a rate equivalent to 400,000 tonnes per annum to demonstrate the potential of CBC technology. It reduced CO 2 emissions in 2013/14 by more than 32,000 tonnes. 'Legislation and regulations define biomass as renewable,' said Delta Electricity sustainability manager Justin Flood. 'By preferring biomass over coal, the carbon in the coal is not burnt and remains locked up.' One biomass source is wood waste that would normally go to landfill, but the primary driver of Delta's recent increase in co-firing is sawmill residues. 'Previously there was a higher value market for the residues for paper pulp. However, when that market evaporated the timber industry was left with a sizable problem in terms of what to do with its residues and the loss of revenue,' said Flood. The way greenhouse gas accounting is conducted in Australia, with carbon emissions based on site activities, makes it difficult to undertake a life cycle assessment of the program. 'However, some of the international studies looking at this issue have concluded that the net carbon emissions of the biomass system are significantly lower than the coal system because of the uptake of carbon during biomass growth,' said Flood. Delta identified two challenges, sourcing the feedstock and that biomass conversion to electricity is slightly less

  12. Colloidal gas-liquid condensation of polystyrene latex particles with intermediate kappa a values (5 to 160, a > kappa(-1)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Masamichi; Kitano, Ryota

    2010-02-16

    Polystyrene latex particles showed gas-liquid condensation under the conditions of large particle radius (a > kappa(-1)) and intermediate kappa a, where kappa is the Debye-Hückel parameter and a is the particle radius. The particles were dissolved in deionized water containing ethanol from 0 to 77 vol %, settled to the bottom of the glass plate within 1 h, and then laterally moved toward the center of a cell over a 20 h period in reaching a state of equilibrium condensation. All of the suspensions that were 1 and 3 microm in diameter and 0.01-0.20 vol % in concentration realized similar gas-liquid condensation with clear gas-liquid boundaries. In 50 vol % ethanol solvent, additional ethanol was added to enhance the sedimentation force so as to restrict the particles in a monoparticle layer thickness. The coexistence of gas-liquid-solid (crystalline solid) was microscopically recognized from the periphery to the center of the condensates. A phase diagram of the gas-liquid condensation was created as a function of KCl concentration at a particle diameter of 3 microm, 0.10 vol % concentration, and 50:50 water/ethanol solvent at room temperature. The miscibility gap was observed in the concentration range from 1 to 250 microM. There was an upper limit of salt concentration where the phase separation disappeared, showing nearly critical behavior of macroscopic density fluctuation from 250 microM to 1 mM. These results add new experimental evidence to the existence of colloidal gas-liquid condensation and specify conditions of like-charge attraction between particles.

  13. Binding of kappa- and sigma-opiates in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolozin, B.L.; Nishimura, S.; Pasternak, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    Detailed displacements of [ 3 H]dihydromorphine by ketocyclazocine and SKF 10,047, [ 3 H]ethylketocyclazocine by SKF 10,047, and [ 3 H]SKF 10,047 by ketocyclazocine are all multiphasic, suggesting multiple binding sites. After treating brain tissue in vitro with naloxazone, all displacements lose the initial inhibition of 3 H-ligand binding by low concentrations of unlabeled drugs. Together with Scatchard analysis of saturation experiments, these studies suggest a common site which binds mu-, kappa, and sigma-opiates and enkephalins equally well and with highest affinity (KD less than 1 nM). The ability of unlabeled drugs to displace the low affinity binding of [ 3 H]dihydromorphine (KD . 3 nM), [ 3 H]ethylketocyclazocine (KD . 4 nM), [ 3 H]SKF 10,047 (KD . 6 nM), and D-Ala2-D-Leu5-[ 3 H]enkephalin (KD . 5 nM) remaining after treating tissue with naloxazone demonstrates unique pharmacological profiles for each. These results suggest the existence of distinct binding sites for kappa- and sigma-opiates which differ from those sites which selectively bind morphine (mu) and enkephalin

  14. Ultraviolet inactivation and photoreactivation of the cholera phage 'Kappa'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samad, S.A.; Bhattacharyya, S.C.; Chatterjee, S.N.

    1987-01-01

    The lysogenic cholera phage, 'Kappa' is some ten to twenty folds more resistant to UV (254 nm) than are most of the T. phages of E. coli, or the cholera phage PL 163/10, or the host V. cholerae strain H218 Sm r , the 37% (D 37 ) and 10% (D 10 ) survival doses being 255.8 J/m 2 and 633.6 J/m 2 respectively. The UV-irradiated 'Kappa' phages could be photoreactivated in the host V. cholerae strain H218 Sm r to a maximum extent of 40%. The removal of the number of lethal hits per phage by the survival-enhancement treatment (photoreactivation) with time followed an exponential relation, the constant probability of removal of lethal hit per unit time being 2.8x10 -2 min -1 . The UV-irradiated phages could also be Weigle reactivated in the host strain of H218 Sm r by a small degree, the maximum reactivation factor (ratio of survivals in UV-irradiated and non-irradiated hosts) being 1.50. (orig.)

  15. Limited ability of DNA polymerase kappa to suppress benzo[a]pyrene-induced genotoxicity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumura, Kenichi; Toyoda-Hokaiwado, Naomi; Niimi, Naoko; Grúz, Petr; Wada, Naoko A; Takeiri, Akira; Jishage, Kou-Ichi; Mishima, Masayuki; Nohmi, Takehiko

    2017-12-01

    DNA polymerase kappa (Polk) is a specialized DNA polymerase involved in translesion DNA synthesis. To understand the protective roles against genotoxins in vivo, we established inactivated Polk knock-in gpt delta (inactivated Polk KI) mice that possessed reporter genes for mutations and expressed inactive Polk. In this study, we examined genotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) to determine whether Polk actually suppressed BP-induced genotoxicity as predicted by biochemistry and in vitro cell culture studies. Seven-week-old inactivated Polk KI and wild-type (WT) mice were treated with BP at doses of 5, 15, or 50 mg/(kg·day) for three consecutive days by intragastric gavage, and mutations in the colon and micronucleus formation in the peripheral blood were examined. Surprisingly, no differences were observed in the frequencies of mutations and micronucleus formation at 5 or 50 mg/kg doses. Inactivated Polk KI mice exhibited approximately two times higher gpt mutant frequency than did WT mice only at the 15 mg/kg dose. The frequency of micronucleus formation was slightly higher in inactivated Polk KI than in WT mice at the same dose, but it was statistically insignificant. The results suggest that Polk has a limited ability to suppress BP-induced genotoxicity in the colon and bone marrow and also that the roles of specialized DNA polymerases in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis should be examined not only by in vitro assays but also by in vivo mouse studies. We also report the spontaneous mutagenesis in inactivated Polk KI mice at young and old ages. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:644-653, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Measurement of the Parameter Kappa, and Reevaluation of Kappa for Small to Moderate Earthquakes at Seismic Stations in the Vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biasi, Glenn; Anderson, John G

    2007-01-01

    The parameter kappa was defined by Anderson and Hough (1984) to describe the high-frequency spectral roll-off of the strong motion seismic spectrum. In the work of Su et al., (1996) the numerical value of kappa estimated for sites near Yucca Mountain was small (∼20 ms). The estimate obtained from these events has been applied through a rigorous methodology to develop design earthquake spectra with magnitude over 5.0. Smaller values of kappa lead to higher estimated ground motions in the methodology used by the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) for Yucca Mountain. An increase of 10 ms in kappa could result in a substantial decrease in the high frequency level of the predicted ground motions. Any parameter that plays such a critical role deserves close examination. Here, we study kappa and its associated uncertainties. The data set used by Su et al (1996) consisted of 12 M 2.8 to 4.5 earthquakes recorded at temporary stations deployed after the June 1992 Little Skull Mountain earthquake. The kappa elements of that study were revisited by Anderson and Su (MOL.20071203.0134) and substantially confirmed. One weakness of those studies is the limited data used. Few of these stations were on tuff or on Yucca Mountain itself. A decade of Southern Great Basin Digital Seismic Network (SGBDSN) recording has now yielded a larger body of on-scale, well calibrated digital ground motion records suitable for investigating kappa. We use the SGBDSN data to check some of the original assumptions, improve the statistical confidence of the conclusions, and determine values of kappa for stations on or near Yucca Mountain. The outstanding issues in kappa analysis, as they apply to Yucca Mountain, include: (1) The number itself. The kappa estimate near 20 msec from Su et al. (1996) and Anderson and Su (MOL.20071203.0134) is markedly smaller than is considered typical in California (Silva, 1995). The low kappa value has engineering consequences because when it is applied in

  17. Measurement of the Parameter Kappa, and Reevaluation of Kappa for Small to Moderate Earthquakes at Seismic Stations in the Vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biasi, Glenn; Anderson, John G

    2007-12-05

    The parameter kappa was defined by Anderson and Hough (1984) to describe the high-frequency spectral roll-off of the strong motion seismic spectrum. In the work of Su et al., (1996) the numerical value of kappa estimated for sites near Yucca Mountain was small (~20 ms). The estimate obtained from these events has been applied through a rigorous methodology to develop design earthquake spectra with magnitude over 5.0. Smaller values of kappa lead to higher estimated ground motions in the methodology used by the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) for Yucca Mountain. An increase of 10 ms in kappa could result in a substantial decrease in the high frequency level of the predicted ground motions. Any parameter that plays such a critical role deserves close examination. Here, we study kappa and its associated uncertainties. The data set used by Su et al (1996) consisted of 12 M 2.8 to 4.5 earthquakes recorded at temporary stations deployed after the June 1992 Little Skull Mountain earthquake. The kappa elements of that study were revisited by Anderson and Su (MOL.20071203.0134) and substantially confirmed. One weakness of those studies is the limited data used. Few of these stations were on tuff or on Yucca Mountain itself. A decade of Southern Great Basin Digital Seismic Network (SGBDSN) recording has now yielded a larger body of on-scale, well calibrated digital ground motion records suitable for investigating kappa. We use the SGBDSN data to check some of the original assumptions, improve the statistical confidence of the conclusions, and determine values of kappa for stations on or near Yucca Mountain. The outstanding issues in kappa analysis, as they apply to Yucca Mountain, include: 1. The number itself. The kappa estimate near 20 msec from Su et al. (1996) and Anderson and Su (MOL.20071203.0134) is markedly smaller than is considered typical in California (Silva, 1995). The low kappa value has engineering consequences because when it is applied in ground

  18. Synoptic Lithostratigraphy of The Niger Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwajide, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    The Tertiary Niger Delta is stratigraphically framed by the Dahomey, Anambra, Abakaliki, Afikpo and Calabar Flank basins. From the apex at Onitsha a fluvial plain splays southwards and translates progressively into a freshwater swamp, succeeded by a mangrove swamp belt. Along the coast is a strip of wave-washed barrier bars indented by large estuaries, fronted by submerged moth bars. Habitation in the delta is on levees, point bars, and barrier bars. These landforms provided the firm salients for buildings the ports that facilitated international trade from the pre-colonial times.There are four lithofacies-clean, pebbly, and muddy sandstones, and mudstones. Their subdivision, based on sedimentary structures, textures and fossil content yields twenty reservoir and seven nonreservoir classes. Their environments of deposition, identified using facies associations, fall into fluvial, wave-and tide-dominated, marginal, and shallow marine, with localised canyons incised into the delta front and filled with deeper marine facies.The reservoirs are composed of 70 90% quartz, 4 15% feldspar, and 3 13% clay matrix, with minor mica, bioclasts, carbonaceous debris, glauconite, and heavy minerals. Grain size varies from very fine to coarse and pebbly, implying the presence of sands of varying textural and compositional maturities. Silica, K-feldspar, and carbonates constitute the cements.Porosity in the reservoirs has remained about the same as at deposition due to low mechanical compaction occasioned by shallow burial. Meteoric water-flushed progradational sequence are characterised by cementation with quartz and kaolinite. In contrast, marine water-flushed transgressive sands show grain coating illite-smectite, chlorite and K-feldspar overgrowths

  19. Four new Delta Scuti stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutt, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    Four new Delta Scuti stars are reported. Power, modified into amplitude, spectra, and light curves are used to determine periodicities. A complete frequency analysis is not performed due to the lack of a sufficient time base in the data. These new variables help verify the many predictions that Delta Scuti stars probably exist in prolific numbers as small amplitude variables. Two of these stars, HR 4344 and HD 107513, are possibly Am stars. If so, they are among the minority of variable stars which are also Am stars.

  20. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  1. Phospholipase C-{delta}{sub 1} regulates interleukin-1{beta} and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} mRNA expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eric; Jakinovich, Paul; Bae, Aekyung [Department of Anesthesiology, Health Sciences Center L4 Rm 081, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Rebecchi, Mario, E-mail: Mario.rebecchi@SBUmed.org [Department of Anesthesiology, Health Sciences Center L4 Rm 081, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Phospholipase C-{delta}{sub 1} (PLC{delta}{sub 1}) is a widely expressed highly active PLC isoform, modulated by Ca{sup 2+} that appears to operate downstream from receptor signaling and has been linked to regulation of cytokine production. Here we investigated whether PLC{delta}{sub 1} modulated expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in rat C6 glioma cells. Expression of PLC{delta}{sub 1} was specifically suppressed by small interfering RNA (siRNA) and the effects on cytokine mRNA expression, stimulated by the Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), were examined. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results showed that PLC{delta}{sub 1} knockdown enhanced expression IL-1{beta} and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) mRNA by at least 100 fold after 4 h of LPS stimulation compared to control siRNA treatment. PLC{delta}{sub 1} knock down caused persistently high Nf{kappa}b levels at 4 h of LPS stimulation compared to control siRNA-treated cells. PLC{delta}{sub 1} knockdown was also associated with elevated nuclear levels of c-Jun after 30 min of LPS stimulation, but did not affect LPS-stimulated p38 or p42/44 MAPK phosphorylation, normally associated with TLR activation of cytokine gene expression; rather, enhanced protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation of cellular proteins was observed in the absence of LPS stimulation. An inhibitor of PKC, bisindolylmaleimide II (BIM), reversed phosphorylation, prevented elevation of nuclear c-Jun levels, and inhibited LPS-induced increases of IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha} mRNA's induced by PLC{delta}{sub 1} knockdown. Our results show that loss of PLC{delta}{sub 1} enhances PKC/c-Jun signaling and up-modulates pro-inflammatory cytokine gene transcription in concert with the TLR-stimulated p38MAPK/Nf{kappa}b pathway. Our findings are consistent with the idea that PLC{delta}{sub 1} is a

  2. Behavioral meaningful opioidergic stimulation activates kappa receptor gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teodorov, E.; Ferrari, M.F.R.; Fior-Chadi, D.R.; Camarini, R.; Felício, L.F.

    2012-01-01

    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been reported to be a location for opioid regulation of pain and a potential site for behavioral selection in females. Opioid-mediated behavioral and physiological responses differ according to the activity of opioid receptor subtypes. The present study investigated the effects of the peripheral injection of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 into the dorsal subcutaneous region of animals on maternal behavior and on Oprk1 gene activity in the PAG of female rats. Female Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g at the beginning of the study were randomly divided into 2 groups for maternal behavior and gene expression experiments. On day 5, pups were removed at 7:00 am and placed in another home cage that was distant from their mother. Thirty minutes after removing the pups, the dams were treated with U69593 (0.15 mg/kg, sc) or 0.9% saline (up to 1 mL/kg) and after 30 min were evaluated in the maternal behavior test. Latencies in seconds for pup retrieval, grouping, crouching, and full maternal behavior were scored. The results showed that U69593 administration inhibited maternal behavior (P < 0.05) because a lower percentage of U69593 group dams showed retrieval of first pup, retrieving all pups, grouping, crouching and displaying full maternal behavior compared to the saline group. Opioid gene expression was evaluated using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A single injection of U69593 increased Oprk1 PAG expression in both virgin (P < 0.05) and lactating female rats (P < 0.01), with no significant effect on Oprm1 or Oprd1 gene activity. Thus, the expression of kappa-opioid receptors in the PAG may be modulated by single opioid receptor stimulation and behavioral meaningful opioidergic transmission in the adult female might occur simultaneously to specific changes in gene expression of kappa-opioid receptor subtype. This is yet another alert for the complex role of the opioid system in female

  3. Behavioral meaningful opioidergic stimulation activates kappa receptor gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teodorov, E. [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferrari, M.F.R. [Departamento de Genética e Biologia Evolutiva, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fior-Chadi, D.R. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Camarini, R. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Felício, L.F. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-01

    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been reported to be a location for opioid regulation of pain and a potential site for behavioral selection in females. Opioid-mediated behavioral and physiological responses differ according to the activity of opioid receptor subtypes. The present study investigated the effects of the peripheral injection of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 into the dorsal subcutaneous region of animals on maternal behavior and on Oprk1 gene activity in the PAG of female rats. Female Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g at the beginning of the study were randomly divided into 2 groups for maternal behavior and gene expression experiments. On day 5, pups were removed at 7:00 am and placed in another home cage that was distant from their mother. Thirty minutes after removing the pups, the dams were treated with U69593 (0.15 mg/kg, sc) or 0.9% saline (up to 1 mL/kg) and after 30 min were evaluated in the maternal behavior test. Latencies in seconds for pup retrieval, grouping, crouching, and full maternal behavior were scored. The results showed that U69593 administration inhibited maternal behavior (P < 0.05) because a lower percentage of U69593 group dams showed retrieval of first pup, retrieving all pups, grouping, crouching and displaying full maternal behavior compared to the saline group. Opioid gene expression was evaluated using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A single injection of U69593 increased Oprk1 PAG expression in both virgin (P < 0.05) and lactating female rats (P < 0.01), with no significant effect on Oprm1 or Oprd1 gene activity. Thus, the expression of kappa-opioid receptors in the PAG may be modulated by single opioid receptor stimulation and behavioral meaningful opioidergic transmission in the adult female might occur simultaneously to specific changes in gene expression of kappa-opioid receptor subtype. This is yet another alert for the complex role of the opioid system in female

  4. DMPD: New insights into NF-kappaB regulation and function. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18775672 New insights into NF-kappaB regulation and function. Sun SC, Ley SC. Trend...ction. PubmedID 18775672 Title New insights into NF-kappaB regulation and function....s Immunol. 2008 Oct;29(10):469-78. Epub 2008 Sep 3. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show New insights into NF-kappaB regulation and fun

  5. NF-kappaB mediates FGF signal regulation of msx-1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushdid, P B; Chen, C L; Brantley, D M; Yull, F; Raghow, R; Kerr, L D; Barnett, J V

    2001-09-01

    The nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) family of transcription factors is involved in proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in a stage- and cell-dependent manner. Recent evidence has shown that NF-kappaB activity is necessary for both chicken and mouse limb development. We report here that the NF-kappaB family member c-rel and the homeodomain gene msx-1 have partially overlapping expression patterns in the developing chick limb. In addition, inhibition of NF-kappaB activity resulted in a decrease in msx-1 mRNA expression. Sequence analysis of the msx-1 promoter revealed three potential kappaB-binding sites similar to the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) kappaB-binding site. These sites bound to c-Rel, as shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Furthermore, inhibition of NF-kappaB activity significantly reduced transactivation of the msx-1 promoter in response to FGF-2/-4, known stimulators of msx-1 expression. These results suggest that NF-kappaB mediates the FGF-2/-4 signal regulation of msx-1 gene expression. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  6. Low Frequency Electrostatic Waves in Weakly Inhomogeneous Magnetoplasma Modeled by Lorentzian (kappa) Distributions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Basu, Bamandas

    2008-01-01

    ... (to the ambient magnetic field) flow velocities associated with the current. In order to illustrate the distinguishing features of the kappa distributions, stability properties of the low frequency...

  7. Ion-cyclotron instability in plasmas described by product-bi-kappa distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, M. S. dos; Ziebell, L. F.; Gaelzer, R.

    2015-01-01

    The dispersion relation for parallel propagating waves in the ion-cyclotron branch is investigated numerically by considering that the velocity distribution of the ion population is a function of type product-bi-kappa. We investigate the effects of the non-thermal features and of the anisotropy associated with this type of distribution on the ion-cyclotron instability, as well as the influence of different forms of the electron distribution, by considering Maxwellian distributions, bi-kappa distributions, and product-bi-kappa distributions. The cases of ions described by either Maxwellian or bi-kappa distributions are also considered, for comparison. The results of the numerical analysis show that the increase in the non-thermal character associated with the anisotropic kappa distributions for ions contributes to enhance the instability as compared to that obtained in the Maxwellian case, in magnitude and in wave number range, with more significant enhancement for the case of ion product-bi-kappa distributions than for the case of ion bi-kappa distributions. It is also shown that the ion-cyclotron instability is decreased if the electrons are described by product-bi-kappa distributions, while electrons described by bi-kappa distributions lead to growth rates which are very similar to those obtained considering a Maxwellian distribution for the electron population

  8. Nuclear Factor-kappaB in Autoimmunity: Man and Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraghazadeh, Bahar; Cook, Matthew C

    2018-01-01

    NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappa B) is a transcription complex crucial for host defense mediated by innate and adaptive immunity, where canonical NF-κB signaling, mediated by nuclear translocation of RelA, c-Rel, and p50, is important for immune cell activation, differentiation, and survival. Non-canonical signaling mediated by nuclear translocation of p52 and RelB contributes to lymphocyte maturation and survival and is also crucial for lymphoid organogenesis. We outline NF-κB signaling and regulation, then summarize important molecular contributions of NF-κB to mechanisms of self-tolerance. We relate these mechanisms to autoimmune phenotypes described in what is now a substantial catalog of immune defects conferred by mutations in NF-κB pathways in mouse models. Finally, we describe Mendelian autoimmune syndromes arising from human NF-κB mutations, and speculate on implications for understanding sporadic autoimmune disease.

  9. Noncommutative differential forms on the kappa-deformed space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meljanac, Stjepan; Kresic-Juric, Sasa

    2009-01-01

    We construct a differential algebra of forms on the kappa-deformed space. For a given realization of noncommutative coordinates as formal power series in the Weyl algebra we find an infinite family of one-forms and nilpotent exterior derivatives. We derive explicit expressions for the exterior derivative and one-forms in covariant and noncovariant realizations. We also introduce higher order forms and show that the exterior derivative satisfies the graded Leibniz rule. The differential forms are generally not graded commutative, but they satisfy the graded Jacobi identity. We also consider the star-product of classical differential forms. The star-product is well defined if the commutator between the noncommutative coordinates and one-forms is closed in the space of one-forms alone. In addition, we show that in certain realizations the exterior derivative acting on the star-product satisfies the undeformed Leibniz rule.

  10. Marginal instability threshold of magnetosonic waves in kappa distributed plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, M. F.; Manzoor, M. Z.; Ilie, R.; Yoon, P. H.; Miasli, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    The dispersion relation of magnetosonic wave is studied taking the non-extensive anisotropic counter-streaming distribution which follows the Tsallis statistics. The effects of non-extensivity parameter (q), counter-streaming parameter (P) and the wave-particle interaction is analyzed on the growth rate and the marginal instability threshold condition of Magnetosonic (MS) mode to provide the possible explanation of different regions the Bale-diagram obtained from the solar wind data at 1 AU as represented by the temperature anisotropy ( ) vs plasma beta ( ) solar wind data plot. It is shown that the most of the regions of Bale-diagram is bounded by the MS instability under different condition and best fitted by the non-extesnive distribution. The results for the bi-kappa distribution and bi- Maxwellian distribution are also obtained in the limits and respectively.

  11. Hydrological and Climatic Significance of Martian Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Achille, G.; Vaz, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    We a) review the geomorphology, sedimentology, and mineralogy of the martian deltas record and b) present the results of a quantitative study of the hydrology and sedimentology of martian deltas using modified version of terrestrial model Sedflux.

  12. Adaptive delta management : Roots and branches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, J.S.; Haasnoot, M.; Hermans, L.M.; Kwakkel, J.H.; Rutten, M.M.; Thissen, W.A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Deltas are generally recognized as vulnerable to climate change and therefore a salient topic in adaptation science. Deltas are also highly dynamic systems viewed from physical (erosion, sedimentation, subsidence), social (demographic), economic (trade), infrastructures (transport, energy,

  13. Adaptive Delta Management : Roots and Branches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Jos; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Hermans, Leon; Kwakkel, Jan H.; Rutten, Maarten; Thissen, Wil A.H.; Mynett, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Deltas are generally recognized as vulnerable to climate change and therefore a salient topic in adaptation science. Deltas are also highly dynamic systems viewed from physical (erosion, sedimentation, subsidence), social (demographic), economic (trade), infrastructures (transport, energy,

  14. Delta Vegetation and Land Use [ds292

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vegetation and land use are mapped for the approximately 725,000 acres constituting the Legal Delta portion of the Sacramento and San Joaquin River Delta area....

  15. Delta Scuti variables. Lecture 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    The class of variables near or on the upper main sequence, the delta Scuti variables, are not only the usual ones about the masses, radii, and luminosities, but also the age, rotation, element diffusion to change the surface layer composition, the occurance of convection and the presence of radial and nonradial pulsation modes

  16. about the Dirac Delta Function(?)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Balakrishnan is in the. Department of ... and sweet as befits this impatient age. It said (in its en- ... to get down to real work by shutting down the system and reverting to ... the Dirac delta function" - but do note the all-important question mark in ...

  17. Variation in leaf water delta D and delta 18O values during the evapotranspiration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leopoldo, P.R.; Foloni, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical model was developed to evaluate leaf water delta D and delta 18 O variation in relation to: leaf temperature, relative humidity converted to leaf temperature and delta D and delta 18 O values of atmospheric water vapour and soil water. (M.A.C.) [pt

  18. An analytical framework for strategic delta planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seijger, C.; Douven, W.; Halsema, van G.; Hermans, L.; Evers, J.; Phi, H.L.; Khan, M.F.; Brunner, J.; Pols, L.; Ligtvoet, W.; Koole, S.; Slager, K.; Vermoolen, M.S.; Hasan, S.; Thi Minh Hoang, Vo

    2017-01-01

    Sectoral planning on water, agriculture and urban development has not been able to prevent increased flood risks and environmental degradation in many deltas. Governments conceive strategic delta planning as a promising planning approach and develop strategic delta plans. Such plans are linked to

  19. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    and the possibility of using predicates to specify state changes. In this paper a formal semantics for Delta is defined and analysed using Petri nets. Petri nets was chosen because the ideas behind Petri nets and Delta concide on several points. A number of proposals for changes in Delta, which resulted from...

  20. Stable isotope deltas: Tiny, yet robust signatures in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Willi A.; Coplen, Tyler B.

    2012-01-01

    Although most of them are relatively small, stable isotope deltas of naturally occurring substances are robust and enable workers in anthropology, atmospheric sciences, biology, chemistry, environmental sciences, food and drug authentication, forensic science, geochemistry, geology, oceanography, and paleoclimatology to study a variety of topics. Two fundamental processes explain the stable isotope deltas measured in most terrestrial systems: isotopic fractionation and isotope mixing. Isotopic fractionation is the result of equilibrium or kinetic physicochemical processes that fractionate isotopes because of small differences in physical or chemical properties of molecular species having different isotopes. It is shown that the mixing of radioactive and stable isotope end members can be modelled to provide information on many natural processes, including 14C abundances in the modern atmosphere and the stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of the oceans during glacial and interglacial times. The calculation of mixing fractions using isotope balance equations with isotope deltas can be substantially in error when substances with high concentrations of heavy isotopes (e.g. 13C, 2H, and 18O ) are mixed. In such cases, calculations using mole fractions are preferred as they produce accurate mixing fractions. Isotope deltas are dimensionless quantities. In the International System of Units (SI), these quantities have the unit 1 and the usual list of prefixes is not applicable. To overcome traditional limitations with expressing orders of magnitude differences in isotope deltas, we propose the term urey (symbol Ur), after Harold C. Urey, for the unit 1. In such a manner, an isotope delta value expressed traditionally as−25 per mil can be written as−25 mUr (or−2.5 cUr or−0.25 dUr; the use of any SI prefix is possible). Likewise, very small isotopic differences often expressed in per meg ‘units’ are easily included (e.g. either+0.015 ‰ or+15 per meg

  1. Insights into iron and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) involvement in chronic inflammatory processes in peritoneal endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrère, Sylvie; González-Ramos, Reinaldo; Lousse, Jean-Christophe; Colette, Sébastien; Donnez, Olivier; Donnez, Jacques; Van Langendonckt, Anne

    2011-08-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic pelvic inflammatory process. Local inflammation is known to play a role in pain and infertility associated with the disease, and may be extensively involved in molecular and cellular processes leading to endometriosis development. In this review, we focus on two inflammatory mediators clearly implicated in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, iron and NF-kappaB, and their potential association. Iron is essential for all living organisms, but excess iron results in toxicity and is linked to pathological disorders. In endometriosis patients, iron overload has been demonstrated in the different compartments of the peritoneal cavity (peritoneal fluid, endometriotic lesions, peritoneum and macrophages). This iron overload affects numerous mechanisms involved in endometriosis development. Moreover, iron can generate free radical species able to react with a wide range of cellular constituents, inducing cellular damage. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species also impairs cellular function by altering gene expression via regulation of redox-sensitive transcription factors such as NF-kappaB, which is clearly implicated in endometriosis. Indeed, NF-kappaB is activated in endometriotic lesions and peritoneal macrophages of endometriosis patients, which stimulates synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines, generating a positive feedback loop in the NF-kappaB pathway. NF-kappaB-mediated gene transcription promotes a variety of processes, including endometriotic lesion establishment, maintenance and development. In conclusion, iron and NF-kappaB appear to be linked and both are clearly involved in endometriosis development, making these pathways an attractive target for future treatment and prevention of this disease.

  2. Independence of protein kinase C-delta activity from activation loop phosphorylation: structural basis and altered functions in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Belkina, Natalya V; Graham, Caroline; Shaw, Stephen

    2006-04-28

    Activation loop phosphorylation plays critical regulatory roles for many kinases. Unlike other protein kinase Cs (PKC), PKC-delta does not require phosphorylation of its activation loop (Thr-507) for in vitro activity. We investigated the structural basis for this unusual capacity and its relevance to PKC-delta function in intact cells. Mutational analysis demonstrated that activity without Thr-507 phosphorylation depends on 20 residues N-terminal to the kinase domain and a pair of phenylalanines (Phe-500/Phe-527) unique to PKC-delta in/near the activation loop. Molecular modeling demonstrated that these elements stabilize the activation loop by forming a hydrophobic chain of interactions from the C-lobe to activation loop to N-terminal (helical) extension. In cells PKC-delta mediates both apoptosis and transcription regulation. We found that the T507A mutant of the PKC-delta kinase domain resembled the corresponding wild type in mediating apoptosis in transfected HEK293T cells. But the T507A mutant was completely defective in AP-1 and NF-kappaB reporter assays. A novel assay in which the kinase domain of PKC-delta and its substrate (a fusion protein of PKC substrate peptide with green fluorescent protein) were co-targeted to lipid rafts revealed a major substrate-selective defect of the T507A mutant in phosphorylating the substrate in cells. In vitro analysis showed strong product inhibition on the T507A mutant with particular substrates whose characteristics suggest it contributes to the substrate selective defect of the PKC-delta T507A mutant in cells. Thus, activation loop phosphorylation of PKC-delta may regulate its function in cells in a novel way.

  3. A new gene in A. rubens: A sea star Ig kappa gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Nadine; Osteras, Magne; Otten, Patricia; Leclerc, Michel

    2014-12-01

    The sea star Asterias rubens reacts specifically to the antigen:HRP (horse-radish peroxydase) and produces an antibody anti-HRP. We previously identified a candidate Ig kappa gene corresponding to this manuscript. We show now the gene referred to as: "sea star Ig kappa gene in its specificity".

  4. NF-kappaB signaling: a tale of two pathways in skeletal myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkar, Nadine; Guttridge, Denis C

    2010-04-01

    NF-kappaB is a ubiquitiously expressed transcription factor that plays vital roles in innate immunity and other processes involving cellular survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Activation of NF-kappaB is controlled by an IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex that can direct either canonical (classical) NF-kappaB signaling by degrading the IkappaB inhibitor and releasing p65/p50 dimers to the nucleus, or causes p100 processing and nuclear translocation of RelB/p52 via a noncanonical (alternative) pathway. Under physiological conditions, NF-kappaB activity is transiently regulated, whereas constitutive activation of this transcription factor typically in the classical pathway is associated with a multitude of disease conditions, including those related to skeletal muscle. How NF-kappaB functions in muscle diseases is currently under intense investigation. Insight into this role of NF-kappaB may be gained by understanding at a more basic level how this transcription factor contributes to skeletal muscle cell differentiation. Recent data from knockout mice support that the classical NF-kappaB pathway functions as an inhibitor of skeletal myogenesis and muscle regeneration acting through multiple mechanisms. In contrast, alternative NF-kappaB signaling does not appear to be required for myofiber conversion, but instead functions in myotube homeostasis by regulating mitochondrial biogenesis. Additional knowledge of these signaling pathways in skeletal myogenesis should aid in the development of specific inhibitors that may be useful in treatments of muscle disorders.

  5. Mitochondria mediate tumor necrosis factor-alpha/NF-kappaB signaling in skeletal muscle myotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. P.; Atkins, C. M.; Sweatt, J. D.; Reid, M. B.; Hamilton, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is implicated in muscle atrophy and weakness associated with a variety of chronic diseases. Recently, we reported that TNF-alpha directly induces muscle protein degradation in differentiated skeletal muscle myotubes, where it rapidly activates nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). We also have found that protein loss induced by TNF-alpha is NF-kappaB dependent. In the present study, we analyzed the signaling pathway by which TNF-alpha activates NF-kappaB in myotubes differentiated from C2C12 and rat primary myoblasts. We found that activation of NF-kappaB by TNF-alpha was blocked by rotenone or amytal, inhibitors of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. On the other hand, antimycin A, an inhibitor of complex III, enhanced TNF-alpha activation of NK-kappaB. These results suggest a key role of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating NF-kappaB activation in muscle. In addition, we found that TNF-alpha stimulated protein kinase C (PKC) activity. However, other signal transduction mediators including ceramide, Ca2+, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and nitric oxide (NO) do not appear to be involved in the activation of NF-kappaB.

  6. Future Change to Tide-Influenced Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhuis, Jaap H.; Hoitink, A. J. F. (Ton); Törnqvist, Torbjörn E.

    2018-04-01

    Tides tend to widen deltaic channels and shape delta morphology. Here we present a predictive approach to assess a priori the effect of fluvial discharge and tides on deltaic channels. We show that downstream channel widening can be quantified by the ratio of the tide-driven discharge and the fluvial discharge, along with a second metric representing flow velocities. A test of our new theory on a selection of 72 deltas globally shows good correspondence to a wide range of environments, including wave-dominated deltas, river-dominated deltas, and alluvial estuaries. By quantitatively relating tides and fluvial discharge to delta morphology, we offer a first-order prediction of deltaic change that may be expected from altered delta hydrology. For example, we expect that reduced fluvial discharge in response to dam construction will lead to increased tidal intrusion followed by enhanced tide-driven sediment import into deltas, with implications for navigation and other human needs.

  7. Is NF-kappaB a good target for cancer therapy? Hopes and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, Véronique; Karin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcription factors have a key role in many physiological processes such as innate and adaptive immune responses, cell proliferation, cell death, and inflammation. It has become clear that aberrant regulation of NF-kappaB and the signalling pathways that control its activity are involved in cancer development and progression, as well as in resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This article discusses recent evidence from cancer genetics and cancer genome studies that support the involvement of NF-kappaB in human cancer, particularly in multiple myeloma. The therapeutic potential and benefit of targeting NF-kappaB in cancer, and the possible complications and pitfalls of such an approach, are explored.

  8. Astrometric Observation of Delta Cepheus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Naomi; Wilson, Betsie; Estrada, Chris; Crisafi, Kim; King, Jackie; Jones, Stephany; Salam, Akash; Warren, Glenn; Collins, S. Jananne; Genet, Russell

    2012-04-01

    Members of a Cuesta College astronomy research seminar used a manually-controlled 10-inch Newtonian Reflector telescope to determine the separation and position angle of the binary star Delta Cepheus. It was observed on the night of Saturday, October 29, 2011, at Star Hill in Santa Margarita, California. Their values of 40.2 arc seconds and 192.4 degrees were similar to those reported in the WDS (1910).

  9. Effects of protein-energy malnutrition on NF-kappaB signalling in murine peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fock, Ricardo Ambrósio; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Curi, Rui; Borges, Maria Carolina; Borelli, Primavera

    2010-04-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is an important public health problem affecting millions of people worldwide. PEM decreases resistance to infection, impairing a number of physiological processes. In unstimulated cells, NF-kappaB is kept from binding to its consensus sequence by the inhibitor I kappaB alpha, which retains NF-kappaB in the cytoplasm. Upon various signals, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), I kappaB alpha is rapidly degraded and NF-kappaB is induced to translocate into the nucleus, where it activates expression of various genes that participate in the inflammatory response, including those involved in the synthesis of TNF-alpha. TRAF-6 is a cytoplasmic adapter protein that links the stimulatory signal from Toll like receptor-4 to NF-kappaB. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of malnutrition on induction of TNF-alpha by LPS in murine peritoneal macrophages. We evaluated peritoneal cellularity, the expression of MyD88, TRAF-6, IKK, I kappaB alpha and NF-kappaB, NF-kappaB activation and TNF-alpha mRNA and protein synthesis in macrophages. Two-month-old male BALB/C mice were submitted to PEM with a low-protein diet that contained 2% protein, compared to 12% protein in the control diet. When the experimental group had lost about 20% of the original body weight, it was used in the subsequent experiments. Malnourished animals presented anemia, leucopenia and severe reduction in peritoneal cavity cellularity. TNF-alpha mRNA and protein levels of macrophages stimulated with LPS were significantly lower in malnourished animals. PEM also decreased TRAF-6 expression and NF-kappaB activation after LPS stimulation. These results led us to conclude that PEM changes NF-kB signalling pathway in macrophages to LPS stimulus.

  10. Deformation characteristics of {delta} phase in the delta-processed Inconel 718 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.Y., E-mail: haiyanzhang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhang, S.H., E-mail: shzhang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Cheng, M. [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li, Z.X. [Beijing Institute of Aeronautica1 Materials, Beijing 100095 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The hot working characteristics of {delta} phase in the delta-processed Inconel 718 alloy during isothermal compression deformation at temperature of 950 deg. C and strain rate of 0.005 s{sup -1}, were studied by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and quantitative X-ray diffraction technique. The results showed that the dissolution of plate-like {delta} phase and the precipitation of spherical {delta} phase particles coexisted during the deformation, and the content of {delta} phase decreased from 7.05 wt.% to 5.14 wt.%. As a result of deformation breakage and dissolution breakage, the plate-like {delta} phase was spheroidized and transferred to spherical {delta} phase particles. In the center with largest strain, the plate-like {delta} phase disappeared and spherical {delta} phase appeared in the interior of grains and grain boundaries.

  11. NF-kappaB: Two Sides of the Same Coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Bruno R B; Silva, Rafael C M C; Ferreira, Gerson M; Abdelhay, Eliana

    2018-01-09

    Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is a transcription factor family that regulates a large number of genes that are involved in important physiological processes, including survival, inflammation, and immune responses. More recently, constitutive expression of NF-κB has been associated with several types of cancer. In addition, microorganisms, such as viruses and bacteria, cooperate in the activation of NF-κB in tumors, confirming the multifactorial role of this transcription factor as a cancer driver. Recent reports have shown that the NF-κB signaling pathway should receive attention for the development of therapies. In addition to the direct effects of NF-κB in cancer cells, it might also impact immune cells that can both promote or prevent tumor development. Currently, with the rise of cancer immunotherapy, the link among immune cells, inflammation, and cancer is a major focus, and NF-κB could be an important regulator for the success of these therapies. This review discusses the contrasting roles of NF-κB as a regulator of pro- and antitumor processes and its potential as a therapeutic target.

  12. Multi-step carboxymethylation of kappa-Carrageenan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranilla, Charito Tranquilan; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Bayquen, Aristea V.

    2008-01-01

    Many polysaccharide derivatives have been prepared by carboxymethylation reactions in order to increase the range of potential applications of these natural polymers in the chemical, food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Carboxymethylation of kappa-carrageenan was attempted for the first time to synthesize derivatives with various degree of substitution. A multistep carboxymethylation was performed under heterogeneous reaction conditions, in isopropyl alcohol/water slurry medium, with aqueous sodium hydroxide solution for activation, and monochloroacetic acid for etherification. The derivatives obtained had average degree of substitutions from 1.20 to 1.92 as determined by potentiometric back-titration. Chemical and structural characterization were accomplished by Gel Permeation Chromatography, Elemental analysis, FT-IR Spectroscopy, 1 H N and 13 C NMR Spectroscopy. The relative reactivity of the hydroxyl groups in κ-carrageenan dimer unit proceeded in the order O-C2 G4S > O-C6 G4S >O-C2 AG at a ratio of 1:0.6:O.4. (author)

  13. Global and local governance of shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thi Thu, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Mekong Delta is one of seven ecological regions in Vietnam where aquaculture and shrimp products are internationally traded and the shrimp farmers are firmly embedded in a global system of production and trade. The growth of shrimp aquaculture, in addition to population growth and higher levels of investment, has left coastal resources in the Mekong Delta increasingly vulnerable to rapid changes in land and resource use. The shrimp industry, made up of multiple stakeholders and fragmente...

  14. Tides Stabilize Deltas until Humans Interfere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoitink, T.; Zheng Bing, W.; Vermeulen, B.; Huismans, Y.; Kastner, K.

    2017-12-01

    Despite global concerns about river delta degradation caused by extraction of natural resources, sediment retention by reservoirs and sea-level rise, human activity in the world's largest deltas intensifies. In this review, we argue that tides tend to stabilize deltas until humans interfere. Under natural circumstances, delta channels subject to tides are more stable than their fluvial-dominated counterparts. The oscillatory tidal flow counteracts the processes responsible for bank erosion, which explains why unprotected tidal channels migrate only slowly. Peak river discharges attenuate the tides, which creates storage space to accommodate the extra river discharge during extreme events and as a consequence, reduce flood risk. With stronger tides, the river discharge is being distributed more evenly over the various branches in a delta, preventing silting up of smaller channels. Human interference in deltas is massive. Storm surge barriers are constructed, new land is being reclaimed and large-scale sand excavation takes place, to collect building material. Evidence from deltas around the globe shows that in human-controlled deltas the tidal motion often plays a destabilizing role. In channels of the Rhine-Meuse Delta, some 100 scour holes are identified, which relates to the altered tidal motion after completion of a storm surge barrier. Sand mining has led to widespread river bank failures in the tidally-influenced Mekong Delta. The catastrophic flood event in the Gauges-Brahmaputra Delta by Cyclone Aila, which caused the inundation of an embanked polder area for over two years, was preceded by river bank erosion at the mouths of formal tidal channels that were blocked by the embankment. Efforts to predict the developments of degrading deltas are few. Existing delta models are capable of reproducing expanding deltas, which is essentially a matter of simulating the transport of sediment from source in a catchment to the sink in a delta. Processes of soil

  15. Future Deltas Utrecht University research focus area: towards sustainable management of sinking deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stouthamer, E.; van Asselen, S.

    2015-11-01

    Deltas are increasingly under pressure from human impact and climate change. To deal with these pressures that threat future delta functioning, we need to understand interactions between physical, biological, chemical and social processes in deltas. This requires an integrated approach, in which knowledge on natural system functioning is combined with knowledge on spatial planning, land and water governance and legislative frameworks. In the research focus area Future Deltas of Utrecht University an interdisciplinary team from different research groups therefore works together. This allows developing integrated sustainable and resilient delta management strategies, which is urgently needed to prevent loss of vital delta services.

  16. DMPD: Nuclear factor-kappaB: activation and regulation during toll-like receptorsignaling. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17349209 Nuclear factor-kappaB: activation and regulation during toll-like receptorsignaling. Carmody...uclear factor-kappaB: activation and regulation during toll-like receptorsignaling. Authors Carmody

  17. Respiratory syncytial virus M2-1 protein induces the activation of nuclear factor kappa B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimers, Kerstin [Klinik fuer Plastische, Hand-und Wiederherstellungschirurgie, Podbielskistrasse 380, D-30659 Hannover (Germany); Buchholz, Katja [Institut fuer Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet Magdeburg, Leipzigerstrasse 44, D-39120 Magdeburg (Germany); Werchau, Hermann [Institut fuer Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet Magdeburg, Leipzigerstrasse 44, D-39120 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2005-01-20

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) induces the production of a number of cytokines and chemokines by activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B). The activation of NF-{kappa}B has been shown to depend on viral replication in the infected cells. In this study, we demonstrate that expression of RSV M2-1 protein, a transcriptional processivity and anti-termination factor, is sufficient to activate NF-{kappa}B in A549 cells. Electromobility shift assays show increased NF-{kappa}B complexes in the nuclei of M2-1-expressing cells. M2-1 protein is found in nuclei of M2-1-expressing cells and in RSV-infected cells. Co-immunoprecipitations of nuclear extracts of M2-1-expressing cells and of RSV-infected cells revealed an association of M2-1 with Rel A protein. Furthermore, the activation of NF-{kappa}B depends on the C-terminus of the RSV M2-1 protein, as shown by NF-{kappa}B-induced gene expression of a reporter gene construct.

  18. Modulation of the NF-kappaB pathway by Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzvia Abramson

    Full Text Available Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA is a cell-associated and secreted adhesin produced by Bordetella pertussis with pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory activity in host cells. Given the importance of the NF-kappaB transcription factor family in these host cell responses, we examined the effect of FHA on NF-kappaB activation in macrophages and bronchial epithelial cells, both of which are relevant cell types during natural infection.Exposure to FHA of primary human monocytes and transformed U-937 macrophages, but not BEAS-2B epithelial cells, resulted in early activation of the NF-kappaB pathway, as manifested by the degradation of cytosolic IkappaB alpha, by NF-kappaB DNA binding, and by the subsequent secretion of NF-kappaB-regulated inflammatory cytokines. However, exposure of macrophages and human monocytes to FHA for two hours or more resulted in the accumulation of cytosolic IkappaB alpha, and the failure of TNF-alpha to activate NF-kappaB. Proteasome activity was attenuated following exposure of cells to FHA for 2 hours, as was the nuclear translocation of RelA in BEAS-2B cells.These results reveal a complex temporal dynamic, and suggest that despite short term effects to the contrary, longer exposures of host cells to this secreted adhesin may block NF-kappaB activation, and perhaps lead to a compromised immune response to this bacterial pathogen.

  19. Nomogram for sample size calculation on a straightforward basis for the kappa statistic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyunsook; Choi, Yunhee; Hahn, Seokyung; Park, Sue Kyung; Park, Byung-Joo

    2014-09-01

    Kappa is a widely used measure of agreement. However, it may not be straightforward in some situation such as sample size calculation due to the kappa paradox: high agreement but low kappa. Hence, it seems reasonable in sample size calculation that the level of agreement under a certain marginal prevalence is considered in terms of a simple proportion of agreement rather than a kappa value. Therefore, sample size formulae and nomograms using a simple proportion of agreement rather than a kappa under certain marginal prevalences are proposed. A sample size formula was derived using the kappa statistic under the common correlation model and goodness-of-fit statistic. The nomogram for the sample size formula was developed using SAS 9.3. The sample size formulae using a simple proportion of agreement instead of a kappa statistic and nomograms to eliminate the inconvenience of using a mathematical formula were produced. A nomogram for sample size calculation with a simple proportion of agreement should be useful in the planning stages when the focus of interest is on testing the hypothesis of interobserver agreement involving two raters and nominal outcome measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical validation of nuclear factor kappa B expression in invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anil Kumar; Pielka, Ewa; Lipinski, Artur; Jelen, Michal; Kielan, Wojciech; Agrawal, Siddarth

    2018-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in Polish women. The expression of transcription nuclear factor kappa B, a key inducer of inflammatory response promoting carcinogenesis and cancer progression in breast cancer, is not well-established. We assessed the nuclear factor kappa B expression in a total of 119 invasive breast carcinomas and 25 healthy control samples and correlated this expression pattern with several clinical and pathologic parameters including histologic type and grade, tumor size, lymph node status, estrogen receptor status, and progesterone receptor status. The data used for the analysis were derived from medical records. An immunohistochemical analysis of nuclear factor kappa B, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor was carried out and evaluation of stainings was performed. The expression of nuclear factor kappa B was significantly higher than that in the corresponding healthy control samples. No statistical difference was demonstrated in nuclear factor kappa B expression in relation to age, menopausal status, lymph node status, tumor size and location, grade and histologic type of tumor, and hormonal status (estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor). Nuclear factor kappa B is significantly overexpressed in invasive breast cancer tissues. Although nuclear factor kappa B status does not correlate with clinicopathological findings, it might provide important additional information on prognosis and become a promising object for targeted therapy.

  1. Colorectal cancer: can nutrients modulate NF-kappaB and apoptosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravasco, Paula; Aranha, Márcia M; Borralho, Pedro M; Moreira da Silva, Isabel B; Correia, Luís; Fernandes, Afonso; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Camilo, Maria

    2010-02-01

    NF-kappaB may promote carcinogenesis by altering cell cycle, inflammatory responses and apoptosis-related gene expression, though cell mechanisms relating diet and colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unveiled in humans. This study in patients with CRC aimed to explore potential interactions between the dietary pattern, nutrient intake, expression of NF-kappaB, apoptosis and tumour histological aggressiveness. Usual diet was assessed by diet history; nutrient composition was determined by DIETPLAN software. Histologically classified patient tissue samples (adenoma, adenocarcinoma and normal surrounding mucosa) were obtained via biopsies during colonoscopy (n=16) or surgery (n=8). NF-kappaB expression was determined by immunohistochemistry and apoptosis by TUNEL assay. NF-kappaB expression and apoptosis were higher in tumours (p<0.01), greater along with histological aggressiveness (p<0.01). Highest intake terciles of animal protein, refined carbohydrates, saturated fat, n-6 fatty acids and alcohol were associated with higher NF-kappaB, apoptosis and histological aggressiveness (p<0.01); the opposite tissue characteristics were associated with highest intake terciles of n-3 fatty acids, fibre, vitamin E, flavonoids, isoflavones, beta-carotene and selenium (p<0.002). Additionally, higher n-6:n-3 fatty acids ratio (median 26:1) was associated with higher NF-kappaB (p<0.006) and apoptosis (p<0.01), and more aggressive histology (p<0.01). Conversely, lower n-6:n-3 fatty acids ratio (median 6:1) was associated with lower NF-kappaB (p<0.002) and apoptosis (p<0.002), and less aggressive histology (p<0.002). NF-kappaB expression and apoptosis increased from adenoma to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. This degenerative transition, recognized as key in carcinogenesis, appear to have been influenced by a diet promoting a pro-inflammatory milieu that can trigger NF-kappaB. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Involvement of nuclear factor {kappa}B in platelet CD40 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachem, Ahmed [Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Montreal Heart Institute, 5000 Belanger, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1T 1C8 (Canada); Yacoub, Daniel [Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Montreal Heart Institute, 5000 Belanger, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1T 1C8 (Canada); Centre Hospitalier Universite de Montreal, 264 boul. Rene-Levesque est, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2X 1P1 (Canada); Zaid, Younes [Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Montreal Heart Institute, 5000 Belanger, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1T 1C8 (Canada); Mourad, Walid [Universite de Montreal, Department of Medicine, 2900 boul. Edouard-Montpetit, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3T 1J4 (Canada); Centre Hospitalier Universite de Montreal, 264 boul. Rene-Levesque est, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2X 1P1 (Canada); Merhi, Yahye, E-mail: yahye.merhi@icm-mhi.org [Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Montreal Heart Institute, 5000 Belanger, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1T 1C8 (Canada); Universite de Montreal, Department of Medicine, 2900 boul. Edouard-Montpetit, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3T 1J4 (Canada)

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer sCD40L induces TRAF2 association to CD40 and NF-{kappa}B activation in platelets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation downstream of CD40L/CD40 signaling is independent of p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer I{kappa}B{alpha} is required for sCD40L-induced platelet activation and potentiation of aggregation. -- Abstract: CD40 ligand (CD40L) is a thrombo-inflammatory molecule that predicts cardiovascular events. Platelets constitute the major source of soluble CD40L (sCD40L), which has been shown to potentiate platelet activation and aggregation, in a CD40-dependent manner, via p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Rac1 signaling. In many cells, the CD40L/CD40 dyad also induces activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B). Given that platelets contain NF-{kappa}B, we hypothesized that it may be involved in platelet CD40 signaling and function. In human platelets, sCD40L induces association of CD40 with its adaptor protein the tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 2 and triggers phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, which are abolished by CD40L blockade. Inhibition of I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation reverses sCD40L-induced I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation without affecting p38 MAPK phosphorylation. On the other hand, inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation has no effect on I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation, indicating a divergence in the signaling pathway originating from CD40 upon its ligation. In functional studies, inhibition of I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation reverses sCD40L-induced platelet activation and potentiation of platelet aggregation in response to a sub-threshold concentration of collagen. This study demonstrates that the sCD40L/CD40 axis triggers NF-{kappa}B activation in platelets. This signaling pathway plays a critical role in platelet activation and aggregation upon sCD40L stimulation and may represent an important target against thrombo

  3. The Niger Delta Amnesty Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A. Okonofua

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The armed conflict between militias and government forces in Nigeria’s Niger Delta region has spanned for more than two decades, defying all solutions. A disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR program was established in August 2015 in effort to end the violence and has remained in place. It is a radically different approach from past approaches that displayed zero tolerance to all political challenges to oil production or the allocation of oil profits. The approach appeared to be immediately successful in that it forced a ceasefire, engaged militants in planned programs to rehabilitate and reintegrate them into civilian society, and opened up the oil wells (many of which had been shut due to the crisis with the effect of increasing government revenue, which depends 85% on oil exports. Yet, few studies have attempted to understand the dynamics within the country that are responsible for the design and implementation of this broad policy shift or to understand whether and how the current initiative is able to end the conflict and institute peace beyond the short term. This study, therefore, is important because it provides a critical perspective that anticipates and explains emerging issues with the Niger Delta Amnesty Program, which have implications for DDR adaptation and implementation all over the world. Ultimately, the research demonstrates how the DDR program both transforms the Niger Delta conflict and becomes embroiled in intense contestations not only about the mechanism for transforming the targeted population but also whether and how the program incorporates women who are being deprioritized by the program.

  4. DMPD: Ubiquitin: tool and target for intracellular NF-kappaB inhibitors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16982211 Ubiquitin: tool and target for intracellular NF-kappaB inhibitors. Wullaer...vg) (.html) (.csml) Show Ubiquitin: tool and target for intracellular NF-kappaB inhibitors. PubmedID 1698221...1 Title Ubiquitin: tool and target for intracellular NF-kappaB inhibitors. Author

  5. Purinergic signaling is required for fluid shear stress-induced NF-{kappa}B translocation in osteoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genetos, Damian C., E-mail: dgenetos@ucdavis.edu [Department of Anatomy, Cell Biology, and Physiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Karin, Norman J. [Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Geist, Derik J. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Donahue, Henry J. [Division of Musculoskeletal Sciences, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Pennsylvania State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA (United States); Duncan, Randall L. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Fluid shear stress regulates gene expression in osteoblasts, in part by activation of the transcription factor NF-{kappa}B. We examined whether this process was under the control of purinoceptor activation. MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts under static conditions expressed the NF-{kappa}B inhibitory protein I{kappa}B{alpha} and exhibited cytosolic localization of NF-{kappa}B. Under fluid shear stress, I{kappa}B{alpha} levels decreased, and concomitant nuclear localization of NF-{kappa}B was observed. Cells exposed to fluid shear stress in ATP-depleted medium exhibited no significant reduction in I{kappa}B{alpha}, and NF-{kappa}B remained within the cytosol. Similar results were found using oxidized ATP or Brilliant Blue G, P2X{sub 7} receptor antagonists, indicating that the P2X{sub 7} receptor is responsible for fluid shear-stress-induced I{kappa}B{alpha} degradation and nuclear accumulation of NF-{kappa}B. Pharmacologic blockage of the P2Y6 receptor also prevented shear-induced I{kappa}B{alpha} degradation. These phenomena involved neither ERK1/2 signaling nor autocrine activation by P2X{sub 7}-generated lysophosphatidic acid. Our results suggest that fluid shear stress regulates NF-{kappa}B activity through the P2Y{sub 6} and P2X{sub 7} receptor.

  6. DMPD: NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16723122 NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later. Gloi...svg) (.html) (.csml) Show NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later. PubmedID 167...23122 Title NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later.

  7. Penelope Delta, recently discovered writer

    OpenAIRE

    MALAPANI A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a Greek writer, Penelope Delta. This writer has recently come up in the field of the studies of the Greek literature and, although thereare neither many translations of her works in foreign languages nor many theses or dissertations, she was chosen for the great interest for her works. Her books have been read by many generations, so she is considered a classical writer of Modern Greek Literature. The way she uses the Greek language, the unique characters...

  8. Climate change and the Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettinger, Michael; Anderson, Jamie; Anderson, Michael L.; Brown, Larry R.; Cayan, Daniel; Maurer, Edwin P.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change amounts to a rapidly approaching, “new” stressor in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta system. In response to California’s extreme natural hydroclimatic variability, complex water-management systems have been developed, even as the Delta’s natural ecosystems have been largely devastated. Climate change is projected to challenge these management and ecological systems in different ways that are characterized by different levels of uncertainty. For example, there is high certainty that climate will warm by about 2°C more (than late-20th-century averages) by mid-century and about 4°C by end of century, if greenhouse-gas emissions continue their current rates of acceleration. Future precipitation changes are much less certain, with as many climate models projecting wetter conditions as drier. However, the same projections agree that precipitation will be more intense when storms do arrive, even as more dry days will separate storms. Warmer temperatures will likely enhance evaporative demands and raise water temperatures. Consequently, climate change is projected to yield both more extreme flood risks and greater drought risks. Sea level rise (SLR) during the 20th century was about 22cm, and is projected to increase by at least 3-fold this century. SLR together with land subsidence threatens the Delta with greater vulnerabilities to inundation and salinity intrusion. Effects on the Delta ecosystem that are traceable to warming include SLR, reduced snowpack, earlier snowmelt and larger storm-driven streamflows, warmer and longer summers, warmer summer water temperatures, and water-quality changes. These changes and their uncertainties will challenge the operations of water projects and uses throughout the Delta’s watershed and delivery areas. Although the effects of climate change on Delta ecosystems may be profound, the end results are difficult to predict, except that native species will fare worse than invaders. Successful

  9. From Natural to Design River Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giosan, Liviu

    2016-04-01

    Productive and biologically diverse, deltaic lowlands attracted humans since prehistory and may have spurred the emergence of the first urban civilizations. Deltas continued to be an important nexus for economic development across the world and are currently home for over half a billion people. But recently, under the double whammy of sea level rise and inland sediment capture behind dams, they have become the most threatened coastal landscape. Here I will address several deceptively simple questions to sketch some unexpected answers using example deltas from across the world from the Arctic to the Tropics, from the Danube to the Indus, Mississippi to Godavari and Krishna, Mackenzie to Yukon. What is a river delta? What is natural and what is not in a river delta? Are the geological and human histories of a delta important for its current management? Is maintaining a delta the same to building a new one? Can we design better deltas than Nature? These answers help us see clearly that survival of deltas in the next century depends on human intervention and is neither assured nor simple to address or universally applicable. Empirical observations on the hydrology, geology, biology and biochemistry of deltas are significantly lagging behind modeling capabilities endangering the applicability of numerical-based reconstruction solutions and need to be ramped up significantly and rapidly across the world.

  10. Linking rapid erosion of the Mekong River delta to human activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Edward J; Brunier, Guillaume; Besset, Manon; Goichot, Marc; Dussouillez, Philippe; Nguyen, Van Lap

    2015-10-08

    As international concern for the survival of deltas grows, the Mekong River delta, the world's third largest delta, densely populated, considered as Southeast Asia's most important food basket, and rich in biodiversity at the world scale, is also increasingly affected by human activities and exposed to subsidence and coastal erosion. Several dams have been constructed upstream of the delta and many more are now planned. We quantify from high-resolution SPOT 5 satellite images large-scale shoreline erosion and land loss between 2003 and 2012 that now affect over 50% of the once strongly advancing >600 km-long delta shoreline. Erosion, with no identified change in the river's discharge and in wave and wind conditions over this recent period, is consistent with: (1) a reported significant decrease in coastal surface suspended sediment from the Mekong that may be linked to dam retention of its sediment, (2) large-scale commercial sand mining in the river and delta channels, and (3) subsidence due to groundwater extraction. Shoreline erosion is already responsible for displacement of coastal populations. It is an additional hazard to the integrity of this Asian mega delta now considered particularly vulnerable to accelerated subsidence and sea-level rise, and will be exacerbated by future hydropower dams.

  11. An analytical framework for strategic delta planning : negotiating consent for long-term sustainable delta development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seijger, C.; Douven, W; Hermans, L.M.; Evers, J.; Phi, H. L.; Brunner, J.; Pols, L.; Ligtvoet, W.; Koole, S.; Slager, K.; Vermoolen, M.S.; Hasan, S.; Hoang, V. T M; van Halsema, G

    2016-01-01

    Sectoral planning on water, agriculture and urban development has not been able to prevent increased flood risks and environmental degradation in many deltas. Governments conceive strategic delta planning as a promising planning approach and develop strategic delta plans. Such plans are linked to

  12. Observer variability in the assessment of type and dysplasia of colorectal adenomas, analyzed using kappa statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P; Krogsgaard, M R; Christiansen, J

    1995-01-01

    . The kappa values for Observer A vs. B and Observer C vs. B were 0.3480 and 0.3770, respectively (both type and dysplasia). Values for type were better than for dysplasia, but agreement was only fair to moderate. CONCLUSION: The interobserver agreement was moderate to almost perfect, but the intraobserver...... agreement was only fair to moderate. A simpler classification system or a centralization of assessments would probably increase kappa values....... of adenomas were assessed twice by three experienced pathologists, with an interval of two months. Results were analyzed using kappa statistics. RESULTS: For agreement between first and second assessment (both type and grade of dysplasia), kappa values for the three specialists were 0.5345, 0.9022, and 0...

  13. Spectroscopy of the fractional vortex eigenfrequency in a long Josephson 0-{kappa} junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckenmaier, K.; Gaber, T.; Schittenhelm, I.; Kleiner, R.; Koelle, D.; Goldobin, E. [Physikalisches Inst., Experimentalphysik II, Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Siegel, M. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme

    2007-07-01

    In long Josephson junctions with a {kappa}-phase discontinuity, created by two current injectors, a fractional Josephson vortex (FJV) is spontaneously formed at the interface between the 0- and {kappa}-part. A FJV carries an arbitrary fraction {phi}/{phi}{sub 0}={kappa}/2{pi} of the magnetic flux quantum {phi}{sub 0}{approx}2.07 x 10{sup -15} Wb. In contrast to fluxons, FJVs are pinned at the discontinuity point, but in underdamped systems they are able to oscillate around their equilibrium point with characteristic eigenfrequencies. To experimentally determine the eigenfrequency we stimulated a FJV by irradiating our sample with microwaves. At resonance the junction switches to the resistive state. A measurement of the switching probability thus allows to determine the FJV eigenfrequency as a function of bias current and {kappa}. We compare our results with the prediction of the perturbed sine-Gordon equation. (orig.)

  14. TLR4 activates NF-{kappa}B in human ovarian granulosa tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Dori C., E-mail: dwoods2@partners.org [Vincent Center for Reproductive Biology, Vincent Obstetrics and Gynecology Service, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); White, Yvonne A.R. [Vincent Center for Reproductive Biology, Vincent Obstetrics and Gynecology Service, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Dau, Caroline [University of California, San Francisco, School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States); Johnson, A.L. [Center for Reproductive Biology and Health, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} TLR4 is expressed in human ovarian granulosa tumor cells. {yields} Acting through TLR4, LPS and HSP60 induce a NF{kappa}B signaling cascade in human ovarian granulosa tumor cells. {yields} NF{kappa}B activation or inhibition did not alter chemosensitivity to TRAIL or cisplatin. -- Abstract: Previous studies have demonstrated expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the surface epithelium of normal ovaries (OSE) and in epithelial ovarian tumors. Most notably, OSE-derived cancers express TLR4, which activates the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) signaling cascade as a mediator of inflammatory response. Currently, there is considerable interest in elucidating the role of TLR-mediated signaling in cancers. Nevertheless, the expression of TLRs in granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary, and the extent to which GCT expression of TLRs may influence cell-signaling pathways and/or modulate the efficacy of chemotherapeutics, has yet to be determined. In the present study, human GCT lines (COV434 and KGN) were utilized to evaluate expression of functional TLR4. TLR4 is expressed in GCT cell lines and ligation of TLR4 with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to I{kappa}B degradation and activation of NF-{kappa}B. NF-{kappa}B activation was confirmed by nuclear localization of NF-{kappa}B p65 following treatment with LPS and the naturally occurring ligand, HSP60. Notably, immunoneutralization of TLR4 blocked nuclear localization, and inhibition of NF-{kappa}B signaling attenuated LPS-induced TNF{alpha} plus increased doubling time in both cell lines. Contradictory to reports using human OSE cell lines, inhibition of NF-{kappa}B signaling failed to sensitize GCT lines to TRAIL or cisplatin. In summary, findings herein are the first to demonstrate a functional TLR-signaling pathway specifically in GCTs, and indicate that in contrast to OSE-derived cancers, inhibition of NF-{kappa}B does not sensitize GCTs to TRAIL or cisplatin.

  15. Expression of a truncated receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase kappa in the brain of an adult transgenic mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, P; Canoll, P D; Sap, J

    1999-01-01

    that goal, we have used this mouse model to map the distribution of the truncated RPTP-kappa/beta-geo fusion protein in the adult mouse brain using beta-galactosidase as a marker enzyme. Visualization of the beta-galactosidase activity revealed a non-random pattern of expression, and identified cells......-6596]. Nevertheless, since the transgene's expression is driven by the endogenous RPTP-kappa promoter, distribution of the truncated RPTP-kappa/beta-geo fusion protein should reflect the regional and cellular expression of wild-type RPTP-kappa, and thus may identify sites where RPTP-kappa is important. Towards...

  16. Adaptive evolution of relish, a Drosophila NF-kappaB/IkappaB protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Begun, D J; Whitley, P

    2000-01-01

    NF-kappaB and IkappaB proteins have central roles in regulation of inflammation and innate immunity in mammals. Homologues of these proteins also play an important role in regulation of the Drosophila immune response. Here we present a molecular population genetic analysis of Relish, a Drosophila NF-kappaB/IkappaB protein, in Drosophila simulans and D. melanogaster. We find strong evidence for adaptive protein evolution in D. simulans, but not in D. melanogaster. The adaptive evolution appear...

  17. Continuous time sigma delta ADC design and non-idealities analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Jun; Chen Zhenhai; Yang Yintang; Zhang Zhaofeng; Wu Jun; Wang Chao; Qian Wenrong

    2011-01-01

    A wide bandwidth continuous time sigma delta ADC is implemented in 130 nm CMOS. A detailed non-idealities analysis (excess loop delay, clock jitter, finite gain and GBW, comparator offset and DAC mismatch) is performed developed in Matlab/Simulink. This design is targeted for wide bandwidth applications such as video or wireless base-stations. Athird-order continuous time sigma delta modulator comprises a third-order RC operational-amplifier-based loop filter and 3-bit internal quantizer operated at 512 MHz clock frequency. The sigma delta ADC achieves 60 dB SNR and 59.3 dB SNDR over a 16-MHz signal band at an OSR of 16. The power consumption of the CT sigma delta modulator is 22 mW from the 1.2-V supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  18. Kappa statistic to measure agreement beyond chance in free-response assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Marc; Combescure, Christophe; Merlini, Laura; Perneger, Thomas V

    2017-04-19

    The usual kappa statistic requires that all observations be enumerated. However, in free-response assessments, only positive (or abnormal) findings are notified, but negative (or normal) findings are not. This situation occurs frequently in imaging or other diagnostic studies. We propose here a kappa statistic that is suitable for free-response assessments. We derived the equivalent of Cohen's kappa statistic for two raters under the assumption that the number of possible findings for any given patient is very large, as well as a formula for sampling variance that is applicable to independent observations (for clustered observations, a bootstrap procedure is proposed). The proposed statistic was applied to a real-life dataset, and compared with the common practice of collapsing observations within a finite number of regions of interest. The free-response kappa is computed from the total numbers of discordant (b and c) and concordant positive (d) observations made in all patients, as 2d/(b + c + 2d). In 84 full-body magnetic resonance imaging procedures in children that were evaluated by 2 independent raters, the free-response kappa statistic was 0.820. Aggregation of results within regions of interest resulted in overestimation of agreement beyond chance. The free-response kappa provides an estimate of agreement beyond chance in situations where only positive findings are reported by raters.

  19. Improvement of Pulping Uniformity by Measurement of Single Fiber Kappa Number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Gustafson; James B. Callis

    2001-11-20

    A method to measure the kappa of single fibers by staining with a fluorescent dye, Acridine Orange (AO), has been developed. This method is now applied to develop and automated flow-through instrument that permits routine kappa analysis on thousands of images of AO stained fibers to give the fiber kappa number distribution of a pulp sample in a few minutes. The design and operation of the instrument are similar to that of a flow cytometer but with the addition of extensive fiber imaging capability. Fluorescence measurements in the flow-through instrument are found to be consistent with those made with fluorescence microscope provided the signal processing in the flow-thou instrument is handled propertly. The kappa distributions of pulps that were analyzed by means of a density gradient column are compared to those measured with the flow-through instrument with good results. The kappa distributions of various laboratory pulps and commercial pulps have been measured. It has been found that all pulps are non-uniform but that ommercial pulps generally have broader kappa distributions thatn their laboratory counterparts. The effects of different pulping methods and chip pretreatments on pulp uniformity are discussed in the report. Finally, the application of flow-through fluorescence technology to other single fiber measurements are presented.

  20. Identification of a novel A20-binding inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa B activation termed ABIN-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Huffel, S; Delaei, F; Heyninck, K; De Valck, D; Beyaert, R

    2001-08-10

    The nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) plays a central role in the regulation of genes implicated in immune responses, inflammatory processes, and apoptotic cell death. The zinc finger protein A20 is a cellular inhibitor of NF-kappaB activation by various stimuli and plays a critical role in terminating NF-kappaB responses. The underlying mechanism for NF-kappaB inhibition by A20 is still unknown. A20 has been shown to interact with several proteins including tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factors 2 and 6, as well as the inhibitory protein of kappaB kinase (IKK) gamma protein. Here we report the cloning and characterization of ABIN-2, a previously unknown protein that binds to the COOH-terminal zinc finger domain of A20. NF-kappaB activation induced by TNF and interleukin-1 is inhibited by overexpression of ABIN-2. The latter also inhibits NF-kappaB activation induced by overexpression of receptor-interacting protein or TNF receptor-associated factor 2. In contrast, NF-kappaB activation by overexpression of IKKbeta or direct activators of the IKK complex, such as Tax, cannot be inhibited by ABIN-2. These results indicate that ABIN-2 interferes with NF-kappaB activation upstream of the IKK complex and that it might contribute to the NF-kappaB-inhibitory function of A20.

  1. Large-scale coastal and fluvial models constrain the late Holocene evolution of the Ebro Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Nienhuis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The distinctive plan-view shape of the Ebro Delta coast reveals a rich morphologic history. The degree to which the form and depositional history of the Ebro and other deltas represent autogenic (internal dynamics or allogenic (external forcing remains a prominent challenge for paleo-environmental reconstructions. Here we use simple coastal and fluvial morphodynamic models to quantify paleo-environmental changes affecting the Ebro Delta over the late Holocene. Our findings show that these models are able to broadly reproduce the Ebro Delta morphology, with simple fluvial and wave climate histories. Based on numerical model experiments and the preserved and modern shape of the Ebro Delta plain, we estimate that a phase of rapid shoreline progradation began approximately 2100 years BP, requiring approximately a doubling in coarse-grained fluvial sediment supply to the delta. River profile simulations suggest that an instantaneous and sustained increase in coarse-grained sediment supply to the delta requires a combined increase in both flood discharge and sediment supply from the drainage basin. The persistence of rapid delta progradation throughout the last 2100 years suggests an anthropogenic control on sediment supply and flood intensity. Using proxy records of the North Atlantic Oscillation, we do not find evidence that changes in wave climate aided this delta expansion. Our findings highlight how scenario-based investigations of deltaic systems using simple models can assist first-order quantitative paleo-environmental reconstructions, elucidating the effects of past human influence and climate change, and allowing a better understanding of the future of deltaic landforms.

  2. Expression of a truncated receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase kappa in the brain of an adult transgenic mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, P; Canoll, P D; Sap, J

    1999-01-01

    processes such as axonal growth and target recognition, as has been demonstrated for certain Drosophila RPTPs. The brain distribution of RPTP-kappa-expressing cells has not been determined, however. In a gene-trap mouse model with a beta-gal+neo (beta-geo) insertion in the endogenous RPTP-kappa gene......-6596]. Nevertheless, since the transgene's expression is driven by the endogenous RPTP-kappa promoter, distribution of the truncated RPTP-kappa/beta-geo fusion protein should reflect the regional and cellular expression of wild-type RPTP-kappa, and thus may identify sites where RPTP-kappa is important. Towards...... that goal, we have used this mouse model to map the distribution of the truncated RPTP-kappa/beta-geo fusion protein in the adult mouse brain using beta-galactosidase as a marker enzyme. Visualization of the beta-galactosidase activity revealed a non-random pattern of expression, and identified cells...

  3. Entropy and optimality in river deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Alejandro; Longjas, Anthony; Edmonds, Douglas A.; Zaliapin, Ilya; Georgiou, Tryphon T.; Rinaldo, Andrea; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2017-10-01

    The form and function of river deltas is intricately linked to the evolving structure of their channel networks, which controls how effectively deltas are nourished with sediments and nutrients. Understanding the coevolution of deltaic channels and their flux organization is crucial for guiding maintenance strategies of these highly stressed systems from a range of anthropogenic activities. To date, however, a unified theory explaining how deltas self-organize to distribute water and sediment up to the shoreline remains elusive. Here, we provide evidence for an optimality principle underlying the self-organized partition of fluxes in delta channel networks. By introducing a suitable nonlocal entropy rate (nER) and by analyzing field and simulated deltas, we suggest that delta networks achieve configurations that maximize the diversity of water and sediment flux delivery to the shoreline. We thus suggest that prograding deltas attain dynamically accessible optima of flux distributions on their channel network topologies, thus effectively decoupling evolutionary time scales of geomorphology and hydrology. When interpreted in terms of delta resilience, high nER configurations reflect an increased ability to withstand perturbations. However, the distributive mechanism responsible for both diversifying flux delivery to the shoreline and dampening possible perturbations might lead to catastrophic events when those perturbations exceed certain intensity thresholds.

  4. A Modal Logic for Abstract Delta Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.S. de Boer (Frank); M. Helvensteijn (Michiel); J. Winter (Joost)

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractAbstract Delta Modeling is a technique for implementing (software) product lines. Deltas are put in a partial order which restricts their application and are then sequentially applied to a core product in order to form specific products in the product line. In this paper we explore the

  5. Tidal controls on river delta morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoitink, A.J.F.; Wang, Z.B.; Vermeulen, B.; Huismans, Y.; Kästner, K.

    2017-01-01

    River delta degradation has been caused by extraction of natural resources, sediment retention by reservoirs, and sea-level rise. Despite global concerns about these issues, human activity in the world's largest deltas intensifies. Harbour development, construction of flood defences, sand mining and

  6. Tidal controls on river delta morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoitink, A.J.F.; Wang, Zhengbing; Vermeulen, B.; Huismans, Y; Kästner, K

    River delta degradation has been caused by extraction of natural resources, sediment retention by reservoirs, and sea-level rise. Despite global concerns about these issues, human activity in the world’s largest deltas intensifies. Harbour development, construction of flood defences, sand mining and

  7. Floating City IJmeer : Accelerator for Delta Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Graaf, R.; Fremouw, M.; Van Bueren, B.; Czapiewska, K.; Kuijper, M.

    2006-01-01

    Climate change, sea level rise, population growth and ongoing urbanization result in higher vulnerability of the Rhine delta because it will result in increased flooding frequency, increasing investments and increased use of water, energy and other resources. The Rhine Delta also faces strong

  8. Entendiendo Delta desde las Humanidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Calvo Tello

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stylometry is one of the research areas in greater development within Digital Humanities. However, few studies have worked until recently with texts in Spanish and even less so from Spanish-speaking countries. The aim of this paper is to present in Spanish, and without prior statistical knowledge from the reader, one of the main methods used in stylometry, the measure of textual distance Burrows’ Delta. This paper explains this measure using a very small corpus of proverbs and then checks the results in a corpus of Spanish novels. Both data and Python scripts are available to the community through GitHub, commented step by step so that you can play and visualize each step.

  9. EEHG at FLASH and DELTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molo, Robert; Hoener, Markus; Huck, Holger; Hacker, Kirsten; Khan, Shaukat; Schick, Andreas; Ungelenk, Peter; Zeinalzadeh, Maryam [Center for Synchrotron Radiation (DELTA), TU Dortmund University (Germany); Meulen, Peter van der; Salen, Peter [Stockholm University (Sweden); Angelova Hamberg, Gergana; Ziemann, Volker [Uppsala University (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    The echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) scheme utilizes two modulators with two magnetic chicanes in order to generate an electron density modulation with high harmonic content. In contrast to free-electron lasers (FEL) based on self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), the radiation of an EEHG FEL has better longitudinal coherence and is naturally synchronized with an external laser, which is advantageous for pump-probe applications. At the free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH), an EEHG experiment is currently under preparation. The short-pulse facility at DELTA (a 1.5-GeV synchrotron light source operated by the TU Dortmund University) based on coherent harmonic generation (CHG) will be upgraded using the EEHG technique in order to reach shorter wavelengths.

  10. Influence of different organic fertilizers on quality parameters and the delta(15)N, delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O values of orange fruit (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, Paolo; Camin, Federica; Fabroni, Simona; Perini, Matteo; Torrisi, Biagio; Intrigliolo, Francesco

    2010-03-24

    To investigate the influence of different types of fertilizers on quality parameters, N-containing compounds, and the delta(15)N, delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta (34)S, and delta(18)O values of citrus fruit, a study was performed on the orange fruit cv. 'Valencia late' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), which was harvested in four plots (three organic and one conventional) located on the same farm. The results demonstrated that different types of organic fertilizers containing the same amount of nitrogen did not effect important changes in orange fruit quality parameters. The levels of total N and N-containing compounds such as synephrine in fruit juice were not statistically different among the different treatments. The delta(15)N values of orange fruit grown under fertilizer derived from animal origin as well as from vegetable compost were statistically higher than those grown with mineral fertilizer. Therefore, delta(15)N values can be used as an indicator of citrus fertilization management (organic or conventional), because even when applied organic fertilizers are of different origins, the natural abundance of (15)N in organic citrus fruit remains higher than in conventional ones. These treatments also did not effect differences in the delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O values of fruit.

  11. Significant differences in physicochemical properties of human immunoglobulin kappa and lambda CDR3 regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L Townsend

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibody variable regions are composed of a heavy and a light chain and in humans there are two light chain isotypes: kappa and lambda. Despite their importance in receptor editing, the light chain is often overlooked in the antibody literature, with the focus being on the heavy chain CDR-H3 region. In this paper, we set out to investigate the physicochemical and structural differences between human kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. We constructed a dataset containing over 29,000 - light chain variable region sequences from IgM-transcribing, newly formed B cells isolated from human bone marrow and peripheral blood. We also used a published human naïve dataset to investigate the CDR-H3 properties of heavy chains paired with kappa and lambda light chains, and probed the Protein Data Bank (PDB to investigate the structural differences between kappa and lambda antibody CDR regions. We found that kappa and lambda light chains have very different CDR physicochemical and structural properties, whereas the heavy chains with which they are paired do not differ significantly. We also observed that the mean CDR3 N nucleotide addition in the kappa, lambda and heavy chain gene rearrangements are correlated within donors, but can differ between donors. This indicates that TdT may work with differing efficiencies between different people, but the same efficiency in the different classes of immunoglobulin chain within one person. We have observed large differences in the physicochemical and structural properties of kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. This may reflect different roles in the humoral immune response.

  12. Memory extinction entails the inhibition of the transcription factor NF-kappaB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Merlo

    Full Text Available In contextual memories, an association between a positive or negative reinforcement and the contextual cues where the reinforcement occurs is formed. The re-exposure to the context without reinforcement can lead to memory extinction or reconsolidation, depending on the number of events or duration of a single event of context re-exposure. Extinction involves the temporary waning of the previously acquired conditioned response. The molecular processes underlying extinction and the mechanisms which determine if memory will reconsolidate or extinguish after retrieval are not well characterized, particularly the role of transcription factors and gene expression. Here we studied the participation of a transcription factor, NF-kappaB, in memory extinction. In the crab context-signal memory, the activation of NF-kappaB plays a critical role in consolidation and reconsolidation, memory processes that are well characterized in this model. The administration of a NF-kappaB inhibitor, sulfasalazine prior to extinction session impeded spontaneous recovery. Moreover, reinstatement experiments showed that the original memory was not affected and that NF-kappaB inhibition by sulfasalazine impaired spontaneous recovery strengthening the ongoing memory extinction process. Interestingly, in animals with fully consolidated memory, a brief re-exposure to the training context induced neuronal NF-kappaB activation and reconsolidation, while prolonged re-exposure induced NF-kappaB inhibition and memory extinction. These data constitutes a novel insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the switch between memory reconsolidation and extinction. Moreover, we propose the inhibition of NF-kappaB as the engaged mechanism underlying extinction, supporting a novel approach for the pharmacological enhancement of this memory process. The accurate description of the molecular mechanisms that support memory extinction is potentially useful for developing new strategies

  13. Significant Differences in Physicochemical Properties of Human Immunoglobulin Kappa and Lambda CDR3 Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Catherine L; Laffy, Julie M J; Wu, Yu-Chang Bryan; Silva O'Hare, Joselli; Martin, Victoria; Kipling, David; Fraternali, Franca; Dunn-Walters, Deborah K

    2016-01-01

    Antibody variable regions are composed of a heavy and a light chain, and in humans, there are two light chain isotypes: kappa and lambda. Despite their importance in receptor editing, the light chain is often overlooked in the antibody literature, with the focus being on the heavy chain complementarity-determining region (CDR)-H3 region. In this paper, we set out to investigate the physicochemical and structural differences between human kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. We constructed a dataset containing over 29,000 light chain variable region sequences from IgM-transcribing, newly formed B cells isolated from human bone marrow and peripheral blood. We also used a published human naïve dataset to investigate the CDR-H3 properties of heavy chains paired with kappa and lambda light chains and probed the Protein Data Bank to investigate the structural differences between kappa and lambda antibody CDR regions. We found that kappa and lambda light chains have very different CDR physicochemical and structural properties, whereas the heavy chains with which they are paired do not differ significantly. We also observed that the mean CDR3 N nucleotide addition in the kappa, lambda, and heavy chain gene rearrangements are correlated within donors but can differ between donors. This indicates that terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase may work with differing efficiencies between different people but the same efficiency in the different classes of immunoglobulin chain within one person. We have observed large differences in the physicochemical and structural properties of kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. This may reflect different roles in the humoral immune response.

  14. Nitrous oxide-induced slow and delta oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavone, Kara J; Akeju, Oluwaseun; Sampson, Aaron L; Ling, Kelly; Purdon, Patrick L; Brown, Emery N

    2016-01-01

    Switching from maintenance of general anesthesia with an ether anesthetic to maintenance with high-dose (concentration >50% and total gas flow rate >4 liters per minute) nitrous oxide is a common practice used to facilitate emergence from general anesthesia. The transition from the ether anesthetic to nitrous oxide is associated with a switch in the putative mechanisms and sites of anesthetic action. We investigated whether there is an electroencephalogram (EEG) marker of this transition. We retrospectively studied the ether anesthetic to nitrous oxide transition in 19 patients with EEG monitoring receiving general anesthesia using the ether anesthetic sevoflurane combined with oxygen and air. Following the transition to nitrous oxide, the alpha (8-12 Hz) oscillations associated with sevoflurane dissipated within 3-12 min (median 6 min) and were replaced by highly coherent large-amplitude slow-delta (0.1-4 Hz) oscillations that persisted for 2-12 min (median 3 min). Administration of high-dose nitrous oxide is associated with transient, large amplitude slow-delta oscillations. We postulate that these slow-delta oscillations may result from nitrous oxide-induced blockade of major excitatory inputs (NMDA glutamate projections) from the brainstem (parabrachial nucleus and medial pontine reticular formation) to the thalamus and cortex. This EEG signature of high-dose nitrous oxide may offer new insights into brain states during general anesthesia. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tidal controls on river delta morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoitink, A. J. F.; Wang, Z. B.; Vermeulen, B.; Huismans, Y.; Kästner, K.

    2017-09-01

    River delta degradation has been caused by extraction of natural resources, sediment retention by reservoirs, and sea-level rise. Despite global concerns about these issues, human activity in the world’s largest deltas intensifies. Harbour development, construction of flood defences, sand mining and land reclamation emerge as key contemporary factors that exert an impact on delta morphology. Tides interacting with river discharge can play a crucial role in the morphodynamic development of deltas under pressure. Emerging insights into tidal controls on river delta morphology suggest that--despite the active morphodynamics in tidal channels and mouth bar regions--tidal motion acts to stabilize delta morphology at the landscape scale under the condition that sediment import during low flows largely balances sediment export during high flows. Distributary channels subject to tides show lower migration rates and are less easily flooded by the river because of opposing non-linear interactions between river discharge and the tide. These interactions lead to flow changes within channels, and a more uniform distribution of discharge across channels. Sediment depletion and rigorous human interventions in deltas, including storm surge defence works, disrupt the dynamic morphological equilibrium and can lead to erosion and severe scour at the channel bed, even decades after an intervention.

  16. Rise and Fall of one of World's largest deltas; the Mekong delta in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minderhoud, P. S. J.; Eslami Arab, S.; Pham, H. V.; Erkens, G.; van der Vegt, M.; Oude Essink, G.; Stouthamer, E.; Hoekstra, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Mekong delta is the third's largest delta in the world. It is home to almost 20 million people and an important region for the food security in South East Asia. As most deltas, the Mekong delta is the dynamic result of a balance of sediment supply, sea level rise and subsidence, hosting a system of fresh and salt water dynamics. Ongoing urbanization, industrialization and intensification of agricultural practices in the delta, during the past decades, resulted in growing domestic, agricultural and industrial demands, and have led to a dramatic increase of fresh water use. Since the year 2000, the amount of fresh groundwater extracted from the subsurface increased by 500%. This accelerated delta subsidence as the groundwater system compacts, with current sinking rates exceeding global sea level rise up to an order of magnitude. These high sinking rates have greatly altered the sediment budget of the delta and, with over 50% of the Mekong delta surface elevated less than 1 meter above sea level, greatly increase vulnerability to flooding and storm surges and ultimately, permanent inundation. Furthermore, as the increasingly larger extractions rapidly reduce the fresh groundwater reserves, groundwater salinization subsequently increases. On top of that, dry season low-flows by the Mekong river cause record salt water intrusion in the delta's estuarine system, creating major problems for rice irrigation. We present the work of three years research by the Dutch-Vietnamese `Rise and Fall' project on land subsidence and salinization in both groundwater and surface water in the Vietnamese Mekong delta.

  17. Remote Sensing of River Delta Inundation: Exploiting the Potential of Coarse Spatial Resolution, Temporally-Dense MODIS Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Kuenzer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available River deltas belong to the most densely settled places on earth. Although they only account for 5% of the global land surface, over 550 million people live in deltas. These preferred livelihood locations, which feature flat terrain, fertile alluvial soils, access to fluvial and marine resources, a rich wetland biodiversity and other advantages are, however, threatened by numerous internal and external processes. Socio-economic development, urbanization, climate change induced sea level rise, as well as flood pulse changes due to upstream water diversion all lead to changes in these highly dynamic systems. A thorough understanding of a river delta’s general setting and intra-annual as well as long-term dynamic is therefore crucial for an informed management of natural resources. Here, remote sensing can play a key role in analyzing and monitoring these vast areas at a global scale. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the potential of intra-annual time series analyses at dense temporal, but coarse spatial resolution for inundation characterization in five river deltas located in four different countries. Based on 250 m MODIS reflectance data we analyze inundation dynamics in four densely populated Asian river deltas—namely the Yellow River Delta (China, the Mekong Delta (Vietnam, the Irrawaddy Delta (Myanmar, and the Ganges-Brahmaputra (Bangladesh, India—as well as one very contrasting delta: the nearly uninhabited polar Mackenzie Delta Region in northwestern Canada for the complete time span of one year (2013. A complex processing chain of water surface derivation on a daily basis allows the generation of intra-annual time series, which indicate inundation duration in each of the deltas. Our analyses depict distinct inundation patterns within each of the deltas, which can be attributed to processes such as overland flooding, irrigation agriculture, aquaculture, or snowmelt and thermokarst processes. Clear differences between mid

  18. Radiolysis studies of kappa carrageenan for bio based materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad, Lucille V.

    2010-01-01

    Kappa (κ-) carrageenan oligomers are known to have several biological activities such as anti-HIV, anti-herpes, anti tumor and antioxidant properties. Recent progress in the development of radiation modified κ-carrageenan has resulted in new applications such as plant growth promoter, radiation dose indicator and hydrogels for wound dressing. This study would investigate on the changes in chemical structure, gelation and conformational transition behavior and molecular size of κ-carrageenan at doses from 0 to 200 kGy and would be correlated to these functions for the development of bio-based materials. Pulse radiolysis studies on κ-carrageenan was carried out to determine what transient species directly affects the degradation rate of κ-carrageenan in aqueous solution. The results reveal that there is no seeming reaction of the hydrated electron with κ-carrageenan. OH reacts with κ-carrageenan at a fast rate of approximately 1.2 x 10 9 M-1a-1. This value was influenced by conformational change from helix to coil by the addition of the metal ion Na +, reduction of molecular weight by the hydrolysis reaction and reduction of reactive sites by seasonally or irradiation. Most applications from the radiation degradation of polysaccharides started with the use of the ''hit and miss'' process where polysaccharides were irradiated at a certain dose range and finding out which dose is suitable for a specific function. Measurement of the radiation degradation yield (G d ) at different conditions can give an approximation of the Mw at an absorbed dose. This will allow the production of oligomers with a specified Mw. With the use of the G d both in solid and in aqueous solution, one can also make a rough calculation whether it is more economical to irradiateκ-carrageenan in solid r in aqueous solution. Results of this experiment reveal that the radiation yields (G d ) of κ-carrageenan in solid and in aqueous (1%) were as follows: 2.5, 1.7 and 1.2 x 10-7 mol J-1 for

  19. NMR study on the network structure of a mixed gel of kappa and iota carrageenans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bingjie; Du, Lei; Matsukawa, Shingo

    2016-10-05

    The temperature dependencies of the (1)H T2 and diffusion coefficient (D) of a mixed solution of kappa-carrageenan and iota-carrageenan were measured by NMR. Rheological and NMR measurements suggested an exponential formation of rigid aggregates of kappa-carrageenan and a gradual formation of fine aggregates of iota-carrageenan during two step increases of G'. The results also suggested that longer carrageenan chains are preferentially involved in aggregation, thus resulting in a decrease in the average Mw of solute carrageenans. The results of diffusion measurements for poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) suggested that kappa-carrageenan formed thick aggregates that decreased hindrance to PEO diffusion by decreasing the solute kappa-carrageenan concentration in the voids of the aggregated chains, and that iota-carrageenan formed fine aggregates that decreased the solute iota-carrageenan concentration less. DPEO in a mixed solution of kappa-carrageenan and iota-carrageenan suggested two possibilities for the microscopic network structure: an interpenetrating network structure, or micro-phase separation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Insulin receptor substrate-3, interacting with Bcl-3, enhances p50 NF-{kappa}B activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabuta, Tomohiro [Departments of Animal Sciences and Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Department of Degenerative Neurological Diseases, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo 187-8502 (Japan); Hakuno, Fumihiko; Cho, Yoshitake; Yamanaka, Daisuke; Chida, Kazuhiro [Departments of Animal Sciences and Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Asano, Tomoichiro [Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan); Wada, Keiji [Department of Degenerative Neurological Diseases, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo 187-8502 (Japan); Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro, E-mail: atkshin@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Departments of Animal Sciences and Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan)

    2010-04-09

    The insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins are major substrates of both insulin receptor and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I receptor tyrosine kinases. Previously, we reported that IRS-3 is localized to both cytosol and nucleus, and possesses transcriptional activity. In the present study, we identified Bcl-3 as a novel binding protein to IRS-3. Bcl-3 is a nuclear protein, which forms a complex with the homodimer of p50 NF-{kappa}B, leading to enhancement of transcription through p50 NF-{kappa}B. We found that Bcl-3 interacts with the pleckstrin homology domain and the phosphotyrosine binding domain of IRS-3, and that IRS-3 interacts with the ankyrin repeat domain of Bcl-3. In addition, IRS-3 augmented the binding activity of p50 to the NF-{kappa}B DNA binding site, as well as the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}-induced transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B. Lastly, IRS-3 enhanced NF-{kappa}B-dependent anti-apoptotic gene induction and consequently inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced cell death. This series of results proposes a novel function for IRS-3 as a transcriptional regulator in TNF-{alpha} signaling, distinct from its function as a substrate of insulin/IGF receptor kinases.

  1. Induction of oncogene addiction shift to NF-{kappa}B by camptothecin in solid tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togano, Tomiteru; Sasaki, Masataka; Watanabe, Mariko; Nakashima, Makoto [Department of Hematology, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228-8555 (Japan); Tsuruo, Takashi [Cancer Chemotherapy Center, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-10-6 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Umezawa, Kazuo [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-0061 (Japan); Higashihara, Masaaki [Department of Hematology, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228-8555 (Japan); Watanabe, Toshiki [Laboratory of Tumor Cell Biology, Department of Medical Genome Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Horie, Ryouichi, E-mail: rhorie@med.kitasato-u.ac.jp [Department of Hematology, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228-8555 (Japan)

    2009-12-04

    The biological basis of the resistance of solid tumor cells to chemotherapy is not well understood. While addressing this problem, we found that gastric cancer cell line St-4/CPT, lung cancer cell line A549/CPT, and colon cancer cell line HT-29/CPT, all of which are resistant to camptothecin (CPT), showed strong and constitutive nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B activity driven by I{kappa}B kinase compared with their parental cell lines St-4, A549, and HT-29. A new NF-{kappa}B inhibitor, dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ), reduced viability and induced apoptosis in St-4/CPT, A549/CPT, and HT-29/CPT cell lines, while their parental cell lines were resistant to DHMEQ. The results in this study present an example of the shift in signals that support the survival of solid tumor cells to NF-{kappa}B during the acquisition of resistance to CPT. The results also indicate that solid tumor cells that become resistant to chemotherapy may be more easily treated by NF-{kappa}B inhibitors.

  2. Delta Electroproduction in 12-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLauchlan, Steven [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2003-01-01

    The Δ-nucleus potential is a crucial element in the understanding of the nuclear system. Previous electroexcitation measurements in the delta region reported a Q2 dependence of the Δ mass indicating that this potential is dependent on the momentum of the Δ. Such a dependence is not observed for protons and neutrons in the nuclear medium. This thesis presents the experimental study of the electroexcitation of the Δ resonance in 12C, performed using the high energy electron beam at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, and the near 4π acceptance detector CLAS that enables the detection of the full reaction final state. Inclusive, semi inclusive, and exclusive cross sections were measured with an incident electron beam energy of 1.162GeV over the Q2 range 0.175-0.475 (GeV/c)2. A Q2 dependence of the Δ mass was only observed in the exclusive measurements indicating that the Δ-nucleus potential is affected by the momentum of the Δ.

  3. Legal Delta Boundary, 2001, DWR [ds586

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The original topographic maps containing the drawn delta border were scanned from the Department of Water Resources. Images were registered to 1:24,000 USGS DRG's in...

  4. sheltered creeks in Niger Delta, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-03-18

    Mar 18, 2015 ... 273 and 115,000 barrels, respectively, making the delta. *Corresponding author. .... content was transferred to savillex digestion bombs and concen- trated hydrochloric ... metals (Zn, Pb and Cu) by flame atomic absorption.

  5. South Local Government Area, Delta S

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    environs, Aniocha- South Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria was carried out with a view to determining the ... supply for physical industrial development to achieve maximum human .... the Schlumberger O' Neil software package.

  6. Delta-nucleus dynamics: proceedings of symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.S.H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Schiffer, J.P. (eds.)

    1983-10-01

    The appreciation of the role in nuclear physics of the first excited state of the nucleon, the delta ..delta..(1232), has grown rapidly in the past decade. The delta resonance dominates nuclear reactions induced by intermediate energy pions, nucleons, and electromagnetic probes. It is also the most important non-nucleonic degree of freedom needed to resolve many fundamental problems encountered in the study of low-energy nuclear phenomena. Clearly, a new phase of nuclear physics has emerged and conventional thinking must be extended to account for this new dimension of nuclear dynamics. The most challenging problem we are facing is how a unified theory can be developed to describe ..delta..-nucleus dynamics at all energies. In exploring this new direction, it is important to have direct discussions among researchers with different viewpoints. Separate entries were prepared for the 49 papers presented. (WHK)

  7. Damped Oscillator with Delta-Kicked Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manko, O. V.

    1996-01-01

    Exact solutions of the Schrodinger equation for quantum damped oscillator subject to frequency delta-kick describing squeezed states are obtained. The cases of strong, intermediate, and weak damping are investigated.

  8. On the origin of delta spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.

    1983-01-01

    Mount Wilson sunspot drawings from 1966 through 1980 were used in conjunction with Hα filtergrams from Big Bear Solar Observatory to examine the origin of delta spots, spots with bipolar umbrae within one penumbra. Of the six cases we studied, five were formed by the union of non-paired spots. They are either shoved into one another by two neighboring growing bipoles or by a new spot born piggy-back style on an existing spot of opposite polarity. Proper motions of the growing spots take on curvilinear paths around one another to avoid a collision. This is the shear motion observed in delta spots (Tanaka, 1979). In the remaining case, the delta spot was formed by spots that emerged as a pair. Our findings indicate no intrinsic differences in the formation or the behavior between delta spots of normal magnetic configuration. (orig.)

  9. 2016 Rose Ojowhoh Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OJOHWOH ROSE

    The study examined staff development and library services in academic libraries in Bayelsa and Delta States. ... academic libraries, whose responsibility will be to cater for the development of staff in all ramifications. ..... Human resource.

  10. AMNESTY IN THE NIGER DELTA: VERTICAL MOVEMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLAWUYI

    federal government, the Niger Delta communities claim that they are entitled to ... instability, macroeconomic challenges, inconsistent policy regimes to ..... continues they cannot threaten the stability of the country nor affect its continued.

  11. Cationization of kappa- and iota-carrageenan--Characterization and properties of amphoteric polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, Tamara; Prado, Héctor J; Bonelli, Pablo R; Cukierman, Ana L; Fissore, Eliana L; Gerschenson, Lia N; Matulewicz, María C

    2015-08-01

    Commercial kappa- and iota carrageenans were cationized with 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride in aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. For kappa-carrageenan three derivatives with different degrees of substitution were obtained. Native and amphoteric kappa-carrageenans were characterized by NMR and infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy; methanolysis products were studied by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Young moduli and the strain at break of films, differential scanning calorimetry, rheological and flocculation behavior were also evaluated; the native and the amphoteric derivatives showed different and interesting properties. Cationization of iota-carrageenan was more difficult, indicating as it was previously observed for agarose, that substitution starts preferentially on the 2-position of 3,6-anhydrogalactose residues; in iota-carrageenan this latter unit is sulfated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of iota and kappa carrageenans to traditional several food using modified cassava flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Baarri, A. N.; Legowo, A. M.; Rizqiati, H.; Widayat; Septianingrum, A.; Sabrina, H. N.; Arganis, L. M.; Saraswati, R. O.; Mochtar, Rr C. P. R.

    2018-01-01

    Carrageenan has been known well as hydrocolloids that forming viscous dispersions and gels when dispersed in water. The carrageenan has not been widely applied to traditional foods. Therefore, the aim of this research was to determine the effect of kappa and iota carrageenans in traditional food models using modified cassava flour, sugar, and coconut milk. The textural properties, i.e. hardness, cohesiveness, springiness and adhesiveness have been measured using texture analyzer. The study indicated that traditional food models added kappa carrageenan at 2% generated remarkably higher in the hardness, cohesiveness, and springiness than those added iota carrageenan. On the other hand, the reserve result were found in the adhesiveness parameter. As conclusion, kappa carrageenan scan be potentially used for producing traditional foods based on the hard-texture-oriented foods whereas iota carrageenan can be used for the traditional foods with better adhesiveness.

  13. Measurement of Interobserver Disagreement: Correction of Cohen’s Kappa for Negative Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarald O. Kvålseth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As measures of interobserver agreement for both nominal and ordinal categories, Cohen’s kappa coefficients appear to be the most widely used with simple and meaningful interpretations. However, for negative coefficient values when (the probability of observed disagreement exceeds chance-expected disagreement, no fixed lower bounds exist for the kappa coefficients and their interpretations are no longer meaningful and may be entirely misleading. In this paper, alternative measures of disagreement (or negative agreement are proposed as simple corrections or modifications of Cohen’s kappa coefficients. The new coefficients have a fixed lower bound of −1 that can be attained irrespective of the marginal distributions. A coefficient is formulated for the case when the classification categories are nominal and a weighted coefficient is proposed for ordinal categories. Besides coefficients for the overall disagreement across categories, disagreement coefficients for individual categories are presented. Statistical inference procedures are developed and numerical examples are provided.

  14. Effects of the kappa opioid receptor antagonist MR-2266-BS on the acquisition of ethanol preference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandi, C.; Borrell, J.; Guaza, C. (Cajal Institute, Madrid (Spain))

    1990-01-01

    Using a paradigm by which rats forced to drink a weak ethanol solution develop ethanol preference in consecutive retention testing days, the effects of the administration of the kappa opioid antagonist MR-2266-BS, prior to or after the forced ethanol session, were studied. Pre-conditioning subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of 1 mg/kg of MR-2266-BS induced a decrease in subsequent ethanol consumption without significantly modifying the acquisition of ethanol preference. Post-conditioning administration of MR-2266-BS induced both a dose-dependent reduction in ethanol consumption and in preference throughout the three following days. The results of the present study provide further support of the involvement of kappa-type opioids on drinking behavior, and suggest that kappa receptors may be involved in the consumption and development of preference to ethanol.

  15. Alfven waves in dusty plasmas with plasma particles described by anisotropic kappa distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, R. A.; Ziebell, L. F. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Gaelzer, R. [Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354-Campus UFPel, CEP: 96010-900 Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Juli, M. C. de [Centro de Radio-Astronomia e Astrofisica Mackenzie-CRAAM, Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Rua da Consolacao 896, CEP: 01302-907 Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    We utilize a kinetic description to study the dispersion relation of Alfven waves propagating parallelly to the ambient magnetic field in a dusty plasma, taking into account the fluctuation of the charge of the dust particles, which is due to inelastic collisions with electrons and ions. We consider a plasma in which the velocity distribution functions of the plasma particles are modelled as anisotropic kappa distributions, study the dispersion relation for several combinations of the parameters {kappa}{sub Parallel-To} and {kappa}{sub Up-Tack }, and emphasize the effect of the anisotropy of the distributions on the mode coupling which occurs in a dusty plasma, between waves in the branch of circularly polarized waves and waves in the whistler branch.

  16. Migration in Vulnerable Deltas: A Research Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, C.; Nicholls, R. J.; Allan, A.

    2015-12-01

    C. Hutton1, & R. J. Nicholls1, , 1 University of Southampton, University Road, Southampton, Hampshire, United Kingdom, SO17 1BJ. cwh@geodata. soton.ac.ukAbstractGlobally, deltas contain 500 million people and with rising sea levels often linked to large number of forced migrants are expected in the coming century. However, migration is already a major process in deltas, such as the growth of major cities such as Dhaka and Kolkata. Climate and environmental change interacts with a range of catchment and delta level drivers, which encompass a nexus of sea-level rise, storms, freshwater and sediment supply from the catchment, land degradation, subsidence, agricultural loss and socio-economic stresses. DECCMA (Deltas, Vulnerability and Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation/CARRIA) is investigating migration in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM), Mahanadi and Volta Deltas, including the influence of climate change. The research will explore migration from a range of perspectives including governance and stakeholder analysis, demographic analysis, household surveys of sending and receiving areas, macro-economic analysis, and hazards and hotspot analysis both historically and into the future. Migration under climate change will depend on other adaptation in the deltas and this will be examined. Collectively, integrated analysis will be developed to examine migration, other adaptation and development pathways with a particular focus on the implications for the poorest. This will require the development of input scenarios, including expert-derived exogenous scenarios (e.g., climate change) and endogenous scenarios of the delta developed in a participatory manner. This applied research will facilitate decision support methods for the development of deltas under climate change, with a focus on migration and other adaptation strategies.

  17. Immunoglobulin gene expression and regulation of rearrangement in kappa transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    Transgenic mice were produced by microinjection of the functionally rearranged immunoglobulin kappa gene from the myeloma MOPC-21 into the male pronucleus of fertilized mouse eggs, and implantation of the microinjected embryos into foster mothers. Mice that integrated the injected gene were detected by hybridizing tail DNA dots with radioactively labelled pBR322 plasmid DNA, which detects pBR322 sequences left as a tag on the microinjected DNA. Mice that integrated the injected gene (six males) were mated and the DNA, RNA and serum kappa chains of their offspring were analyzed. A rabbit anti-mouse kappa chain antiserum was also produced for use in detection of mouse kappa chains on protein blots. Hybridomas were produced from the spleen cells of these kappa transgenic mice to immortalize representative B cells and to investigate expression of the transgenic kappa gene, its effect on allelic exclusion, and its effect on the control of light chain gene rearrangement and expression. The results show that the microinjected DNA is integrated as concatamers in unique single or, rarely, two separate sites in the genome. The concatamers are composed of several copies (16 to 64) of injected DNA arranged in a head to tail fashion. The transgene is expressed into protein normally and in a tissue specific fashion. For the first time in these transgenic mice, all tissues contain a functionally rearranged and potentially expressible immunoglobulin gene. The transgene is expressed only in B cells and not in hepatocytes, for example. This indicates that rearrangement of immunoglobulin genes is necessary but not sufficient for the tissue specific expression of these genes by B cells

  18. Phenotyping polyclonal kappa and lambda light chain molecular mass distributions in patient serum using mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnidge, David R; Dasari, Surendra; Ramirez-Alvarado, Marina; Fontan, Adrian; Willrich, Maria A V; Tschumper, Renee C; Jelinek, Diane F; Snyder, Melissa R; Dispenzieri, Angela; Katzmann, Jerry A; Murray, David L

    2014-11-07

    We previously described a microLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS method for identifying monoclonal immunoglobulins in serum and then tracking them over time using their accurate molecular mass. Here we demonstrate how the same methodology can be used to identify and characterize polyclonal immunoglobulins in serum. We establish that two molecular mass distributions observed by microLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS are from polyclonal kappa and lambda light chains using a combination of theoretical molecular masses from gene sequence data and the analysis of commercially available purified polyclonal IgG kappa and IgG lambda from normal human serum. A linear regression comparison of kappa/lambda ratios for 74 serum samples (25 hypergammaglobulinemia, 24 hypogammaglobulinemia, 25 normal) determined by microflowLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS and immunonephelometry had a slope of 1.37 and a correlation coefficient of 0.639. In addition to providing kappa/lambda ratios, the same microLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS analysis can determine the molecular mass for oligoclonal light chains observed above the polyclonal background in patient samples. In 2 patients with immune disorders and hypergammaglobulinemia, we observed a skewed polyclonal molecular mass distribution which translated into biased kappa/lambda ratios. Mass spectrometry provides a rapid and simple way to combine the polyclonal kappa/lambda light chain abundance ratios with the identification of dominant monoclonal as well as oligoclonal light chain immunoglobulins. We anticipate that this approach to evaluating immunoglobulin light chains will lead to improved understanding of immune deficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and antibody responses.

  19. A new structural class of proteasome inhibitors that prevent NF-kappa B activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, R T; Kerwar, S S; Meyer, S M; Nelson, M G; Schow, S R; Shiffman, D; Wick, M M; Joly, A

    1998-05-01

    The multicatalytic proteinase or proteasome is a highly conserved cellular structure that is responsible for the ATP-dependent proteolysis of many proteins involved in important regulatory cellular processes. We have identified a novel class of inhibitors of the chymotrypsin-like proteolytic activity of the 20S proteasome that exhibit IC50 values ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 microgram/mL (0.1 to 1 microM). In cell proliferation assays, these compounds inhibit growth with an IC50 ranging from 5 to 10 micrograms/mL (10-20 microM). A representative member of this class of inhibitors was tested in other biological assays. CVT-634 (5-methoxy-1-indanone-3-acetyl-leu-D-leu-1-indanylamide) prevented lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-, and phorbol ester-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) in vitro by preventing signal-induced degradation of I kappa B-alpha. In these studies, the I kappa B-alpha that accumulated was hyperphosphorylated, indicating that CVT-634 did not inhibit I kappa B-alpha kinase, the enzyme responsible for signal-induced phosphorylation of I kappa B-alpha. In vivo studies indicated that CVT-634 prevented LPS-induced TNF synthesis in a murine macrophage cell line. In addition, in mice pretreated with CVT-634 at 25 and 50 mg/kg and subsequently treated with LPS, serum TNF levels were significantly lower (225 +/- 59 and 83 +/- 41 pg/mL, respectively) than in those mice that were treated only with LPS (865 +/- 282 pg/mL). These studies suggest that specific inhibition of the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome is sufficient to prevent signal-induced NF-kappa B activation and that the proteasome is a novel target for the identification of agents that may be useful in the treatment of diseases whose etiology is dependent upon the activation of NF-kappa B.

  20. Proteasome and NF-kappaB inhibiting phaeophytins from the green alga Cladophora fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinping; Li, Min; Xu, Bo; Zhu, Xiaobin; Deng, Zhiwei; Lin, Wenhan

    2007-03-21

    Chemical examination of the green alga Cladophora fascicularis resulted in the isolation and characterization of a new porphyrin derivative, porphyrinolactone (1), along with five known phaeophytins 2-6 and fourteen sterols and cycloartanes. The structure of 1 was determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and by comparison of its NMR data with those of known phaeophytins. Compounds 1-6 displayed moderate inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation, while 2 and 4 displayed potential inhibitory activity toward proteasome chymotripsin-like activation. The primary structure-activity relationship was also discussed.

  1. Global and local governance of shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi Thu, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Mekong Delta is one of seven ecological regions in Vietnam where aquaculture and shrimp products are internationally traded and the shrimp farmers are firmly embedded in a global system of production and trade. The growth of shrimp aquaculture, in addition to population growth and higher

  2. Shoreline Changes on the Wave-Influenced Senegal River Delta, West Africa: The Roles of Natural Processes and Human Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Sadio , Mamadou; Anthony , Edward ,; Diaw , Amadou ,; DUSSOUILLEZ , Philippe; FLEURY , Jules; Kane , Alioune; Almar , Rafael; Kestenare , Élodie

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The Senegal River delta in West Africa, one of the finest examples of " wave-influenced " deltas, is bounded by a spit periodically breached by waves, each breach then acting as a shifting mouth of the Senegal River. Using European Re-Analysis (ERA) hindcast wave data from 1984 to 2015 generated by the Wave Atmospheric Model (WAM) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), we calculated longshore sediment transport rates along the spit. We also ...

  3. A novel mouse PKC{delta} splice variant, PKC{delta}IX, inhibits etoposide-induced apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung D. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Kwang W. [Department of Internal Medicines, Ulsan University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun A.; Quang, Nguyen N. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hong R. [Department of Surgery, Ulsan University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Center, Ulsan University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Byungsuk, E-mail: bskwon@mail.ulsan.as.kr [School of Biological Sciences, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Center, Ulsan University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: {yields} A novel PKC{delta} isoform, named PKC{delta}IX, that lacks the C1 domain and the ATP-binding site is ubiquitously expressed. {yields} PKC{delta}IX inhibits etoposide-induced apoptosis. {yields} PKC{delta}IX may function as an endogenous dominant negative isoform for PKC{delta}. -- Abstract: Protein kinase C (PKC) {delta} plays an important role in cellular proliferation and apoptosis. The catalytic fragment of PKC{delta} generated by caspase-dependent cleavage is essential for the initiation of etoposide-induced apoptosis. In this study, we identified a novel mouse PKC{delta} isoform named PKC{delta}IX (Genebank Accession No. (HQ840432)). PKC{delta}IX is generated by alternative splicing and is ubiquitously expressed, as seen in its full-length PKC{delta}. PKC{delta}IX lacks the C1 domain, the caspase 3 cleavage site, and the ATP binding site but preserves an almost intact c-terminal catalytic domain and a nuclear localization signal (NLS). The structural characteristics of PKC{delta}IX provided a possibility that this PKC{delta} isozyme functions as a novel dominant-negative form for PKC{delta} due to its lack of the ATP-binding domain that is required for the kinase activity of PKC{delta}. Indeed, overexpression of PKC{delta}IX significantly inhibited etoposide-induced apoptosis in NIH3T3 cells. In addition, an in vitro kinase assay showed that recombinant PKC{delta}IX protein could competitively inhibit the kinase activity of PKC{delta}. We conclude that PKC{delta}IX can function as a natural dominant-negative inhibitor of PKC{delta}in vivo.

  4. Delta infection evidenced by radioimmunoanalysis in selected collectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kselikova, M; Horejsi, J; Urbankova, J

    1987-01-01

    The presence of the Delta agent within the population was tested by means of the Delta-antibody radioimmunoassay using competitive kits of the firms ABBOTT (ABBOTT-ANTI-DELTA) and SORIN (AB-DELTAK). The Delta-antibody was found in 3.2% HBV patients, 5% HBsAg carriers, and in 20.8% of specific anti-Hbs-immunoglobulin. In hemophiliacs and blood donors no Delta-antibody was seen.

  5. Delta infection evidenced by radioimmunoanalysis in selected collectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kselikova, M.; Horejsi, J.; Urbankova, J.

    1987-01-01

    The presence of the Delta agent within the population was tested by means of the Delta-antibody radioimmunoassay using competitive kits of the firms ABBOTT (ABBOTT-ANTI-DELTA) and SORIN (AB-DELTAK). The Delta-antibody was found in 3.2% HBV patients, 5% HBsAg carriers, and in 20.8% of specific anti-Hbs-immunoglobulin. In hemophiliacs and blood donors no Delta-antibody was seen. (author)

  6. Growth laws for sub-delta crevasses in the Mississippi River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yocum, T. A.; Georgiou, I. Y.; Straub, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    River deltas are threatened by environmental change, including subsidence, global sea level rise, reduced sediment inputs and other local factors. In the Mississippi River Delta (MRD) these impacts are exemplified, and have led to proposed solutions to build land that include sediment diversions to reinitiate the delta cycle. Deltas were studied extensively using numerical models, theoretical and conceptual frameworks, empirical scaling relationships, laboratory models and field observations. But predicting the future of deltas relies on field observations where for most deltas data are still lacking. Moreover, empirical and theoretical scaling laws may be influenced by the data used to develop them, while laboratory deltas may be influenced by scaling issues. Anthropogenic crevasses in the MRD are large enough to overcome limitations of laboratory deltas, and small enough to allow for rapid channel and wetland development, providing an ideal setting to investigate delta development mechanics. Here we assessed growth laws of sub-delta crevasses (SDC) in the MRD, in two experimental laboratory deltas (LD - weakly and strongly cohesive) and compared them to river dominated deltas worldwide. Channel and delta geometry metrics for each system were obtained using geospatial tools, bathymetric datasets, sediment size, and hydrodynamic observations. Results show that SDC follow growth laws similar to large river dominated deltas, with the exception of some that exhibit anomalous behavior with respect to the frequency and distance to a bifurcation and the fraction of wetted delta shoreline (allometry metrics). Most SDC exhibit a systematic decrease of non-dimensional channel geometries with increased bifurcation order, indicating that channels are adjusting to decreased flow after bifurcations occur, and exhibit linear trends for land allometry and width-depth ratio, although geometries decrease more rapidly per bifurcation order. Measured distance to bifurcations in SDC

  7. Search Results | Page 6 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 51 - 60 of 1366 ... Presentation at the 2014 International Food Security Dialogue held in ... age, largely based on findings from the Fish on Farms baseline survey. ... Communicating climate change risks for adaptation in coastal and delta ...

  8. Nuclear factor-kappaB activation correlates with better prognosis and Akt activation in human gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Lan; Lee, Hye Seung; Jung, Jieun; Cho, Sung Jin; Chung, Hee-Yong; Kim, Woo Ho; Jin, Young-Woo; Kim, Chong Soon; Nam, Seon Young

    2005-04-01

    Because the biological significance of constitutive nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation in human gastric cancer is unclear, we undertook this study to clarify the regulatory mechanism of NF-kappaB activation and its clinical significance. Immunohistochemistry for NF-kappaB/RelA was done on 290 human gastric carcinoma specimens placed on tissue array slides. The correlations between NF-kappaB activation and clinicopathologic features, prognosis, Akt activation, tumor suppressor gene expression, or Bcl-2 expression were analyzed. We also did luciferase reporter assay, Western blot analysis, and reverse transcription-PCR using the SNU-216 human gastric cancer cell line transduced with retroviral vectors containing constitutively active Akt or the NF-kappaB repressor mutant of IkappaBalpha. Nuclear expression of RelA was found in 18% of the gastric carcinomas and was higher in early-stage pathologic tumor-node-metastasis (P = 0.019). A negative correlation was observed between NF-kappaB activation and lymphatic invasion (P = 0.034) and a positive correlation between NF-kappaB activation and overall survival rate of gastric cancer patients (P = 0.0228). In addition, NF-kappaB activation was positively correlated with pAkt (P = 0.047), p16 (P = 0.004), adenomatous polyposis coli (P Smad4 (P = 0.002), and kangai 1 (P Akt. NF-kappaB activation was frequently observed in early-stage gastric carcinoma and was significantly correlated with better prognosis and Akt activation. These findings suggest that NF-kappaB activation is a valuable prognostic variable in gastric carcinoma.

  9. Houtman Abrolhos Isotope (delta 18O, delta 13C) Data for 1795 to 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — DESCRIPTION: VARIABLES AND UNITS: Column #1: core depth in mm Column #2: delta C-13 vs V-PDB Column #3: delta O-18 vs V-PDB Column #4: assigned date in years A.D....

  10. The Enabling Delta Life Initiative - Global Programme of Action on Deltas - Programme description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, van W.F.; Skyllerstedt, S.; Wosten, J.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Being ‘hotspots’ of human activity with generally high population densities, deltas are vulnerable to changes induced by a range of driving forces, both natural and anthropogenic. In addition to already existing challenges, uncertainty of the possible impacts of climate change, low lying deltas

  11. Kappa Opioid Receptors Mediate where Fear Is Expressed Following Extinction Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Sindy; Richardson, Rick; McNally, Gavan P.

    2011-01-01

    Six experiments used a within-subjects renewal design to examine the involvement of kappa opioid receptors (KORs) in regulating the expression and recovery of extinguished fear. Rats were trained to fear a tone conditioned stimulus (CS) via pairings with foot shock in a distinctive context (A). This was followed by extinction training of the CS in…

  12. $\\kappa$-Minkowski star product in any dimension from symplectic realization

    OpenAIRE

    Pachol, Anna; Vitale, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    We derive an explicit expression for the star product reproducing the $\\kappa$-Minkowski Lie algebra in any dimension $n$. The result is obtained by suitably reducing the Wick-Voros star product defined on $\\mathbb{C}^{d}_\\theta$ with $n=d+1$. It is thus shown that the new star product can be obtained from a Jordanian twist.

  13. Dust-acoustic solitons in quantum plasma with kappa-distributed ions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Arbitrary amplitude dust-acoustic (DA) solitary waves in an unmagnetized and col- lisionless quantum dusty plasma comprising cold dust particles, kappa (κ)-distributed ions and degenerate electrons are investigated. The influence of suprathermality and quantum effects on the linear dispersion relation of DA ...

  14. Effect of apple extracts on NF-kappaB activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Davis, P.A.; Polagruto, J.A.; Valacchi, G.; Phung, A.; Souček, Karel; Keen, C.L.; Gershwin, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 231, č. 5 (2006), s. 594-598 ISSN 1535-3702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : human umbilical vascular endothelial cells * NF-kappaB * antioxidants Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.845, year: 2006

  15. Molecular cloning and expression of bovine kappa-casein in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.C.; Richardson, T.

    1988-01-01

    A cDNA library was constructed using poly(A) + RNA from bovine mammary gland. This cDNA library of 6000 clones was screened employing colony hybridization using 32 P-labelled oligonucleotide probes and restriction endonuclease mapping. The cDNA from the selected plasmid, pKR76, was sequenced using the dideoxy-chain termination method. The cDNA insert of pKR76 carries the full-length sequence, which codes for mature kappa-casein protein. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA sequence fits the published amino acid sequence with three exceptions; the reported pyroglutamic acid at position 1, tyrosine at position 35, and aspartic acid at position 81 are, respectively, a glutamine, a histidine, and an asparagine in the clone containing pKR76. The MspI-, NlaIV-cleaved fragment (630 base pair) from the kappa-casein cDNA insert has been subcloned into expression vectors pUC18 and pKK233-2, which contain a lac promoter and a trc promoter, respectively. Escherichia coli cells carrying the recombinant expression plasmids were shown to produce kappa-casein protein having the expected mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and being recognized by specific antibodies raised against natural bovine kappa-casein

  16. Joint environmental policy making and sustainable practices for the cardboard production: case study: Smurfit Kappa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpio-Aguilar, J.C.; Franco Garcia, Maria Maria

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This paper presents an analysis of the influence of “Joint Environmental Policy-making” (JEP) in the operation of the company Smurfit Kappa (SK) in The Netherlands, Austria and Denmark (NL&AD). The paper aims to answer the question: to what extend has different levels of jointness and

  17. Revisiting Kappa to account for change in the accuracy assessment of land-use models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van J.; Bregt, A.K.; Hagen-Zanker, A.

    2011-01-01

    Land-use change models are typically calibrated to reproduce known historic changes. Calibration results can then be assessed by comparing two datasets: the simulated land-use map and the actual land-use map at the same time. A common method for this is the Kappa statistic, which expresses the

  18. Holocene evolution of a wave-dominated fan-delta: Godavari delta, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Y.; Nageswara Rao, K.; Nagakumar, K.; Demudu, G.; Rajawat, A.; Kubo, S.; Li, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The Godavari delta is one of the world's largest wave-dominated deltas. The Godavari River arises in the Western Ghats near the west coast of India and drains an area of about 3.1x10^5 km^2, flowing about 1465 km southeast across the Indian peninsula to the Bay of Bengal. The Godavari delta consists of a gentle seaward slope from its apex (12 m elevation) at Rajahmundry and a coastal beach-ridge plain over a distance of about 75 km and covers ~5200 km^2 as a delta plain. The river splits into two major distributary channels, the Gautami and the Vasishta, at a barrage constructed in the mid-1800s. The coastal environment of the deltaic coast is microtidal (~1 m mean tidal range) and wave-dominated (~1.5 m mean wave height in the June-September SW monsoon season, ~0.8 m in the NE monsoon season). Models of the Holocene evolution of the Godavari delta have changed from a zonal progradation model (e.g. Nageswara Rao & Sadakata, 1993) to a truncated cuspate delta model (Nageswara Rao et al., 2005, 2012). Twelve borehole cores (340 m total length), taken in the coastal delta plain during 2010-2013, yielded more than 100 C-14 dates. Sediment facies and C-14 dates from these and previous cores and remote-sensing data support a new delta evolution model. The Holocene coastal delta plain is divided into two parts by a set of linear beach ridges 12-14 km landward from the present shoreline in the central part of the delta. The location of the main depocenter (lobe) has shifted during the Holocene from 1) the center to 2) the west, 3) east, 4) center, 5) west, and 6) east. The linear beach ridges separate the first three from the last three stages. These lobe shifts are controlled by river channel shifts near the apex. Just as the current linear shoreline of the central part of the delta and the concave-up nearshore topography are the result of coastal erosion of a cuspate delta, the linear beach ridges indicate a former eroded shoreline. An unconformity within the deltaic

  19. Open source integrated modeling environment Delta Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchyts, G.; Baart, F.; Jagers, B.; van Putten, H.

    2012-04-01

    In the last decade, integrated modelling has become a very popular topic in environmental modelling since it helps solving problems, which is difficult to model using a single model. However, managing complexity of integrated models and minimizing time required for their setup remains a challenging task. The integrated modelling environment Delta Shell simplifies this task. The software components of Delta Shell are easy to reuse separately from each other as well as a part of integrated environment that can run in a command-line or a graphical user interface mode. The most components of the Delta Shell are developed using C# programming language and include libraries used to define, save and visualize various scientific data structures as well as coupled model configurations. Here we present two examples showing how Delta Shell simplifies process of setting up integrated models from the end user and developer perspectives. The first example shows coupling of a rainfall-runoff, a river flow and a run-time control models. The second example shows how coastal morphological database integrates with the coastal morphological model (XBeach) and a custom nourishment designer. Delta Shell is also available as open-source software released under LGPL license and accessible via http://oss.deltares.nl.

  20. QCD in the {delta}-regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, W. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares; Cundy, N. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Lattice Gauge Theory Research Center; Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R.; Zanotti, J.M. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Nakamura, Y. [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Center for Computational Sciences; Pleiter, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    The {delta}-regime of QCD is characterised by light quarks in a small spatial box, but a large extent in (Euclidean) time. In this setting a specific variant of chiral perturbation theory - the {delta}-expansion - applies, based on a quantum mechanical treatment of the quasi onedimensional system. In particular, for vanishing quark masses one obtains a residual pion mass M{sup R}{sub {pi}}, which has been computed to the third order in the {delta}-expansion. A comparison with numerical measurements of this residual mass allows for a new determination of some Low Energy Constants, which appear in the chiral Lagrangian. We first review the attempts to simulate 2-flavour QCD directly in the {delta}-regime. This is very tedious, but results compatible with the predictions for M{sup R}{sub {pi}} have been obtained. Then we show that an extrapolation of pion masses measured in a larger volume towards the {delta}-regime leads to good agreement with the theoretical predictions. From those results, we also extract a value for the (controversial) sub-leading Low Energy Constant anti l{sub 3}. (orig.)

  1. NF-kappaB signaling mediates vascular smooth muscle endothelin type B receptor expression in resistance arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Jian-Pu; Zhang, Yaping; Edvinsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) endothelin type B (ET(B)) receptor upregulation results in strong vasoconstriction and reduction of local blood flow. We hypothesizes that the underlying molecular mechanisms involve transcriptional factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway. ET(B) recepto...

  2. Regulation of development and function of different T cell subtypes by Rel/NF-{kappa}B family members

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallabhapurapu, S.

    2004-09-01

    This study reveals the requirement of distinct members of the Rel/NF-{kappa}B family in both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells for the development of thymic NKT cells. Activation of NF-{kappa}B via the classical I{kappa}B{alpha}-regulated pathway is required within the NKT precursors for their efficient maturation from NK1.1{sup -} precursors to mature NK1.1{sup +} NKT cells. The Rel/NF-{kappa}B family member RelB, on the other hand, is required in thymic stromal cells for the generation of very early NK1.1{sup -} precursors. NF-{kappa}B-inducing kinase (NIK) has also been shown to be required in thymic stromal cells for NKT cell development and this study demonstrates that NIK specifically regulates both constitutive and signal-induced DNA binding of RelB, but not RelA. Moreover, NIK-induced DNA binding of RelB depends on the processing of inhibitory p100 to p52, revealing an alternate pathway of NF-{kappa}B induction. Thus, Rel/NF-{kappa}B complexes activated by the classical I{kappa}B{alpha}-regulated pathway in NKT precursors and an alternate NIK/p100/RelB pathway in thymic stromal cells regulate different stages of NKT cell development. (orig.)

  3. DMPD: Signaling to NF-kappaB by Toll-like receptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available l Med. 2007 Nov;13(11):460-9. Epub 2007 Oct 29. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Signaling to NF-kappaB by Toll-like receptors. Pub...medID 18029230 Title Signaling to NF-kappaB by Toll-like receptors. Authors Kawai T

  4. Pim-2 activates API-5 to inhibit the apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells through NF-kappaB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ke; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Yujun; Gong, Jianping

    2010-06-01

    Pim-2 is proved to be relevant to the tumorigenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the mechanism is unclear. We studied the relationship among Pim-2, NF-kappaB and API-5. In our experiment, expression level of the three factors and phosphorylation level of API-5, as well as NF-kappaB activity, were detected in HCC tissues and the nontumorous controls. Then Pim-2 gene was transfected into nontumorous liver cells L02, and Pim-2 SiRNA was transfected into hepatoblastoma cell line HepG2. Parthenolide was added as NF-kappaB inhibitor. The same detections as above were repeated in the cells, along with the apoptosis analysis. We found the levels of Pim-2, NF-kappaB and API-5, as well as NF-kappaB activity, were significantly higher in HCC tissues. Pim-2 level was increased in L02 cells after the transfection of Pim-2 gene, but decreased in HepG2 cells after the transfection of Pim-2 SiRNA. The levels of NF-kappaB and API-5, as well as NF-kappaB activity and API-5 phosphorylation level, were in accordance with Pim-2 level, but could be reversed by Parthenolide. Cell apoptosis rates were negatively correlated with API-5 phosphorylation level. Therefore, we infer that Pim-2 could activate API-5 to inhibit the apoptosis of liver cells, and NF-kappaB is the key regulator.

  5. Effects of age and sedentary lifestyle on skeletal muscle NF-kappaB signaling in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buford, Thomas W; Cooke, Matthew B; Manini, Todd M; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2010-05-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) is a critical signaling molecule of disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy. However, few studies have carefully investigated whether similar pathways are modulated with physical activity and age. The present study examined lean mass, maximal force production, and skeletal muscle NF-kappaB signaling in 41 men categorized as sedentary (OS, N = 13, 63.85 +/- 6.59 year), physically active (OA, N = 14, 60.71 +/- 5.54 year), or young and sedentary (YS, N = 14, 21.35 +/- 3.84 year). Muscle tissue from the vastus lateralis was assayed for messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of the beta subunit of IkB kinase (IKKbeta), cytosolic protein content of phosphorylated inhibitor of kappa B alpha (pIKBalpha), and nuclear content of NF-kappaB subunits p50 and p65. When compared with YS, OS demonstrated age-related muscle atrophy and reduced isokinetic knee extension torque. Physical activity in older individuals preserved maximal isokinetic knee extension torque. OS muscle contained 50% more pIKBalpha than OA and 61% more pIKBalpha than YS. Furthermore, nuclear p65 was significantly elevated in OS compared with YS. OS muscle did not differ from either of the other two groups for nuclear p50 or for mRNA expression of IKKbeta. These results indicate that skeletal muscle content of nuclear-bound p65 is elevated by age in humans. The elevation in nuclear-bound p65 appears to be at least partially due to significant increases in pIKBalpha. A sedentary lifestyle appears to play some role in increased IKBalpha; however, further research is needed to identify downstream effects of this increase.

  6. Trends and driving mechanism of land-use change in metropolitan areas of Pearl River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng-gui; Zhang, Hong-ou; Wang, Juan; Wu, Qi-tao

    2008-10-01

    Taking Pearl River Delta for an example this study focuses on the trends and the driving mechanism of land-use changes in metropolises, in order to achieve the fundamental objectives of LUCC study increasing the awareness on dynamics of global land-use and land-cover changes, and improving the ability of forecasting LUCC. By analyzing the land-use change in Pearl River Delta from 1996 to 2006, it is found that the differences among internal space are notable. By establishing time-sequence-curve with SPSS software, it is shown that trends of land-use change are very clear. With factor analysis on land-use change, the study summarizes four factors of driving mechanism, including factors of economic development level, regional industrial structure, demographic and agricultural structure adjustment, which impact land change in Pearl River Delta to a different extent.

  7. Homophilic interactions mediated by receptor tyrosine phosphatases mu and kappa. A critical role for the novel extracellular MAM domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zondag, G C; Koningstein, G M; Jiang, Y P

    1995-01-01

    and is found in diverse transmembrane proteins, is not known. We previously reported that both RPTP mu and RPTP kappa can mediate homophilic cell interactions when expressed in insect cells. Here we show that despite their striking structural similarity, RPTP mu and RPTP kappa fail to interact...... in a heterophilic manner. To examine the role of the MAM domain in homophilic binding, we expressed a mutant RPTP mu lacking the MAM domain in insect Sf9 cells. Truncated RPTP mu is properly expressed at the cell surface but fails to promote cell-cell adhesion. Homophilic cell adhesion is fully restored...... in a chimeric RPTP mu molecule containing the MAM domain of RPTP kappa. However, this chimeric RPTP mu does not interact with either RPTP mu or RPTP kappa. These results indicate that the MAM domain of RPTP mu and RPTP kappa is essential for homophilic cell-cell interaction and helps determine the specificity...

  8. El plan del delta - Holanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1963-09-01

    Full Text Available Holland is very poor in land resources. Hence its development has been directed towards intensive industrialization and maximum agricultural exploitation. The western part of the country is below sea level and is occupied by 65 percent of the population. Originally the coast consisted of a number of islands, estuaries and slight elevations. Man has transformed this coastline, first making a number of artificial lakes, or polders, and then converting these into fertile districts. These projects protect the soil by means of dykes, which require careful conservation, but even so violent floods are not infrequent. One of the difficult problems involved in this vast enterprise is the complex system of water supply, lines of communication and flow of the rivers into the sea along the estuary zone. This zone is on the south west, and to protect it a National Commission has been set up. After careful study, it was decided that the best defense against the violence of the sea would consist in closing off the inroads of the sea into the continental coastline. The set of hydraulic projects which constitutes this plan for the improvement of the sea defences will take 25 years to fulfil. The general project is highly ambitious and includes both maritime, road and structural works, in which there is a variety of stonework constructions. This paper describes, in brief outline, the main contents of the 11 headings into which the general construction project has been subdivided. In addition, this is supplemented with information on the projects which are already initiated and on the constructional procedure that is being adopted. Of these latter projects, the Nabla bridge is of particular interest. It is situated on the delta. It is made in prestressed concrete, and consists of 17 spans, of 60 length each. This enormous structure, in addition to its great length, and supporting a 22.8 ms wide roadway, is subjected to the tremendous forces 11» of the sea on one

  9. Analysis of historical delta values for IAEA/LANL NDA training courses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geist, William; Santi, Peter; Swinhoe, Martyn; Bonner, Elisa

    2009-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supports the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) by providing training for IAEA inspectors in neutron and gamma-ray Nondestructive Assay (NDA) of nuclear material. Since 1980, all new IAEA inspectors attend this two week course at LANL gaining hands-on experience in the application of NDA techniques, procedures and analysis to measure plutonium and uranium nuclear material standards with well known pedigrees. As part of the course the inspectors conduct an inventory verification exercise. This exercise provides inspectors the opportunity to test their abilities in performing verification measurements using the various NDA techniques. For an inspector, the verification of an item is nominally based on whether the measured assay value agrees with the declared value to within three times the historical delta value. The historical delta value represents the average difference between measured and declared values from previous measurements taken on similar material with the same measurement technology. If the measurement falls outside a limit of three times the historical delta value, the declaration is not verified. This paper uses measurement data from five years of IAEA courses to calculate a historical delta for five non-destructive assay methods: Gamma-ray Enrichment, Gamma-ray Plutonium Isotopics, Passive Neutron Coincidence Counting, Active Neutron Coincidence Counting and the Neutron Coincidence Collar. These historical deltas provide information as to the precision and accuracy of these measurement techniques under realistic conditions.

  10. Supersensitive Kappa Opioid Receptors Promotes Ethanol Withdrawal-Related Behaviors and Reduce Dopamine Signaling in the Nucleus Accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jamie H; Karkhanis, Anushree N; Chen, Rong; Gioia, Dominic; Lopez, Marcelo F; Becker, Howard C; McCool, Brian A; Jones, Sara R

    2016-05-01

    Chronic ethanol exposure reduces dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens, which may contribute to the negative affective symptoms associated with ethanol withdrawal. Kappa opioid receptors have been implicated in withdrawal-induced excessive drinking and anxiety-like behaviors and are known to inhibit dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. The effects of chronic ethanol exposure on kappa opioid receptor-mediated changes in dopamine transmission at the level of the dopamine terminal and withdrawal-related behaviors were examined. Five weeks of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure in male C57BL/6 mice were used to examine the role of kappa opioid receptors in chronic ethanol-induced increases in ethanol intake and marble burying, a measure of anxiety/compulsive-like behavior. Drinking and marble burying were evaluated before and after chronic intermittent ethanol exposure, with and without kappa opioid receptor blockade by nor-binaltorphimine (10mg/kg i.p.). Functional alterations in kappa opioid receptors were assessed using fast scan cyclic voltammetry in brain slices containing the nucleus accumbens. Chronic intermittent ethanol-exposed mice showed increased ethanol drinking and marble burying compared with controls, which was attenuated with kappa opioid receptor blockade. Chronic intermittent ethanol-induced increases in behavior were replicated with kappa opioid receptor activation in naïve mice. Fast scan cyclic voltammetry revealed that chronic intermittent ethanol reduced accumbal dopamine release and increased uptake rates, promoting a hypodopaminergic state of this region. Kappa opioid receptor activation with U50,488H concentration-dependently decreased dopamine release in both groups; however, this effect was greater in chronic intermittent ethanol-treated mice, indicating kappa opioid receptor supersensitivity in this group. These data suggest that the chronic intermittent ethanol-induced increase in ethanol intake and anxiety

  11. Large old trees influence patterns of delta13C and delta15N in forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Pascale; Bol, Roland; Dixon, Liz; Bardgett, Richard D

    2008-06-01

    Large old trees are the dominant primary producers of native pine forest, but their influence on spatial patterns of soil properties and potential feedback to tree regeneration in their neighbourhood is poorly understood. We measured stable isotopes of carbon (delta(13)C) and nitrogen (delta(15)N) in soil and litter taken from three zones of influence (inner, middle and outer zone) around the trunk of freestanding old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees, to determine the trees' influence on below-ground properties. We also measured delta(15)N and delta(13)C in wood cores extracted from the old trees and from regenerating trees growing within their three zones of influence. We found a significant and positive gradient in soil delta(15)N from the inner zone, nearest to the tree centre, to the outer zone beyond the tree crown. This was probably caused by the higher input of (15)N-depleted litter below the tree crown. In contrast, the soil delta(13)C did not change along the gradient of tree influence. Distance-related trends, although weak, were visible in the wood delta(15)N and delta(13)C of regenerating trees. Moreover, the wood delta(15)N of small trees showed a weak negative relationship with soil N content in the relevant zone of influence. Our results indicate that large old trees control below-ground conditions in their immediate surroundings, and that stable isotopes might act as markers for the spatial and temporal extent of these below-ground effects. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  12. Hepatitis delta genotypes in chronic delta infection in the northeast of Spain (Catalonia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrina, M; Buti, M; Jardi, R; Quer, J; Rodriguez, F; Pascual, C; Esteban, R; Guardia, J

    1998-06-01

    Based on genetic analysis of variants obtained around the world, three genotypes of the hepatitis delta virus have been defined. Hepatitis delta virus variants have been associated with different disease patterns and geographic distributions. To determine the prevalence of hepatitis delta virus genotypes in the northeast of Spain (Catalonia) and the correlation with transmission routes and clinical disease, we studied the nucleotide divergence of the consensus sequence of HDV RNA obtained from 33 patients with chronic delta hepatitis (24 were intravenous drug users and nine had no risk factors), and four patients with acute self-limited delta infection. Serum HDV RNA was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction technique and a fragment of 350 nucleotides (nt 910 to 1259) was directly sequenced. Genetic analysis of the nucleotide consensus sequence obtained showed a high degree of conservation among sequences (93% of mean). Comparison of these sequences with those derived from different geographic areas and pertaining to genotypes I, II and III, showed a mean sequence identity of 92% with genotype I, 73% with genotype II and 61% with genotype III. At the amino acid level (aa 115 to 214), the mean identity was 87% with genotype I, 63% with genotype II and 56% with genotype III. Conserved regions included the RNA editing domain, the carboxyl terminal 19 amino acids of the hepatitis delta antigen and the polyadenylation signal of the viral mRNA. Hepatitis delta virus isolates in the northeast of Spain are exclusively genotype I, independently of the transmission route and the type of infection. No hepatitis delta virus subgenotypes were found, suggesting that the origin of hepatitis delta virus infection in our geographical area is homogeneous.

  13. Abraham Reef Stable Isotope Data (delta 13C, delta 18O, delta 14C) for 1635-1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site: Abraham Reef, 22ó 06'S, 153ó 00'E, Porites australiensus, Radiocarbon (delta 14C) and Stable Isotope (del 18O and del 13C) results from bi-annual samples from...

  14. ESTUDIO PRELIMINAR SOBRE LA INFLUENCIA DE LA CARRAGENINA KAPPA, KAPPA I.II Y GOMA TARA EN LA VISCOSIDAD Y TIXOTROPÍA DE LAS SALMUERAS DE INYECCIÓN PARA JAMONES COCIDOS PICADOS DE CERDO PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE INFLUENCE OF KAPPA, KAPPA I.II CARRAGEENAN AND TARA GUM IN THE VISCOSITY AND THIXOTROPY OF INJECTION BRINES FOR COOKED CHOPPED HAMS OF PORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Alexander Molina Cote

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio determinó el efecto que sobre la viscosidad y la tixotropía de una salmuera de masajeo para jamones picados cocidos de cerdo, tiene la adición de carragenina kappa, carragenina kappa I.II y goma tara, cuando son usadas a un nivel del 1% en la salmuera. Para tal efecto se incorporaron seis mezclas distintas de hidrocoloides provenientes de la carragenina kappa, kappa I.II y goma tara (individualmente, en mezclas binarias y mezclas terciarias, en una salmuera de inyección y masajeo para jamones; a las cuales se les determinó su comportamiento viscoso y tixotrópico a 4 ºC. Los datos obtenidos de índice de tixotropía (máximos, se analizaron mediante un modelo cuadrático derivado de un arreglo de mezclas. Los resultados mostraron que todas las salmueras se comportaron tixotrópicamente, presentando mayor área de histéresis, las mezclas que contenían goma tara. El modelo usado para el índice de tixotropía arrojó, con un nivel de significancia de 0,05, que la relación óptima, es la que contiene la mezcla de carragenina kappa I.II-goma tara (79% y 21%. Adicionalmente, las salmueras que contenían carragenina kappa, carragenina kappa I.II y carragenina kappa-carragenina kappa I.II presentaron menor viscosidad que las mezclas que contenían goma tara.The aim of this study was to determine the thixotropy´s effect of a massage brine in cooked chopped pork hams with addition of kappa, kappa I.II carrageenan, tara gum and their mixtures, when were used at 1% injection level of brine to meat. Six mixtures were evaluated. A protocol for thixotropy measurement adjusted to the conditions of brines used taking in account salinity, pH, temperature and shear stress. Data obtained from thixotropy index (maximum were analyzed with quadratic model derived from blends array. Results showed thixotropic measurement to brines presented a very small area, showing structural changes, but with very fast recovery. It was observed

  15. Groundwater Flow Model of Göksu Delta Coastal Aquifer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem Dokuz, Uǧur; Çelik, Mehmet; Arslan, Şebnem; Engin, Hilal

    2016-04-01

    Like many other coastal areas, Göksu Delta (Mersin-Silifke, Southern Turkey) is a preferred place for human settlement especially due to its productive farmlands and water resources. The water dependent ecosystem in Göksu delta hosts about 332 different plant species and 328 different bird species besides serving for human use. Göksu Delta has been declared as Special Environmental Protection Zone, Wildlife Protection Area, and RAMSAR Convention for Wetlands of International Importance area. Unfortunately, rising population, agricultural and industrial activities cause degradation of water resources both by means of quality and quantity. This problem also exists for other wetlands around the world. It is necessary to prepare water management plans by taking global warming issues into account to protect water resources for next generations. To achieve this, the most efficient tool is to come up with groundwater management strategies by constructing groundwater flow models. By this aim, groundwater modeling studies were carried out for Göksu Delta coastal aquifer system. As a first and most important step in all groundwater modeling studies, geological and hydrogeological settings of the study area have been investigated. Göksu Delta, like many other deltaic environments, has a complex structure because it was formed with the sediments transported by Göksu River throughout the Quaternary period and shaped throughout the transgression-regression periods. Both due to this complex structure and the lack of observation wells penetrating deep enough to give an idea of the total thickness of the delta, it was impossible to reveal out the hydrogeological setting in a correct manner. Therefore, six wells were drilled to construct the conceptual hydrogeological model of Göksu Delta coastal aquifer system. On the basis of drilling studies and slug tests that were conducted along Göksu Delta, hydrostratigraphic units of the delta system have been obtained. According to

  16. Deltas on the move. Making deltas cope with the effects of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reker, J.; Van Winden, A.; Braakhekke, W.; Vermaat, J.; Eleveld, M.; Janssen, R.; De Reus, N.; Omzigt, N.

    2006-01-01

    This scoping study is the first phase of a study aimed at: (a) providing knowledge on the potential of a system-based approach to deal with the effects of climate change as an alternative for the more traditional technical measures such as dams, dikes and surge barriers. This should be shown for both rich and poor countries and should address hydrological, ecological as well as socio-economic aspects; and (b) identifying the potential to market these results worldwide. To reach these objectives four research steps are defined: (1) to make an inventory of deltas: their vulnerability to the effects of climate change; (2) development of indicators for successful use of a system-based approach; (3) to provide an overview of the potential of soft measures for these deltas; (4) to select a number of deltas with potential for marketing system-based measures and the development of strategies to link economic and ecological objectives. This scoping study addresses step 1 only. The results from step 1 will be used as a starting point for steps 2 and 3. The outputs of this scoping study are threefold: a background report (this report); a flyer with a brief description of the findings; a website with information on delta's and how these may be affected by climate change. The scoping study will roughly outline which deltas are still functioning in a more or less natural manner - or could be (re)developed in that direction - and thus would be good candidates for a system-based approach. Chapter 2 gives a description of the geomorphological and ecological processes in a delta. In addition, those aspects of climate change that can have an effect on deltas are described. The third chapter deals with human interventions in deltas and whether or not they fit within a system-based approach. In a system-based approach, as presented in Chapter 4, natural processes are given free reign where possible. Chapter 5 shows how available data on deltas could be used in such a system

  17. Regulation of NF-{kappa}B activity in astrocytes: effects of flavonoids at dietary-relevant concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spilsbury, Alison [Reading School of Pharmacy, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6UB (United Kingdom); Vauzour, David; Spencer, Jeremy P.E. [Molecular Nutrition Group, Centre for Integrative Neuroscience and Neurodynamics, School of Chemistry, Food and Pharmacy, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AP (United Kingdom); Rattray, Marcus, E-mail: m.a.n.rattray@reading.ac.uk [Reading School of Pharmacy, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6UB (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested the hypothesis that low concentrations of flavonoids inhibit NF-{kappa}B in astrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Primary cultured astrocytes possess a functional {kappa}B-system, measured using luciferase assays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Seven flavonoids (100 nM-1 {mu}M) failed to reduce NF-{kappa}B activity in astrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four flavonoids (100 nM-1 {mu}M) failed to reduce TNFa-stimulated NF-{kappa}B activity in astrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (-)-Epicatechin did not regulate nuclear translocation of the NF-{kappa}B subunit, p65. -- Abstract: Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the progression of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Sustained activation of nuclear transcription factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Flavonoids have been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and we investigated whether flavonoids, at submicromolar concentrations relevant to their bioavailability from the diet, were able to modulate NF-{kappa}B signalling in astrocytes. Using luciferase reporter assays, we found that tumour necrosis factor (TNF{alpha}, 150 ng/ml) increased NF-{kappa}B-mediated transcription in primary cultures of mouse cortical astrocytes, which was abolished on co-transfection of a dominant-negative I{kappa}B{alpha} construct. In addition, TNF{alpha} increased nuclear localisation of p65 as shown by immunocytochemistry. To investigate potential flavonoid modulation of NF-{kappa}B activity, astrocytes were treated with flavonoids from different classes; flavan-3-ols ((-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin), flavones (luteolin and chrysin), a flavonol (kaempferol) or the flavanones (naringenin and hesperetin) at dietary-relevant concentrations (0.1-1 {mu}M) for 18 h. None of the flavonoids modulated constitutive or

  18. Conceptualizing delta forms and processes in Arctic coastal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Mette; Kroon, Aart

    2017-01-01

    Climate warming in the Arctic directly causes two opposite changes in Arctic coastal systems: increased melt-water discharge through rivers induces extra influx of sediments and extended open water season increases wave impact which reworks and erodes the shores. A shoreline change analysis along...... and popped up as hotspots. The Tuapaat delta and Skansen delta showed large progradation rates (1.5 and 7m/yr) and migration of the adjacent barriers and spits. The dynamic behavior at the delta mouths was mainly caused by classic delta channel lobe switching at one delta (Tuapaat), and by a breach...... of the fringing spit at the other delta (Skansen). The longshore and cross-shore transports are responsible for reworking the sediment with a result of migrating delta mouths and adjacent subaqueous mouth bars. Seaward progradation of the deltas is limited due to the steep nature of the bathymetry in Disko Bay...

  19. Binding energies of two deltas bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Saito, Koichi.

    1982-06-01

    Bound states of the two-deltas system are investigated by employing the realistic one boson exchange potential. It is found that there exist many bound states in each isospin channel and also found that the tensor interaction plays important role in producing these bound states. Relationship between these bound states and dibaryon resonances is discussed. (J.P.N.)

  20. Solubility of hydrogen in delta iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapovalov, V.I.; Trofimenko, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    The solubility of hydrogen in iron (less than 0.002 % impurities) at temperatures of 800-1510 deg C and a pressure of 100 atm was measured. The heat of solution of hydrogen in delta-Fe, equal to 73 kJ/g-atom, is by far greater than the corresponding values for α- and γ-Fe

  1. Applications of Dirac's Delta Function in Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuri, Andre

    2004-01-01

    The Dirac delta function has been used successfully in mathematical physics for many years. The purpose of this article is to bring attention to several useful applications of this function in mathematical statistics. Some of these applications include a unified representation of the distribution of a function (or functions) of one or several…

  2. Managing flood risks in the Mekong Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, Long Phi; Biesbroek, Robbert; Tri, Van Pham Dang; Kummu, Matti; Vliet, van Michelle T.H.; Leemans, Rik; Kabat, Pavel; Ludwig, Fulco

    2018-01-01

    Climate change and accelerating socioeconomic developments increasingly challenge flood-risk management in the Vietnamese Mekong River Delta—a typical large, economically dynamic and highly vulnerable delta. This study identifies and addresses the emerging challenges for flood-risk management.

  3. Bioluminescent hydrocarbonclastic bacteria of the Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of three petroleum hydrocarbons (Mobil SAE 40 Engine Oil, Diesel and Bonny light Crude Oil) by four bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio harveyi, V. fisheri, Photobacterium leiognathi and P. Phosphoreum isolated from the Bonny estuary in the Niger Delta, Nigeria was investigated. Microbial utilization was monitored ...

  4. The Delta Team: Empowering Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Marian White

    1994-01-01

    In response to adolescent girls' concerns about teen violence, rumors, grooming, careers, and equity, four women teachers and a woman administrator at a Maryland middle school developed the Delta Program. The program provides positive learning experiences, teaches social skills and conflict management techniques, empowers girls through mentoring…

  5. delta. -isobars and photodisintegration at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzumura, Jun-ichi; Futami, Yasuhiko [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Noda, Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    1982-12-01

    The dynamics of the peak considered to be due to the two-nucleon process in the reaction /sup 9/Be(gamma, p) anything is investigated with the quasi-deuteron model. We show that the process is dominated by a two-nucleon mechanism with pion and rho-meson exchange through virtual delta-isobar formation (author).

  6. Pulsations of delta Scuti stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.

    1989-01-01

    A general review of the pulsating δ Scuti variables is given including the observed light curves and positions of the stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. Theoretical interpretations from evolution and pulsation calculations give their masses, radii, luminosities, and even their approximate internal compositions. Three models of these stars are discussed and used to study the nonlinear hydrodynamic behavior of these stars. The hydrodynamic equations and the Stellingwerf method for obtaining strictly periodic solutions are outlined. Problems of allowing for time-dependent convection and its great sensitivity to temperature and density are presented. Tentative results to date do not show any tendency for amplitudes to grow to large unobserved amplitudes, in disagreement with an earlier suggestion by Stellingwerf. It is found that the very small growth rates of the pulsations may even be too small to be useful in seeking a periodic solution. 15 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Localized Gastric Amyloidosis with Kappa and Lambda Light Chain Co-Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Hwan Ahn

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Esophagogastroduodenoscopy for cancer screening was performed in a 55-year-old woman as part of a health screening program, and revealed a depressed lesion approximately 20 mm in diameter in the lesser curvature of the mid-gastric body. Several biopsy specimens were collected as the lesion resembled early gastric cancer; however, histopathologic evaluation revealed chronic active gastritis with an ulcer and amorphous eosinophilic material deposition. Congo red staining identified amyloid proteins, and apple-green birefringence was shown using polarized light microscopy. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the presence of kappa and lambda chain-positive plasma cells. There was no evidence of underlying plasma cell dyscrasia or amyloid deposition in other segments of the gastrointestinal tract. Echocardiography and computed tomography of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis did not show any significant findings. Thus, the patient was diagnosed with localized gastric amyloidosis with kappa and lambda light chain coexpression.

  8. Spironolactone induces apoptosis and inhibits NF-kappaB independent of the mineralocorticoid receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønder, Søren Ulrik Salling; Woetmann, Anders; Odum, Niels

    2006-01-01

    mononuclear cells (MNC). To elucidate the mechanism behind SPIR's apoptotic effect, we investigated the relation between apoptosis and cytokine suppression for SPIR along with the apoptosis-inducing and antiinflammatory drug sulfasalazine (SFZ). Using human MNC, we found that SPIR and SFZ, at concentrations...... 10 and 1000 muM, respectively, significantly increased both apoptosis and cell death. Production of inflammatory cytokines was significantly reduced by 3 to 30 muM SPIR and by 300 to 1000 muM SFZ. We also found that 0.4 muM SPIR and 300 muM SFZ significantly reduced the activity of NF......-kappaB, a transcription factor involved in both apoptosis and immunoinflammation. ALDO, the MR antagonist, eplerenone, and the SPIR metabolite, 7alpha-thiomethyl-spironolactone, slightly reduced NF-kappaB activity, but they did not interfere with SPIR's effect, showing that MR binding is not involved in SPIR...

  9. Gnotobiotic IL-10; NF-kappaB mice develop rapid and severe colitis following Campylobacter jejuni infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Lippert

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms associated with Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni induced food-borne diarrheal illnesses. In this study, we investigated the function of TLR/NF-kappaB signaling in C. jejuni induced pathogenesis using gnotobiotic IL-10(-/-; NF-kappaB(EGFP mice. In vitro analysis showed that C. jejuni induced IkappaB phosphorylation, followed by enhanced NF-kappaB transcriptional activity and increased IL-6, MIP-2alpha and NOD2 mRNA accumulation in infected-mouse colonic epithelial cells CMT93. Importantly, these events were blocked by molecular delivery of an IkappaB inhibitor (Ad5IkappaBAA. NF-kappaB signalling was also important for C.jejuni-induced cytokine gene expression in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Importantly, C. jejuni associated IL-10(-/-; NF-kappaB(EGFP mice developed mild (day 5 and severe (day 14 ulcerating colonic inflammation and bloody diarrhea as assessed by colonoscopy and histological analysis. Macroscopic analysis showed elevated EGFP expression indicating NF-kappaB activation throughout the colon of C. jejuni associated IL-10(-/-; NF-kappaB(EGFP mice, while fluorescence microscopy revealed EGFP positive cells to be exclusively located in lamina propria mononuclear cells. Pharmacological NF-kappaB inhibition using Bay 11-7085 did not ameliorate C. jejuni induced colonic inflammation. Our findings indicate that C. jejuni induces rapid and severe intestinal inflammation in a susceptible host that correlates with enhanced NF-kappaB activity from lamina propria immune cells.

  10. Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Xia, E-mail: zhongxia1977@126.com [Department of Emergency, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China); Li, Xiaonan; Liu, Fuli; Tan, Hui [Department of Emergency, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China); Shang, Deya, E-mail: wenhuashenghuo1@163.com [Department of Emergency, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin reduces expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha} in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK and NF-{kappa}B activation in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin supreeses TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway. -- Abstract: In the present study, we investigated whether omentin affected the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our data showed that omentin decreased TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in HUVECs. In addition, omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Further, we found that omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-activated signal pathway of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) by preventing NF-{kappa}B inhibitory protein (I{kappa}B{alpha}) degradation and NF-{kappa}B/DNA binding activity. Omentin pretreatment significantly inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK activity and ERK phosphorylation in HUVECs. Pretreatment with PD98059 suppressed TNF-{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activity. Omentin, NF-kB inhibitor (BAY11-7082) and ERK inhibitor (PD98059) reduced the up-regulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha}. These results suggest that omentin may inhibit TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via blocking ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway.

  11. Optimisation of in silico derived 2-aminobenzimidazole hits as unprecedented selective kappa opioid receptor agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasmal, Pradip K; Krishna, C Vamsee; Sudheerkumar Adabala, S

    2015-01-01

    Kappa opioid receptor (KOR) is an important mediator of pain signaling and it is targeted for the treatment of various pains. Pharmacophore based mining of databases led to the identification of 2-aminobenzimidazole derivative as KOR agonists with selectivity over the other opioid receptors DOR a...... of novel benzimidazole derivatives as KOR agonists are described. The in vivo proof of principle for anti-nociceptive effect with a lead compound from this series is exemplified....

  12. Sex Differences in Kappa Opioid Receptor Function and Their Potential Impact on Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Chartoff, Elena H.; Mavrikaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral, biological, and social sequelae that lead to drug addiction differ between men and women. Our efforts to understand addiction on a mechanistic level must include studies in both males and females. Stress, anxiety, and depression are tightly linked to addiction, and whether they precede or result from compulsive drug use depends on many factors, including biological sex. The neuropeptide dynorphin (DYN), an endogenous ligand at kappa opioid receptors (KORs), is necessary for stress...

  13. Estimations of Kappa parameter using quasi-thermal noise spectroscopy: Applications on Wind spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinović, M.

    2017-12-01

    Quasi-thermal noise (QTN) spectroscopy is an accurate technique for in situ measurements of electron density and temperature in space plasmas. The QTN spectrum has a characteristic noise peak just above the plasma frequency produced by electron quasi-thermal fluctuations, which allows a very accurate measurement of the electron density. The size and shape of the peak are determined by suprathermal electrons. Since this nonthermal electron population is well described by a generalized Lorentzian - Kappa velocity distribution, it is possible to determinate the distribution properties in the solar wind from a measured spectrum. In this work, we discuss some basic properties of the QTN spectrum dependence of the Kappa distribution parameters - total electron density, temperature and the Kappa index, giving an overview on how instrument characteristics and environment conditions affect quality of the measurements. Further on, we aim to apply the method to Wind Thermal Noise Receiver (TNR) measurements. However, the spectra observed by this instrument usually contain contributions from nonthermal phenomena, like ion acoustic waves below, or galactic noise above the plasma frequency. This is why, besides comparison of the theory with observations, work with Wind data requires development of a sophisticated algorithm that distinguish parts of the spectra that are dominated by the QTN, and therefore can be used in our study. Postulates of this algorithm, as well as major results of its implementation, are also presented.

  14. Mapping the transcription termination region of the mouse immunoglobulin kappa gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, M.; Garrard, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    To define the transcription termination region of the mouse immunoglobulin kappa gene, they have subcloned single copy DNA sequences corresponding to both the template and the non-template strands of this locus. In vitro nuclear transcription with isolated MPC-11 nuclei was performed and the resulting 32 P-labeled RNA was hybridized to slot-blotted, single-stranded M13 probes covering regions within and flanking the kappa gene. The hybridization pattern for the template-strand reveals that transcription terminates within the region between 1.1 to 2.3 kb downstream from the poly(A) site. Ten different short sequences (8-13 bp) reside within 460 bp of this region that exhibit homology with sequences found in the termination regions of mouse β-globin and chicken ovalbumin genes. Transcription of the non-template strand occurs on either side of this termination region. They note that no transcription is detectable on the non-template strand downstream of the enhancer, indicating that if RNA polymerase II enters at this site, it does not initiate transcription during transit to the promoter region. They conclude that transcription of the kappa gene passes the poly(A) addition site and terminates within 2.3 Kb downstream

  15. A Gordeyev integral for electrostatic waves in a magnetized plasma with a kappa velocity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mace, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    A Gordeyev-type integral for the investigation of electrostatic waves in magnetized plasma having a kappa or generalized Lorentzian velocity distribution is derived. The integral readily reduces, in the unmagnetized and parallel propagation limits, to simple expressions involving the Z κ function. For propagation perpendicular to the magnetic field, it is shown that the Gordeyev integral can be written in closed form as a sum of two generalized hypergeometric functions, which permits easy analysis of the dispersion relation for electrostatic waves. Employing the same analytical techniques used for the kappa distribution, it is further shown that the well-known Gordeyev integral for a Maxwellian distribution can be written very concisely as a generalized hypergeometric function in the limit of perpendicular propagation. This expression, in addition to its mathematical conciseness, has other advantages over the traditional sum over modified Bessel functions form. Examples of the utility of these generalized hypergeometric series, especially how they simplify analyses of electrostatic waves propagating perpendicular to the magnetic field, are given. The new expression for the Gordeyev integral for perpendicular propagation is solved numerically to obtain the dispersion relations for the electrostatic Bernstein modes in a plasma with a kappa distribution

  16. The impact of kappa number composition on eucalyptus kraft pulp bleachability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Costa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of chemicals during ECF bleaching of kraft pulp correlates reasonably well with kappa number, which measures with KMnO4 the total amount of oxidizable material in the pulp. However, the method does not distinguish between the oxidizable material in residual lignin and other structures susceptible to oxidation, such as hexenuronic acids (HexAs, extractives and carbonyl groups in the pulp. In this study an attempt is made to separate the main contributors to the kappa number in oxygen - delignified eucalyptus Kraft pulps and evaluate how these fractions behave during ECF bleaching using chlorine dioxide as the sole oxidant (DEDD sequence. Residual lignin and HexAs proved to be the main fractions contributing to the kappa number and chlorine dioxide consumption in ECF bleaching. Pulp bleachability with chlorine dioxide increases with increasing HexAs content of the pulp but chlorine dioxide per se does not react with HexAs. Reduction of pulp with sodium borohydride under conditions for removing carbonyl groups has no impact on bleachability. No correlation was found between the pulp of the extractive content and pulp bleachability. The removal of HexAs prior to ECF bleaching significantly decreases the formation of chlorinated organics in the pulp (OX and filtrates (AOX as well as of oxalic acids in the filtrates.

  17. Enantioselective kappa opioid binding sites on the macrophage cell line, P388d sub 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, D.J.J.; Blalock, J.E. (Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham (USA)); DeCosta, B.R.; Jacobson, A.E.; Rice, K.C. (NIDDK, NIH, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1991-01-01

    A kappa opioid binding site has been characterized on the macrophage cell line, P388d{sub 1}, using the kappa selective affinity ligand, ({sup 3H}(1S,2S)-(-)-trans-2-isothiocyanato-N-methyl-N-(2-(1-phrrolidinyl) cyclohexyl) benzeneacetamide ((-)BD166). The kappa site has a relative molecular mass (Mr) of 38,000 under nonreducing conditions and 42,000 under reducing conditions. Moreover, it exhibits enantioselectivity in that 1S,2S-(-)-trans-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)cyclohexyl) benzeneacetamide ((-)-U-50,488) blocks ({sup 3}H)95{alpha},7{alpha},8{beta})-(-)-N-methyl-N-(7-(1- pyrrolidinyl)-1-oxaspiro-(4,5)-dec-8-yl)benzeneacetamide (U-69,593) binding to P388d{sub 1} cells with an IC{sub 50} = 7.0 nM whereas 1R,2R-(+)-trans-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)cyclohexyl) benzeneacetamide ((+)U-50,488) blocks ({sup 3}H)U-69,593 binding to P388d{sub 1} cells with an IC{sub 50} = 700 nM.

  18. Ion acoustic solitons in a plasma with two-temperature kappa-distributed electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baluku, T. K.; Hellberg, M. A. [School of Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa)

    2012-01-15

    Existence domains and characteristics of ion acoustic solitons are studied in a two-temperature electron plasma with both electron components being kappa-distributed, as found in Saturn's magnetosphere. As is the case for double-Boltzmann electrons, solitons of both polarities can exist over restricted ranges of fractional hot electron density ratio for this plasma model. Low {kappa} values, which indicate increased suprathermal particles in the tail of the distribution, yield a smaller domain in the parameter space of hot density fraction and normalized soliton velocity (f, M), over which both soliton polarities are supported for a given plasma composition (the coexistence region). For some density ratios that support coexistence, solitons occur even at the lowest (critical) Mach number (i.e., at the acoustic speed), as found recently for a number of other plasma models. Like Maxwellians, low-{kappa} distributions also support positive potential double layers over a narrow range of low fractional cool electron density (<10%).

  19. Morphodynamics of a cyclic prograding delta: the Red River, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maren, D.S. van

    2004-01-01

    River deltas are inhabited by over 60% of the world population, and are, consequently, of paramount agricultural and economical importance. They constitute unique wetland envi ronments which gives river deltas ecological importance as well. Additionally, many deltas contain large accumulations of

  20. Environmental challenges in Nigeria's Delta Region and Agriculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discussed the environmental challenges in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria with emphasis on the impacts on agricultural production. It thus discussed the concepts of Niger-Delta, Environmental pollution, Niger-Delta crises and Agriculture. The paper posits that there are positive relationships between these ...

  1. Caseinomacropeptide self-association is dependent on whether the peptide is free or restricted in kappa-casein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, T.L.; Frokiaer, H.; Topp, C.

    2005-01-01

    There is a general agreement that the experimentally determined molecular weight (MW) of caseinomacropeptide (CMP) is greater than the theoretical MW. Some studies suggest that this is due to a pH-dependent aggregation of monomeric CMP. How this aggregation is influenced by pH is not understood. ...... are irreversibly associated, CMP in kappa-CN may associate reversibly in a pH-dependent manner. We suggest that interactions between para-kappa-CN parts of the kappa-CN molecules may be a requisite for the pH-dependent dissociation/association....

  2. Analysis and Quantitation of NF-[kappa]B Nuclear Translocation in Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-[alpha]) Activated Vascular Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuseler, John W.; Merrill, Dana M.; Rogers, Jennifer A.; Grisham, Matthew B.; Wolf, Robert E.

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-[kappa]B) is a heterodimeric transcription factor typically composed of p50 and p65 subunits and is a pleiotropic regulator of various inflammatory and immune responses. In quiescent cells, p50/p65 dimers are sequestered in the cytoplasm bound to its inhibitors, the I-[kappa]Bs, which prevent entry into the nucleus. Following cellular stimulation, the I-[kappa]Bs are rapidly degraded, activating NF-[kappa]B. The active form of NF-[kappa]B rapidly translocates into the nucleus, binding to consensus sequences in the promoter/enhancer region of various genes, promoting their transcription. In human vascular endothelial cells activated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha, the activation and translocation of NF-[kappa]B is rapid, reaching maximal nuclear localization by 30 min. In this study, the appearance of NF-[kappa]B (p65 subunit, p65-NF-[kappa]B) in the nucleus visualized by immunofluorescence and quantified by morphometric image analysis (integrated optical density, IOD) is compared to the appearance of activated p65-NF-[kappa]B protein in the nucleus determined biochemically. The appearance of p65-NF-[kappa]B in the nucleus measured by fluorescence image analysis and biochemically express a linear correlation (R2 = 0.9477). These data suggest that localization and relative protein concentrations of NF-[kappa]B can be reliably determined from IOD measurements of the immunofluorescent labeled protein.

  3. deltaPlotR: An R Package for Di?erential Item Functioning Analysis with Ango? s Delta Plot

    OpenAIRE

    David Magis; Bruno Facon

    2014-01-01

    Angoff's delta plot is a straightforward and not computationally intensive method to identify differential item functioning (DIF) among dichotomously scored items. This approach was recently improved by proposing an optimal threshold selection and by considering several item purification processes. Moreover, to support practical DIF analyses with the delta plot and these improvements, the R package deltaPlotR was also developed. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to outline the delta plot ...

  4. Corporate and state responses to anti-oil protests in the Niger Delta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frynas, J.G. [Coventry University (United Kingdom). International Business at Coventry Business School

    2001-07-01

    Conflicts between oil companies and village communities in the Niger Delta have lasted for several decades, but during the 1990s they escalated further and received international media coverage. Much of it focused on the anti-Shell protests by the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP) which led to Shell's withdrawal from the Ogoni area in 1993. Notwithstanding the political changes following General Abacha's death in June 1998, the conflicts are continuing. While the intensity of the Ogoni protests decreased from 1995 onwards, other ethnic and political groups across the Niger Delta began to disrupt oil activities. This article critically examines the response of the Nigerian state and the oil companies to the anti-oil protests in the Delta. The investigation focuses on three generic strategies: concessions by the state and oil companies to protesters, such as the creation of development projects; the use of public relations in dealing with the Niger Delta crisis; and the use of violence by the state and the oil companies against anti-oil protesters. The analysis suggests that the state and corporate response to the Niger Delta crisis has so far been inadequate in the sense that it fails to satisfy the demands of the local people. Judging from past experience, unless there are structural changes within Nigeria's institutional framework, which would allow for a more effective use of the country's oil wealth for the benefit of the oil-producing areas, conflicts in the Niger Delta are likely to continue. (author)

  5. Pulsations of delta Scuti stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the authors give a general review of the pulsating δ Scuti variables, including the observed light curves and positions of the stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. Theoretical interpretations from evolution and pulsation calculations give their masses, radii, luminosities, and even their approximate internal compositions. Then we discuss three models of these stars, and use them to study the nonlinear hydrodynamic behavior of these stars, after which the authors outline the hydrodynamic equations and the Stellingwerf method for obtaining strictly periodic solutions. The authors also present the problems of allowing for time-dependent convection and its great sensitivity to temperature and density. Tentative results to data do not show any tendency for amplitudes to grow to large unobserved amplitudes, in disagreement with an earlier suggestion by Stellingwerf. Finally, the authors find that the very small growth rates of the pulsations may even be too small to be useful in seeking a periodic solution. The δ Scuti variables are the most common type of variable star in our galaxy except for the white dwarfs. This is because stars in the mass range from just over one M circle-dot up to at least several M circle-dot pass through the yellow giant instability strip in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram as they evolve off the main sequence to the red. Actually, stars up to the maximum main sequence mass also evolve through this region at higher luminosities, but there are so few of them, and they evolve so rapidly to the red, that they are almost unknown. At the higher luminosity, they probably would be called first-instability strip-crossing Cepheids anyway. Such cepheids are difficult to separate from those that are on the second blueward instability strip crossing that is much slower. Really, the δ Scuti variables are just low-luminosity Cepheids

  6. Koefesien Kappa sebagai Indeks Kesepakatan Hasil Diognosis Mikroskopis Malaria di Kabupaten Belu Nusa Tenggara Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridolina Mau

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBlood slide examination is used as standard malaria diagnosis in Indonesia. Quality assurance for malaria microscopic examination is an important issue in the monitoring and supervision of the administration of antimalarials drugs. This step was done to determine the accuracy of thediagnosis, thus could be used for further evaluation in improving the skills of microscopic health centre personnel. This study aims to determine the accuracy of malaria microscopic examination at Primary health centre and District Health Office personnels in Belu District, Nusa Tenggara Timur.The study was an observational research with cross sectional approach. The competency of primary health center and district healt office microscopist in examining malaria blood smears were evaluated using standard blood smears compared with smears from Passive Case Detection (PCD activities. Performance in preparing blood smear were evaluatied by observation and filling the checklist. The study was conducted in April - Juni 2012 in Belu District, NTT. Quality assurance was assessed based on the results of cross-checking and assessments of Kappa coefficient between primary health centre and district Health office microscopic personnel and those between district health centers and Department of parasitology, faculty of Medicine, (Gadjah Mada University certified microscopicpersonnel. Result shows that the strength of agreement between the Primary Health Centre and the District Health Office microscopic personnel centers was "good" (kappa 0.61 to 0.80, while those between District Health Office and Department of Parasitology UGM showed poor agreement (0,20– 0,40Keywords : microscopic examination of malaria, Belu District, cross check, KappaAbstrakPemeriksaan sediaan darah masih merupakan baku emas penegakan diagnosis malaria di Indonesia. Pemantapan kualitas mikroskopis malaria merupakan hal penting dalam pemantauan dan pengawasan pemberian obat anti malaria yang tepat

  7. Microstructural analysis of the {delta} to {alpha}' phase transformation in plutonium alloys using X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platteau, C; Ravat, B; Texier, G; Oudot, B; Delaunay, F, E-mail: brice.ravat@cea.fr [CEA Valduc 21120 Is sur Tille (France)

    2010-03-15

    The partial martensitic {delta}{yields}{alpha}' transformation in plutonium alloys is sensitive to chemical composition, sample thermal history, as well as crystalline defects. The present work investigates the {delta}-Pu phase microstructure before and after the martensitic transformation {delta}{yields}{delta}+{alpha}'. More precisely, microstructural modifications of the host {delta}-phase, resulting from the stress induced by a cell volume difference of 19% between the {delta} and {alpha}'-phases, were analysed. Microstructural information about crystallite size and microstrain of a highly homogenized Pu-Ga alloy was extracted from x-ray diffraction patterns using a three dimension crystallite size and microstrain model. This is available in Rietveld refinement software and consists in anisotropic broadening analysis of diffraction peaks. Crystallite size doesn't significantly change with the phase transformation contrary to microstrain that is multiplied, on average, by five. Furthermore, internal normal and shear microstress are multiplied, respectively, by 2 and 13 when {alpha}'-phase appears. Last, dislocation densities, calculated from crystallite size and microstrain, are compared to TEM results available in the literature.

  8. Commutators of Littlewood-Paley gκ∗$g_{\\kappa}^{*} $-functions on non-homogeneous metric measure spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Guanghui

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to prove that the boundedness of the commutator Mκ,b∗$\\mathcal{M}_{\\kappa,b}^{*} $ generated by the Littlewood-Paley operator Mκ∗$\\mathcal{M}_{\\kappa}^{*} $ and RBMO (μ function on non-homogeneous metric measure spaces satisfying the upper doubling and the geometrically doubling conditions. Under the assumption that the kernel of Mκ∗$\\mathcal{M}_{\\kappa}^{*} $ satisfies a certain Hörmander-type condition, the authors prove that Mκ,b∗$\\mathcal{M}_{\\kappa,b}^{*} $ is bounded on Lebesgue spaces Lp(μ for 1 < p < ∞, bounded from the space L log L(μ to the weak Lebesgue space L1,∞(μ, and is bounded from the atomic Hardy spaces H1(μ to the weak Lebesgue spaces L1,∞(μ.

  9. Sediment-hosted contaminants and distribution patterns in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flocks, James G.; Kindinger, Jack G.; Ferina, Nicholas; Dreher, Chandra

    2002-01-01

    The Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers transport very large amounts of bedload and suspended sediments to the deltaic and coastal environments of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Absorbed onto these sediments are contaminants that may be detrimental to the environment. To adequately assess the impact of these contaminants it is first necessary to develop an understanding of sediment distribution patterns in these deltaic systems. The distribution patterns are defined by deltaic progradational cycles. Once these patterns are identified, the natural and industrial contaminant inventories and their depositional histories can be reconstructed. Delta progradation is a function of sediment discharge, as well as channel and receiving-basin dimensions. Fluvial energy controls the sediment distribution pattern, resulting in a coarse grained or sandy framework, infilled with finer grained material occupying the overbank, interdistributary bays, wetlands and abandoned channels. It has been shown that these fine-grained sediments can carry contaminants through absorption and intern them in the sediment column or redistribute them depending on progradation or degradation of the delta deposit. Sediment distribution patterns in delta complexes can be determined through high-resolution geophysical surveys and groundtruthed with direct sampling. In the Atchafalaya and Mississippi deltas, remote sensing using High-Resolution Single-Channel Seismic Profiling (HRSP) and Sidescan Sonar was correlated to 20-ft vibracores to develop a near-surface geologic framework that identifies variability in recent sediment distribution patterns. The surveys identified bedload sand waves, abandoned-channel back-fill, prodelta and distributary mouth bars within the most recently active portions of the deltas. These depositional features respond to changes in deltaic processes and through their response may intern or transport absorbed contaminants. Characterizing these features provides insight into the

  10. Persistent activation of NF-kappaB related to IkappaB's degradation profiles during early chemical hepatocarcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Román Rebeca

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To define the NF-kappaB activation in early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis and its IkappaB's degradation profiles in comparison to sole liver regeneration. Methods Western-blot and EMSA analyses were performed for the NF-kappaB activation. The transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB was determined by RT-PCR of the IkappaB-α mRNA. The IkappaB's degradation proteins were determined by Western-blot assay. Results We demonstrated the persistent activation of NF-kappaB during early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis, which reached maximal level 30 min after partial hepatectomy. The DNA binding and transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB, were sustained during early steps of hepatocarcinogenesis in comparison to only partial hepatectomy, which displayed a transitory NF-kappaB activation. In early stages of hepatocarconogenesis, the IkappaB-α degradation turned out to be acute and transitory, but the low levels of IkappaB-β persisted even 15 days after partial hepatectomy. Interestingly, IkappaB-β degradation is not induced after sole partial hepatectomy. Conclusion We propose that during liver regeneration, the transitory stimulation of the transcription factor response, assures blockade of NF-kappaB until recovery of the total mass of the liver and the persistent NF-kappaB activation in early hepatocarcinogenesis may be due to IkappaB-β and IkappaB-α degradation, mainly IkappaB-β degradation, which contributes to gene transcription related to proliferation required for neoplasic progression.

  11. Bmi-1 promotes the aggressiveness of glioma via activating the NF-kappaB/MMP-9 signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Lili; Wu, Jueheng; Yang, Yi; Liu, Liping; Song, Libing; Li, Jun; Li, Mengfeng

    2012-01-01

    The prognosis of human glioma is poor, and the highly invasive nature of the disease represents a major impediment to current therapeutic modalities. The oncoprotein B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 protein (Bmi-1) has been linked to the development and progression of glioma; however, the biological role of Bmi-1 in the invasion of glioma remains unclear. A172 and LN229 glioma cells were engineered to overexpress Bmi-1 via stable transfection or to be silenced for Bmi-1 expression using RNA interfering method. Migration and invasiveness of the engineered cells were assessed using wound healing assay, Transwell migration assay, Transwell matrix penetration assay and 3-D spheroid invasion assay. MMP-9 expression and activity were measured using real-time PCR, ELISA and the gelatin zymography methods. Expression of NF-kappaB target genes was quantified using real-time PCR. NF-kappaB transcriptional activity was assessed using an NF-kappaB luciferase reporter system. Expression of Bmi-1 and MMP-9 in clinical specimens was analyzed using immunohistochemical assay. Ectopic overexpression of Bmi-1 dramatically increased, whereas knockdown of endogenous Bmi-1 reduced, the invasiveness and migration of glioma cells. NF-kappaB transcriptional activity and MMP-9 expression and activity were significantly increased in Bmi-1-overexpressing but reduced in Bmi-1-silenced cells. The reporter luciferase activity driven by MMP-9 promoter in Bmi-1-overexpressing cells was dependent on the presence of a functional NF-kappaB binding site, and blockade of NF-kappaB signaling inhibited the upregulation of MMP-9 in Bmi-1 overexpressing cells. Furthermore, expression of Bmi-1 correlated with NF-kappaB nuclear translocation as well as MMP-9 expression in clinical glioma samples. Bmi-1 may play an important role in the development of aggressive phenotype of glioma via activating the NF-kappaB/MMP-9 pathway and therefore might represent a novel therapeutic

  12. Delta-nucleus dynamics: proceedings of symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.S.H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Schiffer, J.P.

    1983-10-01

    The appreciation of the role in nuclear physics of the first excited state of the nucleon, the delta Δ(1232), has grown rapidly in the past decade. The delta resonance dominates nuclear reactions induced by intermediate energy pions, nucleons, and electromagnetic probes. It is also the most important non-nucleonic degree of freedom needed to resolve many fundamental problems encountered in the study of low-energy nuclear phenomena. Clearly, a new phase of nuclear physics has emerged and conventional thinking must be extended to account for this new dimension of nuclear dynamics. The most challenging problem we are facing is how a unified theory can be developed to describe Δ-nucleus dynamics at all energies. In exploring this new direction, it is important to have direct discussions among researchers with different viewpoints. Separate entries were prepared for the 49 papers presented

  13. Inhibition of cortiocosteroidogenesis by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, W; Harris, L S; Carchman, R A

    1977-12-01

    ACTH, cholera toxin, cyclic AMP but not pregnenolone-induced steroidogenesis in Y-1 functional mouse adrenal tumor cells was significantly inhibited by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, and cannabinol. The inhibition of steroidogenesis could not be correlated with a general depression in cell function or viability. The data suggest that cannabinoids inhibit corticosteroidogenesis at a site between the synthesis of cAMP and of pregnenolone.

  14. Determination of the positions and residues of the. delta. /sup + +/ and. delta. /sup 0/ poles. [Phase shifts,coulomb corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasan, S S [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1976-04-19

    The poles and the associated residues in the ..pi..N P/sub 33/ amplitude corresponding to the resonances ..delta../sup + +/ and ..delta../sup 0/ are determined by fitting the ..pi../sup +/p and ..pi../sup -/p hadronic phase shifts from the Carter 73 analysis. The ..delta../sup + +/ and ..delta../sup 0/ pole positions are determined also from the nuclear phase shifts, these being the phase shifts made up of the hadronic phase shifts plus the Coulomb corrections. The pole positions obtained from the two sets of phase shifts are different, the differences being larger in the case of the ..delta../sup + +/.

  15. NIK and IKKbeta interdependence in NF-kappaB signalling--flux analysis of regulation through metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong-Bum; Evans, Iona; Smallwood, Rod; Holcombe, Mike; Qwarnstrom, Eva E

    2010-02-01

    Activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB is central to control of immune and inflammatory responses. Cytokine induced activation through the classical or canonical pathway relies on degradation of the inhibitor, IkappaBalpha and regulation by the IKKbeta kinase. In addition, the NF-kappaB is activated through the NF-kappaB-inducing kinase, NIK. Analysis of the IKK/NIK inter-relationship and its impact on NF-kappaB control, were analysed by mathematical modelling, using matrix formalism and stoichiometrically balanced reactions. The analysis considered a range of bio-reactions and core metabolites and their role in relation to kinase activation and in control of specific steps of the NF-kappaB pathway. The model predicts a growth-rate and time-dependent transfer of the primary kinase activity from IKKbeta to NIK. In addition, it suggests that NIK/IKKbeta interdependence is controlled by intermediates of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) within the glycolysis pathway, and thus, identifies a link between specific metabolic events and kinase activation in inflammatory signal transduction. Subsequent in vitro experiments, carried out to validate the impact of IKK/NIK interdependence, confirmed signal amplification at the level of the NF-kappaB/IkappaBalpha complex control in the presence of both kinases. Further, they demonstrate that the induced potentiation is due to synergistic enhancement of relA-dependent activation. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Delta count-rate monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Etten, D.; Olsen, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    A need for a more effective way to rapidly search for gamma-ray contamination over large areas led to the design and construction of a very sensitive gamma detection system. The delta count-rate monitoring system was installed in a four-wheel-drive van instrumented for environmental surveillance and accident response. The system consists of four main sections: (1) two scintillation detectors, (2) high-voltage power supply amplifier and single-channel analyzer, (3) delta count-rate monitor, and (4) count-rate meter and recorder. The van's 6.5-kW generator powers the standard nuclear instrument modular design system. The two detectors are mounted in the rear corners of the van and can be run singly or jointly. A solid-state bar-graph count-rate meter mounted on the dashboard can be read easily by both the driver and passenger. A solid-state strip chart recorder shows trends and provides a permanent record of the data. An audible alarm is sounded at the delta monitor and at the dashboard count-rate meter if a detected radiation level exceeds the set background level by a predetermined amount

  17. The sensitivity of the ESA DELTA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C.; Walker, R.; Klinkrad, H.

    Long-term debris environment models play a vital role in furthering our understanding of the future debris environment, and in aiding the determination of a strategy to preserve the Earth orbital environment for future use. By their very nature these models have to make certain assumptions to enable informative future projections to be made. Examples of these assumptions include the projection of future traffic, including launch and explosion rates, and the methodology used to simulate break-up events. To ensure a sound basis for future projections, and consequently for assessing the effectiveness of various mitigation measures, it is essential that the sensitivity of these models to variations in key assumptions is examined. The DELTA (Debris Environment Long Term Analysis) model, developed by QinetiQ for the European Space Agency, allows the future projection of the debris environment throughout Earth orbit. Extensive analyses with this model have been performed under the auspices of the ESA Space Debris Mitigation Handbook and following the recent upgrade of the model to DELTA 3.0. This paper draws on these analyses to present the sensitivity of the DELTA model to changes in key model parameters and assumptions. Specifically the paper will address the variation in future traffic rates, including the deployment of satellite constellations, and the variation in the break-up model and criteria used to simulate future explosion and collision events.

  18. Understanding delta-sigma data converters

    CERN Document Server

    Pavan, Shanti; Temes, Gabor C

    2017-01-01

    This new edition introduces novel analysis and design techniques for delta-sigma (ΔΣ) converters in physical and conceptual terms, and includes new chapters that explore developments in the field over the last decade. This book explains the principles and operation of delta-sigma analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) in physical and conceptual terms in accordance with the most recent developments in the field. The interest of ΔΣ converter designers has shifted significantly over the past decade, due to many new applications for data converters at the far ends of the frequency spectrum. Continuous-time delta-sigma A/D converters with GHz clocks, of both lowpass and bandpass types, are required for wireless applications. At the other extreme, multiplexed ADCs with very narrow (sometimes 10 Hz wide) signal bandwidths, but very high accuracy are needed in the interfaces of biomedical and environmental sensors. To reflect the changing eeds of designers, the second edition includes significant new material on bo...

  19. Formation of conjugated delta8,delta10-double bonds by delta12-oleic-acid desaturase-related enzymes: biosynthetic origin of calendic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, E B; Ripp, K G; Hall, S E; Kinney, A J

    2001-01-26

    Divergent forms of the plant Delta(12)-oleic-acid desaturase (FAD2) have previously been shown to catalyze the formation of acetylenic bonds, epoxy groups, and conjugated Delta(11),Delta(13)-double bonds by modification of an existing Delta(12)-double bond in C(18) fatty acids. Here, we report a class of FAD2-related enzymes that modifies a Delta(9)-double bond to produce the conjugated trans-Delta(8),trans-Delta(10)-double bonds found in calendic acid (18:3Delta(8trans,10trans,12cis)), the major component of the seed oil of Calendula officinalis. Using an expressed sequence tag approach, cDNAs for two closely related FAD2-like enzymes, designated CoFADX-1 and CoFADX-2, were identified from a C. officinalis developing seed cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequences of these polypeptides share 40-50% identity with those of other FAD2 and FAD2-related enzymes. Expression of either CoFADX-1 or CoFADX-2 in somatic soybean embryos resulted in the production of calendic acid. In embryos expressing CoFADX-2, calendic acid accumulated to as high as 22% (w/w) of the total fatty acids. In addition, expression of CoFADX-1 and CoFADX-2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was accompanied by calendic acid accumulation when induced cells were supplied exogenous linoleic acid (18:2Delta(9cis,12cis)). These results are thus consistent with a route of calendic acid synthesis involving modification of the Delta(9)-double bond of linoleic acid. Regiospecificity for Delta(9)-double bonds is unprecedented among FAD2-related enzymes and further expands the functional diversity found in this family of enzymes.

  20. Dust ion-acoustic shock waves in magnetized pair-ion plasma with kappa distributed electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, B.; Singh, M.; Saini, N. S.

    2018-01-01

    We have performed a theoretical and numerical analysis of the three dimensional dynamics of nonlinear dust ion-acoustic shock waves (DIASWs) in a magnetized plasma, consisting of positive and negative ion fluids, kappa distributed electrons, immobile dust particulates along with positive and negative ion kinematic viscosity. By employing the reductive perturbation technique, we have derived the nonlinear Zakharov-Kuznetsov-Burgers (ZKB) equation, in which the nonlinear forces are balanced by dissipative forces (associated with kinematic viscosity). It is observed that the characteristics of DIASWs are significantly affected by superthermality of electrons, magnetic field strength, direction cosines, dust concentration, positive to negative ions mass ratio and viscosity of positive and negative ions.

  1. Application of the kappa statistic in MRI diagnosis of lumbar disk herniation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dasheng; Zhang Fang; Gao Shuming; Gu Jinxiang; Li Lu; Qu Hui

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the concordance of MRI diagnosis for patients suspected of lumbar disk herniation by using Kappa statistic. Methods: One hundred patients (48 males and 52 females) with lumbosacral radiculm pain, aged from 17 to 86 (average 61). All patients underwent fast spin-echo T 1 and T 2 weighted imaging on a 3.0 T MR scanner and spine surface coil. Two radiologists (doctor A and doctor B) evaluated the lumbar disks from L3-4, L4-5, and L5-S1 in 50 out of the 100 patients independently. The presence of a bulging disk or a herniation was reported. Images were interpreted twice: once before and once after disclosure of clinical information. And disks of 52 patients out of the 100 samples were interpreted by the two radiologists independently without clinical information as well. The Kappa statistics was employed to assess the concordance of each radiologist's diagnoses as well as the observer variation of the two radiologists. Results: Diagnoses before and after disclosure to clinical information were concordant in 114 disks for doctor A and in 109 for doctor B, respectively. Diagnoses before and after disclosure to clinical information were not concordant in 36 disks for doctor A and in 41 disks for doctor B, respectively. The Kappa values were 0.60±0.06 and 0.57±0.06 for doctor A and doctor B, respectively. The concordance was moderate. After disclosure to clinical information, the numbers of reported bulging disks increased significantly, by 10 and 31 for doctor A and doctor B, respectively. Without clinical information, the diagnoses of the two radiologists were concordant in 77 disks, while not concordant in 79 disks. The interobserver agreement was poor (Kappa=0.24±0.06). The difference on diagenoses made between with and without clinical information mainly happened on the differential diagnosis of normal disks and bulging disks. The different diagnoses made between with and without clinical information were on 20 disks and on 30 disks for doctor

  2. Kappa opioid receptors in rat spinal cord vary across the estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, P C; Aicher, S A; Drake, C T

    2000-04-07

    Kappa opioid receptors (KORs) were immunocytochemically localized in the lumbosacral spinal cord of female rats in different stages of the estrous cycle to examine the influence of hormonal status on receptor density. KOR labeling was primarily in fine processes and a few neuronal cell bodies in the superficial dorsal horn and the dorsolateral funiculus. Quantitative light microscopic densitometry of the superficial dorsal horn revealed that rats in diestrus had significantly lower KOR densities than those in proestrus or estrus. This suggests that female reproductive hormones regulate spinal KOR levels, which may contribute to variations in analgesic effectiveness of KOR agonists across the estrous cycle.

  3. Tumour Necrosis Factor-alpha and Nuclear Factor-kappa B Gene Variants in Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Leyla; Atalan, Nazan; Karagedik, E Hande; Ergen, Arzu

    2018-01-20

    The humoral system is activated and various cytokines are released due to infections in tissues and traumatic damage. Nuclear factor-kappa B dimers are encoded by nuclear factor-kappa B genes and regulate transcription of several crucial proteins of inflammation such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha. To investigate the possible effect of polymorphisms on tumour necrosis factor-alpha serum levels with clinical and prognostic parameters of sepsis by determining the nuclear factor-kappa B-1-94 ins/del ATTG and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (-308 G/A) gene polymorphisms and tumour necrosis factor-alpha serum levels. Case-control study. Seventy-two patients with sepsis and 104 healthy controls were included in the study. In order to determine the polymorphisms of nuclear factor-kappa B-1-94 ins/del ATTG and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (-308 G/A), polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed and serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We observed no significant differences in tumour necrosis factor-alpha serum levels between the study groups. In the patient group, an increase in the tumour necrosis factor-alpha serum levels in patients carrying the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (-308 G/A) A allele compared to those without the A allele was found to be statistically significant. Additionally, an increase in the tumour necrosis factor-alpha serum levels in patients carrying tumour necrosis factor-alpha (-308 G/A) AA genotype compared with patients carrying the AG or GG genotypes was statistically significant. No significant differences were found in these 2 polymorphisms between the patient and control groups (p>0.05). Our results showed the AA genotype and the A allele of the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (-308 G/A) polymorphism may be used as a predictor of elevated tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels in patients with sepsis.

  4. The political economy of oil and the Niger Delta crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ighodaro, Osaro O.

    This study is about the burgeoning crisis in Nigeria's Oil Producing Niger Delta region. Discerning the intersecting contributive factors to the crisis, this dissertation suggests that the Niger Delta crisis is symptomatic of challenges to development in Nigeria. Due to the insidious colonial/neo-colonial practices of subjugation, and exploitation of the host communities, it is suggested that the extractive, super-profit motive of Shell, the concomitant environmental degradation, corruption of a bellicose state, ethnic conflict and suffering of the masses are outcomes of a long historically debilitating relationship with international capital which causes irreparable retardation to the host communities. From cash crop economy to a mono-oil economy resources are removed from the communities and used to enhance the colonial state and their post-colonial harbingers of misery. Hence, the indigenous people claim that the Niger Delta is in a crisis, and they are willing to confront the triple alliance of multinational oil companies like Shell, the Nigerian State and the local elite so long as these allies of subjugation continue to neglect the goose that lays the proverbial golden egg (oil that is). Theoretically, a hybrid Political Economy approach was adopted as the over-aching framework for the study, while Dependency theory, modified by what I have called African Transformative scholarly perspective, served as the conceptual tool. Primary and secondary sources of data, including personal observation, interviews, official government documents and other publications were utilized for this analysis. In view of recommendations, it is suggested that first, the Nigerian state should assume decisive and unflinching leadership in holding oil companies responsible for their activities in the host communities; second, oil companies (like Shell) should see themselves as an integral part of the host communities; invest in their development by providing employment opportunities

  5. Wakefulness delta waves increase after cortical plasticity induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenza, G; Pellegrino, G; Tombini, M; Di Pino, G; Di Lazzaro, V

    2015-06-01

    Delta waves (DW) are present both during sleep and in wakefulness. In the first case, DW are considered effectors of synaptic plasticity, while in wakefulness, when they appear in the case of brain lesions, their functional meaning is not unanimously recognized. To throw light on the latter, we aimed to investigate the impact on DW exerted by the cortical plasticity-inducing protocol of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS). Twenty healthy subjects underwent iTBS (11 real iTBS and nine sham iTBS) on the left primary motor cortex with the aim of inducing long-term potentiation (LTP)-like phenomena. Five-minute resting open-eye 32-channel EEG, right opponens pollicis motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), and alertness behavioral scales were collected before and up to 30 min after the iTBS. Power spectral density (PSD), interhemispheric coherence between homologous sensorimotor regions, and intrahemispheric coherence were calculated for the frequency bands ranging from delta to beta. Real iTBS induced a significant increase of both MEP amplitude and DW PSD lasting up to 30 min after stimulation, while sham iTBS did not. The DW increase was evident over frontal areas ipsilateral and close to the stimulated cortex (electrode F3). Neither real nor sham iTBS induced significant modifications in the PSD of theta, alpha, and beta bands and in the interhemispheric coherence. Behavioral visuo-analogic scales score did not demonstrate changes in alertness after stimulations. No correlations were found between MEP amplitude and PSD changes in the delta band. Our data showed that LTP induction in the motor cortex during wakefulness, by means of iTBS, is accompanied by a large and enduring increase of DW over the ipsilateral frontal cortex. The present results are strongly in favor of a prominent role of DW in the neural plasticity processes taking place during the awake state. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland

  6. Nuclear IL-33 is a transcriptional regulator of NF-{kappa}B p65 and induces endothelial cell activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yeon-Sook; Park, Jeong Ae; Kim, Jihye; Rho, Seung-Sik; Park, Hyojin [Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Myeong [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Young-Guen, E-mail: ygkwon@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IL-33 as nuclear factor regulated expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear IL-33 increased the transcription of NF-{kappa}B p65 by binding to the p65 promoter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear IL-33 controls NF-{kappa}B-dependent inflammatory responses. -- Abstract: Interleukin (IL)-33, an IL-1 family member, acts as an extracellular cytokine by binding its cognate receptor, ST2. IL-33 is also a chromatin-binding transcriptional regulator highly expressed in the nuclei of endothelial cells. However, the function of IL-33 as a nuclear factor is poorly defined. Here, we show that IL-33 is a novel transcriptional regulator of the p65 subunit of the NF-{kappa}B complex and is involved in endothelial cell activation. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR and Western blot analyses indicated that IL-33 mediates the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 in endothelial cells basally and in response to tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-treatment. IL-33-induced ICAM-1/VCAM-1 expression was dependent on the regulatory effect of IL-33 on the nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B pathway; NF-{kappa}B p65 expression was enhanced by IL-33 overexpression and, conversely, reduced by IL-33 knockdown. Moreover, NF-{kappa}B p65 promoter activity and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that IL-33 binds to the p65 promoter region in the nucleus. Our data provide the first evidence that IL-33 in the nucleus of endothelial cells participates in inflammatory reactions as a transcriptional regulator of NF-{kappa}B p65.

  7. Improved γ-linolenic acid production in Mucor circinelloides by homologous overexpressing of delta-12 and delta-6 desaturases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Luan, Xiao; Zhang, Huaiyuan; Garre, Victoriano; Song, Yuanda; Ratledge, Colin

    2017-06-21

    γ-Linolenic acid (GLA) is important because of its nutritional value and medicinal applications. Although the biosynthetic pathways of some plant and microbial GLA have been deciphered, current understanding of the correlation between desaturases and GLA synthesis in oleaginous fungi is incomplete. In previous work, we found that a large amount of oleic acid (OA) had not been converted to linoleic acid (LA) or GLA in Mucor circinelloides CBS 277.49, which may be due to inadequate activities of the delta-12 or delta-6 desaturases, and thus leading to the accumulation of OA and LA. Thus, it is necessary to explore the main contributing factor during the process of GLA biosynthesis in M. circinelloides. To enhance GLA production in M. circinelloides, homologous overexpression of delta-12 and two delta-6 desaturases (named delta-6-1 and delta-6-2, respectively) were analyzed. When delta-6 desaturase were overexpressed in M. circinelloides, up to 43% GLA was produced in the total fatty acids, and the yield of GLA reached 180 mg/l, which were, respectively, 38 and 33% higher than the control strain. These findings revealed that delta-6 desaturase (especially for delta-6-1 desaturase) plays an important role in GLA synthesis by M. circinelloides. The strain overexpressing delta-6-1 desaturase may have potential application in microbial GLA production.

  8. PENGARUH KONSUMSI KAPPA-KARAGENAN TERHADAP GLUKOSA DARAH TIKUS WISTAR (Ratus norvegicus DIABETES [The Effect of Kappa-Carrageenan Consumption on Blood Glucose Level of Diabetic Wistar Rat (Ratus norwegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardoko

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of kappa-carrageenan consumption on blood glucose level were studied on diabetic male wistar rat (Ratus norvegicus.The rats were made diabetic by aloxan injection, and then were given that a ration contains 5, 10, 15, 20% (w/w kappa-carrageenan, standard ration (negative control, and parental glibenklamid (positive control. The results showed that the standard ration could not reduce blood glucose from hyperglycemic to normal level, while the ration contained kappacarrageenan could. The higher kappa-carrageenan seaweed level in the ration has higher capacity to decrease blood glucose level. The ration containing 20% and 15% kappa-carrageenan could reduce blood glucose in 18 and 21 days, respectively.The effect of this ration was similar to that of glibenklamid which reduced blood glucose to normal level in 18 days. The ration containing 5 and 10% kappa-carrageenan could reduce blood glucose level; Blood glucose leve return to normal on the 21st day.

  9. Kinetic Alfven wave in the presence of kappa distribution function in plasma sheet boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, G., E-mail: geetphy9@gmail.com; Ahirwar, G. [School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University, Ujjain India (India); Shrivastava, J., E-mail: jayashrivastava2007@gmail.com [Dronacharya Group of Institutions, Greater Noida-India (India)

    2015-07-31

    The particle aspect approach is adopted to investigate the trajectories of charged particles in the electromagnetic field of kinetic Alfven wave. Expressions are found for the dispersion relation, damping/growth rate and associated currents in the presence of kappa distribution function. Kinetic effect of electrons and ions are included to study kinetic Alfven wave because both are important in the transition region. It is found that the ratio β of electron thermal energy density to magnetic field energy density and the ratio of ion to electron thermal temperature (T{sub i}/T{sub e}), and kappa distribution function affect the dispersion relation, damping/growth rate and associated currents in both cases(warm and cold electron limit).The treatment of kinetic Alfven wave instability is based on assumption that the plasma consist of resonant and non resonant particles. The resonant particles participate in an energy exchange process, whereas the non resonant particles support the oscillatory motion of the wave.

  10. X-ray inactivation and reactivation characteristics of the phage 'kappa'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.C.; Samad, S.A.; Mandal, J.C.; Chatterjee, S.N.

    1991-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae temperate phage 'kappa' was inactivated by X-ray (60 kV) in a dose dependent manner, the inactivation dose leading to 37% survival (D 37 ) in PBS, pH 7.4 being 0.36 kGy. The phages were significantly protected against X-ray irradiation when histidine or cysteine or both were present in PBS or when phages were irradiated in nutrient broth. The maximum protection was offered when histidine (10.0 nM) and cysteine (10.0 nM) were both present in PBS (dose enhancement factor being 4.17). The X-irradiated 'kappa' phages also underwent a small but significant Weigle reactivation and also Weigle mutagenesis in the UV-irradiated V. cholerae host H218Sm r . The Weigle factor (WF) or the frequency of clear plaque mutants increased with increasing UV dose, attained a maximum at the UV dose of 2.4 Jm -2 and thereafter decreased gradually with further increase of UV dose. The X-ray dose (D)-survival (S) curves could be empirically described by the equation S=exp-(aD+bD 2 ) where 'a' and 'b' are constants depending on the irradiation conditions and good agreement between the theoretical curves and experimental data was obtained. (author). 1 5 refs., 2 fig., 1 tab

  11. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand and osteoprotegerin levels in gingival crevicular fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlati, Fatemeh; Sattari, Mandana; Razzaghi, Shilan; Nasiri, Malihe

    2012-01-01

    Background: Osteoclastogenesis is coordinated by the interaction of three members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily: Osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK). The aim of this study was to investigate RANKL and OPG levels, and their relative ratio in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with chronic and aggressive periodontitis, as well as healthy controls. Materials and Methods: In this analytical study, GCF was obtained from healthy (n = 10), mild chronic periodontitis (n = 18), moderate chronic periodontitis (n = 18), severe chronic periodontitis (n = 20), and generalized aggressive periodontitis (n = 20) subjects. RANKL and OPG concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical tests used were Kruskal–Wallis test, Mann–Whitney U rank sum test, and Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The level of statistical significance was set at P chronic periodontitis (mild, moderate, severe), and aggressive periodontitis (P = 0.41). There was statistically significant correlation between the concentration of sRANKL and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL) in moderate chronic periodontitis patients (R = 0.48, P = 0.04). There was also negative correlation between OPG concentration and CAL in moderate chronic periodontitis patients, although not significant (R = −0.13). Conclusion: RANKL was prominent in periodontitis sites, especially in moderate periodontitis patients, whereas OPG was not detectable in some diseased sites with bleeding on probing, supporting the role of these two molecules in the bone loss developed in this disease. PMID:23559954

  12. Introducing spatial information into predictive NF-kappaB modelling--an agent-based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Pogson

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Nature is governed by local interactions among lower-level sub-units, whether at the cell, organ, organism, or colony level. Adaptive system behaviour emerges via these interactions, which integrate the activity of the sub-units. To understand the system level it is necessary to understand the underlying local interactions. Successful models of local interactions at different levels of biological organisation, including epithelial tissue and ant colonies, have demonstrated the benefits of such 'agent-based' modelling. Here we present an agent-based approach to modelling a crucial biological system--the intracellular NF-kappaB signalling pathway. The pathway is vital to immune response regulation, and is fundamental to basic survival in a range of species. Alterations in pathway regulation underlie a variety of diseases, including atherosclerosis and arthritis. Our modelling of individual molecules, receptors and genes provides a more comprehensive outline of regulatory network mechanisms than previously possible with equation-based approaches. The method also permits consideration of structural parameters in pathway regulation; here we predict that inhibition of NF-kappaB is directly affected by actin filaments of the cytoskeleton sequestering excess inhibitors, therefore regulating steady-state and feedback behaviour.

  13. IgG,kappa monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance with AL amyloidosis simulating giant cell arteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pompilian Valer Mihai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal gammopathies complicated by AL amyloidosis can mimic giant cell arteritis (GCA. We hereby present the case of a 63 year old woman in whom symptoms consistent with GCA were the first manifestations of a monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS associated with amyloidosis. A 63 year old woman was admitted for temporal headache, maseterine claudication, neck and shoulder stiffness. She was recently diagnosed with carpal tunnel syndrome. On physical examination she had prominent temporal arteries, macroglosia and orthostatic hypotension. Muscular strength was normal. She had high ESR and CRP; in this clinical context, GCA was suspected. A gamma spike on serum protein electrophoresis raised the suspicion of monoclonal gammopathy (MG. Immunoelectrophoresis revealed monoclonal bands for IgG and kappa chains. Massive deposits of amyloid and no inflammation were found on temporal artery biopsy. Multiple myeloma and lymphoma were ruled out. A diagnosis of AL amyloidosis complicating MGUS was formulated. She did well on therapy with bortezomib, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone. Cases published in medical literature reveal amyloidosis mimicking GCA in the setting of established MGUS. As far as we know, this is the first case of MGUS with IgG and kappa chains in which a GCA-like picture induced by amyloidosis was present from the very onset.

  14. The formation of kappa-distribution accelerated electron populations in solar flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bian, Nicolas H.; Stackhouse, Duncan J.; Kontar, Eduard P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Emslie, A. Gordon, E-mail: n.bian@physics.gla.ac.uk, E-mail: d.stackhouse.1@research.gla.ac.uk, E-mail: eduard@astro.gla.ac.uk, E-mail: emslieg@wku.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Driven by recent RHESSI observations of confined loop-top hard X-ray sources in solar flares, we consider stochastic acceleration of electrons in the presence of Coulomb collisions. If electron escape from the acceleration region can be neglected, the electron distribution function is determined by a balance between diffusive acceleration and collisions. Such a scenario admits a stationary solution for the electron distribution function that takes the form of a kappa distribution. We show that the evolution toward this kappa distribution involves a 'wave front' propagating forward in velocity space, so that electrons of higher energy are accelerated later; the acceleration timescales with energy according to τ{sub acc} ∼ E {sup 3/2}. At sufficiently high energies escape from the finite-length acceleration region will eventually dominate. For such energies, the electron velocity distribution function is obtained by solving a time-dependent Fokker-Planck equation in the 'leaky-box' approximation. Solutions are obtained in the limit of a small escape rate from an acceleration region that can effectively be considered a thick target.

  15. THE RURAL TOURISM IN DANUBE DELTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica SOARE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the rural areas has market size and forecast its development as an economic activity. The present paper aims at analyzing the rural areas has in Danube Delta. In an enviable BAs which have responsibility for their particular isolated, such as the Danube Delta and the Danube that used, fishing and rural areas has the main activities that provide jobs and income sources for local populations. Design/methodology/approach - A survey was administered to customers’ rural hostel accommodation in Danube Delta. Descriptive statistics method was mainly adopted to calculate the mean with standard deviation of entry assumes variable, and to examine the different levels of consumers' awareness. The index values of product familiarity, the ratio between entries assumes product's familiarity value and the average value. Findings - the research results show hash has rural consumers have different perception and accomplished through behaviour. The information channels of brand hash mainly from friends, relatives and neighbours, so word of mouth spreading is very important for a brand. Women show a higher sensitivity in health and are currently operating the propensity than referred to follow the recommendations for nutrition. Research limitations/implications - This item is intended to synthesize developments and challenges," on June 13th rural market growth has. The results of this paper should be considered tentatively until has also features replicated by larger has rural consumers. Originality/value - members of rural areas has consumer's behavior would improve marketing and the development of rural areas has products, in order to reduce consumer confusion.

  16. Bacterial effector binding to ribosomal protein s3 subverts NF-kappaB function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Gao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Enteric bacterial pathogens cause food borne disease, which constitutes an enormous economic and health burden. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC causes a severe bloody diarrhea following transmission to humans through various means, including contaminated beef and vegetable products, water, or through contact with animals. EHEC also causes a potentially fatal kidney disease (hemolytic uremic syndrome for which there is no effective treatment or prophylaxis. EHEC and other enteric pathogens (e.g., enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia utilize a type III secretion system (T3SS to inject virulence proteins (effectors into host cells. While it is known that T3SS effectors subvert host cell function to promote diarrheal disease and bacterial transmission, in many cases, the mechanisms by which these effectors bind to host proteins and disrupt the normal function of intestinal epithelial cells have not been completely characterized. In this study, we present evidence that the E. coli O157:H7 nleH1 and nleH2 genes encode T3SS effectors that bind to the human ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3, a subunit of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kappaB transcriptional complexes. NleH1 and NleH2 co-localized with RPS3 in the cytoplasm, but not in cell nuclei. The N-terminal region of both NleH1 and NleH2 was required for binding to the N-terminus of RPS3. NleH1 and NleH2 are autophosphorylated Ser/Thr protein kinases, but their binding to RPS3 is independent of kinase activity. NleH1, but not NleH2, reduced the nuclear abundance of RPS3 without altering the p50 or p65 NF-kappaB subunits or affecting the phosphorylation state or abundance of the inhibitory NF-kappaB chaperone IkappaBalpha NleH1 repressed the transcription of a RPS3/NF-kappaB-dependent reporter plasmid, but did not inhibit the transcription of RPS3-independent reporters. In contrast, NleH2 stimulated RPS3-dependent transcription, as well

  17. Vulnerability of the Nile Delta coastal areas to inundation by sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassaan, M A; Abdrabo, M A

    2013-08-01

    Sea level changes are typically caused by several natural phenomena, including ocean thermal expansion, glacial melt from Greenland and Antarctica. Global average sea level is expected to rise, through the twenty-first century, according to the IPCC projections by between 0.18 and 0.59 cm. Such a rise in sea level will significantly impact coastal area of the Nile Delta, consisting generally of lowland and is densely populated areas and accommodates significant proportion of Egypt's economic activities and built-up areas. The Nile Delta has been examined in several previous studies, which worked under various hypothetical sea level rise (SLR) scenarios and provided different estimates of areas susceptible to inundation due to SLR. The paper intends, in this respect, to identify areas, as well as land use/land cover, susceptible to inundation by SLR based upon most recent scenarios of SLR, by the year 2100 using GIS. The results indicate that about 22.49, 42.18, and 49.22 % of the total area of coastal governorates of the Nile Delta would be susceptible to inundation under different scenarios of SLR. Also, it was found that 15.56 % of the total areas of the Nile Delta that would be vulnerable to inundation due to land subsidence only, even in the absence of any rise in sea level. Moreover, it was found that a considerable proportion of these areas (ranging between 32.32 and 53.66 %) are currently either wetland or undeveloped areas. Furthermore, natural and/or man-made structures, such as the banks of the International Coastal Highway, were found to provide unintended protection to some of these areas. This suggests that the inundation impact of SLR on the Nile Delta is less than previously reported.

  18. Stratigraphy and Evolution of Delta Channel Deposits, Jezero Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudge, T. A.; Mohrig, D.; Cardenas, B. T.; Hughes, C. M.; Fassett, C. I.

    2017-01-01

    The Jezero impact crater hosted an open-basin lake that was active during the valley network forming era on early Mars. This basin contains a well exposed delta deposit at the mouth of the western inlet valley. The fluvial stratigraphy of this deposit provides a record of the channels that built the delta over time. Here we describe observations of the stratigraphy of the channel deposits of the Jezero western delta to help reconstruct its evolution.

  19. Tracks, spurs, blobs and delta-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, J.L.; Chatterjee, A.

    1983-01-01

    The track of a high-energy particle is the collection of all transient species created by the particle in the total degradation of its energy. Visible electron tracks are called delta rays. A microscopic description of the track with all its knocked-out electrons leads to spurs, blobs, and short tracks. Energy deposition criteria for these three track entities are 6 to 100 eV, 100 to 500 eV, and 500 eV to 5 keV, respectively

  20. The situation in the Niger Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitalis, E.

    2007-01-01

    An energy issue for the United States and a political challenge for Europe, Nigeria is experiencing growing instability and is on the verge of civil war; the ecosystem and the population of the Niger Delta are the main victims. The State, corrupt, is powerless to contain the rising violence and redistribute the proceeds of oil sales. It is high time for oil-consuming countries, starting with the United States, to concern themselves with stabilizing the region. Europe must contribute to the lasting development of this country. (author)

  1. Adaptive delta management: a comparison between the Netherlands and Bangladesh Delta Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zevenbergen, Chris; Khan, Shah Alam; Alphen, van Jos; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Catharien; Veerbeek, William

    2018-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the central government, water authorities, provinces and municipalities are working together on a new Delta Program on Flood Risk Management and Fresh Water Supply (DP). Its primary goal is to protect the Netherlands against floods and ensure the availability of fresh water, now

  2. Tidal modulated flow and sediment flux through Wax Lake Delta distributary channels: Implications for delta development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hanegan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a Delft3D model of the Wax Lake Delta was developed to simulate flow and sediment flux through delta distributary channels. The model was calibrated for tidal constituents as well as velocity and sediment concentration across channel transects. The calibrated model was then used to simulate full spring–neap tidal cycles under constant low flow upstream boundary conditions, with grain size variation in suspended load represented using two sediment fractions. Flow and sediment flux results through distributary channel cross-sections were examined for spatial and temporal variability with the goal of characterizing the role of tides in sediment reworking and delta development. The Wax Lake Delta has prograded through channel extension, river mouth bar deposition, and channel bifurcation. Here we show that tidal modulation of currents influences suspended sand transport, and spatial acceleration through distributary channels at low tides is sufficient to suspend sand in distal reaches during lower flows. The basinward-increasing transport capacity in distributary channels indicates that erosive channel extension could be an important process, even during non-flood events.

  3. Delta Plaza kohvik = The Delta Plaza Café / Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Margit, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Pärnu mnt. 141 asuva kohviku Delta Plaza sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Tiiu Truus ja Marja Viltrop (Stuudio Truus OÜ). Hoone arhitektid Jüri Okas ja Marika Lõoke (AB J. Okas & M. Lõoke). Žürii liikme Mait Summataveti arvamus kohvikust

  4. Studying medium effects with the optimized {delta} expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krein, G [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Menezes, D P [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Nielsen, M [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Pinto, M B [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France). Lab. de Physique Mathematique

    1995-04-01

    The possibility of using the optimized {delta} expansion for studying medium effects on hadronic properties in quark or nuclear matter is investigated. The {delta} expansion is employed to study density effects with two commonly used models in hadron and nuclear physics, the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model for the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and the Walecka model for the equation of state of nuclear matter. The results obtained with the {delta} expansion are compared to those obtained with the traditional Hartree-Fock approximation. Perspectives for using the {delta} expansion in other field theoretic models in hadron and nuclear physics are discussed. (author). 17 refs, 9 figs.

  5. Optimality and self-organization in river deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, A.; Longjas, A.; Edmonds, D. A.; Zaliapin, I. V.; Georgiou, T. T.; Rinaldo, A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2017-12-01

    Deltas are nourished by channel networks, whose connectivity constrains, if not drives, the evolution, functionality and resilience of these systems. Understanding the coevolution of deltaic channels and their flux organization is crucial for guiding maintenance strategies of these highly stressed systems from a range of anthropogenic activities. However, in contrast to tributary channel networks, to date, no theory has been proposed to explain how deltas self-organize to distribute water and sediment to the delta top and the shoreline. Here, we hypothesize the existence of an optimality principle underlying the self-organized partition of fluxes in delta channel networks. Specifically, we hypothesize that deltas distribute water and sediment fluxes on a given delta topology such as to maximize the diversity of flux delivery to the shoreline. By introducing the concept of nonlocal Entropy Rate (nER) and analyzing ten field deltas in diverse environments, we present evidence that supports our hypothesis, suggesting that delta networks achieve dynamically accessible maxima of their nER. Furthermore, by analyzing six simulated deltas using the Delf3D model and following their topologic and flux re-organization before and after major avulsions, we further study the evolution of nER and confirm our hypothesis. We discuss how optimal flux distributions in terms of nER, when interpreted in terms of resilience, are configurations that reflect an increased ability to withstand perturbations.

  6. Upper-division student difficulties with the Dirac delta function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany R. Wilcox

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Dirac delta function is a standard mathematical tool that appears repeatedly in the undergraduate physics curriculum in multiple topical areas including electrostatics, and quantum mechanics. While Dirac delta functions are often introduced in order to simplify a problem mathematically, students still struggle to manipulate and interpret them. To characterize student difficulties with the delta function at the upper-division level, we examined students’ responses to traditional exam questions and a standardized conceptual assessment, and conducted think-aloud interviews. Our analysis was guided by an analytical framework that focuses on how students activate, construct, execute, and reflect on the Dirac delta function in the context of problem solving in physics. Here, we focus on student difficulties using the delta function to express charge distributions in the context of junior-level electrostatics. Common challenges included invoking the delta function spontaneously, translating a description of a charge distribution into a mathematical expression using delta functions, integrating 3D or non-Cartesian delta function expressions, and recognizing that the delta function can have units. We also briefly discuss implications of these difficulties for instruction.

  7. Hydrogeologic reconnaissance of the Mekong Delta in South Vietnam and Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Henry R.

    1978-01-01

    The present report describes the results of a hydrogeologic reconnaissance in the Mekong Delta region by the writer, a hydrogeologist of the U.S. Geological Survey, while on assignment as an adviser to the Vietnamese Directorate of Water Supply from October 1968 to April 1970 under the auspices of the U.s. Agency for International Development. The delta of the Mekong River, comprising an area of about 70,000 square kilometres in South Vietnam and Cambodia, is an almost featureless plain rising gradually from sea level to about 5 metres above sea level at its apex 300 kilometres inland. Most of the shallow ground water in the Holocene Alluvium of the delta in Vietnam is brackish or saline down to depths of 50 to 100 metres. Moreover, in the Dong Thap Mu?oi (Plain of Reeds) the shallow ground water is alum-bearing. Locally, however, perched bodies of fresh ground water occur in ancient beach and dune ridges and are tapped by shallow dug wells or pits for village and domestic water supply. The Old Alluvium beneath the lower delta contains freshwater in some areas, notably in the Ca Mau Peninsula and adjacent areas, in the viciniy of Bau Xau near Saigon, and in the Tinh Long An area. Elsewhere in the lower delta both the Holocene and Old Alluvium may contain brackish or saline water from the land surface to depths of as much as 568 metres, as for example in Tinh Vinh Binh. Ground water in the outcrop area of Old Alluvium northwest of Saigon is generally fresh and potable, but high iron and low pH are locally troublesome. Although considerable exploratory drilling for ground water down to depths of as much as 568 metres has already been completed, large areas of the delta remain yet to be explored before full development of the ground-water potential can be realized. With careful development and controlled management to avoid saltwater contamination, however, it is estimated that freshwater aquifers could provide approximately 80 percent of existing needs for village

  8. The Potential of Tiger Prawn Fry from Delta Mahakam, East Kalimantan Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Suroso

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Most of the life cycle of tiger prawns were estuarine (Delta Mahakam. In the juvenile stage life in estuarine and the adult stage in marine. The research objective is to assess the potential of the tiger prawn fry catches in the Mahakam Delta, as a source of tiger prawn fry in the Mahakam Delta area farms. Research using interviews and descriptive analysis through monitoring with fishermen. The results showed that the fry tiger prawn from the Delta Mahakam there on the beaches or the edge of the sea where the water is shallow and slightly brackish, as in the Delta Mahakam. Fry can be captured by using rumpon. Tiger prawns fry from Delta Mahakam durability is relatively higher than fry from the hatchery. However, the number and continuity of fry very limited because it depends on the season. Abundance of fry is determined by the number of larvae produced in the wild and their survival is greatly influenced by the availability of food. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Doi: 10.12777/ijse.6.1.43-46 [How to cite this article: Suroso, B., Hutabarat, J., and Afiati, N. (2013. The Potential of Tiger Prawn Fry from Delta Mahakam, East Kalimantan Indonesia, International Journal of Science and Engineering, 6(1,43-46. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.6.1.43-46

  9. Confirmation of linear system theory prediction: Rate of change of Herrnstein's kappa as a function of response-force requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J J; Wood, H M

    1985-01-01

    Four human subjects worked on all combinations of five variable-interval schedules and five reinforcer magnitudes ( cent/reinforcer) in each of two phases of the experiment. In one phase the force requirement on the operandum was low (1 or 11 N) and in the other it was high (25 or 146 N). Estimates of Herrnstein's kappa were obtained at each reinforcer magnitude. The results were: (1) response rate was more sensitive to changes in reinforcement rate at the high than at the low force requirement, (2) kappa increased from the beginning to the end of the magnitude range for all subjects at both force requirements, (3) the reciprocal of kappa was a linear function of the reciprocal of reinforcer magnitude for seven of the eight data sets, and (4) the rate of change of kappa was greater at the high than at the low force requirement by an order of magnitude or more. The second and third findings confirm predictions made by linear system theory, and replicate the results of an earlier experiment (McDowell & Wood, 1984). The fourth finding confirms a further prediction of the theory and supports the theory's interpretation of conflicting data on the constancy of Herrnstein's kappa.

  10. Analgesia produced by exposure to 2450-MHz radiofrequency radiation (RFR) is mediated by brain mu- and kappa-opioid receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomon, G.; Park, E.J.; Quock, R.M. (Univ. of Illinois, Rockford (United States))

    1992-02-26

    This study was conducted to identify the opioid receptor subtype(s) responsible for RFR-induced analgesia. Male Swiss Webster mice, 20-25 g, were exposed to 20 mW/cm{sup 2} RFR in a 2,450-MHz waveguide system for 10 min, then tested 15 min later in the abdominal constriction paradigm which detects {mu}- and {kappa}-opioid activity. Immediately following RFR exposure, different groups of mice were pretreated intracerebroventricularly with different opioid receptor blockers with selectivity for {mu}- or {kappa}-opioid receptors. Results show that RFR-induced analgesia was attenuated by higher but not lower doses of the non-selective antagonist naloxone, but the selective {mu}-opioid antagonist {beta}-funaltrexamine and by the selective {kappa}-opioid antagonist norbinaltorphimine. RFR-induced analgesia was also reduced by subcutaneous pretreatment with 5.0 mg/kg of the {mu}-/{kappa}-opioid antagonist({minus})-5,9-diethyl-{alpha}-5,9-dialkyl-2{prime}-hydroxy-6,7-benzomorphan(MR-2266). These findings suggest that RFR-induced analgesia may be mediated by both {mu}- and {kappa}-opioid mechanisms.

  11. Ganoderma lucidum suppresses growth of breast cancer cells through the inhibition of Akt/NF-kappaB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiahua; Slivova, Veronika; Harvey, Kevin; Valachovicova, Tatiana; Sliva, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi, Lingzhi) is a popular Asian mushroom that has been used for more than 2 millennia for the general promotion of health and was therefore called the "Mushroom of Immortality." Ganoderma lucidum was also used in traditional Chinese medicine to prevent or treat a variety of diseases, including cancer. We previously demonstrated that Ganoderma lucidum suppresses the invasive behavior of breast cancer cells by inhibiting the transcription factor NF-kappaB. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the inhibitory effects of Ganoderma lucidum on the growth of highly invasive and metastatic breast cancer cells has not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that Ganoderma lucidum inhibits proliferation of breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells by downregulating Akt/NF-kappaB signaling. Ganoderma lucidum suppresses phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473 and downregulates the expression of Akt, which results in the inhibition of NF-kappaB activity in MDA-MB-231 cells. The biological effect of Ganoderma lucidum was demonstrated by cell cycle arrest at G0/G1, which was the result of the downregulation of expression of NF-kappaB-regulated cyclin D1, followed by the inhibition of cdk4. Our results suggest that Ganoderma lucidum inhibits the growth of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by modulating Akt/NF-kappaB signaling and could have potential therapeutic use for the treatment of breast cancer.

  12. Recent Advances in Understanding Flow Dynamics and Transport of Water-Quality Constituents in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Schoellhamer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available doi: https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss4art1This paper, part of the collection of research comprising the State of Bay–Delta Science 2016, describes advances during the past decade in understanding flow dynamics and how water-quality constituents move within California’s Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta (Delta. Water-quality constituents include salinity, heat, oxygen, nutrients, contaminants, organic particles, and inorganic particles. These constituents are affected by water diversions and other human manipulations of flow, and they greatly affect the quantity and quality of benthic, pelagic, and intertidal habitat in the Delta. The Pacific Ocean, the Central Valley watershed, human intervention, the atmosphere, and internal biogeochemical processes are all drivers of flow and transport in the Delta. These drivers provide a conceptual framework for presenting recent findings. The tremendous expansion of acoustic and optical instruments deployed in the Delta over the past decade has greatly improved our understanding of how tidal variability affects flow and transport. Sediment is increasingly viewed as a diminishing resource needed to sustain pelagic habitat and tidal marsh, especially as sea level rises. Connections among the watershed, Delta, and San Francisco Bay that have been quantified recently highlight that a landscape view of this system is needed, rather than consideration of each region in isolation. We discuss interactions of multiple drivers and information gaps.

  13. Superconducting bandpass delta-sigma modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulzacchelli, J.F.; Lee, H.-S.; Misewich, J.A.; Ketchen, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Bandpass delta-sigma modulators digitize narrowband signals with high dynamic range and linearity. The required sampling rate is only a few times higher than the centre frequency of the input. This paper presents a superconducting bandpass delta-sigma modulator for direct analogue-to-digital conversion of RF signals in the GHz range. The input signal is capacitively coupled to one end of a microstrip transmission line, and a single flux quantum balanced comparator quantizes the current flowing out of the other end. Quantization noise is suppressed at the quarter-wave resonance of the transmission line (about 2 GHz in our design). Circuit performance at a 20 GHz sampling rate has been studied with several long JSIM simulations. Full-scale (FS) input sensitivity is 20 mV (rms), and in-band noise is -53 dBFS and -57 dBFS over bandwidths of 39 MHz and 19.5 MHz, respectively. In-band intermodulation distortion is better than -69 dBFS. (author)

  14. Gas chromatographic--mass spectrometric quantitation of 16, 16-dimethyl-trans-delta 2-PGE1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimov, V.; Green, K.; Bygdeman, M.; Konishi, Y.; Imaki, K.; Hayashi, M.

    1983-02-01

    Di-deuterated and di-tritiated 16,16-dimethyl-trans-delta 2-PGE1 has been synthesized and used for development of a GC-MS method for quantitation of corresponding unlabelled drug in patient plasma. Although these carrier/internal standard molecules only contain 2 deuterium atoms the lower limit of detection at each injection is as low as about 40 pg. The maximum plasma levels of this drug following administration of vaginal suppositories used in clinical studies (1 mg 16,16-dimethyl-trans-delta 2-PGE1 methyl ester in 0.8 g Witepsol S-52) were 100-350 pg/ml i.e. in the same order of magnitude as earlier seen for 16,16-dimethyl-PGE2.

  15. Gas chromatographic--mass spectrometric quantitation of 16, 16-dimethyl-trans-delta 2-PGE1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimov, V.; Green, K.; Bygdeman, M.; Konishi, Y.; Imaki, K.; Hayashi, M.

    1983-01-01

    Di-deuterated and di-tritiated 16,16-dimethyl-trans-delta 2-PGE1 has been synthesized and used for development of a GC-MS method for quantitation of corresponding unlabelled drug in patient plasma. Although these carrier/internal standard molecules only contain 2 deuterium atoms the lower limit of detection at each injection is as low as about 40 pg. The maximum plasma levels of this drug following administration of vaginal suppositories used in clinical studies (1 mg 16,16-dimethyl-trans-delta 2-PGE1 methyl ester in 0.8 g Witepsol S-52) were 100-350 pg/ml i.e. in the same order of magnitude as earlier seen for 16,16-dimethyl-PGE2

  16. In vivo metabolism of the methyl homologues of delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and abn-delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, N K; Harvey, D J

    1988-04-01

    Methyl-delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (methyl-delta-8-THC), methyl-delta-9-THC and abn-methyl-delta-8-THC were synthesized by condensation of orcinol and (1S)-cis-verbenol and were administered to male Charles River CD-1 mice. Extracted hepatic metabolites were isolated by chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and examined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as trimethylsilyl (TMS), (2H9)TMS and methyl ester/TMS derivatives. In addition, metabolic fractions were reduced with lithium aluminium deuteride to convert carboxylic acids to alcohols for structural correlation. Metabolites from methyl-delta-8-THC were similar with respect to the positions substituted to those produced by higher homologues; the major metabolite was methyl-delta-8-THC-11-oic acid. abn-Methyl-delta-8-THC was metabolized in a different manner. The location of the aromatic methyl group at the position adjacent to ring fusion appeared to inhibit metabolism at C(11) to a considerable extent and also to reduce the amount of the resulting alcohol from being oxidized to a carboxylic acid. This caused other metabolic pathways to become dominant, with the result that a compound containing a hydroxy group at the gem-methyl position was the major metabolite. Hydroxylation at this position has not been confirmed with any other cannabinoid, although it is thought to result in trace concentrations of hydroxy metabolites from some compounds. Metabolism of methyl-delta-9-THC was also similar to that of the higher homologues, with the exception that less metabolism occurred at C(8) and a higher percentage of the total metabolic fraction was accounted for by the 11-oic acid metabolite. Minor metabolites were mainly dihydroxy compounds and hydroxylated derivatives of delta-9-THC-11-oic acid.

  17. Corneal NF-kappaB activity is necessary for the retention of transparency in the cornea of UV-B-exposed transgenic reporter mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, George; Carlsen, Harald; Blomhoff, Rune

    2006-04-01

    To determine the dynamics of Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in murine corneal pathology and the role of NF-kappaB in maintaining corneal clarity after ultraviolet B radiation insult, transgenic mice containing NF-kappaB-luciferase reporter were exposed to LPS (bacterial lipopolysaccharide), TNF-alpha (Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha) or 4 kJ m(-2) UV-B radiation. NF-kappaB decoy oligonucleotides were also administered in some of the UV-B experiments. Following various exposure times, the mice were sacrificed and whole eyes or corneal tissues were obtained. Whole eyes were examined for scattering using a point-source optical imaging technique. Tissue homogenates were examined for luciferase activity using a luminometer. TNF-alpha and LPS-injected NF-kappaB-luciferase transgenic mice demonstrated 3-10-fold increases in cornea NF-kappaB with peak activities at 4 and 6 hr post-injection, respectively. Mice exposed to 4 kJ m(-2) UV-B exhibited a 3-fold increase in NF-kappaB activity 4 hr post-exposure. The administration of NF-kappaB-decoy oligonucleotides to mice had the effect of reducing UV-B-induced NF-kappaB activity in the cornea and significantly increasing the amount of light scattering in UV-B exposed corneas 7 days post-UV-B exposure when compared to sham injected mice. These results indicate that NF-kappaB is activated in cornea in pathologies that involves increased plasma levels of LPS and TNF-alpha, as well as direct UV-B exposure, and suggest that NF-kappaB activation play an essential part in the corneal healing process.

  18. Sediment and Vegetation Controls on Delta Channel Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzon, R.; Murray, A. B.; Piliouras, A.; Kim, W.

    2016-12-01

    Numerous factors control the patterns of distributary channels formed on a delta, including water and sediment discharge, grain size, sea level rise rates, and vegetation type. In turn, these channel networks influence the shape and evolution of a delta, including what types of plant and animal life - such as humans - it can support. Previous fluvial modeling and flume experiments, outside of the delta context, have addressed how interactions between sediment and vegetation, through their influence on lateral transport of sediment, determine what type of channel networks develops. Similar interactions likely also shape delta flow patterns. Vegetation introduces cohesion, tending to reduce channel migration rates and strengthen existing channel banks, reinforcing existing channels and resulting in localized, relatively stable flow patterns. On the other hand, sediment transport processes can result in lateral migration and frequent switching of active channels, resulting in flow resembling that of a braided stream. While previous studies of deltas have indirectly explored the effects of vegetation through the introduction of cohesive sediment, we directly incorporate key effects of vegetation on flow and sediment transport into the delta-building model DeltaRCM to explore how these effects influence delta channel network formation. Model development is informed by laboratory flume experiments at UT Austin. Here we present initial results of experiments exploring the effects of sea level rise rate, sediment grain size, vegetation type, and vegetation growth rate on delta channel network morphology. These results support the hypothesis that the ability for lateral transport of sediment to occur plays a key role in determining the evolution of delta channel networks and delta morphology.

  19. A Preliminary Assessment of Social Vulnerability in Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Sugata; Islam, Nabiul

    2017-04-01

    Bangladesh. Several coastal sub-districts(Blocks in India, Upazila in Bangladesh) like Manpura, Basanti, Koyra, Teknaf, Sandeshkhali-II have maximum social vulnerability and have the potential to be adversely affected by environmental change, whereas several more inland sub-districts like Barrackpur-I, II, Panchlaish, Kotwali, Double Mooring have a comparatively low social vulnerability.This preliminary analysis of spatial variation of social vulnerability in the GBM delta suggests that a more intensive study of vulnerability and risk is required under a range of scenarios of climatic and socio-economic changes. The present study is a part of joint GBM delta study taken up by DECCMA (Deltas, Vulnerability & Climate Change: Migration & Adaptation) project as part of the Collaborative ADAPTATION Research Initiative in Africa and Asia (CARIAA), with financial support from the UK Government's Department for International Development (DFID) and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada.

  20. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} impairs NF-{kappa}B activation in human naive B cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geldmeyer-Hilt, Kerstin, E-mail: kerstin.hilt@charite.de [Allergie-Centrum-Charite, CCM, Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Heine, Guido, E-mail: guido.heine@charite.de [Allergie-Centrum-Charite, CCM, Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Hartmann, Bjoern, E-mail: bjoern.hartmann@charite.de [Allergie-Centrum-Charite, CCM, Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Baumgrass, Ria, E-mail: baumgrass@drfz.de [Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Radbruch, Andreas, E-mail: radbruch@drfz.de [Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Worm, Margitta, E-mail: margitta.worm@charite.de [Allergie-Centrum-Charite, CCM, Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} In naive B cells, VDR activation by calcitriol results in reduced NF-{kappa}B p105 and p50 protein expression. {yields} Ligating the VDR with calcitriol causes reduced nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B p65. {yields} Reduced nuclear amount of p65 after calcitriol incubation results in reduced binding of p65 on the p105 promoter. {yields} Thus, vitamin D receptor signaling may reduce or prevent activation of B cells and unwanted immune responses, e.g. in IgE dependent diseases such as allergic asthma. -- Abstract: 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (calcitriol), the bioactive metabolite of vitamin D, modulates the activation and inhibits IgE production of anti-CD40 and IL-4 stimulated human peripheral B cells. Engagement of CD40 results in NF-{kappa}B p50 activation, which is essential for the class switch to IgE. Herein, we investigated by which mechanism calcitriol modulates NF-{kappa}B mediated activation of human naive B cells. Naive B cells were predominantly targeted by calcitriol in comparison with memory B cells as shown by pronounced induction of the VDR target gene cyp24a1. Vitamin D receptor activation resulted in a strongly reduced p105/p50 protein and mRNA expression in human naive B cells. This effect is mediated by impaired nuclear translocation of p65 and consequently reduced binding of p65 to its binding site in the p105 promoter. Our data indicate that the vitamin D receptor reduces NF-{kappa}B activation by interference with NF-{kappa}B p65 and p105. Thus, the vitamin D receptor inhibits costimulatory signal transduction in naive B cells, namely by reducing CD40 signaling.

  1. Cirhin up-regulates a canonical NF-{kappa}B element through strong interaction with Cirip/HIVEP1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Bin; Mitchell, Grant A. [Genetique Medicale, Centre de Recherche CHU Sainte-Justine, Departement de Pediatrie, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Richter, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.richter@umontreal.ca [Genetique Medicale, Centre de Recherche CHU Sainte-Justine, Departement de Pediatrie, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2009-11-01

    North American Indian childhood cirrhosis (NAIC/CIRH1A) is a severe autosomal recessive intrahepatic cholestasis. All NAIC patients have a homozygous mutation in CIRH1A that changes conserved Arg565 to Trp (R565W) in Cirhin, a nucleolar protein of unknown function. Subcellular localization is unaffected by the mutation. Yeast two-hybrid screening identified Cirip (Cirhin interaction protein) and found that interaction between Cirip and R565W-Cirhin was weakened. Co-immunoprecipitation of the two proteins from nuclear extracts of HeLa cells strongly supports the yeast two hybrid results. Cirip has essentially the same sequence as the C-terminal of HIVEP1, a regulator of a canonical NF-{kappa}B sequence. Since Cirip has the zinc fingers required for this interaction, we developed an in vitro assay based on this element in mammalian cells to demonstrate functional Cirhin-Cirip interaction. The strong positive effect of Cirip on the NF-{kappa}B sequence was further increased by both Cirhin and R565W-Cirhin. Importantly, the effect of R565W-Cirhin was weaker than that of the wild type protein. We observed increased levels of Cirhin-Cirip complex in nuclear extracts in the presence of this NF-{kappa}B sequence. Our hypothesis is that Cirhin is a transcriptional regulatory factor of this NF-{kappa}B sequence and could be a participant in the regulation of other genes with NF-{kappa}B responsive elements. Since the activities of genes regulated through NF-{kappa}B responsive elements are especially important during development, this interaction may be a key to explain the perinatal appearance of NAIC.

  2. A scenario framework to explore the future migration and adaptation in deltas: A multi-scale and participatory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Abiy S.; Nicholls, Robert J.; Allan, Andrew; Arto, Inaki; Cazcarro, Ignacio; Fernandes, Jose A.; Hill, Chris T.; Hutton, Craig W.; Kay, Susan; Lawn, Jon; Lazar, Attila N.; Whitehead, Paul W.

    2017-04-01

    -economic factors), and (vi) delta-scale (e.g., future adaptation and migration policies) scenarios. The framework includes and combines expert-based and participatory approaches and provides improved specification of the role of scenarios to analyse the future state of adaptation and migration across the three deltas. It facilitates the development of appropriate and consistent endogenous and exogenous scenario futures: (i) at the delta-scale, (ii) across all deltas, and (iii) with wider climate change, environmental change, and adaptation & migration research. Key words: Coastal deltas, sea-level rise, migration and adaptation, multi-scale scenarios, participatory approach *DECCMA (Deltas, Vulnerability & Climate Change: Migration & Adaptation) project is part of the Collaborative ADAPTATION Research Initiative in Africa and Asia (CARIAA), with financial support from the UK Government's Department for International Development (DFID) and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada.

  3. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase up-regulates NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activation through RelA phosphorylation during stretch-induced myogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Guoping [Department of Orthodontics, College of Stomatology, Ninth People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Research Institute of Stomatology, Shanghai 200011 (China); Liu, Dongxu [Department of Orthodontics, College of Stomatology, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China); Liu, Jing [Department of Orthodontics, The Affiliated Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong Province 266075 (China); Gao, Hui [Department of Orthodontics, Tianjin Stomatological Hospital, Tianjin 300041 (China); Yuan, Xiao, E-mail: yuanxiaoqd@163.com [Department of Orthodontics, The Affiliated Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong Province 266075 (China); Shen, Gang, E-mail: ganshen2007@163.com [Department of Orthodontics, College of Stomatology, Ninth People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Research Institute of Stomatology, Shanghai 200011 (China)

    2010-01-01

    p38 MAPK and nuclear factor-B (NF-B) signaling pathways play an indispensable role in the control of skeletal myogenesis. The specific contribution of these signaling pathways to the response of myoblast to the mechanical stimulation and the molecular mechanisms underlying this response remain unresolved. Using an established in vitro model, we now show that p38 MAP kinase activity regulates the transcriptional activation of NF-{kappa}B in response to mechanical stimulation of myoblasts. Furthermore, SB203580 blocked stretch-induced NF-{kappa}B activation during myogenesis, not through down-regulation of degradation of I{kappa}B-{alpha}, and consequent translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-{kappa}B to the nucleus. It is likely that stretch-induced NF-{kappa}B activation by phosphorylation of p65 NF-{kappa}B. Moreover, depletion of p38{alpha} using siRNA significantly reduces stretch-induced phosphorylation of RelA and NF-{kappa}B activity. These results provides the first evidence of a cross-talk between p38 MAPK and NF-{kappa}B signaling pathways during stretch-induced myogenesis, with phosphorylation of RelA being one of the effectors of this promyogenic mechanism. The {alpha} isoform of p38MAP kinase regulates the transcriptional activation of NF-{kappa}B following stimulation with cyclic stretch.

  4. New treatment of periodontal diseases by using NF-kappaB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides via prevention of bone resorption and promotion of wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hideo; Nakagami, Hironori; Morita, Shosuke; Tsukamoto, Ikuyo; Osako, Mariana Kiomy; Nakagami, Futoshi; Shimosato, Takashi; Minobe, Noriko; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2009-09-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) is involved in osteoclast differentiation and activation. Thus, the blockade of the NF-kappaB pathway might be a novel therapeutic strategy for treating bone metabolic diseases. Periodontitis is subgingival inflammation caused by bacterial infection; this disease also is thought to be a chronic focal point responsible for systemic diseases. In this study, NF-kappaB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) were topically applied for experimental periodontitis in a debris-accumulation model and wound healing in a bone-defect model of beagle dogs to investigate the effect of decoy ODN on bone metabolism. Application of NF-kappaB decoy ODN significantly reduced interleukin-6 activity in crevicular fluid and improved alveolar bone loss in the analysis of dental radiographs and DEXA. Direct measurement of exposed root that lost alveolar bone support revealed that NF-kappaB decoy treatment dramatically protected bone from loss. In a bone-defect model, NF-kappaB decoy ODN promoted the healing process as compared with control scrambled decoy in micro-CT analysis. Overall, inhibition of NF-kappaB by decoy strategy prevented the progression of bone loss in periodontitis and promoted the wound healing in bone defects through the inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption. Targeting of NF-kappaB might be a potential therapy in various bone metabolic diseases.

  5. Bmi-1 promotes the aggressiveness of glioma via activating the NF-kappaB/MMP-9 signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Lili

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prognosis of human glioma is poor, and the highly invasive nature of the disease represents a major impediment to current therapeutic modalities. The oncoprotein B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 protein (Bmi-1 has been linked to the development and progression of glioma; however, the biological role of Bmi-1 in the invasion of glioma remains unclear. Methods A172 and LN229 glioma cells were engineered to overexpress Bmi-1 via stable transfection or to be silenced for Bmi-1 expression using RNA interfering method. Migration and invasiveness of the engineered cells were assessed using wound healing assay, Transwell migration assay, Transwell matrix penetration assay and 3-D spheroid invasion assay. MMP-9 expression and activity were measured using real-time PCR, ELISA and the gelatin zymography methods. Expression of NF-kappaB target genes was quantified using real-time PCR. NF-kappaB transcriptional activity was assessed using an NF-kappaB luciferase reporter system. Expression of Bmi-1 and MMP-9 in clinical specimens was analyzed using immunohistochemical assay. Results Ectopic overexpression of Bmi-1 dramatically increased, whereas knockdown of endogenous Bmi-1 reduced, the invasiveness and migration of glioma cells. NF-kappaB transcriptional activity and MMP-9 expression and activity were significantly increased in Bmi-1-overexpressing but reduced in Bmi-1-silenced cells. The reporter luciferase activity driven by MMP-9 promoter in Bmi-1-overexpressing cells was dependent on the presence of a functional NF-kappaB binding site, and blockade of NF-kappaB signaling inhibited the upregulation of MMP-9 in Bmi-1 overexpressing cells. Furthermore, expression of Bmi-1 correlated with NF-kappaB nuclear translocation as well as MMP-9 expression in clinical glioma samples. Conclusions Bmi-1 may play an important role in the development of aggressive phenotype of glioma via activating the NF-kappa

  6. Kappa-casein micelles: structure, interaction and gelling studied by small-angle neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kruif, C G; May, R P

    1991-09-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on dilute and concentrated dispersions of kappa-casein micelles in a buffer at pH = 6.7 were made using the D11 diffractometer in Grenoble. Results indicate that the micelles have a dense core with a fluffy outer layer. This outer layer appears to give rise to a steeply repulsive interaction on contact. In fact, the hard-sphere model best fits the measured scattering intensities. Adding chymosin to the dispersion initiated a fractal flocculation of the micelles and consecutively a coalescence of the micelles. This unexpected second process resembled that of spinodal demixing. The dispersion phase thus separates into a water and a protein phase on a time scale of hours. The observed phenomona contribute to the understanding of the cheese-making process.

  7. Inhibitors of nuclear factor kappa B cause apoptosis in cultured macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Mannick

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The precise role of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF- κB in the regulation of cell survival and cell death is still unresolved and may depend on cell type and position in the cell cycle. The aim of this study was to determine if three pharmacologic inhibitors of NF-κB, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, N-tosyl-L-lysl chloromethyl ketone and calpain I inhibitor, induce apoptosis in a murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7 at doses similar to those required for NF-κB inhibition. We found that each of the three inhibitors resulted in a dose- and time-dependent increase in morphologic indices of apoptosis in unstimulated, LPS-stimulated and TNF-stimulated cells. Lethal doses were consistent with those required for NF- κB inhibition. We conclude that nuclear NF-κB activation may represent an important survival mechanism in macrophages.

  8. Effect of kappa distribution on the damping rate of the obliquely propagating magnetosonic mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Ali KHAN; G, MURTAZA

    2018-03-01

    Data from spacecrafts suggest that space plasma has an abundance of suprathermal particles which are controlled by the spectral index κ when modeled on kappa particle velocity distribution. In this paper, considering homogeneous plasma, the effect of integer values of κ on the damping rate of an obliquely propagating magnetosonic (MS) wave is studied. The frequency of the MS wave is assumed to be less than ion cyclotron frequency, i.e., ω \\ll {ω }{{i}}. Under this assumption, the dispersion relation is investigated both numerically and analytically, and it is found that the real frequency of the wave is not a sensitive function of κ, but the imaginary part of the frequency is. It is also shown that for those values of κ where a large number of resonant particles participate in wave-particle interaction, the wave is heavily damped, as expected. The possible application of the results to the solar wind is discussed.

  9. Kappa statistic for the clustered dichotomous responses from physicians and patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chaeryon; Qaqish, Bahjat; Monaco, Jane; Sheridan, Stacey L.; Cai, Jianwen

    2013-01-01

    The bootstrap method for estimating the standard error of the kappa statistic in the presence of clustered data is evaluated. Such data arise, for example, in assessing agreement between physicians and their patients regarding their understanding of the physician-patient interaction and discussions. We propose a computationally efficient procedure for generating correlated dichotomous responses for physicians and assigned patients for simulation studies. The simulation result demonstrates that the proposed bootstrap method produces better estimate of the standard error and better coverage performance compared to the asymptotic standard error estimate that ignores dependence among patients within physicians with at least a moderately large number of clusters. An example of an application to a coronary heart disease prevention study is presented. PMID:23533082

  10. Apple, Cherry, and Blackcurrant Increases Nuclear Factor Kappa B Activation in Liver of Transgenic Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balstad, Trude; Paur, Ingvild; Poulsen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-B) is essential in normal physiology, and several human disorders involve inappropriate regulation of NF-B. Diets dominated by plant-based foods protect against chronic diseases, and several food derived compounds have been identified as promising NF-B modulators. We...... investigated the effects of diets supplemented with apple, blackcurrant, or cherries on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NF-B activation in transgenic NF-B-luciferase mice. Whole body and organ specific NF-B activities were determined. The mice had ad libitum access to the respective experimental diets for 7...... slightly higher whole-body NF-B activation at 4 h, and all 3 experimental groups had higher NF-B activation at 6 h. LPS-induced NF-B activation in liver was increased with all 3 experimental diets, but no effects were observed in other organs. Our findings indicate that high intakes of lyophilized fruits...

  11. Ion acoustic solitons in a plasma with two-temperature kappa-distributed electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baluku, T. K.; Hellberg, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Existence domains and characteristics of ion acoustic solitons are studied in a two-temperature electron plasma with both electron components being kappa-distributed, as found in Saturn's magnetosphere. As is the case for double-Boltzmann electrons, solitons of both polarities can exist over restricted ranges of fractional hot electron density ratio for this plasma model. Low κ values, which indicate increased suprathermal particles in the tail of the distribution, yield a smaller domain in the parameter space of hot density fraction and normalized soliton velocity (f, M), over which both soliton polarities are supported for a given plasma composition (the coexistence region). For some density ratios that support coexistence, solitons occur even at the lowest (critical) Mach number (i.e., at the acoustic speed), as found recently for a number of other plasma models. Like Maxwellians, low-κ distributions also support positive potential double layers over a narrow range of low fractional cool electron density (<10%).

  12. The Concentration Dependence of the (Delta)s Term in the Gibbs Free Energy Function: Application to Reversible Reactions in Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Ronald K.

    2004-01-01

    The concentration dependence of (delta)S term in the Gibbs free energy function is described in relation to its application to reversible reactions in biochemistry. An intuitive and non-mathematical argument for the concentration dependence of the (delta)S term in the Gibbs free energy equation is derived and the applicability of the equation to…

  13. Complex rearrangements within the human J delta-C delta/J alpha-C alpha locus and aberrant recombination between J alpha segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baer, R.; Boehm, T.; Yssel, H.; Spits, H.; Rabbitts, T. H.

    1988-01-01

    We have examined DNA rearrangements within a 120 kb cloned region of the human T cell receptor J delta-C delta/J alpha-C alpha locus. Three types of pattern emerge from an analysis of T cell lines and clones. Firstly, cells with two rearrangements within J delta-C delta; secondly, cells with one

  14. Spatio-temporal distributions of delta18O, delta D and salinity in the Arabian Sea: Identifying processes and controls

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshpande, R.D; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Singh, R.L.; Kumar, B.; Rao, M.S.; Dave, M.; Sivakumar, K.U.; Gupta, S.K.

    the geographic distributions of the delta18O and S; (2) in spite of a large scatter, a statistically significant delta18O–S relationship can be identified in much of the investigated part of the AS; (3) the delta18Odelta...

  15. 78 FR 21491 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [License No. 02/02-0662, 02/02-0661] DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P. and DeltaPoint...

  16. Changes to subaqueous delta bathymetry following a high river flow event, Wax Lake Delta, LA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaling, A. R.; Shaw, J.

    2017-12-01

    Sediment transport capacity is increased during high river flow (flood) events which are characterized by discharges that exceed the 15 year median daily statistic. The Wax Lake Delta (WLD) in coastal Louisiana has experienced 19 of these high flow events in the past 20 years, yet the depositional patterns of single floods are rarely measured in a field-scale deltaic setting. We characterize flood deposition and erosion patterns on the subaqueous portion of the WLD by differencing two Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) constructed from bathymetric surveys before and after the third largest flood in the WLD's recorded history. The total suspended sediment discharge for the 496 day inter-survey period was 2.14x107 cubic meters measured 21 km upstream of the delta apex. The difference map showed 1.06x107 cubic meters of sediment was deposited and 8.2x106 cubic meters was eroded, yielding 2.40x106 cubic meters of net deposition in the survey area ( 79.7 km2 ). Therefore the average deposition rate was 0.061 mm/day. Channel planform remained relatively unchanged for five out of six distributary passes however Gadwall Pass experienced a maximum channel displacement of 166 m ( 1 channel width) measured from the thalweg centerline. Channel tip extension was negligible. In addition, channel displacement was not concentrated at any portion along the channel centerline. Maximum erosion occurred within channel margins and increased upstream whereas maximum deposition occurred immediately outside the channel margins. Sediment eroded from the survey area was either subsequently re-deposited or transported out of the system. Our results show that up to 77.4% of deposition in the survey area originated from sediment eroded during the flood. Surprisingly, only 11.2% of the total suspended sediment discharge was retained in the subaqueous portion of the delta after the flood. We conclude that a high flow event does not produce channel progradation. Rather, high flow causes delta

  17. Kappa Group: The initial guess. A proposal in response to a commercial air transportation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Kappa Aerospace presents their Aeroworld Aircraft, the Initial Guess (IG). This aircraft is designed to generate profit in the market which is currently controlled by the train and boat industry. The main priority of the design team was to develop an extremely efficient aircraft that could be sold at a reasonable price. The IG offers a quick and safe alternative to the existing means of transportation at a competitive price. The cruise velocity of 28 ft/sec. allows all flights to be between 20 and 45 minutes, which is a remarkable savings in time compared to travel by boat or train. The IG is propelled by a single Astro-05 engine with a Zinger 10-6 propeller. The Astro-05 is not an extremely powerful engine; however, it provides enough thrust to meet the design and safety requirements. The major advantage of the Astro-05 is that it is the most efficient engine available. The fuel efficiency of the Astro-05 is what puts the aircraft ahead of the competition. The money saved on an efficient engine can be passed on as lower ticket prices or increased revenue. The IG has a payload of 56 passengers and a wingspan of 7 ft. The 7 ft. wingspan allows the aircraft to fit into the gates of all of the cities that are targeted. Future endeavors of Kappa Aerospace will include fitting a stretch version of the IG with a larger propulsion system. This derivative aircraft will be able to carry more passengers and will be placed on the routes which have the greatest demand for travel. The fuselage and empennage are made of a wooden truss configuration, while the wing is made of a rib/spare configuration. The stress carrying elements are made of spruce, the nonstress carrying elements are made of balsa. The wing is removable for easy access into the fuselage. The easy access to the batteries will keep maintenance costs down.

  18. Lateralized kappa opioid receptor signaling from the amygdala central nucleus promotes stress-induced functional pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Kelsey M; De Felice, Milena; Hernandez, Pablo I; Dodick, David W; Neugebauer, Volker; Navratilova, Edita; Porreca, Frank

    2018-05-01

    The response of diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC) is often decreased, or lost, in stress-related functional pain syndromes. Because the dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) pathway is activated by stress, we determined its role in DNIC using a model of stress-induced functional pain. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats were primed for 7 days with systemic morphine resulting in opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Fourteen days after priming, when hyperalgesia was resolved, rats were exposed to environmental stress and DNIC was evaluated by measuring hind paw response threshold to noxious pressure (test stimulus) after capsaicin injection in the forepaw (conditioning stimulus). Morphine priming without stress did not alter DNIC. However, stress produced a loss of DNIC in morphine-primed rats in both hind paws that was abolished by systemic administration of the KOR antagonist, nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI). Microinjection of nor-BNI into the right, but not left, central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) prevented the loss of DNIC in morphine-primed rats. Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls were not modulated by bilateral nor-BNI in the rostral ventromedial medulla. Stress increased dynorphin content in both the left and right CeA of primed rats, reaching significance only in the right CeA; no change was observed in the rostral ventromedial medulla or hypothalamus. Although morphine priming alone is not sufficient to influence DNIC, it establishes a state of latent sensitization that amplifies the consequences of stress. After priming, stress-induced dynorphin/KOR signaling from the right CeA inhibits DNIC in both hind paws, likely reflecting enhanced descending facilitation that masks descending inhibition. Kappa opioid receptor antagonists may provide a new therapeutic strategy for stress-related functional pain disorders.

  19. Niger Delta Crisis and Security Implications for the Nation State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Niger Delta is the nation's treasure base, the Niger Delta provides over 80 percent of government revenue, 95 percent of export receipts, and 90 percent of ... The government should tackle the fundamental issue of basic necessities – provision of good motorable roads, pipe borne water, electricity, good hospitals, good ...

  20. Morphodynamics of the Manyema tidal delta 1 LIST OF TABLES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kheira Kortenbout

    Morphodynamics of the Manyema tidal delta. 1. LIST OF ... Location of Manyema Creek and its associated tidal delta platform at Kunduchi. Fig. 2. ... platform. Beachcomber. Hotel. Whitesands. Hotel. Kunduchi. Beach Hotel. Giraffe. Hotel. INDIAN. OCEAN. Mombasa. Dar es. Salaam. KUNDUCHI. KENYA. TANZANIA.

  1. Towards a Comprehensive Framework for Adaptive Delta Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchand, M.; Ludwig, F.

    2014-01-01

    Deltas are dynamic landforms at the boundary of land and sea, involving intricate mazes of rivers and small waterways, wetlands, estuaries and coastal barrier islands. They are home to over half a billion people. Deltas are also home to rich ecosystems, such as mangroves and marshes. They are

  2. Conflict resolution among Niger delta communities: A historical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conflict related issues have assumed endemic proportion in the Niger Delta. A proper assessment of the critical factors in motion must take cognizance of their historical underpinnings. Peaceful co-existence, the hallmark of conflict resolution, can be feasible in the Niger Delta, through sustainable dialogue. These, among

  3. Upper-Division Student Difficulties with the Dirac Delta Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Pollock, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    The Dirac delta function is a standard mathematical tool that appears repeatedly in the undergraduate physics curriculum in multiple topical areas including electrostatics, and quantum mechanics. While Dirac delta functions are often introduced in order to simplify a problem mathematically, students still struggle to manipulate and interpret them.…

  4. Caribbean piracy and youth restiveness in Niger delta: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our aim in this paper is to make a comparative analysis of Caribbean piracy and youth restiveness in Niger Delta of Nigeria. It will not be out of place to carry out such an analysis having seen, heard or read of the ongoing chaos, insecurity in the. Niger Delta Zone in Nigeria. We have to look at the past to find out such similar

  5. 78 FR 45592 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ..., Suite 160, Pittsford, NY 14534. The financing was contemplated for working capital. The financing is... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [License No. 02/02-0662] DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP; Notice Seeking... given that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., 45 East Avenue, 6th Floor, Rochester, NY 14604, Federal...

  6. Central Delta languages: An overview | Kari | Stellenbosch Papers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an overview of the phonology, morphology and syntax of Central Delta languages. It also provides information on the geo-linguistic, demographic and sociolinguistic situation of these languages. It notes that Central Delta languages have a 20-vowel system, which divides into two sets of 10 vowels ...

  7. Downstream hydraulic geometry of a tidally influenced river delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassi, M.G.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Brye, de B.; Deleersnijder, E.

    2012-01-01

    Channel geometry in tidally influenced river deltas can show a mixed scaling behavior between that of river and tidal channel networks, as the channel forming discharge is both of river and tidal origin. We present a method of analysis to quantify the tidal signature on delta morphology, by

  8. Delta: the first pion nucleon resonance - its discovery and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagle, D.E.

    1984-07-01

    It is attempted to recapture some of the fun and excitement of the pion-scattering work that led to the discovery of what is now called the delta particle. How significant this discovery was became apparent only gradually. That the delta is alive today and thriving at Los Alamos (as well as other places) is described

  9. Wastewater disposal at safari lodges in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater disposal at safari lodges in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. TS McCarthy, T Gumbricht, RG Stewart, D Brandt, PJ Hancox, J McCarthy, AG Duse. Abstract. Many safari lodges in the Okavango Delta obtain their water supply from boreholes in near-surface aquifers while disposing of their wastewater via ...

  10. Remote stereocontrol by sulfinyl groups: reduction of delta-ketosulfoxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Ruano, José L; Fernández-Ibáñez, M Angeles; Maestro, M Carmen; Rodríguez-Fernández, M Mercedes

    2005-03-04

    The reduction of delta-ketosulfoxides constitutes the first evidence of the efficiency of the sulfinyl group to control the stereoselectivity of 1,5-asymmetric induction processes. The use of DIBAL/Yb(OTf)3 or L-Selectride as the reducing agents provides delta-hydroxysulfoxides with the opposite configuration at the hydroxylic carbon in a highly stereoselective way.

  11. Quark sea and the. delta. I=1/2 rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, J F [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Physics; Golowich, E [Massachusetts Univ., Amherst (USA)

    1977-08-29

    The effect on nonleptonic processes of quark-antiquark pairs due to quantum chromodynamics is studied. Their presence improves agreement between theory and experiment for hyperon decays. In kaon decays a new ..delta..I=1/2 contribution is found, but ..delta..I=3/2 effects are still too large to be in agreement.

  12. Antinociceptive activity of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol non-ionic microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, P; Fadda, P; Marchese, G; Casu, G L; Pani, L

    2010-06-30

    Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC), the major psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa L., has been widely studied for its potential pharmaceutical application in the treatment of various diseases and disturbs. This sparingly soluble terpeno-phenolic compound is not easy to handle and to be formulated in pharmaceutical preparations. The aim of this work was to develop a stable aqueous Delta(9)-THC formulation acceptable for different ways of administration, and to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the new Delta(9)-THC based preparation for pain treatment. Due to the thermodynamic stability and advantages of microemulsion based systems, the study was focused on the identification of aqueous microemulsion based systems containing Delta(9)-THC. Oil in water Delta(9)-THC microemulsions were individuated through phase diagrams construction, using the non-ionic surfactant Solutol HS15, being this surfactant acceptable for parenteral administration in human. A selected microemulsion samples containing 0.2 wt% of Delta(9)-THC, stable up to 52 degrees C, was successfully assayed on animal models of pain. Significant antinociceptive activity has been detected by both intraperitoneal and intragastric administration of the new Delta(9)-THC pharmaceutical preparation. The effect has been highlighted in shorter time if compared to a preparation of the same active principle based on previously reported conventional preparation. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An annotated list of Fishes from the Niger Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeseman, M.

    1963-01-01

    At the end of November 1960, the Leiden Museum received an interesting collection of animals, mostly fishes, from the Niger delta. All specimens were collected by Mr. H. J. G. Beets, at the time employed by Shell B.P. — Delta Investigations, during the period May to August 1960, and in the region

  14. Topological Mappings via B&delta;g-Closed Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Maruthamuthu, Raja; Narayanasamy, Seenivasagan; Otchanathevar, Ravi

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new class of functions called  B&delta;g-continuous functions. We obtain several characterizations and some their properties. Also we investigate its relationship with other types of functions. Further we introduce and study a new class of functions namely B&delta;g-irresolute.

  15. Estimation of Thermal Conductivity in the North- Western Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermal conductivity estimates are computed from nineteen petroleum wells in the north-western Niger Delta, Nigeria, using a geometric mean model. Sonic and gamma-ray logs were digitised and used in the estimation of in situ conductivity. The Niger Delta is composed of three major diachronous lithostratigraphic units of ...

  16. How to deal with subsidence in the Dutch delta?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouthamer, E.; Erkens, G.

    2017-01-01

    In many deltas worldwide subsidence still is an underestimated problem, while the threat posed by land subsidence low-lying urbanizing and urbanized deltas exceeds the threat of sea-level rise induced by climate change. Human-induced subsidence is driven by the extraction of hydrocarbons and

  17. Dousing the tension in the Niger delta through administrative agency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dousing the tension in the Niger delta through administrative agency: A programme evaluation of Niger delta development commission as an intervention regime. ... the study concludes that because of systemic constraints arising from the hegemonic interests of the dominant coalitions in the Nigerian Social formation, ...

  18. Drones on the delta | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    25 nov. 2016 ... Waves wash ashore at Fuvemeh, a town in Ghana's Volta River delta that's threatened by coastal erosion and flooding. Brian Owens, Canadian Geographic. Ghana's Volta River delta is an area vulnerable to climate change, with rising seas and increasingly powerful storms driving flooding and erosion, ...

  19. Homosexuality amongst migrant oil workers in the Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: To determine the prevalence of homosexuality among migrant oil workers in Niger Delta. Methods: A prospective questionnaire – based study was conducted among migrant oil workers in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The design was to determine the prevalence of homosexuality in the workers in oil workers.

  20. T gamma/delta lymphocytes in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raasveld, M. H.; Bloemena, E.; Surachno, S.; ten Berge, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    T gamma/delta lymphocytes are able to perform allospecific cytotoxicity and natural killer cytotoxicity in vitro. However, very little is known about their function in vivo. To investigate the possible involvement of T gamma/delta lymphocytes in the immune response to renal allografts, fine-needle

  1. The evolution of a subaqueous delta in the Anthropocene: A stratigraphic investigation of the Brazos River delta, TX USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Joseph A.; Dellapenna, Timothy M.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, deltas are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic activities. As a result, deltas now evolve through the combined effects of natural and human-induced processes occurring throughout the fluvial-deltaic system. The Brazos River delta, located along the Texas coast in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, and its watershed have been impacted by direct and indirect human activities since the late 19th century. This provides an opportunity to investigate how such alterations have shaped the evolution of a delta in the Anthropocene, a time when humans are drivers of geological change. Historic alteration to the delta and watershed include extensive agricultural activity, jetty construction at the mouth in the late 1890s, mouth diversion ~10 km to the southwest in 1929, and reservoir construction throughout the early and mid 20th Century. Three subaerial deltaic geometries provided the framework to connect subaerial deltaic responses, to the anthropogenic alterations, to the resulting stratigraphic characteristics observed in the subaqueous delta. This study utilized high-resolution geophysical data (swath bathymetry, side scan sonar, CHIRP subbottom profiling) on the subaqueous delta to investigate the subaqueous delta stratigraphy and infer the processes that shaped the deltaic record over time. The results showed distinct areas across the subaqueous delta that were dominated by erosion and deposition. Erosional areas corresponded to earlier growth phase depocenters being exposed at the surface, while the depositional areas corresponded to areas with the most recent growth phase depocenter overlying the earlier depocenters. These results highlight that the subaqueous depocenter has migrated westward over time, consistent with the observed changes to the subaerial delta. Additionally, the data showed that evidence for these past growth phases and depocenters may be preserved within the subaqueous delta, even after subaerial portions of the delta returned to pre

  2. Losing ground in mega-deltas: basin-scale response to existential threats to the Mekong Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, M. E.; Kondolf, G. M.; Schmitt, R. J. P.; Carling, P. A.; Darby, S. E.; Bizzi, S.; Castelletti, A.; Cochrane, T. A.; Gibson, S.; Kummu, M.; Oeurng, C.; Rubin, Z.; Wild, T. B.

    2017-12-01

    The Mekong Delta is, in terms of the number of livelihoods it supports, its economic importance, and in its vulnerability to climate change and sinking lands, one of the world's critically threatened mega-deltas. Livelihoods depend on the mere existence of the delta, but also on ecosystem services provided by the delta's drainage basin spanning 795,000 km2 in six abutting countries. These ecosystem services include delivery of sand required to build delta land in the face of rising sea-levels and sediment bound nutrients, provision of spawning habitat for fish that are ultimately harvested in the delta, and hydrologic regulation driving the delta's unique flood-pulse regime. However, while the delta is mainly located in Vietnam, the basin of the Mekong River is shared among China, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam. In the context of the region's dynamic growth, individual countries are pushing their own development agendas, which include extensive dam building, in-channel sand mining, construction of dykes and canals, and groundwater pumping, all of which contribute to subsidence and erosion of the Delta. Our synthesis of recent research indicates that most of the Mekong's delta land will likely fall below sea-level by 2100 as result of these drivers, exacerbating the impacts of global climatic changes. In this context, local infrastructural projects and changes in land- and water-management may temporarily mitigate some negative effects, but do not address the existential threat to the delta as a whole. To prevent, or at least substantially postpone, the drowning of the Mekong Delta requires identification of the key drivers and immediate concerted management actions on the basin-scale to change the trajectory of subsidence and sediment deficit. A specific challenge is to find the institutional arrangements in this transnational context that could support the needed management changes and equitably distribute costs and impacts. The Mekong Delta is

  3. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta activation leads to increased transintestinal cholesterol efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrins, Carlos L. J.; van der Velde, Astrid E.; van den Oever, Karin; Levels, Johannes H. M.; Huet, Stephane; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPAR delta) is involved in regulation of energy homeostasis. Activation of PPAR delta markedly increases fecal neutral sterol secretion, the last step in reverse cholesterol transport. This phenomenon can neither be explained by increased

  4. Measurement of delta-rays in ATLAS silicon sensors

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    In the inner detector of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, $\\delta$-rays originating from particle interactions in the silicon sensors may cause additional hit channels. A method for identifying silicon hit clusters that are enlarged due to the emission of a $\\delta$-ray is presented. Using pp collision data the expectation is confirmed that the $\\delta$-ray production rate depends linearly on the path length of the particle in silicon, independently of layer radius and detector technology. The range of the $\\delta$-rays, which is a property of the material and should not depend on anything else, is indeed found to be constant as a function of detector layer, path length in silicon and momentum of the particle traversing the silicon. As a by-product of this analysis a method is proposed that could correct for the effect of these $\\delta$-rays, and this could be used to improve track reconstruction.

  5. (p,. pi. /sup -/) reaction and. delta. /sup + +/ components of nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisslinger, L S; Miller, G A [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1975-12-08

    The use of the (p,..pi../sup -/) reaction as a probe to determine ..delta../sup + +/(1232) components of nuclear wave functions is examined within the framework of a model which treats baryon resonances on the same footing as nucleons. Nuclear structure properties which affect the ..delta..-probability are discussed. Estimates of cross sections, at several energies, are made for the ..delta../sup + +/ transfer contribution as well as for the competing processes: proton charge exchange (p,n) followed by an (n,..gamma../sup -/) reaction; emission of a ..pi../sup 0/ followed by pion charge exchange (..pi../sup -/,..pi../sup 0/). Even with ..delta..-probabilities as small as 0.0001 the ..delta..-transfer process can compete with ordinary background charge-exchange reactions.

  6. Spectral factorization using the delta operator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Morten; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Ravn, Ole

    1994-01-01

    In recent years many papers have been published abouth the gamma-operator, mostly caused by the better numerical properties and the rapprochement between continuous and discrete time. A major problem within the LQG-design of a delta-based input-output relation has been how to spectral-factorize...... solution to the spectral factorization problem. The key idea is to use the gamma-operator resembled by its behavior to the differential operator....... in an efficient way. The discrete-time method of Kuccera will not be applied since numerical word-length characteristics will be poor for fast sampling rates. In this paper a new approach is considered. A new gamma-operator (Tustin operator) is introduced, in order to make an iterative and numerical stable...

  7. $\\delta N$ formalism from superpotential and holography

    CERN Document Server

    Garriga, Jaume; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2016-02-16

    We consider the superpotential formalism to describe the evolution of scalar fields during inflation, generalizing it to include the case with non-canonical kinetic terms. We provide a characterization of the attractor behaviour of the background evolution in terms of first and second slow-roll parameters (which need not be small). We find that the superpotential is useful in justifying the separate universe approximation from the gradient expansion, and also in computing the spectra of primordial perturbations around attractor solutions in the $\\delta N$ formalism. As an application, we consider a class of models where the background trajectories for the inflaton fields are derived from a product separable superpotential. In the perspective of the holographic inflation scenario, such models are dual to a deformed CFT boundary theory, with $D$ mutually uncorrelated deformation operators. We compute the bulk power spectra of primordial adiabatic and entropy cosmological perturbations, and show that the results...

  8. Head orientation prediction: delta quaternions versus quaternions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himberg, Henry; Motai, Yuichi

    2009-12-01

    Display lag in simulation environments with helmet-mounted displays causes a loss of immersion that degrades the value of virtual/augmented reality training simulators. Simulators use predictive tracking to compensate for display lag, preparing display updates based on the anticipated head motion. This paper proposes a new method for predicting head orientation using a delta quaternion (DQ)-based extended Kalman filter (EKF) and compares the performance to a quaternion EKF. The proposed framework operates on the change in quaternion between consecutive data frames (the DQ), which avoids the heavy computational burden of the quaternion motion equation. Head velocity is estimated from the DQ by an EKF and then used to predict future head orientation. We have tested the new framework with captured head motion data and compared it with the computationally expensive quaternion filter. Experimental results indicate that the proposed DQ method provides the accuracy of the quaternion method without the heavy computational burden.

  9. Multimode delta-E effect magnetic field sensors with adapted electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabel, Sebastian; Fichtner, Simon; Kirchhof, Christine; Quandt, Eckhard; Faupel, Franz, E-mail: ff@tf.uni-kiel.de [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Materials Science, Kiel University, Kaiserstraße 2, 24143 Kiel (Germany); Reermann, Jens; Schmidt, Gerhard [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Electrical Engineering, Kiel University, Kaiserstraße 2, 24143 Kiel (Germany); Wagner, Bernhard [Fraunhofer Institute for Silicon Technology ISIT, Fraunhoferstraße 1, 25524 Itzehoe (Germany)

    2016-05-30

    We present an analytical and experimental study on low-noise piezoelectric thin film resonators that utilize the delta-E effect of a magnetostrictive layer to measure magnetic fields at low frequencies. Calculations from a physical model of the electromechanical resonator enable electrode designs to efficiently operate in the first and second transversal bending modes. As predicted by our calculations, the adapted electrode design improves the sensitivity by a factor of 6 and reduces the dynamic range of the sensor output by 16 dB, which significantly eases the requirements on readout electronics. Magnetic measurements show a bandwidth of 100 Hz at a noise level of about 100 pTHz{sup −0.5}.

  10. Perspectives on bay-delta science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Michael; Dettinger, Michael; Norgaard, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The State of Bay–Delta Science 2008 highlighted seven emerging perspectives on science and management of the Delta. These perspectives had important effects on policy and legislation concerning management of the Delta ecosystem and water exports. From the collection of papers that make up the State of Bay–Delta Science 2016, we derive another seven perspectives that augment those published in 2008. The new perspectives address nutrient and contaminant concentrations in Delta waters, the failure of the Delta food web to support native species, the role of multiple stressors in driving species toward extinction, and the emerging importance of extreme events in driving change in the ecosystem and the water supply. The scientific advances that underpin these new perspectives were made possible by new measurement and analytic tools. We briefly discuss some of these, including miniaturized acoustic fish tags, sensors for monitoring of water quality, analytic techniques for disaggregating complex contaminant mixtures, remote sensing to assess levee vulnerability, and multidimensional hydrodynamic modeling. Despite these new tools and scientific insights, species conservation objectives for the Delta are not being met. We believe that this lack of progress stems in part from the fact that science and policy do not incorporate sufficiently long-term perspectives. Looking forward half a century was central to the Delta Visioning process, but science and policy have not embraced this conceptual breadth. We are also concerned that protection and enhancement of the unique cultural, recreational, natural resource, and agricultural values of the Delta as an evolving place, as required by the Delta Reform Act, has received no critical study and analysis. Adopting wider and longer science and policy perspectives immediately encourages recognition of the need for evaluation, analysis, and public discourse on novel conservation approaches. These longer and wider perspectives

  11. Human placenta: relative content of antibodies of different classes and subclasses (IgG1-IgG4) containing lambda- and kappa-light chains and chimeric lambda-kappa-immunoglobulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekchnov, Evgenii A; Sedykh, Sergey E; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Buneva, Valentina N; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2015-06-01

    The specific organ placenta is much more than a filter: it is an organ that protects, feeds and regulates the growth of the embryo. Affinity chromatography, ELISA, SDS-PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry were used. Using 10 intact human placentas deprived of blood, a quantitative analysis of average relative content [% of total immunoglobulins (Igs)] was carried out for the first time: (92.7), IgA (2.4), IgM (2.5), kappa-antibodies (51.4), lambda-antibodies (48.6), IgG1 (47.0), IgG2 (39.5), IgG3 (8.8) and IgG4 (4.3). It was shown for the first time that placenta contains sIgA (2.5%). In the classic paradigm, Igs represent products of clonal B-cell populations, each producing antibodies recognizing a single antigen. There is a common belief that IgGs in mammalian biological fluids are monovalent molecules having stable structures and two identical antigen-binding sites. However, similarly to human milk Igs, placenta antibodies undergo extensive half-molecule exchange and the IgG pool consists of 43.5 ± 15.0% kappa-kappa-IgGs and 41.6 ± 17.0% lambda-lambda-IgGs, while 15.0 ± 4.0% of the IgGs contained both kappa- and lambda-light chains. Kappa-kappa-IgGs and lambda-lambda-IgGs contained, respectively (%): IgG1 (47.7 and 34.4), IgG2 (36.3 and 44.5), IgG3 (7.4 and 11.8) and IgG4 (7.5 and 9.1), while chimeric kappa-lambda-IgGs consisted of (%): 43.5 IgG1, 41.0 IgG2, 5.6 IgG3 and 7.9 IgG4. Our data are indicative of the possibility of half-molecule exchange between placenta IgGs of various subclasses, raised against different antigens, which explains a very well-known polyspecificity and cross-reactivity of different human IgGs. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The Atchafalaya River Delta. Report 7. Analytical Analysis of the Development of the Atchafalaya River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    responsible for the abrupt increases in subaerial delta growth. 64. Through using satellite imagery, color infrared photog- raphy, and digital current...w RO CF = HO/A/BO/(2.-D) w (HH wo (2.-D) - 1.) + O.5/AA X2 = BO m 2.m AA a HHow(D-1.) o CF AREA = (2.wAAwB~ ww2 ) im (CKI*(1. + AmBO/HOwRO) ww2 &+ CK2 a

  13. GRK2 Constitutively Governs Peripheral Delta Opioid Receptor Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Doyle Brackley

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Opioids remain the standard for analgesic care; however, adverse effects of systemic treatments contraindicate long-term administration. While most clinical opioids target mu opioid receptors (MOR, those that target the delta class (DOR also demonstrate analgesic efficacy. Furthermore, peripherally restrictive opioids represent an attractive direction for analgesia. However, opioid receptors including DOR are analgesically incompetent in the absence of inflammation. Here, we report that G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2 naively associates with plasma membrane DOR in peripheral sensory neurons to inhibit analgesic agonist efficacy. This interaction prevents optimal Gβ subunit association with the receptor, thereby reducing DOR activity. Importantly, bradykinin stimulates GRK2 movement away from DOR and onto Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP. protein kinase C (PKC-dependent RKIP phosphorylation induces GRK2 sequestration, restoring DOR functionality in sensory neurons. Together, these results expand the known function of GRK2, identifying a non-internalizing role to maintain peripheral DOR in an analgesically incompetent state.

  14. Hydrogen inhalation reduced epithelial apoptosis in ventilator-induced lung injury via a mechanism involving nuclear factor-kappa B activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chien-Sheng [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei-Veterans General Hospital and National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Kawamura, Tomohiro; Peng, Ximei [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tochigi, Naobumi [Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (United States); Shigemura, Norihisa [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Billiar, Timothy R. [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nakao, Atsunori, E-mail: anakao@imap.pitt.edu [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Toyoda, Yoshiya [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} Hydrogen is a regulatory molecule with antiinflammatory and antiapoptotic protective effects. {yields} There is very limited information on the pathways regulated in vivo by the hydrogen. {yields} Antiapoptotic abilities of hydrogen were explained by upregulation of the antiapoptotic gene. {yields} NF{kappa}B activation during hydrogen treatment was correlated with elevated antiapoptotic protein. {yields} NF{kappa}B activation associated with increase Bcl-2 may contribute to cytoprotection of hydrogen. -- Abstract: We recently demonstrated the inhalation of hydrogen gas, a novel medical therapeutic gas, ameliorates ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI); however, the molecular mechanisms by which hydrogen ameliorates VILI remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated whether inhaled hydrogen gas modulates the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF{kappa}B) signaling pathway. VILI was generated in male C57BL6 mice by performing a tracheostomy and placing the mice on a mechanical ventilator (tidal volume of 30 ml/kg or 10 ml/kg without positive end-expiratory pressure). The ventilator delivered either 2% nitrogen or 2% hydrogen in balanced air. NF{kappa}B activation, as indicated by NF{kappa}B DNA binding, was detected by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hydrogen gas inhalation increased NF{kappa}B DNA binding after 1 h of ventilation and decreased NF{kappa}B DNA binding after 2 h of ventilation, as compared with controls. The early activation of NF{kappa}B during hydrogen treatment was correlated with elevated levels of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and decreased levels of Bax. Hydrogen inhalation increased oxygen tension, decreased lung edema, and decreased the expression of proinflammatory mediators. Chemical inhibition of early NF{kappa}B activation using SN50 reversed these protective effects. NF{kappa}B activation and an associated increase in the expression of Bcl-2 may contribute, in part, to the

  15. Hypothalamic kappa opioid receptor mediates both diet- and MCH-induced liver damage through inflammation and ER stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imbernon, Monica; Sanchez-Rebordelo, Estrella; Romero-Picó, Amparo; Kalló, Imre; Chee, Melissa J; Porteiro, Begoña; Al-Massadi, Omar; Contreras, Cristina; Fernø, Johan; Senra, Ana; Gallego, Rosalia; Folgueira, Cintia; Seoane, Luisa M; van Gestel, Margriet; Adan, Roger A; Liposits, Zsolt; Dieguez, Carlos; Lopez, Miguel; Nogueiras, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    The opioid system is widely known to modulate the brain reward system and thus affect human and animal behaviour, including feeding. We hypothesized that the hypothalamic opioid system might also control energy metabolism in peripheral tissues. Mice lacking the kappa opioid receptor (κOR) and

  16. "Give It Your Best Shot!": Address to Columbia College Students Elected to the Phi Beta Kappa Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeber, Karl

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the address delivered by the author to Columbia college students elected to the Phi Beta Kappa Society on May 18, 2009. In the address, the author talks about the work he had done that might be of interest to these students. He emphasizes two kinds of work that are interlocking, yet distinct: (1) teaching; and (2)…

  17. Standard formation enthalpies of Nasub(2+x)Vsub(6)Osub(16-y) bronze of kappa type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodos, M.Ya.; Slobodin, B.V.; Surat, L.L.; Fotiev, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    Standard formation enthalpies of sodium oxide vanadium bronze of kappa Nasub(2+x)Vsub(6)Osub(16-y) type of different composition have been determined by the method of solution calorimetry. It has been ascertained that within the limits of homogeneity a standard formation enthalpy decreases insignificantly with the increase of bronze oxygen defectiveness and is a linear function of sodium content

  18. A kinetic analysis of kappa-opioid agonist binding using the selective radioligand (/sup 3/H)U69593

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.A.; Hunter, J.C.; Hill, R.G.; Hughes, J.

    1989-07-01

    The interaction of the nonselective opioid ligand (3H)bremazocine and of the kappa-opioid (3H)U69593 with the kappa-receptor was investigated in guinea-pig cortical membranes. Each radioligand bound to a single population of high-affinity sites, although (3H)U69593 apparently recognised only 70% of those sites labelled by (3H)bremazocine. Naloxone and the kappa-selective ligands U69593 and PD117302 exhibited full inhibition of the binding of both radioligands. Kinetic analysis demonstrated biphasic rates of association and dissociation for both (3H)bremazocine and (3H)U69593. Detailed analysis of the binding of (3H)U69593 revealed that the fast rate of association was dependent on radioligand concentration, in contrast to the slow rate, which was independent of ligand concentration. Guanylyl-5'-imidodiphosphate (GppNHp) inhibited binding of (3H)U69593; saturation analysis demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of GppNHp resulted in a decrease in affinity without any significant change in binding capacity. GppNHp attenuated the formation of the slow component of (3H)U69593 binding, while accelerating the fast component. The data are consistent with the formation of a high-affinity complex between the kappa-receptor and a guanine nucleotide binding protein. Guanine nucleotides promote the dissociation of this ternary complex and the stabilisation of a lower-affinity state of the receptor.

  19. Selective kappa-opioid agonists: synthesis and structure-activity relationships of piperidines incorporating on oxo-containing acyl group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardina, G; Clarke, G D; Dondio, G; Petrone, G; Sbacchi, M; Vecchietti, V

    1994-10-14

    This study describes the synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of the (S)-(-)-enantiomers of a novel class of 2-(aminomethyl)piperidine derivatives, using kappa-opioid binding affinity and antinociceptive potency as the indices of biological activity. Compounds incorporating the 1-tetralon-6-ylacetyl residue (30 and 34-45) demonstrated an in vivo antinociceptive activity greater than predicted on the basis of their kappa-binding affinities. In particular, (2S)-2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-1-[(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-5-oxo-2- naphthyl)acetyl]piperidine (34) was found to have a potency similar to spiradoline in animal models of antinociception after subcutaneous administration, with ED50s of 0.47 and 0.73 mumol/kg in the mouse and in the rat abdominal constriction tests, respectively. Further in vivo studies in mice and/or rats revealed that compound 34, compared to other selective kappa-agonists, has a reduced propensity to cause a number of kappa-related side effects, including locomotor impairment/sedation and diuresis, at antinociceptive doses. For example, it has an ED50 of 26.5 mumol/kg sc in the rat rotarod model, exhibiting a ratio of locomotor impairment/sedation vs analgesia of 36. Possible reasons for this differential activity and its clinical consequence are discussed.

  20. Distribution of kappa and lambda light chain isotypes among human blood immunoglobulin-secreting cells after vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilmann, C; Barington, T

    1989-01-01

    The light chain isotype of immunoglobulin-secreting blood cells was investigated by means of monolayer plaque-forming cell assays allowing direct immunofluorescence staining for cytoplasmic kappa and lambda light chains in centre cells. The study revealed that cultured, polyclonally activated...

  1. Kappa-receptor selective binding of opioid ligands with a heterocyclic bicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-one structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyhe, S; Márki, A; Nachtsheim, Corina; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Borsodi, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Previous pharmacological results have suggested that members of the heterocyclic bicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-one-like compounds are potent kappa-opioid receptor specific agonists. One lead molecule of this series. called compound 1 (dimethyl 7-methyl-2,4-di-2-pyridyl-3.7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-one-1,5-dicarboxylate) exhibited high affinity for [3H]ethylketocyclazocine and [3H]U-69.593 binding sites in guinea pig cerebellar membranes which known to be a good source for kappa1 receptors. It was shown by molecular modelling that heterocyclic bicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-ones fit very well with the structure of ketazocine, a prototypic kappa-selective benzomorphan compound; when compared to the arylacetamide structure of U-69.593, a specific kappa1-receptor agonist, a similar geometry was found with a slightly different distribution of the charges. It is postulated, that the essential structural skeleton involved in the opioid activity is an aryl-propyl-amine element distributed along the N7-C6-C5-C4-aryl bonds.

  2. NF-kappaB-driven STAT2 and CCL2 expression in astrocytes in response to brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Babcock, Alicia A; Owens, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    Tissue response to injury includes expression of genes encoding cytokines and chemokines. These regulate entry of immune cells to the injured tissue. The synthesis of many cytokines and chemokines involves NF-kappaB and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT). Injury to the CNS ...

  3. IMPACTS OF WETLAND DEGRADATION IN NIGER DELTA NIGERIA AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE IN FLOOD CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enwere Chidimma Loveline

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available  Wetlands perform a wide variety of functions that include flood control, ground water recharge, shore line stabilization, storm protection and climate moderation. However, despite these huge wetland functions, it has witnessed poor appreciation and dreadful conditions. Niger Delta has witnessed constant coastal erosion and rising sea level, this has led to large portions of the landmass being eroded. This paper aims to review some environmental effects of flooding in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria to provide the desired knowledge of role that wetlands play in reducing flood impacts. However, having witnessed the flood, the experience opened my eyes to the environmental challenges facing Niger Delta with respect to Wetlands degradation, poor perception of wetland values and functions, poor environmental practices and non-implementation of environmental regulations. This memorable experience rekindled the desire and motivation to seek a solution to wetland degradation with the aim of recognizing significance of wetlands at the centre of achieving both livelihood and biodiversity improvements to address coastal flooding problem.The study therefore concludes that wetlands are very significant in flood control and thus the conservation and restoration of wetlands, should put in place measures to reduce wetland destruction.International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 177-184

  4. Lentiviral-mediated targeted NF-kappaB blockade in dorsal spinal cord glia attenuates sciatic nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Alice; Latrémolière, Alban; Dominguez, Elisa; Mauborgne, Annie; Philippe, Stéphanie; Hamon, Michel; Mallet, Jacques; Benoliel, Jean-Jacques; Pohl, Michel

    2007-04-01

    Neuropathic pain developing after peripheral nerve injury is associated with altered neuronal and glial cell functions in the spinal cord. Activated glia produces algogenic mediators, exacerbating pain. Among the different intracellular pathways possibly involved in the modified glial function, the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) system is of particular interest, as numerous genes encoding inflammation- and pain-related molecules are controlled by this transcription factor. NF-kappaB is a pleiotropic factor also involved in central nervous system homeostasy. To study its role in chronic pain, it is thus essential to inhibit the NF-kappaB pathway selectively in activated spinal glial cells. Here, we show that when restricted to spinal cord and targeted to glial cells, lentiviral vector-mediated delivery of NF-kappaB super- repressor IkappaBalpha resulted in an inhibition of the NF-kappaB pathway activated in the rat spinal cord after sciatic nerve injury (chronic constriction injury, CCI). Concomitantly, IkappaBalpha overproduction prevented the enhanced expression of interleukin-6 and of inducible nitric oxide synthase associated with chronic constriction injury and resulted in prolonged antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic effects. These data show that targeted blockade of NF-kappaB activity in spinal glia efficiently alleviates pain behavior in CCI rats, demonstrating the active participation of the glial NF-kappaB pathway in the development of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury.

  5. Cytokine regulation of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes in rat hepatocytes: NF-kappaB-regulated inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (cIAP2) prevents apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, Marieke H.; Ros, Jenny E.; Homan, Manon; Trautwein, Christian; Liston, Peter; Poelstra, Klaas; van Goor, Harry; Jansen, Peter L. M.; Moshage, Han

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: In acute liver failure, hepatocytes are exposed to various cytokines that activate both cell survival and apoptotic pathways. NF-kappaB is a central transcription factor in these responses. Recent studies indicate that blocking NF-kappaB causes apoptosis, indicating the existence of

  6. Increased synovial tissue NF-kappa B1 expression at sites adjacent to the cartilage-pannus junction in rheumatoid arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benito, M.J.; Murphy, E.P.; Berg, W.B. van den; Fitzgerald, O.; Bresnihan, B.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the expression of the Rel/NF-kappa B subunits, NF-kappa B1 (p50) and RelA (p65), in paired synovial tissue samples selected from sites adjacent to and remote from the cartilage-pannus junction (CPJ) in patients with inflammatory arthritis. METHODS: Synovial tissue was selected

  7. DMPD: Convergence of the NF-kappaB and IRF pathways in the regulation of the innateantiviral response. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17706453 Convergence of the NF-kappaB and IRF pathways in the regulation of the innatea... (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Convergence of the NF-kappaB and IRF pathways in the regulation of the innatea... IRF pathways in the regulation of the innateantiviral response. Authors Hiscott J. Publication Cytokine Gro

  8. Development of inhomogeneous {kappa}-{epsilon}-{upsilon}{sup 2} turbulence model for 3D flow analysis of SMART-P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, K. H.; Whang, Y. D.; Yoon, H. Y.; Kim, H. C

    2003-07-01

    The objective of the present report is to select and develop a turbulence model that will be implemented in TASS-3D code for 3-D heat and fluid analysis on the integral reactor, SMART-P primary coolant system. The turbulence model was selected with the consideration on the economy, accuracy, theorization and applicability for the complex three dimensional flow, natural convection and the high Reynolds number turbulent flow of SMART-P.On the models investigated in this present study, the standard {kappa}-{epsilon} model of high Reynolds model, the {kappa}-{epsilon}-{upsilon}{sup 2} model and ERRSM of low Reynolds model were selected out of them finally. The {kappa}-{epsilon}-{upsilon}{sup 2} model was selected as the applicable turbulence model for three dimensional flow analysis of SMART-P. The problem of original {kappa}-{epsilon}-{upsilon}{sup 2} model is the amplification of the pressure strain rate in the log region. The amplification is caused by Elliptic Relaxation Equation(ERE). The present model approaches inhomogeneous for the source term of the ERE to reduce the pressure-strain amplification. The source term was decomposed into homogeneous part and inhomogeneous part and derived as a form of variable coefficients of the ERE. The pressure strain and dissipation terms were fully coupled with the source term of the ERE. The pressure diffusion was modified to treat the boundary conditions indirectly and the pressure strain of the inhomogeneous correction ERE was noticeably decreased in both log layer and outer layer. The results of the inhomogeneous correction {kappa}-{epsilon}-{upsilon}{sup 2} model showed a good agreement with DNS results for channel flows and estimated improved results on the turbulent components in comparison with other models.

  9. Commensal-induced regulatory T cells mediate protection against pathogen-stimulated NF-kappaB activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin O'Mahony

    Full Text Available Host defence against infection requires a range of innate and adaptive immune responses that may lead to tissue damage. Such immune-mediated pathologies can be controlled with appropriate T regulatory (Treg activity. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of gut microbiota composition on Treg cellular activity and NF-kappaB activation associated with infection. Mice consumed the commensal microbe Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 followed by infection with Salmonella typhimurium or injection with LPS. In vivo NF-kappaB activation was quantified using biophotonic imaging. CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cell phenotypes and cytokine levels were assessed using flow cytometry while CD4+ T cells were isolated using magnetic beads for adoptive transfer to naïve animals. In vivo imaging revealed profound inhibition of infection and LPS induced NF-kappaB activity that preceded a reduction in S. typhimurium numbers and murine sickness behaviour scores in B. infantis-fed mice. In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, T cell proliferation, and dendritic cell co-stimulatory molecule expression were significantly reduced. In contrast, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cell numbers were significantly increased in the mucosa and spleen of mice fed B. infantis. Adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+ T cells transferred the NF-kappaB inhibitory activity. Consumption of a single commensal micro-organism drives the generation and function of Treg cells which control excessive NF-kappaB activation in vivo. These cellular interactions provide the basis for a more complete understanding of the commensal-host-pathogen trilogue that contribute to host homeostatic mechanisms underpinning protection against aberrant activation of the innate immune system in response to a translocating pathogen or systemic LPS.

  10. Electroacoustic theory for concentrated colloids with overlapped DLs at arbitrary kappa alpha. I. Application to nanocolloids and nonaqueous colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilov, V N; Borkovskaja, Y B; Dukhin, A S

    2004-09-15

    Existing theories of electroacoustic phenomena in concentrated colloids neglect the possibility of double layer overlap and are valid mostly for the "thin double layer," when the double layer thickness is much less than the particle size. In this paper we present a new electroacoustic theory which removes this restriction. This would make this new theory applicable to characterizing a variety of aqueous nanocolloids and of nonaqueous dispersions. There are two versions of the theory leading to the analytical solutions. The first version corresponds to strongly overlapped diffuse layers (so-called quasi-homogeneous model). It yields a simple analytical formula for colloid vibration current (CVI), which is valid for arbitrary ultrasound frequency, but for restricted kappa alpha range. This version of the theory, as well the Smoluchowski theory for microelectrophoresis, is independent of particle shape and polydispersity. This makes it very attractive for practical use, with the hope that it might be as useful as classical Smoluchowski theory. In order to determine the kappa alpha range of the quasi-homogeneous model validity we develop the second version that limits ultrasound frequency, but applies no restriction on kappa alpha. The ultrasound frequency should substantially exceed the Maxwell-Wagner relaxation frequency. This limitation makes active conductivity related current negligible compared to the passive dielectric displacement current. It is possible to derive an expression for CVI in the concentrated dispersion as formulae inhering definite integrals with integrands depending on equilibrium potential distribution. This second version allowed us to estimate the ranges of the applicability of the first, quasi-homogeneous version. It turns out that the quasi-homogeneous model works for kappa alpha values up to almost 1. For instance, at volume fraction 30%, the highest kappa alpha limit of the quasi-homogeneous model is 0.65. Therefore, this version of the

  11. Primary production in the Delta: Then and now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.; Robinson, April; Richey, Amy; Grenier, Letitia; Grossinger, Robin; Boyer, Katharyn E.; Burau, Jon; Canuel, Elizabeth A.; DeGeorge, John F.; Drexler, Judith Z.; Enright, Chris; Howe, Emily R.; Kneib, Ronald; Mueller-Solger, Anke; Naiman, Robert J.; Pinckney, James L.; Safran, Samuel M.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Simenstad, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the role of restoration in the recovery of the Delta ecosystem, we need to have clear targets and performance measures that directly assess ecosystem function. Primary production is a crucial ecosystem process, which directly limits the quality and quantity of food available for secondary consumers such as invertebrates and fish. The Delta has a low rate of primary production, but it is unclear whether this was always the case. Recent analyses from the Historical Ecology Team and Delta Landscapes Project provide quantitative comparisons of the areal extent of 14 habitat types in the modern Delta versus the historical Delta (pre-1850). Here we describe an approach for using these metrics of land use change to: (1) produce the first quantitative estimates of how Delta primary production and the relative contributions from five different producer groups have been altered by large-scale drainage and conversion to agriculture; (2) convert these production estimates into a common currency so the contributions of each producer group reflect their food quality and efficiency of transfer to consumers; and (3) use simple models to discover how tidal exchange between marshes and open water influences primary production and its consumption. Application of this approach could inform Delta management in two ways. First, it would provide a quantitative estimate of how large-scale conversion to agriculture has altered the Delta's capacity to produce food for native biota. Second, it would provide restoration practitioners with a new approach—based on ecosystem function—to evaluate the success of restoration projects and gauge the trajectory of ecological recovery in the Delta region.

  12. How Rapid Change Affects Deltas in the Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, I.; Bendixen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Deltas form where the river drains into the ocean. Consequently, delta depositional processes are impacted by either changes in the respective river drainage basin or by changes in the regional marine environment. In a warming Arctic region rapid change has occurred over the last few decades in both the terrestrial domain as well as in the marine domain. Important terrestrial controls include 1) change in permafrost possibly destabilizing river banks, 2) strong seasonality of river discharge due to a short melting season, 3) high sediment supply if basins are extensively glaciated, 4) lake outbursts and ice jams favoring river flooding. Whereas in the Arctic marine domain sea ice loss promotes wave and storm surge impact, and increased longshore transport. We here ask which of these factors dominate any morphological change in Arctic deltas. First, we analyze hydrological data to assess change in Arctic-wide river discharge characteristics and timing, and sea ice concentration data to map changes in sea ice regime. Based on this observational analysis we set up a number of scenarios of change. We then model hypothetical small-scale delta formation considering change in these primary controls by setting up a numerical delta model, and combining it dynamically with a permafrost model. We find that for typical Greenlandic deltas changes in river forcing due to ice sheet melt dominate the morphological change, which is corroborated by mapping of delta progradation from aerial photos and satellite imagery. Whereas in other areas, along the North Slope and the Canadian Arctic small deltas are more stable or experienced retreat. Our preliminary coupled model allows us to further disentangle the impact of major forcing factors on delta evolution in high-latitude systems.

  13. Hot deformation behavior of delta-processed superalloy 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y., E-mail: wangyanhit@yahoo.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Shao, W.Z.; Zhen, L.; Zhang, B.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} The peak stress for hot deformation can be described by the Z parameter. {yields} The grain size of DRX was inversely proportional to the Z parameter. {yields} The dissolution of {delta} phases was greatly accelerated under hot deformation. {yields}The {delta} phase stimulated nucleation can serve as the main DRX mechanism. - Abstract: Flow stress behavior and microstructures during hot compression of delta-processed superalloy 718 at temperatures from 950 to 1100 deg. C with strain rates of 10{sup -3} to 1 s{sup -1} were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The relationship between the peak stress and the deformation conditions can be expressed by a hyperbolic-sine type equation. The activation energy for the delta-processed superalloy 718 is determined to be 467 kJ/mol. The change of the dominant deformation mechanisms leads to the decrease of stress exponent and the increase of activation energy with increasing temperature. The dynamically recrystallized grain size is inversely proportional to the Zener-Hollomon (Z) parameter. It is found that the dissolution rate of {delta} phases under hot deformation conditions is much faster than that under static conditions. Dislocation, vacancy and curvature play important roles in the dissolution of {delta} phases. The main nucleation mechanisms of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) for the delta-processed superalloy 718 include the bulging of original grain boundaries and the {delta} phase stimulated DRX nucleation, which is closely related to the dissolution behavior of {delta} phases under certain deformation conditions.

  14. Primary Production in the Delta: Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Cloern

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss3art1To evaluate the role of restoration in the recovery of the Delta ecosystem, we need to have clear targets and performance measures that directly assess ecosystem function. Primary production is a crucial ecosystem process, which directly limits the quality and quantity of food available for secondary consumers such as invertebrates and fish. The Delta has a low rate of primary production, but it is unclear whether this was always the case. Recent analyses from the Historical Ecology Team and Delta Landscapes Project provide quantitative comparisons of the areal extent of 14 habitat types in the modern Delta versus the historical Delta (pre-1850. Here we describe an approach for using these metrics of land use change to: (1 produce the first quantitative estimates of how Delta primary production and the relative contributions from five different producer groups have been altered by large-scale drainage and conversion to agriculture; (2 convert these production estimates into a common currency so the contributions of each producer group reflect their food quality and efficiency of transfer to consumers; and (3 use simple models to discover how tidal exchange between marshes and open water influences primary production and its consumption. Application of this approach could inform Delta management in two ways. First, it would provide a quantitative estimate of how large-scale conversion to agriculture has altered the Delta's capacity to produce food for native biota. Second, it would provide restoration practitioners with a new approach—based on ecosystem function—to evaluate the success of restoration projects and gauge the trajectory of ecological recovery in the Delta region.

  15. LIVER TRANSPLANTATION IN HEPATITIS DELTA: SOUTH AMERICA EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Souza LIMA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The Amazon region is one of the main endemic areas of hepatitis delta in the world and the only one related to the presence of genotype 3 of the delta virus. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the profile, mortality and survival of cirrhotic patients submitted to liver transplantation for chronic hepatitis delta virus and compare with those transplanted by hepatitis B virus monoinfection. METHODS: Retrospective, observational and descriptive study. From May 2002 to December 2011, 629 liver transplants were performed at the Walter Cantídio University Hospital, of which 29 patients were transplanted due to cirrhosis caused by chronic delta virus infection and 40 by hepatitis B chronic monoinfection. The variables analyzed were: age, sex, MELD score, Child-Pugh score, upper gastrointestinal bleeding and hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence before the transplantation, perioperative platelet count, mortality and survival. RESULTS: The Delta Group was younger and all came from the Brazilian Amazon Region. Group B presented a higher proportion of male patients (92.5% compared to Group D (58.6%. The occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding before transplantation, MELD score, and Child-Pugh score did not show statistical differences between groups. The occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality were higher in the hepatitis B Group. The survival in 4 years was 95% in the Delta Group and 75% in the B Group, with a statistically significant difference (P=0.034. Patients with hepatitis delta presented more evident thrombocytopenia in the pre-transplantation and in the immediate postoperative period. CONCLUSION: The hepatitis by delta virus patients who underwent liver transplantation were predominantly male, coming from the Brazilian Amazon region and with similar liver function to the hepatitis B virus patients. They had a lower incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma, more marked perioperative thrombocytopenia levels and frequent

  16. Delta Evolution at Røde Elv, Disko Island, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, A.; Arngrimson, J.; Bendixen, M.; Sigsgaard, C.

    2017-12-01

    Ice, snow and freezing temperatures have a large impact on coastal morphodynamics in Arctic polar environments. A recent warming of the Arctic climate induces many changes along the arctic shorelines. Sea-levels are rising due to thermal expansion and due to an increased fresh water flux from the glaciers and land ice masses. At the same time, the ice coverage of the coastal waters reduces and the open water periods in summer extend. There is a strong seasonal variation with open waters and active rivers in summer and ice-covered coastal waters and inactive rivers in winter. Coastal processes by waves and tides are thus limited to the summer and early fall. Besides, there is also a strong daily variation in fluvial discharges due to the daily variations in glacier melt with maximum melt in the afternoon and minimum values at night. At the same time, the actual flux of the river to the coastal bay is influenced by the tidal phase. Low tides will enhance the transport to the delta front, while high tides will create stagnant waters over the delta plain. The delta of the Røde Elv is located in southwestern Disko Island in west Greenland. It has a relatively small (ca. 101 km2) and partly glaciated drainage basin (ca. 20%) and its sediments consist of a mixture of basaltic sands and gravels. The Røde Elv delta is located at the end of a pro-glacial and fluvial valley at about 20 km from the glacier. The shores of the delta are reworked by waves, predominantly from southwestern, southern (largest fetch, over 50 km), and southeastern directions. The environment has a micro- to meso- tidal range with a spring tidal range of 2.7 m. The morphologic changes on the delta over the last decades clearly showed a seaward extension of the delta and a periodic shift in the location of the main delta channel. In this presentation, we focus on quantification of water discharges and suspended sediment fluxes to the Røde Elv delta in western Greenland, and on the morphological

  17. Late quaternary evolution of the Orinoco Delta, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, A.G.; Guevara, E.H.; Aslan, A.

    2002-01-01

    The modern Orinoco Delta is the latest of a series of stacked deltas that have infilled the Eastern Venezuelan Basin (EVB) since the Oligocene. During the late Pleistocene sea-level lowstand (20,000 to 16,000 yrs BP), bedrock control points at the position of the present delta apex prevented the river channel from incising as deeply as many other major river systems. Shallow seismic data indicate that the late Pleistocene Orinoco incised into the present continental shelf, where it formed a braided-river complex that transported sediment to a series of shelf-edge deltas. As sea level rose from 16,000 to 9,500 yrs BP, the Orinoco shoreline shifted rapidly landward, causing shallow-marine waves and currents to form a widespread transgressive sand unit. Decelerating sea-level rise and a warmer, wetter climate during the early Holocene (9,500 to 6,000 yrs BP) induced delta development within the relatively quiet-water environment of the EVB embayment. Sea level approached its present stand in the middle Holocene (6,000 to 3,000 yrs BP), and the Orinoco coast prograded, broadening the delta plain and infilling the EVB embayment. Significant quantities of Amazon sediment began to be transported to the Orinoco coast by littoral currents. Continued progradation in the late Holocene caused the constriction at Boca de Serpientes to alter nearshore and shelf hydrodynamics and subdivide the submarine delta into two distinct areas: the Atlantic shelf and the Gulf of Paria. The increased influence of littoral currents along the coast promoted mudcape development. Because most of the water and sediment were transported across the delta plain through the Rio Grande distributary in the southern delta, much of the central and northwestern delta plain became sediment starved, promoting widespread accumulation of peat deposits. Human impacts on the delta are mostly associated with the Volca??n Dam on Can??o Manamo. However, human activities have had relatively little effect on the

  18. Is there a self-organization principle of river deltas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Alejandro; Longjas, Anthony; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2017-04-01

    River deltas are known to possess a complex topological and flux-partitioning structure which has recently been quantified using spectral graph theory [Tejedor et al., 2015a,b]. By analysis of real and simulated deltas it has also been shown that there is promise in formalizing relationships between this topo-dynamic delta structure and the underlying delta forming processes [e.g., Tejedor et al., 2016]. The question we pose here is whether there exists a first order organizational principle behind the self-organization of river deltas and whether this principle can be unraveled from the co-evolving topo-dynamic structure encoded in the delta planform. To answer this question, we introduce a new metric, the nonlocal Entropy Rate (nER) that captures the information content of a delta network in terms of the degree of uncertainty in delivering fluxes from any point of the network to the shoreline. We hypothesize that if the "guiding principle" of undisturbed deltas is to efficiently and robustly build land by increasing the diversity of their flux pathways over the delta plane, then they would exhibit maximum nonlocal Entropy Rate at states at which geometry and flux dynamics are at equilibrium. At the same time, their nER would be non-optimal at transient states, such as before and after major avulsions during which topology and dynamics adjust to each other to reach a new equilibrium state. We will present our results for field and simulated deltas, which confirm this hypothesis and open up new ways of thinking about self-organization, complexity and robustness in river deltas. One particular connection of interest might have important implications since entropy rate and resilience are related by the fluctuation theorem [Demetrius and Manke, 2005], and therefore our results suggest that deltas might in fact self-organize to maximize their resilience to structural and dynamic perturbations. References: Tejedor, A., A. Longjas, I. Zaliapin, and E. Foufoula

  19. Holocene evolution of the western Orinoco Delta, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, A.; White, W.A.; Warne, A.G.; Guevara, E.H.

    2003-01-01

    The pristine nature of the Orinoco Delta of eastern Venezuela provides unique opportunities to study the geologic processes and environments of a major tropical delta. Remote-sensing images, shallow cores, and radiocarbon-dating of organic remains form the basis for describing deltaic environments and interpreting the Holocene history of the delta. The Orinoco Delta can be subdivided into two major sectors. The southeast sector is dominated by the Rio Grande-the principal distributary-and complex networks of anastomosing fluvial and tidal channels. The abundance of siliciclastic deposits suggests that fluvial processes such as over-bank flooding strongly influence this part of the delta. In contrast, the northwest sector is represented by few major distributaries, and overbank sedimentation is less widespread relative to the southeast sector. Peat is abundant and occurs in herbaceous and forested swamps that are individually up to 200 km2 in area. Northwest-directed littoral currents transport large volumes of suspended sediment and produce prominent mudcapes along the northwest coast. Mapping of surface sediments, vegetation, and major landforms identified four principal geomorphic systems within the western delta plain: (1) distributary channels, (2) interdistributary flood basins, (3) fluvial-marine transitional environments, and (4) marine-influenced coastal environments. Coring and radiocarbon dating of deltaic deposits show that the northern delta shoreline has prograded 20-30 km during the late Holocene sea-level highstand. Progradation has been accomplished by a combination of distributary avulsion and mudcape progradation. This style of deltaic progradation differs markedly from other deltas such as the Mississippi where distributary avulsion leads to coastal land loss, rather than shoreline progradation. The key difference is that the Orinoco Delta coastal zone receives prodigious amounts of sediment from northwest-moving littoral currents that transport

  20. Crises Management in the Oil and Gas Industry: The Niger Delta Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odemene, Glory C.

    The Niger Delta crises escalated beyond the borders of the Nigerian nation to become an issue that affected individuals and corporations around the world. This study led to the discovery of how the local crises escalated with international implications. This discovery was accomplished by addressing how the Niger Delta crises escalated from villages to international scenes, with notable impacts on the environment, health, safety, security, and financial segments of local, international, private, and corporate entities. Using Sweeny's crisis decision theory and Lazarus and Folkman's coping theory, the study considered the coping strategies of community members, the decisions, and actions they took in response to the management approaches of the government and the oil and gas companies (OGCs). This qualitative study utilized historical narrative to collect data by interviewing 4 participants who lived and worked in the region during the crises. NVivo was used for manual and automatic coding of data, as well as for categorization and connection of codes. Content analysis of identified codes and categories revealed the themes and trends in the experiences narrated by participants. Findings include the root causes, trend of escalation, and management strategies of the government and the OGCs that influenced the crises. These findings will help to influence policies and practices in the region and enhance effective management of current and emerging conflicts, with possibilities of restoring stability and security in the areas and in the nation at large.

  1. Evaluation of clinical use of indigenously developed delta plate in management of subcondylar fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anroop Anirudhan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Condylar fractures account for 25-35% of mandibular fractures and deserve a special consideration apart from rest of the mandible due to their anatomical differences and healing potential. Previous clinical and biomechanical studies have recommended using two miniplates for fixation of condyle fractures. Two miniplates require a certain size of the proximal condyle fragment and thus are applicable mainly in cases involving low fractures. The present study evaluates the clinical use of indigenously developed titanium delta-shaped miniplate in open reduction and internal fixation of subcondylar fracture.

  2. 20-Hydroxycholecalciferol, product of vitamin D3 hydroxylation by P450scc, decreases NF-kappaB activity by increasing IkappaB alpha levels in human keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Janjetovic

    Full Text Available The side chain of vitamin D3 is hydroxylated in a sequential manner by cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1 to form 20-hydroxycholecalciferol, which can induce growth arrest and differentiation of both primary and immortalized epidermal keratinocytes. Since nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, we examined the capability of 20-hydroxycholecalciferol to modulate the activity of NF-kappaB, using 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol as a positive control. 20-hydroxycholecalciferol inhibits the activation of NFkappaB DNA binding activity as well as NF-kappaB-driven reporter gene activity in keratinocytes. Also, 20-hydroxycholecalciferol induced significant increases in the mRNA and protein levels of the NF-kappaB inhibitor protein, IkappaB alpha, in a time dependent manner, while no changes in total NF-kappaB-p65 mRNA or protein levels were observed. Another measure of NF-kappaB activity, p65 translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus was also inhibited in extracts of 20-hydroxycholecalciferol treated keratinocytes. Increased IkappaB alpha was concomitantly observed in cytosolic extracts of 20-hydroxycholecalciferol treated keratinocytes, as determined by immunoblotting and immunofluorescent staining. In keratinocytes lacking vitamin D receptor (VDR, 20-hydroxycholecalciferol did not affect IkappaB alpha mRNA levels, indicating that it requires VDR for its action on NF-kappaB activity. Comparison of the effects of calcitrol, hormonally active form of vitamin D3, with 20-hydrocholecalciferol show that both agents have a similar potency in inhibiting NF-kappaB. Since NF-kappaB is a major transcription factor for the induction of inflammatory mediators, our findings indicate that 20-hydroxycholecalciferol may be an effective therapeutic agent for inflammatory and hyperproliferative skin diseases.

  3. Dual formulation of covariant nonlinear duality-symmetric action of kappa-symmetric D3-brane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanichchapongjaroen, Pichet

    2018-02-01

    We study the construction of covariant nonlinear duality-symmetric actions in dual formulation. Essentially, the construction is the PST-covariantisation and nonlinearisation of Zwanziger action. The covariantisation made use of three auxiliary scalar fields. Apart from these, the construction proceed in a similar way to that of the standard formulation. For example, the theories can be extended to include interactions with external fields, and that the theories possess two local PST symmetries. We then explicitly demonstrate the construction of covariant nonlinear duality-symmetric actions in dual formulation of DBI theory, and D3-brane. For each of these theories, the twisted selfduality condition obtained from duality-symmetric actions are explicitly shown to match with the duality relation between field strength and its dual from the one-potential actions. Their on-shell actions between the duality-symmetric and the one-potential versions are also shown to match. We also explicitly prove kappa-symmetry of the covariant nonlinear duality-symmetric D3-brane action in dual formulation.

  4. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK as a determinant of peri-implantitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Mia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Peri-implantitis presents inflammatory process that affects soft and hard supporting tissues of osseointegrated implant based on inflammatory osteoclastogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK concentrations in peri-implant crevicular fluid could be associated with clinical parameters that reflect inflammatory nature of peri-implantitis. Methods. The study included 67 patients, 22 with diagnosed peri-implantitis, 22 persons with healthy peri-implant tissues and 23 patients with periodontitis. Clinical parameters from each patient were recorded and samples of peri-implant/gingival crevicular fluid were collected for the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA analysis. Results. RANK concentration was significantly increased in samples from the patients with periimplantitis when compared to healthy implants (p < 0.0001, where the average levels were 9 times higher. At the same time RANK concentration was significantly higher in periimplantitis than in periodontitis sites (p < 0.0001. In implant patients pocket depths and bleeding on probing values were positively associated with high RANK concentrations (p < 0.0001. Conclusion. These results revealed association of increased RANK concentration in samples of periimplant/ gingival crevicular fluid with peri-implant inflammation and suggests that RANK could be a pathologic determinant of peri-implantitis, thereby a potential parameter in assessment of peri-implant tissue inflammation and a potential target in designing treatment strategies.

  5. RPAP3 enhances cytotoxicity of doxorubicin by impairing NF-kappa B pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Kana; Saeki, Makio; Egusa, Hiroshi; Fukuyasu, Sho; Yura, Yoshiaki; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Kamisaki, Yoshinori

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → RNA polymerase II-associated protein 3 (RPAP3) possesses an activity to bind with NEMO and to inhibit the ubiquitination of NEMO. → RPAP3 enhances doxorubicin-induced cell death in breast cancer cell line T-47D through the marked impairment of NF-κB pathway. → RPAP3 is a novel modulator of NF-κB pathway in apoptosis induced by anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agents. -- Abstract: Activation of anti-apoptotic gene transcription by NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappa B) has been reported to be linked with a resistance of cancer cells against chemotherapy. NEMO (NF-κB essential modulator) interacts with a number of proteins and modulates the activity of NF-κB pathway. In this study, we revealed that RPAP3 (RNA polymerase II-associated protein 3) possesses an activity to bind with NEMO and to inhibit the ubiquitination of NEMO and that RPAP3 enhances doxorubicin-induced cell death in breast cancer cell line T-47D through the marked impairment of NF-κB pathway. These results indicate that RPAP3 may be a novel modulator of NF-κB pathway in apoptosis induced by anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agents.

  6. Constant region of a kappa III immunoglobulin light chain as a major AL-amyloid protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvig, J P; Olsen, K E; Gislefoss, R E

    1998-01-01

    AL-amyloidoses are generally described as a group of disorders in which N-terminal fragments of monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains are transferred into amyloid fibrils. We have, by amino acid sequence analyses and immunological methods, characterized the Bence-Jones protein and the correspond......AL-amyloidoses are generally described as a group of disorders in which N-terminal fragments of monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains are transferred into amyloid fibrils. We have, by amino acid sequence analyses and immunological methods, characterized the Bence-Jones protein...... and the corresponding AL protein as a kappa III immunoglobulin light chain from material of a patient with systemic AL-amyloidosis presenting as a local inguinal tumour. The two proteins showed some unique features. The major part of the AL amyloid fibril protein consisted of C-terminal fragments of the Bence......-Jones protein. Furthermore, both the Bence-Jones protein and the AL protein were glycosylated, with possibly a glycosylation in the constant part of the light chain....

  7. Polyethylenimine/kappa carrageenan: Micro-arc oxidation coating for passivation of magnesium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshirazi, A; Kharaziha, M; Golozar, M A

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to combine micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and self-assembly technique to improve corrosion resistivity of AZ91 alloy. While a silicate-fluoride electrolyte was adopted for MAO treatment, polyethylenimine (PEI)/kappa carrageenan (KC) self-assembly coating was applied as the second coating layer. Resulted demonstrated the formation of forsterite-fluoride containing MAO coating on AZ91 alloy depending on the voltage and time of anodizing process. Addition of the second PEI/KC coating layer on MAO treated sample effectively enhanced the adhesive strength of MAO coated sample due to filling the pores with polymers and increase in the mechanical interlocking of coating to the substrate. Moreover, the corrosion evaluation considered by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy confirmed that double layered PEI/KC:MAO coating presented superior resistance to corrosion attack. It is envisioned that the proposed double layered PEI/KC:MAO coating could be useful for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Role of Genetic Variation Near Interferon-Kappa in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac T. W. Harley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by increased type I interferons (IFNs and multiorgan inflammation frequently targeting the skin. IFN-kappa is a type I IFN expressed in skin. A pooled genome-wide scan implicated the IFNK locus in SLE susceptibility. We studied IFNK single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 3982 SLE cases and 4275 controls, composed of European (EA, African-American (AA, and Asian ancestry. rs12553951C was associated with SLE in EA males (odds ratio=1.93, P=2.5×10−4, but not females. Suggestive associations with skin phenotypes in EA and AA females were found, and these were also sex-specific. IFNK SNPs were associated with increased serum type I IFN in EA and AA SLE patients. Our data suggest a sex-dependent association between IFNK SNPs and SLE and skin phenotypes. The serum IFN association suggests that IFNK variants could influence type I IFN producing plasmacytoid dendritic cells in affected skin.

  9. Inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B activation decreases survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyuan Bai

    Full Text Available Nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB is a ubiquitous transcription factor that mediates pro-inflammatory responses required for host control of many microbial pathogens; on the other hand, NFκB has been implicated in the pathogenesis of other inflammatory and infectious diseases. Mice with genetic disruption of the p50 subunit of NFκB are more likely to succumb to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB. However, the role of NFκB in host defense in humans is not fully understood. We sought to examine the role of NFκB activation in the immune response of human macrophages to MTB. Targeted pharmacologic inhibition of NFκB activation using BAY 11-7082 (BAY, an inhibitor of IκBα kinase or an adenovirus construct with a dominant-negative IκBα significantly decreased the number of viable intracellular mycobacteria recovered from THP-1 macrophages four and eight days after infection. The results with BAY were confirmed in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages and alveolar macrophages. NFκB inhibition was associated with increased macrophage apoptosis and autophagy, which are well-established killing mechanisms of intracellular MTB. Inhibition of the executioner protease caspase-3 or of the autophagic pathway significantly abrogated the effects of BAY. We conclude that NFκB inhibition decreases viability of intracellular MTB in human macrophages via induction of apoptosis and autophagy.

  10. Short communication: molecular characterization of dog and cat p65 subunits of NF-kappaB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shingo; Takemitsu, Hiroshi; Li, Gebin; Mori, Nobuko; Yamamoto, Ichiro; Arai, Toshiro

    2015-04-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) plays an important role in the immune system. The p65 subunit is an important part of NF-κB unit, and studies of dog and cat p65 subunits of NF-κB (dp65 and cp65) are important in understanding their immune function. In this study, we described the molecular characterization of dp65 and cp65. The dp65 and cp65 complementary DNA encoded 542 and 555 amino acids, respectively, showing a high sequence homology with the mammalian p65 subunit (>87.5%). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that the p65 messenger RNA is highly expressed in the dog stomach and cat heart and adipose tissue. Functional NF-κB promoter-luciferase reporter vectors revealed that our isolated dp65 and cp65 cDNA encodes a functionally active protein. Transiently expressed dp65 and cp65 up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression levels in dog and cat, respectively. These findings suggest that dp65 and cp65 play important roles in regulating immune function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The DELTA 181 lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ralph M.; Brown, Lawrence E.; Leigh, A. P.

    In 1986, the Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) undertook the development of a sensor module for the DELTA 181 spacecraft, a low earth orbit (LEO) mission of less than two months duration. A large lithium thionyl chloride battery was developed as the spacecraft's primary power source, the first known such use for this technology. The exceptionally high energy density of the lithium thionyl chloride cell was the primary driver for its use, resulting in a completed battery with a specific energy density of 120 Wh/lb. Safety requirements became the primary driver shaping all aspects of the power system design and development due to concerns about the potential hazards of this relatively new, high-energy technology. However, the program was completed without incident. The spacecraft was launched on February 8, 1988, from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) with over 60,000 Wh of battery energy. It reentered on April 2, 1988, still operating after 55 days, providing a successful, practical, and visible demonstration of the use of this technology for spacecraft applications.

  12. Chiral model for nucleon and delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birse, M.C.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1985-01-01

    We propose a model of the nucleon and delta based on the idea that strong QCD forces on length scales approx.0.2--1 fm result in hidden chiral SU(2) x SU(2) symmetry and that there is a separation of roles between these forces which are also responsible for binding quarks in hadrons and the forces which produce absolute confinement. This leads us to study a linear sigma model describing the interactions of quarks, sigma mesons, and pions. We have solved this model in the semiclassical (mean-field) approximation for the hedgehog baryon state. We refer to this solution as a chiral soliton. In the semiclassical approximation the hedgehog state is a linear combination of N and Δ. We project this state onto states of good spin and isospin to calculate matrix elements of various operators in these states. Our results are in reasonable agreement with the observed properties of the nucleon. The mesonic contributions to g/sub A/ and sigma(πN) are about two to three times too large, suggesting the need for quantum corrections

  13. Delta Morphodynamics Matters! Ecosystem Services, Poverty and Morphodynamic Change in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Mega-Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Adger, N.; Allan, A.; Darby, S. E.; Hutton, C.; Matthews, Z.; Rahman, M.; Whitehead, P. G.; Wolf, J.

    2013-12-01

    The world's deltas are probably the most vulnerable type of coastal environment, and they face multiple stresses in the coming decades. These stresses include, amongst others, local drivers due to land subsidence, population growth and urbanisation within the deltas, regional drivers due to changes in catchment management (e.g. upstream land use and dam construction), as well as global climate change impacts such as sea-level rise. At the same time, the ecosystem services of river deltas support high population densities, with around 14% of the global population inhabiting deltas. A large proportion of these people experience extremes of poverty and they are therefore severely exposed to vulnerability from environmental and ecological stress and degradation. In areas close to or below the poverty boundary, both subsistence and cash elements of the economy tend to rely disproportionately heavily on ecosystem services which underpin livelihoods. Therefore, to sustainably manage delta environments they must be viewed as complex social-environmental systems where change is only partially driven by physical drivers such as sea level rise and climate change, and human-induced development activities are also critical. Here we outline a new conceptual framework for the development of methods to understand and characterise the key drivers of change in ecosystem services that affect the environment and economic status of populous deltas, focusing specifically on the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) mega-delta. The GBM delta is characterised by densely populated coastal lowlands with significant poverty, with livelihoods supported to a large extent by natural ecosystems such as the Sunderbahns (the largest mangrove forest in the world). However, the GBM delta is under severe development pressure due to many growing cities. At present the importance of ecosystems services to poverty and livelihoods is poorly understood. This is due to due to the complexity of interactions

  14. Essential spectrum of Schrödinger operators with delta-interactions on the union of compact Lipschitz hypersurfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Behrndt, J.; Exner, Pavel; Lotoreichik, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2013), s. 523-524 ISSN 1617-7061. [84th Annual Meeting of the International Association of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics (GAMM). 18.3.2013-22.3.2013, Novi Sad ] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB13AT010 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Schrodinger operators * delta interactioan Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics

  15. Static and Dynamic Flow Visualization Studies of Two Double-Delta Wing Models at High Angles of Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    body, ft U.= free-stream velocity, ft/sec In the case of a wing pitching about its mid-chord location, it can be interpreted as the ratio of the...Over Moderately Swept Delta Wings," HTP -5 Workshop On Vortical Flow Breakdown and Structural Interactions, NASA Langley Research Center, August 15-16...January 6- 9,1992/Reno,Nevada. 18. User’s Manual , Flow Visualization Water Tunnel Operation for Model 1520, Eidelic International, Inc., Torrance

  16. Human induced discharge diversion in a tropical delta and its environmental implications: The Patía River, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Juan D.; Kettner, Albert

    2012-03-01

    SummaryThe Patía River, the number one in terms of sediment yield ˜1500 t km-2 yr-1 draining the western South America, has the most extensive and well developed delta on the Pacific coast, measuring 1700 km2. During the Holocene, nature forced the Patía delta to the south; however, a major water diversion, starting in 1972, diverted the Patía flow to the Sanguianga River, the latter, a small stream draining internal lakes from the Pacific lowlands. This human induced discharge diversion shifted the active delta plain back to the north and changed the northern estuarine system into an active delta plain. Overall, major environmental consequences of this discharge diversion in terms of morphological changes along the delta coast and distributary channels, are evidenced by: (1) coastal retreat along the abandoned delta lobe; 63% of the southern shoreline is retreating at maximum rates of 7 m yr-1, with a corresponding coastal land loss of 106 m yr-1; (2) transgressive barrier islands with exposed peat soils in the surf zone; (3) abandonment of former active distributaries in the southern delta plain with associated closing of inlets and formation of ebb tidal deltas; (4) breaching events on barrier islands; and (5) distributary channel accretion in the northern delta plain by morphological processes such as sedimentation (also in crevasses), overbank flow, increasing width of levees, interdistributary channel fill, and colonization of pioneer mangrove. The Sanguianga Mangrove National Park (SMNP), the largest mangrove reserve in Colombia, measuring 800 km2, lies in this former estuary, where major hydrologic and sedimentation changes are occurring. Observed environmental changes in the SMNP, include (1) seaward advance of the sub-aqueous delta front at the Sanquianga inlet evidenced by an increase in tidal flat area from 5.4 Mm2 in 1986 to 14 Mm2 in 2001; (2) freshening conditions in the Sanguianga distributary channel, a hydrologic change that has shifted the

  17. The situation in the Niger Delta; La situation dans le delta du Niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitalis, E

    2007-07-15

    An energy issue for the United States and a political challenge for Europe, Nigeria is experiencing growing instability and is on the verge of civil war; the ecosystem and the population of the Niger Delta are the main victims. The State, corrupt, is powerless to contain the rising violence and redistribute the proceeds of oil sales. It is high time for oil-consuming countries, starting with the United States, to concern themselves with stabilizing the region. Europe must contribute to the lasting development of this country. (author)

  18. The Niger Delta Avengers, Autonomous Ethnic Clans and Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    therefore investigated the sudden emergence of Niger Delta Avengers ... hardship, deprivations and environmental degradation occasioned by oil pipeline .... analysis of coded materials of the library such as books, magazines, journals,.

  19. Rarotonga Radiocarbon (delta 14C) for 1950 to 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rarotonga coral radiocarbon (14C) timeseries. Coral radiocarbon (Delta-14C) on untreated, low-speed drilled samples. Precision is +/- 4 per mil as documented by an...

  20. Novel urinary metabolite of d-delta-tocopherol in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiku, S.; Hamamura, K.; Nakamura, T.

    1984-01-01

    A novel metabolite of d-delta-tocopherol was isolated from the urine of rats given d-3,4-[ 3 H 2 ]-delta-tocopherol intravenously. The metabolite was collected from the urine of rats given d-delta-tocopherol in the same manner as that of the labeled compound. It was found that the metabolites consisted of sulfate conjugates. The portion of the major metabolite released with sulfatase was determined to be 2,8-dimethyl-2-(2'-carboxyethyl)-6-chromanol by infrared spectra, nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and mass spectra. The proposed structure was confirmed by comparing the analytical results with those of a synthetically derived compound. As a result of the structural elucidation of this novel metabolite, a pathway for the biological transformation of delta-tocopherol is proposed which is different from that of alpha-tocopherol. A characteristic feature of the pathway is the absence of any opening of the chroman ring throughout the sequence

  1. Environmental Law and Underdevelopment in the Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Law and Underdevelopment in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. ... is composed of many ecosystems of great economic and social importance, ... producing companies contribute to the degradation of the environment which in ...

  2. Delta-ray spectroscopy of quasi-atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozhuharov, C.

    1983-01-01

    The spectroscopy of high energy delta-rays, emitted in collisions of very heavy ions, is studied. The ''orange''-type beta-spectrometer and the achromatic electron channel are the experimental setups. Delta ray production probabilities are studied as a function of the distance of closest approach R /SUB min/ or the impact parameter b. Coulomb ionization, ion trajectory, scaling laws, double differential cross sections, and K-X-rays information is extracted from the experiment. The dependence of delta-ray emission on the united charge number Z /SUB u/ is discussed. Asymmetric collision systems with Z x alpha approx. = 1 (delta ray spectrum from Pb→Sn collisions) are studied. Finally, very heavy collisions, such as 208 Pb + 208 Pb collisions at bombarding energy fas below the Coulomb barrier are touched upon

  3. precise delta extraction scheme for reprogramming of wireless

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords- reprogramming; operating system, wireless sensor network, Delta. 1. INTRODUCTION ... It entails the transmission of only modified modules that are then ... higher power consumption and slow system execution are drawbacks ...

  4. Pattern of Complicated Unsafe Abortions in Niger Delta University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    of cases of complicated unsafe abortion managed at the. Niger Delta University ... previous termination of pregnancy and 87.3% of the patients had ... and outcome were obtained. ... life-threatening complications, post- abortion family planning.

  5. DEltas, vulnerability and Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Hutton C.W.

    Stakeholder Dialogue, London, June 19th, 2014. DEltas, vulnerability and Climate. Change: Migration and Adaptation. (DECCMA). Stakeholder Dialogue. Radisson Blu Edwardian Grafton Hotel, London, UK. June 19th, 2014 ...

  6. Ecohealth Approach to Flood Recession Farming in Okavango Delta ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In the Okavango Delta, Botswana, flood-recession farming (molapu) is a lucrative but ... Moreover, some practices involved in molapu farming may pose a threat to the ... Linking research to urban planning at the ICLEI World Congress 2018.

  7. What are Pregnant Women in a Rural Niger Delta Community's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Buchanan House, Glasgow Caledonian University Email: Caroline. ... exploratory qualitative study was carried out to identify pregnant women in a rural Niger Delta community's perceptions of ..... sometimes you stay for the whole day.

  8. Inventory Management in Delta Allied Wire Industries Limited Asaba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A good inventory system reduces production cost and consequently increases profit. Optimum management of inventory in the Delta – Allied Wire Industries ... under review and customers' handling processes equally studied for improvement.

  9. Nucleon and delta masses in twisted mass chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker-Loud, Andre; Wu, Jackson M.S.

    2005-01-01

    We calculate the masses of the nucleons and deltas in twisted mass heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. We work to quadratic order in a power counting scheme in which we treat the lattice spacing, a, and the quark masses, m q , to be of the same order. We give expressions for the mass and the mass splitting of the nucleons and deltas both in and away from the isospin limit. We give an argument using the chiral Lagrangian treatment that, in the strong isospin limit, the nucleons remain degenerate and the delta multiplet breaks into two degenerate pairs to all orders in chiral perturbation theory. We show that the mass splitting between the degenerate pairs of the deltas first appears at quadratic order in the lattice spacing. We discuss the subtleties in the effective chiral theory that arise from the inclusion of isospin breaking

  10. Restoration of Delta Streams: A Case History and Conceptual Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Killgore, K. J; Hoover, Jan J; Murphy, Catherine E; Parrish, Kent D; Johnson, David R; Myers, Karen F

    2008-01-01

    .... Low water, excessive sedimentation in smaller delta streams, and the accumulation of pesticides such as DDT are the consequences of these anthropogenic disturbances resulting in dominance of tolerant fish species...

  11. LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California from the California Department of Water Resources. Bare earth grids from LiDAR.This data is in ESRI Grid format with 2...

  12. Environmental Risk Profiling of the Volta Delta, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, B. K.; Appeaning-Addo, K.; Amisigo, B.

    2017-12-01

    Volta Delta communities find it difficult to absorb or bear risk at different levels, because of the physical and economic impacts of environmental hazards. In this regards various agencies and organizations have in recent years launched initiatives to measure and identify risk areas with a set of indicators and indices. The theory underpinning this study is concepts of Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT). The Cox proportional hazards regression model will be used as the model for the risk profile. Finding the optimal level of environmental risk for activities in the Volta Delta considering the risk required, risk capacity and risk tolerance. Using data from different sources, an environmental risk profile was developed for the Volta Delta. The result indicates that risks are distributed across the Delta. However, areas that have government interventions, such as sea defense system and irrigation facilities have less threat. In addition wealthy areas do effectively reduce the threat of any form of disaster.

  13. Sedimentation patterns in floodplains of the Mekong Delta - Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Manh, Nguyen; Merz, Bruno; Viet Dung, Nguyen; Apel, Heiko

    2013-04-01

    Quantification of floodplain sedimentation during the flood season in the Mekong Delta (MD) plays a very important role in the assessment of flood deposits for a sustainable agro-economic development. Recent studies on floodplain sedimentation in the region are restricted to small pilot sites because of the large extend of the Delta, and the complex channel. This research aims at a quantification of the sediment deposition in floodplains of the whole Mekong Delta, and to access the impacts of the upstream basin development on the sedimentation in the Delta quantitatively. To achieve this, a suspended sediment transport model is developed based on the quasi-2D hydrodynamic model of the whole Mekong Delta developed by Dung et al. (2011). The model is calibrated and validated using observed data derived from several sediment measurement campaigns in channel networks and floodplains. Measured sediment data and hydrodynamic model quantify the spatio-temporal variability of sediment depositions in different spatial units: individual dyke compartments, and the sub-regions Plain of Reeds, Long Xuyen Quadrangle and the area between Tien River and Hau River. It is shown that the distribution of sediment deposition over the delta is highly depended on the flood magnitude, that in turn drives the operation policy of flood control systems in floodplains of the Mekong Delta. Thus, the sedimentation distribution is influenced by the protection level of the dyke systems in place and the distance to the Tien River and Hau River, the main branches of the Mekong in the Delta. This corroborates the main findings derived from data analysis obtained from a small scale test site by Hung et al, (2011, 2012a). Moreover, the results obtained here underlines the importance of the main channels for the sediment transport into the floodplains, and the deposition rate in floodplains is strongly driven by the intake locations and the distance from these to the main channels as well.

  14. Studies of Louisiana's Deltas and Wetlands using SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable coastal environments exist in delicate balance between subsidence, erosion, and sea level rise on one hand and accretion of sediment and retention of decomposing organic matter on the other. In this talk we present results from a series of studies using an airborne L-band SAR (UAVSAR) to measure changing conditions in the Mississippi River Delta and coastal wetlands of Louisiana. Change within the Mississippi River delta (MRD), which is a highly engineered environment, is contrasted to those in the Wax Lake Delta, a small, naturally evolving delta located to the west of the current-day lobe of the MRD. The UAVSAR studies provide evidence that in the MRD subsidence and erosion related to human activities are increasing risk of flooding, submergence, and land loss. These are not seen in the Wax Lake Delta, where new land is forming. We evaluate geomorphic and hydrologic changes In the Wax Lake Delta and wetlands hydrologically connected to the Wax Lake Outlet canal that are apparent on the timescales of the UAVSAR data set, which consists of both near-yearly acquisitions (2009-2016) and several series of repeat acquisitions in 2015 and 2016 capturing conditions across a tidal cycle. Using the yearly data, we observe the evolution of subaqueous channels and crevasses in the delta and changes in distributary channels within the wetlands. We use water level change derived from InSAR applied to the rapid repeat data acquired during different stages of a tidal cycle to study the natural pattern of water flux within the delta and the coastal wetlands. The studies, results, and plans for future work will be presented. This work was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contracts with the California Dept. of Water Resources and with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  15. International Trade. International Business

    OpenAIRE

    Мохнюк, А. М.; Mokhniuk, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Work programme of the study course “International Trade. International Business” was prepared in accordance with educational and vocational training program for bachelors of training direction 6.030601 “Management”.

  16. Governance of ‘long term delta planning’ in Bangladesh, Vietnam and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staveren, van M.F.

    2014-01-01

    The Deltas in Times of Climate Change Conference II, taking place in September 2014, Rotterdam, presented a suitable occasion to discuss both delta challenges and interesting approaches to how ‘delta dynamics’ are being dealt with worldwide.1 Delta dynamics include here both environmental (including

  17. Challenges and Approaches in River Delta Planning - Annexes to report on training workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wosten, J.H.M.; Douven, W.; Long Phi, H.; Fida Abdullah Khan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Programme, participants and all powerpoint presentations of the Delta Alliance Training Workshop: Challenges and approaches in river delta planning, sharing experiences from SE Asian Deltas and the Rhine-Meuse Delta. 22-26 October 2012, WACC, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

  18. Natural levee evolution in the Rhine-Meuse delta, the Netherlands, during the first millennium CE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, H.J.; Stouthamer, E.; Cohen, K.M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents reconstructions on natural levee development in the Rhine-Meuse delta, the Netherlands, during the first millennium CE, covering the full delta plain. It is the first study that performs this on a delta scale, which allows seeing the delta-wide trends on levee-forming controls

  19. How Important Are Rats As Vectors of Leptospirosis in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loan, Hoang Kim; Van Cuong, Nguyen; Takhampunya, Ratree; Kiet, Bach Tuan; Campbell, James; Them, Lac Ngoc; Bryant, Juliet E.; Tippayachai, Bousaraporn; Van Hoang, Nguyen; Morand, Serge; Hien, Vo Be

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Leptospirosis is a zoonosis known to be endemic in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, even though clinical reports are uncommon. We investigated leptospira infection in rats purchased in food markets during the rainy season (October) (n=150), as well as those trapped during the dry season (February–March) (n=125) in the region using RT-PCR for the lipL32 gene, confirmed by 16S rRNA, as well as by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Results were compared with the serovar distribution of human cases referred from Ho Chi Minh City hospitals (2004–2012) confirmed by MAT (n=45). The MAT seroprevalence among rats was 18.3%. The highest MAT seroprevalence corresponded, in decreasing order, to: Rattus norvegicus (33.0%), Bandicota indica (26.5%), Rattus tanezumi (24.6%), Rattus exulans (14.3%), and Rattus argentiventer (7.1%). The most prevalent serovars were, in descending order: Javanica (4.6% rats), Lousiana (4.2%), Copenageni (4.2%), Cynopterie (3.7%), Pomona (2.9%), and Icterohaemorrhagiae (2.5%). A total of 16 rats (5.8%) tested positive by RT-PCR. Overall, larger rats tended to have a higher prevalence of detection. There was considerable agreement between MAT and PCR (kappa=0.28 [0.07–0.49]), although significantly more rats were positive by MAT (McNemar 29.9 (pgeographically linked co-sampling of humans and animals to establish the main sources of leptospirosis in the region. PMID:25629781

  20. Outbreaks of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) in the Yangtze River Delta: immigration or local reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Gao; Lu, Fang; Zhai, Bao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hong; Liu, Wan-Cai; Zhu, Feng; Wu, Xiang-Wen; Chen, Gui-Hua; Zhang, Xiao-Xi

    2014-01-01

    An effective control strategy for migratory pests is difficult to implement because the cause of infestation (i.e., immigration or local reproduction) is often not established. In particular, the outbreak mechanisms of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), an insect causing massive losses in rice fields in the Yangtze River Delta in China, are frequently unclear. Field surveys of N. lugens were performed in Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces in 2008 to 2010 and related historical data from 2003 onwards were collected and analyzed to clarify the cause of these infestations. Results showed that outbreaks of N. lugens in the Yangtze River Delta were mostly associated with an extremely high increase in population. Thus, reproduction rather than immigration from distant sources were the cause of the infestations. Although mass migration occurred late in the season (late August and early September), the source areas of N. lugens catches in the Yangtze River Delta were mainly located in nearby areas, including the Yangtze River Delta itself, Anhui and northern Jiangxi Provinces. These regions collectively form the lower-middle reaches of the Yangtze River, and the late migration can thus be considered as an internal bioflow within one population.

  1. Outbreaks of the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) in the Yangtze River Delta: Immigration or Local Reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Bao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hong; Liu, Wan-Cai; Zhu, Feng; Wu, Xiang-Wen; Chen, Gui-Hua; Zhang, Xiao-Xi

    2014-01-01

    An effective control strategy for migratory pests is difficult to implement because the cause of infestation (i.e., immigration or local reproduction) is often not established. In particular, the outbreak mechanisms of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), an insect causing massive losses in rice fields in the Yangtze River Delta in China, are frequently unclear. Field surveys of N. lugens were performed in Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces in 2008 to 2010 and related historical data from 2003 onwards were collected and analyzed to clarify the cause of these infestations. Results showed that outbreaks of N. lugens in the Yangtze River Delta were mostly associated with an extremely high increase in population. Thus, reproduction rather than immigration from distant sources were the cause of the infestations. Although mass migration occurred late in the season (late August and early September), the source areas of N. lugens catches in the Yangtze River Delta were mainly located in nearby areas, including the Yangtze River Delta itself, Anhui and northern Jiangxi Provinces. These regions collectively form the lower-middle reaches of the Yangtze River, and the late migration can thus be considered as an internal bioflow within one population. PMID:24558459

  2. An integrated assessment framework for land subsidence in delta cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. M. Bucx

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In many delta cities land subsidence exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten by excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without change, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other delta (and coastal cities will sink below sea level. Increased flooding and also other widespread impacts of land subsidence result already in damage of billions of dollars per year. In order to gain insight in the complex, multi-sectoral aspects of subsidence, to raise awareness and to support decision making on appropriate adaptation strategies and measures, an Integrated Assessment Framework (IAF for subsidence is introduced, illustrated by several (delta case studies. Based on that a list of 10 generic key issues and possible solutions is presented in order to further develop and support a (generic approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas. For exchange of experiences and knowledge development.on subsidence in deltas the Delta Alliance, a knowledge network of deltas worldwide, can be supportive.

  3. Sand transport, shear stress, and the building of a delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, W.; Miller, K. L.; Hiatt, M. R.; Mohrig, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    River deltas distribute sediment to the coastal sea through a complex branching network of channels; however, the routing and storage of this sediment in and through the delta is poorly understood. We present results from field studies of the sediment and water transport through the branching Wax Lake Delta on the coast of Louisiana. Two channels studied, Main Pass and East Pass, maintain a near-equal total partitioning of flow and sediment. However, East Pass is narrower and has higher river velocities, lower tidal velocity fluctuations, less alluvial bed cover, and more sediment flux per unit width than Main Pass. We connect these differences to small differences in the geometry of the two channels and feedbacks between these differences. We link trends in measured sediment deposits to both measured and modeled shear velocities in Wax Lake Delta's channels and open water `islands' to understand how hydrologic processes shaped the sedimentary architecture of the delta. These connections define the sediment transport and deposition regimes in the WLD. We extend the results herein to suggest that the relationships between the available sediment and shear stress determines the basic planform of the Wax Lake Delta and cross-sectional geometries of its channels.

  4. The State of Bay–Delta Science 2016: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Healey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss2art5The State of Bay–Delta Science 2016 (SBDS is a collection of papers that summarizes the scientific understanding of the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, emphasizing progress made during the past decade.It builds on the first SBDS edition (Healey et al. 2008. Paper topics for this edition address the most relevant scientific issues in the Delta identified by senior scientists and managers. The topical papers cover issues ranging from contaminants in the Delta to levee stability, and from Delta food webs to recent discoveries about salmon migration. These papers are written for a scientific audience. Two additional papers, one describing the challenges of managing water and ecosystems in the Delta and another that discusses policy implications of the recent scientific findings, are written for a general audience. The papers will be published in at least two issues of San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science and will be available as a set electronically.

  5. Metallicism and pulsation: an analysis of the delta Delphini stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    Fine abundance analyses of seven delta Delphini stars and one delta Scuti star relative to four comparison standards are presented. Five of the delta Del stars are shown to have abundances most similar to the evolved Am stars. It is argued that these abundances are different from the classical Am star and Ap star abundances and that similarities to the Ba II star abundances are coincidental. We suggest that the anomalous abundance delta Del stars are evolved metallic line stars on the basis of their abundances, position in the β, M/sub v/ plane, inferred rotational velocities, and perhaps their binary incidence. Some of the delta Del stars are delta Scuti pulsators. We argue that pulsation and metallicism are mutually exclusive among the classical Am stars but may coexist in other stars related to the classical Am stars. A preference for the diffusion hypothesis model for the metallic line stars is stated and supported and the implications of the coexistence of pulsation and diffusion are discussed

  6. The Problems with the Kappa Statistic as a Metric of Interobserver Agreement on Lesion Detection Using a Third-reader Approach When Locations Are Not Prespecified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Joanna H; Greer, Matthew D; Turkbey, Baris

    2018-03-16

    To point out the problems with Cohen kappa statistic and to explore alternative metrics to determine interobserver agreement on lesion detection when locations are not prespecified. Use of kappa and two alternative methods, namely index of specific agreement (ISA) and modified kappa, for measuring interobserver agreement on the location of detected lesions are presented. These indices of agreement are illustrated by application to a retrospective multireader study in which nine readers detected and scored prostate cancer lesions in 163 consecutive patients (n = 110 cases, n = 53 controls) using the guideline of Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging. The proposed modified kappa, which properly corrects for the amount of agreement by chance, is shown to be approximately equivalent to the ISA. In the prostate cancer data, average kappa, modified kappa, and ISA equaled 30%, 55%, and 57%, respectively, for all lesions and 20%, 87%, and 87%, respectively, for index lesions. The application of kappa could result in a substantial downward bias in reader agreement on lesion detection when locations are not prespecified. ISA is recommended for assessment of reader agreement on lesion detection. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Nigeria National Petroleum Reserves Asset: Looking Beyond the Niger Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaje, P. N.

    2002-01-01

    Nigeria's current national petroleum reserves asset (proven) put at 28 billion barrels of oil and 150 trillion standard cubic feet of gas derives mainly from the Niger Delta onshore and offshore.However, there are opportunities to tremendously add to this asset from the inland basins. These inland basins have continued to frustrate the efforts of many explorers, principally because of their virginity and far distance from existing infrastructure, and for these reasons, many international companies have turned their focus away from frontier onshore to frontier deep-water and ultra deep-water offshore.Petroleum exploration, particularly in the Sudan and Chad Republics has shown that commercial success can be achieved in our own sector, even if it may take some time to put all the elements together. Some pointers have been found from the successes in the other rifted inland basins and the strategies adopted there have been examined in this paper. Congnizance has also been taken of the relative success of Shell's Kolmani River-1 well (33 billion cubit feet of gas) in the Gongola Basin. The paper went ahead to highlight potential petroleum systems in the different sectors of Nigeria's inland basins.Recommendations have also been put forward, which include amongst others (i) the introduction of a JV arrangement that allows State Governments on the inland basins to participate in the exploration for hydrocarbons in their domains (ii) tie future allocation of offshore blocks to acquisition of at least a block in any of the inland basins (iii) initiate a programme of deep drilling and coring of at least one research well to penetrate the entire sedimentary rock successions in each of the inland basins to facilitate a better understanding of their petroleum geology and benefit future exploration campaigns; to be funded and supervised by the Petroleum Technology Development Fund (PTDF)

  8. How yield relates to ash content, Delta 13C and Delta 18O in maize grown under different water regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Bosquet, Llorenç; Sánchez, Ciro; Araus, José Luis

    2009-11-01

    Stable isotopes have proved a valuable phenotyping tool when breeding for yield potential and drought adaptation; however, the cost and technical skills involved in isotope analysis limit its large-scale application in breeding programmes. This is particularly so for Delta(18)O despite the potential relevance of this trait in C(4) crops. The accumulation of minerals (measured as ash content) has been proposed as an inexpensive way to evaluate drought adaptation and yield in C(3) cereals, but little is known of the usefulness of this measure in C(4) cereals such as maize (Zea mays). The present study investigates how yield relates to ash content, Delta(13)C and Delta(18)O, and evaluates the use of ash content as an alternative or complementary criterion to stable isotopes in assessing yield potential and drought resistance in maize. A set of tropical maize hybrids developed by CIMMYT were subjected to different water availabilities, in order to induce water stress during the reproductive stages under field conditions. Ash content and Delta(13)C were determined in leaves and kernels. In addition, Delta(18)O was measured in kernels. Water regime significantly affected yield, ash content and stable isotopes. The results revealed a close relationship between ash content in leaves and the traits informing about plant water status. Ash content in kernels appeared to reflect differences in sink-source balance. Genotypic variation in grain yield was mainly explained by the combination of ash content and Delta(18)O, whilst Delta(13)C did not explain a significant percentage of such variation. Ash content in leaves and kernels proved a useful alternative or complementary criterion to Delta(18)O in kernels for assessing yield performance in maize grown under drought conditions.

  9. Population dynamics, delta vulnerability and environmental change: comparison of the Mekong, Ganges–Brahmaputra and Amazon delta regions

    OpenAIRE

    Szabo, S.; Brondizio, E.; Renaud, F.G.; Hetrick, S.; Nicholls, R.; Matthews, Z.; Tessler, Z; Tejedor, A; Sebesvari, Z; Foufoula-Georgiou, E; da Costa, S; Dearing, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical delta regions are at risk of multiple threats including relative sea level rise and human alterations, making them more and more vulnerable to extreme floods, storms, surges, salinity intrusion, and other hazards which could also increase in magnitude and frequency with a changing climate. Given the environmental vulnerability of tropical deltas, understanding the interlinkages between population dynamics and environmental change in these regions is crucial for ensuring efficient pol...

  10. Collective violence and attitudes of women toward intimate partner violence: Evidence from the Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antai Diddy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Niger Delta region of Nigeria has been undergoing collective violence for over 25 years, which has constituted a major public health problem. The objectives of this study were to investigate the predictors of women's attitudes toward intimate partner violence in the Niger Delta in comparison to that of women in other parts of Nigeria. Methods The 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey was used for this study. Respondents were selected using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling procedure through which 3725 women were selected and interviewed. These women contributed 6029 live born children born to the survey. Internal consistency of the measure of the women's attitudes towards intimate partner violence against a woman was assessed using Cronbach's alpha (α. Percentage distributions of the relevant characteristics of the respondents were carried out, and multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to measure the magnitude and direction of the relationship between the outcome and predictor variables were expressed as odds ratios (OR and statistical significance was determined at the 95 percent confident interval level (CI. Results Tolerance for intimate partner violence among the women in the Niger delta (47 percent was higher than that of women from the rest of the country (42 percent. Rural residence, lower household wealth, lower status occupations, and media access (newspaper and radio were associated with lower risk of justifying IPV among the women in the Niger Delta. In contrast full or partial autonomy in household decisions regarding food to be cooked, and access to television were associated with a lower risk of justifying violence. Conclusion The increased justification of intimate partner violence among the women in the Niger Delta could be explained by a combination of factors, among which are cognitive dissonance theory (attitudes that do not fit with other opinions they hold as a means of

  11. NF-kappaB specifically activates BMP-2 gene expression in growth plate chondrocytes in vivo and in a chondrocyte cell line in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jian Q; Xing, Lianping; Zhang, Jiang-Hong; Zhao, Ming; Horn, Diane; Chan, Jeannie; Boyce, Brendan F; Harris, Stephen E; Mundy, Gregory R; Chen, Di

    2003-08-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) regulates growth plate chondrogenesis during development and postnatal bone growth, but the control mechanisms of BMP-2 expression in growth plate chondrocytes are unknown. Here we have used both in vitro and in vivo approaches to demonstrate that transcription factor, NF-kappaB, regulates BMP-2 gene expression in chondrocytes. Two putative NF-kappaB response elements were found in the -2712/+165 region of the BMP-2 gene. Cotransfection of mutant I-kappaBalpha expression plasmids with BMP-2 promoter-luciferase reporters into TMC-23 chondrocyte cell line suppressed BMP-2 transcription. Mutations in NF-kappaB response elements in the BMP-2 gene lead to decreases in BMP-2 promoter activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay using nuclear extracts from TMC-23 chondrocytic cells revealed that the NF-kappaB subunits p50 and p65 bound to the NF-kappaB response elements of the BMP-2 gene. Thus, NF-kappaB may positively regulate BMP-2 gene transcription. Consistent with these findings, expression of BMP-2 mRNA was significantly reduced in growth plate chondrocytes in NF-kappaB p50/p52 dKO mice, which associated with decreased numbers of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdUrd)-positive cells in the proliferating zone of growth plate in these mice. Therefore, in postnatal growth plate chondrocytes, expression of BMP-2 is regulated by NF-kappaB, which may play an important role in chondrogenesis.

  12. Experimental study on the effects of recombinant adenoviral-mediated mI{kappa}B{alpha} gene combined with irradiation on the treatment of hepatocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kejun, Zhang; Dechun, Li; Dongming, Zhu [The First Affiliated Hospital to Suzhou Univ., Suzhou (China); Caixia, Song

    2007-10-15

    Objective: To explore the effect of recombinant adenovirus vector mediated mutant I{kappa}B{alpha} (mI{kappa}B{alpha}) combined with radiation on the hepatocarcinoma. Methods: Limited dilution method was used to test the virus titer in 293 cells. The HCC9204 cells were infected with MOI 10,20,30 and 50 for 48 h, respectively. The expression of p65 and mI{kappa}B{alpha} protein was analyzed by Western blot. Transfected HCC9204 cells and controls were treated with 4 Gy {gamma} rays. The inhibition rate of HCC9204 cells was examined by MTT. Rat models of HCC9204 was constructed. AdmI{kappa}B{alpha} plasmids were injected into tumor tissue and the tumors were administered with 6 Gy {gamma} irradiation 48 hours later. Tumor growth at different time points was recorded during 28 days. Results: The titer of AdmI{kappa}B{alpha} is 1.252 x 10{sup 9} pfu/ml. The expression of mI{kappa}B{alpha} protein was increased with titer of AdmI{kappa}B{alpha}, and p65 protein began to decrease when MOI was 10, and reached the lowest when MOI was 50, they were all dose-dependent. The proliferation of HCC9204 cell lines were suppressed, as was more significant combined with radiation, and the effect was in a viral dose-dependent manner. From days 7 to 28 after AdmI{kappa}B{alpha} gene and radiotherapy, the tumor growth was significantly slower than after irradiation or gene therapy alone. Conclusions: Recombinant adenoviral-mediated mI{kappa}B{alpha} gene, combined with irradiation, can increase the cell-killing effect. It is better than that of either one alone. (authors)

  13. Combined estimation of kappa and shear-wave velocity profile of the Japanese rock reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi, Valerio; Edwards, Benjamin; Fäh, Donat

    2013-04-01

    the retrieval of the shape of the velocity profile that is characterized by no relative amplification within the network. Subsequently, the contribution of intrinsic attenuation is analyzed, disaggregated from the anelastic function by using the frequency independent (and site-dependent) attenuation operator kappa (κ). By comparing the dependency of κ with the quarter-wavelength velocity at selected sites, a frequency-dependent predictive equation is established to model the attenuation characteristics of an arbitrary rock or stiff-soil velocity model, such as the reference model obtained in the first step. The result of this application can be used to model the site-dependent attenuation for any rock and stiff-soil site for which an estimation of the velocity profile or its corresponding quarter-wavelength velocity representation is available. As an additional output of the present study, we also propose a simplified method to estimate kappa from the average velocity estimates over the first 30m (Vs30). We provide an example of such predictions for a range of Vs30 velocities up to 2000m/s.

  14. Mean proloculus size, delta super(13) C and delta super(18) O variations in recent benthic foraminifera from the west coast of India and their climatic implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Sarkar, A.

    The interrelationship between mean proloculus size (MPS), delta super(18) O and delta super(13) C vatiations in benthic foraminiferal species Rotalidium annectens and their relation with temperature (T) and salinity (S) have been studied in samples...

  15. Curcumin Based Drug Screening for Inhibitors of NF kappa B in a Cell Model of Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    identify new and structurally diverse chemical analogs of the polyphenolic phytochemical Curcumin from the Indian herb Curcuma longa (family...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-07-1-0081 TITLE: Curcumin Based Drug Screening for... Curcumin Based Drug Screening for Inhibitors of NF kappa B in a Cell Model of Prostate Cancer Progression 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-07-1-0081 5c

  16. Kappa and other nonequilibrium distributions from the Fokker-Planck equation and the relationship to Tsallis entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizgal, Bernie D.

    2018-05-01

    This paper considers two nonequilibrium model systems described by linear Fokker-Planck equations for the time-dependent velocity distribution functions that yield steady state Kappa distributions for specific system parameters. The first system describes the time evolution of a charged test particle in a constant temperature heat bath of a second charged particle. The time dependence of the distribution function of the test particle is given by a Fokker-Planck equation with drift and diffusion coefficients for Coulomb collisions as well as a diffusion coefficient for wave-particle interactions. A second system involves the Fokker-Planck equation for electrons dilutely dispersed in a constant temperature heat bath of atoms or ions and subject to an external time-independent uniform electric field. The momentum transfer cross section for collisions between the two components is assumed to be a power law in reduced speed. The time-dependent Fokker-Planck equations for both model systems are solved with a numerical finite difference method and the approach to equilibrium is rationalized with the Kullback-Leibler relative entropy. For particular choices of the system parameters for both models, the steady distribution is found to be a Kappa distribution. Kappa distributions were introduced as an empirical fitting function that well describe the nonequilibrium features of the distribution functions of electrons and ions in space science as measured by satellite instruments. The calculation of the Kappa distribution from the Fokker-Planck equations provides a direct physically based dynamical approach in contrast to the nonextensive entropy formalism by Tsallis [J. Stat. Phys. 53, 479 (1988), 10.1007/BF01016429].

  17. Measurement of Michel Parameters ($\\bar\\eta$, $\\xi\\kappa$) in the radiative leptonic decay of tau at Belle

    CERN Document Server

    Abdesselam, A.

    2017-06-22

    We present the first measurement of the Michel parameters $\\bar{\\eta}$ and $\\xi\\kappa$ in the radiative leptonic decay of the $\\tau$ lepton using 703 f$\\mathrm{b}^{-1}$ of data collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB $e^+e^-$ collider. The Michel parameters are measured by an unbinned maximum likelihood fit to the kinematic information of $e^+e^-\\rightarrow\\tau^+\\tau^-\\rightarrow (\\pi^+\\pi^0 \\bar{\

  18. Biopolymer electrolytes based on blend of kappa-carrageenan and cellulose derivatives for potential application in dye sensitized solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudhziah, S.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, I.; Mohamed, N.S.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan was used as the principle host for developing new biopolymer electrolytes based on the blend of carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan/carboxymethyl cellulose. The blending of carboxymethyl cellulose into carboxymethyl kappa-carragenan was found to be a promising strategy to improve the material properties such as conductive properties. The electrolyte samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, ionic transference number measurement and linear sweep voltammetry in order to investigate their structural, thermal and electrochemical properties. Impedance study showed that the ionic conductivity increased with the increment of ammonium iodide concentration. The highest room temperature ionic conductivity achieved was 2.41 × 10 −3 S cm −1 at 30 wt% of the salt. The increment of conductivity was due to the increase of formation of transient cross-linking between the carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan/carboxymethyl cellulose chains and the doping salt as indicated the T g trend. The conductivity was also attributed by the increase in the number of charge carriers in the biopolymer electrolytes system. The interactions between polymers and salt were confirmed by FTIR study. The transference number measurements showed that the conductivity was predominantly ionic. Temperature dependent conductivity study showed that conductivity increased with the reciprocal of temperature. The conductivity-temperature plots suggested that the conductivity obeyed the Vogel–Tammann–Fulcher relation and the activation energy for the best conducting sample was 0.010 eV. This system was used for the fabrication of dye sensitized solar cells, FTO/TiO 2 -dye/CMKC/CMCE-NH 4 I + I 2 /Pt. The fabricated cell showed response under light intensity of 100 mW cm −2 with efficiency of 0.13% indicating that the blend biopolymer

  19. Regional differences in mu and kappa opioid receptor G-protein activation in brain in male and female prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T J; Sexton, T; Kim, S A; Severino, A L; Peters, C M; Young, L J; Childers, S R

    2015-12-17

    Prairie voles are unusual mammals in that, like humans, they are capable of forming socially monogamous pair bonds, display biparental care, and engage in alloparental behaviors. Both mu and kappa opioid receptors are involved in behaviors that either establish and maintain, or result from pair bond formation in these animals. Mu and kappa opioid receptors both utilize inhibitory G-proteins in signal transduction mechanisms, however the efficacy by which these receptor subtypes stimulate G-protein signaling across the prairie vole neuraxis is not known. Utilizing [(35)S]GTPγS autoradiography, we characterized the efficacy of G-protein stimulation in coronal sections throughout male and female prairie vole brains by [D-Ala2,NMe-Phe4,Gly-ol5]-enkephalin (DAMGO) and U50,488H, selective mu and kappa opioid agonists, respectively. DAMGO stimulation was highest in the forebrain, similar to that found with other rodent species. U-50,488H produced greater stimulation in prairie voles than is typically seen in mice and rats, particularly in select forebrain areas. DAMGO produced higher stimulation in the core versus the shell of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in females, while the distribution of U-50,488H stimulation was the opposite. There were no gender differences for U50,488H stimulation of G-protein activity across the regions examined, while DAMGO stimulation was greater in sections from females compared to those from males for NAc core, entopeduncular nucleus, and hippocampus. These data suggest that the kappa opioid system may be more sensitive to manipulation in prairie voles compared to mice and rats, and that female prairie voles may be more sensitive to mu agonists in select brain regions than males. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Perspectives on Bay–Delta Science and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Healey

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available doi: https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss4art6The State of Bay–Delta Science 2008 highlighted seven emerging perspectives on science and management of the Delta. These perspectives had important effects on policy and legislation concerning management of the Delta ecosystem and water exports. From the collection of papers that make up the State of Bay–Delta Science 2016, we derive another seven perspectives that augment those published in 2008. The new perspectives address nutrient and contaminant concentrations in Delta waters, the failure of the Delta food web to support native species, the role of multiple stressors in driving species toward extinction, and the emerging importance of extreme events in driving change in the ecosystem and the water supply. The scientific advances that underpin these new perspectives were made possible by new measurement and analytic tools. We briefly discuss some of these, including miniaturized acoustic fish tags, sensors for monitoring of water quality, analytic techniques for disaggregating complex contaminant mixtures, remote sensing to assess levee vulnerability, and multidimensional hydrodynamic modeling. Despite these new tools and scientific insights, species conservation objectives for the Delta are not being met. We believe that this lack of progress stems in part from the fact that science and policy do not incorporate sufficiently long-term perspectives. Looking forward half a century was central to the Delta Visioning process, but science and policy have not embraced this conceptual breadth. We are also concerned that protection and enhancement of the unique cultural, recreational, natural resource, and agricultural values of the Delta as an evolving place, as required by the Delta Reform Act, has received no critical study and analysis. Adopting wider and longer science and policy perspectives immediately encourages recognition of the need for evaluation, analysis, and public discourse on

  1. NF-kappa B modulation is involved in celastrol induced human multiple myeloma cell apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiwen Ni

    Full Text Available Celastrol is an active compound extracted from the root bark of the traditional Chinese medicine Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. To investigate the effect of celastrol on human multiple myeloma cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and explore its molecular mechanism of action. The activity of celastrol on LP-1 cell proliferation was detected by WST-8 assay. The celastrol-induced cell cycle arrest was analyzed by flow cytometry after propidium iodide staining. Nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB was observed by fluorescence microscope. Celastrol inhibited cell proliferation of LP-1 myeloma cell in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 0.8817 µM, which was mediated through G1 cell cycle arrest and p27 induction. Celastrol induced apoptosis in LP-1 and RPMI 8226 myeloma cells in a time and dose dependent manner, and it involved Caspase-3 activation and NF-κB pathway. Celastrol down-modulated antiapoptotic proteins including Bcl-2 and survivin expression. The expression of NF-κB and IKKa were decreased after celastrol treatment. Celastrol effectively blocked the nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit and induced human multiple myeloma cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by p27 upregulation and NF-kB modulation. It has been demonstrated that the effect of celastrol on NF-kB was HO-1-independent by using zinc protoporphyrin-9 (ZnPPIX, a selective heme oxygenase inhibitor. From the results, it could be inferred that celastrol may be used as a NF-kB inhibitor to inhibit myeloma cell proliferation.

  2. nor-BNI Antagonism of Kappa Opioid Agonist-Induced Reinstatement of Ethanol-Seeking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Harshberger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent work suggests that the dynorphin (DYN/kappa opioid receptor (KOR system may be a key mediator in the behavioral effects of alcohol. The objective of the present study was to examine the ability of the KOR antagonist norbinaltorphimine (nor-BNI to attenuate relapse to ethanol seeking due to priming injections of the KOR agonist U50,488 at time points consistent with KOR selectivity. Male Wistar rats were trained to self-administer a 10% ethanol solution, and then responding was extinguished. Following extinction, rats were injected with U50,488 (0.1–10 mg/kg, i.p. or saline and were tested for the reinstatement of ethanol seeking. Next, the ability of the nonselective opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (0 or 3.0 mg/kg, s.c. and nor-BNI (0 or 20.0 mg/kg, i.p. to block U50,488-induced reinstatement was examined. Priming injections U50,488 reinstated responding on the previously ethanol-associated lever. Pretreatment with naltrexone reduced the reinstatement of ethanol-seeking behavior. nor-BNI also attenuated KOR agonist-induced reinstatement, but to a lesser extent than naltrexone, when injected 24 hours prior to injections of U50,488, a time point that is consistent with KOR selectivity. While these results suggest that activation of KORs is a key mechanism in the regulation of ethanol-seeking behavior, U50,488-induced reinstatement may not be fully selective for KORs.

  3. Kappa-Opioid Antagonists for Psychiatric Disorders: From Bench to Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlezon, William A; Krystal, Andrew D

    2016-10-01

    Kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) antagonists are currently being considered for the treatment of a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions, including depressive, anxiety, and substance abuse disorders. A general ability to mitigate the effects of stress, which can trigger or exacerbate these conditions, may explain their putative efficacy across such a broad array of conditions. The discovery of their potentially therapeutic effects evolved from preclinical research designed to characterize the molecular mechanisms by which experience causes neuroadaptations in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key element of brain reward circuitry. This research established that exposure to drugs of abuse or stress increases the activity of the transcription factor CREB (cAMP response element binding protein) in the NAc, which leads to elevated expression of the opioid peptide dynorphin that in turn causes core signs of depressive- and anxiety-related disorders. Disruption of KORs-the endogenous receptors for dynorphin-produces antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like actions in screening procedures that identify standard drugs of these classes, and reduces stress effects in tests used to study addiction and stress-related disorders. Although interest in this target is high, prototypical KOR antagonists have extraordinarily persistent pharmacodynamic effects that complicate clinical trials. The development of shorter acting KOR antagonists together with more rapid designs for clinical trials may soon provide insight on whether these drugs are efficacious as would be predicted by preclinical work. If successful, KOR antagonists would represent a unique example in psychiatry where the therapeutic mechanism of a drug class is understood before it is shown to be efficacious in humans. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Dynorphin/Kappa Opioid Receptor Signaling in Preclinical Models of Alcohol, Drug, and Food Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkhanis, Anushree; Holleran, Katherine M; Jones, Sara R

    2017-01-01

    The dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system is implicated in the "dark side" of addiction, in which stress exacerbates maladaptive responses to drug and alcohol exposure. For example, acute stress and acute ethanol exposure result in an elevation in dynorphin, the KOR endogenous ligand. Activation of KORs results in modulation of several neurotransmitters; however, this chapter will focus on its regulatory effects on dopamine in mesolimbic areas. Specifically, KOR activation has an inhibitory effect on dopamine release, thereby influencing reward processing. Repeated stimulation of KORs, for example, via chronic drug and/or stress exposure, results in increased function of the dynorphin/KOR system. This augmentation in KOR function shifts the homeostatic balance in favor of an overall reduction in dopamine signaling via either by reducing dopamine release or by increasing dopamine transporter function. This chapter examines the effects of chronic ethanol exposure on KOR function and the downstream effects on dopamine transmission. Additionally, the impact of chronic cocaine exposure and its effects on KOR function will be explored. Further, KORs may also be involved in driving excessive consumption of food, contributing to the risk of developing obesity. While some studies have shown that KOR agonists reduce drug intake, other studies have shown that antagonists reduce addiction-like behaviors, demonstrating therapeutic potential. For example, KOR inhibition reduces ethanol intake in dependent animals, motivation to self-administer cocaine in chronic stress-exposed animals, and food consumption in obese animals. This chapter will delve into the mechanisms by which modulation of the dynorphin/KOR system may be therapeutic. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of kappa opioid receptors on conditioned place aversion and social interaction in males and females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Cindee F.; McMackin, Marissa Z.; Campi, Katharine L.; Doig, Ian E.; Takahashi, Elizabeth Y.; Pride, Michael; Trainor, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of kappa opioid receptors (KOR) on motivated behavior are well established based on studies in male rodents, but relatively little is known about the effects of KOR in females. We examined the effects of KOR activation on conditioned place aversion and social interaction in the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus). Important differences were observed in long-term (place aversion) and short-term (social interaction) effects. Females but not males treated with a 2.5mg/kg dose of U50,488 formed a place aversion, whereas males but not females formed a place aversion at the 10 mg/kg dose. In contrast the short term effects of different doses of U50,488 on social interaction behavior were similar in males and females. Acute injection with 10 mg/kg of U50,488 (but not lower doses) reduced social interaction behavior in both males and females. The effects of U50,488 on phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase (pERK) and p38 MAP kinase were cell type and region specific. Higher doses of U50,488 increased the number of pERK neurons in the ventrolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminals in males but not females, a nucleus implicated in male aggressive behavior. In contrast, both males and females treated with U50,488 had more activated p38 cells in the nucleus accumbens shell. Unexpectedly, cells expressing activated p38 co-expressed Iba-1, a widely used microglia marker. In summary we found strong sex differences in the effects of U50,488 on place aversion whereas the acute effects on U50,488 induced similar behavioral effects in males and females. PMID:24445073

  6. Prognostic value of free light chains lambda and kappa in early multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voortman, Margarete M; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Pirpamer, Lukas; Jehna, Margit; Langkammer, Christian; Scharnagl, Hubert; Reindl, Markus; Ropele, Stefan; Seifert-Held, Thomas; Archelos, Juan-Jose; Fuchs, Siegrid; Enzinger, Christian; Fazekas, Franz; Khalil, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immunoglobulin free light chains (FLC) have been suggested as quantitative alternative to oligoclonal bands (OCB) in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, little is known on their role in predicting clinical and paraclinical disease progression, particularly in early stages. To assess the prognostic value of FLC in OCB-positive patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of MS and early MS. We determined FLC kappa (KFLC) and lambda (LFLC) in CSF and serum by nephelometry in 61 patients (CIS ( n = 48), relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis ( n = 13)) and 60 non-inflammatory neurological controls. Median clinical follow-up time in CIS was 4.8 years (interquartile range (IQR), 1.5-6.5 years). Patients underwent 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and follow-up (median time interval, 2.2 years; IQR, 1.0-3.7 years) to determine T2 lesion load (T2LL) and percent brain volume change (PBVC). CSF FLC were significantly increased in CIS/MS compared to controls (all p multiple sclerosis (CDMS) conversion (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.17-7.14; p < 0.05). No correlations were found for FLC variables with T2LL or PBVC. Our study confirms increased intrathecal synthesis of FLC in CIS/MS which supports their diagnostic contribution. The KFLC/LFLC CSF ratio appears to have a prognostic value in CIS beyond OCB.

  7. Effects of pharmacological manipulation of the kappa opioid receptors on the aversive effects of nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Melissa; Norman, Haval; D'Souza, Manoranjan S

    2018-02-15

    Nicotine, an addictive component of tobacco smoke, produces both rewarding and aversive effects. Increasing the aversive effects of nicotine may help in promoting smoking cessation. However, neural targets mediating the aversive effects of nicotine have not been fully identified. In this study, we evaluated the role of kappa opioid receptors (KORs) in the aversive effects of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, base; s.c.) using the nicotine-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) model in Wistar rats. The KORs were activated using the selective KOR agonist (±)U-50,488H (0, 0.03, 0.15 & 0.3mg/kg; s.c.) and inhibited using the KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI; 0, 15 & 30mg/kg; s.c.) in separate groups of rats using a between-subjects design. Pretreatment with the KOR agonist (±)U-50,488H (0.3mg/kg) significantly increased aversion for the nicotine-associated solution. Additionally, (±)U-50,488H (0.3mg/kg) on its own induced aversion to the flavored solution associated with it even in the absence of nicotine, suggesting that the KOR agonist induced increase in nicotine-induced aversion was an additive effect. Interestingly, administration of the KOR antagonist nor-BNI (30mg/kg) prior to conditioning with nicotine/saline, but not after conditioning with nicotine/saline, attenuated nicotine-induced aversive effects compared to saline controls. Taken together, these data suggest a role for KORs in the aversive effects of nicotine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nuclear Factor kappa B is required for the production of infectious human herpesvirus 8 virions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin N Blattman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8 infection leads to potent activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFB in primary and transformed cells. We used recombinant HHV8 (rKSHV.219 expressing green fluorescent protein under the constitutive cellular promoter elongation factor 2 and red fluorescent protein under an early HHV8 lytic gene promoter T1.1, to monitor replication during infection of human foreskin fibroblasts (HF, noting changes in NFB activity. In primary HF, NFB levels do not affect HHV8 ability to establish infection or maintain latency. Furthermore, there was no effect on the percent of cells undergoing reactivation from latency, and there were similar numbers of released and cell associated HHV8 viral particles following reactivation in the presence of inhibitors. Reactivation of HHV8 in latently infected HF in the presence of NFB inhibitors resulted in production of viral particles that did not efficiently establish infection, due to deficiencies in binding and/or entry into normally permissive cells. Exogenous expression of glycoprotein M, an envelope protein involved in viral binding and entry was able to partially overcome the deficiency induced by NFB inhibitors. Our data indicate that in primary cells, NFB is not required for infection, establishment of latency, or entry into the lytic cycle, but is required for the expression of virion associated genes involved in the initial steps of virion infectivity. These studies suggest that strategies to inhibit NFB may prevent HHV8 spread and should be considered as a potential therapeutic target for preventing HHV8 associated diseases.

  9. Polymorphisms of the Kappa Opioid Receptor and Prodynorphin Genes: HIV risk and HIV Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudnikov, Dmitri; Randesi, Matthew; Levran, Orna; Yuferov, Vadim; Crystal, Howard; Ho, Ann; Ott, Jurg; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Objective Studies indicate cross-desensitization between opioid receptors (e.g., kappa opioid receptor, OPRK1), and chemokine receptors (e.g., CXCR4) involved in HIV infection. We tested whether gene variants of OPRK1 and its ligand, prodynorphin (PDYN), influence the outcome of HIV therapy. Methods Three study points, admission to the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and the most recent visit were chosen for analysis as crucial events in the clinical history of the HIV patients. Regression analyses of 17 variants of OPRK1, and 11 variants of PDYN with change of viral load (VL) and CD4 count between admission and initiation of HAART, and initiation of HAART to the most recent visit to WIHS were performed in 598 HIV+ subjects including African Americans, Hispanics and Caucasians. Association with HIV status was done in 1009 subjects. Results Before HAART, greater VL decline (improvement) in carriers of PDYN IVS3+189C>T, and greater increase of CD4 count (improvement) in carriers of OPRK1 −72C>T, were found in African Americans. Also, greater increase of CD4 count in carriers of OPRK1 IVS2+7886A>G, and greater decline of CD4 count (deterioration) in carriers of OPRK1 −1205G>A, were found in Caucasians. After HAART, greater decline of VL in carriers of OPRK1 IVS2+2225G>A, and greater increase of VL in carriers of OPRK1 IVS2+10658G>T and IVS2+10963A>G, were found in Caucasians. Also, a lesser increase of CD4 count was found in Hispanic carriers of OPRK1 IVS2+2225G>A. Conclusion OPRK1 and PDYN polymorphisms may alter severity of HIV infection and response to treatment. PMID:23392455

  10. Bypass of a psoralen DNA interstrand cross-link by DNA polymerases beta, iota, and kappa in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Leigh A.; Makarova, Alena V.; Samson, Laura; Thiesen, Katherine E.; Dhar, Alok; Bessho, Tadayoshi

    2012-01-01

    Repair of DNA inter-strand cross-links in mammalian cells involves several biochemically distinctive processes, including the release of one of the cross-linked strands and translesion DNA synthesis (TLS). In this report, we investigated in vitro TLS activity of psoralen DNA inter-strand cross-link by three DNA repair polymerases, DNA polymerase beta, kappa and iota. DNA polymerase beta is capable of bypassing a psoralen cross-link with a low efficiency. Cell extracts prepared from DNA polymerase beta knockout mouse embryonic fibroblast showed a reduced bypass activity of the psoralen cross-link and purified DNA polymerase beta restored the bypass activity. In addition, DNA polymerase iota mis-incorporated thymine across the psoralen cross-link and DNA polymerase kappa extended these mis-paired primer ends, suggesting that DNA polymerase iota may serve as an inserter and DNA polymerase kappa may play a role as an extender in the repair of psoralen DNA inter-strand cross-links. The results demonstrated here indicate that multiple DNA polymerases could participate in TLS steps in mammalian DNA inter-strand cross-link repair. PMID:23106263

  11. A Trigger for Opioid Misuse: Chronic Pain and Stress Dysregulate the Mesolimbic Pathway and Kappa Opioid System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaly, Nicolas; Morón, Jose A; Al-Hasani, Ream

    2016-01-01

    Pain and stress are protective mechanisms essential in avoiding harmful or threatening stimuli and ensuring survival. Despite these beneficial roles, chronic exposure to either pain or stress can lead to maladaptive hormonal and neuronal modulations that can result in chronic pain and a wide spectrum of stress-related disorders including anxiety and depression. By inducing allostatic changes in the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway, both chronic pain and stress disorders affect the rewarding values of both natural reinforcers, such as food or social interaction, and drugs of abuse. Despite opioids representing the best therapeutic strategy in pain conditions, they are often misused as a result of these allostatic changes induced by chronic pain and stress. The kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system is critically involved in these neuronal adaptations in part through its control of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Therefore, it is likely that changes in the kappa opioid system following chronic exposure to pain and stress play a key role in increasing the misuse liability observed in pain patients treated with opioids. In this review, we will discuss how chronic pain and stress-induced pathologies can affect mesolimbic dopaminergic transmission, leading to increased abuse liability. We will also assess how the kappa opioid system may underlie these pathological changes.

  12. A trigger for opioid misuse: Chronic pain and stress dysregulate the mesolimbic pathway and kappa opioid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Massaly

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pain and stress are protective mechanisms essential in avoiding harmful or threatening stimuli and ensuring survival. Despite these beneficial roles, chronic exposure to either pain or stress can lead to maladaptive hormonal and neuronal modulations that can result in chronic pain and a wide spectrum of stress-related disorders including anxiety and depression. By inducing allostatic changes in the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway, both chronic pain and stress disorders affect the rewarding values of both natural reinforcers, such as food or social interaction, and drugs of abuse. Despite opioids representing the best therapeutic strategy in acute pain conditions, they are often misused as a result of these allostatic changes induced by chronic pain and stress. The kappa opioid receptor system is critically involved in these neuronal adaptations in part through its control of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Therefore, it is likely that changes in the kappa opioid system following chronic exposure to pain and stress play a key role in increasing the misuse liability observed in pain patients treated with opioids. In this review, we will discuss how chronic pain and stress-induced pathologies can affect mesolimbic dopaminergic transmission, leading to increased abuse liability. We will also assess how the kappa opioid system may underlie these pathological changes.

  13. Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 in macrophages by catalase: role of NF-kappaB and PI3K signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Byeong-Churl; Kim, Do-Hyun; Park, Jong-Wook; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Kim, Sang-Pyo; Song, Dae-Kyu; Park, Jong-Gu; Bae, Jae-Hoon; Mun, Kyo-Chul; Baek, Won-Ki; Suh, Min-Ho; Hla, Timothy; Suh, Seong-Il

    2004-04-02

    Induction of COX-2 by catalase in smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and neuronal cells has been previously reported. However, the mechanism by which catalase up-regulates COX-2 remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of catalase on induction of COX-2 in macrophages. The addition of catalase into Raw 264.7 macrophages induced COX-2 expression that was correlated with increased COX-2 transcription and mRNA stability. Catalase also induced activation of NF-kappaB, PI3K, ERKs, p38s, or JNKs. Catalase-induced COX-2 expression was abrogated by treatment of MG-132 (a NF-kappaB inhibitor) or LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor), but not by treatment of PD98059 (an ERK inhibitor), SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor), or SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor). Moreover, inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 caused partial decrease of catalase-induced COX-2 transcription and steady-state COX-2 transcript levels, but not COX-2 mRNA stability. Together, these results suggest that catalase induces the expression of COX-2 in Raw 264.7 macrophages, and the induction is related with activation of NF-kappaB transcription factor and PI3K signaling pathway.

  14. MEASURING NEBULAR TEMPERATURES: THE EFFECT OF NEW COLLISION STRENGTHS WITH EQUILIBRIUM AND {kappa}-DISTRIBUTED ELECTRON ENERGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholls, David C.; Dopita, Michael A.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Kewley, Lisa J. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Rd., Weston ACT 2611 (Australia); Palay, Ethan, E-mail: david@mso.anu.edu.au [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    In this paper we develop tools for observers to use when analyzing nebular spectra for temperatures and metallicities, with two goals: to present a new, simple method to calculate equilibrium electron temperatures for collisionally excited line flux ratios, using the latest atomic data; and to adapt current methods to include the effects of possible non-equilibrium ''{kappa}'' electron energy distributions. Adopting recent collision strength data for [O III], [S III], [O II], [S II], and [N II], we find that existing methods based on older atomic data seriously overestimate the electron temperatures, even when considering purely Maxwellian statistics. If {kappa} distributions exist in H II regions and planetary nebulae as they do in solar system plasmas, it is important to investigate the observational consequences. This paper continues our previous work on the {kappa} distribution. We present simple formulaic methods that allow observers to (1) measure equilibrium electron temperatures and atomic abundances using the latest atomic data, and (2) to apply simple corrections to existing equilibrium analysis techniques to allow for possible non-equilibrium effects. These tools should lead to better consistency in temperature and abundance measurements, and a clearer understanding of the physics of H II regions and planetary nebulae.

  15. NIK is involved in constitutive activation of the alternative NF-{kappa}B pathway and proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishina, Takashi [Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Noritaka [Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Consolidated Research Institute for Advanced Science and Medical Care, Waseda University, 513 Wasedatsurumaki-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0041 (Japan); Gohda, Jin [Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Semba, Kentaro [Consolidated Research Institute for Advanced Science and Medical Care, Waseda University, 513 Wasedatsurumaki-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0041 (Japan); Department of Life Science and Medical Bio-science, Waseda University, 2-2 Wakamatsu-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8480 (Japan); Inoue, Jun-ichiro, E-mail: jun-i@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan)

    2009-10-09

    Pancreatic cancer has one of the poorest prognoses among human neoplasms. Constitutive activation of NF-{kappa}B is frequently observed in pancreatic cancer cells and is involved in their malignancy. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of this constitutive NF-{kappa}B activation. Here, we show that the alternative pathway is constitutively activated and NF-{kappa}B-inducing kinase (NIK), a mediator of the alternative pathway, is significantly expressed in pancreatic cancer cells. siRNA-mediated silencing of NIK expression followed by subcellular fractionation revealed that NIK is constitutively involved in the processing of p100 and nuclear transport of p52 and RelB in pancreatic cancer cells. In addition, NIK silencing significantly suppressed proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. These results clearly indicate that NIK is involved in the constitutive activation of the alternative pathway and controls cell proliferation in pancreatic cancer cells. Therefore, NIK might be a novel target for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  16. Characterisation of Prosopis juliflora seed gum and the effect of its addition to {kappa}-carrageenan systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azero, Edwin G. [Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Naturais; Andrade, Cristina T. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano]. E-mail: ctandrade@ima.ufrj.br

    2006-09-15

    The galactomannan from Prosopis juliflora (PJ galactomannan) was extracted from milled seeds in water at 50 deg C. Its structural and solution properties were characterised in comparison with a commercial sample of guar gum (GG galactomannan). After partial degradation, the resulting samples were submitted to {sup 13}C-NMR spectroscopy. The mannose to galactose (M/G) ratios of PJ (M/G = 1.64) and GG (M/G = 1.85) galactomannans were estimated from the relative peak areas of the corresponding C-1 lines. Expansion of the C-4 lines revealed differences in the fine structure of the two galactomannans. The intrinsic viscosity determined for the GG sample, [{eta}] = 10.3 dL g{sup -1}, was slightly higher than that determined for PJ galactomannan, [{eta}] = 9.4 dL g{sup -1}. Dynamic experiments carried out at the same concentrations showed similar viscoelastic behaviours for the two gums. No enhancement in the storage modulus (G') was observed for {kappa}-carrageenan/PJ mixed solution in 0.1 mol L{sup -1} KCl at 1.0 g L{sup -1} total polymer concentration, in relation to {kappa}-carrageenan alone. Self-supporting gels obtained by mixing {kappa}-carrageenan and PJ or GG galactomannans in 0.25 mol L{sup -1} KCl at 10 g L{sup -1} total polymer concentration displayed similar mechanical properties. (author)

  17. Kappa opioid receptor antagonism and chronic antidepressant treatment have beneficial activities on social interactions and grooming deficits during heroin abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalanne, L; Ayranci, G; Filliol, D; Gavériaux-Ruff, C; Befort, K; Kieffer, B L; Lutz, P-E

    2017-07-01

    Addiction is a chronic brain disorder that progressively invades all aspects of personal life. Accordingly, addiction to opiates severely impairs interpersonal relationships, and the resulting social isolation strongly contributes to the severity and chronicity of the disease. Uncovering new therapeutic strategies that address this aspect of addiction is therefore of great clinical relevance. We recently established a mouse model of heroin addiction in which, following chronic heroin exposure, 'abstinent' mice progressively develop a strong and long-lasting social avoidance phenotype. Here, we explored and compared the efficacy of two pharmacological interventions in this mouse model. Because clinical studies indicate some efficacy of antidepressants on emotional dysfunction associated with addiction, we first used a chronic 4-week treatment with the serotonergic antidepressant fluoxetine, as a reference. In addition, considering prodepressant effects recently associated with kappa opioid receptor signaling, we also investigated the kappa opioid receptor antagonist norbinaltorphimine (norBNI). Finally, we assessed whether fluoxetine and norBNI could reverse abstinence-induced social avoidance after it has established. Altogether, our results show that two interspaced norBNI administrations are sufficient both to prevent and to reverse social impairment in heroin abstinent animals. Therefore, kappa opioid receptor antagonism may represent a useful approach to alleviate social dysfunction in addicted individuals. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Korteweg-deVries-Burgers (KdVB) equation in a five component cometary plasma with kappa described electrons and ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Manesh; Willington, Neethu T.; Jayakumar, Neethu; Sebastian, Sijo; Sreekala, G.; Venugopal, Chandu

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the existence of ion-acoustic shock waves in a five component cometary plasma consisting of positively and negatively charged oxygen ions, kappa described hydrogen ions, hot solar electrons, and slightly colder cometary electrons. The KdVB equation has been derived for the system, and its solution plotted for different kappa values, oxygen ion densities, as well as the temperature ratios for the ions. It is found that the amplitude of the shock wave decreases with increasing kappa values. The strength of the shock profile decreases with increasing temperatures of the positively charged oxygen ions and densities of negatively charged oxygen ions.

  19. Rapid analysis of rearranged kappa light chain genes of circulating polysaccharide-specific B lymphocytes by means of immunomagnetic beads and the polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougs, L; Barington, T; Madsen, HO

    1993-01-01

    reaction (PCR) using in addition a degenerate kappa light chain signal peptide region primer. The PCR product was cloned into the M13mp18 phage. The cloning efficiency was 100-600 clones/ml of blood. Of the 86 clones sequenced, 90% represented rearranged kappa light chain genes from different antibody...... of the B lymphocytes activated in vivo. Here, we present a method for rapid analysis of the rearranged kappa light chain genes used by human circulating antigen-specific B lymphocytes. After vaccination with Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) conjugated with protein, the Hib...

  20. Lava delta deformation as a proxy for submarine slope instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Traglia, Federico; Nolesini, Teresa; Solari, Lorenzo; Ciampalini, Andrea; Frodella, William; Steri, Damiano; Allotta, Benedetto; Rindi, Andrea; Marini, Lorenzo; Monni, Niccolò; Galardi, Emanuele; Casagli, Nicola

    2018-04-01

    The instability of lava deltas is a recurrent phenomenon affecting volcanic islands, which can potentially cause secondary events such as littoral explosions (due to interactions between hot lava and seawater) and tsunamis. It has been shown that Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a powerful technique to forecast the collapse of newly emplaced lava deltas. This work goes further, demonstrating that the monitoring of lava deltas is a successful strategy by which to observe the long-term deformation of subaerial-submarine landslide systems on unstable volcanic flanks. In this paper, displacement measurements derived from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery were used to detect lava delta instability at Stromboli volcano (Italy). Recent flank eruptions (2002-2003, 2007 and 2014) affected the Sciara del Fuoco (SdF) depression, created a "stacked" lava delta, which overlies a pre-existing scar produced by a submarine-subaerial tsunamigenic landslide that occurred on 30 December 2002. Space-borne X-band COSMO-SkyMED (CSK) and C-band SENTINEL-1A (SNT) SAR data collected between February 2010 and October 2016 were processed using the SqueeSAR algorithm. The obtained ground displacement maps revealed the differential ground motion of the lava delta in both CSK and SNT datasets, identifying a stable area (characterized by less than 2 mm/y in both datasets) within the northern sector of the SdF and an unstable area (characterized by velocity fields on the order of 30 mm/y and 160 mm/y in the CSK and SNT datasets, respectively) in the central sector of the SdF. The slope stability of the offshore part of the SdF, as reconstructed based on a recently performed multibeam bathymetric survey, was evaluated using a 3D Limit Equilibrium Method (LEM). In all the simulations, Factor of Safety (F) values between 0.9 and 1.1 always characterized the submarine slope between the coastline and -250 m a.s.l. The critical surfaces for all the search volumes corresponded to