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Sample records for delta formation process

  1. Formation of nanoparticles and defects in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} prepared by the metal organic deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, R. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); SAIC, Washington, DC 20003 (United States)], E-mail: goswami@anvil.nrl.navy.mil; Holtz, R.L. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Rupich, M.W. [American Superconductors Inc., Westborough, MA 01581 (United States); Spanos, G. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Nanoparticles and defects have been investigated using transmission electron microscopy in fully reacted YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO), prepared by the metal-organic deposition (MOD) process. Two types of particles, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CuY{sub 2}O{sub 5}, ranging from 10 to 100 nm, have been observed in the YBCO matrix. The YBCO contains a large number of planar defects and a considerable number of (1 1 0) rotational twins. Details of the nanoparticles and defects in the MOD-processed YBCO films are presented in this paper.

  2. Deformation characteristics of {delta} phase in the delta-processed Inconel 718 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.Y., E-mail: haiyanzhang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhang, S.H., E-mail: shzhang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Cheng, M. [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li, Z.X. [Beijing Institute of Aeronautica1 Materials, Beijing 100095 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The hot working characteristics of {delta} phase in the delta-processed Inconel 718 alloy during isothermal compression deformation at temperature of 950 deg. C and strain rate of 0.005 s{sup -1}, were studied by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and quantitative X-ray diffraction technique. The results showed that the dissolution of plate-like {delta} phase and the precipitation of spherical {delta} phase particles coexisted during the deformation, and the content of {delta} phase decreased from 7.05 wt.% to 5.14 wt.%. As a result of deformation breakage and dissolution breakage, the plate-like {delta} phase was spheroidized and transferred to spherical {delta} phase particles. In the center with largest strain, the plate-like {delta} phase disappeared and spherical {delta} phase appeared in the interior of grains and grain boundaries.

  3. Process analysis of regional ozone formation over the Yangtze River Delta, China using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A high O3 episode was detected in urban Shanghai, a typical city in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region in August 2010. The CMAQ integrated process rate method is applied to account for the contribution of different atmospheric processes during the high pollution episode. The analysis shows that the maximum concentration of ozone occurs due to transport phenomena, including vertical diffusion and horizontal advective transport. Gas-phase chemistry producing O3 mainly occurs at the height of 300–1500 m, causing a strong vertical O3 transport from upper levels to the surface layer. The gas-phase chemistry is an important sink for O3 in the surface layer, coupled with dry deposition. Cloud processes may contribute slightly to the increase of O3 due to convective clouds or to the decrease of O3 due to scavenging. The horizontal diffusion and heterogeneous chemistry contributions are negligible during the whole episode. Modeling results show that the O3 pollution characteristics among the different cities in the YRD region have both similarities and differences. During the buildup period, the O3 starts to appear in the city regions of the YRD and is then transported to the surrounding areas under the prevailing wind conditions. The O3 production from photochemical reaction in Shanghai and the surrounding area is most significant, due to the high emission intensity in the large city; this ozone is then transported out to sea by the westerly wind flow, and later diffuses to rural areas like Chongming island, Wuxi and even to Nanjing. The O3 concentrations start to decrease in the cities after sunset, due to titration of the NO emissions, but ozone can still be transported and maintain a significant concentration in rural areas and even regions outside the YRD region, where the NO emissions are very small.

  4. Model-aided optimization of delta-endotoxin-formation in continuous culture systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, V; Schorcht, R; Ignatenko, Yu N; Sakharova, Z V; Khovrychev, M P

    1985-01-01

    A mathematical model of growth, sporulation and delta-endotoxin-formation of bac. thuringiensis is given. The results of model-aided optimization of steady-state continuous culture systems indicate that the productivity in the one-stage system is 1.9% higher and in the two-stage system is 18.5% higher than in the batch process.

  5. The influence of delta formation mechanism on geotechnical property sequence of the late Pleistocene–Holocene sediments in the Mekong River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Minh Hoang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to characterize a variety of microstructure development-levels and geotechnical property sequences of the late Pleistocene–Holocene deposits in the Mekong River delta (MRD, and the paper furthermore discusses the influences of delta formation mechanisms on them. The survey associated the geotechnical engineering and the sedimentary geology of the late Pleistocene–Holocene deposits at five sites and also undifferentiated Pleistocene sediments. A cross-section which was rebuilt in the delta progradation-direction and between the Mekong and Bassac rivers represents the stratigraphy. Each sedimentary unit was formed under a different delta formation mechanism and revealed a typical geotechnical property sequence. The mechanical behaviors of the sediment succession in the tide-dominated delta with significant fluvial-activity and material source tend to be more cohesionless soils and strengths than those in the tide- and wave-dominated delta and even the coast. The particular tendency of the mechanical behavior of the deposit succession can be reasonably estimated from the delta formation mechanism. The characteristics of the clay minerals from the Mekong River produced the argillaceous soil which does not have extremely high plasticity. The microstructure development-levels are low to very high indicating how to choose hydraulic conductivity value, k, for estimating overconsolidation ratio, OCR, by the piezocone penetration tests (CPTU. The OCR of sediments in the delta types strangely change with depth but none less than 1. The post-depositional processes significantly influenced the microstructure development, particularly the dehydrating and oxidizing processes.

  6. Formation of conjugated delta8,delta10-double bonds by delta12-oleic-acid desaturase-related enzymes: biosynthetic origin of calendic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, E B; Ripp, K G; Hall, S E; Kinney, A J

    2001-01-26

    Divergent forms of the plant Delta(12)-oleic-acid desaturase (FAD2) have previously been shown to catalyze the formation of acetylenic bonds, epoxy groups, and conjugated Delta(11),Delta(13)-double bonds by modification of an existing Delta(12)-double bond in C(18) fatty acids. Here, we report a class of FAD2-related enzymes that modifies a Delta(9)-double bond to produce the conjugated trans-Delta(8),trans-Delta(10)-double bonds found in calendic acid (18:3Delta(8trans,10trans,12cis)), the major component of the seed oil of Calendula officinalis. Using an expressed sequence tag approach, cDNAs for two closely related FAD2-like enzymes, designated CoFADX-1 and CoFADX-2, were identified from a C. officinalis developing seed cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequences of these polypeptides share 40-50% identity with those of other FAD2 and FAD2-related enzymes. Expression of either CoFADX-1 or CoFADX-2 in somatic soybean embryos resulted in the production of calendic acid. In embryos expressing CoFADX-2, calendic acid accumulated to as high as 22% (w/w) of the total fatty acids. In addition, expression of CoFADX-1 and CoFADX-2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was accompanied by calendic acid accumulation when induced cells were supplied exogenous linoleic acid (18:2Delta(9cis,12cis)). These results are thus consistent with a route of calendic acid synthesis involving modification of the Delta(9)-double bond of linoleic acid. Regiospecificity for Delta(9)-double bonds is unprecedented among FAD2-related enzymes and further expands the functional diversity found in this family of enzymes.

  7. Process analysis and sensitivity study of regional ozone formation over the Pearl River Delta, China, during the PRIDE-PRD2004 campaign using the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ modeling system is used to simulate the ozone (O3 episodes during the Program of Regional Integrated Experiments of Air Quality over the Pearl River Delta, China, in October 2004 (PRIDE-PRD2004. The simulation suggests that O3 pollution is a regional phenomenon in the Pearl River Delta (PRD. Elevated O3 levels often occurred in the southwestern inland PRD, Pearl River estuary (PRE, and southern coastal areas during the 1-month field campaign. Three evolution patterns of simulated surface O3 are summarized based on different near-ground flow conditions. More than 75% of days featured interactions between weak synoptic forcing and local sea-land circulation. Integrated process rate (IPR analysis shows that photochemical production is a dominant contributor to O3 enhancement from 09:00 to 15:00 local standard time in the atmospheric boundary layer over most areas with elevated O3 occurrence in the mid-afternoon. The simulated ozone production efficiency is 2–8 O3 molecules per NOx molecule oxidized in areas with high O3 chemical production. Precursors of O3 originating from different source regions in the central PRD are mixed during the course of transport to downwind rural areas during nighttime and early morning, where they then contribute to the daytime O3 photochemical production. The sea-land circulation plays an important role on the regional O3 formation and distribution over PRD. Sensitivity studies suggest that O3 formation is volatile-organic-compound-limited in the central inland PRD, PRE, and surrounding coastal areas with less chemical aging (NOx/NOy>0.6, but is NOx-limited in the rural southwestern PRD with aged air (NOx/NOy<0.3.

  8. Hot deformation behavior of delta-processed superalloy 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y., E-mail: wangyanhit@yahoo.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Shao, W.Z.; Zhen, L.; Zhang, B.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} The peak stress for hot deformation can be described by the Z parameter. {yields} The grain size of DRX was inversely proportional to the Z parameter. {yields} The dissolution of {delta} phases was greatly accelerated under hot deformation. {yields}The {delta} phase stimulated nucleation can serve as the main DRX mechanism. - Abstract: Flow stress behavior and microstructures during hot compression of delta-processed superalloy 718 at temperatures from 950 to 1100 deg. C with strain rates of 10{sup -3} to 1 s{sup -1} were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The relationship between the peak stress and the deformation conditions can be expressed by a hyperbolic-sine type equation. The activation energy for the delta-processed superalloy 718 is determined to be 467 kJ/mol. The change of the dominant deformation mechanisms leads to the decrease of stress exponent and the increase of activation energy with increasing temperature. The dynamically recrystallized grain size is inversely proportional to the Zener-Hollomon (Z) parameter. It is found that the dissolution rate of {delta} phases under hot deformation conditions is much faster than that under static conditions. Dislocation, vacancy and curvature play important roles in the dissolution of {delta} phases. The main nucleation mechanisms of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) for the delta-processed superalloy 718 include the bulging of original grain boundaries and the {delta} phase stimulated DRX nucleation, which is closely related to the dissolution behavior of {delta} phases under certain deformation conditions.

  9. Fundraising processes in Nigerian Academic Libraries: The Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines fundraising processes in academic libraries in Delta State. The aim is to find out the extent to which fund raising processes can help in solving funding problems in academic libraries. The descriptive research method was employed. Eleven academic libraries in Delt a State were used in this study, that ...

  10. Fgf signaling controls pharyngeal taste bud formation through miR-200 and Delta-Notch activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsimali, Marika; Kaushik, Anna-Lila; Gibon, Guillaume; Dirian, Lara; Ernest, Sylvain; Rosa, Frederic M

    2011-08-01

    Taste buds, the taste sensory organs, are conserved in vertebrates and composed of distinct cell types, including taste receptor, basal/presynaptic and support cells. Here, we characterize zebrafish taste bud development and show that compromised Fgf signaling in the larva results in taste bud reduction and disorganization. We determine that Fgf activity is required within pharyngeal endoderm for formation of Calb2b(+) cells and reveal miR-200 and Delta-Notch signaling as key factors in this process. miR-200 knock down shows that miR-200 activity is required for taste bud formation and in particular for Calb2b(+) cell formation. Compromised delta activity in mib(-/-) dramatically reduces the number of Calb2b(+) cells and increases the number of 5HT(+) cells. Conversely, larvae with increased Notch activity and ascl1a(-/-) mutants are devoid of 5HT(+) cells, but have maintained and increased Calb2b(+) cells, respectively. These results show that Delta-Notch signaling is required for intact taste bud organ formation. Consistent with this, Notch activity restores Calb2b(+) cell formation in pharyngeal endoderm with compromised Fgf signaling, but fails to restore the formation of these cells after miR-200 knock down. Altogether, this study provides genetic evidence that supports a novel model where Fgf regulates Delta-Notch signaling, and subsequently miR-200 activity, in order to promote taste bud cell type differentiation.

  11. Interactions between nested sunspots. 1: The formation and breakup of a delta-type sunspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaizauskas, V.; Harvey, K. L.; Proulx, M.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate a nest of sunspots in which three ordinary bipolar pairs of sunspots are aligned collinearly. The usual spreading action of the growing regions brings two spots of leading polarity together (p-p collision) and forces the leading and trailing spots of the two interior regions to overlap inot a single penumbra (p-f collision), thus forming a delta-spot. We examine digitally processed images from the Ottawa River Solar Observatory of two related events inside the delta-spot 5 days after the p-f collision begins: the violent disruption of the f-umbra, and the formation in less than a day of an hydrogen-alpha filament. The evolutionary changes in shape, area, relative motions, and brightness that we measure for each spot in the elongated nest are more compatible with Parker's (1979a) hypothesis of a sunspot as a cluster of flux tubes held together by downdrafts than with the notion of a sunspot as a monolithic plug of magnetic flux. From chromospheric developments over the delta-spot, we show that a shearing motion along a polarity inversion is more effective than convergence for creating a chromospheric filament. We invoke the release of an instability, triggered by a sequence of processes lasting 1 day or more, to explain the disruption of the f-umbra in this delta-spot. We show that the sequence is initiated when the colliding p-f umbrae reach a critical separation around 3200 +/- 200 km. We present a descriptive model in which the reconnected magnetic fields block vertical transport of convective heat flux just beneath the photosphere. We observe the formation of an unusual type of penumbra adjacent to the f-polarity portion of this delta-spot just before its disruption. A tangential penumbral band grows out of disordered matter connected to the f-umbra. We present this as evidence for the extrusion of umbral magnetic flux by thermal plumes rising through a loosely bound umbra.

  12. Variation in leaf water delta D and delta 18O values during the evapotranspiration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leopoldo, P.R.; Foloni, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical model was developed to evaluate leaf water delta D and delta 18 O variation in relation to: leaf temperature, relative humidity converted to leaf temperature and delta D and delta 18 O values of atmospheric water vapour and soil water. (M.A.C.) [pt

  13. Process connectivity in a naturally prograding river delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendrowski, Alicia; Passalacqua, Paola

    2017-03-01

    River deltas are lowland systems that can display high hydrological connectivity. This connectivity can be structural (morphological connections), functional (control of fluxes), and process connectivity (information flow from system drivers to sinks). In this work, we quantify hydrological process connectivity in Wax Lake Delta, coastal Louisiana, by analyzing couplings among external drivers (discharge, tides, and wind) and water levels recorded at five islands and one channel over summer 2014. We quantify process connections with information theory, a branch of mathematics concerned with the communication of information. We represent process connections as a network; variables serve as network nodes and couplings as network links describing the strength, direction, and time scale of information flow. Comparing process connections at long (105 days) and short (10 days) time scales, we show that tides exhibit daily synchronization with water level, with decreasing strength from downstream to upstream, and that tides transfer information as tides transition from spring to neap. Discharge synchronizes with water level and the time scale of its information transfer compares well to physical travel times through the system, computed with a hydrodynamic model. Information transfer and physical transport show similar spatial patterns, although information transfer time scales are larger than physical travel times. Wind events associated with water level setup lead to increased process connectivity with highly variable information transfer time scales. We discuss the information theory results in the context of the hydrologic behavior of the delta, the role of vegetation as a connector/disconnector on islands, and the applicability of process networks as tools for delta modeling results.

  14. Conceptualizing delta forms and processes in Arctic coastal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Mette; Kroon, Aart

    2017-01-01

    Climate warming in the Arctic directly causes two opposite changes in Arctic coastal systems: increased melt-water discharge through rivers induces extra influx of sediments and extended open water season increases wave impact which reworks and erodes the shores. A shoreline change analysis along...... and popped up as hotspots. The Tuapaat delta and Skansen delta showed large progradation rates (1.5 and 7m/yr) and migration of the adjacent barriers and spits. The dynamic behavior at the delta mouths was mainly caused by classic delta channel lobe switching at one delta (Tuapaat), and by a breach...... of the fringing spit at the other delta (Skansen). The longshore and cross-shore transports are responsible for reworking the sediment with a result of migrating delta mouths and adjacent subaqueous mouth bars. Seaward progradation of the deltas is limited due to the steep nature of the bathymetry in Disko Bay...

  15. Formation Conditions and Sedimentary Characteristics of a Triassic Shallow Water Braided Delta in the Yanchang Formation, Southwest Ordos Basin, China.

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    Ziliang Liu

    Full Text Available A large, shallow braided river delta sedimentary system developed in the Yanchang Formation during the Triassic in the southwest of the Ordos basin. In this braided delta system, abundant oil and gas resources have been observed, and the area is a hotspot for oil and gas resource exploration. Through extensive field work on outcrops and cores and analyses of geophysical data, it was determined that developments in the Late Triassic produced favorable geological conditions for the development of shallow water braided river deltas. Such conditions included a large basin, flat terrain, and wide and shallow water areas; wet and dry cyclical climate changes; ancient water turbulence; dramatic depth cycle changes; ancient uplift development; strong weathering of parent rock; and abundant supply. The shallow water braided river delta showed grain sediment granularity, plastic debris, and sediment with mature composition and structure that reflected the strong hydrodynamic environment of large tabular cross-bedding, wedge cross-bedding, and multiple positive rhythms superimposed to form a thick sand body layer. The branch river bifurcation developed underwater, and the thickness of the sand body increased further, indicating that the slope was slow and located in shallow water. The seismic responses of the braided river delta reflected strong shallow water performance, indicated by a progradation seismic reflection phase axis that was relatively flat; in addition, the seismic reflection amplitude was strong and continuous with a low angle and extended over considerable distances (up to 50 km. The sedimentary center was close to the provenance, the width of the river was large, and a shallow sedimentary structure and a sedimentary rhythm were developed. The development of the delta was primarily controlled by tectonic activity and changes in the lake level; as a result, the river delta sedimentary system eventually presented a "small plain, big front

  16. Formation Conditions and Sedimentary Characteristics of a Triassic Shallow Water Braided Delta in the Yanchang Formation, Southwest Ordos Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ziliang; Shen, Fang; Zhu, Xiaomin; Li, Fengjie; Tan, Mengqi

    2015-01-01

    A large, shallow braided river delta sedimentary system developed in the Yanchang Formation during the Triassic in the southwest of the Ordos basin. In this braided delta system, abundant oil and gas resources have been observed, and the area is a hotspot for oil and gas resource exploration. Through extensive field work on outcrops and cores and analyses of geophysical data, it was determined that developments in the Late Triassic produced favorable geological conditions for the development of shallow water braided river deltas. Such conditions included a large basin, flat terrain, and wide and shallow water areas; wet and dry cyclical climate changes; ancient water turbulence; dramatic depth cycle changes; ancient uplift development; strong weathering of parent rock; and abundant supply. The shallow water braided river delta showed grain sediment granularity, plastic debris, and sediment with mature composition and structure that reflected the strong hydrodynamic environment of large tabular cross-bedding, wedge cross-bedding, and multiple positive rhythms superimposed to form a thick sand body layer. The branch river bifurcation developed underwater, and the thickness of the sand body increased further, indicating that the slope was slow and located in shallow water. The seismic responses of the braided river delta reflected strong shallow water performance, indicated by a progradation seismic reflection phase axis that was relatively flat; in addition, the seismic reflection amplitude was strong and continuous with a low angle and extended over considerable distances (up to 50 km). The sedimentary center was close to the provenance, the width of the river was large, and a shallow sedimentary structure and a sedimentary rhythm were developed. The development of the delta was primarily controlled by tectonic activity and changes in the lake level; as a result, the river delta sedimentary system eventually presented a "small plain, big front" character.

  17. Island forming processes in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, T. S.; Humphries, M. S.; Mahomed, I.; Le Roux, P.; Verhagen, B. Th.

    2012-12-01

    The Okavango Delta in Botswana is a large (40,000 km2) alluvial fan that is characterised by the presence of numerous tree-covered islands. Thought to originate from the mound-building activities of termites or through fluvial processes associated with development of scroll bars and inverted channels, islands have been shown to play an important role in the structure and functioning of the Delta through the creation of habitat diversity, focusing of nutrients, and disposal of toxic salts. This study investigates the processes responsible for the maintenance and growth of two such islands in the seasonal swamps. Transpiration by vegetation is shown to result in substantial increases in groundwater salinity beneath the islands, contributing to their growth through chemical precipitation. Detailed chemical analyses revealed that the precipitation of magnesian calcite and silica within the island soils contributes 30-40% of the total island volume. Isotopic analyses of carbonate samples show that vegetation plays an important role in providing carbon for carbonate precipitation. Variations in δ13C carbonate values appear to reflect the relative proportion of C3 to C4 plants on the island, with C4 species becoming more dominant toward island centres in response to increases in groundwater salinity. The study suggests that continued island growth is also related to the deposition of aerosols and the accumulation of dust preferentially on islands and possibly to ongoing termite activity. Tall trees that characterise the island margins trap dust carried from the floodplains, resulting particularly in the lateral growth of islands. Islands in the Okavango are considered to be the product of long-term aggradation processes, with the two islands studied estimated to be in the order of tens of thousands of years old.

  18. THE ALLIANCE FORMATION PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Whipple, Judith M.; Frankel, Robert

    1998-01-01

    While interest in developing strategic alliances within the food system continues to increase, there remains considerable risk when firms adopt such a cooperative strategy. The risk is due in part to the lack of concrete guidelines that illustrate the steps or stages of alliance development and the important strategic and operational decisions required at each stage. The existence of such guidelines would facilitate alliance formation and enable managers and researchers to better understand a...

  19. Cohesive Sedimentary Processes on River-Dominated Deltas: New Perspectives from the Mississippi River Delta Front, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, S. J.; Keller, G. P.; Obelcz, J.; Maloney, J. M.; Xu, K.; Georgiou, I. Y.; Miner, M. D.

    2016-12-01

    On river deltas dominated by proximal sediment accumulation (Mississippi, Huang He, others), the delta front region is commonly dominated by rapid accumulation of cohesive fluvial sediments, and mass-wasting processes that remobilize recently deposited sediments. Mass transport is preconditioned in sediments by high water content, biogenic gas production, over steepening, and is commonly triggered by strong wave loading and other processes. This understanding is based on extensive field studies in the 1970's and 80's. Recent studies of the Mississippi River Delta Front are yielding new perspectives on these processes, in a time of anthropogenically reduced sediment loads, rising sea level, and catastrophic deltaic land loss. We have synthesized many industry data sets collected since ca. 1980, and conducted new pilot field and modeling studies of sedimentary and morphodynamic processes. These efforts have yielded several key findings that diverge from historical understanding of this dynamic setting. First, delta distributary mouths have ceased seaward progradation, ending patterns that have been documented since the 18th century. Second, despite reduced sediment supply, offshore mass transport continues, yielding vertical displacements at rates of 1 m/y. This displacement is apparently forced by wave loading from storm events of near-annual return period, rather than major hurricanes that have been the focus of most previous studies. Third, core analysis indicates that this vertical displacement is occurring along failure planes >3 m in the seabed, rather than in more recently deposited sediments closer to the sediment-water interface. These seabed morphodynamics have the potential to destabilize both nearshore navigation infrastructure, and seabed hydrocarbon infrastructure offshore. As well, these findings raise more questions regarding the future seabed evolution offshore of major river deltas, in response to anthropogenic and climatic forcing.

  20. Process for fracturing underground formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiel, O M

    1974-01-25

    This invention concerns a process for fracturing underground formations and has as one object the mixing of viscous compositions. Through a borehole, a fluid is injected into the formation. This fluid contains a complex prepared by the reaction of an aliphatic quaternary ammonium compound with a water-soluble compound chosen from monosaccharides, disaccharides, trisaccharides, polysaccharides, and synthetic hydroxylated polymers with long chains. These complexes are formed at temperatures between 20/sup 0/ and 205/sup 0/C. The process also includes production of formation fluid into the borehole.

  1. Variability of tidal signals in the Brent Delta Front: New observations on the Rannoch Formation, northern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojie; Steel, Ronald J.; Ravnås, Rodmar; Jiang, Zaixing; Olariu, Cornel; Li, Zhiyang

    2016-04-01

    Detailed observations on the Rannoch Formation in several deep Viking Graben wells indicate that the 'classical' wave-dominated Brent delta-front shows coupled storm-tide processes. The tidal signals are of three types: I): alternations of thick cross-laminated sandstone and thin mud-draped sandstone, whereby double mud drapes are prominent but discretely distributed, II): a few tidal bundles within bottomsets and foresets of up to 10 cm-thick sets cross-strata, and III): dm-thick heterolithic lamination showing multiple, well-organized sand-mud couplets. During progradation of the Brent Delta, the Rannoch shoreline system passed upward from 1) a succession dominated by clean-water, storm-event sets and cosets frequently and preferentially interbedded with type I tidal beds, and occasional types II and III tidal deposits, toward 2) very clean storm-event beds less frequently separated by types II and III tidal beds, and then into 3) a thin interval showing muddier storm-event beds mainly alternating with type II tidal beds. It is likely that those variations in preservation bias of storm and tidal beds in each facies succession result from combined effects of 1) the frequency and duration of storms; 2) river discharge; and 3) the absolute and relative strength of tides. Tidal deposits are interpreted as inter-storm, fair-weather deposits, occurred preferentially in longer intermittent fair-weather condition and periods of lower river discharge, and well-pronounced in the distal-reach of delta-front. The formation and preservation of tidal signals between storm beds, indicate that the studied Rannoch Formation was most likely a storm-dominated, tide-influenced delta front 1) near the mouth of a large Brent river, where a significant tidal prism and high tidal range might be expected, and 2) in a setting where there were relatively high sedimentation rates associated with high local subsidence rates, so that the storm waves did not completely rework the inter

  2. The multifaceted planetesimal formation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Blum, Jürgen; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of dust and ice particles into planetesimals is an important step in the planet formation process. Planetesimals are the seeds of both terrestrial planets and the solid cores of gas and ice giants forming by core accretion. Left-over planetesimals in the form of asteroids, trans...... for planetesimal formation where particle growth starts unaided by self-gravity but later proceeds inside gravitationally collapsing pebble clumps to form planetesimals with a wide range of sizes....

  3. Construction and maintenance of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta: linking process, morphology, and stratigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Carol A; Goodbred, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    We present a review of the processes, morphology, and stratigraphy of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD), including insights gained from detailed elevation data. The review shows that the GBMD is best characterized as a composite system, with different regions having morphologic and stratigraphic attributes of an upland fluvial fan delta; a lowland, backwater-reach delta; a downdrift tidal delta plain; and an offshore subaqueous-delta clinoform. These distinct areas of upland and lowland fluvial reaches and tidal dominance vary in time and space, and we distinguish late-Holocene phases of delta construction, maintenance, and decline similar to delta-lobe cycling in other systems. The overall stability of the GBMD landform, relative to many deltas, reflects the efficient, widespread dispersal of sediment by the large monsoon discharge and high-energy tides that affect this region. However, we do identify portions of the delta that are in decline and losing elevation relative to sea level owing to insufficient sediment delivery. These areas, some of which are well inland of the coast, represent those most at risk to the continued effect of sea-level rise.

  4. Architectural elements from Lower Proterozoic braid-delta and high-energy tidal flat deposits in the Magaliesberg Formation, Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Patrick G.; Reczko, Boris F. F.; Jaco Boshoff, A.; Schreiber, Ute M.; Van der Neut, Markus; Snyman, Carel P.

    1995-06-01

    Three architectural elements are identified in the Lower Proterozoic Magaliesberg Formation (Pretoria Group, Transvaal Supergroup) of the Kaapvaal craton, South Africa: (1) medium- to coarse-grained sandstone sheets; (2) fine- to medium-grained sandstone sheets; and (3) mudrock elements. Both sandstone sheet elements are characterised by horizontal lamination and planar cross-bedding, with lesser trough cross-bedding, channel-fills and wave ripples, as well as minor desiccated mudrock partings, double-crested and flat-topped ripples. Due to the local unimodal palaeocurrent patterns in the medium- to coarse-grained sandstone sheets, they are interpreted as ephemeral braid-delta deposits, which were subjected to minor marine reworking. The predominantly bimodal to polymodal palaeocurrent trends in the fine- to medium-grained sandstone sheets are inferred to reflect high-energy macrotidal processes and more complete reworking of braid-delta sands. The suspension deposits of mudrocks point to either braid-delta channel abandonment, or uppermost tidal flat sedimentation. The depositional model comprises ephemeral braid-delta systems which debouched into a high-energy peritidal environment, around the margins of a shallow epeiric sea on the Kaapvaal craton. Braid-delta and tidal channel dynamics are inferred to have been similar. Fine material in the Magaliesberg Formation peritidal complexes indicates that extensive aeolian removal of clay does not seem applicable to this example of the early Proterozoic.

  5. Role of photoexcited nitrogen dioxide chemistry on ozone formation and emission control strategy over the Pearl River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new hydroxyl radical formation pathway via photo-excited nitrogen dioxide chemistry is incorporated into a chemistry-only box model as well as a 3D air quality model to examine its potential role on ozone formation and emission control strategy over the Pearl River Delta region...

  6. Accessing the Impact of Sea-Salt Emissions on Aerosol Chemical Formation and Deposition Over Pearl River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Q.; Wang, X.; Liu, Y.; Wu, D.; Chan, P. W.; Fan, S.; Feng, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Sea-salt aerosol (SSA) emissions have a significant impact on aerosol pollution and haze formation in the coastal areas. In this study, Models-3/CMAQ modeling system was utilized to access the impact of SSA emissions on aerosol chemical formation and deposition over Pearl River Delta (PRD), China in July 2006. More SSAs were transported inland from the open-ocean under the southeast wind in summertime. Two experiments (with and without SSA emissions in the CMAQ model) were set up to compare the modeling results with each other. The results showed that the increase of sulfate concentrations were more attributable to the primary emissions of coarse SO42- particles in SSA, while the increase of nitrate concentrations were more attributable to secondary chemical formations, known as the mechanisms of chloride depletion in SSA. In the coastal areas, 17.62 % of SO42-, 26.6% of NO3- and 38.2% of PM10 were attributed to SSA emissions, while those portions were less than 1% in the inland areas. The increases of PM10 and its components due to SSA emissions resulted in higher deposition fluxes over PRD, particularly in the coastal areas, except for the wet deposition of nitrate. Nitrate was more sensitive to SSA emissions in chemical formations than sulfate and dry deposition of aerosol was also more sensitive than that for wet deposition. Process analysis of sulfate and nitrate was applied to find out the difference of physical and chemical mechanisms between Guangzhou (the inland areas) and Zhuhai (the coastal areas). The negative contributions of dry deposition process to both sulfate and nitrate concentrations increased if SSA emissions were taken into account in the model, especially for Zhuhai. The negative contributions of cloud process also increased due to cloud scavenging and wet deposition process. In the coastal area, the gas-to-particle conversions became more active with high contributions of aerosol process to nitrate concentrations.

  7. Nuclear processing during star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary survey was conducted of the thermonuclear energy release expected during star formation. The destruction of primordial deuterium provides substantial amounts of energy at surprisingly low temperatures, and must be considered in any meaningful treatment of star formation carried to stages in which the internal temperature exceeds a few hundred thousand degrees. Significant energy generation from consumption of initial lithium requires higher temperatures, of the order of a few million degrees. Depletion of primordial beryllium and boron may never provide an important energy source. The approach to equilibrium of the carbon--nitrogen cycle is dominant at temperatures approaching those characteristic of the central regions of main sequence stars. The present calculation should serve as a useful guide in choosing those nuclear processes to be included in a more detailed study. 8 figures, 2 tables

  8. Analytical study of residual stress improvement method, delta-T process for small-diameter pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruki, Masaki; Aoike, Satoru; Okido, Shinobu; Fukuda, Yuka; Oritani, Naohiko

    2012-01-01

    In order to prevent initiation of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) at the inner surface of the butt-weld region of a small-diameter pipe, a residual stress improvement process called delta-T process has been developed. During delta-T process, the outer surface of pipe is heated by an external device and the inner surface is rapidly cooled by flashing water. The large thermal stress due to temperature difference between outer and inner surface could improve tensile stress to compressive one at inner surface. In this paper, the thermal elasto-plastic finite element analysis (FEA) was conducted to clarify the mechanism of delta-T process for piping system with 50A schedule 80 in nominal pipe size. The FEA results showed good agreements with experimentally measurements of temperature and residual stress in delta-T process. In addition, the management criterion to verify the application of delta-T process to piping system by measurement of temperature at outer surface of pipe was discussed by various parametric numerical analyses. (author)

  9. Accretion Processes in Star Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küffmeier, Michael

    for short-lived radionuclides that enrich the cloud as a result of supernova explosions of the massive stars allows us to analyze the distribution of the short-lived radionuclides around young forming stars. In contradiction to results from highly-idealized models, we find that the discrepancy in 26 Al...... that the accretion process of stars is heterogeneous in space, time and among different protostars. In some cases, disks form a few thousand years after stellar birth, whereas in other cases disk formation is suppressed due to efficient removal of angular momentum. Angular momentum is mainly transported outward...... with potentially observable fluctuations in the luminosity profile that are induced by variations in the accretion rate. Considering that gas inside protoplanetary disks is not fully ionized, I implemented a solver that accounts for nonideal MHD effects into a newly developed code framework called dispatch...

  10. Negative ion formation processes: A general review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1990-01-01

    The principal negative ion formation processes will be briefly reviewed. Primary emphasis will be placed on the more efficient and universal processes of charge transfer and secondary ion formation through non-thermodynamic surface ionization. 86 refs., 20 figs

  11. Restoring formation after leaching process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    A method of restoring a formation which had uranium and other mineral values extracted by an alkaline lixiviant comprises introducing a source of phosphate in an amount sufficient to lower the level of soluble uranium compounds below that previously existing in the formation by the formation of insoluble uranium phosphate compounds

  12. Using the RE-AIM Framework in formative evaluation and program planning for a nutrition intervention in the Lower Mississippi Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huye, Holly F; Connell, Carol L; Crook, LaShaundrea B; Yadrick, Kathy; Zoellner, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Identification of prominent themes to be considered when planning a nutrition intervention using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance framework. Qualitative formative research. Women's social and civic organizations in the Lower Mississippi Delta. Thirty-seven (5 white and 32 black) women with a college degree or higher. Impact of dietary and contextual factors related to the Lower Mississippi Delta culture on intervention planning. Case analysis strategy using question-by-question coding. Major themes that emerged were "healthy eating focus" and "promoting a healthy lifestyle" when recruiting organizations (Reach); "positive health changes" as a result of the intervention (Effectiveness); "logistics: time commitment, location, and schedule" to initiate a program (Adoption); "expense of healthy foods" and "cooking and meal planning" as barriers to participation (Implementation); and "resources and training" and "motivation" as necessary for program continuation (Maintenance). The "health of the Delta" theme was found across all dimensions, which reflected participants' compassion for their community. Results were used to develop an implementation plan promoting optimal reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a nutrition intervention. This research emphasizes the benefits of formative research using a systematic process at organizational and individual levels. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Protoneutron star formation with delta-resonance matter and trapped neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Jose Carlos Teixeira de; Souza, Ana Graice de; Duarte, Sergio Barbosa; Rodrigues, Hilario

    2009-01-01

    Full text: We discuss the proto-neutron star structure including delta-matter in its composition, and comparing the result with the same mass post-cooling compact object formed. The maximum mass values and corresponding configurations to pre and post-cooling situation are calculated and discussed face to variations in the coupling constants of delta-resonance with the mesons sigma, omega and rho in the context of the Relativistic Mean Field Theory (RMFT). The complete spin-1/2 sector is included solved consistently with the presence of the 3/2-spin delta-resonance quartet. (author)

  14. Design of the 12-bit Delta-Sigma Modulator using SC Technique for Vibration Sensor Output Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pavlik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with the design of the 12-bit Delta-Sigma modulator using switched capacitors (SC technique. The modulator serves to vibration sensor output processing. The first part describes the Delta-Sigma modulator parameters definition. Results of the proposed topology ideal model were presented as well. Next, the Delta-Sigma modulator circuitry on the transistor level was done. The ONSemiconductor I2T100 0.7 um CMOS technology was used for design. Then, the Delta-Sigma modulator nonidealities were simulated and implemented into the MATLAB ideal model of the modulator. The model of real Delta-Sigma modulator was derived. Consequently, modulator coefficients were optimized. Finally, the corner analysis of the Delta-Sigma modulator with the optimized coefficients was simulated. The value of SNDR = 82.2 dB (ENOB = 13.4 bits was achieved.

  15. Utilizing Integrated Prediction Error Filter Analysis (INPEFA) to divide base-level cycle of fan-deltas: A case study of the Triassic Baikouquan Formation in Mabei Slope Area, Mahu Depression, Junggar Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Rui; Zhu, Rui; Qu, Jianhua; Wu, Jun; You, Xincai; Sun, Yuqiu; Zhou, Yuanquan (Nancy)

    2018-05-01

    The Mahu Depression is an important hydrocarbon-bearing foreland sag located at the northwestern margin of the Junggar Basin, China. On the northern slope of the depression, large coarse-grained proximal fan-delta depositional systems developed in the Lower Triassic Baikouquan Formation (T1b). Some lithologic hydrocarbon reservoirs have been found in the conglomerates of the formation since recent years. However, the rapid vertical and horizontal lithology variations make it is difficult to divide the base-level cycle of the formation using the conventional methods. Spectral analysis technologies, such as Integrated Prediction Error Filter Analysis (INPEFA), provide another effective way to overcome this difficultly. In this paper, processed by INPEFA, conventional resistivity logs are utilized to study the base-level cycle of the fan-delta depositional systems. The negative trend of the INPEFA curve indicates the base-level fall semi-cycles, adversely, positive trend suggests the rise semi-cycles. Base-level cycles of Baikouquan Formation are divided in single and correlation wells. One long-term base-level rise semi-cycle, including three medium-term base-level cycles, is identified overall the Baikouquan Formation. The medium-term base-level cycles are characterized as rise semi-cycles mainly in the fan-delta plain, symmetric cycles in the fan-delta front and fall semi-cycles mainly in the pro-fan-delta. The short-term base-level rise semi-cycles most developed in the braided channels, sub-aqueous distributary channels and sheet sands. While, the interdistributary bays and pro-fan-delta mud indicate short-term base-level fall semi-cycles. Finally, based on the method of INPEFA, sequence filling model of Baikouquan formation is established.

  16. Negative ion formation and neutralization processes, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Toshio

    1982-01-01

    This review has been made preliminary for the purpose of contribute to the plasma heating by ''negative ion based neutral beam injection'' in the magnetic confinement fusion reactor. A compilation includes the survey of the general processes of negative ion formation, the data of the cross section of H - ion formation and the neutralization of H - ion, and some of new processes of H - ion formation. The data of cross section are mainly experimental, but partly include the results of theoretical calculation. (author)

  17. Processes and problems in secondary star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.I.; Whitaker, R.W.; Sandford, M.T. II.

    1984-03-01

    Recent developments relating the conditions in molecular clouds to star formation triggered by a prior stellar generation are reviewed. Primary processes are those that lead to the formation of a first stellar generation. The secondary processes that produce stars in response to effects caused by existing stars are compared and evaluated in terms of the observational data presently available. We discuss the role of turbulence to produce clumpy cloud structures and introduce new work on colliding inter-cloud gas flows leading to non-linear inhomogeneous cloud structures in an intially smooth cloud. This clumpy morphology has important consequences for secondary formation. The triggering processes of supernovae, stellar winds, and H II regions are discussed with emphasis on the consequences for radiation driven implosion as a promising secondary star formation mechanism. Detailed two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamic calculations of radiation driven implosion are discussed. This mechanism is shown to be highly efficient in synchronizing the formation of new stars in congruent to 1-3 x 10 4 years and could account for the recent evidence for new massive star formation in several UCHII regions. It is concluded that, while no single theory adequately explains the variety of star formation observed, a uniform description of star formation is likely to involve several secondary processes. Advances in the theory of star formation will require multiple dimensional calculations of coupled processes. The important non-linear interactions include hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and magnetic fields

  18. Processes and problems in secondary star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.I.; Whitaker, R.W.; Sandford, M.T. II

    1985-01-01

    Recent developments relating the conditions in molecular clouds to star formation triggered by a prior stellar generation are reviewed. Primary processes are those that lead to the formation of a first stellar generation. The secondary processes that produce stars in response to effects caused by existing stars are compared and evaluated in terms of observational data presently available. We discuss the role of turbulence to produce clumpy cloud structures and introduce new work on colliding intercloud gas flows leading to nonlinear inhomogeneous cloud structures in an initially smooth cloud. This clumpy morphology has important consequences for secondary formation. The triggering processes of supernovae, stellar winds, and H II regions are discussed with emphasis on the consequences for radiation-driven implosion as a promising secondary star formation mechanism. Detailed two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamic calculations of radiation-driven implosion are discussed. This mechanism is shown to be highly efficient in synchronizing the formation of new stars in -- 1-3 x 10/sup 4/ yr and could account for the recent evidence for new massive star formation in several ultracompact H II regions. It is concluded that, while no single theory adequately explains the variety of star formation observed, a uniform description of star formation is likely to involve several secondary processes. Advances in the theory of star formation will require multi-dimensional calculations of coupled processes. Important nonlinear interactions include hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and magnetic fields

  19. A Competitive Partnership Formation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Tommy; Gudmundsson, Jens; Talman, Adolphus; Yang, Zaifu

    2013-01-01

    A group of heterogeneous agents may form partnerships in pairs. All single agents as well as all partnerships generate values. If two agents choose to cooperate, they need to specify how to split their joint value among one another. In equilibrium, which may or may not exist, no agents have incentives to break up or form new partnerships. This paper proposes a dynamic competitive adjustment process that always either finds an equilibrium or exclusively disproves the existence of any equilibri...

  20. Disparate effects of p24alpha and p24delta on secretory protein transport and processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen R P M Strating

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The p24 family is thought to be somehow involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER-to-Golgi protein transport. A subset of the p24 proteins (p24alpha(3, -beta(1, -gamma(3 and -delta(2 is upregulated when Xenopus laevis intermediate pituitary melanotrope cells are physiologically activated to produce vast amounts of their major secretory cargo, the prohormone proopiomelanocortin (POMC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we find that transgene expression of p24alpha(3 or p24delta(2 specifically in the Xenopus melanotrope cells in both cases causes an effective displacement of the endogenous p24 proteins, resulting in severely distorted p24 systems and disparate melanotrope cell phenotypes. Transgene expression of p24alpha(3 greatly reduces POMC transport and leads to accumulation of the prohormone in large, ER-localized electron-dense structures, whereas p24delta(2-transgenesis does not influence the overall ultrastructure of the cells nor POMC transport and cleavage, but affects the Golgi-based processes of POMC glycomaturation and sulfation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Transgenic expression of two distinct p24 family members has disparate effects on secretory pathway functioning, illustrating the specificity and non-redundancy of our transgenic approach. We conclude that members of the p24 family furnish subcompartments of the secretory pathway with specific sets of machinery cargo to provide the proper microenvironments for efficient and correct secretory protein transport and processing.

  1. Compartmentalised expression of Delta-like 1 in epithelial somites is required for the formation of intervertebral joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gossler Achim

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression of the mouse Delta-like 1 (Dll1 gene in the presomitic mesoderm and in the caudal halves of somites of the developing embryo is required for the formation of epithelial somites and for the maintenance of caudal somite identity, respectively. The rostro-caudal polarity of somites is initiated early on within the presomitic mesoderm in nascent somites. Here we have investigated the requirement of restricted Dll1 expression in caudal somite compartments for the maintenance of rostro-caudal somite polarity and the morphogenesis of the axial skeleton. We did this by overexpressing a functional copy of the Dll1 gene throughout the paraxial mesoderm, in particular in anterior somite compartments, during somitogenesis in transgenic mice. Results Epithelial somites were generated normally and appeared histologically normal in embryos of two independent Dll1 over-expressing transgenic lines. Gene expression analyses of rostro-caudal marker genes suggested that over-expression of Dll1 without restriction to caudal compartments was not sufficient to confer caudal identity to rostral somite halves in transgenic embryos. Nevertheless, Dll1 over-expression caused dysmorphologies of the axial skeleton, in particular, in morphological structures that derive from the articular joint forming compartment of vertebrae. Accordingly, transgenic animals exhibited missing or reduced intervertebral discs, rostral and caudal articular processes as well as costal heads of ribs. In addition, the midline of the vertebral column did not develop normally. Transgenic mice had open neural arches and split vertebral bodies with ectopic pseudo-growth plates. Endochondral bone formation and ossification in the developing vertebrae were delayed. Conclusion The mice overexpressing Dll1 exhibit skeletal dysmorphologies that are also evident in several mutant mice with defects in somite compartmentalisation. The Dll1 transgenic mice demonstrate that

  2. Spatio-temporal distributions of delta18O, delta D and salinity in the Arabian Sea: Identifying processes and controls

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshpande, R.D; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Singh, R.L.; Kumar, B.; Rao, M.S.; Dave, M.; Sivakumar, K.U.; Gupta, S.K.

    the geographic distributions of the delta18O and S; (2) in spite of a large scatter, a statistically significant delta18O–S relationship can be identified in much of the investigated part of the AS; (3) the delta18Odelta...

  3. Thermodynamics and kinetics of vesicles formation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Vincenzo

    2010-12-15

    Vesicles are hollow aggregates, composed of bilayers of amphiphilic molecules, dispersed into and filled with a liquid solvent. These aggregates can be formed either as equilibrium or as out of equilibrium meta-stable structures and they exhibit a rich variety of different morphologies. The surprising richness of structures, the vast range of industrial applications and the presence of vesicles in a number of biological systems have attracted the interest of numerous researchers and scientists. In this article, we review both the thermodynamics and the kinetics aspects of the phenomena of formation of vesicles. We start presenting the thermodynamics of bilayer membranes formation and deformation, with the aim of deriving the conditions for the existence of equilibrium vesicles. Specifically, we use the results from continuum thermodynamics to discuss the possibility of formation of stable equilibrium vesicles, from both mixed amphiphiles and single component systems. We also link the bilayer membrane properties to the molecular structure of the starting amphiphiles. In the second part of this article, we focus on the dynamics and kinetics of vesiculation. We review the process of vesicles formation both from planar lamellar phase under shear and from isotropic micelles. In order to clarify the physical mechanisms of vesicles formation, we continuously draw a parallel between emulsification and vesiculation processes. Specifically, we compare the experimental results, the driving forces and the relative scaling laws identified for the two processes. Describing the dynamics of vesicles formation, we also discuss why non equilibrium vesicles can be formed by kinetics control and why they are meta-stable. Understanding how to control the properties, the stability and the formation process of vesicles is of fundamental importance for a vast number of industrial applications. Copyright © 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Challenges, Approaches and Experiences from Asian Deltas and the Rhine-Meuse Delta : Regional Training Workshop on Delta Planning and Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wosten, J.H.M.; Douven, W.; Long Phi, H.; Fida Abdullah Khan, M.

    2013-01-01

    River delta's, like the Mekong Delta (Vietnam), Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (Bangladesh), Ayeyarwady Delta (Myanmar), Nile (Egypt) and Ciliwung Delta (Indonesia) are developing rapidly and are characterised by large-scale urbanisation and industrialization processes. They are facing serious planning

  5. On the Universality of CP Violation in Delta F = 1 Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Gedalia, Oram; Ligeti, Zoltan; Perez, Gilad

    2012-01-01

    We show that new physics that breaks the left-handed SU(3)_Q quark flavor symmetry induces contributions to CP violation in Delta F = 1 processes which are approximately universal, in that they are not affected by flavor rotations between the up and the down mass bases. Therefore, such flavor violation cannot be aligned, and is constrained by the strongest bound from either the up or the down sectors. We use this result to show that the bound from eps'/eps prohibits an SU(3)_Q breaking explanation of the recent LHCb evidence for CP violation in D meson decays. Another consequence of this universality is that supersymmetric alignment models with a moderate mediation scale are consistent with the data, and are harder to probe via CP violating observables. With current constraints, therefore, squarks need not be degenerate. However, future improvements in the measurement of CP violation in D-Dbar mixing will start to probe alignment models.

  6. Investigating the neural processing of spatial summation of pain: the role of A-delta nociceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Netta; Granovsky, Yelena; Defrin, Ruth

    2015-02-01

    The underlying mechanism of spatial summation (SS) of pain, an essential component in pain perception and detection, is unknown. Because of the possible differential innervations by A-delta nociceptors and pain sensitivity of hairy and glabrous skin, a comparison of the SS characteristics between the two skin types could contribute to the elucidation of its subserving system and processing. The effect of sex on SS of pain was also evaluated due to the scarcity of information on the subject. Twenty-nine healthy subjects (13 males, 16 females) received four series of heat stimuli of various intensities, in hairy and glabrous skin of the hand using large (27 mm diameter) and small (12 mm) stimulation areas, and the perceived pain intensity (PPI) was rated. A fast temperature increase rate (70°/s) was used in order to selectively activate A-delta nociceptors. The effect of skin type, stimulation intensity and sex on SS and PPI was calculated. Skin type significantly affected PPI and SS of pain; values of both variables were significantly greater in hairy compared with glabrous skin. SS of pain gradually increased concomitantly with stimulation intensity magnitude, to a point when it became saturated in both skin types. Females exhibited greater SS in glabrous skin. It would appear that AMH-II nociceptive fibers in particular subserve SS of pain. Furthermore, SS is increased under stronger stimulation intensities, probably as defense mechanism against tissue damage. Sex differences in dynamic sensory processes such as SS are revealed only under conditions where the phenomenon is subtle (as in glabrous skin).

  7. Impact of human interventions and coastal processes along the Nile Delta coast, Egypt during the past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham M. Ali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The coastal zone of the Nile Delta lodges highly populated cities (e.g. Alexandria, Port Said together with small towns and villages. It represents the major industrial, agricultural, and economic resource of the country. The area has been subjected to extensive and excessive unplanned developmental projects to foster the economic status of the local communities that, however, negatively impacted both land use and land cover characteristics. Satellite images were processed to identify the dominant land use/cover classes (from 1990 to 2014 and GIS techniques spatially analyzed and quantified the rate of changes. Five dominant classes were identified and their changes monitored against the unprecedented human activities. Results demonstrated a significant rate of land forms transformation within the last 25 years, in favor of developing of fish farming (+13% and urban (+22%. Such development of these land use classes was unfortunately at the expense of the agricultural land (−15%, coastal dune and barren land (−13% and water bodies (−7%. In addition, the coastal processes have made significant changes in the shoreline creating areas of erosion (maximum of 24–36 m/year and others of accretion (a total accreted area of 3.14 km2 with an overall retreat of 2.7 km2 along the shoreline. The expected changes in climate and sea level rise will worsen the erosion rate and the general status of the coastal zone. Based on the IPCC scenarios (i.e. the 59 cm sea level rise by the end of this century and the proposed land subsidence (2.5 mm/year, one fifth of the Nile Delta will be seriously vulnerable to inundation.

  8. Delta, theta, beta, and gamma brain oscillations index levels of auditory sentence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Guangting; Minett, James W; Wang, William S-Y

    2016-06-01

    A growing number of studies indicate that multiple ranges of brain oscillations, especially the delta (δ, processing. It is not clear, however, how these oscillations relate to functional processing at different linguistic hierarchical levels. Using scalp electroencephalography (EEG), the current study tested the hypothesis that phonological and the higher-level linguistic (semantic/syntactic) organizations during auditory sentence processing are indexed by distinct EEG signatures derived from the δ, θ, β, and γ oscillations. We analyzed specific EEG signatures while subjects listened to Mandarin speech stimuli in three different conditions in order to dissociate phonological and semantic/syntactic processing: (1) sentences comprising valid disyllabic words assembled in a valid syntactic structure (real-word condition); (2) utterances with morphologically valid syllables, but not constituting valid disyllabic words (pseudo-word condition); and (3) backward versions of the real-word and pseudo-word conditions. We tested four signatures: band power, EEG-acoustic entrainment (EAE), cross-frequency coupling (CFC), and inter-electrode renormalized partial directed coherence (rPDC). The results show significant effects of band power and EAE of δ and θ oscillations for phonological, rather than semantic/syntactic processing, indicating the importance of tracking δ- and θ-rate phonetic patterns during phonological analysis. We also found significant β-related effects, suggesting tracking of EEG to the acoustic stimulus (high-β EAE), memory processing (θ-low-β CFC), and auditory-motor interactions (20-Hz rPDC) during phonological analysis. For semantic/syntactic processing, we obtained a significant effect of γ power, suggesting lexical memory retrieval or processing grammatical word categories. Based on these findings, we confirm that scalp EEG signatures relevant to δ, θ, β, and γ oscillations can index phonological and semantic/syntactic organizations

  9. On the ENDF Formats and Data Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trkov, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The ENDF formats have served the community of nuclear data users from different fields of applications quite well for decades. Enormous effort has been devoted to the development and validation of the processing codes. Although there is no urgent need for a rapid transition to something completely new, there are signs that the current ENDF format is being pushed close to its limits. The time is right to look for a modern replacement, with due consideration for the following: - Development of data processing capabilities, starting from the data in the new format. - Backward compatibility through robust translation codes between the new and the old format until the majority of processing tools have been adequately validated. - Standardisation of the format features on the international level to maintain the possibility of easy data comparison and exchange. The NJOY Data Processing System is the most versatile and widely used code system for generating application libraries. The AMPX system is mainly used for generating libraries for codes from Oak Ridge. The Pre-Pro codes are found to be very robust, but their main purpose is data verification, validation and display. These codes do a good job for the present scope of applications, but current trend rely heavily on Monte Carlo simulations and sensitivity/uncertainty calculations. Further developments in the data processing tools should reflect these trends, focusing on the following: - Further verification and validation of covariance processing methods. - Development of a common tool for generating a global covariance matrix of nuclear data, including all available cross-reaction and cross-material correlations. - Consider if we can move away from histogram covariance representation into a piecewise linear domain. - Having a 'global' covariance matrix (that can include the covariance matrix of the resonance parameters), pursue the development of a common tool for statistical sampling of the cross sections and other

  10. Ecological Vulnerability Assessment Based on Fuzzy Analytical Method and Analytic Hierarchy Process in Yellow River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunsheng; Liu, Gaohuan; Huang, Chong; Liu, Qingsheng; Guan, Xudong

    2018-04-25

    The Yellow River Delta (YRD), located in Yellow River estuary, is characterized by rich ecological system types, and provides habitats or migration stations for wild birds, all of which makes the delta an ecological barrier or ecotone for inland areas. Nevertheless, the abundant natural resources of YRD have brought huge challenges to the area, and frequent human activities and natural disasters have damaged the ecological systems seriously, and certain ecological functions have been threatened. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the status of the ecological environment based on scientific methods, which can provide scientifically robust data for the managers or stakeholders to adopt timely ecological protection measures. The aim of this study was to obtain the spatial distribution of the ecological vulnerability (EV) in YRD based on 21 indicators selected from underwater status, soil condition, land use, landform, vegetation cover, meteorological conditions, ocean influence, and social economy. In addition, the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) method was used to obtain the weights of the selected indicators, and a fuzzy logic model was constructed to obtain the result. The result showed that the spatial distribution of the EV grades was regular, while the fuzzy membership of EV decreased gradually from the coastline to inland area, especially around the river crossing, where it had the lowest EV. Along the coastline, the dikes had an obviously protective effect for the inner area, while the EV was higher in the area where no dikes were built. This result also showed that the soil condition and groundwater status were highly related to the EV spatially, with the correlation coefficients −0.55 and −0.74 respectively, and human activities had exerted considerable pressure on the ecological environment.

  11. Eutectic gamma (Nickel)/gamma vprime(Nickel Aluminide) delta (Nickel Niobium) polycrystalline nickel-base superalloys: Chemistry, processing, microstructure and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mengtao

    Directionally solidified (D.S.) gamma(Ni)/gamma'(Ni 3A1)-delta(Ni3Nb) eutectic alloys were considered as candidate turbine blade materials. Currently, the properties of polycrystalline gamma/gamma'-delta alloys are of interest as they inherit many advantageous attributes from the D.S. gamma/gamma'-delta alloys. This thesis is therefore dedicated towards the development of a fundamental understanding of these novel eutectic alloys from several important perspectives. This thesis will first be focused on quantifying the effect of several elements. A set of Ni-Cr-Al-Nb alloy compositions with increasing levels of Cr was designed to investigate the influence of Cr on the primary phase formation, solidus and liquidus temperatures and g-d eutectic morphology. A matrix of complex gamma/gamma'-delta alloy compositions with the same (Ta+Nb) content but varying Ta/Nb ratios was designed to study the influence of Ta on elemental segregation and solid state partitioning behaviors. Thermodynamic predicaitons using the Computherm Pandat database (PanNi7) were compared to experimental results in these investigations. The second part of this thesis will provide a more general understanding of the effects of common elements. A large number of experimental alloys covering a broad range of compositions were selected for the analysis. Important alloy attributes were characterized as a function of element concentration. Linear regression analysis was performed to reveal the relative effectiveness of different elements. An extensive comparison between the experimental observations and Pandat predictions was provided to critically evaluate the strength and weakness of existing thermodynamic database model in this novel alloy system. The last part of this thesis emphasizes the development of cast and wrought processes for cast gamma/gamma'-delta alloys as a cost effective alternative to the powder metallurgy route. Hot rolling of workpieces encapsulated within a steel can was performed on

  12. Uranium in a recent phosphorite formation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baturin, G N; Dubinchuk, V I; Kochenov, A V

    1986-01-01

    Uranium behaviour in the process of nowadays phosphorite formation in the sediments of Namibia shelf is considered. The material collected during the 3-d trip of the research vessel ''Akademik Kurchatov'' and 26-th trip of the research vessel ''Mikhail Lomonosov'' is used. The samples from three geological stations 2046, 2047 and 2048 from the depths of 78-87 m have been investigated. Each sample (mass from 0.2 to 0.3 kg) is composed of several samples representing unified genetic series: holocene diatomic silts enclosing phosphorites - phosphatized silts - phosphorite concretions. Uranium has been determined by the X-ray spectral method; phosphorus, organic carbon and other components - by the chemical analysis. Uranium forms investigated by the combination of methods of electron microscopy, microdiffraction, microradioautography and microsounding. Uranium content in nowadays phosphorites at the shelf is 3-106 g/t. Uranium accumulation in phosphorites at the initial stages of their formation is controlled by its content in host sediments. In the course of litification of diagenetic phosphate concretions the uranium content in them varies from 40 to 80 g/t. The uranium concentration process in phosphorites is accompanied by formation of independent mineral phases of uranium oxide and ningyoite type.

  13. Optimization of welding current waveform for dissimilar material with DP590 and Al5052 by Delta-spot welding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Sun; Kim, In Ju; Kim, Young Gon [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The automotive industry has a target goal to improve fuel consumption due to restricted exhaust gas regulation. For this reason, the applicability of lightweight material, Al alloys, Mg alloys is also being expanded. In this concept, high strength steel, DP590 and light alloy, AL5052 are joined in the right place of the car body. However, it is difficult to join to steel and aluminum by conventional fusion welding. Generally, in respect to dissimilar metal joining by fusion welding, intermetallic compound layer is formed at the joint interface, hot cracking is generated. In this study, the effect of the current waveform on the mechanical characteristics and microstructure in Delta spot welding process of dissimilar metal was investigated. As results, Intermetallic compound (IMC) layer was reduced from 2.355 μm to 1.09 μm by using Delta spot welding process; also the welding current range improved by 50% in the delta spot welding, higher than in the inverter resistance welding. To conclude, the delta spot welding process adopting the process tapes contributes to improving the welding quality for dissimilar metals (Al5052 and DP590) due to a decrease in IMC layer.

  14. Grain processes in massive star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfire, M.G.; Cassinelli, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Observational evidence suggests that stars greater than 100 M(solar) exist in the Galaxy and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), however classical star formation theory predicts stellar mass limits of only approx. 60 M(solar). A protostellar accretion flow consists of inflowing gas and dust. Grains are destroyed as they are near the central protostar creating a dust shell or cocoon. Radiation pressure acting on the grain can halt the inflow of material thereby limiting the amount of mass accumulated by the protostar. We first consider rather general constraints on the initial grain to gas ratio and mass accretion rates that permit inflow. We further constrain these results by constructing a numerical model. Radiative deceleration of grains and grain destruction processes are explicitly accounted for in an iterative solution of the radiation-hydrodynamic equations. Findings seem to suggest that star formation by spherical accretion requires rather extreme preconditioning of the grain and gas environment

  15. Kinetics modeling of delta-ferrite formation and retainment during casting of supermartensitic stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nießen, Frank; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Hald, John

    2017-01-01

    The kinetics model for multi-component diffusion DICTRA was applied to analyze the formation and retainment of δ-ferrite during solidification and cooling of GX4-CrNiMo-16-5-1 cast supermartensitic stainless steel. The obtained results were compared with results from the Schaeffler diagram......, equilibrium calculations and the Scheil model in Thermo-Calc, and validated by using microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy for chemical analysis on a cast ingot. The kinetics model showed that micro-segregation from solidification homogenizes within 2–3 s (70 °C) of cooling, and that retained δ...

  16. Understanding Nearshore Processes Of a Large Arctic Delta Using Combined Seabed Mapping, In Situ Observations, Remote Sensing and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, S. M.; Couture, N. J.; Forbes, D. L.; Hoque, A.; Jenner, K. A.; Lintern, G.; Mulligan, R. P.; Perrie, W. A.; Stevens, C. W.; Toulany, B.; Whalen, D.

    2009-12-01

    The Mackenzie River Delta and the adjacent continental shelf in the southeastern Beaufort Sea are known to host significant quantities of hydrocarbons. Recent environmental reviews of proposed hydrocarbon development have highlighted the need for a better understanding of the processes that control sediment transport and coastal stability. Over the past several years field surveys have been undertaken in winter, spring and summer to acquire data on seabed morphology, sediment properties, sea ice, river-ocean interaction and nearshore oceanography. These data are being used to improve conceptual models of nearshore processes and to develop and validate numerical models of waves, circulation and sediment transport. The timing and location of sediment erosion, transport and deposition is complex, driven by a combination of open water season storms and spring floods. Unlike temperate counterparts, the interaction between the Mackenzie River and the Beaufort Sea during spring freshet is mediated by the presence of ice cover. Increasing discharge exceeds the under-ice flow capacity leading to flooding of the ice surface, followed by vortex drainage through the ice and scour of the seabed below (“strudel” drainage and scour). During winter months, nearshore circulation slows beneath a thickening ice canopy. Recent surveys have shown that the low gradient inner shelf is composed of extensive shoals where ice freezes to the seabed and intervening zones which are slightly deeper than the ice is thick. The duration of ice contact with the bed determines the thermal characteristics of the seabed. Analysis of cores shows that the silts comprising the shoals are up to 6 m thick. The predominantly well sorted and cross-laminated nature of the silts at the top of the cores suggests an active delta front environment. Measurements of waves, currents, conductivity, temperature and sediment concentration during spring and late summer have been acquired. During moderate August

  17. Formation of Y(x)Nd(1-x) Ba2Cu3O(7-delta) (0 = or Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, D. E.; Hofmeister, W. H.; Bayuzick, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    Melt processing of RE123 superconductors has gained importance in recent years. While the first high temperature superconductors (HTSCs) were made using traditional ceramic press and sinter technology, recent fabrication efforts have employed alternate processing techniques including laser ablation and ion beam assisted deposition for thin film fabrication of tapes and wires and melt growth for bulk materials. To optimize these techniques and identify other potential processing strategies, phase relation studies on HTSCs have been conducted on a wide variety of superconducting compounds using numerous processing strategies. This data has enhanced the understanding of these complex systems and allowed more accurate modeling of phase interactions. All of this research has proved useful in identifying processing capabilities for HTSCs but has failed to achieve a breakthrough for wide spread application of these materials. This study examines the role of full to partial substitution of Nd in the Y123 structure under rapid solidification conditions. Aero-acoustic levitation (AAL) was used to levitate and undercool RE123 in pure oxygen binary alloys with RE = Nd an Y along a range of compositions corresponding to Y(x)Nd(1-x) Ba2Cu3O(7-delta) (0 = or < x < or = 0.7) which were melted by a CO2 laser. Higher Y content spheres could not be melted in the AAL and were excluded from this report. Solidification structures were examined using scanning electron microscopy, electron dispersive spectroscopy, and powder x-ray diffraction to characterize microstructures and identify phases.

  18. Utilizing borehole electrical images to interpret lithofacies of fan-delta: A case study of Lower Triassic Baikouquan Formation in Mahu Depression, Junggar Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Rui; Zhang, Changmin; Tang, Yong; Qu, Jianhua; Guo, Xudong; Sun, Yuqiu; Zhu, Rui; Zhou, Yuanquan (Nancy)

    2017-11-01

    Large-scale conglomerate fan-delta aprons were typical deposits on the slope of Mahu Depression during the Early Triassic. Without outcrops, it is difficult to study the lithofacies only by examining the limited cores from the main oil-bearing interval of the Baikouquan Formation. Borehole electrical imaging log provides abundant high-resolution geologic information that is obtainable only from real rocks previously. Referring to the lithology and sedimentary structure of cores, a case study of fan-deltas in the Lower Triassic Baikouquan Formation of the Mahu Depression presents a methodology for interpreting the complicated lithofacies utilizing borehole electrical images. Eleven types of lithologies and five types of sedimentary structures are summarized in borehole electrical images. The sediments are fining upward from gravel to silt and clay in the Baikouquan Formation. Fine-pebbles and granules are the main deposits in T1b1 and T1b2, but sandstones, siltstones and mudstones are more developed in T1b3. The main sedimentary textures are massive beddings, cross beddings and scour-and-fill structures. Parallel and horizontal beddings are more developed in T1b3 relatively. On integrated analysis of the lithology and sedimentary structure, eight lithofacies from electrical images, referred to as image lithofacies, is established for the fan-deltas. Granules to coarse-pebbles within massive beddings, granules to coarse-pebbles within cross and parallel beddings, siltstones within horizontal and massive beddings are the most developed lithofacies respectively in T1b1, T1b2 and T1b3. It indicates a gradual rise of the lake level of Mahu depression during the Early Triassic, with the fan-delta aprons retrograding towards to the margin of the basin. Therefore, the borehole electrical imaging log compensate for the limitation of cores of the Baikouquan Formation, providing an effective new approach to interpret the lithofacies of fan-delta.

  19. Utilizing borehole electrical images to interpret lithofacies of fan-delta: A case study of Lower Triassic Baikouquan Formation in Mahu Depression, Junggar Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Rui

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale conglomerate fan-delta aprons were typical deposits on the slope of Mahu Depression during the Early Triassic. Without outcrops, it is difficult to study the lithofacies only by examining the limited cores from the main oil-bearing interval of the Baikouquan Formation. Borehole electrical imaging log provides abundant high-resolution geologic information that is obtainable only from real rocks previously. Referring to the lithology and sedimentary structure of cores, a case study of fan-deltas in the Lower Triassic Baikouquan Formation of the Mahu Depression presents a methodology for interpreting the complicated lithofacies utilizing borehole electrical images. Eleven types of lithologies and five types of sedimentary structures are summarized in borehole electrical images. The sediments are fining upward from gravel to silt and clay in the Baikouquan Formation. Fine-pebbles and granules are the main deposits in T1b1 and T1b2, but sandstones, siltstones and mudstones are more developed in T1b3. The main sedimentary textures are massive beddings, cross beddings and scour-and-fill structures. Parallel and horizontal beddings are more developed in T1b3 relatively. On integrated analysis of the lithology and sedimentary structure, eight lithofacies from electrical images, referred to as image lithofacies, is established for the fan-deltas. Granules to coarse-pebbles within massive beddings, granules to coarse-pebbles within cross and parallel beddings, siltstones within horizontal and massive beddings are the most developed lithofacies respectively in T1b1, T1b2 and T1b3. It indicates a gradual rise of the lake level of Mahu depression during the Early Triassic, with the fan-delta aprons retrograding towards to the margin of the basin. Therefore, the borehole electrical imaging log compensate for the limitation of cores of the Baikouquan Formation, providing an effective new approach to interpret the lithofacies of fan-delta.

  20. A high yield process for hydrate formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giavarini, C.; Maccioni, F. [Univ. of Roma La Sapienza, Roma (Italy). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Due to the large quantities of natural gas stored in deep ocean hydrates, hydrate reservoirs are a substantial energy resource. Hydrates concentrate methane by as much as a factor of 164. As such, several natural gas transportation and storage systems using gas hydrates have been studied, and many of them are nearing practical use. In these systems, the hydrate is produced as a slurry by a spray process at approximately 7 megapascal (MPa), and then shaped into pellets. The use of a spray process, instead of a conventional stirred vessel is necessary in order to reach high hydrate concentrations in the hydrate-ice system. This paper presented a new procedure to produce a bulk of concentrated methane hydrate in a static traditional reactor at moderate pressure, controlling pressure and temperature in the interval between ice melting and the hydrate equilibrium curve. This paper discussed the experimental procedure which included formation of methane hydrate at approximately 5 MPa and 2 degrees Celsius in a reaction calorimeter at a volume of two liters. Results were also discussed. It was concluded that the procedure seemed suitable for the development of a gas hydrate storage and transport technology. It was found that the spray procedure took more time, but could be sped up and made continuous by using two vessels, one for hydrate formation and the other for hydrate concentration. The advantage was the production of a concentrated hydrate, using a simpler equipment and working at lower pressures respect to the spray process. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Mixing state of oxalic acid containing particles in the rural area of Pearl River Delta, China: implications for the formation mechanism of oxalic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cheng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The formation of oxalic acid and its mixing state in atmospheric particulate matter (PM were studied using a single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS in the summer and winter of 2014 in Heshan, a supersite in the rural area of the Pearl River Delta (PRD region in China. Oxalic-acid-containing particles accounted for 2.5 and 2.7 % in total detected ambient particles in summer and winter, respectively. Oxalic acid was measured in particles classified as elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, elemental and organic carbon (ECOC, biomass burning (BB, heavy metal (HM, secondary (Sec, sodium-potassium (NaK, and dust. Oxalic acid was found predominantly mixing with sulfate and nitrate during the whole sampling period, likely due to aqueous-phase reactions. In summer, oxalic-acid-containing particle number and ozone concentration followed a very similar trend, which may reflect the significant contribution of photochemical reactions to oxalic acid formation. The HM particles were the most abundant oxalic acid particles in summer and the diurnal variations in peak area of iron and oxalic acid show opposite trends, which suggests a possible loss of oxalic acid through the photolysis of iron oxalato-complexes during the strong photochemical activity period. In wintertime, carbonaceous particles contained a substantial amount of oxalic acid as well as abundant carbon clusters and BB markers. The general existence of nitric acid in oxalic-acid-containing particles indicates an acidic environment during the formation process of oxalic acid. The peak areas of nitrate, sulfate and oxalic had similar temporal change in the carbonaceous type oxalic acid particles, and the organosulfate-containing oxalic acid particles correlated well with total oxalic acid particles during the haze episode, which suggests that the formation of oxalic acid is closely associated with the oxidation of organic precursors in the aqueous phase.

  2. Process analysis of regional aerosol pollution during spring in the Pearl River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qi; Lan, Jing; Liu, Yiming; Wang, Xuemei; Chan, Pakwai; Hong, Yingying; Feng, Yerong; Liu, Yexin; Zeng, Yanjun; Liang, Guixiong

    2015-12-01

    A numerical simulation analysis was performed for three air pollution episodes in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region during March 2012 using the third-generation air quality modeling system Models-3/CMAQ. The results demonstrated that particulate matter was the primary pollutant for all three pollution episodes and was accompanied by relatively low visibility in the first two episodes. Weather maps indicate that the first two episodes occurred under the influence of warm, wet southerly air flow systems that led to high humidity throughout the region. The liquid phase reaction of gaseous pollutants resulted in the generation of fine secondary particles, which were identified as the primary source of pollution in the first two episodes. The third pollution episode occurred during a warming period following a cold front. Relative humidity was lower during this episode, and coarse particles were the major pollution contributor. Results of process analysis indicated that emissions sources, horizontal transport and vertical transport were the primary factors affecting pollutant concentrations within the near-surface layer during all three episodes, while aerosol processes, cloud processes, horizontal transport and vertical transport had greater influence at approximately 900 m above ground. Cloud processes had a greater impact during the first two pollution episodes because of the higher relative humidity. In addition, by comparing pollution processes from different cities (Guangzhou and Zhongshan), the study revealed that the first two pollution episodes were the result of local emissions within the PRD region and transport between surrounding cities, while the third episode exhibited prominent regional pollution characteristics and was the result of regional pollutant transport.

  3. Multiscale heterogeneity characterization of tidal channel, tidal delta and foreshore facies, Almond Formation outcrops, Rock Springs uplift, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatzinger, R.A.; Tomutsa, L. [BDM Petroleum Technologies, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In order to accurately predict fluid flow within a reservoir, variability in the rock properties at all scales relevant to the specific depositional environment needs to be taken into account. The present work describes rock variability at scales from hundreds of meters (facies level) to millimeters (laminae) based on outcrop studies of the Almond Formation. Tidal channel, tidal delta and foreshore facies were sampled on the eastern flank of the Rock Springs uplift, southeast of Rock Springs, Wyoming. The Almond Fm. was deposited as part of a mesotidal Upper Cretaceous transgressive systems tract within the greater Green River Basin. Bedding style, lithology, lateral extent of beds of bedsets, bed thickness, amount and distribution of depositional clay matrix, bioturbation and grain sorting provide controls on sandstone properties that may vary more than an order of magnitude within and between depositional facies in outcrops of the Almond Formation. These features can be mapped on the scale of an outcrop. The products of diagenesis such as the relative timing of carbonate cement, scale of cemented zones, continuity of cemented zones, selectively leached framework grains, lateral variability of compaction of sedimentary rock fragments, and the resultant pore structure play an equally important, although less predictable role in determining rock property heterogeneity. A knowledge of the spatial distribution of the products of diagenesis such as calcite cement or compaction is critical to modeling variation even within a single facies in the Almond Fin. because diagenesis can enhance or reduce primary (depositional) rock property heterogeneity. Application of outcrop heterogeneity models to the subsurface is greatly hindered by differences in diagenesis between the two settings. The measurements upon which this study is based were performed both on drilled outcrop plugs and on blocks.

  4. Event-related delta, theta, alpha and gamma correlates to auditory oddball processing during Vipassana meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Arnaud; Polich, John

    2013-01-01

    Long-term Vipassana meditators sat in meditation vs. a control (instructed mind wandering) states for 25 min, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded and condition order counterbalanced. For the last 4 min, a three-stimulus auditory oddball series was presented during both meditation and control periods through headphones and no task imposed. Time-frequency analysis demonstrated that meditation relative to the control condition evinced decreased evoked delta (2–4 Hz) power to distracter stimuli concomitantly with a greater event-related reduction of late (500–900 ms) alpha-1 (8–10 Hz) activity, which indexed altered dynamics of attentional engagement to distracters. Additionally, standard stimuli were associated with increased early event-related alpha phase synchrony (inter-trial coherence) and evoked theta (4–8 Hz) phase synchrony, suggesting enhanced processing of the habituated standard background stimuli. Finally, during meditation, there was a greater differential early-evoked gamma power to the different stimulus classes. Correlation analysis indicated that this effect stemmed from a meditation state-related increase in early distracter-evoked gamma power and phase synchrony specific to longer-term expert practitioners. The findings suggest that Vipassana meditation evokes a brain state of enhanced perceptual clarity and decreased automated reactivity. PMID:22648958

  5. delta. -isobars and photodisintegration at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzumura, Jun-ichi; Futami, Yasuhiko [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Noda, Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    1982-12-01

    The dynamics of the peak considered to be due to the two-nucleon process in the reaction /sup 9/Be(gamma, p) anything is investigated with the quasi-deuteron model. We show that the process is dominated by a two-nucleon mechanism with pion and rho-meson exchange through virtual delta-isobar formation (author).

  6. Processes Affecting Agricultural Drainwater Quality and Organic Carbon Loads in California's Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Deverel

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available From 2000 to 2003 we quantified drain flow, drain-and ground-water chemistry and hydrogeologic conditions on Twitchell Island in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. The primary objective was to quantify processes affecting organic carbon concentrations and loads in agricultural drainage water. We collected physical and chemical data in southern and northern areas: TN and TS, respectively. Corn grew in both areas during the spring and summer. The peat soils in the TN area are more decomposed than those in the TS area. Results elucidate processes affecting drain flow and concentrations under varying hydrologic conditions. During May through November, groundwater flows from the permanently saturated zone to drainage ditches, and the resulting average drainage-water quality and dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentration was similar to the groundwater; the median DOC loads in the TN and TS study areas ranged from 9 to 27 g C/ha-day. The major ion chemistry and stable isotope data confirmed that groundwater was the primary source of drainflow. In contrast, during December through April the drainwater is supplied from the shallow, variably saturated soil-zone. The DOC concentrations, major-ion chemistry, and stable isotope data indicate that the shallow-zone water is partially evaporated and oxidized. Higher flows and DOC concentrations during these months result in higher median DOC loads, which ranged from 84 to 280 g C/ha-day. During December through April, increasing groundwater levels in the shallow peat layers and mobilization of organic carbon result in high drain flow and increased trihalomethane precursor concentrations and loads. On a per mass DOC basis, drain water collected during high flow periods is less likely to form THMs than during low flow periods. However, the high flows and subsequent high concentrations contribute to substantially higher trihalomethane precursor and DOC loads.

  7. Fragmentation of delta-diketones by electron impact. Olefin elimination and formation of an enol acetate ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morizur, J.P.; Mercier, J.; Casals, P.F.

    1985-01-01

    Under electron impact delta-diketones lose an olefin. The mechanism and structure of the resulting ion have been established by several techniques: substitution, Mike and Cid spectra and thermochemical data [fr

  8. Chemical composition, sources and evolution processes of aerosol at an urban site in Yangtze River Delta, China during wintertime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunjiang; Tang, Lili; Yu, Hongxia; Wang, Zhuang; Sun, Yele; Qin, Wei; Chen, Wentai; Chen, Changhong; Ding, Aijun; Wu, Jing; Ge, Shun; Chen, Cheng; Zhou, Hong-cang

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the composition, sources and evolution processes of submicron aerosol during wintertime, a field experiment was conducted during December 1-31, 2013 in urban Nanjing, a megacity in Yangtze River Delta of China. Non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) species were measured with an Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. NR-PM1 is dominated by secondary inorganic aerosol (55%) and organic aerosol (OA, 42%) during haze periods. Six OA components were identified by positive matrix factorization of the OA mass spectra. The hydrocarbon-like OA and cooking-related OA represent the local traffic and cooking sources, respectively. A highly oxidized factor related to biomass burning OA accounted for 15% of the total OA mass during haze periods. Three types of oxygenated OA (OOA), i.e., a less-oxidized OOA (LO-OOA), a more-oxidized OOA (MO-OOA), and a low-volatility OOA (LV-OOA), were identified. LO-OOA is likely associated with fresh urban secondary OA. MO-OOA likely represents photochemical products showing a similar diurnal cycle to nitrate with a pronounced noon peak. LV-OOA appears to be a more oxidized factor with a pronounced noon peak. The OA composition is dominated by secondary species, especially during haze events. LO-OOA, MO-OOA and LV-OOA on average account for 11%, (18%), 24% (21%) and 23% (18%) of the total OA mass for the haze (clean) periods respectively. Analysis of meteorological influence suggested that regional transport from the northern and southeastern areas of the city is responsible for large secondary and low-volatility aerosol formation.

  9. The Formation of Data on Nanotechnological Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleynik Olga Stepanovna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the statistical monitoring of the main trends of nanotechnology development in Russia, as well as the review of the modern programs and documents devoted to urgent issues of nanotechnology development. The formation of system of statistical monitoring of nanotechnologies development in the Russian Federation includes the development of methodology and tools of statistical supervision over creation, commercialization, the use of nanotechnologies, and also the nanotechnological production. The authors carry out the analysis of the main directions and structure of co-funding of “The Program of nanotech industry development in the Russian Federation till 2015”. The sources of official statistical data on nanotechnologies in Russia are considered. The purpose of forming this essentially new direction of statistics consists in the creation of system of collecting, processing and submission of the regular, systematized and complex data which are adequately reflecting the state, the level of development and the prospects of nanotechnological sphere capacity which provide informational support to state policy and adoption of reasonable administrative decisions. The authors describe the system of statistical observations in the sphere of nanotechnologies. Today the statistics of nanotechnologies in Russia remains at the stage of formation and modernization according to the international standards, being supplemented every year with the new indicators which allow investigating different sides and tendencies of nanotech industry development. Nowadays the following aspects of the activity connected with nanotechnologies have already being studied by means of statistical methods: scientific research and developments; creation and use of nanotechnologies; demand for staff; production, including the innovative one.

  10. Secretory processes involved in the formation of milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutsson, P.G.

    1976-01-01

    Current knowledge on milk formation is reviewed. Emphasis is given to sites of formation of protein, fat and lactose, and transfer of these compounds into the alveolar lumen. Further, the formation of the water phase of milk is thoroughly discussed, and evidence presented that milk formation includes both secretory and re-absorptive processes as well as diffusion. A short presentation of colostrum formation is included. Neither biochemical processes involved in synthesis of organic compounds nor mammary gland endocrinology are discussed. (author)

  11. Processes governing pinch formation in diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaugrund, A.E.; Cooperstein, G.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    The process of pinch formation in large aspect ratio diodes has been studied by means of streak photography and time-resolved x-ray detectors. A tight pinch is formed at the anode center by a collapsing thin hollow electron beam. The collapse velocity depends, among other things, on the type of material in the top 1 μm layer of the anode. In a tentative model it is assumed that an anode plasma is at least partially created from gases released from the surface layer of the anode by the heating action of the beam. These gases are ionized by primary, backscattered, and secondary electrons. Ions emitted from this plasma modify the electron trajectories in the diode leading to a radial collapse of the hollow electron beam. The observed monotonic dependence of the collapse velocity on the atomic number of the anode material can be explained by the smooth dependence on Z of both the specific heat and the electron backscatter coefficient. In the case of high-Z anodes the ion expansion time appears to be the factor limiting the collapse velocity. Detailed experimental data are presented

  12. Coastal processes of the Elwha River delta: Chapter 5 in Coastal habitats of the Elwha River, Washington--biological and physical patterns and processes prior to dam removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Stevens, Andrew W.; Miller, Ian M.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Magirl, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    To understand the effects of increased sediment supply from dam removal on marine habitats around the Elwha River delta, a basic understanding of the region’s coastal processes is necessary. This chapter provides a summary of the physical setting of the coast near the Elwha River delta, for the purpose of synthesizing the processes that move and disperse sediment discharged by the river. One fundamental property of this coastal setting is the difference between currents in the surfzone with those in the coastal waters offshore of the surfzone. Surfzone currents are largely dictated by the direction and size of waves, and the waves that attack the Elwha River delta predominantly come from Pacific Ocean swell from the west. This establishes surfzone currents and littoral sediment transport that are eastward along much of the delta. Offshore of the surfzone the currents are largely influenced by tidal circulation and the physical constraint to flow provided by the delta’s headland. During both ebbing and flooding tides, the flow separates from the coast at the tip of the delta’s headland, and this produces eddies on the downstream side of the headland. Immediately offshore of the Elwha River mouth, this creates a situation in which the coastal currents are directed toward the east much more frequently than toward the west. This suggests that Elwha River sediment will be more likely to move toward the east in the coastal system.

  13. Microbial processes in banded iron formation deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole; Konhauser, Kurt; Kappler, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    , remains unresolved. Evidence of an anoxic Earth with only localized oxic areas until the Great Oxidation Event ca 2·45 to 2·32 Ga makes the investigation of O2-independent mechanisms for banded iron formation deposition relevant. Recent studies have explored the long-standing proposition that Archean......Banded iron formations have been studied for decades, particularly regarding their potential as archives of the Precambrian environment. In spite of this effort, the mechanism of their deposition and, specifically, the role that microbes played in the precipitation of banded iron formation minerals...... banded iron formations may have been formed, and diagenetically modified, by anaerobic microbial metabolisms. These efforts encompass a wide array of approaches including isotope, ecophysiological and phylogeny studies, molecular and mineral marker analysis, and sedimentological reconstructions. Herein...

  14. Galaxy formation: internal mechanisms and cosmological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martig, Marie

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to galaxy formation and evolution in a cosmological context. Cosmological simulations have unveiled two main modes of galaxy growth: hierarchical growth by mergers and accretion of cold gas from cosmic filaments. However, these simulations rarely take into account small scale mechanisms, that govern internal evolution and that are a key ingredient to understand galaxy formation and evolution. Thanks to a new simulation technique that I have developed, I first studied the colors of galaxies, and in particular the reddening of elliptical galaxies. I showed that the gas disk in an elliptical galaxy could be stabilized against star formation because of the galaxy's stellar component being within a spheroid instead of a disk. This mechanism can explain the red colors of some elliptical galaxies that contain a gas disk. I also studied the formation of spiral galaxies: most cosmological simulations cannot explain the formation of Milky Way-like galaxies, i.e. with a large disk and a small bulge. I showed that this issue could be partly solved by taking into account in the simulations the mass loss from evolved stars through stellar winds, planetary nebulae and supernovae explosions. (author) [fr

  15. Process for recovering oil from subterranean formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, B.; Gogarty, W.B.

    1978-01-01

    Improved flooding of oil-bearing formations is obtained by injecting and displacing through the formation a saline solution containing a water-soluble, substantially linear, high molecular weight polymer obtained by irradiating an aqueous solution of an ethylenically unsaturated monomer and a water-soluble salt under controlled conditions of concentration, radiation intensity, conversion, and total radiation dose. The saline water can contain at least 15,000 ppm of TDS (total dissolved solids) and at least 50 ppm and preferably 300 ppm of polyvalent cations. (Auth.)

  16. Mixing state of oxalic acid containing particles in the rural area of Pearl River Delta, China: implication for seasonal formation mechanism of Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA)

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Chunlei; Li, Mei; Chan, Chak K.; Tong, Haijie; Chen, Changhong; Chen, Duohong; Wu, Dui; Li, Lei; Cheng, Peng; Gao, Wei; Huang, Zhengxu; Li, Xue; Fu, Zhong; Bi, Yanru; Zhou, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    The formation of oxalic acid and its mixing state in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) were studied using a single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) in the summer and winter of 2014 in Heshan, a supersite in the rural area of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in China. Oxalic acid-containing particles accounted for 2.5 % and 2.7 % in total detected ambient particles in summer and winter, respectively. Oxalic acid was measured in particles classified as elemental carb...

  17. Regional review: the hydrology of the Okavango Delta, Botswana-processes, data and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milzow, C.; Kgotlhang, L.; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The wetlands of the Okavango Delta accommodate a multitude of ecosystems with a large diversity in fauna and flora. They not only provide the traditional livelihood of the local communities but are also the basis of a tourism industry that generates substantial revenue for the whole of Botswana....... For the global community, the wetlands retain a tremendous pool of biodiversity. As the upstream states Angola and Namibia are developing, however, changes in the use of the water of the Okavango River and in the ecological status of the wetlands are to be expected. To predict these impacts, the hydrology...

  18. SU-F-T-294: The Analysis of Gamma Criteria for Delta4 Dosimetry Using Statistical Process Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S; Ahn, S; Kim, J; Park, K; Choi, W; Lee, H; Lee, E; Yoon, J; Keum, K [Yonsei Univeristy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the sensitivity of gamma criteria for patient-specific volumetric modulated arc therapy(VMAT) quality assurance of the Delta{sup 4} dosimetry program using the statistical process control(SPC) methodology. Methods: The authors selected 20 patient-specific VMAT QA cases which were undertaken MapCHECK and ArcCHECK with gamma pass rate better than 97%. The QAs data were collected Delta4 Phantom+ and Elekta Agility six megavolts without using an angle incrementer. The gamma index(GI) were calculated in 2D planes with normalizing deviation to local dose(local gamma). The sensitivity of the GI methodology using criterion of 3%/3mm, 3%/2mm and 2%/3mm was analyzed with using process acceptability indices. We used local confidence(LC) level, the upper control limit(UCL) and lower control limit(LCL) of I-MR chart for process capability index(Cp) and a process acceptability index (Cpk). Results: The lower local confidence levels of 3%/3mm, 3%/2mm and 2%/3mm were 92.0%, 83.6% and 78.8% respectively. All of the calculated Cp and Cpk values that used LC level were under 1.0 in this study. The calculated LCLs of I-MR charts were 89.5%, 79.0% and 70.5% respectively. These values were higher than 1.0 which means good quality of QA. For the generally used lower limit of 90%, we acquired over 1.3 of Cp value for the gamma index of 3%/3mm and lower than 1.0 in the rest of GI. Conclusion: We applied SPC methodology to evaluate the sensitivity of gamma criteria and could see the lower control limits of VMAT QA for the Delta 4 dosimetry and could see that Delta 4 phantom+ dosimetry more affected by the position error and the I-MR chart derived values are more suitable for establishing lower limits. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (No. 2015R1D1A1A01060463)

  19. SU-F-T-294: The Analysis of Gamma Criteria for Delta4 Dosimetry Using Statistical Process Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S; Ahn, S; Kim, J; Park, K; Choi, W; Lee, H; Lee, E; Yoon, J; Keum, K

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the sensitivity of gamma criteria for patient-specific volumetric modulated arc therapy(VMAT) quality assurance of the Delta 4 dosimetry program using the statistical process control(SPC) methodology. Methods: The authors selected 20 patient-specific VMAT QA cases which were undertaken MapCHECK and ArcCHECK with gamma pass rate better than 97%. The QAs data were collected Delta4 Phantom+ and Elekta Agility six megavolts without using an angle incrementer. The gamma index(GI) were calculated in 2D planes with normalizing deviation to local dose(local gamma). The sensitivity of the GI methodology using criterion of 3%/3mm, 3%/2mm and 2%/3mm was analyzed with using process acceptability indices. We used local confidence(LC) level, the upper control limit(UCL) and lower control limit(LCL) of I-MR chart for process capability index(Cp) and a process acceptability index (Cpk). Results: The lower local confidence levels of 3%/3mm, 3%/2mm and 2%/3mm were 92.0%, 83.6% and 78.8% respectively. All of the calculated Cp and Cpk values that used LC level were under 1.0 in this study. The calculated LCLs of I-MR charts were 89.5%, 79.0% and 70.5% respectively. These values were higher than 1.0 which means good quality of QA. For the generally used lower limit of 90%, we acquired over 1.3 of Cp value for the gamma index of 3%/3mm and lower than 1.0 in the rest of GI. Conclusion: We applied SPC methodology to evaluate the sensitivity of gamma criteria and could see the lower control limits of VMAT QA for the Delta 4 dosimetry and could see that Delta 4 phantom+ dosimetry more affected by the position error and the I-MR chart derived values are more suitable for establishing lower limits. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (No. 2015R1D1A1A01060463)

  20. Negative ion formation and neutralization processes, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Toshio

    1982-09-01

    This review is 2nd part of the report published at January 1982 (JAERI-M-9902). A compilation includes the survey of the data of the cross sections of H - and D - ion formations and the neutralization of these ions. This is also presented new information about the photosensitization by laser beam in dissociative-resonance electron capture of sulfur hexafluoride reported by Chen et al., for reference to enhancement of D - ions in discharge. For neutralization, the data of mutual neutralization and photodetachment are also presented. (author)

  1. Mathematical modeling of biomass fuels formation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaska, Krzysztof; Wandrasz, Andrzej J.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing demand for thermal and electric energy in many branches of industry and municipal management accounts for a drastic diminishing of natural resources (fossil fuels). Meanwhile, in numerous technical processes, a huge mass of wastes is produced. A segregated and converted combustible fraction of the wastes, with relatively high calorific value, may be used as a component of formed fuels. The utilization of the formed fuel components from segregated groups of waste in associated processes of co-combustion with conventional fuels causes significant savings resulting from partial replacement of fossil fuels, and reduction of environmental pollution resulting directly from the limitation of waste migration to the environment (soil, atmospheric air, surface and underground water). The realization of technological processes with the utilization of formed fuel in associated thermal systems should be qualified by technical criteria, which means that elementary processes as well as factors of sustainable development, from a global viewpoint, must not be disturbed. The utilization of post-process waste should be preceded by detailed technical, ecological and economic analyses. In order to optimize the mixing process of fuel components, a mathematical model of the forming process was created. The model is defined as a group of data structures which uniquely identify a real process and conversion of this data in algorithms based on a problem of linear programming. The paper also presents the optimization of parameters in the process of forming fuels using a modified simplex algorithm with a polynomial worktime. This model is a datum-point in the numerical modeling of real processes, allowing a precise determination of the optimal elementary composition of formed fuels components, with assumed constraints and decision variables of the task

  2. Delta ¹³C depleted oceans before the termination 2: More nutrient-rich deep-water formation or light-carbon transfer?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.

    show an unexplained shift in the long-term mean oceanic-delta ¹³C around the penultimate glacial termination (T2: 132 ka). The time-series planktic- and benthic- species delta ¹³C records exhibit two distinct mean- delta ¹³C levels. The low mean delta...

  3. Soil salinization processes in rice irrigation schemes in the Senegal River Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceuppens, J.; Wopereis, M.C.S.; Miezan, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    Soil salinization constitutes a major threat to irrigated agriculture (mainly rice, Oryza sativa L.) in the Senegal River Delta. It is generally hypothesized that salinization is caused by (i) capillary rise from a saline water table and (ii) concentration of salts in the field due to lack of adequate drainage facilities. The impact of field water management and rice cropping intensity on salinization in the Delta was determined using an electromagnetic conductivity meter (Geonics EM38). More than 4000 measurements were made in 40 rice fields on a typical heavy clay soil (Vertic Xerofluvent). Thirty EM38 measurements per field (0.25 ha) estimated average field soil salinity with a relative error of 20%. A multiple linear regression model based on EM38 readings explained 60 to 75% of the variability in conductivity of 1:5 saturation extracts at 0- to 5-, 10- to 15-, and 30- to 35-cm depths. Higher cropping intensity limited upward salt transport from the water table. Average horizontal and vertical EM38 measurements increased in the following order two rice crops per year with drainage: 0.73 and 0.98 dS m -1 ; one rice crop per year with drainage: 1.26 and 1.76 dS m -1 ; one rice crop per year without drainage: 2.23 and 2.98 dS m -1 ; and abandoned fields: 4.77 and 4.29 dS m -1 . Results indicate a beneficial effect of flooded rice on salinity for this type of heavy clay soil. Irrigation development in the area needs to be accompanied by monitoring of water table depth. (author)

  4. Dross formation during laser cutting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilbas, B S; Aleem, B J Abdul [Mechanical Engineering Department, King Fahd University of Petoleum and Minerals, Dhahran 32161 (Saudi Arabia)

    2006-04-07

    Melt formation during laser cutting of metallic substrates is considered and the melt thickness is formulated using a lump parameter analysis. The droplet diameter is also predicted and compared with the experimental results. A CO{sub 2} laser with variable pulse frequency is used in the experiment. Oxygen, as assisting gas, impinging coaxially with the laser beam, is used at different pressures. SEM and XRD are carried out to obtain micrographs and oxide compounds formed in the dross. It is found that the liquid layer thickness increases with increasing laser output power and reduces with increasing assisting gas velocity. The droplet formed is spherical and the droplet size predicted agrees well with the experimental results.

  5. Connectivity in river deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, P.; Hiatt, M. R.; Sendrowski, A.

    2016-12-01

    Deltas host approximately half a billion people and are rich in ecosystem diversity and economic resources. However, human-induced activities and climatic shifts are significantly impacting deltas around the world; anthropogenic disturbance, natural subsidence, and eustatic sea-level rise are major causes of threat to deltas and in many cases have compromised their safety and sustainability, putting at risk the people that live on them. In this presentation, I will introduce a framework called Delta Connectome for studying connectivity in river deltas based on different representations of a delta as a network. Here connectivity indicates both physical connectivity (how different portions of the system interact with each other) as well as conceptual (pathways of process coupling). I will explore several network representations and show how quantifying connectivity can advance our understanding of system functioning and can be used to inform coastal management and restoration. From connectivity considerations, the delta emerges as a leaky network that evolves over time and is characterized by continuous exchanges of fluxes of matter, energy, and information. I will discuss the implications of connectivity on delta functioning, land growth, and potential for nutrient removal.

  6. Export Processing Zones and Global Class Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neveling, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with one of the most striking developments in the global political economy of capitalism after the Second World War; the rise of export processing zones and special economic zones. Building on long-term ethnohistorical research on the zones’ global spread from one zone in

  7. Spark formation as a moving boundary process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Ute

    2006-03-01

    The growth process of spark channels recently becomes accessible through complementary methods. First, I will review experiments with nanosecond photographic resolution and with fast and well defined power supplies that appropriately resolve the dynamics of electric breakdown [1]. Second, I will discuss the elementary physical processes as well as present computations of spark growth and branching with adaptive grid refinement [2]. These computations resolve three well separated scales of the process that emerge dynamically. Third, this scale separation motivates a hierarchy of models on different length scales. In particular, I will discuss a moving boundary approximation for the ionization fronts that generate the conducting channel. The resulting moving boundary problem shows strong similarities with classical viscous fingering. For viscous fingering, it is known that the simplest model forms unphysical cusps within finite time that are suppressed by a regularizing condition on the moving boundary. For ionization fronts, we derive a new condition on the moving boundary of mixed Dirichlet-Neumann type (φ=ɛnφ) that indeed regularizes all structures investigated so far. In particular, we present compact analytical solutions with regularization, both for uniformly translating shapes and for their linear perturbations [3]. These solutions are so simple that they may acquire a paradigmatic role in the future. Within linear perturbation theory, they explicitly show the convective stabilization of a curved front while planar fronts are linearly unstable against perturbations of arbitrary wave length. [1] T.M.P. Briels, E.M. van Veldhuizen, U. Ebert, TU Eindhoven. [2] C. Montijn, J. Wackers, W. Hundsdorfer, U. Ebert, CWI Amsterdam. [3] B. Meulenbroek, U. Ebert, L. Schäfer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 195004 (2005).

  8. Secondary phase formation in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} thin films and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}/SrTiO{sub 3} superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.N.L.

    1996-06-01

    Studies of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) thin films and YBCO/STO superlattices has been performed. The dc magnetron sputtered YBCO single layer investigation concerned the dependence of the secondary phase formation and superconducting transport properties on sputtering target and ambient gas composition. YBCO/STO superlattices, grown by dc and rf magnetron sputtering, respectively, were analyzed with respect to microstructure and formation of secondary phases. The main characterization techniques used in this study have been x-ray diffraction to identify phases and to obtain orientational relationships, scanning electron microscopy to study surface morphology, transmission electron microscopy for microstructural characterization, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy for chemical characterization. With the aim to reduce or avoid the formation of copper-rich surface particles and still maintain satisfactory superconducting transport properties, YBCO films were deposited using copper-poor or yttrium-rich sputtering targets in an Ar:O{sub 2} or Ar:O{sub 2}:N{sub 2}O sputtering gas mixture. It was found that the use of yttrium-rich targets and N{sub 2}O in the sputtering gas is a reliable way to achieve smooth films without surface particles and with satisfactory superconducting properties, while the use of copper-poor targets and N{sub 2}O deteriorates those properties. Based on the previous results, YBCO/STO superlattices were grown using yttrium-rich YBCO targets and stoichiometric STO targets, respectively, in a Ar:O{sub 2}:N{sub 2}O sputtering gas mixture. The superlattices were found to have sharp interfaces and no indications of interface reactions were detected. 61 refs, 18 figs, 3 tabs

  9. Breaking down the delta wing vortex: The role of vorticity in the breakdown process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R. C.; Visser, Kenneth Dale

    1991-01-01

    Experimental x-wire measurements of the flowfield above a 70 degree and 75 degree flat plate delta wing were performed at a Reynolds number of 250,000. Grids were taken normal to the wing at various chordwise locations for angles of attack of 20 degrees and 30 degrees. Axial and azimuthal vorticity distributions were derived from the velocity fields. The dependence of circulation on distance from the vortex core and on chordwise location was also examined. The effects of nondimensionalization in comparison with other experimental data is made. The results indicate that the circulation distribution scales with the local semispan and grows in a nearly linear fashion in the chordwise direction. The spanwise distribution of axial vorticity is severely altered through the breakdown region and the amount of vorticity present appears to reach a maximum immediately preceding breakdown. The axial velocity components with a negative sense, such as that found in the secondary vortex, seem to remain unaffected by changes in wing sweep or angle of attack, in direct contrast to the visible components. In addition, the inclusion of the local wing geometry into a previously derived correlation parameter allows the circulation of growing leading edge vortex flows to be reduced to a single curve.

  10. OPTIMIZATION OF PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT PROCESS - A CASE STUDY FOR DISPOSAL IN THE NIGER DELTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BONIFACE A. ORIJI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Produced water is the interstitial reservoir water that flows to the surface with the crude oil into the production separators. This study addressed the effects of some chemicals on produced water and the challenges of finding the optimal concentrations of these chemicals for treating produced water. In this study, produced water treatment was carried out in an oil production platform located in the Niger Delta so as to determine the effect of a particular scale inhibitor, biocide, demulsifier and water clarifier, also to obtain the optimum concentrations of these chemicals in the treatment of produced water. The physico-chemical properties and microbial content of the produced water were determined. The results showed that the conductivity, hardness, pH and alkalinity reduced with increasing concentration of the scale inhibitor. The total heterotrophic bacteria count (THBC, heterotrophic fungi count (THFC and the Sulphate reducing bacteria count (SRBC were found to reduce with increasing concentration of biocide and exposure time. The increase in biocide concentration from 64 PPM to 100 PPM resulted in the reduction of THBC by 99.78%, THFC by 81.32% and SRBC 99.85%. The water clarifier gave the optimum concentration for oil and grease in the produced water at 7.3 PPM.

  11. Delta Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Mette

    . The warming air temperature affects the soil temperature and permafrost thaws and destabilizes the material in the coastal zone. In Greenland, the warming temperature lowers the surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet and more material is transported to the coastal zone. The sea ice extent is thinning...... of a fjord and the second type is a wider fan-shaped open delta. Most deltas are directly coupled to the Greenland Ice Sheet or local icecaps and are highly influenced by the dynamics in the catchments. It is demonstrated how a modern changing climate directly affects delta dynamics, and that Greenlandic...... deltas are prograding, contrary to the global trend showing eroding Arctic coasts. Moreover, it is revealed that the increasing proglacial freshwater runoff, caused by a lowering of the surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet is the main determining agent in delta progradation. The final part...

  12. INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE AGRICULTURAL MARKET FORMATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Revenko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article considers institutional aspects of the organized agricultural market formation process. Theoretical base to distinguish institute and institutes is given. In order to find out main influential institutes of the “organization” phenomenon author analyses Ukrainian institutional environment that is under construction process. Author considers main processes which are running during the organized market formation. Author researches theoretical approaches to the institutional staff. In order to structure the most common approaches and theoretical knowledge of this problem author proposes few schemes. Author’s points of view for many questions of the organized market formation process are proposed. Researcher analyzes effectiveness of the institutes and governmental regulation of the agricultural market. Readers can find strategically new approach to the agricultural market formation policy from the governmental point of view. Essence of the socioeconomic formation of agricultural market is considered. Main factors of agriculture market formation are outlined. Agricultural market structural parts consideration systematic approach is proposed. Ineffectiveness of the agriculture market relations without regulation process is proved. The most unfavorable reasons of the agricultural market formation are determined.

  13. In-situ observation of structure formation in polymer processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, Hiroki

    2009-01-01

    In-situ X-ray scattering in polymer processing is a crucial method to elucidate the mechanism of structure formation in the process. Fiber spinning is one such process primarily imposing extensional deformation on polymeric melt at the spin-line during rapid cooling. In-situ small-angle X-ray scattering using synchrotron radiation on the spinning process allows direct observation of the transient structure developing in the process. (author)

  14. Sediment and Vegetation Controls on Delta Channel Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzon, R.; Murray, A. B.; Piliouras, A.; Kim, W.

    2016-12-01

    Numerous factors control the patterns of distributary channels formed on a delta, including water and sediment discharge, grain size, sea level rise rates, and vegetation type. In turn, these channel networks influence the shape and evolution of a delta, including what types of plant and animal life - such as humans - it can support. Previous fluvial modeling and flume experiments, outside of the delta context, have addressed how interactions between sediment and vegetation, through their influence on lateral transport of sediment, determine what type of channel networks develops. Similar interactions likely also shape delta flow patterns. Vegetation introduces cohesion, tending to reduce channel migration rates and strengthen existing channel banks, reinforcing existing channels and resulting in localized, relatively stable flow patterns. On the other hand, sediment transport processes can result in lateral migration and frequent switching of active channels, resulting in flow resembling that of a braided stream. While previous studies of deltas have indirectly explored the effects of vegetation through the introduction of cohesive sediment, we directly incorporate key effects of vegetation on flow and sediment transport into the delta-building model DeltaRCM to explore how these effects influence delta channel network formation. Model development is informed by laboratory flume experiments at UT Austin. Here we present initial results of experiments exploring the effects of sea level rise rate, sediment grain size, vegetation type, and vegetation growth rate on delta channel network morphology. These results support the hypothesis that the ability for lateral transport of sediment to occur plays a key role in determining the evolution of delta channel networks and delta morphology.

  15. Business alignment: using process mining as a tool for delta analysis and conformance testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2005-01-01

    Increasingly, business processes are being controlled and/or monitored by information systems. As a result, many business processes leave their "footprints" in transactional information systems, i.e., business events are recorded in so-called event logs. Process mining aims at improving this by

  16. Searching for fossil fragments of the Galactic bulge formation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    We have discovered that the stellar system Terzan5 (Ter5) in the Galactic bulge harbors stellar populations with very different IRON content (delta[Fe/H] 1 dex, Ferraro+09, Nature 462, 483) and AGES (12 Gyr and 4.5 Gyr for the sub-solar and super-solar metallicity populations, respectively, Ferraro+16, ApJ,828,75). This evidence demonstrates that Ter5 is not a globular cluster, and identifies it as (1) a site in the Galactic bulge where recent star formation occurred, and (2) the remnant of a massive system able to retain the iron-enriched gas ejected by violent supernova explosions. The striking chemical similarity between Ter5 and the bulge opens the fascinating possibility that we discovered the fossil remnant of a pristine massive structure that could have contributed to the Galactic bulge assembly.Prompted by this finding, here we propose to secure deep HST optical observations for the bulge stellar system Liller1, that shows a similar complexity as Ter5, with evidence of two stellar populations with different iron content. The immediate goal is to properly explore the main sequence turnoff region of the system for unveiling possible splits due to stellar populations of different ages. As demonstrated by our experience with Ter5, the requested HST observations, in combination with the K-band diffraction limited images that we already secured with GeMS-Gemini, are essential to achieve this goal.The project will allow us to establish if other fossil remnants of the bulge formation epoch do exist, thus probing that the merging of pre-evolved massive structures has been an important channel for the formation of the Galactic bulge.

  17. Natural and anthropogenic processes that concentrate Mn in rural and urban environments of the lower Mississippi River Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielke, H.W.; Gonzales, C.R.; Powell, E.; Shah, A.; Mielke, P.W.

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated natural processes and projected ethyl cyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl fuel additives as sources of Mn accumulation in the environment. Data sets include fresh alluvium and sediments from the lower Mississippi River Delta and a soil metal survey of metropolitan New Orleans. The (1) railroad Mn, (2) industrial Mn, and (3) dynamic aquifer-stream transfer of Mn hypotheses were tested with the Mississippi River Delta data. Friction between Mn-rich steel wheels and rails contributes Mn (P=0.017) to the environment, supporting (1). Sediment loads of Mn were similar (P=0.77) upstream and downstream from the Louisiana industrial corridor, not supporting (2). The median Mn on the alluvium surface (59 mg/kg), in the aquifer (159 mg/kg), and in the riverbank aquifer discharge zone (513 mg/kg) support (3) as a mechanism for Mn enrichment of lay. The New Orleans soil metal survey data set shows a rural to urban increase of fourfold for Mn and three orders of magnitude for Pb. At 1999 .S. highway fuel use, 8.3 mg of Mn per L would yield 5000 metric tons of Mn annually. If 13% of Mn were emitted, 650 tons of Mn would become aerosols annually, while 87% or 4350 tons would remain in engines. The 1999 toxic release inventory for Mn shows 370 tons as total emissions compared to the potential of 390 and 260 tons from vehicles, respectively, in urban and rural areas. A precautionary lesson from the use of Pb as a fuel additive is that the use of Mn as a fuel additive would be associated with an increased risk or neonates exceeding the estimated total tolerable daily intake of .1-16.5μg Mn (especially in urban inner city environments) because neonates lack fully functional hepatic clearance for Mn

  18. Identification of Hazardous Events for Drinking Water Production Process Using Managed Aquifer Recharge in the Nakdong River Delta, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang-Il, L.; Ji, H.W.

    2016-01-01

    Various hazardous events can cause chemical, microbial or physical hazards to a water supply system. The World Health Organization (WHO) and some countries have introduced the hazardous event analysis for identifying potential events which may be harmful to the safety of drinking water. This study extends the application of the hazardous event analysis into drinking water production using managed aquifer recharge (MAR). MAR is a way of using an aquifer to secure water resources by storing freshwater for future use and pumping it whenever necessary. The entire drinking water production process is subjected to the analysis from the catchment area to the consumer. Hazardous event analysis incorporates site-specific data as well as common issues occurring in the process of drinking water production. The hazardous events are classified based on chemical, microbial or physical characteristics. Likelihood and severity values are assigned, resulting in quantitative risk by multiplying them. The study site is located at a coastal area in the delta of the Nakdong River, South Korea. The site has suffered from salt water intrusion and surface water pollution from the water upstream. Nine major hazardous events were identified out of total 114 events from 10 drinking water production processes. These major hazardous events will provide useful information on what to be done to secure the water quality produced by a new water supply method. (author)

  19. Quantifying Reactive Transport Processes Governing Arsenic Mobility after Injection of Reactive Organic Carbon into a Bengal Delta Aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Joey; Siade, Adam; Sun, Jing; Neidhardt, Harald; Berg, Michael; Prommer, Henning

    2017-08-01

    Over the last few decades, significant progress has been made to characterize the extent, severity, and underlying geochemical processes of groundwater arsenic (As) pollution in S/SE Asia. However, comparably little effort has been made to merge the findings into frameworks that allow for a process-based quantitative analysis of observed As behavior and for predictions of its long-term fate. This study developed field-scale numerical modeling approaches to represent the hydrochemical processes associated with an in situ field injection of reactive organic carbon, including the reductive dissolution and transformation of ferric iron (Fe) oxides and the concomitant release of sorbed As. We employed data from a sucrose injection experiment in the Bengal Delta Plain to guide our model development and to constrain the model parametrization. Our modeling results illustrate that the temporary pH decrease associated with the sucrose transformation and mineralization caused pronounced, temporary shifts in the As partitioning between aqueous and sorbed phases. The results also suggest that while the reductive dissolution of Fe(III) oxides reduced the number of sorption sites, a significant fraction of the released As was rapidly scavenged through coprecipitation with neo-formed magnetite. These secondary reactions can explain the disparity between the observed Fe and As behavior.

  20. A delta-rule model of numerical and non-numerical order processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verguts, Tom; Van Opstal, Filip

    2014-06-01

    Numerical and non-numerical order processing share empirical characteristics (distance effect and semantic congruity), but there are also important differences (in size effect and end effect). At the same time, models and theories of numerical and non-numerical order processing developed largely separately. Currently, we combine insights from 2 earlier models to integrate them in a common framework. We argue that the same learning principle underlies numerical and non-numerical orders, but that environmental features determine the empirical differences. Implications for current theories on order processing are pointed out. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons' formation and occurrence in processed food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lochan; Varshney, Jay G; Agarwal, Tripti

    2016-05-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emerged as an important contaminant group in a gamut of processed food groups like dairy, nuts, herbs, beverages, meat products etc. Different cooking processes and processing techniques like roasting, barbecuing, grilling, smoking, heating, drying, baking, ohmic-infrared cooking etc. contribute towards its formation. The level of PAHs depends on factors like distance from heat source, fuel used, level of processing, cooking durations and methods, whereas processes like reuse, conching, concentration, crushing and storage enhance the amount of PAHs in some food items. This review paper provides insight into the impact of dietary intake of PAHs, its levels and formation mechanism in processed food items and possible interventions for prevention and reduction of the PAHs contamination. The gaps and future prospects have also been assessed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Aerosol number size distribution and new particle formation at a rural/coastal site in Pearl River Delta (PRD) of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shang; Hu, Min; Wu, Zhijun; Wehner, Birgit; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Cheng, Yafang

    Continuous measurements of aerosol number size distribution in the range of 3 nm-10 μm were performed in Pearl River Delta (PRD), China. These measurements were made during the period of 3 October to 5 November in 2004 at rural/coastal site, Xinken (22°37'N, 113°35'E, 6 m above sea level), in the south suburb of Guangzhou City (22°37'N, 113°35'E, 6 m above sea level), using a Twin Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (TDMPS) combined with an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS). The aerosol particles at Xinken were divided into four groups according to the observation results: nucleation mode particles (3-30 nm), Aitken mode particles (30-130 nm), accumulation mode particles (130-1000 nm) and coarse mode particles (1-10 μm). Concentrations of nucleation mode, Aitken mode and accumulation mode particles were observed in the same order of magnitude (about 10,000 cm -3), among which the concentration of Aitken mode particle was the highest. The Aitken mode particles usually had two peaks: the morning peak may be caused by the land-sea circulation, which is proven to be important for transporting aged aerosols back to the sampling site, while the noon peak was ascribed to the condensational growth of new particles. New particle formation events were found on 7 days of 27 days, the new particle growth rates ranged from 2.2 to 19.8 nm h -1 and the formation rates ranged from 0.5 to 5.2 cm -3 s -1, both of them were in the range of typical observed formation rates (0.01-10 cm -3 s -1) and typical particle growth rates (1-20 nm h -1). The sustained growth of the new particles for several hours under steady northeast wind indicated that the new particle formation events may occur in a large homogeneous air mass.

  3. Delta ferrite in the weld metal of reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam, Shiju, E-mail: shiju@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382 428 (India); Das, C.R.; Ramasubbu, V.; Albert, S.K.; Bhaduri, A.K.; Jayakumar, T. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Rajendra Kumar, E. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382 428 (India)

    2014-12-15

    Formation of delta(δ)-ferrite in the weld metal, during autogenous bead-on-plate welding of Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic (RAFM) steel using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) process, has been studied. Composition of the alloy is such that delta-ferrite is not expected in the alloy; but examination of the weld metal revealed presence of delta-ferrite in the weld metal. Volume fraction of delta-ferrite is found to be higher in the weld interface than in the rest of the fusion zone. Decrease in the volume fraction of delta-ferrite, with an increase in preheat temperature or with an increase in heat input, is observed. Results indicate that the cooling rate experienced during welding affects the volume fraction of delta-ferrite retained in the weld metal and variation in the delta-ferrite content with cooling rate is explained with variation in the time that the weld metal spends in various temperature regimes in which delta-ferrite is stable for the alloy during its cooling from the liquid metal to the ambient temperature. This manuscript will discuss the effect of welding parameters on formation of delta-ferrite and its retention in the weld metal of RAFM steel.

  4. Shoreline Changes on the Wave-Influenced Senegal River Delta, West Africa: The Roles of Natural Processes and Human Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Sadio , Mamadou; Anthony , Edward ,; Diaw , Amadou ,; DUSSOUILLEZ , Philippe; FLEURY , Jules; Kane , Alioune; Almar , Rafael; Kestenare , Élodie

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The Senegal River delta in West Africa, one of the finest examples of " wave-influenced " deltas, is bounded by a spit periodically breached by waves, each breach then acting as a shifting mouth of the Senegal River. Using European Re-Analysis (ERA) hindcast wave data from 1984 to 2015 generated by the Wave Atmospheric Model (WAM) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), we calculated longshore sediment transport rates along the spit. We also ...

  5. TRACKING THE PROCESSES OF MELANODIN FORMATION IN COFFEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezhana Ivanova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Melanoidins are high molecular brown colored substances and products of sugar-amine reaction of Maillard. They are formed during roasting a green coffee beans under different thermal regimes of heat treatment. In the technological production of different types coffee beverages, the coffee powder is subjected to after-heat treatment. In these additional operations again become active processes of melanoidin formation and their changing their structures. This is changes of the Melanoidins have different effects on human health. It is therefore important to know their chemical structures and changes. Previous studies have shown that polysaccharides, proteins and chlorogenic acids are included in the formation of these melanoidins. However, the precise structures of coffee melanoidins and mechanisms involved in the formation are not yet clarified. This article systematize available information and provides an overview of research obtained so far on the structure of coffee melanoidins and mechanisms of their formation and potential health effects.

  6. Investigation of transient processes at the DELTA electron storage ring using a digital bunch-by-bunch feedback system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoener, Markus

    2015-07-01

    At the 1.5-GeV synchrotron radiation source DELTA, operated by the TU Dortmund University, intensive synchrotron radiation in the spectral range from hard X-rays to THz radiation is generated by the circular deflection of highly relativistic electron bunches. Interacting with the vacuum chamber wall, the electron bunches create electric fields, which can act back on subsequent bunches. With increasing beam current, the excitation is enhanced so that the electron beam is unstable, which means that the electron bunches oscillate longitudinally or transversely relative to their reference position. The oscillations reduce the quality of the synchrotron radiation and limit the maximum storable beam current. Within the scope of this thesis, the beam instabilities at the storage ring were systematically investigated. A digital bunch-by-bunch feedback system was installed and commissioned, which allows to detect and digitize the position of each electron bunch at each turn. Based on the input signal, a correction signal is calculated in order to suppress transverse and longitudinal oscillation of the bunches. In addition, it is possible to excite dedicated bunches. The systematic excitation of all coupled-bunch modes allowed for the first time to determine the damping rates of all 192 eigenmodes of the electron beam. The current dependence of the damping rates was investigated and an instability threshold was found. Besides the investigation of multibunch instabilities, single-bunch instabilities are discussed. In addition, the acquisition unit of the digital feedback system can be triggered on external events. This was used to investigate the injection process and beam losses. It was shown that the transverse feedback system increases the injection efficiency. Another aspect of this thesis is the improvement of the signal quality of ultrashort coherent synchrotron radiation pulses, which are generated by the short-pulse facility at DELTA. The short-pulse facility is based

  7. Membrane formation : diffusion induced demixing processes in ternary polymeric systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuvers, Albertus Johannes

    1987-01-01

    In this thesis the mechanism of membrane formation by means of immersion precipitation is studied. Immersion of a concentrated polymer solution film into a nonsolvent bath induces an exchange of solvent and nonsolvent in the film by means of diffusion. This process results in an asymmetric polymer

  8. Emptiness formation probability of XX-chain in diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Yoshiko

    2004-01-01

    We study the distribution of emptiness formation probability of XX-model in the diffusion process. There exits a Gaussian decay as well as an exponential decay. The Gaussian decay is caused by the existence of zero point in the Fermi distribution function. The correlation length for each point of scaling factor varies up to the initial condition, monotonically or non-monotonically

  9. Satisfaction Formation Processes in Library Users: Understanding Multisource Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xi; Holahan, Patricia J.; Jurkat, M. Peter

    2004-01-01

    This study explores whether disconfirmation theory can explain satisfaction formation processes in library users. Both library users' needs and expectations are investigated as disconfirmation standards. Overall library user satisfaction is predicted to be a function of two independent sources--satisfaction with the information product received…

  10. Academic Formation and Formative Research Integration Management for the Culmination of Studies Process in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna Cruz Rizo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the up- dated international difficulties in the completion of studies process, theoretical and practical studies developed in this field are surprisingly scarce. Particularly, there has been a limited quantity of students that support their diploma thesis after completing their credits at the School of Languages and Linguistics at the University of Guayaquil. Consequently, this paper faces the problem of the insufficiencies in the culmination of studies process in relation to the management of the academic and scientific formation. Thus, the objective is: to improve the completion of studies or degree- obtaining processes in university education, through the implementation of a praxiological proposal of academic formation and formative research integration. Accordingly, the author´s experiences systematization is the methodology mainly used. The essential logic for the management of the academic formation and formative research integration was revealed as the main proposal, therefore this is the solution to the problem diagnosed. This is based on a curricular structure, in which each of the subjects was interrelated to each of the essential stages of the scientific research. As main results obtained, the students were able to solve real-life problems diagnosed at educative institutions, also they drew up the draft of their theses.

  11. Formation process of Malaysian modern architecture under influence of nationalism

    OpenAIRE

    宇高, 雄志; 山崎, 大智

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the Formation Process of Malaysian Modern Architecture under Influence of Nationalism,through the process of independence of Malaysia. The national style as "Malaysian national architecture" which hasengaged on background of political environment under the post colonial situation. Malaysian urban design is alsodetermined under the balance of both of ethnic culture and the national culture. In Malaysia, they decided to choosethe Malay ethnic culture as the national culture....

  12. Processing biological literature with customizable Web services supporting interoperable formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, Rafal; Batista-Navarro, Riza Theresa; Carter, Jacob; Rowley, Andrew; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Web services have become a popular means of interconnecting solutions for processing a body of scientific literature. This has fuelled research on high-level data exchange formats suitable for a given domain and ensuring the interoperability of Web services. In this article, we focus on the biological domain and consider four interoperability formats, BioC, BioNLP, XMI and RDF, that represent domain-specific and generic representations and include well-established as well as emerging specifications. We use the formats in the context of customizable Web services created in our Web-based, text-mining workbench Argo that features an ever-growing library of elementary analytics and capabilities to build and deploy Web services straight from a convenient graphical user interface. We demonstrate a 2-fold customization of Web services: by building task-specific processing pipelines from a repository of available analytics, and by configuring services to accept and produce a combination of input and output data interchange formats. We provide qualitative evaluation of the formats as well as quantitative evaluation of automatic analytics. The latter was carried out as part of our participation in the fourth edition of the BioCreative challenge. Our analytics built into Web services for recognizing biochemical concepts in BioC collections achieved the highest combined scores out of 10 participating teams. Database URL: http://argo.nactem.ac.uk. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. THE FEATURES OF PROCESSES OF SKILLS (SPECIAL COMPETENCIES FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Pechnikov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The present article continues a series of the authors’ publications devoted to key problems of a modern educational process organization and ensuring its efficiency. A starting point of the latest investigation stage has been a gap between the available models of formation and diagnostics of special competencies and the tasks for predicting a degree of success of development student’s skills in order to take adequate decisions on managing the process.The aim of the article is justification of a new methodological approach to formation of skills (special competencies of students.Methodology and research methods. The methods of analysis and synthesis; fundamental principles of didactics, qualimetry, the efficiency theory and the decision-making theory were used.Results and scientific novelty. The theoretical bases of evaluation procedures of pupils’ skills created during training are stated. Reference points for the choice of learning process characteristics are designated; by following those characteristics it is possible to provide better development of skills. The tasks of analysis of the studied problem, information acquisition and modeling of the “situation mechanism” of special competencies formation are considered. It is proved that for educational process management optimization it is necessary to evaluate not only its result, but also its quality process, as well its quality system that provides the organization process. The combination of factors to exert the dominating influence over educational process effectiveness are singled out: a type of the applied pedagogical influence; a type of the realized didactic system; a set of personal trainee characteristics which include levels of his/her educational motivation, learning ability, creativity and enables to model and predict training results. It is shown that each of possible combinations of the leading factors represents separate version of a solution to the

  14. Profiles of the stochastic star formation process in spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comins, N.

    1981-01-01

    The formation of spiral arms in disc galaxies is generally attributed to the effects of spiral density waves. These relatively small (i.e. 5 per cent) non-axisymmetric perturbations of the interstellar medium cause spiral arms highlighted by O and B type stars to be created. In this paper another mechanism for spiral arm formation, the stochastic self-propagating star formation (SSPSF) process is examined. The SSPSF process combines the theory that shock waves from supernovae will compress the interstellar medium to create new stars, some of which will be massive enough to also supernova, with a disc galaxy's differential rotation to create spiral arms. The present work extends this process to the case where the probability of star formation from supernova shocks decreases with galactic radius. Where this work and previous investigations overlap (namely the uniform probability case), the agreement is very good, pretty spirals with various numbers of arms are generated. The decreasing probability cases, taken to vary as rsup(-j), still form spiral arms for 0 1.5 the spiral structure is essentially non-existent. (author)

  15. Source apportionment of VOCs and the contribution to photochemical ozone formation during summer in the typical industrial area in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ping; An, Junlin; Xin, Jinyuan; Wu, Fangkun; Wang, Junxiu; Ji, Dongsheng; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were continuously observated in a northern suburb of Nanjing, a typical industrial area in the Yangtze River Delta, in a summer observation period from 15th May to 31st August 2013. The average concentration of total VOCs was (34.40 ± 25.20) ppbv, including alkanes (14.98 ± 12.72) ppbv, alkenes (7.35 ± 5.93) ppbv, aromatics (9.06 ± 6.64) ppbv and alkynes (3.02 ± 2.01) ppbv, respectively. Source apportionment via Positive Matrix Factorization was conducted, and six major sources of VOCs were identified. The industry-related sources, including industrial emissions and industrial solvent usage, occupied the highest proportion, accounting for about 51.26% of the VOCs. Vehicular emissions occupied the second highest proportion, accounting for about 34.08%. The rest accounted for about 14.66%, including vegetation emission and liquefied petroleum gas/natural gas usage. Contributions of VOCs to photochemical O3 formation were evaluated by the application of a detailed chemical mechanism model (NCAR MM). Alkenes were the dominant contributors to the O3 photochemical production, followed by aromatics and alkanes. Alkynes had a very small impact on photochemical O3 formation. Based on the outcomes of the source apportionment, a sensitivity analysis of relative O3 reduction efficiency (RORE), under different source removal regimes such as using the reduction of VOCs from 10% to 100% as input, was conducted. The RORE was the highest (~ 20%-40%) when the VOCs from solvent-related sources decreased by 40%. The highest RORE values for vegetation emissions, industrial emissions, vehicle exhaust, and LPG/NG usage were presented in the scenarios of 50%, 80%, 40% and 40%, respectively.

  16. How Rapid Change Affects Deltas in the Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, I.; Bendixen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Deltas form where the river drains into the ocean. Consequently, delta depositional processes are impacted by either changes in the respective river drainage basin or by changes in the regional marine environment. In a warming Arctic region rapid change has occurred over the last few decades in both the terrestrial domain as well as in the marine domain. Important terrestrial controls include 1) change in permafrost possibly destabilizing river banks, 2) strong seasonality of river discharge due to a short melting season, 3) high sediment supply if basins are extensively glaciated, 4) lake outbursts and ice jams favoring river flooding. Whereas in the Arctic marine domain sea ice loss promotes wave and storm surge impact, and increased longshore transport. We here ask which of these factors dominate any morphological change in Arctic deltas. First, we analyze hydrological data to assess change in Arctic-wide river discharge characteristics and timing, and sea ice concentration data to map changes in sea ice regime. Based on this observational analysis we set up a number of scenarios of change. We then model hypothetical small-scale delta formation considering change in these primary controls by setting up a numerical delta model, and combining it dynamically with a permafrost model. We find that for typical Greenlandic deltas changes in river forcing due to ice sheet melt dominate the morphological change, which is corroborated by mapping of delta progradation from aerial photos and satellite imagery. Whereas in other areas, along the North Slope and the Canadian Arctic small deltas are more stable or experienced retreat. Our preliminary coupled model allows us to further disentangle the impact of major forcing factors on delta evolution in high-latitude systems.

  17. COMMUNICATION COMPONENT FORMATION OF TEACHERS’ COMPETENCE IN THE MENTORING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera T. Sopegina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the integration process and special pedagogical competence in solving production and pedagogical challenges in the educational organizations and production enterprises engaged in the training of mentors.Methods. The methods involve the analysis of psycho-pedagogical and methodological literature on the issue; analysis of the Federal State Educational Standards and professional standards; modeling of processes.Results and scientific novelty. The problems of formation of communicative competence in the preparation of teachers are considered. The characteristic of the formation levels of mentoring such as «mentor-formal»; «mentor-theoretician», a «mentor-coach»; «mentor-adviser»; «mentor-professional» are given. The pedagogical potential of the phenomenon of «mentoring» is disclosed; an innovative way of mentoring within the competence approach is shown. The integrative activity of the teacher in solving production and pedagogical problems is analysed.Practical significance. The results can be used by trainers and mentors in the formation of communicative competence of students. The implementation of integration model of pedagogical and production tasks will provide the formation of communicative competence as part of vocational training. Using the obtained results can improve the effectiveness of vocational teacher education.

  18. Consolidation of powders of the superconductor YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-. delta. / by high energy-high rate processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.Y.; Persad, C.; Swinnea, J.S.; Marcus, H.L.; Steinfink, H. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (USA). Center for Materials Science and Engineering)

    1988-01-01

    The consolidation response of powders of the superconducting compound YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-{delta}/ by itself and admixed with metal powders is reported. The processing approach relies on short duration (

  19. How landscape scale changes affect ecological processes in conservation areas: external factors influence land use by zebra (Equus burchelli) in the Okavango Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie L A; Bonyongo, Mpaphi C; Harris, Stephen

    2013-09-01

    Most large-bodied wildlife populations in sub-Saharan Africa only survive in conservation areas, but are continuing to decline because external changes influence ecological processes within reserves, leading to a lack of functionality. However, failure to understand how landscape scale changes influence ecological processes limits our ability to manage protected areas. We used GPS movement data to calculate dry season home ranges for 14 zebra mares in the Okavango Delta and investigated the effects of a range of landscape characteristics (number of habitat patches, mean patch shape, mean index of juxtaposition, and interspersion) on home range size. Resource utilization functions (RUF) were calculated to investigate how specific landscape characteristics affected space use. Space use by all zebra was clustered. In the wetter (Central) parts of the Delta home range size was negatively correlated with the density of habitat patches, more complex patch shapes, low juxtaposition of habitats and an increased availability of floodplain and grassland habitats. In the drier (Peripheral) parts of the Delta, higher use by zebra was also associated with a greater availability of floodplain and grassland habitats, but a lower density of patches and simpler patch shapes. The most important landscape characteristic was not consistent between zebra within the same area of the Delta, suggesting that no single foraging strategy is substantially superior to others, and so animals using different foraging strategies may all thrive. The distribution and complexity of habitat patches are crucial in determining space use by zebra. The extent and duration of seasonal flooding is the principal process affecting habitat patch characteristics in the Okavango Delta, particularly the availability of floodplains, which are the habitat at greatest risk from climate change and anthropogenic disturbance to the Okavango's catchment basin. Understanding how the factors that determine habitat

  20. TRACKING THE PROCESSES OF MELANODIN FORMATION IN COFFEE

    OpenAIRE

    Snezhana Ivanova

    2017-01-01

    Melanoidins are high molecular brown colored substances and products of sugar-amine reaction of Maillard. They are formed during roasting a green coffee beans under different thermal regimes of heat treatment. In the technological production of different types coffee beverages, the coffee powder is subjected to after-heat treatment. In these additional operations again become active processes of melanoidin formation and their changing their structures. This is changes of the Melanoidins have ...

  1. Determination of delta sub(18) in water from delta sub(18) in equilibrated CO2: influence of changes in experimental parameters on the equilibration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nestler, V.; Arora, H.L.

    1977-01-01

    The result of an isotopic exchange reaction is expressed in terms of the isotopic abundance ratios, the fractionation factor and the atom number ratio of the reactants. The general formula is applied to the CO 2 -H 2 O system and simplified by neglecting terms small in relation to the experimental error. The influence of variations in the experimental parameters on the equilibrium is discussed. It is found that changes in temperature as well as atom number ratio will influence the equilibration process appreciably [pt

  2. Destruction and formation of organic micropollutants in incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascolo, G.; Bagnuolo, G.; Lotito, V.; Spinosa, L.; Mininni, G.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper are presented the results obtained from a lab-scale investigation carried out with a system for Thermal Diagnostic Studies (STDS) aimed to study the effect of some process variables during incineration. The study has been focused on (I) gas phase dioxins formation during precursors thermal degradation, (II) thermal degradation of toxic organic compounds, (III) products of incomplete combustion (PICs) formation during thermal degradation of urban sludge spiked with toxic organics, (IV) PICs formation during process failure modes, (V) polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) formation during urban sludge thermal degradation and (VI) influence of conditioning polymer on PICs emission during sludge incineration. The study about gas phase dioxins formation during precursors thermal degradation has been carried out with 2, 4, 6-trichloro- and 2, 4, 6 -tribromo-phenol that were thermal degraded at temperatures between 300 and 800 0 C in an air atmosphere. Both phenols showed the formation of the same tetra-halo-dioxin isomers that were further degraded at higher temperature. Furthermore, chlorine-containing dioxins showed higher thermal stability than bromine-containing dioxins. The study about thermal degradation of toxic organic compounds has been carried out with chlorobenzene, tetrachloroethylene and toluene that were thermal degraded at temperatures between 300 and 1000 0 C in an inert as well as air atmosphere. Results show that in all experimental conditions tetrachloroethylene and toluene are the most and less thermal stable compounds respectively. Also, all compounds are more thermal resistant during pyrolytic experiments and less thermal resistant when they are treated as a whole mixture. The study about PICs formation during thermal degradation of urban sludge spiked with toxic organics has been carried out by thermally degrading urban sludge alone or spiked with the above reported three organics at different conditions of temperature and oxygen

  3. Processes Leading to Beaded Channels Formation in Central Yakutia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbeeva, A. M.; Lebedeva, L.; Efremov, V. S.; Krylenko, I. V.; Surkov, V. V.

    2017-12-01

    Beaded channels, consisting of deepened and widened pools and connecting narrow runs, are common fluvial forms in permafrost regions. Recent studies have shown that beaded channels are very important for connecting alluvial rivers with headwater lakes allowing fish passage and foraging habitats, as well as regulating river runoff. Beaded channels are known as typical thermokarst landforms; however, there is no evidence of their origin and formative processes. Geomorphological analyzes of beaded channels have been completed in several permafrost regions including field observations of Shestakovka River in Central Yakutia. The study aims to recognize the modern exogenic processes and formative mechanisms of beaded river channels. We show that beaded channel of Shestakovka River form in the perennially frozen sand with low ice content, leading us to hypothesize that thermokarst is not the main process of formation. Due to the significant volume of water, the pools don't freeze over entirely during winters, even under harsh climatic conditions. As a result, lenses of pressurized water remain under surface ice underlain by perennially thawed sediments. The presence of thawed sediments under the pools and frozen sediments under the runs leads to uneven thermoerosion of the riverbed during floods, providing the beaded form of the channel. In addition, freezing of pools during winter leads to pressure increasing under ice cover and formation of ice mounds, which crack several times during winter leading to disturbance of riverbanks. Many 1st to 3rd order streams have a specific transitional meandering-to-beaded form resembling the shape of unconfined meandering rivers, but consisting of pools and runs. However, such channels exhibit no evidences of present-day erosion of concave banks and sediment accumulation at the convex banks as typically being observed in normally meandering rivers. Such forms of channels indicates that their formation occurred by the greater channel

  4. Haze Formation and Behavior in Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arm, Stuart T.; Jenkins, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Aqueous haze formation and behavior was studied in the liquid-liquid system tri-n-butyl phosphate in odorless kerosene and 3M nitric acid with uranyl nitrate and cesium nitrate representing the major solute and an impurity, respectively. A pulsed column, mixer-settler and centrifugal contactor were chosen to investigate the effect of different turbulence characteristics on the manifestation of haze since these contactors exhibit distinct mixing phenomena. The dispersive processes of drop coalescence and breakage, and water precipitation in the organic phase were observed to lead to the formation of haze drops of ∼1 um in diameter. The interaction between the haze and primary drops of the dispersion was critical to the separation efficiency of the liquid-liquid extraction equipment. Conditions of high power input and spatially homogeneous mixing enabled the haze drops to become rapidly assimilated within the dispersion to maximize the scrub performance and separation efficiency of the equipment

  5. Mauna Loa lava accumulation rates at the Hilo drill site: Formation of lava deltas during a period of declining overall volcanic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, P.W.; Moore, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    Accumulation rates for lava flows erupted from Mauna Loa, as sampled in the uppermost 280 m of the Hilo drill hole, vary widely for short time intervals (several thousand years), but overall are broadly similar to those documented elsewhere on this volcano since 100 ka. Thickness variations and accumulation rates for Mauna Loa lavas at the Hilo drill site have been strongly affected by local paleotopography, including funneling and ponding between Mauna Kea and Kilauea. In addition, gentle submerged slopes of Mauna Kea in Hilo Bay have permitted large shoreline displacements by Mauna Loa flows. Ages of eruptive intervals have been determined from published isotopic data and from eustatic sea level curves modified to include the isostatic subsidence of the island of Hawaii at 2.2-2.6 mm/yr. Prior to 10 ka, rates of Mauna Loa lava accumulation at the drill site varied from 0.6 to 4.3 mm/yr for dateable intervals, with an overall rate of 1.8 mm/yr. Major eruptive pulses at about 1.3 and 10 ka, each probably representing a single long-lived eruption based on lack of weathering between flow units, increase the overall accumulation rate to 2.4 mm/yr. The higher rate since 10 ka reflects construction of thick near-shoreline lava deltas as postglacial sea levels rose rapidly. Large lava deltas form only along coastal segments where initially subaerial slopes have been submerged by the combined effects of eustatic sea level rise, isostatic subsidence, or spreading of volcano flanks. Overall accumulation of 239 m of lava at the drill site since 100-120 ka closely balances submergence of the Hilo area, suggesting that processes of coastal lava deposition have been modulated by rise in sea level. The Hilo accumulation rate is slightly higher than average rates of 1-2 mm/yr determined elsewhere along the Mauna Loa coast, based on rates of shoreline coverage and dated sea cliff and fault scarp exposures. Low rates of coastal lava accumulation since 100 ka, near or below the rate

  6. Water circulation control on carbonate-{delta}{sup 18}O records in a low permeability clay formation and surrounding limestones: The Upper Dogger-Oxfordian sequence from the eastern Paris basin, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavastre, Veronique, E-mail: veronique.lavastre@univ-st-etienne.fr [Universite de Lyon, Universite Jean Monnet, F-42023 Saint Etienne (France)] [CNRS, UMR 6524, LMV, F-42023 Saint Etienne (France)] [Laboratoire de Geochimie des Isotopes Stables, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris and Universite Paris 7 - UMR CNRS 7154, 4, place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Ader, Magali [Laboratoire de Geochimie des Isotopes Stables, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris and Universite Paris 7 - UMR CNRS 7154, 4, place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Buschaert, Stephane [Andra, Parc de la Croix Blanche, 7-8 rue Jean Monnet, 92 298 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Petit, Eddy; Javoy, Marc [Laboratoire de Geochimie des Isotopes Stables, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris and Universite Paris 7 - UMR CNRS 7154, 4, place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France)

    2011-05-15

    Research Highlights: > Up. Dog./Oxf. sequence is investigated for radioactive waste disposal feasibilities. > Marine carbonates suffered isotopic exchanges with meteoric water. > Modelling shows that very low W/R ratio can explain isotopic changes in clay layer. > Higher W/R ratio are needed to reach isotopic changes in carbonated layers. > Confirmed barrier property of clay layer was probably reached during early burial. - Abstract: Upper Dogger to Oxfordian Formations in the eastern part of the Paris basin (France) are currently being investigated by the French nuclear waste management agency (Andra), testing the feasibility of long-term deep nuclear waste disposal in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystones. Characterising the hydrogeological behaviour of the Callovo-Oxfordian claystones is, therefore, essential in evaluating its potential as a geological barrier. In order to evaluate and quantify water/rock interactions experienced over geological time by these Formations, bulk carbonate {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O were measured and calculations of water-rock ratios were used to explain carbonate-{delta}{sup 18}O changes. Meteoric porewater and a maximum temperature reached of about 40 deg. C were considered. The Jurassic marine carbonate {delta}{sup 13}C was preserved in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystones and in the overlying limestones (-0.28 per mille to 3.39 per mille/PDB), while the {delta}{sup 18}O values are lower by 0-5 per mille (-6.25 per mille to -1.32 per mille/PDB). Calculations show that Upper Dogger and Oxfordian Limestone {delta}{sup 18}O data: (i)have random-like distribution through theoretical {delta}{sup 18}O-W/R curves and (ii)suggest that water/rock ratios (0.08-0.4) needed to explain {delta}{sup 18}O changes are higher by a factor of about 2-20 compared to the present-day water/rock ratio. These features indicate advection in both aquifers. According to the history of the Paris basin, this hydrogeological behaviour could have been

  7. Morphodynamic evolution of two deltas in arctic environments, east coast of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroon, Aart; Pedersen, Jørn Bjarke Torp; Sigsgaard, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Changes in fluvial channel patterns on deltas have a significant impact on the coastal morphology along its fringes. Lateral channel migration can locally cause cliff erosion and introduce an extra sediment source in the local budget of an active delta plain. Stabilization of channels or even...... channel lobe switching reduce the fluvial impact on the delta and introduce the formation of beach ridges and spits along the (former) delta edge. These accumulative features are formed in the ice-free summer periods and fed by alongshore sediment input from adjacent shores due to wave-driven alongshore...... currents, and by the reworking of the sediments on the delta plain by wave-driven cross-shore processes....

  8. Delta isobars in neutron stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagliara Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of delta isobars in beta-stable matter is regulated by the behavior of the symmetry energy at densities larger than saturation density. We show that by taking into account recent constraints on the density derivative of the symmetry energy and the theoretical and experimental results on the excitations of delta isobars in nuclei, delta isobars are necessary ingredients for the equations of state used for studying neutron stars. We analyze the effect of the appearance of deltas on the structure of neutron stars: as in the case of hyperons, matter containing delta is too soft for allowing the existence of 2M⊙ neutron stars. Quark stars on the other hand, could reach very massive configurations and they could form from a process of conversion of hadronic stars in which an initial seed of strangeness appears through hyperons.

  9. Carbon formation and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; Wright, I.G.

    1997-02-01

    The product gases generated by coal gasification systems contain high concentrations of CO and, characteristically, have relatively high carbon activities. Accordingly, carbon deposition and metal dusting can potentially degrade the operation of such gasifier systems. Therefore, the product gas compositions of eight representative gasifier systems were examined with respect to the carbon activity of the gases at temperatures ranging from 480 to 1,090 C. Phase stability calculations indicated that Fe{sub 3}C is stable only under very limited thermodynamic conditions and with certain kinetic assumptions and that FeO and Fe{sub 0.877}S tend to form instead of the carbide. As formation of Fe{sub 3}C is a necessary step in the metal dusting of steels, there are numerous gasifier environments where this type of carbon-related degradation will not occur, particularly under conditions associated with higher oxygen and sulfur activities. These calculations also indicated that the removal of H{sub 2}S by a hot-gas cleanup system may have less effect on the formation of Fe{sub 3}C in air-blown gasifier environments, where the iron oxide phase can exist and is unaffected by the removal of sulfur, than in oxygen-blown systems, where iron sulfide provides the only potential barrier to Fe{sub 3}C formation. Use of carbon- and/or low-alloy steels dictates that the process gas composition be such that Fe{sub 3}C cannot form if the potential for metal dusting is to be eliminated. Alternatively, process modifications could include the reintroduction of hydrogen sulfide, cooling the gas to perhaps as low as 400 C and/or steam injection. If higher-alloy steels are used, a hydrogen sulfide-free gas may be processed without concern about carbon deposition and metal dusting.

  10. Energy deposition by delta rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigand, F.C.; Braby, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations for proton tracks were extended to projectile with more complex electronic structures which add additional delta ray production processes. An experimental apparatus was used to detect gas gain and resolution for H 2+ and 3 He ++

  11. Spiral Structure and Global Star Formation Processes in M 51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruendl, Robert A.

    1994-12-01

    The nearby grand design spiral galaxy, M 51, is an obvious proving ground for studies of spiral structure and large scale star formation processes. New near--infrared observations of M 51 made with COB (Cryogenic Optical Bench) on the Kitt Peak 1.3m allow us to examine the stellar distribution and the young star formation regions as well as probe regions of high extinction such as dust lanes. We also present an analysis of the kinematics of the ionized gas observed with the Maryland--Caltech Imaging Fabry Perot. The color information we derive from the near--infrared bands provides a more accurate tracer of extinction than optical observations. We find that the dust extinction and CO emission in the arms are well correlated. Our kinematic data show unambiguously that these dense gas concentrations are associated with kinematic perturbations. In the inner disk, these perturbations are seen to be consistent with the streaming motions predicted by classical density wave theory. The dust lanes, and presumably the molecular arms, form a narrow ridge that matches these velocity perturbations wherever the viewing angle is appropriate. This interpretation requires that the corotation radius be inward of the outer tidal arms. The outer tidal arms however show streaming velocities of the sign that would be expected interior to the corotation point. This can be reconciled if the outer arms are part of a second spiral pattern, most likely due to the interaction with the companion NGC 5195. The near--infrared observations also show emission from the massive star forming regions. These observations are less affected by extinction than optical observations of H II regions and show clearly that the sites of massive star formation are correlated with but downstream from the concentrations of dense molecular material. This provides clear evidence that the ISM has been organized by the streaming motions which have in turn triggered massive star formation.

  12. PSEUDOBULGE FORMATION AS A DYNAMICAL RATHER THAN A SECULAR PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedes, Javiera; Mayer, Lucio; Carollo, Marcella [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zuerich, Wolgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Madau, Piero [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    We investigate the formation and evolution of the pseudobulge in 'Eris', a high-resolution N-body + smoothed particle hydrodynamic cosmological simulation that successfully reproduces a Milky-Way-like massive late-type spiral in an cold dark matter universe. At the present epoch, Eris has a virial mass M{sub vir} {approx_equal} 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }, a photometric stellar mass M{sub *} = 3.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }, a bulge-to-total ratio B/T = 0.26, and a weak nuclear bar. We find that the bulk of the pseudobulge forms quickly at high redshift via a combination of non-axisymmetric disk instabilities and tidal interactions or mergers, both occurring on dynamical timescales, not through slow secular processes at lower redshift. Its subsequent evolution is not strictly secular either, and is closely intertwined with the evolution of the stellar bar. In fact, the structure that we recognize as a pseudobulge today evolved from a stellar bar that formed at high redshift due to tidal interactions with satellites, was destroyed by minor mergers at z {approx} 3, re-formed shortly after, and weakened again following a steady gas inflow at z {approx}< 1. The gradual dissolution of the bar ensued at z {approx} 1 and continues until the present without increasing the stellar velocity dispersion in the inner regions. In this scenario, the pseudobulge is not a separate component from the inner disk in terms of formation path; rather, it is the first step in the inside-out formation of the baryonic disk, in agreement with the fact that pseudobulges of massive spiral galaxies typically have a dominant old stellar population. If our simulations do indeed reproduce the formation mechanisms of massive spirals, then the progenitors of late-type galaxies should have strong bars and small photometric pseudobulges at high redshift.

  13. Concept formation: a supportive process for early career nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornley, Tracey; West, Sandra

    2010-09-01

    Individuals come to understand abstract constructs such as that of the 'expert' through the formation of concepts. Time and repeated opportunity for observation to support the generalisation and abstraction of the developing concept are essential if the concept is to form successfully. Development of an effective concept of the 'expert nurse' is critical for early career nurses who are attempting to integrate theory, values and beliefs as they develop their clinical practice. This study explores the use of a concept development framework in a grounded theory study of the 'expert nurse'. Qualitative. Using grounded theory methods for data collection and analysis, semi-structured interviews were conducted with registered nurses. The participants were asked to describe their concept of the 'expert nurse' and to discuss their experience of developing this. Participants reported forming their concept of the 'expert nurse', after multiple opportunities to engage with nurses identified as 'expert'. This identification did not necessarily relate to the designated position of the 'expert nurse' or assigned mentors. When the early career nurse does not successfully form a concept of the 'expert nurse', difficulties in personal and professional development including skill/knowledge development may arise. To underpin development of their clinical practice effectively, early career nurses need to be provided with opportunities that facilitate the purposive formation of their own concept of the 'expert nurse'. Formation of this concept is not well supported by the common practice of assigning mentors. Early career nurses must be provided with the time and the opportunity to individually develop and refine their concept of the 'expert nurse'. To achieve this, strategies including providing opportunities to engage with expert nurses and discussion of the process of concept formation and its place in underpinning personal judgments may be of assistance. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing

  14. Particle Formation by Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Expansion Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujuan Pan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction and expansion (SFEE patented technology combines the advantages of both supercritical fluid extraction (SFE and rapid expansion of supercritical solution (RESS with on-line coupling, which makes the nanoparticle formation feasible directly from matrix such as Chinese herbal medicine. Supercritical fluid extraction is a green separation technology, which has been developed for decades and widely applied in traditional Chinese medicines or natural active components. In this paper, a SFEE patented instrument was firstly built up and controlled by LABVIEW work stations. Stearic acid was used to verify the SFEE process at optimized condition; via adjusting the preexpansion pressure and temperature one can get different sizes of particles. Furthermore, stearic acid was purified during the SFEE process with HPLC-ELSD detecting device; purity of stearic acid increased by 19%, and the device can purify stearic acid.

  15. Tube formation by complex cellular processes in Ciona intestinalis notochord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bo; Horie, Takeo; Denker, Elsa; Kusakabe, Takehiro; Tsuda, Motoyuki; Smith, William C; Jiang, Di

    2009-06-15

    In the course of embryogenesis multicellular structures and organs are assembled from constituent cells. One structural component common to many organs is the tube, which consists most simply of a luminal space surrounded by a single layer of epithelial cells. The notochord of ascidian Ciona forms a tube consisting of only 40 cells, and serves as a hydrostatic "skeleton" essential for swimming. While the early processes of convergent extension in ascidian notochord development have been extensively studied, the later phases of development, which include lumen formation, have not been well characterized. Here we used molecular markers and confocal imaging to describe tubulogenesis in the developing Ciona notochord. We found that during tubulogenesis each notochord cell established de novo apical domains, and underwent a mesenchymal-epithelial transition to become an unusual epithelial cell with two opposing apical domains. Concomitantly, extracellular luminal matrix was produced and deposited between notochord cells. Subsequently, each notochord cell simultaneously executed two types of crawling movements bi-directionally along the anterior/posterior axis on the inner surface of notochordal sheath. Lamellipodia-like protrusions resulted in cell lengthening along the anterior/posterior axis, while the retraction of trailing edges of the same cell led to the merging of the two apical domains. As a result, the notochord cells acquired endothelial-like shape and formed the wall of the central lumen. Inhibition of actin polymerization prevented the cell movement and tube formation. Ciona notochord tube formation utilized an assortment of common and fundamental cellular processes including cell shape change, apical membrane biogenesis, cell/cell adhesion remodeling, dynamic cell crawling, and lumen matrix secretion.

  16. Fuzzy social choice models explaining the government formation process

    CERN Document Server

    C Casey, Peter; A Goodman, Carly; Pook, Kelly Nelson; N Mordeson, John; J Wierman, Mark; D Clark, Terry

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the extent to which fuzzy set logic can overcome some of the shortcomings of public choice theory, particularly its inability to provide adequate predictive power in empirical studies. Especially in the case of social preferences, public choice theory has failed to produce the set of alternatives from which collective choices are made.  The book presents empirical findings achieved by the authors in their efforts to predict the outcome of government formation processes in European parliamentary and semi-presidential systems.  Using data from the Comparative Manifesto Project (CMP), the authors propose a new approach that reinterprets error in the coding of CMP data as ambiguity in the actual political positions of parties on the policy dimensions being coded. The range of this error establishes parties’ fuzzy preferences. The set of possible outcomes in the process of government formation is then calculated on the basis of both the fuzzy Pareto set and the fuzzy maximal set, and the pre...

  17. Future Deltas Utrecht University research focus area: towards sustainable management of sinking deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stouthamer, E.; van Asselen, S.

    2015-11-01

    Deltas are increasingly under pressure from human impact and climate change. To deal with these pressures that threat future delta functioning, we need to understand interactions between physical, biological, chemical and social processes in deltas. This requires an integrated approach, in which knowledge on natural system functioning is combined with knowledge on spatial planning, land and water governance and legislative frameworks. In the research focus area Future Deltas of Utrecht University an interdisciplinary team from different research groups therefore works together. This allows developing integrated sustainable and resilient delta management strategies, which is urgently needed to prevent loss of vital delta services.

  18. Are amphitheater headed canyons indicative of a particular formative process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, A. J.; Whipple, K. X.; Johnson, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    Tributary canyons with amphitheater-shaped heads have previously been interpreted as evidence for groundwater seepage erosion, particularly in environments where fluvial processes are assumed to be negligible. However, some have questioned whether this canyon morphology is truly diagnostic of a particular formative process. We seek to determine the relative roles of fluvial and groundwater-related processes and the strength of stratigraphic control on the Colorado Plateau through a combination of fieldwork and GIS analysis. Amphitheater valleys may have overhanging or steep-sided headwalls with a semicircular plan-view pattern. It is reasonable to assume that this form is a result of focused erosion at the base of the headwall (i.e. sapping). Two frequently cited agents may lead to undermining: plunge-pool scour at the base of waterfalls and seepage induced weathering and erosion where the groundwater table intersects the land surface. Both processes are enhanced where weaker, less permeable layers underlie stronger cap rock. We conducted preliminary fieldwork in two locations on the Colorado Plateau, where there are many classic examples of amphitheater headed canyons. The Escalante River landscape is highly variable with a range of canyon and valley-head forms, many of which cut through the thick Navajo Sandstone into the underlying shale and sand of the Kayenta Formation. Northeast of Escalante National Monument, at the base of the Henry Mountains, is Tarantula Mesa. The canyons there are also considerably variable, with nearly all containing at least one abrupt amphitheater knickpoint at the valley head or farther downstream. Our observations are presented here with an analysis of the canyon profiles, surrounding topography, and potential structural controls. We have found that nearly all amphitheaters in both locales show signs of groundwater seepage weathering and plausibly seepage erosion. However, many also contain plunge pools and evidence of substantial

  19. POX 186: A Dwarf Galaxy in the Process of Formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Michael R.; Vacca, William D.

    2002-12-01

    We present deep U-, V-, and I-band images of the ``ultracompact'' blue dwarf galaxy POX 186 obtained with the Planetary Camera 2 of the Hubble Space Telescope. We have also obtained a near-ultraviolet spectrum of the object with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph and combine this with a new ground-based optical spectrum. The images confirm the galaxy to be extremely small, with a maximum extent of only 300 pc, a luminosity of ~10-4L*, and an estimated mass of ~107 Msolar. Its morphology is highly asymmetric, with a tail of material on its western side that may be tidal in origin. The U-band image shows this tail to be part of a stream of material in which stars have recently formed. Most of the star formation in the galaxy is, however, concentrated in a central, compact (d~10-15 pc) star cluster. We estimate this cluster to have a total mass of ~105 Msolar, to be forming stars at a rate of less than 0.05 yr-1, and to have a maximum age of a few million years. The outer regions of the galaxy are significantly redder than the cluster, with V-I colors consistent with a population dominated by K and M stars. From our analysis of the optical spectrum we find the galaxy to have a metallicity Z~=0.06 Zsolar and to contain a significant amount of internal dust [E(B-V)~=0.28] both values agree with previous estimates. While these results rule out earlier speculation that POX 186 is a protogalaxy, its morphology, mass, and active star formation suggest that it represents a recent (within ~108 yr) collision between two clumps of stars of subgalactic size (~100 pc). POX 186 may thus be a very small dwarf galaxy that, dynamically speaking, is still in the process of formation. This interpretation is supported by the fact that it resides in a void, so its morphology cannot be explained as the result of an encounter with a more massive galaxy. Clumps of stars this small may represent the building blocks required by hierarchical models of galaxy formation, and these results

  20. TEACHER ROLE IN FORMATION POLITENESS OF STUDENT LEARNING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyuni Oktavia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Language as a communication tool has an important role in human interaction. Language can be used to convey ideas, ideas, feelings, desires, and so forth to others. To be able to communicate well certainly should be able to adjust the language used. One of the main functions of communication is to maintain the continuity of the relationship between the narrator and hearer. Language is an important pillar in the formation of character, in addition to religious education and moral education. In education, teachers must have pedagogical, professional, personal, and social. Teachers who have a good competence speech acts certainly have a good and well mannered to students. In the learning process, teachers and students communicate in give and receive course materials. The learning process is certainly not only provides knowledge alone, but give the values of character to students. In this case, the teacher must have a principle that must be controlled properly, correctly and precisely. Thus, teachers are expected to master the communication and understanding the principles of politeness in speaking well and correctly. The goal is a description of a form of politeness in the learning process. This research is a descriptive study which seeks to describe a form of politeness in the learning process. Data collection method used is the method refer to the data collection techniques are 1 recording technique using a tape recorder, and 2 technical note on the data card. Furthermore, methods of data analysis using pragmatic frontier.

  1. RELABEL2007, Labels FORTRAN Statements in ENDF Format Processing Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: RELABEL labels a ENDF/B pre-processing program so that statement labels are in increasing order in increments of 10 within each routine, and cards are identified in columns 73-80 by three alphanumeric characters in columns 73-75 and sequence numbers in columns 76-80 in increments of 10. IAEA1314/10: This version include the updates up to January 30, 2007. Changes in ENDF/B-VII Format and procedures, as well as the evaluations themselves, make it impossible for versions of the ENDF/B pre-processing codes earlier than PREPRO 2007 (2007 Version) to accurately process current ENDF/B-VII evaluations. The present code can handle all existing ENDF/B-VI evaluations through release 8, which will be the last release of ENDF/B-VI. Modifications from previous versions: Relabel VERS. 2007-1 (JAN. 2007): No change since March 2004 version 2 - Method of solution: 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: RELABEL is designed to maintain ENDF/B processing programs which use a restricted set of FORTRAN statements. As such, this program is not completely general

  2. Production of erythrocytes from directly isolated or Delta1 Notch ligand expanded CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells: process characterization, monitoring and implications for manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, Katie E; Workman, Victoria L; Ahmed, Forhad; Ratcliffe, Elizabeth; Stacey, Adrian J; Thomas, Robert J

    2013-09-01

    Economic ex vivo manufacture of erythrocytes at 10(12) cell doses requires an efficiently controlled bio-process capable of extensive proliferation and high terminal density. High-resolution characterization of the process would identify production strategies for increased efficiency, monitoring and control. CD34(+) cord blood cells or equivalent cells that had been pre-expanded for 7 days with Delta1 Notch ligand were placed in erythroid expansion and differentiation conditions in a micro-scale ambr suspension bioreactor. Multiple culture parameters were varied, and phenotype markers and metabolites measured to identify conserved trends and robust monitoring markers. The cells exhibited a bi-modal erythroid differentiation pattern with an erythroid marker peak after 2 weeks and 3 weeks of culture; differentiation was comparatively weighted toward the second peak in Delta1 pre-expanded cells. Both differentiation events were strengthened by omission of stem cell factor and dexamethasone. The cumulative cell proliferation and death, or directly measured CD45 expression, enabled monitoring of proliferative rate of the cells. The metabolic activities of the cultures (glucose, glutamine and ammonia consumption or production) were highly variable but exhibited systematic change synchronized with the change in differentiation state. Erythroid differentiation chronology is partly determined by the heterogeneous CD34(+) progenitor compartment with implications for input control; Delta1 ligand-mediated progenitor culture can alter differentiation profile with control benefits for engineering production strategy. Differentiation correlated changes in cytokine response, markers and metabolic state will enable scientifically designed monitoring and timing of manufacturing process steps. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling Coupled Processes in Clay Formations for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Rutqvist, Jonny; Zheng, Liange; Sonnenthal, Eric; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2010-01-01

    As a result of the termination of the Yucca Mountain Project, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has started to explore various alternative avenues for the disposition of used nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The overall scope of the investigation includes temporary storage, transportation issues, permanent disposal, various nuclear fuel types, processing alternatives, and resulting waste streams. Although geologic disposal is not the only alternative, it is still the leading candidate for permanent disposal. The realm of geologic disposal also offers a range of geologic environments that may be considered, among those clay shale formations. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA. Clay rock/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures induced by tunnel excavation. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon et al., 2005) have all been under intensive scientific investigations (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relations with flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of nuclear waste. Clay/shale formations may be generally classified as indurated and plastic clays (Tsang et al., 2005). The latter (including Boom clay) is a softer material without high cohesion; its deformation is dominantly plastic. For both clay rocks, coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes are expected to have a significant impact on the long-term safety of a clay repository. For

  4. Modeling Coupled Processes in Clay Formations for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Rutqvist, Jonny; Zheng, Liange; Sonnenthal, Eric; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2010-08-31

    As a result of the termination of the Yucca Mountain Project, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has started to explore various alternative avenues for the disposition of used nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The overall scope of the investigation includes temporary storage, transportation issues, permanent disposal, various nuclear fuel types, processing alternatives, and resulting waste streams. Although geologic disposal is not the only alternative, it is still the leading candidate for permanent disposal. The realm of geologic disposal also offers a range of geologic environments that may be considered, among those clay shale formations. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA. Clay rock/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures induced by tunnel excavation. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon et al., 2005) have all been under intensive scientific investigations (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relations with flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of nuclear waste. Clay/shale formations may be generally classified as indurated and plastic clays (Tsang et al., 2005). The latter (including Boom clay) is a softer material without high cohesion; its deformation is dominantly plastic. For both clay rocks, coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes are expected to have a significant impact on the long-term safety of a clay repository. For

  5. Thermal processes of thermokarst lakes in the continuous permafrost zone of northern Siberia - observations and modeling (Lena River Delta, Siberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boike, J.; Georgi, C.; Kirilin, G.; Muster, S.; Abramova, K.; Fedorova, I.; Chetverova, A.; Grigoriev, M.; Bornemann, N.; Langer, M.

    2015-10-01

    Thermokarst lakes are typical features of the northern permafrost ecosystems, and play an important role in the thermal exchange between atmosphere and subsurface. The objective of this study is to describe the main thermal processes of the lakes and to quantify the heat exchange with the underlying sediments. The thermal regimes of five lakes located within the continuous permafrost zone of northern Siberia (Lena River Delta) were investigated using hourly water temperature and water level records covering a 3-year period (2009-2012), together with bathymetric survey data. The lakes included thermokarst lakes located on Holocene river terraces that may be connected to Lena River water during spring flooding, and a thermokarst lake located on deposits of the Pleistocene Ice Complex. Lakes were covered by ice up to 2 m thick that persisted for more than 7 months of the year, from October until about mid-June. Lake-bottom temperatures increased at the start of the ice-covered period due to upward-directed heat flux from the underlying thawed sediment. Prior to ice break-up, solar radiation effectively warmed the water beneath the ice cover and induced convective mixing. Ice break-up started at the beginning of June and lasted until the middle or end of June. Mixing occurred within the entire water column from the start of ice break-up and continued during the ice-free periods, as confirmed by the Wedderburn numbers, a quantitative measure of the balance between wind mixing and stratification that is important for describing the biogeochemical cycles of lakes. The lake thermal regime was modeled numerically using the FLake model. The model demonstrated good agreement with observations with regard to the mean lake temperature, with a good reproduction of the summer stratification during the ice-free period, but poor agreement during the ice-covered period. Modeled sensitivity to lake depth demonstrated that lakes in this climatic zone with mean depths > 5 m develop

  6. Monitoring of Deep Foundation Pit Support and Construction Process in Soft Soil Area of Pearl River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiyi, Xie; Pengcheng

    2018-03-01

    The deep foundation pit supporting technology in the soft soil area of the Pearl River Delta is more complicated, and many factors influence and restrict it. In this project as an example, according to the geological conditions and the surrounding circumstances, the main foundation using bored piles and pre-stressed anchor cable supporting structure + five axis cement mixing pile curtain supporting form; partial use of double row piles supporting structure + five axis cement mixing pile curtain support type. Through the monitoring results of construction show that the foundation pit, the indicators of environmental changes are in the design range, the supporting scheme of deep foundation pit technology is feasible and reliable.

  7. A review of the Delta Po evolution (Italy) related to climatic changes and human impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeoni, Umberto; Corbau, Corinne

    2009-06-01

    Climate changes and sea-level rise are important issues, especially for deltas such as the Po Delta, Italy. The evolution of the Po Delta shows a succession in space and a superposition in time of complex environmental natural processes. During the last few centuries, anthropogenic action has played a major role. The formation of the Po Delta began about 2000 years ago and has undergone many phases of development. Between 1500 AD and 1600 AD, the Venetian technicians diverted the Po river course. With these interventions, the "Renaissance delta" was cut off from the hydraulic network and the "modern delta" began to form. Until the middle of the 20th century, progradation of the delta was noticeable due to the abundant sediment supply. In the following decades coastal erosion occurred, this was caused by the reduction of the solid supply of the Po, due to dam and barrier construction and to river bed excavation. These and other interventions (e.g. reclamation, methane extractions from superficial ground water table) have deeply modified the physical and ecological characteristics of the Po Delta. The morphological characteristics of the Po Delta make the largest Italian wetland particularly unstable and very fragile when subjected to human pressure. Furthermore, the delta evidences multiple threats that will probably be exacerbated in the following decades by the effects of expected climatic changes. Only the application of careful policies concerning coastal defence, flood mitigation, anthropogenic subsidence reduction and salt wedge intrusion control will allow reduction of the present or predicted negative effects. This paper reviews how natural and human factors have controlled the Po Delta through time and discusses management strategies taking into account the importance of the human factor and the potential effects of climatic changes.

  8. Secondary organic aerosol formation through cloud processing of aromatic VOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herckes, P.; Hutchings, J. W.; Ervens, B.

    2010-12-01

    Field observations have shown substantial concentrations (20-5,500 ng L-1) of aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOC) in cloud droplets. The potential generation of secondary organic aerosol mass through the processing of these anthropogenic VOCs was investigated through laboratory and modeling studies. Under simulated atmospheric laboratory conditions, in idealized solutions, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) degraded quickly in the aqueous phase. The degradation process yielded less volatile products which would contribute to new aerosol mass upon cloud evaporation. However, when realistic cloud solutions containing natural organic matter were used in the experiments, the reaction rates decreased with increasing organic carbon content. Kinetic data derived from these experiments were used as input to a multiphase box model in order to evaluate the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass formation potential of cloud processing of BTEX. Model results will be presented that quantify the SOA amounts from these aqueous phase pathways. The efficiency of this multiphase SOA source will be compared to SOA yields from the same aromatics as treated in traditional SOA models that are restricted to gas phase oxidation and subsequent condensation on particles.

  9. Galaxy formation-a condensation process just after recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessner, G.

    1998-01-01

    A scenario of galaxy formation is put forward which is a process of sudden condensation just after recombination. It is essentially based on the fact that the cosmic-matter gas after recombination is a general relativistic Boltzmann gas which runs within a few 10 6 years into a tate very close to collision-dominated equilibrium. The mass spectrum of axially symmetric condensation 'drops' extends from the lower limit M ≅ 10 5 M to the upper limit M ≅ 10 12 M. The lower-limit masses are spheres whereas the upper-limit masses are thin pancakes. These pancakes contract within a time of about 2.5 · 10 9 y to rotating spiral galaxies with ordinary proportions. In this final state they have a redshift z ≅ 3. At an earlier time during their contraction they are highly active and are observed with a redshift z ≅ 5

  10. The influence of freshwater and material export on sedimentary facies and benthic processes within the Fly Delta and adjacent Gulf of Papua (Papua New Guinea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alongi, D. M.; Christoffersen, P.; Tirendi, F.; Robertson, A. I.

    1992-02-01

    Large volumes of freshwater and suspended material debouch from the Fly River in southwestern Papua New Guinea into the Gulf of Papua, greatly influencing the hydrography and sedimentary processes within the river delta and adjacent shelf region. Sedimentary facies within the subtidal regions of the Fly Delta are composed mainly of compacted and eroded very fine black sand, and highly laminated, muddy sand and sandy mud, progressing to prodelta mud with intermixed primary and biogenic structures in the inner Gulf of Papua. These prodelta muds grade further to mixed terrigenous-carbonate deposits southwards into the northern Great Barrier Reef and Torres Strait, and to well-bioturbated, fluid mud northwards into the Gulf of Papua. The transition from physically-dominated, estuarine conditions within the delta to more quiescent, marine conditions on the shelf leads to concomitant changes in sediment chemistry, microbial activity and infaunal and epifaunal communities. Particulate (C, N, P) and dissolved inorganic and organic nutrient concentrations were a function of sediment type (higher in finer deposits) rather than location (delta vs gulf). C: N: P ratios of solid-phase nutrients varied greatly, but were usually less than those predicted by the Redfield ratio. Mean interstitial concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients were low (μM range), but dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus levels were equivalent to those found in higher latitude systems. Fluxes of dissolved inorganic nutrients were generally low (μmol m -2 day -1). Flux rates were mostly negative (into the sediment) in the delta suggesting that these deposits are a sink for nutrients. In the offshore deposits, dissolved inorganic fluxes were higher and mostly positive indicating that they are a source for dissolved nutrients. Standing crops of bacteria (range: below detection limits— 2.5 × 10 10 cells g -1 dry wt), meiofauna (range: 5-750 individuals 10 cm -2; 9-1006 μg dry wt 10

  11. A linear process-algebraic format for probabilistic systems with data (extended version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katoen, Joost P.; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Timmer, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel linear process-algebraic format for probabilistic automata. The key ingredient is a symbolic transformation of probabilistic process algebra terms that incorporate data into this linear format while preserving strong probabilistic bisimulation. This generalises similar

  12. A linear process-algebraic format for probabilistic systems with data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katoen, Joost P.; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Timmer, Mark; Gomes, L.; Khomenko, V.; Fernandes, J.M.

    This paper presents a novel linear process algebraic format for probabilistic automata. The key ingredient is a symbolic transformation of probabilistic process algebra terms that incorporate data into this linear format while preserving strong probabilistic bisimulation. This generalises similar

  13. Spatial and temporal variation of nutrients in groundwater and associated processes in the coastal zone of the Pearl River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.

    2017-12-01

    Rapid urbanization has occurred in the Pearl River Delta since 1980s, resulting in tremendous accumulation of population and material in an area of around 1.1x104 km2. Massive nutrients were released to the coastal zone either via the Pearl River or the aquifer, and effects of these nutrients on ecosystem and drinking water supply are a big public concern. Field campaigns to collect groundwater samples were implemented in rainy (April- September) and dry seasons (October - March) during the period of 2005-2016, and samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, multiple isotopes, N2O and microbiological DNA. Seasonal and spatial pattern of nutrients from the recharge to the discharge zone in two case study areas were identified and compared regarding relevant N transformation processes. Main sources of nutrients in groundwater and major mechanisms, e.g. denitrification, nitrification and etc., involved in these processes were raised by integrating microbiological, isotopic and geochemical evidences. Driven forces of the change in nutrients in the past 10 years were investigated based on statistical data, and total nutrient load in groundwater in the delta was estimated.

  14. The formation and the evolution process of the Jilin meteorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duyang, Z.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Based on the data from an integrated study by a multidisciplinary group on the Jilin meteorite, we discuss the following aspects concerning its formation and evolution: (1) The fractionation-condensation of the solar nebula was examined based on the condensation and solidification age and the mineral composition of the Jilin meteorite. (2) The thermometamorphic history of the Jilin parent body was discussed based on the data on the loss of rare gases, the chemical composition of the whole rock, the self-purification of rare-earth elements and the composition stability of olivine and orthopyroxene. (3) The cooling process of the Jilin parent body was analyzed according to the Ni content and the width of taenite, and the retentivity of argon and fission tracks in the minerals. (4) The breakup of the Jilin parent body and its cosmic ray irradiation history: Based on the measurements of the cosmogenic nuclides as He 3 , Ne/sup 20,21,22/, Ar 38 , Na 22 , Al 26 , Mn 54 , Mn 53 , Co 60 etc., a two-stage model of the irradiation history of the Jilin meteorite was proposed. From the data on the Jilin meteorite parent body of the first stage (the age = 10--11 MY and r = 10 m) and that of the second stage (the age = 0.3--0.5 MY and r = 80--90 cm). The relative positions of samples in the parent body, their burial depths as well as the post-atmospheric loss by ignition were determined. (5) The falling process of the Jilin meteorite: The orbits of the Jilin meteor in the solar system and in the atmosphere, and its falling process were discussed

  15. Networks of Interacting Processes: Relationships Between Drivers and Deltaic Variables to Understand Water and Sediment Transport in Wax Lake Delta, Coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendrowski, A.; Passalacqua, P.; Wagner, W.; Mohrig, D. C.; Meselhe, E. A.; Sadid, K. M.; Castañeda-Moya, E.; Twilley, R.

    2017-12-01

    Studying distributary channel networks in river deltaic systems provides important insight into deltaic functioning and evolution. This view of networks highlights the physical connection along channels and can also encompass the structural link between channels and deltaic islands (termed structural connectivity). An alternate view of the deltaic network is one composed of interacting processes, such as relationships between external drivers (e.g., river discharge, tides, and wind) and internal deltaic response variables (e.g., water level and sediment concentration). This network, also referred to as process connectivity, is dynamic across space and time, often comprises nonlinear relationships, and contributes to the development of complex channel networks and ecologically rich island platforms. The importance of process connectivity has been acknowledged, however, few studies have directly quantified these network interactions. In this work, we quantify process connections in Wax Lake Delta (WLD), coastal Louisiana. WLD is a naturally prograding delta that serves as an analogue for river diversion projects, thus it provides an excellent setting for understanding the influence of river discharge, tides, and wind on water and sediment in a delta. Time series of water level and sediment concentration were collected in three channels from November 2013 to February 2014, while water level and turbidity were collected on an island from April 2014 to August 2015. Additionally, a model run on WLD bathymetry generated two years of sediment concentration time series in multiple channels. River discharge, tide, and wind measurements were collected from the USGS and NOAA, respectively. We analyze this data with information theory (IT), a set of statistics that measure uncertainty in signals and communication between signals. Using IT, the timescale, strength, and direction of network links are quantified by measuring the synchronization and direct influence from one

  16. Doubly truncated FosB isoform (Delta2DeltaFosB) induces osteosclerosis in transgenic mice and modulates expression and phosphorylation of Smads in osteoblasts independent of intrinsic AP-1 activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabatakos, George; Rowe, Glenn C; Kveiborg, Marie

    2008-01-01

    DeltaFosB and a further truncated isoform (Delta2DeltaFosB) that lacks known transactivation domains but, like DeltaFosB, induces increased expression of osteoblast marker genes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To test Delta2DeltaFosB's ability to induce bone formation in vivo, we generated transgenic mice......6 expression. CONCLUSIONS: DeltaFosB's AP-1 transactivating function is not needed to induce increased bone formation, and Delta2DeltaFosB may act, at least in part, by increasing Smad1 expression, phosphorylation, and translocation to the nucleus....

  17. Simulation of the radiography formation process from CT patient volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bifulco, P; Cesarelli, M; Verso, E; Roccasalva Firenze, M; Sansone, M; Bracale, M [University of Naples, Federico II, Electronic Engineering Department, Bioengineering Unit, Via Claudio, 21 - 80125 Naples (Italy)

    1999-12-31

    The aim of this work is to develop an algorithm to simulate the radiographic image formation process using volumetric anatomical data of the patient, obtained from 3D diagnostic CT images. Many applications, including radiographic driven surgery, virtual reality in medicine and radiologist teaching and training, may take advantage of such technique. The designed algorithm has been developed to simulate a generic radiographic equipment, whatever oriented respect to the patient. The simulated radiography is obtained considering a discrete number of X-ray paths departing from the focus, passing through the patient volume and reaching the radiographic plane. To evaluate a generic pixel of the simulated radiography, the cumulative absorption along the corresponding X-ray is computed. To estimate X-ray absorption in a generic point of the patient volume, 3D interpolation of CT data has been adopted. The proposed technique is quite similar to those employed in Ray Tracing. A computer designed test volume has been used to assess the reliability of the radiography simulation algorithm as a measuring tool. From the errors analysis emerges that the accuracy achieved by the radiographic simulation algorithm is largely confined within the sampling step of the CT volume. (authors) 16 refs., 12 figs., 1 tabs.

  18. FORMATION PROCESS AND HISTORICAL FUNCTIONS OF OLD AKIHA ROAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Yoji; Okuda, Masao; Kani, Yukihiko; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi; Matsui, Tamotsu

    An object of this study is the old Akiha road located along the southern parts of the Akaishi Mountains in Sizuoka Prefecture. The old Akiha road between Hamamatsu city in Enshu and Iida city in Shinshu had been utilized by people for the purposes of making a pilgrimage, megalithic faith, transporting obsidian since the primitive age, practicing the mountaineering asceticism, operating the military activities in the warlike age, transporting salt from coastal area to mountainous area and so on. Through the investigation of literature, site reconnaissance and hearing, the formation process and the historical functions of the old Akiha road were studied, including the situation in medieval times or before. As the results, it was elucidated that the oldest road between two cities had located over the Hyoukoshi Pass, the road routes had the lowering trend from mountainside to riverside, and the historical functions of old Akiha road were the passage for transportation of various kinds of goods and human being, faith and culture.

  19. Simulation of the radiography formation process from CT patient volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bifulco, P.; Cesarelli, M.; Verso, E.; Roccasalva Firenze, M.; Sansone, M.; Bracale, M.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop an algorithm to simulate the radiographic image formation process using volumetric anatomical data of the patient, obtained from 3D diagnostic CT images. Many applications, including radiographic driven surgery, virtual reality in medicine and radiologist teaching and training, may take advantage of such technique. The designed algorithm has been developed to simulate a generic radiographic equipment, whatever oriented respect to the patient. The simulated radiography is obtained considering a discrete number of X-ray paths departing from the focus, passing through the patient volume and reaching the radiographic plane. To evaluate a generic pixel of the simulated radiography, the cumulative absorption along the corresponding X-ray is computed. To estimate X-ray absorption in a generic point of the patient volume, 3D interpolation of CT data has been adopted. The proposed technique is quite similar to those employed in Ray Tracing. A computer designed test volume has been used to assess the reliability of the radiography simulation algorithm as a measuring tool. From the errors analysis emerges that the accuracy achieved by the radiographic simulation algorithm is largely confined within the sampling step of the CT volume. (authors)

  20. 3D Sedimentological and geophysical studies of clastic reservoir analogs: Facies architecture, reservoir properties, and flow behavior within delta front facies elements of the Cretaceous Wall Creek Member, Frontier Formation, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher D. White

    2009-12-21

    Significant volumes of oil and gas occur in reservoirs formed by ancient river deltas. This has implications for the spatial distribution of rock types and the variation of transport properties. A between mudstones and sandstones may form baffles that influence productivity and recovery efficiency. Diagenetic processes such as compaction, dissolution, and cementation can also alter flow properties. A better understanding of these properties and improved methods will allow improved reservoir development planning and increased recovery of oil and gas from deltaic reservoirs. Surface exposures of ancient deltaic rocks provide a high-resolution view of variability. Insights gleaned from these exposures can be used to model analogous reservoirs, for which data is sparser. The Frontier Formation in central Wyoming provides an opportunity for high-resolution models. The same rocks exposed in the Tisdale anticline are productive in nearby oil fields. Kilometers of exposure are accessible, and bedding-plane exposures allow use of high-resolution ground-penetrating radar. This study combined geologic interpretations, maps, vertical sections, core data, and ground-penetrating radar to construct geostatistical and flow models. Strata-conforming grids were use to reproduce the observed geometries. A new Bayesian method integrates outcrop, core, and radar amplitude and phase data. The proposed method propagates measurement uncertainty and yields an ensemble of plausible models for calcite concretions. These concretions affect flow significantly. Models which integrate more have different flow responses from simpler models, as demonstrated an exhaustive two-dimensional reference image and in three dimensions. This method is simple to implement within widely available geostatistics packages. Significant volumes of oil and gas occur in reservoirs that are inferred to have been formed by ancient river deltas. This geologic setting has implications for the spatial distribution of

  1. Persistent organic pollutants associated to water fluxes and sedimentary processes in the Colorado River delta, Baja California, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Ibarra, K C; Daesslé, L W; Macías-Zamora, J V; Ramírez-Álvarez, N

    2011-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were studied in sediment cores from two distinctive modern channels of the Colorado River (CR) delta. Their abundance and temporal changes are associated with flood-flows from the CR across the USA-Mexico border. The CR channel is directly exposed to river flood-flows while the Hardy River (HR) is a local channel derived mainly from agricultural runoff, geothermal effluents, and treated urban wastewater. Different headwater compositions and degrees of exposure to flood-flows appear to be the factors controlling the composition of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Enrichment of OCPs (46 ng g(-1) dwt in HR and 4.37 ng g(-1) dwt in CR) occurred during or a few years after flooding. PCB-138 (4.2 ng g(-1)dwt) is enriched in HR suggesting its origin in dielectric oils from the geothermal power plant. PCB-28 (2.1 ng g(-1)dwt) in CR may be related with atmospheric input and/or re-deposition of upstream sediments. In surficial sediments (0-3 cm), only HR exceeds international sediment quality guidelines (4,4'-DDE=8.16 ng g(-1)dwt and ΣDDT=8.34 ng g(-1)dwt). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Breaking down the delta wing vortex: The role of vorticity in the breakdown process. Ph.D. Thesis Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert C.; Visser, Kenneth D.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental x-wire measurements of the flowfield above a 70 and 75 deg flat plate delta wing were performed at a Reynolds number of 250,000. Grids were taken normal to the wing at various chordwise locations for angles of attack of 20 and 30 deg. Axial and azimuthal vorticity distributions were derived from the velocity fields. The dependence of circulation on distance from the vortex core and on chordwise location was also examined. The effects of nondimensionalization in comparison with other experimental data is made. The results indicate that the circulation distribution scales with the local semispan and grows in a nearly linear fashion in the chordwise direction. The spanwise distribution of axial vorticity is severely altered through the breakdown. The axial vorticity components with a negative sense, such as that found in the secondary vortex, seem to remain unaffected by changes in wind sweep or angle of attack, in direct contrast to the positive components. In addition, the inclusion of the local wing geometry into a previously derived correlation parameter allows the circulation of growing leading edge vortex flows to be reduced into a single curve.

  3. Tides Stabilize Deltas until Humans Interfere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoitink, T.; Zheng Bing, W.; Vermeulen, B.; Huismans, Y.; Kastner, K.

    2017-12-01

    Despite global concerns about river delta degradation caused by extraction of natural resources, sediment retention by reservoirs and sea-level rise, human activity in the world's largest deltas intensifies. In this review, we argue that tides tend to stabilize deltas until humans interfere. Under natural circumstances, delta channels subject to tides are more stable than their fluvial-dominated counterparts. The oscillatory tidal flow counteracts the processes responsible for bank erosion, which explains why unprotected tidal channels migrate only slowly. Peak river discharges attenuate the tides, which creates storage space to accommodate the extra river discharge during extreme events and as a consequence, reduce flood risk. With stronger tides, the river discharge is being distributed more evenly over the various branches in a delta, preventing silting up of smaller channels. Human interference in deltas is massive. Storm surge barriers are constructed, new land is being reclaimed and large-scale sand excavation takes place, to collect building material. Evidence from deltas around the globe shows that in human-controlled deltas the tidal motion often plays a destabilizing role. In channels of the Rhine-Meuse Delta, some 100 scour holes are identified, which relates to the altered tidal motion after completion of a storm surge barrier. Sand mining has led to widespread river bank failures in the tidally-influenced Mekong Delta. The catastrophic flood event in the Gauges-Brahmaputra Delta by Cyclone Aila, which caused the inundation of an embanked polder area for over two years, was preceded by river bank erosion at the mouths of formal tidal channels that were blocked by the embankment. Efforts to predict the developments of degrading deltas are few. Existing delta models are capable of reproducing expanding deltas, which is essentially a matter of simulating the transport of sediment from source in a catchment to the sink in a delta. Processes of soil

  4. Evidence of biogeochemical processes in iron duricrust formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levett, Alan; Gagen, Emma; Shuster, Jeremiah; Rintoul, Llew; Tobin, Mark; Vongsvivut, Jitraporn; Bambery, Keith; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Southam, Gordon

    2016-11-01

    Canga is a moderately hard iron-rich duricrust primarily composed of goethite as a result of the weathering of banded iron formations. Canga duricrusts lack a well-developed soil profile and consequently form an innate association with rupestrian plants that may become ferruginised, contributing to canga possessing macroscopic biological features. Examination of polished canga using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) revealed the biological textures associated with canga extended to the sub-millimetre scale in petrographic sections and polished blocks. Laminae that formed by abiotic processes and regions where goethite cements were formed in association with microorganisms were observed in canga. Biological cycling of iron within canga has resulted in two distinct forms of microbial fossilisation: permineralisation of multispecies biofilms and mineralisation of cell envelopes. Goethite permineralised biofilms frequently formed around goethite-rich kaolinite grains in close proximity to goethite bands and were composed of micrometre-scale rod-shaped, cocci and filamentous microfossils. In contrast, the cell envelopes immobilised by authigenic iron oxides were primarily of rod-shaped microorganisms, were not permineralised and occurred in pore spaces within canga. Complete mineralisation of intact rod-shaped casts and the absence of permineralisation suggested mineralised cell envelopes may represent fossilised iron-oxidising bacteria in the canga ecosystem. Replication of these iron-oxidising bacteria appeared to infill the porous regions within canga. Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy demonstrated that organic biomarkers were poorly preserved with only weak bands indicative of aliphatic methylene (CH2) associated with permineralised microbial biofilms. High resolution imaging of microbial fossils in canga that had been etched with oxalic acid supported the poor preservation of organic biomarkers within canga

  5. Types of tectonic structures, sedimentary volcanogenetic formations of a mantle, favourable processes for exogenetic and polygenetic uranium deposits formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danchev, V.I.; Komarnitskij, G.M.; Levin, V.N.; Shumlyanskij, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    Factors, affecting mineralization processes are considered. Characteristic features of uranium-bearing provinces are as follows: the presence of crust of continental type; deep-seated tectonic structures-rises and saggings, roofs, gneiss domes, rift zones and transform fractures; specialization for uranium of sedimentary and magmatic formations; the presence of manifestation regions of deep thermal and gaseous flow, etc. In uranium-bearing provinces territories favourable for the manifestation of different types of uranium mineralization: metamorphogenetic, polygenetic and exogenetic ones, are singled out. Different epochs of uranium ore formation are established. In sedimentary masses tectonic regime and climate are of special importance, and for epigenetic deposits, formed with an aid of underground waters-hydrogeological conditions. In the limits of the main structural elements of the Earth crust and geotectonic structures of higher orders the following types of sedimentary and volcanic formations can be singled out: 1-formations with exogenous uranium mineralization; 2-formations, accumulated in the epochs of epigenous ore formation; 3-formations fav ourable for epigenous uranium deposit formation; 4-formations unfavourable for the formation and localization of uranium mineralization

  6. Formation of high-Tc YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) films on Y2BaCuO5 substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. N.; Lu, H. B.; Lin, W. J.; Yao, P. C.; Hsu, H. E.

    1988-07-01

    High-Tc superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) films have been successfully prepared on green Y2BaCuO5 (2115) ceramic substrate. The films have been formed by RF sputtering and screen printing with post annealing at 925 C. Regarding superconducting features, the sharp resistivity drop with Tc onset around 95 K (midpoint 84 K) and 99 K (midpoint 89 K) has been observed for RF sputtered and printed films respectively. Both films show the excellent adhesion towards the 2115 substrate. Powder X-ray diffraction profiles indicate a majority of 1237 phase with preferred orientation for RF sputtered thin film.

  7. DELTA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbero, Jose A.; Florido, Pablo C.; Mendieta, Horacio; Pasquevich, Daniel M.; Manzano, F.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we outline a new concept for final treatment of radioactive waste. The process includes the first steps of the reprocessing of burnt fuels up to the final transmutation of the separated long-half-life actinides. (author)

  8. Delta Plaza kohvik = Delta Plaza cafe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Pärnu mnt 141 asuva kohviku Delta Plaza sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Tiiu Truus ja Marja Viltrop (Stuudio Truus OÜ). Tiiu Truusi tähtsamate tööde loetelu. Büroohoone Delta Plaza arhitektid Marika Lõoke ja Jüri Okas (AB J. Okas & M. Lõoke)

  9. delta-vision

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Delta Vision is intended to identify a strategy for managing the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta as a sustainable ecosystem that would continue to support environmental...

  10. Dislocation processes in quasicrystals-Kink-pair formation control or jog-pair formation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Shin

    2005-01-01

    A computer simulation of dislocation in a model quasiperiodic lattice indicates that the dislocation feels a large Peierls potential when oriented in particular directions. For a dislocation with a high Peierls potential, the glide velocity and the climb velocity of the dislocation can be described almost in parallel in terms of the kink-pair formation followed by kink motion and the jog-pair formation followed by jog motion, respectively. The activation enthalpy of the kink-pair formation is the sum of the kink-pair formation enthalpy and the atomic jump activation enthalpy, while the activation enthalpy of the jog-pair formation involves the jog-pair enthalpy and the self-diffusion enthalpy. Since the kink-pair energy can be considerably larger than the jog-pair energy, the climb velocity can be faster than the glide velocity, so that the plastic deformation of quasicrystals can be brought not by dislocation glide but by dislocation climb at high temperatures

  11. Precooking as a Control for Histamine Formation during the Processing of Tuna: An Industrial Process Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Farzana; Nolte, Fred; Colton, James; De Beer, John; Weddig, Lisa

    2018-02-23

    An experiment to validate the precooking of tuna as a control for histamine formation was carried out at a commercial tuna factory in Fiji. Albacore tuna ( Thunnus alalunga) were brought on board long-line catcher vessels alive, immediately chilled but never frozen, and delivered to an on-shore facility within 3 to 13 days. These fish were then allowed to spoil at 25 to 30°C for 21 to 25 h to induce high levels of histamine (>50 ppm), as a simulation of "worst-case" postharvest conditions, and subsequently frozen. These spoiled fish later were thawed normally and then precooked at a commercial tuna processing facility to a target maximum core temperature of 60°C. These tuna were then held at ambient temperatures of 19 to 37°C for up to 30 h, and samples were collected every 6 h for histamine analysis. After precooking, no further histamine formation was observed for 12 to 18 h, indicating that a conservative minimum core temperature of 60°C pauses subsequent histamine formation for 12 to 18 h. Using the maximum core temperature of 60°C provided a challenge study to validate a recommended minimum core temperature of 60°C, and 12 to 18 h was sufficient to convert precooked tuna into frozen loins or canned tuna. This industrial-scale process validation study provides support at a high confidence level for the preventive histamine control associated with precooking. This study was conducted with tuna deliberately allowed to spoil to induce high concentrations of histamine and histamine-forming capacity and to fail standard organoleptic evaluations, and the critical limits for precooking were validated. Thus, these limits can be used in a hazard analysis critical control point plan in which precooking is identified as a critical control point.

  12. Shewanella putrefaciens adhesion and biofilm formation on food processing surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Dorthe; Hjelm, M.; Johansen, C.

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory model systems were developed for studying Shewanella putrefaciens adhesion and biofilm formation under batch and flow conditions. S. putrefaciens plays a major role in food spoilage and may cause microbially induced corrosion on steel surfaces. S. putrefaciens bacteria suspended in buf...... from surfaces, and indirect conductometry and found this combination sufficient to quantify bacteria on surfaces...

  13. Single molecule image formation, reconstruction and processing: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Amit; Piestun, Rafael; Stallinga, Sjoerd

    2016-07-01

    The ability to image at the single molecule scale has revolutionized research in molecular biology. This feature issue presents a collection of articles that provides new insights into the fundamental limits of single molecule imaging and reports novel techniques for image formation and analysis.

  14. Defining Sustainable Universities Following Public Opinion Formation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaptcioglu Celikdemir, Deniz; Gunay, Gonca; Katrinli, Alev; Penbek Alpbaz, Sebnem

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to define the sustainable university in Turkey, by considering perspectives of various stakeholders such as experts, intellectual, public, political parties and media using public opinion formation analysis. The paper aims to re-define the "sustainable university" with all dimensions including…

  15. Avulsion and its implications for fluvial-deltaic architecture: insights from the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouthamer, E.; Cohen, K.M.; Gouw, M.J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Avulsion is a key process in the formation of fluvial-deltaic successions and a primary control on deltaic architecture. It determines the distribution of sediment and water and hence which location in the delta receives clastic sedimentation for what time. This makes the avulsion process an

  16. Influence of Process Parameters on Nitrogen Oxide Formation in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lans, Robert Pieter Van Der; Glarborg, Peter; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the influence of burner operating conditions, burner geometry and fuel parameters on the formation of nitrogen oxide during combustion of pulverized coal. Main attention has been paid to combustion test facilities with self-sustaining flames, while extensions have been made...... to full scale boilers and furnace modeling. Since coal combustion and flame aerodynamics have been reviewed earlier, these phenomena are only treated briefly....

  17. Rapid processing method for solution deposited YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawley, J.T.; Clem, P.G.; Boyle, T.J.; Ottley, L.M.; Overmyer, D.L.; Siegal, M.P

    2004-02-01

    YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) films, deposited on buffered metal substrates, are the primary candidate for second-generation superconducting (SC) wires, with applications including expanded power grid transmission capability, compact motors, and enhanced sensitivity magnetic resonance imaging. Feasibility of manufacturing such superconducting wires is dependent on high processing speed, often a limitation of vapor and solution-based YBCO deposition processes. In this work, YBCO films were fabricated via a new diethanolamine-modified trifluoroacetic film solution deposition method. Modifying the copper chemistry of the YBCO precursor solution with diethanolamine enables a hundredfold decrease in the organic pyrolysis time required for MA/cm{sup 2} current density (J{sub c}) YBCO films, from multiple hours to {approx}20 s in atmospheric pressure air. High quality, {approx}0.2 {mu}m thick YBCO films with J{sub c} (77 K) values {>=}2 MA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K are routinely crystallized from these rapidly pyrolyzed films deposited on LaAlO{sub 3}. This process has also enabled J{sub c} (77 K)=1.1 MA/cm{sup 2} YBCO films via 90 m/h dip-coating on Oak Ridge National Laboratory RABiTS textured metal tape substrates. This new YBCO solution deposition method suggests a route toward inexpensive and commercializable {approx}$10/kA m solution deposited YBCO coated conductor wires.

  18. Growth orientation and superconducting properties of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} films prepared by the low-fluorine sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei Li; Zhao Gaoyang; Xu Hui; Zhao Juanjuan, E-mail: leili813@gmail.co [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China)

    2010-08-15

    YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) films were deposited on (100)-oriented LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO) single crystal substrates by the dip-coating process using low-fluorine solution. Their microstructures were characterized with the aid of X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Their superconducting properties were measured by the standard four-probe method. The experiment results show that the film obtained under high enough humidity conditions exhibits better c-axis texture and superconducting properties than the film under a relatively low humidity conditions. Based on the classical nucleation and chemical reaction thermodynamics theory, the underlying crystalline and growth mechanisms of YBCO films under certain humidity conditions are explained in combination with our experimental results. It is suggested that the unreacted intermediate phases such as BaF{sub 2} and CuO aggregated in the YBCO grain boundary will cause lattice distortion in the YBCO matrix and further induce the formation of a-axis oriented YBCO grains as crystallization proceeds. Therefore, it is believed that the relative content of water vapor within the heat-treatment atmosphere plays quite an important role in the preparation of c-axis oriented YBCO film with good superconducting properties. (semiconductor materials)

  19. Process Analysis of Typhoon Related Ozone Pollution over the Pearl River Delta during the PRIDE-PRD2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Wang, X.; Zhang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    There were two typhoon processes during Campaign PRIDE-PRD2006 in July 2006 and serious ozone pollution episodes occurred before the landing of the typhoons. Chemical transport model CMAQ was employed in this work to simulate the ozone pollution episode related by the typhoon KAEMI. According to the meteorological conditions, the pollution episode could be divided into three phases with the movement of the typhoon, which were (1) far away from the continent; (2) coming close to the continent; (3) before landing. Process analysis was applied to get the contributions of physical and chemical processes for the ozone. It revealed that transport process was dominant during this pollution episode, and the influence of chemical process increased in the second phase. Three typical regions, northern rural area, urban area and Hong Kong area, were selected to study the contribution of each chemical and physical process. In the first phase, the primary process in northern rural area and the urban area was vertical diffusion, accounting for 47% and 46% respectively. In the second phase, the primary process in northern rural area and the urban area was chemical process, accounting for 33% and 31% respectively. In the third phase, the region of high concentration ozone moved southward. For Hong Kong area, the western inflow was prominent as 40%. Sensitivity study showed that urban areas were VOCs-limited regime with decreased ozone concentration when reducing the emission of VOCs. On the contrary, the ozone concentration in downwind rural areas decreased with the reduction of NOx, and the reason may be the decrement of the accumulated precursors.

  20. Application of Hydroforming Process in Sheet Metal Formation

    OpenAIRE

    GRIZELJ, Branko; CUMIN, Josip; ERGIĆ, Todor

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with the theory and application of a hydroforming process. Nowadays automobile manufacturers use high strength sheet metal plates. This high strength steel sheet metal plates are strain hardened in the process of metal forming. With the use of high strength steel, cars are made lightweight, which is intended for low fuel consumption because of high energy prices. Some examples of application of a hydroforming process are simulated with FEM.

  1. Shewanella putrefaciens Adhesion and Biofilm Formation on Food Processing Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagge, Dorthe; Hjelm, Mette; Johansen, Charlotte; Huber, Ingrid; Gram, Lone

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory model systems were developed for studying Shewanella putrefaciens adhesion and biofilm formation under batch and flow conditions. S. putrefaciens plays a major role in food spoilage and may cause microbially induced corrosion on steel surfaces. S. putrefaciens bacteria suspended in buffer adhered readily to stainless steel surfaces. Maximum numbers of adherent bacteria per square centimeter were reached in 8 h at 25°C and reflected the cell density in suspension. Numbers of adhering bacteria from a suspension containing 108 CFU/ml were much lower in a laminar flow system (modified Robbins device) (reaching 102 CFU/cm2) than in a batch system (reaching 107 CFU/cm2), and maximum numbers were reached after 24 h. When nutrients were supplied, S. putrefaciens grew in biofilms with layers of bacteria. The rate of biofilm formation and the thickness of the film were not dependent on the availability of carbohydrate (lactate or glucose) or on iron starvation. The number of S. putrefaciens bacteria on the surface was partly influenced by the presence of other bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) which reduced the numbers of S. putrefaciens bacteria in the biofilm. Numbers of bacteria on the surface must be quantified to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on adhesion and biofilm formation. We used a combination of fluorescence microscopy (4′,6′-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining and in situ hybridization, for mixed-culture studies), ultrasonic removal of bacteria from surfaces, and indirect conductometry and found this combination sufficient to quantify bacteria on surfaces. PMID:11319118

  2. People of the Delta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregoire, L.

    2007-09-15

    The potential impacts of both global warming and the $16 billion Mackenzie pipeline project on communities in the Mackenzie Delta were discussed. A consortium of oil and gas developers is now planning to exploit the natural gas reserves located near the mouth of the Delta, whose largest town is Inuvik. The project is expected to place a significant burden on the resources and infrastructure of the town, which currently has a population of 6000. The community, comprised of a diverse international population and an Inuit majority, is largely in favour of the pipeline project. The Inuvialuit people have invested a significant amount of time to ensure that the project, which was stalled due to land claims in 1977, benefits their communities. Public hearings are now being held to consider the potential environmental and socio-economic impacts of the project. Separate hearings are also being held to consider the project's design. The pipeline project includes 3 natural gas production facilities, a gas-processing facility, a pipeline gathering system, a 480 km natural gas liquids pipeline to the Northwest Territories, and a 1220 km natural gas pipeline to northern Alberta. The pipeline will be buried to minimize environmental impacts. The project is expected to create 8200 jobs at the height of its construction. However, communities located near the site of the natural gas reserves, such as the town of Tuktoyaktuk are now threatened by soil erosion that has been attributed to global warming. 21 figs.

  3. Ultrasonic monitoring of yoghurt formation by using AT-cut quartz: lighting of casein micelles interactions process during the acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ould-Ehssein, C; Serfaty, S; Griesmar, P; Le Huérou, J-Y; Caplain, E; Martinez, L; Wilkie-Chancellier, N; Gindre, M

    2006-12-22

    The behavior of weak gels during their formation singularly attracts attention of dairy products factories. In our study we investigate acidified pre-heated milk gels formation that are fairly often used to product yoghurts. The gel formation requires a tight control of the first step of micelles modification process and the kinetics reaction parameters. The most current rheological parameters used to achieve the monitoring are the storage G' and the loss G'' shear moduli and the gelation time. The study of these parameters is commonly performed at very low frequencies (1 Hz). Our technique uses a 6 MHz AT-cut quartz crystal immersed in an acidified milk solution kept at a constant temperature. This method is singularly effective to ensure a complete and a reliable follow-up of the viscoelastic parameters of casein gels. A suitable new model enables a complete follow-up of the micelles evolution from the viscoelastic properties. The experimental results of the G' and G'' moduli versus temperature and versus glucono-delta-lactone (GDL) added to milk are analyzed. In order to understand the micelles modifications, an analysis of the viscoelastic evolution try to explain the validity of the various models of micelles modification. In addition a new accurate kinetics characteristic time is proposed. This time corresponds to the moment for which the elastic effect of material becomes significant. From the kinetics study of casein gels at various temperatures, the Arrhenius relationship and a modified Flory-Stockmayer relationship give us access to the activation energy. By using the proposed technique and the suitable models developed, the structure thus quality of dairy products may be better controlled.

  4. Numerical analysis of stratification and destratification processes in a tidally energetic inlet with an ebb tidal delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purkiani, K.; Becherer, J.; Flöser, G.; Gräwe, U.; Mohrholz, V.; Schuttelaars, H.M.; Burchard, H.

    2015-01-01

    Stratification and destratification processes in a tidally energetic, weakly stratified inlet in the Wadden Sea (south eastern North Sea) are investigated in this modeling study. Observations of current velocity and vertical density structure show strain-induced periodic stratification for the

  5. Dataflow Interchange Format and a Framework for Processing Dataflow Graphs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keceli, Fuat

    2004-01-01

    Digital Signal Processing (DSP) applications are often designed with tools based on dataflow graphs and the increasing number of such tools shows the need for a common intermediate graph representation for exchanging dataflow information...

  6. Modeling of Cloud/Radiation Processes for Cirrus Cloud Formation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liou, K

    1997-01-01

    This technical report includes five reprints and pre-prints of papers associated with the modeling of cirrus cloud and radiation processes as well as remote sensing of cloud optical and microphysical...

  7. Chondritic Meteorites: Nebular and Parent-Body Formation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan E.; Lindstrom, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    It is important to identify features in chondrites that formed as a result of parent-body modification in order to disentangle nebular and asteroidal processes. However, this task is difficult because unmetamorphosed chondritic meteorites are mixtures of diverse components including various types of chondrules, chondrule fragments, refractory and mafic inclusions, metal-sulfide grains and fine-grained matrix material. Shocked chondrites can contain melt pockets, silicate-darkened material, metal veins, silicate melt veins, and impact-melt-rock clasts. This grant paid for several studies that went far in helping to distinguish primitive nebular features from those produced during asteroidal modification processes.

  8. deltaPlotR: An R Package for Di?erential Item Functioning Analysis with Ango? s Delta Plot

    OpenAIRE

    David Magis; Bruno Facon

    2014-01-01

    Angoff's delta plot is a straightforward and not computationally intensive method to identify differential item functioning (DIF) among dichotomously scored items. This approach was recently improved by proposing an optimal threshold selection and by considering several item purification processes. Moreover, to support practical DIF analyses with the delta plot and these improvements, the R package deltaPlotR was also developed. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to outline the delta plot ...

  9. Thermoplastic processing of proteins for film formation--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Izquierdo, V M; Krochta, J M

    2008-03-01

    Increasing interest in high-quality food products with increased shelf life and reduced environmental impact has encouraged the study and development of edible and/or biodegradable polymer films and coatings. Edible films provide the opportunity to effectively control mass transfer among different components in a food or between the food and its surrounding environment. The diversity of proteins that results from an almost limitless number of side-chain amino-acid sequential arrangements allows for a wide range of interactions and chemical reactions to take place as proteins denature and cross-link during heat processing. Proteins such as wheat gluten, corn zein, soy protein, myofibrillar proteins, and whey proteins have been successfully formed into films using thermoplastic processes such as compression molding and extrusion. Thermoplastic processing can result in a highly efficient manufacturing method with commercial potential for large-scale production of edible films due to the low moisture levels, high temperatures, and short times used. Addition of water, glycerol, sorbitol, sucrose, and other plasticizers allows the proteins to undergo the glass transition and facilitates deformation and processability without thermal degradation. Target film variables, important in predicting biopackage performance under various conditions, include mechanical, thermal, barrier, and microstructural properties. Comparisons of film properties should be made with care since results depend on parameters such as film-forming materials, film formulation, fabrication method, operating conditions, testing equipment, and testing conditions. Film applications include their use as wraps, pouches, bags, casings, and sachets to protect foods, reduce waste, and improve package recyclability.

  10. The Physics of Weldpool Formation: Phase Transition Process In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... phase transition took place but did not significantly alter the microstructure of the weldment. This study also supports the claims made by different investigators about the different heat treatments given to metals to determine a particular hardenability level. This heat treatment process is an indicator of phase change.

  11. Novelty processing and memory formation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, J; Berendse, H W; Foncke, E M J; van der Werf, Y D; van den Heuvel, O A; Theeuwes, J; Meeter, M

    2014-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic cells, resulting in dopamine depletion. This depletion is counteracted through dopamine replacement therapy (DRT). Dopamine has been suggested to affect novelty processing and memory, which suggests that these processes are also implicated in PD and that DRT could affect them. To investigate word learning and novelty processing in patients with PD as indexed by the P2 and P3 event-related potential components, and the role of DRT in these processes. 21 patients with PD and 21 matched healthy controls were included. Patients with PD were tested on and off DRT in two sessions in a counterbalanced design, and healthy controls were tested twice without intervention. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was measured while participants performed a word learning Von Restorff task. Healthy controls showed the typical Von Restorff effect, with better memory for words that were presented in novel fonts, than for words presented in standard font. Surprisingly, this effect was reversed in the patients with PD. In line with the behavioral findings, the P3 was larger for novel than for standard font words in healthy controls, but not in patients with PD. For both groups the P2 and P3 event-related components were larger for recalled versus forgotten words. DRT did not affect these processes. Learning of novel information is compromised in patients with PD. Likewise, the P2 and P3 components that predict successful memory encoding are reduced in PD patients. This was true both on and off DRT, suggesting that these findings reflect abnormalities in learning and memory in PD that are not resolved by dopaminergic medication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Delta antibody radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kselikova, M; Urbankova, J

    1985-11-15

    The principle and procedure are described of the radioimmunoassay of delta antibody (delta-Ab) using the ABBOTT ANTI-DELTA kit by Abbott Co. A description is given of the kit, the working procedure and the method of evaluation. The results are reported of the incidence of delta-Ab in sera of patients with viral hepatitis B, in haemophiliacs, carriers of the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and blood donors. The presence was detected of delta-Ab in one HBsAg carrier. The necessity is emphasized of delta-Ab determinations in the blood of donors in view of the antibody transfer with blood and blood preparations.

  13. FORMATION OF SIX SIGMA INFRASTRUCTURE FOR THE CORONARY STENTING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Tolga Taner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to show how a tertiary care center in Turkey operating mainly in cardiology initiated Six Sigma principles to reduce the number of complications occuring during coronary stent insertion process. A Six Sigma’s Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control (DMAIC model for coronary stent insertion is suggested. Data were collected for 24-months. Twenty-two Critical-to-Quality (CTQ factors were identified for successful coronary stent insertion. The most frequent causes of complications in the process were found to be patients with previous bypass surgery or PCI, inexperience of staff members, highly damaged vessel structure, thin and/or long vessel diameter, inappropriate selection of stent type, inappropriate selection of balloon type and poor image quality.

  14. DELTA 3D PRINTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘOVĂILĂ Florin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing is a very used process in industry, the generic name being “rapid prototyping”. The essential advantage of a 3D printer is that it allows the designers to produce a prototype in a very short time, which is tested and quickly remodeled, considerably reducing the required time to get from the prototype phase to the final product. At the same time, through this technique we can achieve components with very precise forms, complex pieces that, through classical methods, could have been accomplished only in a large amount of time. In this paper, there are presented the stages of a 3D model execution, also the physical achievement after of a Delta 3D printer after the model.

  15. Process-induced formation of imidazoles in selected foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottier, Pascal; Mujahid, Claudia; Tarres, Adrienne; Bessaire, Thomas; Stadler, Richard H

    2017-08-01

    The presence of 4-methylimidazole (4-MEI), 2-methylimidazole (2-MEI) and 2-acetyl-4-tetrahydroxybutylimidazole (THI) in some foods may result from the usage of caramel colorants E150c and E150d as food additives. This study demonstrates that alkylimidazoles are also byproducts formed from natural constituents in foods during thermal processes. A range of heat-processed foods that are known not to contain caramel colorants were analyzed by isotope dilution LC-MS/MS to determine the contamination levels. Highest 4-MEI concentrations (up to 466µg/kg) were observed in roasted barley, roasted malt and cocoa powders, with the concomitant presence of 2-MEI and/or THI in some cases, albeit at significantly lower levels. Low amounts of 4-MEI (foods such as breakfast cereals and bread toasted to a brown color (medium toasted). The occurrence of 4-MEI in certain processed foods is therefore not a reliable indicator of the presence of the additives E150c or E150d. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A study of the process of joint formation of methane gas-hydrate and authigenic carbonates in bottom sediments in the Sea of Okhotsk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esikov, A D [AN SSSR, Moscow (USSR). Water Problems Inst.; Pashkina, V I [AN SSSR, Moscow (USSR). Inst. Okeanologii

    1990-01-01

    The discovery of gas-hydrates in bottom sediments in the Sea of Okhotsk has allowed isotope fractionation of oxygen and hydrogen to be determined in the formation of the crystal lattice. It was established that the structure of gas-hydrate selectively included the heavier isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, so that the gas-hydrate water had values of {delta}{sup 18}O = +1.9 per mille and {delta}D = +23 per mille, whereas the interstitial water was ''lighter'' in isotopes, with the values of {delta}{sup 18}O = -0.5 per mille and {delta}D = -5 per mille (relative to SMOW (standard mean ocean water)). The formation of gas-hydrates under the conditions of underwater discharge of methane alters the chemical composition of interstitial water, so that the carbonate equilibrium is shifted, and carbonates of authigenic origin are formed. The isotope composition of the carbonates is characterized by a low content of {sup 13}C({delta}{sup 13}C from -39.3 to -51.8 per mille PDB) and a high content of {sup 18}O({delta}{sup 18}O from + 2.7 to +6.3 per mille PDB) in comparison with carbonates of sea origin. These characteristics of the isotope composition suggest the participation of methane in the formation of authigenic carbonates, due to its anaerobic oxidation and the involvement of sulfate in the silt water. (author).

  17. Utilizing the RE-AIM Framework in formative evaluation and program planning for a healthy food choice intervention in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    A robust approach to program planning is needed for the development and execution of effective and sustainable behavioral interventions with large public health impact. The purpose of this formative research was to apply dimensions of the RE-AIM (i.e., Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation,...

  18. Secondary organic aerosol formation through fog processing of VOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herckes, P.; Hutchings, J. W.

    2010-07-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) have been determined in highly concentrated amounts (>1 ug/L) in intercepted clouds in northern Arizona (USA). These VOCs are found in concentrations much higher than predicted by partitioning alone. The reactivity of BTEX in the fog/cloud aqueous phase was investigated through laboratory studies. BTEX species showed fast degradation in the aqueous phase in the presence of peroxides and light. Observed half-lives ranged from three and six hours, substantially shorter than the respective gas phase half-lives (several days). The observed reaction rates were on the order of 1 ppb/min but decreased substantially with increasing concentrations of organic matter (TOC). The products of BTEX oxidation reactions were analyzed using HPLC-UV and LCMS. The first generation of products identified included phenol and cresols which correspond to the hydroxyl-addition reaction to benzene and toluene. Upon investigating of multi-generational products, smaller, less volatile species are predominant although a large variety of products is found. Most reaction products have substantially lower vapor pressure and will remain in the particle phase upon droplet evaporation. The SOA generation potential of cloud and fog processing of BTEX was evaluated using simple calculations and showed that in ideal situations these reactions could add up to 9% of the ambient aerosol mass. In more conservative scenarios, the contribution of the processing of BTEX was around 1% of ambient aerosol concentrations. Overall, cloud processing of VOC has the potential to contribute to the atmospheric aerosol mass. However, the contribution will depend upon many factors such as the irradiation, organic matter content in the droplets and droplet lifetime.

  19. Liquid Argon TPC Signal Formation, Signal Processing and Hit Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baller, Bruce [Fermilab

    2017-03-11

    This document describes the early stage of the reconstruction chain that was developed for the ArgoNeuT and MicroBooNE experiments at Fermilab. These experiments study accelerator neutrino interactions that occur in a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber. Reconstructing the properties of particles produced in these interactions requires knowledge of the micro-physics processes that affect the creation and transport of ionization electrons to the readout system. A wire signal deconvolution technique was developed to convert wire signals to a standard form for hit reconstruction, to remove artifacts in the electronics chain and to remove coherent noise.

  20. On the origin of delta spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.

    1983-01-01

    Mount Wilson sunspot drawings from 1966 through 1980 were used in conjunction with Hα filtergrams from Big Bear Solar Observatory to examine the origin of delta spots, spots with bipolar umbrae within one penumbra. Of the six cases we studied, five were formed by the union of non-paired spots. They are either shoved into one another by two neighboring growing bipoles or by a new spot born piggy-back style on an existing spot of opposite polarity. Proper motions of the growing spots take on curvilinear paths around one another to avoid a collision. This is the shear motion observed in delta spots (Tanaka, 1979). In the remaining case, the delta spot was formed by spots that emerged as a pair. Our findings indicate no intrinsic differences in the formation or the behavior between delta spots of normal magnetic configuration. (orig.)

  1. Network formation determined by the diffusion process of random walkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Nobutoshi

    2008-01-01

    We studied the diffusion process of random walkers in networks formed by their traces. This model considers the rise and fall of links determined by the frequency of transports of random walkers. In order to examine the relation between the formed network and the diffusion process, a situation in which multiple random walkers start from the same vertex is investigated. The difference in diffusion rate of random walkers according to the difference in dimension of the initial lattice is very important for determining the time evolution of the networks. For example, complete subgraphs can be formed on a one-dimensional lattice while a graph with a power-law vertex degree distribution is formed on a two-dimensional lattice. We derived some formulae for predicting network changes for the 1D case, such as the time evolution of the size of nearly complete subgraphs and conditions for their collapse. The networks formed on the 2D lattice are characterized by the existence of clusters of highly connected vertices and their life time. As the life time of such clusters tends to be small, the exponent of the power-law distribution changes from γ ≅ 1-2 to γ ≅ 3

  2. Processes of hypernuclei formation in relativistic ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botvina Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of hypernuclei in relativistic ion collisions open new opportunities for nuclear and particle physics. The main processes leading to the production of hypernuclei in these reactions are the disintegration of large excited hyper-residues (target- and projectile-like, and the coalescence of hyperons with other baryons into light clusters. We use the transport, coalescence and statistical models to describe the whole reaction, and demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach: These reactions lead to the abundant production of multi-strange nuclei and new hypernuclear states. A broad distribution of predicted hypernuclei in masses and isospin allows for investigating properties of exotic hypernuclei, as well as the hypermatter both at high and low temperatures. There is a saturation of the hypernuclei production at high energies, therefore, the optimal way to pursue this experimental research is to use the accelerator facilities of intermediate energies, like FAIR (Darmstadt and NICA (Dubna.

  3. Processes of hypernuclei formation in relativistic ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvina, Alexander; Bleicher, Marcus

    2018-02-01

    The study of hypernuclei in relativistic ion collisions open new opportunities for nuclear and particle physics. The main processes leading to the production of hypernuclei in these reactions are the disintegration of large excited hyper-residues (target- and projectile-like), and the coalescence of hyperons with other baryons into light clusters. We use the transport, coalescence and statistical models to describe the whole reaction, and demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach: These reactions lead to the abundant production of multi-strange nuclei and new hypernuclear states. A broad distribution of predicted hypernuclei in masses and isospin allows for investigating properties of exotic hypernuclei, as well as the hypermatter both at high and low temperatures. There is a saturation of the hypernuclei production at high energies, therefore, the optimal way to pursue this experimental research is to use the accelerator facilities of intermediate energies, like FAIR (Darmstadt) and NICA (Dubna).

  4. Liquid argon TPC signal formation, signal processing and reconstruction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baller, B.

    2017-07-01

    This document describes a reconstruction chain that was developed for the ArgoNeuT and MicroBooNE experiments at Fermilab. These experiments study accelerator neutrino interactions that occur in a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber. Reconstructing the properties of particles produced in these interactions benefits from the knowledge of the micro-physics processes that affect the creation and transport of ionization electrons to the readout system. A wire signal deconvolution technique was developed to convert wire signals to a standard form for hit reconstruction, to remove artifacts in the electronics chain and to remove coherent noise. A unique clustering algorithm reconstructs line-like trajectories and vertices in two dimensions which are then matched to create of 3D objects. These techniques and algorithms are available to all experiments that use the LArSoft suite of software.

  5. Energy consumption estimation for greenhouse gas separation processes by clathrate hydrate formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Hideo; Yamasaki, Akihiro; Kiyono, Fumio

    2004-01-01

    The process energy consumption was estimated for gas separation processes by the formation of clathrate hydrates. The separation process is based on the equilibrium partition of the components between the gaseous phase and the hydrate phase. The separation and capturing processes of greenhouse gases were examined in this study. The target components were hydrofluorocarbon (HFC-134a) from air, sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) from nitrogen, and CO 2 from flue gas. Since these greenhouse gases would form hydrates under much lower pressure and higher temperature conditions than the accompanying components, the effective capturing of the greenhouse gases could be achieved by using hydrate formation. A model separation process for each gaseous mixture was designed from the basis of thermodynamics, and the process energy consumption was estimated. The obtained results were then compared with those for conventional separation processes such as liquefaction separation processes. For the recovery of SF 6 , the hydrate process is preferable to liquefaction process in terms of energy consumption. On the other hand, the liquefaction process consumes less energy than the hydrate process for the recovery of HFC-134a. The capturing of CO 2 by the hydrate process from a flue gas will consume a considerable amount of energy; mainly due to the extremely high pressure conditions required for hydrate formation. The influences of the operation conditions on the heat of hydrate formation were elucidated by sensitivity analysis. The hydrate processes for separating these greenhouse gases were evaluated in terms of reduction of global warming potential (GWP)

  6. An experimental study on atomizing formation process of diesel spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Bong

    2000-02-01

    In this study, the experiment has, been conducted to investigate the spray characteristics under the parameter of an ambient pressure with a single hole nozzle having aspect ratio(L/D) of 5 and diameter of 0.45mm. Under the condition of the injection pressure of 14Mpa, the initial disintegrating process of a diesel spray is investigated and analysized according to change of the ambient pressures, 0.1, 1, 2 and 3Mpa. The double flash method has been employed to visualize the process of the diesel sprays. The results obtained in this study are as follows: 1) After spray starts, the spray is shown as non-disturbance liquid column within about 1∼2mm from the nozzle tip, whose diameter is similar to that of a nozzle. For the same injection pressure, the increase of the ambient pressure makes the length of the non-disturbance liquid column become short. 2) Due to the surface wave, ligaments of the shape thread appear at the boundary of liquid column right after spray. The more developed wave together the progress of spray transforms ligaments into droplets that have generally the uniformed size. 3) In case spraying into chambers having different ambient pressures, 1, 2, and 3Mpa, the spray tip velocities reach up to 1.5, 1.2, and 0.6ms, respectively, and decrease with lapse of time. The spray angle keeps increasing for 0.6, 1.2, and 1.4ms after spray under the various ambient pressures, 3, 2, and 1Mpa, respectively, and begins to decrease and maintains the constant value. Therefore, the transition points appear near the point where the velocity decreases and the spray angle increases, simultaneously. The higher ambient pressure leads to fast appearance of transition under the same spray pressure. 4) The disintegrating mechanism of the liquid spray is two combined effects: a) friction forces between the surface waves generated at the surface of the liquid column and the ambient gas, b) the collisions of liquid droplets and ligaments by spray were overtaking

  7. Avulsion and its implications for fluvial-deltaic architecture: insights from the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouthamer, E.; Cohen, K.M.; Gouw, M.J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Avulsion is a principal process in the formation of fluvial-deltaic successions and a primary control on deltaic architecture. It determines the distribution of sediment and water and hence influences which location in the delta receives clastic sedimentation in what amounts for what time. It also

  8. Enhancing and accelarating flavour formation by salt-tolerant yeasts in Japanese soy-sauce processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der C.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2001-01-01

    In soy-sauce processes salt-tolerant yeasts are very important for the flavour formation. This flavour formation is, however, slow and poorly understood. In the last decades, a concerted research effort has increased the understanding and resulted in the derivation of mutants with an enhanced

  9. Process Approach to Formation of the Strategy of Innovation Development of Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukhymenko Vita V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the process of formation of the strategy of innovation development on the basis of the process approach. The author studies and identifies the most significant cause-effect interrelations between the factors that influence efficiency of the process of formation of the strategy of innovation development of enterprises and their consequences. The article offers a process approach to building the K. Ishikawa diagram based on empirical assessment of management of business processes at railway engineering enterprises. The author’s approach would help solving multiple problems of railway engineering and also could be used in other sectors of economy.

  10. [The effect of encoding on false memory: examination on levels of processing and list presentation format].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, Hideki

    2004-04-01

    Using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm, the effects of lists presentation format (blocked/random) and levels of processing of critical nonpresented lures were examined. A levels-of-processing effect in a blocked presentation order was not observed for lures. Rates of false recognition and remember judgments for lures in a shallow level of processing were significantly lower than those in a deep level of processing when items from various themes were inter-mixed instead of blocked. Results showed an interaction between levels of processing and list presentation format. It is thus concluded that encoding of each word and whole list should be both considered in understanding false memory.

  11. Delta hedging strategies comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Giovanni, Domenico; Ortobelli, S.; Rachev, S.T.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we implement dynamic delta hedging strategies based on several option pricing models. We analyze different subordinated option pricing models and we examine delta hedging costs using ex-post daily prices of S&P 500. Furthermore, we compare the performance of each subordinated model...

  12. Comparison of different procedures to stabilize biogas formation after process failure in a thermophilic waste digestion system: Influence of aggregate formation on process stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleyböcker, A.; Liebrich, M.; Kasina, M.; Kraume, M.; Wittmaier, M.; Würdemann, H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mechanism of process recovery with calcium oxide. ► Formation of insoluble calcium salts with long chain fatty acids and phosphate. ► Adsorption of VFAs by the precipitates resulting in the formation of aggregates. ► Acid uptake and phosphate release by the phosphate-accumulating organisms. ► Microbial degradation of volatile fatty acids in the aggregates. - Abstract: Following a process failure in a full-scale biogas reactor, different counter measures were undertaken to stabilize the process of biogas formation, including the reduction of the organic loading rate, the addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and the introduction of calcium oxide (CaO). Corresponding to the results of the process recovery in the full-scale digester, laboratory experiments showed that CaO was more capable of stabilizing the process than NaOH. While both additives were able to raise the pH to a neutral milieu (pH > 7.0), the formation of aggregates was observed particularly when CaO was used as the additive. Scanning electron microscopy investigations revealed calcium phosphate compounds in the core of the aggregates. Phosphate seemed to be released by phosphorus-accumulating organisms, when volatile fatty acids accumulated. The calcium, which was charged by the CaO addition, formed insoluble salts with long chain fatty acids, and caused the precipitation of calcium phosphate compounds. These aggregates were surrounded by a white layer of carbon rich organic matter, probably consisting of volatile fatty acids. Thus, during the process recovery with CaO, the decrease in the amount of accumulated acids in the liquid phase was likely enabled by (1) the formation of insoluble calcium salts with long chain fatty acids, (2) the adsorption of volatile fatty acids by the precipitates, (3) the acid uptake by phosphorus-accumulating organisms and (4) the degradation of volatile fatty acids in the aggregates. Furthermore, this mechanism enabled a stable process performance

  13. Finite element simulation of dynamic wetting flows as an interface formation process

    KAUST Repository

    Sprittles, J.E.; Shikhmurzaev, Y.D.

    2013-01-01

    A mathematically challenging model of dynamic wetting as a process of interface formation has been, for the first time, fully incorporated into a numerical code based on the finite element method and applied, as a test case, to the problem

  14. [The ethic dimension of daily tasks in the formation process of nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Josicélia Dumêt; Rosa, Darci de Oliveira Santa; Vieira, Therezinha Teixeira; Sadigursky, Dora

    2008-06-01

    This theoretical article had as its object of study the ethic dimension of the formation process of nurses taking in consideration the National Curricular Directives for Nursing Courses. It was based on the presuppositions of ethics and their relationship with the implementation of changes in the formation process of nurses, using as reference elements of ethical behavior in the formation and attempting to bring the reflection to current times and thus contribute to define a direction to Nursing education. It was concluded that the ethical dimension in the formation of nurses involves values that permeate the relations between the subjects of this process and nature itself. The study points out the need to transform the practices of students and teachers and change the current curriculum framework, highlighting elements that indicate that the concern with ethics when developing the curriculum framework is not limited to how a discipline is taught, but pass through as practices that take place in the education process.

  15. Effects of Fuel Quantity on Soot Formation Process for Biomass-Based Renewable Diesel Fuel Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei; Wu, Zengyang; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2016-01-01

    Soot formation process was investigated for biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, such as biomass to liquid (BTL), and conventional diesel combustion under varied fuel quantities injected into a constant volume combustion chamber. Soot measurement

  16. Investigation of complex formation processes of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and polymethacrylic acid in aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Katayeva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The complex formation process of hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC with polymethacrylic acid (PMA have been studied using methods of turbidimetric and viscosimetric titration. Position of maximum depending on polymer concentration and molecular mass of polysaccharide have different values.

  17. Investigation of complex formation processes of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and polymethacrylic acid in aqueous solutions

    OpenAIRE

    M. Katayeva; R. Mangazbayeva; R. Abdykalykova

    2012-01-01

    The complex formation process of hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) with polymethacrylic acid (PMA) have been studied using methods of turbidimetric and viscosimetric titration. Position of maximum depending on polymer concentration and molecular mass of polysaccharide have different values.

  18. The actor set-up of TV advertising. A new process for hybrid formats

    OpenAIRE

    von Rimscha, M Bjørn; Rademacher, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a basic description of the advertising process in TV advertising and discusses how this process might be altered when 30 second spots are replaced by hybrid advertising formats such as sponsoring and placements. For each actor in the process the potential benefit of hybrid advertising is identified and the respective interest in changing the process is deduced. A qualitative interview study with representatives from each actor in the process is used to illustrate that con...

  19. National Study of Word Processing Installations in Selected Business Organizations. A Report on the National Word Processing Research Study of Delta Pi Epsilon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriven, Jolene D.; And Others

    A study was conducted (1) to determine current practices in word processing installations in selected organizations throughout the United States, and (2) to ascertain anticipated future developments in word processing as well as to provide recommendations for educational institutions that prepare workers for business offices. Seven interview…

  20. O2/1 Delta/ emission in the day and night airglow of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connes, P.; Noxon, J. F.; Traub, W. A.; Carleton, N. P.

    1979-01-01

    An intense airglow from O2(1 Delta) at 1.27 microns on both the light and the dark sides of Venus has been detected by using a ground-based high-resolution Fourier-transform spectrometer. Both dayglow and nightglow are roughly 1,000 times brighter than the visible O2 nightglow found by Veneras 9 and 10 in 1975. The column emission rate of O2(1 Delta) from Venus is close to the rate at which fresh O atoms are produced from photolysis of CO2 on the day side. Formation of O2(1 Delta) is thus a major step in the removal of O atoms from the atmosphere, and dynamical processes must carry these atoms to the night side fast enough to yield a maximum density near 90 km, which is almost constant over the planet.

  1. Water Transfer Characteristics during Methane Hydrate Formation Processes in Layered Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousheng Deng

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Gas hydrate formation processes in porous media are always accompanied by water transfer. To study the transfer characteristics comprehensively, two kinds of layered media consisting of coarse sand and loess were used to form methane hydrate in them. An apparatus with three PF-meter sensors detecting water content and temperature changes in media during the formation processes was applied to study the water transfer characteristics. It was experimentally observed that the hydrate formation configurations in different layered media were similar; however, the water transfer characteristics and water conversion ratios were different.

  2. Dousing the tension in the Niger delta through administrative agency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dousing the tension in the Niger delta through administrative agency: A programme evaluation of Niger delta development commission as an intervention regime. ... the study concludes that because of systemic constraints arising from the hegemonic interests of the dominant coalitions in the Nigerian Social formation, ...

  3. Various processes occurring in strong interactions between heavy ions: Compound nucleus formation, incomplete fusion, and quasifission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefort, M.

    1975-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of various deep processes occurring when two complex nuclei enter in collision. It is suggested that very deep inelastic processes may lead to either a compound nucleus or a composite system which shortly decays into two fission fragments (quasifission process). Particularly for heavy projectiles and targets, the predominant Coulomb potential inhibits the compound nucleus formation for low l waves. Then a critical angular momentum can be defined as the limit below which both processes (quasifission and compound nucleus formation) occur. For the heaviest nuclei, nearly all l waves below l) contribute to the quasifission phenomenon

  4. Spilitization processes in the Proterozoic Ongeluk Andesite Formation in Griqualand West, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuette, S.S.; Cornell, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Ongeluk Formation is a thick succession of lavas which crops out over a large portion of the region. The formation thickness is poorly constrained and considered to be equivalent to the Hekpoort Basalts in the Transvaal, but large facies changes in the sedimentary formations obscure the correlation. At least two alteration events can be recognized in the Ongeluk Lava: a spilitization process, and a locally restricted hydrothermal event and oxidation process which obscures the spilitization process. The Ongeluk lavas probably covered a much greater area of Griqualand West than at present and could have provided a significant source of manganese, deposited in the Kalahari Manganese Field. A connection between the volcanic origin and alteration of the Ongeluk Formation and the Kalahari Manganese-type mineralization is demonstrated by Gresens' equations. 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Analysis of the packet formation process in packet-switched networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meditch, J. S.

    Two new queueing system models for the packet formation process in packet-switched telecommunication networks are developed, and their applications in process stability, performance analysis, and optimization studies are illustrated. The first, an M/M/1 queueing system characterization of the process, is a highly aggregated model which is useful for preliminary studies. The second, a marked extension of an earlier M/G/1 model, permits one to investigate stability, performance characteristics, and design of the packet formation process in terms of the details of processor architecture, and hardware and software implementations with processor structure and as many parameters as desired as variables. The two new models together with the earlier M/G/1 characterization span the spectrum of modeling complexity for the packet formation process from basic to advanced.

  6. Simulating the formation of keratin filament networks by a piecewise-deterministic Markov process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beil, Michael; Lück, Sebastian; Fleischer, Frank; Portet, Stéphanie; Arendt, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Volker

    2009-02-21

    Keratin intermediate filament networks are part of the cytoskeleton in epithelial cells. They were found to regulate viscoelastic properties and motility of cancer cells. Due to unique biochemical properties of keratin polymers, the knowledge of the mechanisms controlling keratin network formation is incomplete. A combination of deterministic and stochastic modeling techniques can be a valuable source of information since they can describe known mechanisms of network evolution while reflecting the uncertainty with respect to a variety of molecular events. We applied the concept of piecewise-deterministic Markov processes to the modeling of keratin network formation with high spatiotemporal resolution. The deterministic component describes the diffusion-driven evolution of a pool of soluble keratin filament precursors fueling various network formation processes. Instants of network formation events are determined by a stochastic point process on the time axis. A probability distribution controlled by model parameters exercises control over the frequency of different mechanisms of network formation to be triggered. Locations of the network formation events are assigned dependent on the spatial distribution of the soluble pool of filament precursors. Based on this modeling approach, simulation studies revealed that the architecture of keratin networks mostly depends on the balance between filament elongation and branching processes. The spatial distribution of network mesh size, which strongly influences the mechanical characteristics of filament networks, is modulated by lateral annealing processes. This mechanism which is a specific feature of intermediate filament networks appears to be a major and fast regulator of cell mechanics.

  7. Lower Badenian coarse-grained Gilbert deltas in the southern margin of the Western Carpathian Foredeep basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehyba, Slavomír

    2018-02-01

    Two coarse-grained Gilbert-type deltas in the Lower Badenian deposits along the southern margin of the Western Carpathian Foredeep (peripheral foreland basin) were newly interpreted. Facies characterizing a range of depositional processes are assigned to four facies associations — topset, foreset, bottomset and offshore marine pelagic deposits. The evidence of Gilbert deltas within open marine deposits reflects the formation of a basin with relatively steep margins connected with a relative sea level fall, erosion and incision. Formation, progradation and aggradation of the thick coarse-grained Gilbert delta piles generally indicate a dramatic increase of sediment supply from the hinterland, followed by both relatively continuous sediment delivery and an increase in accommodation space. Deltaic deposition is terminated by relatively rapid and extended drowning and is explained as a transgressive event. The lower Gilbert delta was significantly larger, more areally extended and reveals a more complicated stratigraphic architecture than the upper one. Its basal surface represents a sequence boundary and occurs around the Karpatian/Badenian stratigraphic limit. Two coeval deltaic branches were recognized in the lower delta with partly different stratigraphic arrangements. This different stratigraphic architecture is mostly explained by variations in the sediment delivery and /or predisposed paleotopography and paleobathymetry of the basin floor. The upper delta was recognized only in a restricted area. Its basal surface represents a sequence boundary probably reflecting a higher order cycle of a relative sea level rise and fall within the Lower Badenian. Evidence of two laterally and stratigraphically separated coarse-grained Gilbert deltas indicates two regional/basin wide transgressive/regressive cycles, but not necessarily of the same order. Provenance analysis reveals similar sources of both deltas. Several partial source areas were identified (Mesozoic

  8. Fast processing of digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) metadata using multiseries DICOM format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Mahmoud; Philbin, James

    2015-04-01

    The digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) information model combines pixel data and its metadata in a single object. There are user scenarios that only need metadata manipulation, such as deidentification and study migration. Most picture archiving and communication system use a database to store and update the metadata rather than updating the raw DICOM files themselves. The multiseries DICOM (MSD) format separates metadata from pixel data and eliminates duplicate attributes. This work promotes storing DICOM studies in MSD format to reduce the metadata processing time. A set of experiments are performed that update the metadata of a set of DICOM studies for deidentification and migration. The studies are stored in both the traditional single frame DICOM (SFD) format and the MSD format. The results show that it is faster to update studies' metadata in MSD format than in SFD format because the bulk data is separated in MSD and is not retrieved from the storage system. In addition, it is space efficient to store the deidentified studies in MSD format as it shares the same bulk data object with the original study. In summary, separation of metadata from pixel data using the MSD format provides fast metadata access and speeds up applications that process only the metadata.

  9. Formation of Globular Clusters with Internal Abundance Spreads in r -Process Elements: Strong Evidence for Prolonged Star Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekki, Kenji [ICRAR, M468, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia); Tsujimoto, Takuji [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-07-20

    Several globular clusters (GCs) in the Galaxy are observed to show internal abundance spreads in r -process elements (e.g., Eu). We propose a new scenario that explains the origin of these GCs (e.g., M5 and M15). In this scenario, stars with no/little abundance variations first form from a massive molecular cloud (MC). After all of the remaining gas of the MC is expelled by numerous supernovae, gas ejected from asymptotic giant branch stars can be accumulated in the central region of the GC to form a high-density intracluster medium (ICM). Merging of neutron stars then occurs to eject r -process elements, which can be efficiently trapped in and subsequently mixed with the ICM. New stars formed from the ICM can have r -process abundances that are quite different from those of earlier generations of stars within the GC. This scenario can explain both (i) why r -process elements can be trapped within GCs and (ii) why GCs with internal abundance spreads in r -process elements do not show [Fe/H] spreads. Our model shows (i) that a large fraction of Eu-rich stars can be seen in Na-enhanced stellar populations of GCs, as observed in M15, and (ii) why most of the Galactic GCs do not exhibit such internal abundance spreads. Our model demonstrates that the observed internal spreads of r -process elements in GCs provide strong evidence for prolonged star formation (∼10{sup 8} yr).

  10. Other factors to consider in the formation of chloropropandiol fatty esters in oil processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Muhamad Roddy; Siew, Wai Lin; Ibrahim, Nuzul Amri; Kuntom, Ainie; Abd Razak, Raznim Arni

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the processing steps of extracting palm oil from fresh fruit bunches in a way that may impact on the formation of chloropropandiol fatty esters (3-MCPD esters), particularly during refining. Diacylglycerols (DAGs) do not appear to be a critical factor when crude palm oils are extracted from various qualities of fruit bunches. Highly hydrolysed oils, in spite of the high free fatty acid (FFA) contents, did not show exceptionally high DAGs, and the oils did not display a higher formation of 3-MCPD esters upon heat treatment. However, acidity measured in terms of pH appears to have a strong impact on 3-MCPD ester formation in the crude oil when heated at high temperatures. The differences in the extraction process of crude palm oil from current commercial processes and that from a modified experimental process showed clearly the effect of acidity of the oil on the formation of 3-MCPD esters. This paper concludes that the washing or dilution step in palm oil mills removes the acidity of the vegetative materials and that a well-optimised dilution/washing step in the extraction process will play an important role in reducing formation of 3-MCPD esters in crude palm oil upon further heat processing.

  11. Dual-process theory and consumer response to front-of-package nutrition label formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjari, S Setareh; Jahn, Steffen; Boztug, Yasemin

    2017-11-01

    Nutrition labeling literature yields fragmented results about the effect of front-of-package (FOP) nutrition label formats on healthy food choice. Specifically, it is unclear which type of nutrition label format is effective across different shopping situations. To address this gap, the present review investigates the available nutrition labeling literature through the prism of dual-process theory, which posits that decisions are made either quickly and automatically (system 1) or slowly and deliberately (system 2). A systematically performed review of nutrition labeling literature returned 59 papers that provide findings that can be explained according to dual-process theory. The findings of these studies suggest that the effectiveness of nutrition label formats is influenced by the consumer's dominant processing system, which is a function of specific contexts and personal variables (eg, motivation, nutrition knowledge, time pressure, and depletion). Examination of reported findings through a situational processing perspective reveals that consumers might prefer different FOP nutrition label formats in different situations and can exhibit varying responses to the same label format across situations. This review offers several suggestions for policy makers and researchers to help improve current FOP nutrition label formats. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Standard format and content of license applications for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The standard format suggested for use in applications for licenses to possess and use special nuclear materials in Pu processing and fuel fabrication plants is presented. It covers general description of the plant, summary safety assessment, site characteristics, principal design criteria, plant design, process systems, waste confinement and management, radiation protection, accident safety analysis, conduct of operations, operating controls and limits, and quality assurance

  13. Holocene evolution of a wave-dominated fan-delta: Godavari delta, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Y.; Nageswara Rao, K.; Nagakumar, K.; Demudu, G.; Rajawat, A.; Kubo, S.; Li, Z.

    2013-12-01

    sediments also indicates erosional environments during the formation of the linear shoreline. We interpret this unconformity as a wave-ravinement surface in a regressive delta succession reflecting the decrease of sediment supply due to lobe shifts (or avulsion), and not as a marine erosion surface due to forced regression. Similar erosion surface is recognized in the Yellow River delta (Saito et al., 2000). Discrimination of either surface for ancient sediments and rocks in a wave-dominated setting will be important in sequence-stratigraphic interpretation. Coastal erosion and deposition have occurred in wave-dominated deltas naturally on centennial to millenneial time scales, resulting in delta progradation during the Holocene. However recent decrease of sediment discharge due to dam construction and irrigation on decadal time scales has been exacerbating coastal erosion significantly, resulting in delta shrinking in the Godavari delta. Nageswara Rao, K., Sadakata, N.: In Kay, R. (Ed.), Deltas of the World. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, 1-15, 1993. Nageswara Rao, K. et al.: In Bhattacharya, J.P., Gioson, L. (Eds.), River Deltas--Concepts, Models and Examples: SEPM Special Publication 83, 435-451, 2005. Nageswara Rao, K. et al.: Geomorphology 175-176, 163¬-175, 2012. Saito, Y. et al.: J Asian Earth Sci. 18, 489-497, 2000.

  14. The Niger Delta Crisis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2013-09-28

    Sep 28, 2013 ... Department of History & International Studies, Delta State University, Abraka,. Nigeria. .... democracy implies popular power. That is ... Okonta (2006:5) draws attention to Anna Zalik's treatise called 'Petro-Vio- lence' and ...

  15. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Hepatitis D (Delta agent) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the ...

  16. Delta 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skott, Jeppe; Skott, Charlotte Krog; Jess, Kristine

    DELTA 2.0 er en ny og helt opdateret udgave af Delta, der i ti år været brugt i matematiklærernes grund-, efter- og videreuddannelse. DELTA 2.0 er seriens almene fagdidaktik. Der er også fagdidaktiske overvejelser i de øvrige bøger i serien, men de er knyttet til specifikt matematisk indhold. DELTA...... 2.0 behandler mere generelle matematikdidaktiske problemstillinger såsom læringsteoretiske overvejelser i forbindelse med matematik, centrale aspekter af det at undervise i matematik og digitale teknologier som værktøj til at støtte elevers faglige læring af matematik....

  17. "Formative ""Use"" of Assessment Information: It's a Process, so Let's Say What We Mean"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Good

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The term formative assessment is often used to describe a type of assessment. The purpose of this paper is to challenge the use of this phrase given that formative assessment as a noun phrase ignores the well-established understanding that it is a process more than an object. A model that combines content, context, and strategies is presented as one way to view the process nature of assessing formatively. The alternate phrase formative use of assessment information is suggested as a more appropriate way to describe how content, context, and strategies can be used together in order to close the gap between where a student is performing currently and the intended learning goal.

  18. Using Remote Sensing Data to Parameterize Ice Jam Modeling for a Northern Inland Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Slave River is a northern river in Canada, with ice being an important component of its flow regime for at least half of the year. During the spring breakup period, ice jams and ice-jam flooding can occur in the Slave River Delta, which is of benefit for the replenishment of moisture and sediment required to maintain the ecological integrity of the delta. To better understand the ice jam processes that lead to flooding, as well as the replenishment of the delta, the one-dimensional hydraulic river ice model RIVICE was implemented to simulate and explore ice jam formation in the Slave River Delta. Incoming ice volume, a crucial input parameter for RIVICE, was determined by the novel approach of using MODIS space-born remote sensing imagery. Space-borne and air-borne remote sensing data were used to parameterize the upstream ice volume available for ice jamming. Gauged data was used to complement modeling calibration and validation. HEC-RAS, another one-dimensional hydrodynamic model, was used to determine ice volumes required for equilibrium jams and the upper limit of ice volume that a jam can sustain, as well as being used as a threshold for the volumes estimated by the dynamic ice jam simulations using RIVICE. Parameter sensitivity analysis shows that morphological and hydraulic properties have great impacts on the ice jam length and water depth in the Slave River Delta.

  19. LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California from the California Department of Water Resources. Bare earth grids from LiDAR.This data is in ESRI Grid format with 2...

  20. hPDB – Haskell library for processing atomic biomolecular structures in protein data bank format

    OpenAIRE

    Gajda, Michał Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background Protein DataBank file format is used for the majority of biomolecular data available today. Haskell is a lazy functional language that enjoys a high-level class-based type system, a growing collection of useful libraries and a reputation for efficiency. Findings I present a fast library for processing biomolecular data in the Protein Data Bank format. I present benchmarks indicating that this library is faster than other frequently used Protein Data Bank parsing programs. The propo...

  1. Structural modification of silicon during the formation process of porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Palma, R.J.; Pascual, L.; Landa-Canovas, A.R.; Herrero, P.; Martinez-Duart, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Direct examination of porous silicon (PS) by the use of high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) allowed us to perform a deep insight into the formation mechanisms of this material. In particular, the structure of the PS/Si interface and that of the silicon nanocrystals that compose porous silicon were analyzed in detail. Furthermore, image processing was used to study in detail the structure of PS. The mechanism of PS formation and lattice matching between the PS layer and the Si substrate is analyzed and discussed. Finally, a formation mechanism for PS based on the experimental observations is proposed

  2. Managing fear in public health campaigns: a theory-based formative evaluation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunyi; Witte, Kim

    2005-10-01

    The HIV/AIDS infection rate of Ethiopia is one of the world's highest. Prevention campaigns should systematically incorporate and respond to at-risk population's existing beliefs, emotions, and perceived barriers in the message design process to effectively promote behavior change. However, guidelines for conducting formative evaluation that are grounded in proven risk communication theory and empirical data analysis techniques are hard to find. This article provides a five-step formative evaluation process that translates theory and research for developing effective messages for behavior change. Guided by the extended parallel process model, the five-step process helps message designers manage public's fear surrounding issues such as HIV/AIDS. An entertainment education project that used the process to design HIV/AIDS prevention messages for Ethiopian urban youth is reported. Data were collected in five urban regions of Ethiopia and analyzed according to the process to develop key messages for a 26-week radio soap opera.

  3. THE PROCESS OF FORMATION OF RAILWAY WHEEL DAMAGES AND TIRES IN OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Grischenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The dependence analysis of structural changes in the metal of railway wheels and tires from indicated influences in operation, for the further development of strategy of service reliability growth. Methodology. Test materials are the details selected from railway wheels which were taken out of operation beforehand because of various damages. Micro-structural researches were made with the use of light microscope Epiquant and electron microscope. The sizing of structural elements was done by using the methods of quantitative metallography. Findings. Over the past few decades the rapid development of industry was supported by the steady growth of intensity of using railway transport. In this case simultaneous increase of load at wheel set axle, with the increase of speed was accompanied by natural increase of the amount of cases of premature wheels and tires’ withdrawing out of operation. Railway wheel, except the formation of metal layer at rolling surface with the high defects concentration of crystal structure and first of all dislocations, falls under thermal influence from interaction with break blocks. The nature of joint influence (cold deformation and heating on the metal rim of a wheel is conditioned by the appearance of sufficiently high gradients of structural changes that can be considered as the influence on the level of internal residual stresses. In case of the rise of volume part of carbide phase at a constant ferrite grain size, it is achieved only by the increasing of dislocation nucleation sources without changing the number of annihilation positions. In this case the accumulation of dislocations at the initial stages of plastic deformation (in metal volume in front of delta arm crack will lead to the formation of cementite globes around certain interlocked dislocation density. In contrast the sharp increase of deformation hardening carbon steel parameters is observed. Originality. During the braking of locomotive the

  4. Socio-psychological processes of identity formation among EE/ESD enthusiast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe; Lysgaard, Jonas Greve

    Introduction: When engaging with normative educational ideals such as education for sustainable development (ESD), such ideals heavily influence socio-psychological processes of identity formation among individuals and groups. This is especially important when looking into enthusiasts...... developing educational participatory activities. Describing group dynamics and how they draw on the normative and ideological discourse qualities is one thing, but through this paper we also want to stress the importance of the individual and subjective identity formation and meaning making processes when...... navigating the often contradictionary field of ESD, Methods: This paper is a theoretical study drawing on theories focusing on socio-psychological processes of identity formation such as psychoanalysis, European-continental social psychology and micro-sociology. The paper also draws on recent empirical...

  5. Raman and terahertz spectroscopical investigation of cocrystal formation process of piracetam and 3-hydroxybenzoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yong; Zhang, Huili; Xue, Jiadan; Fang, Hongxia; Zhang, Qi; Xia, Yi; Li, Yafang; Hong, Zhi

    2015-03-01

    Cocrystallization can improve physical and chemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredient, and this feature has great potential in pharmaceutical development. In this study, the cocrystal of piracetam and 3-hydroxybenzoic acid under grinding condition has been characterized by Raman and terahertz spectroscopical techniques. The major vibrational modes of individual starting components and cocrystal are obtained and assigned. Spectral results show that the vibrational modes of the cocrystal are different from those of the corresponding parent materials. The dynamic process of such pharmaceutical cocrystal formation has also been monitored directly with Raman and THz spectra. The formation rate is pretty fast in first several 20 min grinding time, and then it becomes slow. After ∼35 min, such process has been almost completed. These results offer us the unique means and benchmark for characterizing the cocrystal conformation from molecule-level and also provide us rich information about the reaction dynamic during cocrystal formation process in pharmaceutical fields.

  6. Numerical investigation of micro-pore formation during substrate impact of molten droplets in spraying processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.; Lavernia, E.J.; Rangel, R.H.; Muehlberger, E.; Sickinger, A.

    1994-01-01

    The porosity that is commonly associated with discrete droplet processes, such as plasma spraying and spray deposition, effectively degrades the quality of the sprayed material. In the present study, micro-pore formation during the deformation and interaction of molten tungsten droplets impinging onto a flat substrate in spraying processes is numerically investigated. The numerical simulation is accomplished on the basis of the full Navier-Stokes equations and the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) function by using a 2-domain method for the thermal field and solidification problem and a two-phase flow continuum model for the flow problem with a growing solid layer. The possible mechanisms governing the formation of micro-pores are discussed. The effects of important processing parameters, such as droplet impact velocity, droplet temperature, substrate temperature, and droplet viscosity, on the micro-pore formation are addressed

  7. Application of gas hydrate formation in separation processes: A review of experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslamimanesh, Ali; Mohammadi, Amir H.; Richon, Dominique; Naidoo, Paramespri; Ramjugernath, Deresh

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Review of gas hydrate technology applied to separation processes. ► Gas hydrates have potential to be a future sustainable separation technology. ► More theoretical, simulation, and economic studies needed. - Abstract: There has been a dramatic increase in gas hydrate research over the last decade. Interestingly, the research has not focussed on only the inhibition of gas hydrate formation, which is of particular relevance to the petroleum industry, but has evolved into investigations on the promotion of hydrate formation as a potential novel separation technology. Gas hydrate formation as a separation technology shows tremendous potential, both from a physical feasibility (in terms of effecting difficult separations) as well as an envisaged lower energy utilization criterion. It is therefore a technology that should be considered as a future sustainable technology and will find wide application, possibly replacing a number of current commercial separation processes. In this article, we focus on presenting a brief description of the positive applications of clathrate hydrates and a comprehensive survey of experimental studies performed on separation processes using gas hydrate formation technology. Although many investigations have been undertaken on the positive application of gas hydrates to date, there is a need to perform more theoretical, experimental, and economic studies to clarify various aspects of separation processes using clathrate/semi-clathrate hydrate formation phenomena, and to conclusively prove its sustainability.

  8. Energy-saving management modelling and optimization for lead-acid battery formation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.; Chen, Z.; Xu, J. Y.; Wang, F. Y.; Liu, H. M.

    2017-11-01

    In this context, a typical lead-acid battery producing process is introduced. Based on the formation process, an efficiency management method is proposed. An optimization model with the objective to minimize the formation electricity cost in a single period is established. This optimization model considers several related constraints, together with two influencing factors including the transformation efficiency of IGBT charge-and-discharge machine and the time-of-use price. An example simulation is shown using PSO algorithm to solve this mathematic model, and the proposed optimization strategy is proved to be effective and learnable for energy-saving and efficiency optimization in battery producing industries.

  9. Adaptive Delta Management: cultural aspects of dealing with uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Jos; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Hermans, Leon; Kwakkel, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Hofstede's (1983) cultural dimensions, of which uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation are of particular relevance for our analysis. Our conclusions comment on the suitability of approaches in Adaptive Delta Management rooted in different management theories are more suitable for specific delta countries than others. The most striking conclusion is the unsuitability of rational policy analytic approaches for The Netherlands. Although surprising this conclusion finds some support in the process dominated approach taken in the Dutch Delta Program. In addition, the divergence between Vietnam, Bangladesh and Myanmar, all located in South East Asia, is striking. References Hofstede, G. (1983). The cultural relativity of organizational practices and theories. Journal of international business studies, 75-89. Jos Timmermans, Marjolijn Haasnoot, Leon Hermans, Jan Kwakkel, Martine Rutten and Wil Thissen (2015). Adaptive Delta Management: Roots and Branches, IAHR The Hague 2015.

  10. Migration in Vulnerable Deltas: A Research Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, C.; Nicholls, R. J.; Allan, A.

    2015-12-01

    C. Hutton1, & R. J. Nicholls1, , 1 University of Southampton, University Road, Southampton, Hampshire, United Kingdom, SO17 1BJ. cwh@geodata. soton.ac.ukAbstractGlobally, deltas contain 500 million people and with rising sea levels often linked to large number of forced migrants are expected in the coming century. However, migration is already a major process in deltas, such as the growth of major cities such as Dhaka and Kolkata. Climate and environmental change interacts with a range of catchment and delta level drivers, which encompass a nexus of sea-level rise, storms, freshwater and sediment supply from the catchment, land degradation, subsidence, agricultural loss and socio-economic stresses. DECCMA (Deltas, Vulnerability and Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation/CARRIA) is investigating migration in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM), Mahanadi and Volta Deltas, including the influence of climate change. The research will explore migration from a range of perspectives including governance and stakeholder analysis, demographic analysis, household surveys of sending and receiving areas, macro-economic analysis, and hazards and hotspot analysis both historically and into the future. Migration under climate change will depend on other adaptation in the deltas and this will be examined. Collectively, integrated analysis will be developed to examine migration, other adaptation and development pathways with a particular focus on the implications for the poorest. This will require the development of input scenarios, including expert-derived exogenous scenarios (e.g., climate change) and endogenous scenarios of the delta developed in a participatory manner. This applied research will facilitate decision support methods for the development of deltas under climate change, with a focus on migration and other adaptation strategies.

  11. XAFS studies of monodisperse Au nanoclusters formation in the etching process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lina; Huang, Ting; Liu, Wei; Bao, Jie; Huang, Yuanyuan; Cao, Yuanjie; Yao, Tao; Sun, Zhihu; Wei, Shiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the formation mechanism of gold nanoclusters is essential to the development of their synthetic chemistry. Here, by using x-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, UV-Vis and MS spectra, the formation process of monodisperse Au 13 nanoclusters is investigated. We find that a critical step involving the formation of smaller Au 8 -Au 11 metastable intermediate clusters induced by the HCl + HSR etching of the polydisperse Au n precursor clusters occurs firstly. Then these intermediate species undergo a size-growth to Au 13 cores, followed by a slow structure rearrangement to reach the final stable structure. This work enriches the understanding of cluster formation chemistry and may guide the way towards the design and the controllable synthesis of nanoclusters. (paper)

  12. Educational process their different contents, singularities to the sculpture the Formation integral in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Margarita Fernández-Martínez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Presently article is approached important relating theoretical the in artistic education, that facilitate the formation integral in university students, the educational process their different contents, singularities to the sculpture artistic manifestation, with which one works methodologically. However, it is necessary to establish a methodological theoretical position in this respect to be able to evidence the relationship education-culture the understanding of the artistic education in that relationship and their contribution to the formation integral. From the didactic point of view, it is sustained in the basics of the teaching-learning process, related with the Didactics of the Superior Education and in the analysis and valuation of the components of the process of teaching learning where the dynamics of the relationships is revealed among these that it is constituted in a dialectical process where starting from the created conditions the fellow appropriates of the necessary tools for interaction with the reality.

  13. Redundant role of protein kinase C delta and epsilon during mouse embryonic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Carracedo

    Full Text Available Protein Kinase C delta and epsilon are mediators of important cellular events, such as cell proliferation, migration or apoptosis. The formation of blood vessels, i.e., vasculo- and angiogenesis, is a process where these isoforms have also been shown to participate. However, mice deficient in either Protein Kinase C delta or epsilon are viable and therefore their individual contribution to the formation of the vasculature appeared so far dispensable. In this study, we show that double null mutation of Protein Kinase C delta and epsilon causes embryonic lethality at approximately E9.5. At this stage, whole mount staining of the endothelial marker CD31 in double null embryos revealed defective blood vessel formation. Moreover, culture of double deficient mouse allantois showed impaired endothelial cell organization, and analyses of double deficient embryo sections showed dilated vessels, decreased endothelial-specific adherent junctions, and decreased contact of endothelial cells with mural cells. Protein kinase C delta and epsilon also appeared essential for vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation, since α-smooth muscle actin, a classical marker for vascular smooth muscle cells, was almost undetectable in double deficient embryonic aorta at E9.5. Subsequent qPCR analyses showed decreased VE-cadherin, Vegfr2, Cd31, Cdh2, Ets1, and Fli-1, among other angiogenesis related transcripts in double deficient embryos. Taken together, these data suggest for the first time an in vivo redundant role between members of the novel Protein Kinase C subfamily that allows for mutual compensation during mouse embryonic development, with vasculogenesis/angiogenesis as an obvious common function of these two Protein Kinase Cs. Protein Kinase C delta and epsilon might therefore be useful targets for inhibiting vasculo- and/or angiogenesis.

  14. EXPERIENCE OF INTRODUCTION IN EDUCATIONAL PROCESS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS FOR FORMATION OF ACTIVE MATHEMATICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shishko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Annotation In this article is described the information an experience of introduction in educational process of pedagogical program systems of support of practical activities for example pedagogical software "Algebra, 8 class" and also aspect of formation of mathematical activity during algebra studying.

  15. Processes Underlying Developmental Reversals in False-Memory Formation: Comment on Brainerd, Reyna, and Ceci (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, Simona

    2008-01-01

    C. J. Brainerd, V. F. Reyna, and S. J. Ceci (2008) reviewed compelling evidence of developmental reversals in false-memory formation (i.e., younger children exhibit lower false-memory rates than do older children and adults) and proposed that this phenomenon depends on the development of gist processing (i.e., the ability to identify and process…

  16. A review on the formation, causes, measurement, implications and reduction of neps during cotton processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Sluijs, MHJ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available and processing as far back as the late 1700s, no comprehensive review has been published on the formation, composition, measurement, consequences and ways to reduce the effects of neps, only a limited review has been published in 1999 [1 M.H.J. van der Sluijs...

  17. Level of Processing Modulates the Neural Correlates of Emotional Memory Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Maureen; LaBar, Kevin S.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Emotion is known to influence multiple aspects of memory formation, including the initial encoding of the memory trace and its consolidation over time. However, the neural mechanisms whereby emotion impacts memory encoding remain largely unexplored. The present study used a levels-of-processing manipulation to characterize the impact of emotion on…

  18. Analysis of the hydrolysis process in the formation of supergene zone mining areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherstjuk N.P.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of processes of hydrolysis of silicates and alumosilicat which arrive in a landscape from tails of enrichment of iron ore is carried out. Assessment and forecast formation of minerals zone hipcrhenezu iron deposits was carried out.

  19. Researching International Processes of Education Policy Formation: Conceptual and Methodological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This article elaborates one approach to conceptualizing and investigating international processes of education policy formation (IPEPF), which are dynamic, multi-level and processual in nature. This contribution is important because, although research is increasingly conducted on phenomena with such characteristics, extended discussions of how…

  20. The Mediating Role of Psychosocial Benefits in the Satisfaction Formation Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Prevo; P. Leunisse; H. Roest (Henk)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we investigate the mediating role of psychosocial benefits in the customer satisfaction/dissatisfaction formation process. Most research on this subject deals with the causality direction of psychosocial benefits and satisfaction, sometimes preceded by an overall functional

  1. Numerical study on formation process of helical nonneutral plasmas using electron injection from outside magnetic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kazutaka; Himura, Haruhiko; Masamune, Sadao; Sanpei, Akio; Isobe, Mitsutaka

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the formation process of helical nonneutral plasmas, we calculate the orbits of electron injected in the stochastic magnetic field when the closed helical magnetic surfaces is correspond with the equipotential surfaces. Contrary to the experimental observation, there are no electrons inward penetrating. (author)

  2. The Professional Competence Formation in the Training Process in Higher Educational Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burganova, Roza I.; Abdugalina, Sairan E.; Shaiheslyamova, Kazyna O.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of professional competence formation in the specialists' training process at the university in contemporary socio-economic and socio-cultural conditions originating in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The emphasis is laid on new scientific and pedagogical approaches to its solution. Special attention is paid to the…

  3. Processing of evaluated neutron data files in ENDF format on personal computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, P.

    1991-11-01

    A computer code package - FDMXPC - has been developed for processing evaluated data files in ENDF format. The earlier version of this package is supplemented with modules performing calculations using Reich-Moore and Adler-Adler resonance parameters. The processing of evaluated neutron data files by personal computers requires special programming considerations outlined in this report. The scope of the FDMXPC program system is demonstrated by means of numerical examples. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  4. The Process of Word Formation and Phrase Structure of Android Application Names

    OpenAIRE

    Handayani, Heny

    2013-01-01

    Android is an operating system for mobile device, such as smartphones and tablet computers that was developed by Google. In this era, android is a popular operating system that is searched by people because of necessary of information. The process and structure of android application names are interesting to be analyzed since they have different structure of words in general. The purpose research is to describe and explain which word formation processes and phrase structure that are commonly ...

  5. Formation of solid solution during mutual diffusion of tungsten and molybdenum in the process of sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeeva, A.A.; Bulat, I.B.; Voronin, Yu.V.; Fedoseev, G.K.; Karasev, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    A process of a solid solution homogenization during sintering of W-15Mo and W-5Mo alloys is studied by the methods of density measurements, analysis of the X-ray lines physical broadening and determination of crystalline lattice constant. Study of the process of solid solution formation under conditions of powder composite sintering is shown to be conducted with account of peculiarities of tungsten and molybdenum mutual diffusion in the investigated temperature range of concentrations

  6. Level of processing modulates the neural correlates of emotional memory formation

    OpenAIRE

    Ritchey, Maureen; LaBar, Kevin S.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Emotion is known to influence multiple aspects of memory formation, including the initial encoding of the memory trace and its consolidation over time. However, the neural mechanisms whereby emotion impacts memory encoding remain largely unexplored. The present study employed a levels-of-processing manipulation to characterize the impact of emotion on encoding with and without the influence of elaborative processes. Participants viewed emotionally negative, neutral, and positive scenes under ...

  7. Thermal physics of gas-thermal coatings formation processes. State of investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fialko, N.M.; Prokopov, V.G.; Meranova, N.O.; Borisov, Yu.S.; Korzhik, V.N.; Sherenkovskaya, G.P.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev

    1993-01-01

    The analysis of state of investigations of gas-thermal coatings formation processes in presented. Classification of approaches to mathematical simulation of thermal phenomena studies is offered. The general characteristics of three main approaches to the analysis of heat transport processes is given. Some problems of mathematical simulation of single particle thermal interaction with solid surface are considered in details. The main physical assumptions are analysed

  8. Significant concentration changes of chemical components of PM_1 in the Yangtze River Delta area of China and the implications for the formation mechanism of heavy haze–fog pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.W.; Zhang, X.Y.; Zhang, Y.M.; Shen, X.J.; Sun, J.Y.; Ma, Q.L.; Yu, X.M.; Zhu, J.L.; Zhang, L.; Che, H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Since the winter season of 2013, a number of persistent haze–fog events have occurred in central-eastern China. Continuous measurements of the chemical and physical properties of PM_1 at a regional background station in the Yangtze River Delta area of China from 16 Nov. to 18 Dec., 2013 revealed several haze–fog events, among which a heavy haze–fog event occurred between 6 Dec. and 8 Dec. The mean concentration of PM_1 was 212 μg m"−"3 in the heavy haze–fog period, which was about 10 times higher than on clean days and featured a peak mass concentration that reached 298 μg m"−"3. Organics were the largest contributor to the dramatic rise of PM_1 on heavy haze–fog days (average mass concentration of 86 μg m"−"3), followed by nitrate (58 μg m"−"3), sulfate (35 μg m"−"3), ammonium (29 μg m"−"3), and chloride (4.0 μg m"−"3). Nitrate exhibited the largest increase (~ 20 factors), associated with a significant increase in NO_x. This was mainly attributable to increased coal combustion emissions, relative to motor vehicle emissions, and was caused by short-distance pollutant transport within surrounding areas. Low-volatility oxidized organic aerosols (OA) (LV-OOA) and biomass-burning OA (BBOA) also increased sharply on heavy haze–fog days, exhibiting an enhanced oxidation capacity of the atmosphere and increased emissions from biomass burning. The strengthening of the oxidation capacity during the heavy pollution episode, along with lower solar radiation, was probably due to increased biomass burning, which were important precursors of O_3. The prevailing meteorological conditions, including low wind and high relative humidity, and short distance transported gaseous and particulate matter surrounding of the sampling site, coincided with the increased pollutant concentrations mainly from biomass-burning mentioned above to cause the persistent haze–fog event in the YRD area. - Highlights: • Formation mechanism of a heavy haze-fog event

  9. Significant concentration changes of chemical components of PM{sub 1} in the Yangtze River Delta area of China and the implications for the formation mechanism of heavy haze–fog pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.W. [Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, X.Y., E-mail: xiaoye@cams.cma.gov.cn [Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, Y.M.; Shen, X.J. [Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Sun, J.Y. [Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences, Cold and Arid Region Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Ma, Q.L.; Yu, X.M. [Lin' an Regional Air Background Station, Lin' an 311307 (China); Zhu, J.L. [School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, L.; Che, H.C. [Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); College of Earth Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Since the winter season of 2013, a number of persistent haze–fog events have occurred in central-eastern China. Continuous measurements of the chemical and physical properties of PM{sub 1} at a regional background station in the Yangtze River Delta area of China from 16 Nov. to 18 Dec., 2013 revealed several haze–fog events, among which a heavy haze–fog event occurred between 6 Dec. and 8 Dec. The mean concentration of PM{sub 1} was 212 μg m{sup −3} in the heavy haze–fog period, which was about 10 times higher than on clean days and featured a peak mass concentration that reached 298 μg m{sup −3}. Organics were the largest contributor to the dramatic rise of PM{sub 1} on heavy haze–fog days (average mass concentration of 86 μg m{sup −3}), followed by nitrate (58 μg m{sup −3}), sulfate (35 μg m{sup −3}), ammonium (29 μg m{sup −3}), and chloride (4.0 μg m{sup −3}). Nitrate exhibited the largest increase (~ 20 factors), associated with a significant increase in NO{sub x}. This was mainly attributable to increased coal combustion emissions, relative to motor vehicle emissions, and was caused by short-distance pollutant transport within surrounding areas. Low-volatility oxidized organic aerosols (OA) (LV-OOA) and biomass-burning OA (BBOA) also increased sharply on heavy haze–fog days, exhibiting an enhanced oxidation capacity of the atmosphere and increased emissions from biomass burning. The strengthening of the oxidation capacity during the heavy pollution episode, along with lower solar radiation, was probably due to increased biomass burning, which were important precursors of O{sub 3}. The prevailing meteorological conditions, including low wind and high relative humidity, and short distance transported gaseous and particulate matter surrounding of the sampling site, coincided with the increased pollutant concentrations mainly from biomass-burning mentioned above to cause the persistent haze–fog event in the YRD area. - Highlights

  10. Formation and filtration characteristics of solids generated in a high level liquid waste treatment process. Solids formation behavior from simulated high level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Y.; Kubota, M.

    1997-01-01

    The solids formation behavior in a simulated high level liquid waste (HLLW) was experimentally examined, when the simulated HLLW was treated in the ordinary way of actual HLLW treatment process. Solids formation conditions and mechanism were closely discussed. The solids formation during a concentration step can be explained by considering the formation of zirconium phosphate, phosphomolybdic acid and precipitation of strontium and barium nitrates and their solubilities. For the solids formation during the denitration step, at least four courses were observed; formation of an undissolved material by a chemical reaction with each other of solute elements (zirconium, molybdenum, tellurium) precipitation by reduction (platinum group metals) formation of hydroxide or carbonate compounds (chromium, neodymium, iron, nickel, strontium, barium) and a physical adsorption to stable solid such as zirconium molybdate (nickel, strontium, barium). (author)

  11. Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Formation and Aggregation Process Revealed by Light Scattering Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Čadež

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP attracts attention as a precursor of crystalline calcium phosphates (CaPs formation in vitro and in vivo as well as due to its excellent biological properties. Its formation can be considered to be an aggregation process. Although aggregation of ACP is of interest for both gaining a fundamental understanding of biominerals formation and in the synthesis of novel materials, it has still not been investigated in detail. In this work, the ACP aggregation was followed by two widely applied techniques suitable for following nanoparticles aggregation in general: dynamic light scattering (DLS and laser diffraction (LD. In addition, the ACP formation was followed by potentiometric measurements and formed precipitates were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The results showed that aggregation of ACP particles is a process which from the earliest stages simultaneously takes place at wide length scales, from nanometers to micrometers, leading to a highly polydisperse precipitation system, with polydispersity and vol. % of larger aggregates increasing with concentration. Obtained results provide insight into developing a way of regulating ACP and consequently CaP formation by controlling aggregation on the scale of interest.

  12. Formation of a Methodological Approach to Evaluating the State of Management of Enterprise Flow Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzobko Iryna P.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The formation of a methodological approach to evaluating management of the state of enterprise flow processes has been considered. Proceeding from the developed and presented in literary sources theoretical propositions on organization of management of enterprise flow processes, the hypothesis of the study is correlation of quantitative and qualitative evaluations of management effectiveness and formation of the integral index on their basis. The article presents stages of implementation of a methodological approach to evaluating the state of management of enterprise flow processes, which implies indicating the components, their characteristics and methods of research. The composition of indicators, on the basis of which it is possible to evaluate effectiveness of management of enterprise flow processes, has been determined. Grouping of such indicators based on the flow nature of enterprise processes has been performed. The grouping of indicators is justified by a pairwise determination of canonical correlations between the selected groups (the obtained high correlation coefficients confirmed the author’s systematization of indicators. It is shown that a specificity of the formation of a methodological approach to evaluating the state of management of enterprise flow processes requires expansion in the direction of aggregation of the results and determination of factors that influence effectiveness of flow processes management. The article carries out such aggregation using the factor analysis. Distribution of a set of objects into different classes according to the results of the cluster analysis has been presented. To obtain an integral estimation of effectiveness of flow processes management, the taxonomic index of a multidimensional object has been built. A peculiarity of the formed methodological approach to evaluating the state of management of enterprise flow processes is in the matrix correlation of integral indicators calculated on

  13. Formation of low-dimensional crystalline nucleus region during insulin amyloidogenesis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amdursky, Nadav; Gazit, Ehud; Rosenman, Gil

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We observe lag-phase crystallization process in insulin. ► The crystallization is a result of the formation of higher order oligomers. ► The crystallization also changes the secondary structure of the protein. ► The spectroscopic signature can be used for amyloid inhibitors assay. -- Abstract: Insulin, as other amyloid proteins, can form amyloid fibrils at certain conditions. The self-assembled aggregation process of insulin can result in a variety of conformations, starting from small oligomers, going through various types of protofibrils, and finishing with bundles of fibrils. One of the most common consensuses among the various self-assembly processes that are suggested in the literature is the formation of an early stage nucleus conformation. Here we present an additional insight for the self-assembly process of insulin. We show that at the early lag phase of the process (prior to fibril formation) the insulin monomers self-assemble into ordered nanostructures. The most notable feature of this early self-assembly process is the formation of nanocrystalline nucleus regions with a strongly bound electron–hole confinement, which also change the secondary structure of the protein. Each step in the self-assembly process is characterized by an optical spectroscopic signature, and possesses a narrow size distribution. By following the spectroscopic signature we can measure the potency of amyloid fibrils inhibitors already at the lag phase. We further demonstrate it by the use of epigallocatechin gallate, a known inhibitor for insulin fibrils. The findings can result in a spectroscopic-based application for the analysis of amyloid fibrils inhibitors.

  14. Improved γ-linolenic acid production in Mucor circinelloides by homologous overexpressing of delta-12 and delta-6 desaturases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Luan, Xiao; Zhang, Huaiyuan; Garre, Victoriano; Song, Yuanda; Ratledge, Colin

    2017-06-21

    γ-Linolenic acid (GLA) is important because of its nutritional value and medicinal applications. Although the biosynthetic pathways of some plant and microbial GLA have been deciphered, current understanding of the correlation between desaturases and GLA synthesis in oleaginous fungi is incomplete. In previous work, we found that a large amount of oleic acid (OA) had not been converted to linoleic acid (LA) or GLA in Mucor circinelloides CBS 277.49, which may be due to inadequate activities of the delta-12 or delta-6 desaturases, and thus leading to the accumulation of OA and LA. Thus, it is necessary to explore the main contributing factor during the process of GLA biosynthesis in M. circinelloides. To enhance GLA production in M. circinelloides, homologous overexpression of delta-12 and two delta-6 desaturases (named delta-6-1 and delta-6-2, respectively) were analyzed. When delta-6 desaturase were overexpressed in M. circinelloides, up to 43% GLA was produced in the total fatty acids, and the yield of GLA reached 180 mg/l, which were, respectively, 38 and 33% higher than the control strain. These findings revealed that delta-6 desaturase (especially for delta-6-1 desaturase) plays an important role in GLA synthesis by M. circinelloides. The strain overexpressing delta-6-1 desaturase may have potential application in microbial GLA production.

  15. Deltas on the move. Making deltas cope with the effects of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reker, J.; Van Winden, A.; Braakhekke, W.; Vermaat, J.; Eleveld, M.; Janssen, R.; De Reus, N.; Omzigt, N.

    2006-01-01

    This scoping study is the first phase of a study aimed at: (a) providing knowledge on the potential of a system-based approach to deal with the effects of climate change as an alternative for the more traditional technical measures such as dams, dikes and surge barriers. This should be shown for both rich and poor countries and should address hydrological, ecological as well as socio-economic aspects; and (b) identifying the potential to market these results worldwide. To reach these objectives four research steps are defined: (1) to make an inventory of deltas: their vulnerability to the effects of climate change; (2) development of indicators for successful use of a system-based approach; (3) to provide an overview of the potential of soft measures for these deltas; (4) to select a number of deltas with potential for marketing system-based measures and the development of strategies to link economic and ecological objectives. This scoping study addresses step 1 only. The results from step 1 will be used as a starting point for steps 2 and 3. The outputs of this scoping study are threefold: a background report (this report); a flyer with a brief description of the findings; a website with information on delta's and how these may be affected by climate change. The scoping study will roughly outline which deltas are still functioning in a more or less natural manner - or could be (re)developed in that direction - and thus would be good candidates for a system-based approach. Chapter 2 gives a description of the geomorphological and ecological processes in a delta. In addition, those aspects of climate change that can have an effect on deltas are described. The third chapter deals with human interventions in deltas and whether or not they fit within a system-based approach. In a system-based approach, as presented in Chapter 4, natural processes are given free reign where possible. Chapter 5 shows how available data on deltas could be used in such a system

  16. STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF THE PROCESS OF BUSINESS ENGLISH SKILLS FORMATION IN FUTURE DOCTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Людмила Русалкіна

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the structure and organization of medical students’ business English teaching process. The main attention is spared to the problem of creation of the experimental model of future doctors’ business English skills formation. The suggested model is aimed at productive mastering of lexical and grammar communicative skills, at formation of business English communicative abilities of students-medics; it has communicative direction and is professionally oriented. The exercises correspond to English language knowledge of the future doctors and are set in sequence of increasing complexity.

  17. The Policy Formation Process: A Conceptual Framework for Analysis. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, E. F.

    1972-01-01

    A conceptual framework for analysis which is intended to assist both the policy analyst and the policy researcher in their empirical investigations into policy phenomena is developed. It is meant to facilitate understanding of the policy formation process by focusing attention on the basic forces shaping the main features of policy formation as a dynamic social-political-organizational process. The primary contribution of the framework lies in its capability to suggest useful ways of looking at policy formation reality. It provides the analyst and the researcher with a group of indicators which suggest where to look and what to look for when attempting to analyze and understand the mix of forces which energize, maintain, and direct the operation of strategic level policy systems. The framework also highlights interconnections, linkage, and relational patterns between and among important variables. The framework offers an integrated set of conceptual tools which facilitate understanding of and research on the complex and dynamic set of variables which interact in any major strategic level policy formation process.

  18. Oxytocin promotes bone formation during the alveolar healing process in old acyclic female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, Vilma Clemi; Okamoto, Roberta; Spritzer, Poli Mara; Dornelles, Rita Cássia Menegati

    2012-09-01

    OT was reported to be a direct regulator of bone mass in young rodents, and this anabolic effect on bone is a peripheral action of OT. The goal of this study was to investigate the peripheral action of oxytocin (OT) in the alveolar healing process in old female rats. Females Wistar rats (24-month-old) in permanent diestrus phase, received two ip (12h apart) injections of saline (NaCl 0.15M - control group) or OT (45μg/rat - treated group). Seven days later, the right maxillary incisor was extracted and analyses were performed up to 28 days of the alveolar healing process (35 days after saline or OT administration). Calcium and phosphorus plasma concentrations did not differ between the groups. The plasma biochemical bone formations markers, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin were significantly higher in the treated group. Histomorphometric analyses confirmed bone formation as the treated group presented the highest mean value of post-extraction bone formation. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) was significantly reduced in the treated group indicating an anti-resorptive effect of OT. Immunohistochemistry reactions performed in order to identify the presence of osteocalcin and TRAP in the bone cells of the dental socket confirmed these outcomes. OT was found to promote bone formation and to inhibit bone resorption in old acyclic female rats during the alveolar healing process. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Modelling dewatering behaviour through an understanding of solids formation processes. Part II--solids separation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustan, A C; Cohen, B; Petrie, J G

    2005-05-30

    An understanding of the mechanisms which control solids formation can provide information on the characteristics of the solids which are formed. The nature of the solids formed in turn impacts on dewatering behaviour. The 'upstream' solids formation determines a set of suspension characteristics: solids concentration, particle size distribution, solution ionic strength and electrostatic surface potential. These characteristics together define the suspension's rheological properties. However, the complicated interdependence of these has precluded the prediction of suspension rheology from such a fundamental description of suspension characteristics. Recent shear yield stress models, applied in this study to compressive yield, significantly reduce the empiricism required for the description of compressive rheology. Suspension compressibility and permeability uniquely define the dewatering behaviour, described in terms of settling, filtration and mechanical expression. These modes of dewatering may be described in terms of the same fundamental suspension mechanics model. In this way, it is possible to link dynamically the processes of solids formation and dewatering of the resultant suspension. This, ultimately, opens the door to improved operability of these processes. In part I of this paper we introduced an integrated system model for solids formation and dewatering. This model was demonstrated for the upstream processes using experimental data. In this current paper models of colloidal interactions and dewatering are presented and compared to experimental results from batch filtration tests. A novel approach to predicting suspension compressibility and permeability using a single test configuration is presented and tested.

  20. Curcumin complexation with cyclodextrins by the autoclave process: Method development and characterization of complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagbani, Turki Al; Nazzal, Sami

    2017-03-30

    One approach to enhance curcumin (CUR) aqueous solubility is to use cyclodextrins (CDs) to form inclusion complexes where CUR is encapsulated as a guest molecule within the internal cavity of the water-soluble CD. Several methods have been reported for the complexation of CUR with CDs. Limited information, however, is available on the use of the autoclave process (AU) in complex formation. The aims of this work were therefore to (1) investigate and evaluate the AU cycle as a complex formation method to enhance CUR solubility; (2) compare the efficacy of the AU process with the freeze-drying (FD) and evaporation (EV) processes in complex formation; and (3) confirm CUR stability by characterizing CUR:CD complexes by NMR, Raman spectroscopy, DSC, and XRD. Significant differences were found in the saturation solubility of CUR from its complexes with CD when prepared by the three complexation methods. The AU yielded a complex with expected chemical and physical fingerprints for a CUR:CD inclusion complex that maintained the chemical integrity and stability of CUR and provided the highest solubility of CUR in water. Physical and chemical characterizations of the AU complexes confirmed the encapsulated of CUR inside the CD cavity and the transformation of the crystalline CUR:CD inclusion complex to an amorphous form. It was concluded that the autoclave process with its short processing time could be used as an alternate and efficient methods for drug:CD complexation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Full characterization of the photorefractive bright soliton formation process using a digital holographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merola, F; Miccio, L; Paturzo, M; Ferraro, P; De Nicola, S

    2009-01-01

    An extensive characterization of the photorefractive bright soliton writing process in a lithium niobate crystal is presented. An interferometric approach based on a digital holographic technique has been used to reconstruct the complex wavefield at the exit face of the crystal. Temporal evolution of both intensity and phase profile of the writing beam has been analysed. The effective changes of the refractive index of the medium during the writing process and after the soliton formation are determined from the optical phase distribution. This method provides a reliable way to observe the process of soliton formation, whereas the determination of the intensity distribution of the output beam does not show clearly whether the soliton regime has been achieved or not. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of the soliton in a steady-state situation and under different writing conditions is presented and discussed

  2. 3. The Formation of Musical Competences: Methodological Approachesin the Process of Artistic-Aesthetic Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crişciuc Viorica

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article hereby includes conceptual aspects of the musical competences formation. It describes the realization of this process operating with the concepts of well-known occidental, Russian and local researchers. One of the ideas characteristic to the researchers’ pedagogical thinking is that, during the process of musical competence formation through art, the acquisition process mechanism is happening. For integrity in insuring the practical realization at of a musical education, the methodology we propose is based on research, an imposing theoretical network of successful pedagogical practices of remarkable scientists from all over the world. The analyzed theories are a source of inspiration and constitute the theoretical universe which contributes to as truthful as possible musical education.

  3. Thermal Diffusion Processes in Metal-Tip-Surface Interactions: Contact Formation and Adatom Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Reinholdt; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Jonsson, Hannes

    1996-01-01

    and the surface can occur by a sequence of atomic hop and exchange processes which become active on a millisecond time scale when the tip is about 3-5 Angstrom from the surface. Adatoms on the surface are stabilized by the presence of the tip and energy barriers for diffusion processes in the region under the tip......We have carried out computer simulations to identify and characterize various thermally activated atomic scale processes that can play an important role in room temperature experiments where a metal tip is brought close to a metal surface. We find that contact formation between the tip...

  4. Investigation of the gas formation in dissolution process of nuclear reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qinfen; Liao Yuanzhong; Chen Yongqing; Sun Shuyun; Fan Yincheng

    1987-12-01

    The gas formation in dissolution process of two kinds of nuclear fuels was studied. The results shows that the maximum volume flow released from dissolution system is composed of two parts. One of them is air remained in dissolver and pushed out by acid vapor. The other is produced in dissolution reaction. The procedure of calculating the gas amount produced in dissolution process has been given. It is based on variation of components of dissolution solution. The gas amount produced in dissolution process of spent UO 2 fuel elements was calculated. The condenser system and loading volume of disposal system of tail gas of dissolution of spent fuel were discussed

  5. Essential processes for cognitive behavioral clinical supervision: Agenda setting, problem-solving, and formative feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jorden A; Ballantyne, Elena C; Scallion, Laura M

    2015-06-01

    Clinical supervision should be a proactive and considered endeavor, not a reactive one. To that end, supervisors should choose supervision processes that are driven by theory, best available research, and clinical experience. These processes should be aimed at helping trainees develop as clinicians. We highlight 3 supervision processes we believe should be used at each supervision meeting: agenda setting, encouraging trainee problem-solving, and formative feedback. Although these are primarily cognitive-behavioral skills, they can be helpful in combination with other supervision models. We provide example dialogue from supervision exchanges, and discuss theoretical and research support for these processes. Using these processes not only encourages trainee development but also models for them how to use the same processes and approaches with clients. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Women of Niger Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion Dept

    The Indispensability of Women in Conflict Resolution in the Niger Delta ... The situation leads to a shift in gender roles with a dramatic increase in the number of women .... organization is to work in partnership with the Nigerian Government and the .... that “women are the impartial arbitrators in family or clan disputes or.

  7. Conservative Delta Hedging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    an exact method for converting such intervals into arbitrage based prices of financial derivatives or industrial or contractual options. We call this...procedure conservative delta hedging . As existing procedures are of an ad hoc nature, the proposed approach will permit an institution’s man agement a greater oversight of its exposure to risk.

  8. The role of the dinuclear system in the processes of nuclear fusion, quasi-fission, fission and cluster formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear fusion, quasi-fission, fission and cluster formation in an excited nucleus are considered as the processes of the formation and evolution of the dinuclear system. This approach allows one to reveal new aspects of nuclear fusion, to show that quasi-fission plays an important role in nuclear reactions used to synthesise superheavy elements. A qualitative picture is given of the fission process of an excited nucleus and an important role of cluster formation in this process is shown

  9. Influence of California-style black ripe olive processing on the formation of acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenprasert, Suthawan; Mitchell, Alyson

    2014-08-27

    Methods used in processing California-style black ripe olives generate acrylamide. California-style black ripe olives contain higher levels of acrylamide (409.67 ± 42.60-511.91 ± 34.08 μg kg(-1)) as compared to California-style green ripe olives (44.02 ± 3.55-105.79 ± 22.01 μg kg(-1)), Greek olives (influenced the formation of acrylamide in a time-dependent manner. Acrylamide increased during the first 30 days of storage. Longer brine storage times (>30 days) result in lower acrylamide levels in the finished product. The presence of calcium ions in the preprocessing brining solution results in higher levels of acrylamide in finished products. Air oxidation during lye processing and the neutralization of olives prior to sterilization significantly increase the formation of acrylamide in the finished products. Conversely, lye-processing decreases the levels of acrylamide in the final product. These results indicate that specific steps in the California-style black ripe olive processing may be manipulated to mitigate the formation of acrylamide in finished products.

  10. Mystery of the delta(980)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahn, R.N.; Landshoff, P.V.

    1986-01-01

    The apparent conflict between the dominance of the decay delta->etaπ in D->deltaπ and its absence in iota->deltaπ is analyzed. Explicit models are presented in which the nearby Kanti K threshold plays an important role in resolving the conflict. (orig.)

  11. Remote stereocontrol by sulfinyl groups: reduction of delta-ketosulfoxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Ruano, José L; Fernández-Ibáñez, M Angeles; Maestro, M Carmen; Rodríguez-Fernández, M Mercedes

    2005-03-04

    The reduction of delta-ketosulfoxides constitutes the first evidence of the efficiency of the sulfinyl group to control the stereoselectivity of 1,5-asymmetric induction processes. The use of DIBAL/Yb(OTf)3 or L-Selectride as the reducing agents provides delta-hydroxysulfoxides with the opposite configuration at the hydroxylic carbon in a highly stereoselective way.

  12. Quark sea and the. delta. I=1/2 rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, J F [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Physics; Golowich, E [Massachusetts Univ., Amherst (USA)

    1977-08-29

    The effect on nonleptonic processes of quark-antiquark pairs due to quantum chromodynamics is studied. Their presence improves agreement between theory and experiment for hyperon decays. In kaon decays a new ..delta..I=1/2 contribution is found, but ..delta..I=3/2 effects are still too large to be in agreement.

  13. HPDB-Haskell library for processing atomic biomolecular structures in Protein Data Bank format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Michał Jan

    2013-11-23

    Protein DataBank file format is used for the majority of biomolecular data available today. Haskell is a lazy functional language that enjoys a high-level class-based type system, a growing collection of useful libraries and a reputation for efficiency. I present a fast library for processing biomolecular data in the Protein Data Bank format. I present benchmarks indicating that this library is faster than other frequently used Protein Data Bank parsing programs. The proposed library also features a convenient iterator mechanism, and a simple API modeled after BioPython. I set a new standard for convenience and efficiency of Protein Data Bank processing in a Haskell library, and release it to open source.

  14. The information technologies in the initial formation process of the professional of education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliurca Padilla García

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Universities should give the students methods, aids and ways to obtain knowledge, in correspondence with the scientific development reached, so that they can assume a transformer position in the different acting contexts. In this sense, the information technologies not only provide the student with tools and resources of information, but also propitiate an environment that promotes interactions and educative exchange experiences between the students and teachers. Deepening about the role these resources play in the educational environment is of great importance to get its integration in a systematic and systemic way to the initial formation process of the professional of education so, its application in their formation surpasses the traditional concept of using de aims, and becomes an element that significantly strikes in a new configuration of the didactic approach of the process in the nowadays conditions.

  15. Power characteristics of the metal compounds formation process during the friction stir welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzaev Radmir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An influence of the power characteristics on the formation process of the uniform metals compound during the welding with friction stirringis being examined in this article.A dependency between the machine-tool engine power input and the instrument tilt during the FSW for the aluminum alloy AD31, copper alloy M1, titanium alloy OT4-1 and steel St-3 low-alloyed has been explored. A question of the stabilization of power consumption process while the establishment of superplastic condition of welded metal during the FSW has also been reviewed. A dependency revealed between the power characteristics, the geometry of the formation, the rotation speeds, the longitudinal displacement of the tool and its dimensions for fixed values of the parameters during the FSW.

  16. NJOY. A comprehensive system for the processing of ENDF formatted nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.W.

    1990-07-01

    An introduction to the program system NJOY is given which processes data files of evaluated neutron nuclear data coded in ENDF format. NJOY is primarily used for neutron and photon transport calculations for nuclear power reactor design. The NJOY code is not available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section but may be obtained from the Reactor Shielding Information Center, Oak Ridge, USA. (author). 10 refs, 1 fig

  17. Children's processing of new advertising formats: how to improve children's dispositional and situational advertising literacy?

    OpenAIRE

    Hudders, Liselot; De Pauw, Pieter; Cauberghe, Veroline; Panic, Katarina; Zarouali, Brahim

    2015-01-01

    Compared to traditional advertising formats, contemporary advertising is characterized by a more subtle, less intrusive commercial nature. Commercial messages are now frequently integrated in or merged with highly entertaining and fun media content, which distract the users from systematically and critically processing the content. This makes it difficult for consumers, especially young consumers with limited advertising literacy, to evaluate the persuasion attempt critically. Not only do...

  18. BIOFILM FORMATION OF Vibrio cholerae ON STAINLESS STEEL USED IN FOOD PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    FERNÁNDEZ-DELGADO, Milagro; ROJAS, Héctor; DUQUE, Zoilabet; SUÁREZ, Paula; CONTRERAS, Monica; GARCÍA-AMADO, M. Alexandra; ALCIATURI, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae represents a significant threat to human health in developing countries. This pathogen forms biofilms which favors its attachment to surfaces and its survival and transmission by water or food. This work evaluated the in vitro biofilm formation of V. cholerae isolated from clinical and environmental sources on stainless steel of the type used in food processing by using the environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Results showed no cell adhesion at 4 h and scarce sur...

  19. DELTAS: A new Global Delta Sustainability Initiative (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2013-12-01

    Deltas are economic and environmental hotspots, food baskets for many nations, home to a large part of the world population, and hosts of exceptional biodiversity and rich ecosystems. Deltas, being at the land-water interface, are international, regional, and local transport hubs, thus providing the basis for intense economic activities. Yet, deltas are deteriorating at an alarming rate as 'victims' of human actions (e.g. water and sediment reduction due to upstream basin development), climatic impacts (e.g. sea level rise and flooding from rivers and intense tropical storms), and local exploration (e.g. sand or aggregates, groundwater and hydrocarbon extraction). Although many efforts exist on individual deltas around the world, a comprehensive global delta sustainability initiative that promotes awareness, science integration, data and knowledge sharing, and development of decision support tools for an effective dialogue between scientists, managers and policy makers is lacking. Recently, the international scientific community proposed to establish the International Year of Deltas (IYD) to serve as the beginning of such a Global Delta Sustainability Initiative. The IYD was proposed as a year to: (1) increase awareness and attention to the value and vulnerability of deltas worldwide; (2) promote and enhance international and regional cooperation at the scientific, policy, and stakeholder level; and (3) serve as a launching pad for a 10-year committed effort to understand deltas as complex socio-ecological systems and ensure preparedness in protecting and restoring them in a rapidly changing environment. In this talk, the vision for such an international coordinated effort on delta sustainability will be presented as developed by a large number of international experts and recently funded through the Belmont Forum International Opportunities Fund. Participating countries include: U.S., France, Germany, U.K., India, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Brazil, Bangladesh

  20. Open source integrated modeling environment Delta Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchyts, G.; Baart, F.; Jagers, B.; van Putten, H.

    2012-04-01

    In the last decade, integrated modelling has become a very popular topic in environmental modelling since it helps solving problems, which is difficult to model using a single model. However, managing complexity of integrated models and minimizing time required for their setup remains a challenging task. The integrated modelling environment Delta Shell simplifies this task. The software components of Delta Shell are easy to reuse separately from each other as well as a part of integrated environment that can run in a command-line or a graphical user interface mode. The most components of the Delta Shell are developed using C# programming language and include libraries used to define, save and visualize various scientific data structures as well as coupled model configurations. Here we present two examples showing how Delta Shell simplifies process of setting up integrated models from the end user and developer perspectives. The first example shows coupling of a rainfall-runoff, a river flow and a run-time control models. The second example shows how coastal morphological database integrates with the coastal morphological model (XBeach) and a custom nourishment designer. Delta Shell is also available as open-source software released under LGPL license and accessible via http://oss.deltares.nl.

  1. Formation of iron nanoparticles and increase in iron reactivity in mineral dust during simulated cloud processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zongbo; Krom, Michael D; Bonneville, Steeve; Baker, Alex R; Jickells, Timothy D; Benning, Liane G

    2009-09-01

    The formation of iron (Fe) nanoperticles and increase in Fe reactivity in mineral dust during simulated cloud processing was investigated using high-resolution microscopy and chemical extraction methods. Cloud processing of dust was experimentally simulated via an alternation of acidic (pH 2) and circumneutral conditions (pH 5-6) over periods of 24 h each on presieved (formation of Fe-rich nanoparticle aggregates, which were not found initially. Similar Fe-rich nanoparticles were also observed in wet-deposited Saharen dusts from the western Mediterranean but not in dry-deposited dust from the eastern Mediterranean. Sequential Fe extraction of the soil samples indicated an increase in the proportion of chemically reactive Fe extractable by an ascorbate solution after simulated cloud processing. In addition, the sequential extractions on the Mediterranean dust samples revealed a higher content of reactive Fe in the wet-deposited dust compared to that of the dry-deposited dust These results suggestthat large variations of pH commonly reported in aerosol and cloud waters can trigger neo-formation of nanosize Fe particles and an increase in Fe reactivity in the dust

  2. N-nitrosamines in processed meat products – analysis, occurrence, formation, mitigation and exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange

    and NVNA in meat. Secondly data on the occurrence of VNA and NVNA in processed meat products on the Danish market were to be generated and used for an evaluation of the exposure level resulting from consumption of processed meat products. A method allowing for the simultaneous determination of both VNA......, NPIP, NTCA and NMTCA were inversely related to the amount of erythorbic acid (396-1104 mg kg-1). The levels of the individual NA were reduced with up to 20 to 75%. No additional protection against NA formation was obtained by also adding ascorbyl palmitate, a fat soluble antioxidant. Sodium chloride...

  3. Angular scattering in electron capture and loss D- beam formation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coggiola, M.J.; Hodges, R.V.; Huestis, D.L.; Peterson, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The development of high energy (> 150 keV) neutral beams for heating and fueling magnetic fusion devices depends on the ability to produce well-collimated negative ion beams. The double capture charge-exchange technique is a known, scalable method. In order to maximize the overall efficiency of the process and to achieve the desired beam characteristics, it is necessary to examine the optical qualities of the beams as well as the total efficiency of beam production. A combined modeling and experimental study of the angular scattering effects in negative ion formation and loss processes has therefore been undertaken

  4. Iron behaviour in the process of stratum-infiltration uranium ore formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmariovich, E.M.; Golubev, V.S.

    1980-01-01

    Investigated has been the behaviour of iron in the process of stratum infiltration uranium mineralization. Iron is partially avacuated from the forward part of the stratum oxidation zone during the development of infiltration uranium mineralization in pyritiferous rocks. This phenomenon is characterized quantitatively and described on the basis of equations of physical chemistry and dynamics of geochemical processes. Local regions of epigenetic ferruginization caused by opposite diffusion of iron and its precipitation in oxygenous conditions often occur at the sections of sharp moderation of limonitization zone advance. Formation of similar ferruginous margins takes place in a very short geological period (less than thousand years)

  5. Laboratory and Cloud Chamber Studies of Formation Processes and Properties of Atmospheric Ice Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, T.; Abdelmonem, A.; Benz, S.; Brinkmann, M.; Möhler, O.; Rzesanke, D.; Saathoff, H.; Schnaiter, M.; Wagner, R.

    2009-04-01

    The formation of ice in tropospheric clouds controls the evolution of precipitation and thereby influences climate and weather via a complex network of dynamical and microphysical processes. At higher altitudes, ice particles in cirrus clouds or contrails modify the radiative energy budget by direct interaction with the shortwave and longwave radiation. In order to improve the parameterisation of the complex microphysical and dynamical processes leading to and controlling the evolution of tropospheric ice, laboratory experiments are performed at the IMK Karlsruhe both on a single particle level and in the aerosol and cloud chamber AIDA. Single particle experiments in electrodynamic levitation lend themselves to the study of the interaction between cloud droplets and aerosol particles under extremely well characterized and static conditions in order to obtain microphysical parameters as freezing nucleation rates for homogeneous and heterogeneous ice formation. They also allow the observation of the freezing dynamics and of secondary ice formation and multiplication processes under controlled conditions and with very high spatial and temporal resolution. The inherent droplet charge in these experiments can be varied over a wide range in order to assess the influence of the electrical state of the cloud on its microphysics. In the AIDA chamber on the other hand, these processes are observable under the realistic dynamic conditions of an expanding and cooling cloud- parcel with interacting particles and are probed simultaneously by a comprehensive set of analytical instruments. By this means, microphysical processes can be studied in their complex interplay with dynamical processes as for example coagulation or particle evaporation and growth via the Bergeron - Findeisen process. Shortwave scattering and longwave absorption properties of the nucleating and growing ice crystals are probed by in situ polarised laser light scattering measurements and infrared extinction

  6. Bromate Formation Characteristics of UV Irradiation, Hydrogen Peroxide Addition, Ozonation, and Their Combination Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Kishimoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bromate formation characteristics of six-physicochemical oxidation processes, UV irradiation, single addition of hydrogen peroxide, ozonation, UV irradiation with hydrogen peroxide addition (UV/H2O2, ozonation with hydrogen peroxide addition (O3/H2O2, and ozonation with UV irradiation (O3/UV were investigated using 1.88 μM of potassium bromide solution with or without 6.4 μM of 4-chlorobenzoic acid. Bromate was not detected during UV irradiation, single addition of H2O2, and UV/H2O2, whereas ozone-based treatments produced . Hydroxyl radicals played more important role in bromate formation than molecular ozone. Acidification and addition of radical scavengers such as 4-chlorobenzoic acid were effective in inhibiting bromate formation during the ozone-based treatments because of inhibition of hydroxyl radical generation and consumption of hydroxyl radicals, respectively. The H2O2 addition was unable to decompose 4-chlorobenzoic acid, though O3/UV and O3/H2O2 showed the rapid degradation, and UV irradiation and UV/H2O2 showed the slow degradation. Consequently, if the concentration of organic contaminants is low, the UV irradiation and/or UV/H2O2 are applicable to organic contaminants removal without bromate formation. However, if the concentration of organic contaminants is high, O3/H2O2 and O3/UV should be discussed as advanced oxidation processes because of their high organic removal efficiency and low bromate formation potential at the optimum condition.

  7. Effects of pretreatment processes on improving the formation of ultrananocrystalline diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Li-Ju; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; Lee, Chi-Young; Lin, I-Nan.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of pretreatment on the nuclei formation of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) on Si substrates were studied. Either precoating a thin layer of titanium (∼400 nm) or ultrasonication pretreatment using diamond and titanium mixed powder (D and T process) enhances the nucleation process on Si substrates markedly, and the UNCD nuclei formed and fully covered the Si substrate, when deposition was processed using the microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition process for 10 min. In contrast, during the same period, ultrasonication pretreatment using diamond powders (D process) can only form large UNCD clusters, which were scarcely distributed on Si substrates. The analyses using x-ray diffractometer, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis reveal that the titanium layer reacted with carbon species in the plasma, forming crystalline TiC phase, which facilitates the subsequent formation of UNCD nuclei. The beneficial effect of Ti layer on enhancing the nucleation of UNCD is presumably owing to high solubility and high diffusivity of carbon species in Ti materials, as compared with those of Si materials

  8. Evaluating evaluation as a communication process. What role for formative evaluation in ICT-based knowledge acquisition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    USEILLE Philippe

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how formative evaluation as a communication process contributes to knowledge acquisition in using ICT (Information and Communication Technologies. Previous studies, especially in the field of education and training, have shown that formative evaluation plays a crucial part in the learning process because it contributes to learning to learn. Through formative evaluation, the learner becomes aware of errors and can adjust learning strategies to the situation. In addition, formative evaluation provides the teaching side with significant and useful information. Consequently, ICT researches have developed a wide range of solutions for this specific purpose. It is however difficult to check the efficiency of these tools by considering the effects of ICT in the knowledge acquisition process. I suggest that formative evaluation includes also a communication system that has an effect on the learning process. This study tackles the issue by proposing an alternative approach to formative evaluation that considers it as both a learning and a communication process. The study is based on SADT (Structure Analysis and Design Technique that provides a suitable description for the whole complex communication process. It allows a rigorous understanding and identification of the variables of evaluation as a communication process in order to take care of an ICT frame. Finally, this article outlines a multidisciplinary method to evaluate formative evaluation by focusing on the validity facets of the communication process. Keywords: formative evaluation, communication process, validity criteria, ICT training context.

  9. Formation of the Cycle of Business Processes of Management of Marketing Activity of a Transport Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horielov Dmytro O.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to problems of organisation of the process of management of marketing activity of an enterprise. It specifies the model of services of a transport enterprise and provides levels of services and their structure: basic, real, expanded, expected and prospective. The article offers to differentiate planning and realisation of the transportation service by its levels, each of which would correspond with a separate business process of management. It reveals specific features of use of instruments of the traditional, internal and interactive marketing in the market of transportation services. It identifies the structure of the object when managing marketing activity of a transportation enterprise. The article uses the Deming cycle to formulate general principles of formation of business processes of management of marketing activity: “Motivation – Plan – Do – Check – Act”. The proposed cycle would ensure continuous improvement of the said business processes of an enterprise in accordance with international quality standards (ISO.

  10. Formation of metal and dielectric liners using a solution process for deep trench capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Dong-Pyo; Baek, Kyu-Ha; Park, Kun-Sik; Kim, Moonkeun; Kwon, Kwang-Ho; Shin, Hong-Sik; Lee, Kijun; Do, Lee-Mi

    2012-07-01

    We demonstrated the feasibility of metal and dielectric liners using a solution process for deep trench capacitor application. The deep Si trench via with size of 10.3 microm and depth of 71 microm were fabricated by Bosch process in deep reactive ion etch (DRIE) system. The aspect ratio was about 7. Then, nano-Ag ink and poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVPh) were used to form metal and dielectric liners, respectively. The thicknesses of the Ag and PVPh liners were about 144 and 830 nm, respectively. When the curing temperature of Ag film increased from 120 to 150 degrees C, the sheet resistance decreased rapidly from 2.47 to 0.72 Omega/sq and then slightly decreased to 0.6 Omega/sq with further increasing the curing temperature beyond 150 degrees C. The proposed liner formation method using solution process is a simple and cost effective process for the high capacity of deep trench capacitor.

  11. Hydraulic experimental investigation on spatial distribution and formation process of tsunami deposit on a slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, K.; Takahashi, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Sakuraba, M.; Nojima, K.

    2017-12-01

    An important aim of the study of tsunami deposits is to estimate the characteristics of past tsunamis from the tsunami deposits found locally. Based on the tsunami characteristics estimated from tsunami deposit, it is possible to examine tsunami risk assessment in coastal areas. It is considered that tsunami deposits are formed based on the dynamic correlation between tsunami's hydraulic values, sediment particle size, topography, etc. However, it is currently not enough to evaluate the characteristics of tsunamis from tsunami deposits. This is considered to be one of the reasons that the understanding of the formation process of tsunami deposits is not sufficiently understood. In this study, we analyze the measurement results of hydraulic experiment (Yamamoto et al., 2016) and focus on the formation process and distribution of tsunami deposits. Hydraulic experiment was conducted with two-dimensional water channel with a slope. Tsunami was inputted as a bore wave flow. The moving floor section was installed as a seabed slope connecting to shoreline and grain size distribution was set some cases. The water level was measured using ultrasonic displacement gauges, and the flow velocity was measured using propeller current meters and an electromagnetic current meter. The water level and flow velocity was measured at some points. The distribution of tsunami deposit was measured from shoreline to run-up limit on the slope. Yamamoto et al. (2016) reported the measurement results on the distribution of tsunami deposit with wave height and sand grain size. Therefore, in this study, hydraulic analysis of tsunami sediment formation process was examined based on the measurement data. Time series fluctuation of hydraulic parameters such as Froude number, Shields number, Rouse number etc. was calculated to understand on the formation process of tsunami deposit. In the front part of the tsunami, the flow velocity take strong flow from shoreline to around the middle of slope. From

  12. Deciphering the influence of the thermal processes on the early passive margins formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Romain; Nalpas, Thierry; Ballard, Jean-François; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Chelalou, Roman; Clerc, Camille

    2015-04-01

    Many large-scale dynamic processes, from continental rifting to plate subduction, are intimately linked to metamorphic reactions. This close relation between geodynamic processes and metamorphic reactions is, in spite of appearances, yet poorly understood. For example, during extension processes, rocks will be exposed to important temperature, pressures and stress changes. Meanwhile less attention has been paid to other important aspects of the metamorphic processes. When reacting rocks expand and contract, density and volume changes will set up in the surrounding material. While several tectonic models are proposed to explain the formation of extensive basins and passive margins ( simple shear detachment mantle exhumation .... ) a single thermal model (McKenzie , 1978), as a dogma, is used to understanding and modeling the formation and evolution of sedimentary basins . This model is based on the assumption that the extension is only by pure shear and it is instantaneous. Under this approach, the sedimentary deposits occur in two stages. i) A short step , 1 to 10 Ma , controlled by tectonics. ii) A longer step , at least 50 Ma as a result of the thermal evolution of the lithosphere.
However, most stratigraphic data indicate that less thermal model can account for documented vertical movements. The study of the thermal evolution , coupled with other tectonic models , and its consequences have never been studied in detail , although the differences may be significant and it is clear that the petrological changes associated with changes in temperature conditions , influence changes reliefs.
In addition, it seems that the relationship between basin formation and thermal evolution is not always the same:
- Sometimes the temperature rise above 50 to 100 Ma tectonic extension. In the Alps, a significant rise in geothermal gradient Permo -Triassic followed by a "cold" extension , leading to the opening of the Ligurian- Piedmont ocean, from the Middle Jurassic .

  13. (p,. pi. /sup -/) reaction and. delta. /sup + +/ components of nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisslinger, L S; Miller, G A [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1975-12-08

    The use of the (p,..pi../sup -/) reaction as a probe to determine ..delta../sup + +/(1232) components of nuclear wave functions is examined within the framework of a model which treats baryon resonances on the same footing as nucleons. Nuclear structure properties which affect the ..delta..-probability are discussed. Estimates of cross sections, at several energies, are made for the ..delta../sup + +/ transfer contribution as well as for the competing processes: proton charge exchange (p,n) followed by an (n,..gamma../sup -/) reaction; emission of a ..pi../sup 0/ followed by pion charge exchange (..pi../sup -/,..pi../sup 0/). Even with ..delta..-probabilities as small as 0.0001 the ..delta..-transfer process can compete with ordinary background charge-exchange reactions.

  14. Percolation blockage: A process that enables melt pond formation on first year Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polashenski, Chris; Golden, Kenneth M.; Perovich, Donald K.; Skyllingstad, Eric; Arnsten, Alexandra; Stwertka, Carolyn; Wright, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Melt pond formation atop Arctic sea ice is a primary control of shortwave energy balance in the Arctic Ocean. During late spring and summer, the ponds determine sea ice albedo and how much solar radiation is transmitted into the upper ocean through the sea ice. The initial formation of ponds requires that melt water be retained above sea level on the ice surface. Both theory and observations, however, show that first year sea ice is so highly porous prior to the formation of melt ponds that multiday retention of water above hydraulic equilibrium should not be possible. Here we present results of percolation experiments that identify and directly demonstrate a mechanism allowing melt pond formation. The infiltration of fresh water into the pore structure of sea ice is responsible for blocking percolation pathways with ice, sealing the ice against water percolation, and allowing water to pool above sea level. We demonstrate that this mechanism is dependent on fresh water availability, known to be predominantly from snowmelt, and ice temperature at melt onset. We argue that the blockage process has the potential to exert significant control over interannual variability in ice albedo. Finally, we suggest that incorporating the mechanism into models would enhance their physical realism. Full treatment would be complex. We provide a simple temperature threshold-based scheme that may be used to incorporate percolation blockage behavior into existing model frameworks.

  15. Logic of historical development of the formation process of architectural and construction solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranov Valeriy Aleksandrovich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In research field of development processes of architectural and construction decisions (ACD there is already very considerable scientific, normative and technical material. And still in the end of the research boom in this area (the 90th many authors stated their weak return in practical design. High methodological potential gives understanding of the act of ACD formation as a special kind of activity, and its structure - as historical phenomenon that allows to put two main methodological principles in the basis of the research: the principle of activity and the principle of level organization of historically formed objects. As a result it was succeeded to reveal 6 main stages of historical development of ACD formation process and 6 levels of its modern organization. Origin stage - is the transition from animal to human construction and emergence of the first stage of ACD formation - a measurement. The reproductive stage is characterized by centuries-old reproduction of steady volume forms of constructions. At a composite stage professional presentation detaches external form of a construction from architectural and construction actions and techniques. There occurs transformation into a subject of architectural and construction activity and creation of a method of composition on this basis. At a constructive stage engineers are involved in construction process, there is a change of style of thinking, emergence of construction designs and emergence of a new function of ACD means of configuration, and, at last, final allocation and separation of architectural and construction design from construction. Technological stage is a product of industrialization of construction on which systematization is carried out not only on the level of subject, but also in respect to the operational contents that leads to emergence of ACD program formation. At the sixth, methodological stage of development of ASP, a leading way change of the ACD formation becomes a

  16. Methods for Characterization of the Diesel Combustion and Emission Formation Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstroem, Mikael

    2011-07-01

    In this thesis various aspects of the diesel engine fuel injection, combustion and emission formation processes have been evaluated. Several types of evaluation tools and methods have been applied. Fuel spray momentum was used to characterize injection rate and hole-to-hole variations in fuel injectors. Using both instantaneous fuel impulse rates and instantaneous mass flow measurements, spray velocity and nozzle flow parameters were evaluated. Several other hole-to-hole resolved injector characterization methods were used to characterize a set of fuel injectors subjected to long term testing. Fuel injector nozzle hole-to-hole variations were found to have a large influence on engine efficiency and emissions. The degree of hole-to-hole variations for an injector has been shown to correlate well with the performance deterioration of that injector. The formation and atomization of fuel sprays, ignition onset and the development of diffusion flames were studied using an optical engine. Flame temperature evaluations have been made using two different methods. NO-formation depends strongly on flame temperature. By applying a NO-formation evaluation method based on both heat release rate and flame and gas temperature it was possible to achieve a reasonable degree of correlation with measured exhaust emissions for very varying operating conditions. The prediction capability of the NO-formation evaluation method was utilized to evaluate spatially and temporally resolved NO-formation from flame temperature distributions. This made it possible to pinpoint areas with a high degree of NO-formation. It was found that small hot zones in the flames can be responsible for a large part of the total amount of NO that is produced, especially in combustion cases where no EGR is used to lower the flame temperature. By applying optical diagnostics methods the combustion and emission formation phenomena encountered during production engine transients were evaluated. The transient

  17. Numerical analysis of the influence of particle charging on the fume formation process in arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Shinichi; Matsui, Sho; Tanaka, Manabu; Murphy, Anthony B

    2013-01-01

    In order to clarify the influence of electrostatic forces caused by charging of particles on the coagulation process in fume formation in arc welding, a previously developed fume formation model is modified to consider the influence of charging, for both local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE conditions. The model takes into account formation of the particles from metal vapour by nucleation, growth of the particles by condensation of metal vapour and coagulation of the particles by collisions to form secondary particles. Results are obtained for both ballistic and Brownian motion of the particles. It is found that the growth of secondary particles is suppressed when the average particle charge becomes significant, because charging of the particle hinders collisions among secondary particles through the strong repulsive electrostatic force. Furthermore, deviations from LTE strongly affect the coagulation process, because the increased electron density at a given gas temperature increases the charging of particles. Brownian motion leads to larger secondary particles, since the average particle speed is increased. The influence of Brownian motion and particle charging cancel each other to a large extent, particularly when deviations from LTE are considered. (paper)

  18. Oil formation in the process of lithogenesis in the light of the systems approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopatin, N.V.

    1977-03-01

    It is suggested that systems analysis techniques be used to reproduce the actual historical process of oil formation as a part of the overall system of a sedimentary rock basin, in order to determine the conditions of transition of one stage of development of the object to another, determine interrelationships between elements of the system and peculiarities of its functioning, provide a detailed description of the mature stage of the process, the primary phase of oil formation, by partial solution of the problem and formulate the new problem of recognition of oil formation, closely related to the search for deposits of oil. The systems approach is a modern methodological orientation which, though it does not guarantee the production of true knowledge, since a great deal is determined by the reliability of the empirical basis of data, skill of the researcher and even such materialistic factors as intuition and creative imagination, does provide the possibility for creation of a single theoretical picture and development of mathematically founded concepts in this area of research.

  19. A case study on the formation and sharing process of science classroom norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jina; Song, Jinwoong

    2016-03-01

    The teaching and learning of science in school are influenced by various factors, including both individual factors, such as member beliefs, and social factors, such as the power structure of the class. To understand this complex context affected by various factors in schools, we investigated the formation and sharing process of science classroom norms in connection with these factors. By examining the developmental process of science classroom norms, we identified how the norms were realized, shared, and internalized among the members. We collected data through classroom observations and interviews focusing on two elementary science classrooms in Korea. From these data, factors influencing norm formation were extracted and developed as stories about norm establishment. The results indicate that every science classroom norm was established, shared, and internalized differently according to the values ingrained in the norms, the agent of norm formation, and the members' understanding about the norm itself. The desirable norms originating from values in science education, such as having an inquiring mind, were not established spontaneously by students, but were instead established through well-organized norm networks to encourage concrete practice. Educational implications were discussed in terms of the practice of school science inquiry, cultural studies, and value-oriented education.

  20. Depositional environment of a fan delta in a Vistulian proglacial lake (Skaliska Basin, north-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woronko Barbara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study reconstructed the environment of a fan delta filling the vast end depression of the Skaliska Basin, and its overlying aeolian deposits. The formation of the large fan delta is associated with the presence of an ice-dammed lake functioning during the retreat of the Vistulian Glaciation (MIS 2. The examined material was collected from five boreholes. Sediments were analysed for their granulometric composition and subjected to analyses of frosting and rounding of quartz grains. Grain size analysis showed that the fan delta deposits are built of sand sediments of very low lateral and vertical variability. The fan delta was supplied with fluvioglacial sediments. Accumulation of sediments occurred in shallow water with a very low-gradient slope. The exposed fan delta became a site conducive to aeolian processes after the lake waters fell and the Skaliska Basin depression dried. Dune deposits overlying the fan were affected by short-distance transport so they did not acquire features typical for aeolian deposits.

  1. Experimental investigation on the weld pool formation process in plasma keyhole arc welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Anh, Nguyen; Tashiro, Shinichi; Van Hanh, Bui; Tanaka, Manabu

    2018-01-01

    This paper seeks to clarify the weld pool formation process in plasma keyhole arc welding (PKAW). We adopted, for the first time, the measurement of the 3D convection inside the weld pool in PKAW by stereo synchronous imaging of tungsten tracer particles using two sets of x-ray transmission systems. The 2D convection on the weld pool surface was also measured using zirconia tracer particles. Through these measurements, the convection in a wide range of weld pools from the vicinity of the keyhole to the rear region was successfully visualized. In order to discuss the heat transport process in a weld pool, the 2D temperature distribution on the weld pool surface was also measured by two-color pyrometry. The results of the comprehensive experimental measurement indicate that the shear force due to plasma flow is found to be the dominant driving force in the weld pool formation process in PKAW. Thus, heat transport in a weld pool is considered to be governed by two large convective patterns near the keyhole: (1) eddy pairs on the surface (perpendicular to the torch axis), and (2) eddy pairs on the bulk of the weld pool (on the plane of the torch). They are formed with an equal velocity of approximately 0.35 m s-1 and are mainly driven by shear force. Furthermore, the flow velocity of the weld pool convection becomes considerably higher than that of other welding processes, such as TIG welding and GMA welding, due to larger plasma flow velocity.

  2. The role of reconsolidation and the dynamic process of long-term memory formation and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M Alberini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that the processes of memory formation and storage are exquisitely dynamic. Elucidating the nature and temporal evolution of the biological changes that accompany encoding, storage and retrieval is key to understand memory formation. For explicit or medial temporal lobe-dependent memories that form after a discrete event and are stored for a long time, the physical changes underlying the encoding and processing of the information (memory trace or engram remain in a fragile state for some time. However, over time, the new memory becomes increasingly resistant to disruption until it is consolidated. Retrieval or reactivation of an apparently consolidated memory can render the memory labile again, and reconsolidation is the process that occurs to mediate its restabilization. Reconsolidation also evolves with the age of the memory: Young memories are sensitive to postreactivation disruption, but older memories are more resistant. Why does a memory become labile again if it is retrieved or reactivated? Here I suggest that the main function of reconsolidation is to contribute to the lingering consolidation process and mediate memory strengthening. I also discuss the literature and results regarding the influence of the passage of time on the reconsolidation of memory. These points have important implications for the use of reconsolidation in therapeutic settings.

  3. Microstructures and formation mechanism of hypoeutectic white cast iron by isothermal electromagnetic rheocast process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wanning

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was made on the evolution of microstructures of hypoeutectic white cast iron slurry containing 2.5wt.%C and 1.8wt.%Si produced by rheocasting in which the solidifying alloy was vigorously agitated by electromagnetic stirrer during isothermal cooling processes. The results indicated that under the proper agitating temperatures and speeds applied, the dendrite structures in white cast iron slurry were gradually evolved into spherical structures during a certain agitating time. It also revealed that the bent dendrites were formed by either convection force or by the growth of the dendrites themselves in the bending direction; then, as they were in solidifying, they were gradually being alternated into separated particles and into more spherical structures at the end of the isothermal cooling process. Especially, the dendrites were granulated as the bending process proceeding, which suggested that they were caused by unwanted elements such as sulfur and phosphor usually contained in engineering cast iron. Convective flow of the melt caused corrosion on the dendritic segments where they were weaker in strength and lower in melting temperature because of higher concentration of sulfur or phosphor. And the granulation process for such dendrites formed in the melt became possible under the condition. Certainly, dendrite fragments are another factors considerable to function for spherical particles formation. A new mechanism, regarding to the rheocast structure formation of white cast iron, was suggested based on the structural evolution observed in the study.

  4. Challenges and Approaches in River Delta Planning - report on training workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wosten, J.H.M.; Douven, W.; Long Phi, H.; Fida Abdullah Khan, M.

    2012-01-01

    River delta’s, like the Mekong Delta (Vietnam), Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (Bangladesh), Irrawady (Myanmar) and Ciliwung Delta (Indonesia) are developing rapidly and characterized by large-scale urbanization and industrialization processes. They are facing serious planning challenges related to issues

  5. Process of film formation by anodizing AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Jiangang; Li Di; Zhang Feng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China)

    2005-07-01

    The kinetics of film-forming process by anodizing AZ91D Mg alloy has been studied by ways of voltage-time and thickness-time curve, and the surface morphology, structure, composition and valence of element, phase constituent of anodic films have been analyzed by SEM, EDS, XPS and XRD respectively. The results show that the film-forming course can be divided into four stages. Formation of dense layer before sparking is the first stage. Formation of porous layer accompanied with a bit of small sparking is the second stage. Porous layer fast growth along with middle sparking is the third stage. Porous layer slowly-growth along with bigger sparking is the fourth stage. The anodic films contains approximately Mg,O,Si and B, which is composed mainly of MgO, MgSiO{sub 3} and Mg{sub 3}B{sub 2}O{sub 6}. (orig.)

  6. Factor analysis of processes of corporate culture formation at industrial enterprises of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illiashenko Sergii

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Authors have analyzed and synthesized the features of formation and development of the corporate culture at industrial enterprises of Ukraine and on this basis developed recommendations for application in the management of strategic development. During the research authors used the following general scientific methods: at research of patterns of interaction national culture, corporate culture and the culture of the individual authors used logical generalization method; for determining factors influencing corporate culture formation with the level of occurrence authors used factor analysis; for trend analysis of the corporate culture development at appropriate levels authors used comparative method. Results of the analysis showed that macro- and microfactors are external and mezofaktors (adaptability of business and corporate governance, corporate ethics, corporate social responsibility and personnel policies, corporate finance are internal for an enterprise. Authors have identified areas for each of the factors, itemized obstacles to the establishment and development of corporate culture at Ukrainian industrial enterprises and proposed recommendations for these processes management.

  7. Postgraduate education and research in Brazil: regulation and reconfiguration processes of academic work formation and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ferreira de Oliveira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This text analyses some of the processes of formation and production regulation and reconfiguration of the scholarly work in Brazil. Initially we examine the context and meaning of knowledge production in times of flexible accumulation, as well as the current landscape of Postgraduate education in the country. We seek to understand how public policies in the area, particularly the actions of evaluation and promotion, and the new modus operandi of the Postgraduate study and research organization have been reconfiguring the work production of teaching and students within the programs, especially in education. Above all, we seek to highlight the role of promotion and evaluation agencies, increasingly committed to a vision of expansion that drives the production of knowledge associated with demands of economic-productivity, rather than a consistent formative project that would result in a significant advancement in the production and dissemination of knowledge in the different areas.

  8. The Methodology of the Process of Formation of Innovation Management of Enterprises’ Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokhorova Viktoriia V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at forming the methodology of process of innovation management of enterprises’ development in modern conditions. A study on formation of the essence of methodology was carried out, the stages of development of methods and means of scientific cognition were analyzed. The basic components of formation of methodology of innovation management of development of enterprises have been defined, i.e.: methods, types, principles, components, systematized aggregate. The relations of empirical and theoretical methods of scientific cognition were considered and defined. It has been determined that the increase of the volume and scope of scientific views, as well as the deepening of scientific knowledge in the disclosure of laws and regularities of functioning of real natural and social world, lead to the objective fact that is the desire of scientists to analyze methods and means by which modern innovative knowledge and views in the enterprise management system can be acquired and formed.

  9. Using binary statistics in Taurus-Auriga to distinguish between brown dwarf formation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, M.; Martín, E. L.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Lodieu, N.; Kroupa, P.; Manjavacas, E.; Thies, I.; Rebolo López, R.; Velasco, S.

    2017-08-01

    Context. One of the key questions of the star formation problem is whether brown dwarfs (BDs) form in the manner of stars directly from the gravitational collapse of a molecular cloud core (star-like) or whether BDs and some very low-mass stars (VLMSs) constitute a separate population that forms alongside stars comparable to the population of planets, for example through circumstellar disk (peripheral) fragmentation. Aims: For young stars in Taurus-Auriga the binary fraction has been shown to be large with little dependence on primary mass above ≈ 0.2 M⊙, while for BDs the binary fraction is computations. A small amount of dynamical processing of the stellar component was accounted for as appropriate for the low-density Taurus-Auriga embedded clusters. Results: The binary fraction declines strongly in the transition region between star-like and peripheral formation, exhibiting characteristic features. The location of these features and the steepness of this trend depend on the mass limits for star-like and peripheral formation. Such a trend might be unique to low density regions, such as Taurus, which host binary populations that are largely unprocessed dynamically in which the binary fraction is large for stars down to M-dwarfs and small for BDs. Conclusions: The existence of a strong decline in the binary fraction - primary mass diagram will become verifiable in future surveys on BD and VLMS binarity in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. The binary fraction - primary mass diagram is a diagnostic of the (non-)continuity of star formation along the mass scale, the separateness of the stellar and BD populations, and the dominant formation channel for BDs and BD binaries in regions of low stellar density hosting dynamically unprocessed populations.

  10. Dynamics of ordering processes in annealed dilute systems: Island formation, vacancies at domain boundaries, and compactification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Peter Jivan; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1990-01-01

    The dynamics of the ordering processes in two-dimensional lattice models with annealed vacancies and nonconserved order parameter is studied as a function of temperature and vacancy concentration by means of Monte Carlo temperature-quenching simulations. The models are Ising antiferromagnets...... with couplings leading to twofold-degenerate as well as fourfold-degenerate ordering. The models are quenched into a phase-separation region, which makes it possible for both types of ordering to observe the following scenario of ordering processes: (i) early-time nucleation and growth of ordered domains, (ii......) intermediate-time trapping of the mobile vacancies at the domain boundaries, and (iii) late-time diffusion of vacancies along the domain-boundary network towards the surface. In the case of high dilution, the ordering processes correspond to early-time island formation and late-time coarsening...

  11. Cloud processing of organic compounds: Secondary organic aerosol and nitrosamine formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, James W., III

    Cloud processing of atmospheric organic compounds has been investigated through field studies, laboratory experiments, and numerical modeling. Observational cloud chemistry studies were performed in northern Arizona and fog studies in central Pennsylvania. At both locations, the cloud and fogs showed low acidity due to neutralization by soil dust components (Arizona) and ammonia (Pennsylvania). The field observations showed substantial concentrations (20-5500 ng•L -1) of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the cloud droplets. The potential generation of secondary organic aerosol mass through the processing of these anthropogenic VOCs was investigated through laboratory and modeling studies. Under simulated atmospheric conditions, in idealized solutions, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) degraded quickly in the aqueous phase with half lives of approximately three hours. The degradation process yielded less volatile products which would contribute to new aerosol mass upon cloud evaporation. However, when realistic cloud solutions containing natural organic matter were used in the experiments, the reaction kinetics decreased with increasing organic carbon content, resulting in half lives of approximately 7 hours. The secondary organic aerosol (SUA) mass formation potential of cloud processing of BTEX was evaluated. SOA mass formation by cloud processing of BTEX, while strongly dependent on the atmospheric conditions, could contribute up to 9% of the ambient atmospheric aerosol mass, although typically ˜1% appears realistic. Field observations also showed the occurrence of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a potent carcinogen, in fogs and clouds (100-340 ng•L -1). Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the formation of NDMA from nitrous acid and dimethylamine in the homogeneous aqueous phase within cloud droplets. While NDMA was produced in the cloud droplets, the low yields (NDMA with partitioning to droplet must be the source of aqueous

  12. Drebrin controls neuronal migration through the formation and alignment of the leading process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Xin-peng; Bandeira de Lima, Tiago; Allen, James; Geraldo, Sara; Gordon-Weeks, Phillip; Chilton, John K

    2012-03-01

    Formation of a functional nervous system requires neurons to migrate to the correct place within the developing brain. Tangentially migrating neurons are guided by a leading process which extends towards the target and is followed by the cell body. How environmental cues are coupled to specific cytoskeletal changes to produce and guide leading process growth is unknown. One such cytoskeletal modulator is drebrin, an actin-binding protein known to induce protrusions in many cell types and be important for regulating neuronal morphology. Using the migration of oculomotor neurons as a model, we have shown that drebrin is necessary for the generation and guidance of the leading process. In the absence of drebrin, leading processes are not formed and cells fail to migrate although axon growth and pathfinding appear grossly unaffected. Conversely, when levels of drebrin are elevated the leading processes turn away from their target and as a result the motor neuron cell bodies move along abnormal paths within the brain. The aberrant trajectories were highly reproducible suggesting that drebrin is required to interpret specific guidance cues. The axons and growth cones of these neurons display morphological changes, particularly increased branching and filopodial number but despite this they extend along normal developmental pathways. Collectively these results show that drebrin is initially necessary for the formation of a leading process and subsequently for this to respond to navigational signals and grow in the correct direction. Furthermore, we have shown that the actions of drebrin can be segregated within individual motor neurons to direct their migration independently of axon guidance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The evolution of a subaqueous delta in the Anthropocene: A stratigraphic investigation of the Brazos River delta, TX USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Joseph A.; Dellapenna, Timothy M.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, deltas are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic activities. As a result, deltas now evolve through the combined effects of natural and human-induced processes occurring throughout the fluvial-deltaic system. The Brazos River delta, located along the Texas coast in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, and its watershed have been impacted by direct and indirect human activities since the late 19th century. This provides an opportunity to investigate how such alterations have shaped the evolution of a delta in the Anthropocene, a time when humans are drivers of geological change. Historic alteration to the delta and watershed include extensive agricultural activity, jetty construction at the mouth in the late 1890s, mouth diversion ~10 km to the southwest in 1929, and reservoir construction throughout the early and mid 20th Century. Three subaerial deltaic geometries provided the framework to connect subaerial deltaic responses, to the anthropogenic alterations, to the resulting stratigraphic characteristics observed in the subaqueous delta. This study utilized high-resolution geophysical data (swath bathymetry, side scan sonar, CHIRP subbottom profiling) on the subaqueous delta to investigate the subaqueous delta stratigraphy and infer the processes that shaped the deltaic record over time. The results showed distinct areas across the subaqueous delta that were dominated by erosion and deposition. Erosional areas corresponded to earlier growth phase depocenters being exposed at the surface, while the depositional areas corresponded to areas with the most recent growth phase depocenter overlying the earlier depocenters. These results highlight that the subaqueous depocenter has migrated westward over time, consistent with the observed changes to the subaerial delta. Additionally, the data showed that evidence for these past growth phases and depocenters may be preserved within the subaqueous delta, even after subaerial portions of the delta returned to pre

  14. Local Cloudiness Development Forecast Based on Simulation of Solid Phase Formation Processes in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barodka, Siarhei; Kliutko, Yauhenia; Krasouski, Alexander; Papko, Iryna; Svetashev, Alexander; Turishev, Leonid

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays numerical simulation of thundercloud formation processes is of great interest as an actual problem from the practical point of view. Thunderclouds significantly affect airplane flights, and mesoscale weather forecast has much to contribute to facilitate the aviation forecast procedures. An accurate forecast can certainly help to avoid aviation accidents due to weather conditions. The present study focuses on modelling of the convective clouds development and thunder clouds detection on the basis of mesoscale atmospheric processes simulation, aiming at significantly improving the aeronautical forecast. In the analysis, the primary weather radar information has been used to be further adapted for mesoscale forecast systems. Two types of domains have been selected for modelling: an internal one (with radius of 8 km), and an external one (with radius of 300 km). The internal domain has been directly applied to study the local clouds development, and the external domain data has been treated as initial and final conditions for cloud cover formation. The domain height has been chosen according to the civil aviation forecast data (i.e. not exceeding 14 km). Simulations of weather conditions and local clouds development have been made within selected domains with the WRF modelling system. In several cases, thunderclouds are detected within the convective clouds. To specify the given category of clouds, we employ a simulation technique of solid phase formation processes in the atmosphere. Based on modelling results, we construct vertical profiles indicating the amount of solid phase in the atmosphere. Furthermore, we obtain profiles demonstrating the amount of ice particles and large particles (hailstones). While simulating the processes of solid phase formation, we investigate vertical and horizontal air flows. Consequently, we attempt to separate the total amount of solid phase into categories of small ice particles, large ice particles and hailstones. Also, we

  15. NJOY99, Data Processing System of Evaluated Nuclear Data Files ENDF Format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The NJOY nuclear data processing system is a modular computer code used for converting evaluated nuclear data in the ENDF format into libraries useful for applications calculations. Because the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF) format is used all around the world (e.g., ENDF/B-VI in the US, JEF-2.2 in Europe, JENDL-3.2 in Japan, BROND-2.2 in Russia), NJOY gives its users access to a wide variety of the most up-to-date nuclear data. NJOY provides comprehensive capabilities for processing evaluated data, and it can serve applications ranging from continuous-energy Monte Carlo (MCNP), through deterministic transport codes (DANT, ANISN, DORT), to reactor lattice codes (WIMS, EPRI). NJOY handles a wide variety of nuclear effects, including resonances, Doppler broadening, heating (KERMA), radiation damage, thermal scattering (even cold moderators), gas production, neutrons and charged particles, photo-atomic interactions, self shielding, probability tables, photon production, and high-energy interactions (to 150 MeV). Output can include printed listings, special library files for applications, and Postscript graphics (plus color). More information on NJOY is available from the developer's home page at http://t2.lanl.gov/tour/tourbus.html. Follow the Tourbus section of the Tour area to find notes from the ICTP lectures held at Trieste in March 2000 on the ENDF format and on the NJOY code. NJOY contains the following modules: NJOY directs the flow of data through the other modules and contains a library of common functions and subroutines used by the other modules. RECONR reconstructs pointwise (energy-dependent) cross sections from ENDF resonance parameters and interpolation schemes. BROADR Doppler broadens and thins pointwise cross sections. UNRESR computes effective self-shielded pointwise cross sections in the unresolved energy range. HEATR generates pointwise heat production cross sections (KERMA coefficients) and radiation

  16. DEMONSTRATION OF THE STRATEGY FORMATION PROCESS: A CASE STUDY IN A INNOVATIVE ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Teodoro Gomes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of strategy formation process with the following starting question: "How the strategy is shaped in an innovative company and how the factors manifesting in the process?". The research builds on a case study of a company considered innovative leader in its industry and a pioneer in providing various services in the area of mobile phone in Brazil. Data collection was through interviews semi-structured with directors and managers involved in strategy formation, supplemented by documents and direct observation. Data analysis is based on the techniques of discourse analysis, from the persuasion strategies suggested by Linhares and Faria (1993. The company's strategy studied can be defined as an entrepreneurial vision, focused on growth supported by a process of diversification of product lines from a new direction composed of three elements: (i componentization; (ii segmentation by products chain and; (iii external to finance leverage in order to resumption of innovative projects. It was concluded that the company's strategy focused on these three factors, supported by a deliberate vision of the future, conditions its historical trajectory type standard cultural, its core values, which acts as a motivator and guide for members of the organization decisions and actions.

  17. Acrylamide: inhibition of formation in processed food and mitigation of toxicity in cells, animals, and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel

    2015-06-01

    Potentially toxic acrylamide is largely derived from the heat-inducing reactions between the amino group of the amino acid asparagine and carbonyl groups of glucose and fructose in plant-derived foods including cereals, coffees, almonds, olives, potatoes, and sweet potatoes. This review surveys and consolidates the following dietary aspects of acrylamide: distribution in food, exposure and consumption by diverse populations, reduction of the content in different food categories, and mitigation of adverse in vivo effects. Methods to reduce acrylamide levels include selecting commercial food with a low acrylamide content, selecting cereal and potato varieties with low levels of asparagine and reducing sugars, selecting processing conditions that minimize acrylamide formation, adding food-compatible compounds and plant extracts to food formulations before processing that inhibit acrylamide formation during processing of cereal products, coffees, teas, olives, almonds, and potato products, and reducing multiorgan toxicity (antifertility, carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, teratogenicity). The herein described observations and recommendations are of scientific interest for food chemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology, but also have the potential to benefit nutrition, food safety, and human health.

  18. Understanding the process of social network evolution: Online-offline integrated analysis of social tie formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Doyeon; Kim, Wonjoon

    2017-01-01

    It is important to consider the interweaving nature of online and offline social networks when we examine social network evolution. However, it is difficult to find any research that examines the process of social tie formation from an integrated perspective. In our study, we quantitatively measure offline interactions and examine the corresponding evolution of online social network in order to understand the significance of interrelationship between online and offline social factors in generating social ties. We analyze the radio signal strength indicator sensor data from a series of social events to understand offline interactions among the participants and measure the structural attributes of their existing online Facebook social networks. By monitoring the changes in their online social networks before and after offline interactions in a series of social events, we verify that the ability to develop an offline interaction into an online friendship is tied to the number of social connections that participants previously had, while the presence of shared mutual friends between a pair of participants disrupts potential new connections within the pre-designed offline social events. Thus, while our integrative approach enables us to confirm the theory of preferential attachment in the process of network formation, the common neighbor theory is not supported. Our dual-dimensional network analysis allows us to observe the actual process of social network evolution rather than to make predictions based on the assumption of self-organizing networks.

  19. Understanding the process of social network evolution: Online-offline integrated analysis of social tie formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doyeon Kwak

    Full Text Available It is important to consider the interweaving nature of online and offline social networks when we examine social network evolution. However, it is difficult to find any research that examines the process of social tie formation from an integrated perspective. In our study, we quantitatively measure offline interactions and examine the corresponding evolution of online social network in order to understand the significance of interrelationship between online and offline social factors in generating social ties. We analyze the radio signal strength indicator sensor data from a series of social events to understand offline interactions among the participants and measure the structural attributes of their existing online Facebook social networks. By monitoring the changes in their online social networks before and after offline interactions in a series of social events, we verify that the ability to develop an offline interaction into an online friendship is tied to the number of social connections that participants previously had, while the presence of shared mutual friends between a pair of participants disrupts potential new connections within the pre-designed offline social events. Thus, while our integrative approach enables us to confirm the theory of preferential attachment in the process of network formation, the common neighbor theory is not supported. Our dual-dimensional network analysis allows us to observe the actual process of social network evolution rather than to make predictions based on the assumption of self-organizing networks.

  20. Features of destruction of solids by laser radiation in process of formation of multiply charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedilov, R.M.; Bedilov, M.R.; Sabitov, M.M.; Matnazarov, A.; Niyozov, B.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: It is known, under interaction of laser radiation with solid surface a power density q > 0.01 W/cm 2 are observed destruction of a solid and issue of electrons, ions, neutrals, neutrons, plasmas, and also radiation in a wide ranges of a spectra. Despite of a plenty of works, devoted to study of processes of interaction, the studies of feature of destruction of solids by laser beam in process of formation multiply charged ions are insufficiently investigated. The results of study feature of destruction of solids by laser radiation in process of formation multiply charged ions are given in this work. In our experiments, we used the mass spectrometer with single-channel laser radiation. The laser installation had the following parameters: a power density of laser radiation q=(0.1-50) GW/cm 2 ; the angle of incidence a=18 deg. to the target surface Al, (W). It was obtained experimentally dynamics of morphology of destruction and also mass - charge and energy spectra of multiply charged ions formed under interaction of laser radiation with Al (W) in the intensity range q=(0.1-50) GW/cm 2 . These studies showed features of destruction Al(W) by laser radiation, i.e. invariable of value evaporation mass from a surface of a solid increase as the laser intensity q. But thus temperature a pair increases in accordance with increase of flow density of a laser radiation. Increase of temperature the pair gives in formation of multiply charged plasma. It is typical that, as q of the laser increases the maximum charge number of ions in laser plasma considerably increase and their energy spectra extend toward higher energies. For example, under q=0.1 GW/cm 2 and 50 GW/cm 2 the maximum charge number of ions Al (W) are equal to Z max = 1 and 7, respectively. From the experimental data obtained, we can conclude that, the formed multiply charged plasma practically completely absorption laser radiation and 'shielding' a target surface for various metals at power densities

  1. The formation of transnational elite as a factor of modern globalization processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Artemenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the characteristics of the formation of transnational elite and its influence on contemporary political and economic processes in the world, the problems of existence and communication with the Ukrainian national elite. The emergence of transnational elites due to the logic of globalization –transformation of the world in a certain social integrity. In this context, there is a loss of current national elites completeness of legitimacy and the emergence of new transnational subject of history, extending its authority throughout the world space and creates a new format of authority. The author gives his own definition of this phenomenon and proposes to consider the transnational elite association as the most influential members of certain 3 classes. In this article are identified the determinants of the formation of a transnational elite, as well as the basic platforms of its interaction (World Economic Forum, the Bilderberg Group, the Asian forum, and so on. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of communication transnational elite with the Ukrainian national elite, which is directly linked to the future political development of Ukraine, forced to adapt to the challenges of globalization and seek answers to them. In this context, the author notes the importance of the Yalta European Strategy, which is a platform of convergence Ukrainian elite with the worldwide elite. In the article is also reviewed the program «promoting democracy» as an example of conscious realization different political and economic projects around the world by transnational elite.

  2. Biogeochemical processes in a clay formation in situ experiment: Part F - Reactive transport modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tournassat, Christophe, E-mail: c.tournassat@brgm.fr [BRGM, French Geological Survey, Orleans (France); Alt-Epping, Peter [Rock-Water Interaction Group, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern (Switzerland); Gaucher, Eric C. [BRGM, French Geological Survey, Orleans (France); Gimmi, Thomas [Rock-Water Interaction Group, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern (Switzerland)] [Laboratory for Waste Management, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Leupin, Olivier X. [NAGRA, CH-5430 Wettingen (Switzerland); Wersin, Paul [Gruner Ltd., CH-4020 Basel (Switzerland)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Reactive transport modelling was used to simulate simultaneously solute transport, thermodynamic reactions, ion exchange and biodegradation during an in-situ experiment in a clay-rock formation. > Opalinus clay formation has a high buffering capacity in terms of chemical perturbations caused by bacterial activity. > Buffering capacity is mainly attributed to the carbonate system and to the reactivity of clay surfaces (cation exchange, pH buffering). - Abstract: Reactive transport modelling was used to simulate solute transport, thermodynamic reactions, ion exchange and biodegradation in the Porewater Chemistry (PC) experiment at the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory. Simulations show that the most important chemical processes controlling the fluid composition within the borehole and the surrounding formation during the experiment are ion exchange, biodegradation and dissolution/precipitation reactions involving pyrite and carbonate minerals. In contrast, thermodynamic mineral dissolution/precipitation reactions involving alumo-silicate minerals have little impact on the fluid composition on the time-scale of the experiment. With the accurate description of the initial chemical condition in the formation in combination with kinetic formulations describing the different stages of bacterial activities, it has been possible to reproduce the evolution of important system parameters, such as the pH, redox potential, total organic C, dissolved inorganic C and SO{sub 4} concentration. Leaching of glycerol from the pH-electrode may be the primary source of organic material that initiated bacterial growth, which caused the chemical perturbation in the borehole. Results from these simulations are consistent with data from the over-coring and demonstrate that the Opalinus Clay has a high buffering capacity in terms of chemical perturbations caused by bacterial activity. This buffering capacity can be attributed to the carbonate system as well as to the reactivity of

  3. Processing and thin film formation of TiO{sub 2}-Pt nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es-Souni, M.; Kartopu, G.; Habouti, S.; Piorra, A.; Solterbeck, C.H. [Institute for Materials and Surface Technology, Kiel University of Applied Sciences, Grenzstr. 3, 24149 Kiel (Germany); Es-Souni, Mar.; Brandies, H.F. [Faculty of Dentistry, Christian-Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    Thin films of TiO{sub 2}-Pt nanocomposites containing 4 at% Pt have been processed via spin-coating. Film characterization involved XRD, Raman as well as XPS and scanning surface potential microscopy (SSPM). After annealing at 500 C the thin films consisted of nanocrystalline anatase and a few nm Pt nanoclusters. Annealing at 600 C resulted in the formation of a high volume fraction of rutile, {proportional_to}70%, and a coarsening of the microstructure, including Pt nanoparticles which attained a mean particle size of up to 11 nm. These results contrasted with those of pure TiO{sub 2} films obtained at 600 C which showed only a limited amount of rutile formation, namely 9%. Raman spectra of Pt-containing samples exhibited a fluorescence emission, as background to the Raman features, which was attributed to photoinduced luminescence from Pt nanoparticles supported by their surface plasmon resonance. Emission intensity being much higher in 600 C film indicated a difference between the two films in terms of the (Pt) particle size and crystallinity, in agreement with the XRD results. XPS investigations revealed different oxidation states of Pt at the surface and in the film interior. The spectra suggested a slight oxidation of Pt at the surface while mainly metallic Pt was revealed in the film interior. The morphology and distribution of the Pt nanoparticles in the films annealed at 600 C were investigated using SSPM. Discrete Pt nanoparticles, mainly distributed in the vicinity of TiO{sub 2} grain boundaries were revealed. Nanocomposite film formation, Pt distribution and morphology are explained in terms of the limited solubility of Pt in the TiO{sub 2} lattice and its higher surface energy in comparison to that of TiO{sub 2}. Both effects are believed to lead to the formation of Pt nanoparticles at the (anatase or rutile) grain boundaries. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Chemical composition, source, and process of urban aerosols during winter haze formation in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Liu, Lei; Wang, Yuanyuan; Ren, Yong; Wang, Xin; Shi, Zongbo; Zhang, Daizhou; Che, Huizheng; Zhao, Hujia; Liu, Yanfei; Niu, Hongya; Chen, Jianmin; Zhang, Xiaoye; Lingaswamy, A P; Wang, Zifa; Li, Weijun

    2017-12-01

    The characteristics of aerosol particles have been poorly evaluated even though haze episodes frequently occur in winter in Northeast China. OC/EC analysis, ion chromatography, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), and soluble ions in PM 2.5 and the mixing state of individual particles during a severe wintertime haze episode in Northeast China. The organic matter (OM), NH 4 + , SO 4 2- , and NO 3 - concentrations in PM 2.5 were 89.5 μg/m 3 , 24.2 μg/m 3 , 28.1 μg/m 3 , and 32.8 μg/m 3 on the haze days, respectively. TEM observations further showed that over 80% of the haze particles contained primary organic aerosols (POAs). Based on a comparison of the data obtained during the haze formation, we generate the following synthetic model of the process: (1) Stable synoptic meteorological conditions drove the haze formation. (2) The early stage of haze formation (light or moderate haze) was mainly caused by the enrichment of POAs from coal burning for household heating and cooking. (3) High levels of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs), sulfates, and nitrates formation via heterogeneous reactions together with POAs accumulation promoted to the evolution from light or moderate to severe haze. Compared to the severe haze episodes over the North China Plain, the PM 2.5 in Northeast China analyzed in the present study contained similar sulfate, higher SOA, and lower nitrate contents. Our results suggest that most of the POAs and secondary particles were likely related to emissions from coal-burning residential stoves in rural outskirts and small boilers in urban areas. The inefficient burning of coal for household heating and cooking should be monitored during wintertime in Northeast China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inventory Management in Delta Allied Wire Industries Limited Asaba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A good inventory system reduces production cost and consequently increases profit. Optimum management of inventory in the Delta – Allied Wire Industries ... under review and customers' handling processes equally studied for improvement.

  6. Post-adsorption process of Yb phosphate nano-particle formation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, MingYu; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Kazuya; Kozai, Naofumi; Kamiishi, Eigo; Utsunomiya, Satoshi

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we have investigated the post-adsorption process of ytterbium (Yb) phosphate nano-particle formation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast). The yeast grown in P-rich medium were exposed to 1.44 × 10-4 mol/L Yb(III) solution for 2-120 h, and 2 months at 25 ± 1 °C at an initial pH of 3, 4, or 5, respectively. Ytterbium concentrations in solutions decreased as a function of exposure time. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and synchrotron-based extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analyses revealed that nano-sized blocky Yb phosphate with an amorphous phase formed on the yeast cells surfaces in the solutions with Yb. These nano-sized precipitates that formed on the cell surfaces remained stable even after 2 months of exposure at 25 ± 1 °C around neutral pHs. The EXAFS data revealed that the chemical state of the accumulated Yb on the cell surfaces changed from the adsorption on both phosphate and carboxyl sites at 30 min to Yb phosphate precipitates at 5 days, indicating the Yb-phosphate precipitation as a major post-adsorption process. In addition, the precipitation of Yb phosphate occurred on cell surfaces during 7 days of exposure in Yb-free solution after 2 h of exposure (short-term Yb adsorption) in Yb solution. These results suggest that the released P from the inside of yeast cells reacted with adsorbed Yb on cell surfaces, resulting in the formation of Yb precipitates, even though no P was added to the exposure solution. In an abiotic system, the EXAFS data showed that the speciation of sorbed Yb on the reference materials, carboxymethyl cellulose and Ln resin, did not change even when the Yb was exposed to P solution, without forming Yb phosphate precipitates. This result strongly suggests that the cell surface of the yeast plays an important role in the Yb-phosphate precipitation process, not only as a carrier of the

  7. THE ROLE OF CRYOGENIC PROCESSES IN THE FORMATION OF LOESS DEPOSITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav N. Konishchev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a new approach to the analysis of the genetic nature of mineral substances in loess deposits. In permafrost under the influence of multiple alternate freezing and thawing in dispersed deposits, quartz particles accumulate the 0.05-0.01 mm fraction, while feldspars are crushed to a coarse fraction of 0.1-0.05 mm. In dispersed sediments formed in temperate and warm climatic zones, the granulometric spectrum of quartz and feldspar has the opposite pattern. The proposed methodology is based on a differential analysis of the distribution of these minerals by the granulometric spectrum. We have proposed two criteria - the coefficient of cryogenic contrast (CCC and the coefficient of distribution of heavy minerals, which allow determination of the degree of participation of cryogenic processes in the formation of loess sediments and processes of aeolian or water sedimentation.

  8. Self-organization processes and nanocluster formation in crystal lattices by low-energy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tereshko, I.; Abidzina, V.; Tereshko, A.; Glushchenko, V.; Elkin, I.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to study self-organization processes that cause nanostructural evolution in nonlinear crystal media. The subjects of the investigation were nonlinear homogeneous and heterogeneous atom chains. The method of computer simulation was used to investigate the interaction between low-energy ions and crystal lattices. It was based on the conception of three-dimensional lattice as a nonlinear atom chain system. We showed that that in homogeneous atom chains critical energy needed for self-organization processes development is less than for nonlinear atom chain with already embedded clusters. The possibility of nanostructure formation was studied by a molecular dynamics method of nonlinear oscillations in atomic oscillator systems of crystal lattices after their low-energy ion irradiation. (authors)

  9. Kinetics of the process of formation and high-temperature oxidation of electrospark coatings on steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkhoturov, A.D.; Chiplik, V.N.; Egorov, F.F.; Lavrenko, V.A.; Podchernyaeva, I.A.; Shemet, V.Z.

    1986-01-01

    This work is a study of the kinetics of formation and of the heat resistance of electrospark coatings based on the composite TiB 2 -Mo with varying molybdenum content. In the process of electrospark alloying they measured the specific erosion of the anode and the increase in weight of the cathode with an accuracy not worse than 5%. Electrospark coatings of TiB 2 -Mo on steel 45 are marked by improved scaling resistance at temperatures above 900 C. Their scaling resistance and also the effectiveness of the process of electrospark alloying increase with increasing content of the phase B-MoB in the coating because molybdenum borate forms during its high-temperature oxidation. Illustrations and table are included

  10. THE LINK BETWEEN RARE-EARTH PEAK FORMATION AND THE ASTROPHYSICAL SITE OF THE R PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumpower, Matthew R. [Theory Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); McLaughlin, Gail C. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Surman, Rebecca [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Steiner, Andrew W., E-mail: matthew@mumpower.net [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    The primary astrophysical source of the rare-earth elements is the rapid neutron capture process ( r process). The rare-earth peak that is seen in the solar r -process residuals has been proposed to originate as a pile-up of nuclei during the end of the r process. We introduce a new method utilizing Monte Carlo studies of nuclear masses in the rare-earth region, that includes self-consistently adjusting β -decay rates and neutron capture rates, to find the mass surfaces necessary for the formation of the rare-earth peak. We demonstrate our method with two types of astrophysical scenario, one corresponding to conditions typical of hot winds from core-collapse supernovae and stellar-mass accretion disks, and one corresponding to conditions typical of the ejection of the material from the tidal tails of neutron star mergers. In each type of astrophysical condition, this method successfully locates a region of enhanced stability in the mass surface that is responsible for the rare-earth peak. For each scenario, we find that the change in the mass surface has qualitatively different features, thus future measurements can shed light on the type of environment in which the r process occurred.

  11. Pulsed electric field and combination processing of mango nectar: effect on volatile compounds and HMF formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Bawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mango nectar is a commercially familiar and preferred product. The traditional processing of mango nectar has been by thermal processing which resulted in the alteration of the flavour of the product due to the effect of high temperature. The thermal processing of the nectar also resulted in the production of byproducts of non-enzymatic browning such as 5- hydroxy methyl furfural (HMF. These process induced effects, affect both the nutritive and sensory attributes of the fruit product, making it less preferable. With the growing interest and awareness about the benefits of alternative non-thermal technologies, such as pulsed electric field (PEF, the present work was proposed to use PEF to minimize the loss of volatiles and formation of HMF. The study involves thermal (96 ºC for 300 s and 600 s, PEF (24 µs, 120 Hz and 38 kV/cm and combination processing (PEF + Thermal (96 ºC for 90 s of mango nectar. The effect of these treatments on the volatile composition of mango nectar has been analysed using GC-MS technique. The reduction in the volatile compounds was significant (p 0.05 different from unprocessed sample, proving the fresh-like character of the product.

  12. THE LINK BETWEEN RARE-EARTH PEAK FORMATION AND THE ASTROPHYSICAL SITE OF THE R PROCESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumpower, Matthew R.; McLaughlin, Gail C.; Surman, Rebecca; Steiner, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    The primary astrophysical source of the rare-earth elements is the rapid neutron capture process ( r process). The rare-earth peak that is seen in the solar r -process residuals has been proposed to originate as a pile-up of nuclei during the end of the r process. We introduce a new method utilizing Monte Carlo studies of nuclear masses in the rare-earth region, that includes self-consistently adjusting β -decay rates and neutron capture rates, to find the mass surfaces necessary for the formation of the rare-earth peak. We demonstrate our method with two types of astrophysical scenario, one corresponding to conditions typical of hot winds from core-collapse supernovae and stellar-mass accretion disks, and one corresponding to conditions typical of the ejection of the material from the tidal tails of neutron star mergers. In each type of astrophysical condition, this method successfully locates a region of enhanced stability in the mass surface that is responsible for the rare-earth peak. For each scenario, we find that the change in the mass surface has qualitatively different features, thus future measurements can shed light on the type of environment in which the r process occurred.

  13. MODELING THE FORMATION OF GIANT PLANET CORES. I. EVALUATING KEY PROCESSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levison, Harold F.; Thommes, Edward; Duncan, Martin J.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most challenging problems we face in our understanding of planet formation is how Jupiter and Saturn could have formed before the solar nebula dispersed. The most popular model of giant planet formation is the so-called core accretion model. In this model a large planetary embryo formed first, mainly by two-body accretion. This is then followed by a period of inflow of nebular gas directly onto the growing planet. The core accretion model has an Achilles heel, namely the very first step. We have undertaken the most comprehensive study of this process to date. In this study, we numerically integrate the orbits of a number of planetary embryos embedded in a swarm of planetesimals. In these experiments, we have included a large number of physical processes that might enhance accretion. In particular, we have included (1) aerodynamic gas drag, (2) collisional damping between planetesimals, (3) enhanced embryo cross sections due to their atmospheres, (4) planetesimal fragmentation, and (5) planetesimal-driven migration. We find that the gravitational interaction between the embryos and the planetesimals leads to the wholesale redistribution of material-regions are cleared of material and gaps open near the embryos. Indeed, in 90% of our simulations without fragmentation, the region near those embryos is cleared of planetesimals before much growth can occur. Thus, the widely used assumption that the surface density distribution of planetesimals is smooth can lead to misleading results. In the remaining 10% of our simulations, the embryos undergo a burst of outward migration that significantly increases growth. On timescales of ∼10 5 years, the outer embryo can migrate ∼6 AU and grow to roughly 30 M + . This represents a largely unexplored mode of core formation. We also find that the inclusion of planetesimal fragmentation tends to inhibit growth except for a narrow range of fragment migration rates.

  14. Level of processing modulates the neural correlates of emotional memory formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Maureen; LaBar, Kevin S.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Emotion is known to influence multiple aspects of memory formation, including the initial encoding of the memory trace and its consolidation over time. However, the neural mechanisms whereby emotion impacts memory encoding remain largely unexplored. The present study employed a levels-of-processing manipulation to characterize the impact of emotion on encoding with and without the influence of elaborative processes. Participants viewed emotionally negative, neutral, and positive scenes under two conditions: a shallow condition focused on the perceptual features of the scenes and a deep condition that queried their semantic meaning. Recognition memory was tested 2 days later. Results showed that emotional memory enhancements were greatest in the shallow condition. FMRI analyses revealed that the right amygdala predicted subsequent emotional memory in the shallow more than deep condition, whereas the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex demonstrated the reverse pattern. Furthermore, the association of these regions with the hippocampus was modulated by valence: the amygdala-hippocampal link was strongest for negative stimuli, whereas the prefrontal-hippocampal link was strongest for positive stimuli. Taken together, these results suggest two distinct activation patterns underlying emotional memory formation: an amygdala component that promotes memory during shallow encoding, especially for negative information, and a prefrontal component that provides extra benefits during deep encoding, especially for positive information. PMID:20350176

  15. Formation of Nb3Al in powder processed Nb-Al superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.

    1987-05-01

    In high magnetic fields, the critical current density is strongly dependent on the upper critical field, which is determined primarily by the stoichiometry of the Nb 3 Al. The critical temperature (T/sub c/), like the upper critical field, is considered to be a measure of the ''intrinsic'' quality of the superconductor, indicating the stoichiometry, order, and strain. If the A15 phase is stoichiometric and well ordered, a high T/sub c/ (and high H/sub C 2 /) is expected, regardless of the volume fraction of superconductor. On the other hand, if sigma phase is present with the A15, the resultant composition gradient across the sigma-A15 interface(s) requires that some of the A15 be off-stoichiometric, and therefore that the T/sub c/ (and H/sub C 2 /) be low. Thus the extent of the A15 (Nb 3 Al) reaction and the quality of the A15 formed are interdependent. This work focuses on the factors that control the extent of Nb 3 Al formation in Nb/Al powder wires. The morphology and content of the reacted and unreacted wires are studied in optical, SEM, and TEM micrographs. Critical current density data and its dependence on processing are explained in terms of the unreacted microstructure and its effect on the extent of Nb 3 Al formation. As a method of improving the critical current density, a new variation of the conventional powder process for wire manufacturing is developed and tested

  16. Utilizing Stable Isotopes and Isotopic Anomalies to Study Early Solar System Formation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Justin

    2017-01-01

    Chondritic meteorites contain a diversity of particle components, i.e., chondrules and calcium-, aluminum-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs), that have survived since the formation of the Solar System. The chemical and isotopic compositions of these materials provide a record of the conditions present in the protoplanetary disk where they formed and can aid our understanding of the processes and reservoirs in which solids formed in the solar nebula, an important step leading to the accretion of planetesimals. Isotopic anomalies associated with nucleosynthetic processes are observed in these discrete materials, and can be compared to astronomical observations and astrophysical formation models of stars and more recently proplyds. The existence and size of these isotopic anomalies are typically thought to reflect a significant state of isotopic heterogeneity in the earliest Solar System, likely left over from molecular cloud heterogeneities on the grain scale, but some could also be due to late stellar injection. The homogenization of these isotopic anomalies towards planetary values can be used to track the efficiency and timescales of disk wide mixing,

  17. E-cadherin junction formation involves an active kinetic nucleation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Kabir H.; Hartman, Kevin L.; Yu, Cheng-han; Harrison, Oliver J.; Song, Hang; Smith, Adam W.; Huang, William Y. C.; Lin, Wan-Chen; Guo, Zhenhuan; Padmanabhan, Anup; Troyanovsky, Sergey M.; Dustin, Michael L.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Honig, Barry; Zaidel-Bar, Ronen; Groves, Jay T.

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial (E)-cadherin-mediated cell−cell junctions play important roles in the development and maintenance of tissue structure in multicellular organisms. E-cadherin adhesion is thus a key element of the cellular microenvironment that provides both mechanical and biochemical signaling inputs. Here, we report in vitro reconstitution of junction-like structures between native E-cadherin in living cells and the extracellular domain of E-cadherin (E-cad-ECD) in a supported membrane. Junction formation in this hybrid live cell-supported membrane configuration requires both active processes within the living cell and a supported membrane with low E-cad-ECD mobility. The hybrid junctions recruit α-catenin and exhibit remodeled cortical actin. Observations suggest that the initial stages of junction formation in this hybrid system depend on the trans but not the cis interactions between E-cadherin molecules, and proceed via a nucleation process in which protrusion and retraction of filopodia play a key role. PMID:26290581

  18. Numerical analysis of the formation process of aerosols in the alveoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslbeck, Karsten; Seume, Jörg R.

    2008-11-01

    For a successful diagnosis of lung diseases through an analysis of non-volatile molecules in the exhaled breath, an exact understanding of the aerosol formation process is required. This process is modeled using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The model shows the interaction of the boundary surface between the streamed airway and the local epithelial liquid layer. A 2-D volume mesh of an alveolus is generated by taking into account the connection of the alveoli with the sacculi alveolares (SA). The Volume of Fluid (VOF) Method is used to model the interface between the gas and the liquid film. The non-Newtonian flow is modeled by the implementation of the Ostwald de Waele model. Surface tension is a function of the surfactant concentration. The VOF-Method allows the distribution of the concentration of the epithelial liquid layer at the surface to be traced in a transient manner. The simulations show the rupturing of the liquid film through the drop formation. Aerosol particles are ejected into the SA and do not collide with the walls. The quantity, the geometrical size as well as the velocity distributions of the generated aerosols are determined. The data presented in the paper provide the boundary conditions for future CFD analysis of the aerosol transport through the airways up to exhalation.

  19. Level of processing modulates the neural correlates of emotional memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Maureen; LaBar, Kevin S; Cabeza, Roberto

    2011-04-01

    Emotion is known to influence multiple aspects of memory formation, including the initial encoding of the memory trace and its consolidation over time. However, the neural mechanisms whereby emotion impacts memory encoding remain largely unexplored. The present study used a levels-of-processing manipulation to characterize the impact of emotion on encoding with and without the influence of elaborative processes. Participants viewed emotionally negative, neutral, and positive scenes under two conditions: a shallow condition focused on the perceptual features of the scenes and a deep condition that queried their semantic meaning. Recognition memory was tested 2 days later. Results showed that emotional memory enhancements were greatest in the shallow condition. fMRI analyses revealed that the right amygdala predicted subsequent emotional memory in the shallow more than deep condition, whereas the right ventrolateral PFC demonstrated the reverse pattern. Furthermore, the association of these regions with the hippocampus was modulated by valence: the amygdala-hippocampal link was strongest for negative stimuli, whereas the prefrontal-hippocampal link was strongest for positive stimuli. Taken together, these results suggest two distinct activation patterns underlying emotional memory formation: an amygdala component that promotes memory during shallow encoding, especially for negative information, and a prefrontal component that provides extra benefits during deep encoding, especially for positive information.

  20. Neural Correlates of Auditory Processing, Learning and Memory Formation in Songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinaud, R.; Terleph, T. A.; Wynne, R. D.; Tremere, L. A.

    Songbirds have emerged as powerful experimental models for the study of auditory processing of complex natural communication signals. Intact hearing is necessary for several behaviors in developing and adult animals including vocal learning, territorial defense, mate selection and individual recognition. These behaviors are thought to require the processing, discrimination and memorization of songs. Although much is known about the brain circuits that participate in sensorimotor (auditory-vocal) integration, especially the ``song-control" system, less is known about the anatomical and functional organization of central auditory pathways. Here we discuss findings associated with a telencephalic auditory area known as the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM). NCM has attracted significant interest as it exhibits functional properties that may support higher order auditory functions such as stimulus discrimination and the formation of auditory memories. NCM neurons are vigorously dr iven by auditory stimuli. Interestingly, these responses are selective to conspecific, relative to heterospecific songs and artificial stimuli. In addition, forms of experience-dependent plasticity occur in NCM and are song-specific. Finally, recent experiments employing high-throughput quantitative proteomics suggest that complex protein regulatory pathways are engaged in NCM as a result of auditory experience. These molecular cascades are likely central to experience-associated plasticity of NCM circuitry and may be part of a network of calcium-driven molecular events that support the formation of auditory memory traces.

  1. Merging constitutional and motional covalent dynamics in reversible imine formation and exchange processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaříček, Petr; Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2012-06-06

    The formation and exchange processes of imines of salicylaldehyde, pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde, and benzaldehyde have been studied, showing that the former has features of particular interest for dynamic covalent chemistry, displaying high efficiency and fast rates. The monoimines formed with aliphatic α,ω-diamines display an internal exchange process of self-transimination type, inducing a local motion of either "stepping-in-place" or "single-step" type by bond interchange, whose rate decreases rapidly with the distance of the terminal amino groups. Control of the speed of the process over a wide range may be achieved by substituents, solvent composition, and temperature. These monoimines also undergo intermolecular exchange, thus merging motional and constitutional covalent behavior within the same molecule. With polyamines, the monoimines formed execute internal motions that have been characterized by extensive one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and EXSY proton NMR studies. In particular, with linear polyamines, nondirectional displacement occurs by shifting of the aldehyde residue along the polyamine chain serving as molecular track. Imines thus behave as simple prototypes of systems displaying relative motions of molecular moieties, a subject of high current interest in the investigation of synthetic and biological molecular motors. The motional processes described are of dynamic covalent nature and take place without change in molecular constitution. They thus represent a category of dynamic covalent motions, resulting from reversible covalent bond formation and dissociation. They extend dynamic covalent chemistry into the area of molecular motions. A major further step will be to achieve control of directionality. The results reported here for imines open wide perspectives, together with other chemical groups, for the implementation of such features in multifunctional molecules toward the design of molecular devices presenting a complex combination of

  2. Thermostatted delta f

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The delta f simulation method is revisited. Statistical coarse-graining is used to rigorously derive the equation for the fluctuation delta f in the particle distribution. It is argued that completely collisionless simulation is incompatible with the achievement of true statistically steady states with nonzero turbulent fluxes because the variance of the particle weights w grows with time. To ensure such steady states, it is shown that for dynamically collisionless situations a generalized thermostat or W-stat may be used in lieu of a full collision operator to absorb the flow of entropy to unresolved fine scales in velocity space. The simplest W-stat can be implemented as a self-consistently determined, time-dependent damping applied to w. A precise kinematic analogy to thermostatted nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) is pointed out, and the justification of W-stats for simulations of turbulence is discussed. An extrapolation procedure is proposed such that the long-time, steady-state, collisionless flux can be deduced from several short W-statted runs with large effective collisionality, and a numerical demonstration is given

  3. Phenotypic expressions of CCR5-Delta 32/Delta 32 homozygosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, GT; Carrington, M; Beeler, JA; Dean, M; Aledort, LM; Blatt, PM; Cohen, AR; DiMichele, D; Eyster, ME; Kessler, CM; Konkle, B; Leissinger, C; Luban, N; O'Brien, SJ; Goedert, JJ; O'Brien, TR

    1999-01-01

    Objective: As blockade of CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) has been proposed as therapy for HIV-1, we examined whether the CCR5-Delta 32/Delta 32 homozygous genotype has phenotypic expressions other than those related to HIV-1. Design: Study subjects were white homosexual men or men with hemophilia

  4. Peat compaction in deltas : implications for Holocene delta evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselen, S.

    2010-01-01

    Many deltas contain substantial amounts of peat, which is the most compressible soil type. Therefore, peat compaction potentially leads to high amounts of subsidence in deltas. The main objective of this research was to quantify subsidence due to peat compaction in Holocene fluvial-deltaic settings

  5. Monitoring alloy formation during mechanical alloying process by x-ray diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Kadir Masrom; Noraizam Md Diah; Mazli Mustapha

    2002-01-01

    Monitoring alloying (MA) is a novel processing technique that use high energy impact ball mill to produce alloys with enhanced properties and microscopically homogeneous materials starting from various powder mixtures. Mechanical alloying process was originally developed to produce oxide dispersion strengthened nickel superalloys. In principal, in high-energy ball milling process, alloy is formed by the result of repeated welding, fracturing and rewelding of powder particles in a high energy ball mill. In this process a powder mixture in a ball mill is subjected to high-energy collisions among balls. MA has been shown to be capable of synthesizing a variety of materials. It is known to be capable to prepare equilibrium and non-equilibrium phases starting from blended elemental or prealloyed powders. The process ability to produce highly metastable materials such as amorphous alloys and nanostructured materials has made this process attractive and it has been considered as a promising material processing technique that could be used to produce many advanced materials at low cost. The present study explores the conditions under which aluminum alloys formation occurs by ball milling of blended aluminum and its alloying elements powders. In this work, attempt was made in producing aluminum 2024 alloys by milling of blended elemental aluminum powder of 2024 composition in a stainless steel container under argon atmosphere for up to 210 minutes. X-ray diffraction together with thermal analysis techniques has been used to monitor phase changes in the milled powder. Results indicate that, using our predetermined milling parameters, alloys were formed after 120 minutes milling. The thermal analysis data was also presented in this report. (Author)

  6. Microemulsions and Aggregation Formation in Extraction Processes for Used Nuclear Fuel: Thermodynamic and Structural Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Mikael [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-05-04

    Advanced nuclear fuel cycles rely on successful chemical separation of various elements in the used fuel. Numerous solvent extraction (SX) processes have been developed for the recovery and purification of metal ions from this used material. However, the predictability of process operations has been challenged by the lack of a fundamental understanding of the chemical interactions in several of these separation systems. For example, gaps in the thermodynamic description of the mechanism and the complexes formed will make predictions very challenging. Recent studies of certain extraction systems under development and a number of more established SX processes have suggested that aggregate formation in the organic phase results in a transformation of its selectivity and efficiency. Aggregation phenomena have consistently been interfering in SX process development, and have, over the years, become synonymous with an undesirable effect that must be prevented. This multiyear, multicollaborative research effort was carried out to study solvation and self-organization in non-aqueous solutions at conditions promoting aggregation phenomena. Our approach to this challenging topic was to investigate extraction systems comprising more than one extraction reagent where synergy of the metal ion could be observed. These systems were probed for the existence of stable microemulsions in the organic phase, and a number of high-end characterization tools were employed to elucidate the role of the aggregates in metal ion extraction. The ultimate goal was to find connections between synergy of metal ion extraction and reverse micellar formation. Our main accomplishment for this project was the expansion of the understanding of metal ion complexation in the extraction system combining tributyl phosphate (TBP) and dibutyl phosphoric acid (HDBP). We have found that for this system no direct correlation exists for the metal ion extraction and the formation of aggregates, meaning that the

  7. Microemulsions and Aggregation Formation in Extraction Processes for Used Nuclear Fuel: Thermodynamic and Structural Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Advanced nuclear fuel cycles rely on successful chemical separation of various elements in the used fuel. Numerous solvent extraction (SX) processes have been developed for the recovery and purification of metal ions from this used material. However, the predictability of process operations has been challenged by the lack of a fundamental understanding of the chemical interactions in several of these separation systems. For example, gaps in the thermodynamic description of the mechanism and the complexes formed will make predictions very challenging. Recent studies of certain extraction systems under development and a number of more established SX processes have suggested that aggregate formation in the organic phase results in a transformation of its selectivity and efficiency. Aggregation phenomena have consistently been interfering in SX process development, and have, over the years, become synonymous with an undesirable effect that must be prevented. This multiyear, multicollaborative research effort was carried out to study solvation and self-organization in non-aqueous solutions at conditions promoting aggregation phenomena. Our approach to this challenging topic was to investigate extraction systems comprising more than one extraction reagent where synergy of the metal ion could be observed. These systems were probed for the existence of stable microemulsions in the organic phase, and a number of high-end characterization tools were employed to elucidate the role of the aggregates in metal ion extraction. The ultimate goal was to find connections between synergy of metal ion extraction and reverse micellar formation. Our main accomplishment for this project was the expansion of the understanding of metal ion complexation in the extraction system combining tributyl phosphate (TBP) and dibutyl phosphoric acid (HDBP). We have found that for this system no direct correlation exists for the metal ion extraction and the formation of aggregates, meaning that the

  8. Study of the sintering process and the formation of a (Th, U) O2 solid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasi, Roberto

    1979-01-01

    The effect of some variables in the (Th, U) O 2 sintering process and solid solution formation was studied. ThO 2 , U 3 O 8 and UO 2 powder were prepared. The ThO 2 powders were obtained by calcination of thorium at 500 and 750 deg C; the U 3 O 8 powders were derived from the calcination of ADU at 660 and 750 deg C; the UO 2 powder were prepared from ADU and from ATCU. The different characteristics of these materials were determined by measurements of surface area, by scanning electron microscopy, tap density tests, X-ray diffractometry and by measurements of the O/U ratios. The oxide mixtures were chosen in order to produce a final composition with 10 w/o of UO 2 . A mixture of thorium oxalate and ADU was also prepared by calcining these salts in air at 700 deg C, in order to obtain certain amount of solid solution prior to sintering. The sintering operations were developed in an argon atmosphere at temperatures between 1400 and 1700 deg C, during interval varying from 1 to 4 hours. The effect of the mixture characteristics on the sintering process and solid solution formation were studied considering the results of densification, microstructure development and X-ray diffractometry. The ThO 2 powder characteristics have a main effect on the mixtures compactability and sinterability, the higher calcining temperatures increasing the green density, but decreasing the final density of the sintered pellets. In the sintering of mixtures containing U 3 O 3 , this oxide is reduced to UO 2 and it is possible to obtain pellets with density and microstructures similar to those produced from mixtures containing UO 2 . But if oxygen in excess is present during sintering, the process is affected, occurring exaggerated grain growth. The densification results were related to the Coble's kinetics equation for second stage of sintering, valid for bulk diffusion, grain boundary acting as vacancy sinks. The sintering activation energy is independent from the powder starting

  9. Flame experiments at the advanced light source: new insights into soot formation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Nils; Skeen, Scott A; Michelsen, Hope A; Wilson, Kevin R; Kohse-Höinghaus, Katharina

    2014-05-26

    The following experimental protocols and the accompanying video are concerned with the flame experiments that are performed at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory(1-4). This video demonstrates how the complex chemical structures of laboratory-based model flames are analyzed using flame-sampling mass spectrometry with tunable synchrotron-generated vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) radiation. This experimental approach combines isomer-resolving capabilities with high sensitivity and a large dynamic range(5,6). The first part of the video describes experiments involving burner-stabilized, reduced-pressure (20-80 mbar) laminar premixed flames. A small hydrocarbon fuel was used for the selected flame to demonstrate the general experimental approach. It is shown how species' profiles are acquired as a function of distance from the burner surface and how the tunability of the VUV photon energy is used advantageously to identify many combustion intermediates based on their ionization energies. For example, this technique has been used to study gas-phase aspects of the soot-formation processes, and the video shows how the resonance-stabilized radicals, such as C3H3, C3H5, and i-C4H5, are identified as important intermediates(7). The work has been focused on soot formation processes, and, from the chemical point of view, this process is very intriguing because chemical structures containing millions of carbon atoms are assembled from a fuel molecule possessing only a few carbon atoms in just milliseconds. The second part of the video highlights a new experiment, in which an opposed-flow diffusion flame and synchrotron-based aerosol mass spectrometry are used to study the chemical composition of the combustion-generated soot particles(4). The experimental results indicate that the widely accepted H-abstraction-C2H2-addition (HACA) mechanism is not the sole molecular growth process responsible for the formation

  10. A process-based method to predict 3D sedimentary architecture conditioned to real-world data: alluvial architecture in the Rhine-Meuse delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssenberg, D.J.; Vries, Luis Manuel de; Bridge, J.S.; Cohen, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    Current methods for interpretation and interpolation of sedimentological records often rely on qualitative process knowledge. This has the disadvantage that results are often subjective and open for multiple interpretations. An alternative approach is to use process-based models simulating

  11. International Processes of Education Policy Formation: An Analytic Framework and the Case of Plan 2021 in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This article uses multiple perspectives to frame international processes of education policy formation and then applies the framework to El Salvador's Plan 2021 between 2003 and 2005. These perspectives are policy attraction, policy negotiation, policy imposition, and policy hybridization. Research reveals that the formation of Plan 2021 was the…

  12. Interspecies interactions result in enhanced biofilm formation by co-cultures of bacteria isolated from a food processing environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Henriette Lyng; Raghupathi, Prem Krishnan; Herschend, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial attachment and biofilm formation can lead to poor hygienic conditions in food processing environments. Furthermore, interactions between different bacteria may induce or promote biofilm formation. In this study, we isolated and identified a total of 687 bacterial strains from seven......-culture biofilm production with high relevance for food safety and food production facilities....

  13. Biogeochemical processes controlling authigenic carbonate formation within the sediment column from the Okinawa Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiwei; Peng, Xiaotong; Bai, Shijie; Chen, Zhiyan; Van Nostrand, Joy D.

    2018-02-01

    Authigenic carbonates are one type of conspicuous manifestation in seep environments that can provide long-term archives of past seepage activity and methane cycling in the oceans. Comprehensive investigations of the microbial community functional structure and their roles in the process of carbonate formation are, however, lacking. In this study, the mineralogical, geochemical, and microbial functional composition were examined in seep carbonate deposits collected from the west slope of the northern section of the Okinawa Trough (OT). The aim of this work was to explore the correspondence between the mineralogical phases and microbial metabolism during carbonate deposit formation. The mineralogical analyses indicated that authigenic carbonate minerals (aragonite, magnesium-rich calcite, dolomite, ankerite and siderite) and iron-bearing minerals (limonite, chlorite, and biotite) were present in these carbonate samples. The carbon and oxygen isotopic values of the carbonate samples varied between -51.1‰ to -4.7‰ and -4.8‰ to 3.7‰, respectively. A negative linear correlation between carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions was found, indicating a mixture of methane-derived diagenetic (low δ13C/high 18O) carbonates and detrital origin (high δ13C/low 18O) carbonates at the OT. GeoChip analyses suggested that various metabolic activities of microorganisms, including methanogenesis, methane oxidation, sulfite oxidation, sulfate reduction, and metal biotransformations, all occurred during the formation process. On the basis of these findings, the following model for the methane cycle and seep carbonate deposit formation in the sediment column at the OT is proposed: (1) in the upper oxidizing zone, aerobic methane oxidation was the main way of methane consumption; (2) in the sulfate methane transition zone, sulfate-dependent AOM (anaerobic oxidation of methane) consumes methane, and authigenic minerals such as aragonite, magnesium-calcite, and sulfide minerals

  14. ION-INDUCED PROCESSING OF COSMIC SILICATES: A POSSIBLE FORMATION PATHWAY TO GEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jäger, C.; Sabri, T. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, Laboratory Astrophysics and Cluster Physics Group, Institute of Solid State Physics, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Helmholtzweg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Wendler, E. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Helmholtzweg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Henning, Th., E-mail: cornelia.jaeger@uni-jena.de [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Ion-induced processing of dust grains in the interstellar medium and in protoplanetary and planetary disks plays an important role in the entire dust cycle. We have studied the ion-induced processing of amorphous MgFeSiO{sub 4} and Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} grains by 10 and 20 keV protons and 90 keV Ar{sup +} ions. The Ar{sup +} ions were used to compare the significance of the light protons with that of heavier, but chemically inert projectiles. The bombardment was performed in a two-beam irradiation chamber for in situ ion-implantation at temperatures of 15 and 300 K and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy to monitor the alteration of the silicate composition under ion irradiation. A depletion of oxygen from the silicate structure by selective sputtering of oxygen from the surface of the grains was observed in both samples. The silicate particles kept their amorphous structure, but the loss of oxygen caused the reduction of ferrous (Fe{sup 2+}) ions and the formation of iron inclusions in the MgFeSiO{sub 4} grains. A few Si inclusions were produced in the iron-free magnesium silicate sample pointing to a much less efficient reduction of Si{sup 4+} and formation of metallic Si inclusions. Consequently, ion-induced processing of magnesium-iron silicates can produce grains that are very similar to the glassy grains with embedded metals and sulfides frequently observed in interplanetary dust particles and meteorites. The metallic iron inclusions are strong absorbers in the NIR range and therefore a ubiquitous requirement to increase the temperature of silicate dust grains in IR-dominated astrophysical environments such as circumstellar shells or protoplanetary disks.

  15. Perspectives on bay-delta science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Michael; Dettinger, Michael; Norgaard, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The State of Bay–Delta Science 2008 highlighted seven emerging perspectives on science and management of the Delta. These perspectives had important effects on policy and legislation concerning management of the Delta ecosystem and water exports. From the collection of papers that make up the State of Bay–Delta Science 2016, we derive another seven perspectives that augment those published in 2008. The new perspectives address nutrient and contaminant concentrations in Delta waters, the failure of the Delta food web to support native species, the role of multiple stressors in driving species toward extinction, and the emerging importance of extreme events in driving change in the ecosystem and the water supply. The scientific advances that underpin these new perspectives were made possible by new measurement and analytic tools. We briefly discuss some of these, including miniaturized acoustic fish tags, sensors for monitoring of water quality, analytic techniques for disaggregating complex contaminant mixtures, remote sensing to assess levee vulnerability, and multidimensional hydrodynamic modeling. Despite these new tools and scientific insights, species conservation objectives for the Delta are not being met. We believe that this lack of progress stems in part from the fact that science and policy do not incorporate sufficiently long-term perspectives. Looking forward half a century was central to the Delta Visioning process, but science and policy have not embraced this conceptual breadth. We are also concerned that protection and enhancement of the unique cultural, recreational, natural resource, and agricultural values of the Delta as an evolving place, as required by the Delta Reform Act, has received no critical study and analysis. Adopting wider and longer science and policy perspectives immediately encourages recognition of the need for evaluation, analysis, and public discourse on novel conservation approaches. These longer and wider perspectives

  16. Mida pakub Delta? / Teele Kurm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurm, Teele

    2011-01-01

    Politsei- ja Piirivalveamet võtab kasutusele ühise Siseministeeriumi infotehnoloogia- ja arenduskeskuse ning Webmedia AS koostööna loodud dokumendihaldussüsteemi Delta. Kust sai Delta oma nime? Projekti "Dokumendihaldussüsteemi juurutamine Siseministeeriumi haldusalas" eesmärgid

  17. The method of predicting the process of condensation of moisture and hydrate formation in the gas pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Хвостова, Олена Вікторівна

    2014-01-01

    The problem of ensuring the required value of one of the natural gas quality indicators during its transportation to the consumer - moisture content is considered in the paper. The method for predicting possible moisture condensation and hydrate formation processes in gas pipelines considering mixing gas flows with different moisture content was developed.Predicting the moisture condensation and hydrate formation in gas pipelines is an actual task since a timely prevention of these processes ...

  18. Experimental demonstration of a format-flexible single-carrier coherent receiver using data-aided digital signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elschner, Robert; Frey, Felix; Meuer, Christian; Fischer, Johannes Karl; Alreesh, Saleem; Schmidt-Langhorst, Carsten; Molle, Lutz; Tanimura, Takahito; Schubert, Colja

    2012-12-17

    We experimentally demonstrate the use of data-aided digital signal processing for format-flexible coherent reception of different 28-GBd PDM and 4D modulated signals in WDM transmission experiments over up to 7680 km SSMF by using the same resource-efficient digital signal processing algorithms for the equalization of all formats. Stable and regular performance in the nonlinear transmission regime is confirmed.

  19. [Study on formation process of honeycomb pattern in dielectric barrier discharge by optical emission spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-Fang; Zhu, Ping; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Yu

    2014-04-01

    The authors report on the first investigation of the variations in the plasma parameters in the formation process of the honeycomb pattern in a dielectric barrier discharge by optical emission spectrum in argon and air mixture. The discharge undergoes hexagonal lattice, concentric spot-ring pattern and honeycomb pattern with the applied voltage increasing. The molecular vibration temperature, electron excitation temperature and electronic density of the three kinds of patterns were investigated by the emission spectra of nitrogen band of second positive system (C3pi(u) --> B3 pi(g)), the relative intensity ratio method of spectral lines of Ar I 763.51 nm (2P(6) --> 1S(5)) and Ar I 772.42 nm (2P(2) -->1S(3)) and the broadening of spectral line 696.5 nm respectively. It was found that the molecular vibration temperature and electron excitation temperature of the honeycomb pattern are higher than those of the hexagonal lattice, but the electron density of the former is lower than that of the latter. The discharge powers of the patterns were also measured with the capacitance method. The discharge power of the honeycomb pattern is much higher than that of the hexagonal lattice. These results are of great importance to the formation mechanism of the patterns in dielectric barrier discharge.

  20. Effect of Processing Methods on Cholesterol Contents and Cholesterol Oxides Formation in Some Dairy Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlRowaily, Meshref A

    2008-01-01

    The effects of pasteurization, boiling, microwaving, processing and storage of milk and some locally produced dairy products on cholesterol contents and cholesterol oxides formation were studied and evaluated. The 7-ketocholesterol were not detected (ND) in all raw milk samples. On the contrary, heating of milk led to formation of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs), mostly, 7- ketocholesterol in different quantities. No significant effect of heating of milk on cholesterol level was observed with the exception of the ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk prepared from milk powder heated at 140 + - 1.0 degree C for 4 sec showed the highest value of 7-ketocholesterol (80.97 mgg-1), followed by microwave heated milk for 5 min (31.29 mgg-1), whereas the lowest value was in milk pasteurized at 85 + - 1.0 degree C for 16 sec (3.125 mgg-1). Commercial storage showed no significant effect on cholesterol and 7-ketocholestrol but lowered cholesterol concentration and increased 7-ketocholestrol level of UHT reconstituted milk. Cholesterol content of both yogurt and labaneh strained by centrifugal separator showed significant decrease while 7-ketochostrol level was increased significantly with refrigerated storage. The findings are discussed in the context with the results of previous similar studies. (author)

  1. Formation of extracellular polymeric substances from acidogenic sludge in H2-producing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Guo-Ping; Yu, Han-Qing

    2007-02-01

    In this study, the formation of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and surface characteristics of an acidogenic sludge in anaerobic H(2)-producing process was investigated. Results show that carbohydrates, proteins, and humic substances were the dominant components in bound EPS (BEPS), while in soluble EPS (SEPS), carbohydrates were the main component. The total content of BEPS initially increased but then kept almost unchanged during fermentation from 25 to 35 h; after that, it slightly decreased. The total content of SEPS increased to 172.5 +/- 0.05 mg C g(-1) volatile suspended solid with the time that increased to 23.5 h, and then rapidly decreased until 43 h; thereafter, it kept almost unchanged. The SEPS had good correlations with the specific H(2) production rate, substrate degradation rate, and specific aqueous products formation rate, but the BEPS seemed to have no such correlations with these specific rates. Results also confirm that part of EPS could be utilized by the H(2)-producing sludge. As the substrate was in short supply, the EPS would be hydrolyzed to sever as carbon and energy source.

  2. CONSTRAINTS ON FEEDBACK PROCESSES DURING THE FORMATION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevisan, M. [Departamento de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo/IAG, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ferreras, I. [MSSL, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); De La Rosa, I. G. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); La Barbera, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Napoli (Italy); De Carvalho, R. R., E-mail: trevisan@astro.iag.usp.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais/MCT, S. J. dos Campos (Brazil)

    2012-06-20

    Galaxies are found to obey scaling relations between a number of observables. These relations follow different trends at the low- and high-mass ends. The processes driving the curvature of scaling relations remain uncertain. In this Letter, we focus on the specific family of early-type galaxies, deriving the star formation histories of a complete sample of visually classified galaxies from Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 over the redshift range 0.01 < z < 0.025, covering a stellar mass interval from 10{sup 9} to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }. Our sample features the characteristic 'knee' in the surface brightness versus mass distribution at M{sub *} {approx} 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} . We find a clear difference between the age and metallicity distributions of the stellar populations above and beyond this knee, which suggests a sudden transition from a constant, highly efficient mode of star formation in high-mass galaxies, gradually decreasing toward the low-mass end of the sample. At fixed mass, our early-type sample is more efficient in building up the stellar content at early times in comparison to the general population of galaxies, with half of the stars already in place by redshift z {approx} 2 for all masses. The metallicity-age trend in low-mass galaxies is not compatible with infall of metal-poor gas, suggesting instead an outflow-driven relation.

  3. Formation and fate of marine snow: small-scale processes with large- scale implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kiørboe

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine snow aggregates are believed to be the main vehicles for vertical material transport in the ocean. However, aggregates are also sites of elevated heterotrophic activity, which may rather cause enhanced retention of aggregated material in the upper ocean. Small-scale biological-physical interactions govern the formation and fate of marine snow. Aggregates may form by physical coagulation: fluid motion causes collisions between small primary particles (e.g. phytoplankton that may then stick together to form aggregates with enhanced sinking velocities. Bacteria may subsequently solubilise and remineralise aggregated particles. Because the solubilization rate exceeds the remineralization rate, organic solutes leak out of sinking aggregates. The leaking solutes spread by diffusion and advection and form a chemical trail in the wake of the sinking aggregate that may guide small zooplankters to the aggregate. Also, suspended bacteria may enjoy the elevated concentration of organic solutes in the plume. I explore these small-scale formation and degradation processes by means of models, experiments and field observations. The larger scale implications for the structure and functioning of pelagic food chains of export vs. retention of material will be discussed.

  4. Use of Technologies and Social Nets in the Formative Process of Superior Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Virginia Mero Suárez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Social networks and the uses of technologies for the training process have become indispensable tools in each of the educational scenarios of Higher Education. These resources together with what the web provides become new way of teaching and learning, in which learners become the protagonists of the teaching processes. The present work aimed to analyze the relevance of social networks and the uses of technologies in the educational function in each of the training scenarios in higher education. The importance of social networks was described, as well as the uses of new technologies, highlighting what is related to the strengthening of the new lists of the teacher and student, the interaction of students through each of the resources provided by the Web, and collaborative work, which has substantially favored learning. It was concluded that social networks plow tools that together with the new technologies plows welcomed by the students, constitute to support for the formation process, strengthening autonomy, cooperative work and knowledge management, converting new innovative spaces for new forms of teaching and learning. In addition to the great impact that the internet have and will in the development of new social networks in different contexts; and therefore, teachers cannot ignore them. In this sense, it should also be considered that teachers plow responsible for this change of attitude with respect to the new educational models where it there is the mission to it produces changes in the communicative environment before social uses of the network.

  5. Influence of calcination process on the formation of selected air pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wydrych Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the study is to analyze the phenomena of thermal flow in the precalcinator chamber of the exchanger's furnace tower including the combustion of coal dust and decarbonisation of raw lime powder. During the research were provided development of a mathematical model of particulate solid fuels combustion, calcining the raw material, NOx and COx formation. Moreover conducting the number for the current and the upgraded design of the precalcinator and analysis of the results. In this study, a mathematical model based on Euler's method to describe the motion of the gas phase and the Lagrange method to describe the motion of particles [1-4]. In the calculations there were assumed fractional particles raw material and fuel, and the following processes: flow of exhaust gases from the rotary kiln through the precalcinator chamber, heat exchange between the particles of raw material and exhaust gases, the additional fuel combustion in the precalcinator, the process of raw material calcination, transformation of gaseous substances, effect of the additional (tertiary air delivery on the processes in the chamber.

  6. Formation of Poultry Meat Flavor by Heating Process and Lipid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maijon Purba

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Flavor is an important factor in the acceptance of food. Flavor of poultry meat is naturally formed through a specific process of heating, where various chemical reactions complex occurred among nonvolatile precursors in fatty tissue or in lean tissue. The main flavor in the form of volatile and nonvolatile components play a major influence on the acceptance of various processed meat, especially the taste. Removal of sulfur components decreases meat flavor (meaty, while removal of carbonyl compounds decrease the specific flavor and increases common flavor of the meat. Poultry meat has a fairly high fat content that easily generates lipid oxidation. Lipid oxidation in poultry meat is a sign that the meat was damaged and caused off odor. Addition of antioxidants in the diet can inhibit lipid oxidation in the meat. Lipids interaction with proteins and carbohydrates is unavoidable during the thermal processing of food, causing the appearance of volatile components. The main reaction in meat flavor formation mechanism is Maillard reaction followed by Stecker reaction and degradation of lipids and thiamine. They involve in the reaction between carbonyl and amine components to form flavor compounds, which enhance the flavor of poultry meat.

  7. Learning processes in the professional development of mental health counselors: knowledge restructuring and illness script formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Josef; Gruber, Hans

    2015-05-01

    An important part of learning processes in the professional development of counselors is the integration of declarative knowledge and professional experience. It was investigated in-how-far mental health counselors at different levels of expertise (experts, intermediates, novices) differ in their availability of experience-based knowledge structures. Participants were prompted with 20 client problems. They had to explain those problems, the explanations were analyzed using think-aloud protocols. The results show that experts' knowledge is organized in script-like structures that integrate declarative knowledge and professional experience and help experts in accessing relevant information about cases. Novices revealed less integrated knowledge structures. It is concluded that knowledge restructuring and illness script formation are crucial parts of the professional learning of counselors.

  8. Near-infrared image formation and processing for the extraction of hand veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzida, Nabila; Hakim Bendada, Abdel; Maldague, Xavier P.

    2010-10-01

    The main objective of this work is to extract the hand vein network using a non-invasive technique in the near-infrared region (NIR). The visualization of the veins is based on a relevant feature of the blood in relation with certain wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. In the present paper, we first introduce the image formation in the NIR spectral band. Then, the acquisition system will be presented as well as the method used for the image processing in order to extract the vein signature. Extractions of this pattern on the finger, on the wrist and on the dorsal hand are achieved after exposing the hand to an optical stimulation by reflection or transmission of light. We present meaningful results of the extracted vein pattern demonstrating the utility of the method for a clinical application like the diagnosis of vein disease, of primitive varicose vein and also for applications in vein biometrics.

  9. Interpersonal processes affecting early alliance formation in experiential therapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Karen; Pos, Alberta E

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of in-session interpersonal process and pre-therapy interpersonal problems on session-one alliance formation for 32 clients who received short-term experiential therapy for depression. Interpersonal behavior measured by the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior, as well as clients' pre-therapy reports of interpersonal problems significantly related to session-one alliance scores. Greater client disclosure independently predicted a stronger session-one bond with the therapist. Both greater client disclosure (positively) and pre-therapy Social Inhibition (negatively) independently predicted early goal agreement. Findings suggest that client disclosure is a marker of early engagement in experiential therapy, as well as support this model's mandate to form interpersonally safe therapeutic environments from the first moments of therapy.

  10. Experimental and Computational Analysis of Water-Droplet Formation and Ejection Process Using Hollow Microneedle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Norihisa; Oka, Ryotaro; Sakai, Takahiro; Shibata, Takayuki; Kawashima, Takahiro; Nagai, Moeto; Mineta, Takashi; Makino, Eiji

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we present the possibility of liquid delivery using fabricated hollow silicon dioxide microneedles of approximately 2 µm in diameter. As a fundamental study, the water-droplet formation and ejection process was examined via dynamic observations during water ejection tests and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. The experimental results indicated that fluid flow in a microneedle follows the Hagen-Poiseuille law, i.e., the flow rate is approximately directly proportional to the fourth power of the inner diameter. Moreover, the ejection pressure and maximum droplet curvature obtained using the proposed microfluid ejection model were in good agreement with the experimental results. The resulting ejection pressure is equal to the theoretical pressure difference of a spherical droplet, which is determined using the Young-Laplace equation. The maximum curvature of a droplet formed at the tip of a microneedle can be estimated on the basis of the contact angle theory expressed by the Young equation.

  11. Formation of hydrocarbons in irradiated Brazilian beans: gas chromatographic analysis to detect radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Hartmann, M.; Ammon, J.; Delincee, H.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation processing of beans, which are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil, is a valuable alternative to chemical fumigation to combat postharvest losses due to insect infestation. To ensure free consumer choice, irradiated food will be labeled as such, and to enforce labeling, analytical methods to detect the irradiation treatment in the food product itself are desirable. In two varieties of Brazilian beans, Carioca and Macacar beans, the radiolytic formation of hydrocarbons formed after alpha and beta cleavage, with regard to the carbonyl group in triglycerides, have been studied. Using gas chromatographic analysis of these radiolytic hydrocarbons, different yields per precursor fatty acid are observed for the two types of beans. However, the typical degradation pattern allows the identification of the irradiation treatment in both bean varieties, even after 6 months of storage

  12. Effect of low molecular fraction of thymus humoral factor on blood formation processes of irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolyarova, T.V.; Skobel'tsyna, E.S.; Grinberg, S.M.; Kruglikov, I.L.; Korotaev, G.K.; Tepelina, O.M.; Il'ina, T.I.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of low-molecular fraction of thymus humoral factor on blood formation in mice irradiated at 4 Gy was studied. It is shown that injection of low-molecular fraction of thymus hymoral factor to irradiated animals affects proliferative processes in spleen and bone marrow, however the degree of the effect depends on the injection scheme of the preparation. Application of mathematical planning methods of the experiment enables to analyze various injection schemes of low-molecular fraction of thymus humoral factor on the investigated indices. The optimal scheme of preparation injection is determined: 1st injection with the dose of 10 mkg/kg following 4 hour after irradiation, 2d injection - with the same dose in 7-21 days

  13. Formation of porous surface layers in reaction bonded silicon nitride during processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, N. J.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1979-01-01

    Microstructural examination of reaction bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) has shown that there is often a region adjacent to the as-nitrided surfaces that is even more porous than the interior of this already quite porous material. Because this layer of large porosity is considered detrimental to both the strength and oxidation resistance of RBSN, a study was undertaken to determine if its formation could be prevented during processing. All test bars studied were made from a single batch of Si powder which was milled for 4 hours in heptane in a vibratory mill using high density alumina cylinders as the grinding media. After air drying the powder, bars were compacted in a single acting die and hydropressed.

  14. Cosmochemical evidence for astrophysical processes during the formation of our solar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Glenn J; Boss, Alan

    2011-11-29

    Through the laboratory study of ancient solar system materials such as meteorites and comet dust, we can recognize evidence for the same star-formation processes in our own solar system as those that we can observe now through telescopes in nearby star-forming regions. High temperature grains formed in the innermost region of the solar system ended up much farther out in the solar system, not only the asteroid belt but even in the comet accretion region, suggesting a huge and efficient process of mass transport. Bi-polar outflows, turbulent diffusion, and marginal gravitational instability are the likely mechanisms for this transport. The presence of short-lived radionuclides in the early solar system, especially (60)Fe, (26)Al, and (41)Ca, requires a nearby supernova shortly before our solar system was formed, suggesting that the Sun was formed in a massive star-forming region similar to Orion or Carina. Solar system formation may have been "triggered" by ionizing radiation originating from massive O and B stars at the center of an expanding HII bubble, one of which may have later provided the supernova source for the short-lived radionuclides. Alternatively, a supernova shock wave may have simultaneously triggered the collapse and injected the short-lived radionuclides. Because the Sun formed in a region where many other stars were forming more or less contemporaneously, the bi-polar outflows from all such stars enriched the local region in interstellar silicate and oxide dust. This may explain several observed anomalies in the meteorite record: a near absence of detectable (no extreme isotopic properties) presolar silicate grains and a dichotomy in the isotope record between (26)Al and nucleosynthetic (nonradiogenic) anomalies.

  15. Formation of Y{sub x}Nd{sub 1-x}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (0{<=}x{<=}0.9) superconductors from an undercooled melt via aero-acoustic levitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, D.E.; Hofmeister, W.H.; Bayuzick, R.J.; Nagashio, K.; Kuribayashi, K

    2003-01-20

    This paper presents the results of rapid solidification experiments performed on the copper oxide superconductors Y{sub x}Nd{sub 1-x}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (0{<=}x{<=}0.9). Spherical rare earth (RE) 123 specimens were levitated in O{sub 2} using aero-acoustic levitation (AAL), melted with a laser, undercooled, and solidified. The peritectic transformation temperature for the reaction RE{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5}+liquid{yields}REBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} corresponding to the maximum recalescence temperature during solidification was determined. RE123 was formed directly from the melt for Y-Nd binary alloy compositions with Nd concentration greater than 20% (Y concentration less than 80%). A minimum in the peritectic transformation temperature for the Nd/Y123 system corresponding to a composition Y{sub 0.3}Nd{sub 0.7}123 was determined at 66 deg. C below the peritectic of pure Nd123.

  16. [Shifting path of industrial pollution gravity centers and its driving mechanism in Pan-Yangtze River Delta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-Xia; Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Cui, Jian-Xin

    2014-11-01

    Shifting path of industrial pollution gravity centers is the response of environmental special formation during the industry transfer process, in order to prove the responding of industrial pollution gravity centers to industry transfer in economically developed areas, this paper calculates the gravity centers of industrial wastewater, gas and solid patterns and reveals the shifting path and its driving mechanism, using the data of industrial pollution in the Pan-Yangtze River Delta from 2000 to 2010. The results show that the gravity center of the industrial waste in Pan-Yangtze River Delta shifts for sure in the last 10 years, and gravity center of solid waste shifts the maximum distance within the three wastes, which was 180.18 km, and shifting distances for waste gas and waste water were 109.51 km and 85.92 km respectively. Moreover, the gravity center of the industrial waste in Pan-Yangtze River Delta shifts westwards, and gravity centers of waste water, gas and solid shift for 0.40 degrees, 0.17 degrees and 0.03 degrees respectively. The shifting of industrial pollution gravity centers is driven by many factors. The rapid development of the heavy industry in Anhui and Jiangxi provinces results in the westward shifting of the pollutions. The optimization and adjustment of industrial structures in Yangtze River Delta region benefit to alleviating industrial pollution, and high-polluting industries shifted to Anhui and Jiangxi provinces promotes pollution gravity center shifting to west. While the development of massive clean enterprise, strong environmental management efforts and better environmental monitoring system slow the shifting trend of industrial pollution to the east in Yangtze River Delta. The study of industrial pollution gravity shift and its driving mechanism provides a new angle of view to analyze the relationship between economic development and environmental pollution, and also provides academic basis for synthetical management and control of

  17. Study of residue type defect formation mechanism and the effect of advanced defect reduction (ADR) rinse process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yuichi; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Shibata, Tsuyoshi; Kushida, Yuki; Nakagawa, Hiroki; Nishimura, Yukio; Yamaguchi, Yoshikazu

    2009-03-01

    Residue type defect is one of yield detractors in lithography process. It is known that occurrence of the residue type defect is dependent on resist development process and the defect is reduced by optimized rinsing condition. However, the defect formation is affected by resist materials and substrate conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the development process condition by each mask level. Those optimization steps require a large amount of time and effort. The formation mechanism is investigated from viewpoint of both material and process. The defect formation is affected by resist material types, substrate condition and development process condition (D.I.W. rinse step). Optimized resist formulation and new rinse technology significantly reduce the residue type defect.

  18. Carbon Disulfide (CS2) Mechanisms in Formation of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Formation from Unconventional Shale Gas Extraction and Processing Operations and Global Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Alisa L; Patel, Jay T

    2015-01-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS2) has been historically associated with the production of rayon, cellophane, and carbon tetrachloride. This study identifies multiple mechanisms by which CS2 contributes to the formation of CO2 in the atmosphere. CS2 and other associated sulfide compounds were found by this study to be present in emissions from unconventional shale gas extraction and processing (E&P) operations. The breakdown products of CS2; carbonyl sulfide (COS), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are indirect greenhouse gases (GHGs) that contribute to CO2 levels in the atmosphere. The heat-trapping nature of CO2 has been found to increase the surface temperature, resulting in regional and global climate change. The purpose of this study is to identify five mechanisms by which CS2 and the breakdown products of CS2 contribute to atmospheric concentrations of CO2. The five mechanisms of CO2 formation are as follows: Chemical Interaction of CS2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) present in natural gas at high temperatures, resulting in CO2 formation;Combustion of CS2 in the presence of oxygen producing SO2 and CO2;Photolysis of CS2 leading to the formation of COS, CO, and SO2, which are indirect contributors to CO2 formation;One-step hydrolysis of CS2, producing reactive intermediates and ultimately forming H2S and CO2;Two-step hydrolysis of CS2 forming the reactive COS intermediate that reacts with an additional water molecule, ultimately forming H2S and CO2. CS2 and COS additionally are implicated in the formation of SO2 in the stratosphere and/or troposphere. SO2 is an indirect contributor to CO2 formation and is implicated in global climate change.

  19. Recent scientific advances and their implications for sand management near San Francisco, California: the influences of the ebb tidal delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, Daniel M.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Dallas, Kate; Elias, Edwin; Erikson, Li H.; Eshleman, Jodi; Hansen, Jeff; Hsu, Tian Jian; Shi, Fengyan

    2011-01-01

    Recent research in the San Francisco, California, U.S.A., coastal region has identified the importance of the ebb tidal delta to coastal processes. A process-based numerical model is found to qualitatively reproduce the equilibrium size and shape of the delta. The ebb tidal delta itself has been contracting over the past century, and the numerical model is applied to investigate the sensitivity of the delta to changes in forcing conditions. The large ebb tidal delta has a strong influence upon regional coastal processes. The prominent bathymetry of the ebb tidal delta protects some of the coast from extreme storm waves, but the delta also focuses wave energy toward the central and southern portions of Ocean Beach. Wave focusing likely contributes to a chronic erosion problem at the southern end of Ocean Beach. The ebb tidal delta in combination with non-linear waves provides a potential cross-shore sediment transport pathway that probably supplies sediment to Ocean Beach.

  20. Hydrothermally processed 1D hydroxyapatite: Mechanism of formation and biocompatibility studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanović, Zoran S.; Ignjatović, Nenad [Centre for Fine Particles Processing and Nanotechnologies, Institute of Technical Sciences of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Knez Mihailova 35/4, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Wu, Victoria [Advanced Materials and Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois, 851 South Morgan Street, Chicago, IL 60607-7052 (United States); Žunič, Vojka [Advanced Materials Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Veselinović, Ljiljana [Centre for Fine Particles Processing and Nanotechnologies, Institute of Technical Sciences of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Knez Mihailova 35/4, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Škapin, Srečo [Advanced Materials Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Miljković, Miroslav [Laboratory for Electron Microscopy, Faculty of Medicine University of Niš, Dr. Zoran Đinđić Boulevard 81, 18 000 Niš (Serbia); Uskoković, Vuk [Advanced Materials and Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois, 851 South Morgan Street, Chicago, IL 60607-7052 (United States); Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Chapman University, 9401 Jeronimo Road, Irvine, CA 92618-1908 (United States); and others

    2016-11-01

    Recent developments in bone tissue engineering have led to an increased interest in one-dimensional (1D) hydroxyapatite (HA) nano- and micro-structures such as wires, ribbons and tubes. They have been proposed for use as cell substrates, reinforcing phases in composites and carriers for biologically active substances. Here we demonstrate the synthesis of 1D HA structures using an optimized, urea-assisted, high-yield hydrothermal batch process. The one-pot process, yielding HA structures composed of bundles of ribbons and wires, was typified by the simultaneous occurrence of a multitude of intermediate reactions, failing to meet the uniformity criteria over particle morphology and size. To overcome these issues, the preparation procedure was divided to two stages: dicalcium phosphate platelets synthesized in the first step were used as a precursor for the synthesis of 1D HA in the second stage. Despite the elongated particle morphologies, both the precursor and the final product exhibited excellent biocompatibility and caused no reduction of viability when tested against osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells in 2D culture up to the concentration of 2.6 mg/cm{sup 2}. X-ray powder diffraction combined with a range of electron microscopies and laser diffraction analyses was used to elucidate the formation mechanism and the microstructure of the final particles. The two-step synthesis involved a more direct transformation of DCP to 1D HA with the average diameter of 37 nm and the aspect ratio exceeding 100:1. The comparison of crystalline domain sizes along different crystallographic directions showed no signs of significant anisotropy, while indicating that individual nanowires are ordered in bundles in the b crystallographic direction of the P6{sub 3/m} space group of HA. Intermediate processes, e.g., dehydration of dicalcium phosphate, are critical for the formation of 1D HA alongside other key aspects of this phase transformation, it must be investigated in more detail in the

  1. Formation of semisolid, oligomerized aqueous SOA: lab simulations of cloud processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Lelia N; Baril, Molly J; Sedehi, Nahzaneen; Galloway, Melissa M; De Haan, David O; Schill, Gregory P; Tolbert, Margaret A

    2014-02-18

    Glyoxal, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, and hydroxyacetone form N-containing and oligomeric compounds during simulated cloud processing with small amines. Using a novel hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analysis (HTDMA) system that allows varied humidification times, the hygroscopic growth (HG) of each of the resulting products of simulated cloud processing was measured. Continuous water uptake (gradual deliquescence) was observed beginning at ∼ 40% RH for all aldehyde-methylamine products. Particles containing ionic reaction products of either glyoxal or glycine were most hygroscopic, with HG between 1.16 and 1.20 at 80% RH. Longer humidification times (up to 20 min) produced an increase in growth factors for glyoxal-methylamine (19% by vol) and methylglyoxal-methylamine (8% by vol) aerosol, indicating that unusually long equilibration times can be required for HTDMA measurements of such particles. Glyoxal- and methylglyoxal-methylamine aerosol particles shattered in Raman microscopy impact-flow experiments, revealing that the particles were semisolid. Similar experiments on glycolaldehyde- and hydroxyacetone-methylamine aerosol found that the aerosol particles were liquid when dried for glyoxal > glycolaldehyde = hydroxyacetone, likely caused by the speed of oligomer formation in each system.

  2. BIOFILM FORMATION OF Vibrio cholerae ON STAINLESS STEEL USED IN FOOD PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagro FERNÁNDEZ-DELGADO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae represents a significant threat to human health in developing countries. This pathogen forms biofilms which favors its attachment to surfaces and its survival and transmission by water or food. This work evaluated the in vitro biofilm formation of V. cholerae isolated from clinical and environmental sources on stainless steel of the type used in food processing by using the environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM. Results showed no cell adhesion at 4 h and scarce surface colonization at 24 h. Biofilms from the environmental strain were observed at 48 h with high cellular aggregations embedded in Vibrio exopolysaccharide (VPS, while less confluence and VPS production with microcolonies of elongated cells were observed in biofilms produced by the clinical strain. At 96 h the biofilms of the environmental strain were released from the surface leaving coccoid cells and residual structures, whereas biofilms of the clinical strain formed highly organized structures such as channels, mushroom-like and pillars. This is the first study that has shown the in vitro ability of V. cholerae to colonize and form biofilms on stainless steel used in food processing.

  3. BIOFILM FORMATION OF Vibrio cholerae ON STAINLESS STEEL USED IN FOOD PROCESSING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Delgado, Milagro; Rojas, Héctor; Duque, Zoilabet; Suárez, Paula; Contreras, Monica; García-Amado, M Alexandra; Alciaturi, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae represents a significant threat to human health in developing countries. This pathogen forms biofilms which favors its attachment to surfaces and its survival and transmission by water or food. This work evaluated the in vitro biofilm formation of V. cholerae isolated from clinical and environmental sources on stainless steel of the type used in food processing by using the environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Results showed no cell adhesion at 4 h and scarce surface colonization at 24 h. Biofilms from the environmental strain were observed at 48 h with high cellular aggregations embedded in Vibrio exopolysaccharide (VPS), while less confluence and VPS production with microcolonies of elongated cells were observed in biofilms produced by the clinical strain. At 96 h the biofilms of the environmental strain were released from the surface leaving coccoid cells and residual structures, whereas biofilms of the clinical strain formed highly organized structures such as channels, mushroom-like and pillars. This is the first study that has shown the in vitro ability of V. cholerae to colonize and form biofilms on stainless steel used in food processing.

  4. La biblioteca escolar y la formación lectora School Library and Reader Formation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Calonje Daly

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo discute los conceptos ideológicamente legitimados que dan sustento a las nociones socialmente predominantes acerca de la relación entre formación lectora y biblioteca escolar y, alternativamente, plantea las condiciones que deberían ser asumidas por esa misma relación para que se torne enriquecedora: grosso modo, el sentido de las prácticas que comprometen a la totalidad de la comunidad educativa, la creación de entornos favorables, las interacciones con diversos tipos de texto, las nuevas relaciones con los textos, las formas de organización diferentes, el carácter de los procesos para hacerse lector, el sentido del conocimiento, la biblioteca y los maestros y los bibliotecarios como mediadores.This article points out the relation between the school library and the reader formation as legitimated concepts that support predominant notions. Indeed, it supports the conditions that should be assumed by that same relationship for enriching the learning process. In this case, the educative community should be the main participant in this relation. It can create favorable environments, interactions with multiple kinds of texts, new relationships with texts, different kinds of organization, making the process of becoming a reader, knowledge purpose, finally library and teachers, and librarians as mediators.

  5. Pore Formation Process of Porous Ti3SiC2 Fabricated by Reactive Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huibin Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Porous Ti3SiC2 was fabricated with high purity, 99.4 vol %, through reactive sintering of titanium hydride (TiH2, silicon (Si and graphite (C elemental powders. The reaction procedures and the pore structure evolution during the sintering process were systematically studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Our results show that the formation of Ti3SiC2 from TiH2/Si/C powders experienced the following steps: firstly, TiH2 decomposed into Ti; secondly, TiC and Ti5Si3 intermediate phases were generated; finally, Ti3SiC2 was produced through the reaction of TiC, Ti5Si3 and Si. The pores formed in the synthesis procedure of porous Ti3SiC2 ceramics are derived from the following aspects: interstitial pores left during the pressing procedure; pores formed because of the TiH2 decomposition; pores formed through the reactions between Ti and Si and Ti and C powders; and the pores produced accompanying the final phase synthesized during the high temperature sintering process.

  6. Changes in the areal extents of the Athabasca River, Birch River, and Cree Creek Deltas, 1950-2014, Peace-Athabasca Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoney, Kevin; Lee, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Deltas form where riverborne sediment accumulates at the interface of river mouths and their receiving water bodies. Their areal extent is determined by the net effect of processes that increase their extent, such as sediment accumulation, and processes that decrease their extent, such as erosion and subsidence. Through sequential mapping and construction of river discharge and sediment histories, this study examined changes in the subaerial extents of the Cree Creek and Athabasca River Deltas (both on the Athabasca River system) and the Birch River Delta in northern Canada over the period 1950-2014. The purpose of the study was to determine how, when, and why the deltas changed in areal extent. Temporal growth patterns were similar across the Athabasca and Birch River systems indicative of a climatic signal. Little or no areal growth occurred from 1950 to 1968; moderate growth occurred between 1968 and the early to mid-1980s; and rapid growth occurred between 1992 and 2012. Factors that affected delta progradation included dredging, sediment supply, isostatic drowning, delta front bathymetry, sediment capture efficiency, and storms. In relation to sediment delivered, areal growth rates were lowest in the Athabasca Delta, intermediate in the Birch Delta, and highest in the Cree Creek Delta. Annual sediment delivery is increasing in the Cree Creek Delta; there were no significant trends in annual sediment delivery in the Birch and Athabasca Deltas. There was a lag of up to several years between sediment delivery events and progradation. Periods of delta progradation were associated with low water levels of the receiving basins. Predicted climate-change driven declines in river discharge and lake levels may accelerate delta progradation in the region. In the changing ecosystems of northeastern Alberta, inadequate monitoring of vegetation, landforms, and sediment regimes hampers the elucidation of the nature, rate, and causality of ecosystem changes.

  7. Process of defect formation in alkaline halogenides contaminated with Eu2+ induced by non ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedroza M, M.; Melendrez, R.; Barboza F, M.; Castaneda, B.

    2004-01-01

    The creation of defects in polluted alkaline halogenides with divalent impurities exposed to ionizing radiation is explained by means of the creation of auto trapped excitons (STE), which can be formed by means of the excitement of the halogen ion or through the trapping of electrons in centers V K taken place during the process of ionization of the halogen ion. The luminescent recombination of the exciton auto trapped produces a characteristic exciton luminescence and the recombination non radiative causes the formation of the Frenkel type defects, even of centers F - H. Experimentally has been demonstrated that the same type of glasses, exposed to radiation non ionizing of the type UV of around 230 nm, they produce defects similar Frenkel. The situation is interesting all time that photons of 230 nm (5.3 eV) they cannot create excitons directly since they are in an energy level of approximately 2.4 inferior eV to the necessary energy for the production of the same ones. In order to investigating the type of process of creation of defects with UV light energy below the energy of the band prohibited in polluted alkaline halogenides with Eu 2+ , mainly looking for experimental information that allows to explain the creation of defects taken place by the radiation non ionizing, one carries out the present work. It was found that, independently of the energy of the radiation used for the excitement, the emission comes from the transition 4f 6 5d(t 2g )-4f 7 ( 8 S 7/2 ) of the ion Eu 2+ characterized by a wide band centered in 420 nm and an additional component in 460 nm of possibly intrinsic origin. It was determined that so much the F centers and F z participate in the thermoluminescent processes and of optically stimulated luminescence, achieving to identify those peaks of Tl strictly associated to the F centers (peak in 470 K for the KCl: Eu 2+ ) and F z (peak in 370 K). Also, by means of a process of selective photo stimulation evidence was obtained that the F

  8. Observations and Simulations of Formation of Broad Plasma Depletions Through Merging Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao-Song; Retterer, J. M.; Beaujardiere, O. De La; Roddy, P. A.; Hunton, D.E.; Ballenthin, J. O.; Pfaff, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Broad plasma depletions in the equatorial ionosphere near dawn are region in which the plasma density is reduced by 1-3 orders of magnitude over thousands of kilometers in longitude. This phenomenon is observed repeatedly by the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite during deep solar minimum. The plasma flow inside the depletion region can be strongly upward. The possible causal mechanism for the formation of broad plasma depletions is that the broad depletions result from merging of multiple equatorial plasma bubbles. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of the merging mechanism with new observations and simulations. We present C/NOFS observations for two cases. A series of plasma bubbles is first detected by C/NOFS over a longitudinal range of 3300-3800 km around midnight. Each of the individual bubbles has a typical width of approx 100 km in longitude, and the upward ion drift velocity inside the bubbles is 200-400 m/s. The plasma bubbles rotate with the Earth to the dawn sector and become broad plasma depletions. The observations clearly show the evolution from multiple plasma bubbles to broad depletions. Large upward plasma flow occurs inside the depletion region over 3800 km in longitude and exists for approx 5 h. We also present the numerical simulations of bubble merging with the physics-based low-latitude ionospheric model. It is found that two separate plasma bubbles join together and form a single, wider bubble. The simulations show that the merging process of plasma bubbles can indeed occur in incompressible ionospheric plasma. The simulation results support the merging mechanism for the formation of broad plasma depletions.

  9. Holocene evolution of the western Orinoco Delta, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, A.; White, W.A.; Warne, A.G.; Guevara, E.H.

    2003-01-01

    The pristine nature of the Orinoco Delta of eastern Venezuela provides unique opportunities to study the geologic processes and environments of a major tropical delta. Remote-sensing images, shallow cores, and radiocarbon-dating of organic remains form the basis for describing deltaic environments and interpreting the Holocene history of the delta. The Orinoco Delta can be subdivided into two major sectors. The southeast sector is dominated by the Rio Grande-the principal distributary-and complex networks of anastomosing fluvial and tidal channels. The abundance of siliciclastic deposits suggests that fluvial processes such as over-bank flooding strongly influence this part of the delta. In contrast, the northwest sector is represented by few major distributaries, and overbank sedimentation is less widespread relative to the southeast sector. Peat is abundant and occurs in herbaceous and forested swamps that are individually up to 200 km2 in area. Northwest-directed littoral currents transport large volumes of suspended sediment and produce prominent mudcapes along the northwest coast. Mapping of surface sediments, vegetation, and major landforms identified four principal geomorphic systems within the western delta plain: (1) distributary channels, (2) interdistributary flood basins, (3) fluvial-marine transitional environments, and (4) marine-influenced coastal environments. Coring and radiocarbon dating of deltaic deposits show that the northern delta shoreline has prograded 20-30 km during the late Holocene sea-level highstand. Progradation has been accomplished by a combination of distributary avulsion and mudcape progradation. This style of deltaic progradation differs markedly from other deltas such as the Mississippi where distributary avulsion leads to coastal land loss, rather than shoreline progradation. The key difference is that the Orinoco Delta coastal zone receives prodigious amounts of sediment from northwest-moving littoral currents that transport

  10. Stratigraphy and paleohydrology of delta channel deposits, Jezero crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudge, Timothy A.; Mohrig, David; Cardenas, Benjamin T.; Hughes, Cory M.; Fassett, Caleb I.

    2018-02-01

    The Jezero crater open-basin lake contains two well-exposed fluvial sedimentary deposits formed early in martian history. Here, we examine the geometry and architecture of the Jezero western delta fluvial stratigraphy using high-resolution orbital images and digital elevation models (DEMs). The goal of this analysis is to reconstruct the evolution of the delta and associated shoreline position. The delta outcrop contains three distinct classes of fluvial stratigraphy that we interpret, from oldest to youngest, as: (1) point bar strata deposited by repeated flood events in meandering channels; (2) inverted channel-filling deposits formed by avulsive distributary channels; and (3) a valley that incises the deposit. We use DEMs to quantify the geometry of the channel deposits and estimate flow depths of ∼7 m for the meandering channels and ∼2 m for the avulsive distributary channels. Using these estimates, we employ a novel approach for assessing paleohydrology of the formative channels in relative terms. This analysis indicates that the shift from meandering to avulsive distributary channels was associated with an approximately four-fold decrease in the water to sediment discharge ratio. We use observations of the fluvial stratigraphy and channel paleohydrology to propose a model for the evolution of the Jezero western delta. The delta stratigraphy records lake level rise and shoreline transgression associated with approximately continuous filling of the basin, followed by outlet breaching, and eventual erosion of the delta. Our results imply a martian surface environment during the period of delta formation that supplied sufficient surface runoff to fill the Jezero basin without major drops in lake level, but also with discrete flooding events at non-orbital (e.g., annual to decadal) timescales.

  11. Effect of pores formation process and oxygen plasma treatment to hydroxyapatite formation on bioactive PEEK prepared by incorporation of precursor of apatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabutsuka, Takeshi; Fukushima, Keito; Hiruta, Tomoko; Takai, Shigeomi; Yao, Takeshi

    2017-12-01

    When bioinert substrates with fine-sized pores are immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) and the pH value or the temperature is increased, fine particles of calcium phosphate, which the authors denoted as 'precursor of apatite' (PrA), are formed in the pores. By this method, hydroxyapatite formation ability can be provided to various kinds of bioinert materials. In this study, the authors studied fabrication methods of bioactive PEEK by using the above-mentioned process. First, the fine-sized pores were formed on the surface of the PEEK substrate by H 2 SO 4 treatment. Next, to provide hydrophilic property to the PEEK, the surfaces of the PEEK were treated with O 2 plasma. Finally, PrA were formed in the pores by the above-mentioned process, which is denoted as 'Alkaline SBF' treatment, and the bioactive PEEK was obtained. By immersing in SBF with the physiological condition, hydroxyapatite formation was induced on the whole surface of the substrate within 1day. The formation of PrA directly contributed to hydroxyapatite formation ability. By applying the O 2 plasma treatment, hydroxyapatite formation was uniformly performed on the whole surface of the substrate. The H 2 SO 4 treatment contributed to a considerable enhancement of adhesive strength of the formed hydroxyapatite layer formed in SBF because of the increase of surface areas of the substrate. As a comparative study, the sandblasting method was applied as the pores formation process instead of the H 2 SO 4 treatment. Although hydroxyapatite formation was provided also in this case, however, the adhesion of the formed hydroxyapatite layer to the substrate was not sufficient even if the O 2 plasma treatment was conducted. This result indicates that the fine-sized pores should be formed on the whole surface of the substrate uniformly to achieve high adhesive strength of the hydroxyapatite layer. Therefore, it is considered that the H 2 SO 4 treatment before the O 2 plasma and the 'Alkaline SBF' treatment

  12. Evolution of the Niger Delta, present dynamics and the future ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evolution of the Niger Delta is closely linked to the geodynamics related to the separation of the African and South American continents and the tectonics of the formation of the Benue Trough. Tectonic activities, climate and eustasy are the major factors responsible for transgression and regression through the entrant point ...

  13. Using delta15N of Chironomidae as an index of nitrogen sources and processing within watersheds as part of EPA’s National Aquatic Resource Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) removal in watersheds is an important regulating ecosystem service that can help reduce N pollution in the nation’s waterways. However, processes that remove N such as denitrification are generally determined at point locations. Measures that integrate N proc...

  14. Effect of environmental change on the morphology of tidally influenced deltas over multi-decadal timescale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angamuthu, Balaji; Darby, Stephen; Nicholls, Robert

    2017-04-01

    An understanding of the geomorphological processes affecting deltas is essential to improve our understanding of the risks that deltas face, especially as human impacts are likely to intensify in the future. Unfortunately, there is limited reliable data on river deltas, meaning that the task of demonstrating the links between morphodynamic and environmental change is challenging. This presentation aims to answer the questions of how delta morphology evolves over multi-decadal timescales under multiple drivers, focussing on tidally-influenced deltas, as some of these, such as the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) delta are heavily populated. A series of idealised model simulations over 102 years were used to explore the influence of three key drivers on delta morphodynamics, both individually and together: (i) varying combinations of water and sediment discharges from the upstream catchment, (ii) varying rates of relative sea-level rise (RSLR), and (iii) selected human interventions within the delta, such as polders, cross-dams and changing land cover. Model simulations revealed that delta progradation rates are more sensitive to variations in water discharge than variations in fluvial sediment supply. Unlike mere aggradation during RSLR, the delta front experienced aggradational progradation due to tides. As expected, the area of the simulated sub-aerial delta increases with increasing sediment discharge, but decreases with increasing water discharge. But, human modifications are important. For example, the sub-aerial delta shrinks with increasing RSLR, but it does not when the sub-aerial delta is polderised, provided the polders are restricted from erosion. However, the polders are vulnerable to flooding as they lose relative elevation and can make the delta building process unsustainable. Cross-dams built to steer zones of land accretion within the delta accomplish their local goal, but may not result in net land gain at the scale of the delta. Applying these

  15. A Fresh Look at Spatio-Temporal Remote Sensing Data: Data Formats, Processing Flow, and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gens, R.

    2017-12-01

    With increasing number of experimental and operational satellites in orbit, remote sensing based mapping and monitoring of the dynamic Earth has entered into the realm of `big data'. Just the Landsat series of satellites provide a near continuous archive of 45 years of data. The availability of such spatio-temporal datasets has created opportunities for long-term monitoring diverse features and processes operating on the Earth's terrestrial and aquatic systems. Processes such as erosion, deposition, subsidence, uplift, evapotranspiration, urbanization, land-cover regime shifts can not only be monitored and change can be quantified using time-series data analysis. This unique opportunity comes with new challenges in management, analysis, and visualization of spatio-temporal datasets. Data need to be stored in a user-friendly format, and relevant metadata needs to be recorded, to allow maximum flexibility for data exchange and use. Specific data processing workflows need to be defined to support time-series analysis for specific applications. Value-added data products need to be generated keeping in mind the needs of the end-users, and using best practices in complex data visualization. This presentation systematically highlights the various steps for preparing spatio-temporal remote sensing data for time series analysis. It showcases a prototype workflow for remote sensing based change detection that can be generically applied while preserving the application-specific fidelity of the datasets. The prototype includes strategies for visualizing change over time. This has been exemplified using a time-series of optical and SAR images for visualizing the changing glacial, coastal, and wetland landscapes in parts of Alaska.

  16. Primary production in the Delta: Then and now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.; Robinson, April; Richey, Amy; Grenier, Letitia; Grossinger, Robin; Boyer, Katharyn E.; Burau, Jon; Canuel, Elizabeth A.; DeGeorge, John F.; Drexler, Judith Z.; Enright, Chris; Howe, Emily R.; Kneib, Ronald; Mueller-Solger, Anke; Naiman, Robert J.; Pinckney, James L.; Safran, Samuel M.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Simenstad, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the role of restoration in the recovery of the Delta ecosystem, we need to have clear targets and performance measures that directly assess ecosystem function. Primary production is a crucial ecosystem process, which directly limits the quality and quantity of food available for secondary consumers such as invertebrates and fish. The Delta has a low rate of primary production, but it is unclear whether this was always the case. Recent analyses from the Historical Ecology Team and Delta Landscapes Project provide quantitative comparisons of the areal extent of 14 habitat types in the modern Delta versus the historical Delta (pre-1850). Here we describe an approach for using these metrics of land use change to: (1) produce the first quantitative estimates of how Delta primary production and the relative contributions from five different producer groups have been altered by large-scale drainage and conversion to agriculture; (2) convert these production estimates into a common currency so the contributions of each producer group reflect their food quality and efficiency of transfer to consumers; and (3) use simple models to discover how tidal exchange between marshes and open water influences primary production and its consumption. Application of this approach could inform Delta management in two ways. First, it would provide a quantitative estimate of how large-scale conversion to agriculture has altered the Delta's capacity to produce food for native biota. Second, it would provide restoration practitioners with a new approach—based on ecosystem function—to evaluate the success of restoration projects and gauge the trajectory of ecological recovery in the Delta region.

  17. Primary Production in the Delta: Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Cloern

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss3art1To evaluate the role of restoration in the recovery of the Delta ecosystem, we need to have clear targets and performance measures that directly assess ecosystem function. Primary production is a crucial ecosystem process, which directly limits the quality and quantity of food available for secondary consumers such as invertebrates and fish. The Delta has a low rate of primary production, but it is unclear whether this was always the case. Recent analyses from the Historical Ecology Team and Delta Landscapes Project provide quantitative comparisons of the areal extent of 14 habitat types in the modern Delta versus the historical Delta (pre-1850. Here we describe an approach for using these metrics of land use change to: (1 produce the first quantitative estimates of how Delta primary production and the relative contributions from five different producer groups have been altered by large-scale drainage and conversion to agriculture; (2 convert these production estimates into a common currency so the contributions of each producer group reflect their food quality and efficiency of transfer to consumers; and (3 use simple models to discover how tidal exchange between marshes and open water influences primary production and its consumption. Application of this approach could inform Delta management in two ways. First, it would provide a quantitative estimate of how large-scale conversion to agriculture has altered the Delta's capacity to produce food for native biota. Second, it would provide restoration practitioners with a new approach—based on ecosystem function—to evaluate the success of restoration projects and gauge the trajectory of ecological recovery in the Delta region.

  18. Cooper pair formation dynamics in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaindl, R.A.; Carnahan, M.A.; Orenstein, J.; Chemla, D.S.; Oh, S.; Eckstein, J.N.

    2003-01-01

    We utilize ultrafast terahertz pulses to monitor the carrier dynamics in the high-TC superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta. The temperature, density and time dependence distinctly exposes a bimolecular recombination process of quasiparticles which underlies formation of Cooper pairs

  19. “Failures of the State”: Factors of Formation and Mechanisms of Influence on Economic Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gontar Nikolay Vladimirovich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of genesis and influence on real economic processes of “failures of the state”. The article designates the objective functions inherent in the state the realization of which can increase the efficiency of economic interactions reducing transaction expenses. Besides, the key factors of non-optimal activity of the state as well as actual “failures of the state” are considered. The approaches to the definition of “failures of the state” are analyzed. Taking into account functional approach the author proposes the model definition allowing to separate “failures of the state” from factors and conditions of their emergence. Among the emergence factors of “failures of the state” the author analyzes in detail the key division of economy subjects to net-payers and net-recipients of the income, the fact of distribution of consequences of state regulation to the sectors which are not direct objects of regulation as well as the influence of short-term decisions for long-term prospects are designated. The author also analyzes the range of “failures of the state”, including such as formation of monopolies, tax discouraging, failures of social security, nature of “state business”, derivation of resources and workers from economy, formation of an inequality and calculational (price chaos in economy. The key consequences and volume of the economic damage formed by “failures of the state” are considered, the corresponding quantitative estimates are given. The most important vectors of optimization of activity of the state which provide minimization of “failures of the state” and the related economic damage are designated. According to the author, such vectors include the priority of market self-regulation under the condition of refusal from substitutes in the form of “approach” of public sector to market standards. The minimization of public sector activity aimed at the exclusion of

  20. Fast delta Hadamard transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.; Weston, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    In many fields (e.g., spectroscopy, imaging spectroscopy, photoacoustic imaging, coded aperture imaging) binary bit patterns known as m sequences are used to encode (by multiplexing) a series of measurements in order to obtain a larger throughput. The observed measurements must be decoded to obtain the desired spectrum (or image in the case of coded aperture imaging). Decoding in the past has used a technique called the fast Hadamard transform (FHT) whose chief advantage is that it can reduce the computational effort from N 2 multiplies of N log 2 N additions or subtractions. However, the FHT has the disadvantage that it does not readily allow one to sample more finely than the number of bits used in the m sequence. This can limit the obtainable resolution and cause confusion near the sample boundaries (phasing errors). Both 1-D and 2-D methods (called fast delta Hadamard transforms, FDHT) have been developed which overcome both of the above limitations. Applications of the FDHT are discussed in the context of Hadamard spectroscopy and coded aperture imaging with uniformly redundant arrays. Special emphasis has been placed on how the FDHT can unite techniques used by both of these fields into the same mathematical basis

  1. Study on Formation Mechanism of Fayalite (Fe2SiO4) by Solid State Reaction in Sintering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongbing; Peng, Bing; Zhang, Lifeng; Zhao, Zongwen; Liu, Degang; Peng, Ning; Wang, Dawei; He, Yinghe; Liang, Yanjie; Liu, Hui

    2018-04-01

    The sintering behaviors among SiO2, FeS and Fe3O4 were detected to reveal the formation mechanism of Fe2SiO4. The results indicated that the formation mechanism is divided into five steps: (1) migration of O2- induced by S2- under a reducing atmosphere; (2) formation of Fe3O4- β ; (3) migration of Fe(II) into a ferrite cluster structure to gain oxygen and form Fe3- x O4; (4) Fe(II) invaded the silicon atomic position and released Si(IV); and (5) formation of the stable structure of Fe2SiO4 through chemical diffusion between cations of Fe(II) and Si(IV). These findings can provide theoretical support for controlling the process of the recovery of valuable metals in copper slag through the combined roasting modification-magnetic separation process.

  2. Human induced discharge diversion in a tropical delta and its environmental implications: The Patía River, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Juan D.; Kettner, Albert

    2012-03-01

    SummaryThe Patía River, the number one in terms of sediment yield ˜1500 t km-2 yr-1 draining the western South America, has the most extensive and well developed delta on the Pacific coast, measuring 1700 km2. During the Holocene, nature forced the Patía delta to the south; however, a major water diversion, starting in 1972, diverted the Patía flow to the Sanguianga River, the latter, a small stream draining internal lakes from the Pacific lowlands. This human induced discharge diversion shifted the active delta plain back to the north and changed the northern estuarine system into an active delta plain. Overall, major environmental consequences of this discharge diversion in terms of morphological changes along the delta coast and distributary channels, are evidenced by: (1) coastal retreat along the abandoned delta lobe; 63% of the southern shoreline is retreating at maximum rates of 7 m yr-1, with a corresponding coastal land loss of 106 m yr-1; (2) transgressive barrier islands with exposed peat soils in the surf zone; (3) abandonment of former active distributaries in the southern delta plain with associated closing of inlets and formation of ebb tidal deltas; (4) breaching events on barrier islands; and (5) distributary channel accretion in the northern delta plain by morphological processes such as sedimentation (also in crevasses), overbank flow, increasing width of levees, interdistributary channel fill, and colonization of pioneer mangrove. The Sanguianga Mangrove National Park (SMNP), the largest mangrove reserve in Colombia, measuring 800 km2, lies in this former estuary, where major hydrologic and sedimentation changes are occurring. Observed environmental changes in the SMNP, include (1) seaward advance of the sub-aqueous delta front at the Sanquianga inlet evidenced by an increase in tidal flat area from 5.4 Mm2 in 1986 to 14 Mm2 in 2001; (2) freshening conditions in the Sanguianga distributary channel, a hydrologic change that has shifted the

  3. Niger Delta Development Commission and Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Niger Delta Development Commission and Sustainable Development of Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: The Case of Rivers State. Goddey Wilson. Abstract. The study is on Niger Delta Development Commission and sustainable development of Niger Delta region of Nigeria, the case of Rivers State. The main objective of the ...

  4. Review of the investigation of mixture formation and combustion process using rapid compression machine and direct visualization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaat, M.; Khalid, Amir; Manshoor, B.; Ramsy, Him

    2013-12-01

    This paper reviews of some applications of optical visualization systems to compute the fuel-air mixing process during early stage of mixture formation in Diesel Combustion Engines. A number of studies have contributed to the understanding of fuel air mixing in DI diesel engine. This review has shown that the mixture formation process affects initial flame development. The review also found that injection pressure has a great effect on the mixture formation then the flame development and combustion characteristics. The method of the simulation of real phenomenon of diesel combustion with optical access rapid compression machine is also reviewed and experimental results are presented. The application of these methods to the investigation of diesel sprays highlights mechanisms which govern propagation and distribution of the formation of a combustible fuel-air mixture. A summary of the implementation of constant volume chamber and optical visualization system are shown in the accompanying tables and figures. The visualization of the formation process of diesel spray and its combustion in the diesel combustion chamber of diesel engine has been recognized as one of the best ways to understand the characteristics of the mixture formation.

  5. Zeolite Formation and Weathering Processes in Dry Valleys of Antartica: Martian Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Socki, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    been identified within the soil columns because they are fragile; i.e. they are euhedral, unabraded, and unfractured, strongly suggesting in situ formation. Their presence in Antarctic samples is another indication that diagenic processes are active in cold-desert environments. The presence of zeolites, and other clays along with halites, sulfates, carbonates, and hydrates are to be expected within the soil columns on Mars at the Gusev and Isidis Planitia regions. The presence of such water-bearing minerals beneath the surface supplies one of the requirements to support biological activity on Mars.

  6. Delta Evolution at Røde Elv, Disko Island, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, A.; Arngrimson, J.; Bendixen, M.; Sigsgaard, C.

    2017-12-01

    Ice, snow and freezing temperatures have a large impact on coastal morphodynamics in Arctic polar environments. A recent warming of the Arctic climate induces many changes along the arctic shorelines. Sea-levels are rising due to thermal expansion and due to an increased fresh water flux from the glaciers and land ice masses. At the same time, the ice coverage of the coastal waters reduces and the open water periods in summer extend. There is a strong seasonal variation with open waters and active rivers in summer and ice-covered coastal waters and inactive rivers in winter. Coastal processes by waves and tides are thus limited to the summer and early fall. Besides, there is also a strong daily variation in fluvial discharges due to the daily variations in glacier melt with maximum melt in the afternoon and minimum values at night. At the same time, the actual flux of the river to the coastal bay is influenced by the tidal phase. Low tides will enhance the transport to the delta front, while high tides will create stagnant waters over the delta plain. The delta of the Røde Elv is located in southwestern Disko Island in west Greenland. It has a relatively small (ca. 101 km2) and partly glaciated drainage basin (ca. 20%) and its sediments consist of a mixture of basaltic sands and gravels. The Røde Elv delta is located at the end of a pro-glacial and fluvial valley at about 20 km from the glacier. The shores of the delta are reworked by waves, predominantly from southwestern, southern (largest fetch, over 50 km), and southeastern directions. The environment has a micro- to meso- tidal range with a spring tidal range of 2.7 m. The morphologic changes on the delta over the last decades clearly showed a seaward extension of the delta and a periodic shift in the location of the main delta channel. In this presentation, we focus on quantification of water discharges and suspended sediment fluxes to the Røde Elv delta in western Greenland, and on the morphological

  7. Late quaternary evolution of the Orinoco Delta, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, A.G.; Guevara, E.H.; Aslan, A.

    2002-01-01

    delta processes and environments.

  8. Is there a self-organization principle of river deltas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Alejandro; Longjas, Anthony; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2017-04-01

    River deltas are known to possess a complex topological and flux-partitioning structure which has recently been quantified using spectral graph theory [Tejedor et al., 2015a,b]. By analysis of real and simulated deltas it has also been shown that there is promise in formalizing relationships between this topo-dynamic delta structure and the underlying delta forming processes [e.g., Tejedor et al., 2016]. The question we pose here is whether there exists a first order organizational principle behind the self-organization of river deltas and whether this principle can be unraveled from the co-evolving topo-dynamic structure encoded in the delta planform. To answer this question, we introduce a new metric, the nonlocal Entropy Rate (nER) that captures the information content of a delta network in terms of the degree of uncertainty in delivering fluxes from any point of the network to the shoreline. We hypothesize that if the "guiding principle" of undisturbed deltas is to efficiently and robustly build land by increasing the diversity of their flux pathways over the delta plane, then they would exhibit maximum nonlocal Entropy Rate at states at which geometry and flux dynamics are at equilibrium. At the same time, their nER would be non-optimal at transient states, such as before and after major avulsions during which topology and dynamics adjust to each other to reach a new equilibrium state. We will present our results for field and simulated deltas, which confirm this hypothesis and open up new ways of thinking about self-organization, complexity and robustness in river deltas. One particular connection of interest might have important implications since entropy rate and resilience are related by the fluctuation theorem [Demetrius and Manke, 2005], and therefore our results suggest that deltas might in fact self-organize to maximize their resilience to structural and dynamic perturbations. References: Tejedor, A., A. Longjas, I. Zaliapin, and E. Foufoula

  9. The potential energy of an infinite system of nucleons and delta resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, N.H.

    1980-01-01

    The nature and properties of the delta resonance, Δ (1236), in infinite nuclear and neutron matter are investigated. Calculations of the potential energy of a system of separate Fermi seas of nucleons and delta resonances have been performed using Jastrow lowest-order constrained variational techniques. Using the Reid soft-core nucleon-nucleon interaction and a model, consistent, energy-dependent, static one-pion- and one-rho-meson-exchange nucleon-delta potential, a significant reduction in the potential energy of the system is found at densities above nuclear matter density (0.17 fm -3 ) when deltas are present. The density at which the formation of a separate Fermi sea of deltas is favourable is estimated and the consequences for the possible formation of a pion condensate and the properties of neutron star matter are discussed. (author)

  10. DeltaFosB induces osteosclerosis and decreases adipogenesis by two independent cell-autonomous mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveiborg, Marie; Sabatakos, George; Chiusaroli, Riccardo

    2004-01-01

    establishes that the skeletal phenotype is cell autonomous to the osteoblast lineage and independent of adipocyte formation. It also strongly suggests that the decreased fat phenotype of NSE-DeltaFosB mice is independent of the changes in the osteoblast lineage. In vitro, overexpression of Delta......Osteoblasts and adipocytes may develop from common bone marrow mesenchymal precursors. Transgenic mice overexpressing DeltaFosB, an AP-1 transcription factor, under the control of the neuron-specific enolase (NSE) promoter show both markedly increased bone formation and decreased adipogenesis...... of DeltaFosB on adipocyte differentiation appears to occur at early stages of stem cell commitment, affecting C/EBPbeta functions. It is concluded that the changes in osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation in DeltaFosB transgenic mice result from independent cell-autonomous mechanisms....

  11. Case studies on the formation of chalcogenide self-assembled monolayers on surfaces and dissociative processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Tong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This report examines the assembly of chalcogenide organic molecules on various surfaces, focusing on cases when chemisorption is accompanied by carbon–chalcogen atom-bond scission. In the case of alkane and benzyl chalcogenides, this induces formation of a chalcogenized interface layer. This process can occur during the initial stages of adsorption and then, after passivation of the surface, molecular adsorption can proceed. The characteristics of the chalcogenized interface layer can be significantly different from the metal layer and can affect various properties such as electron conduction. For chalcogenophenes, the carbon–chalcogen atom-bond breaking can lead to opening of the ring and adsorption of an alkene chalcogenide. Such a disruption of the π-electron system affects charge transport along the chains. Awareness about these effects is of importance from the point of view of molecular electronics. We discuss some recent studies based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy that shed light on these aspects for a series of such organic molecules.

  12. Brittle fracture in viscoelastic materials as a pattern-formation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, M.; Pilipenko, D.; Spatschek, R.; Brener, E. A.

    2011-04-01

    A continuum model of crack propagation in brittle viscoelastic materials is presented and discussed. Thereby, the phenomenon of fracture is understood as an elastically induced nonequilibrium interfacial pattern formation process. In this spirit, a full description of a propagating crack provides the determination of the entire time dependent shape of the crack surface, which is assumed to be extended over a finite and self-consistently selected length scale. The mechanism of crack propagation, that is, the motion of the crack surface, is then determined through linear nonequilibrium transport equations. Here we consider two different mechanisms, a first-order phase transformation and surface diffusion. We give scaling arguments showing that steady-state solutions with a self-consistently selected propagation velocity and crack shape can exist provided that elastodynamic or viscoelastic effects are taken into account, whereas static elasticity alone is not sufficient. In this respect, inertial effects as well as viscous damping are identified to be sufficient crack tip selection mechanisms. Exploring the arising description of brittle fracture numerically, we study steady-state crack propagation in the viscoelastic and inertia limit as well as in an intermediate regime, where both effects are important. The arising free boundary problems are solved by phase field methods and a sharp interface approach using a multipole expansion technique. Different types of loading, mode I, mode III fracture, as well as mixtures of them, are discussed.

  13. Formation and magic number characteristics of clusters formed during solidification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Rangsu; Dong Kejun; Tian Zean; Liu Hairong; Peng Ping; Yu Aibing

    2007-01-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation study has been performed for a large-sized system consisting of 10 6 liquid metal Al atoms to investigate the formation and magic number characteristics of various clusters formed during solidification processes. The cluster-type index method (CTIM) is adopted to describe various types of cluster by basic clusters. It is demonstrated that the icosahedral cluster (12 0 12 0) is the most important basic cluster, and that it plays a critical role in the microstructure transition. A new statistical method has been proposed to classify the clusters as some group levels according to the numbers of basic clusters contained in each cluster. The magic numbers can be determined by the respective peak value positions of different group levels of clusters, and the magic number sequence in the system is 13, 19, 25(27), 31(33), 38(40), 42(45), 48(51), 55(59), 61(65), 67,... the numbers in the brackets are the second magic number of the corresponding group levels of clusters. This magic number sequence is in good agreement with the experimental results obtained by Schriver and Harris et al, and the experimental results can be reasonably well explained

  14. Finite element simulation of dynamic wetting flows as an interface formation process

    KAUST Repository

    Sprittles, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    A mathematically challenging model of dynamic wetting as a process of interface formation has been, for the first time, fully incorporated into a numerical code based on the finite element method and applied, as a test case, to the problem of capillary rise. The motivation for this work comes from the fact that, as discovered experimentally more than a decade ago, the key variable in dynamic wetting flows - the dynamic contact angle - depends not just on the velocity of the three-phase contact line but on the entire flow field/geometry. Hence, to describe this effect, it becomes necessary to use the mathematical model that has this dependence as its integral part. A new physical effect, termed the \\'hydrodynamic resist to dynamic wetting\\', is discovered where the influence of the capillary\\'s radius on the dynamic contact angle, and hence on the global flow, is computed. The capabilities of the numerical framework are then demonstrated by comparing the results to experiments on the unsteady capillary rise, where excellent agreement is obtained. Practical recommendations on the spatial resolution required by the numerical scheme for a given set of non-dimensional similarity parameters are provided, and a comparison to asymptotic results available in limiting cases confirms that the code is converging to the correct solution. The appendix gives a user-friendly step-by-step guide specifying the entire implementation and allowing the reader to easily reproduce all presented results, including the benchmark calculations. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  15. Effects of Fuel Quantity on Soot Formation Process for Biomass-Based Renewable Diesel Fuel Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Soot formation process was investigated for biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, such as biomass to liquid (BTL), and conventional diesel combustion under varied fuel quantities injected into a constant volume combustion chamber. Soot measurement was implemented by two-color pyrometry under quiescent type diesel engine conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration). Different fuel quantities, which correspond to different injection widths from 0.5 ms to 2 ms under constant injection pressure (1000 bar), were used to simulate different loads in engines. For a given fuel, soot temperature and KL factor show a different trend at initial stage for different fuel quantities, where a higher soot temperature can be found in a small fuel quantity case but a higher KL factor is observed in a large fuel quantity case generally. Another difference occurs at the end of combustion due to the termination of fuel injection. Additionally, BTL flame has a lower soot temperature, especially under a larger fuel quantity (2 ms injection width). Meanwhile, average soot level is lower for BTL flame, especially under a lower fuel quantity (0.5 ms injection width). BTL shows an overall low sooting behavior with low soot temperature compared to diesel, however, trade-off between soot level and soot temperature needs to be carefully selected when different loads are used.

  16. FORMATION OF THE LEADING TEACHER IN EDUCATIONAL PROCESS OF HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Bicheva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The publication purpose – to reveal intrinsic characteristics of the leading teacher and to develop pedagogical conditions of formation of leadership skills of students – future preschool teachers in educational process of higher education institution. Methodological principles of article are the theory of leadership and development of the personality. When carrying out a research were used the analysis of scientific-theoretical provisions of the concept "leader" of the system of modern professional and pedagogical knowledge.Content – the analysis of the studied problem has allowed authors to define that the leading teacher is a personality to whom trust and who is recognized; capable to lead group of children (parents, colleagues, awakening their activity and interest; to influence interaction process, regulating relationship; to responsibly organize performance of this or that activity. The conclusion is drawn that in the conditions of modernization of educational system the leading teacher becomes the important strategic resource of all transformations capable to generate and perceive innovations, ready to show activity and creativity.The fundamental qualities causing purposeful development of the important personal and professional characteristics leading the personality to the leader's position have defined independence and responsibility.Three groups of the pedagogical conditions in total forming special leader space, approving social, active and creative essence of the identity of students and forming qualities of the successful leading teacher are proved: reflexive and motivational, substantial and informative and activity.Authors join in structure of qualities of the leading teacher: the motivational focused, intellectual and strong-willed, behavioural, social and communicative qualities. It is shown that existence of the marked-out qualities though increases development of the teacher as leader, but possession of them not

  17. The Formation of Chimeric Nanomorphologies, as a Reflection of Naturally Occurring Thermodynamic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naziris, N.; Demetzos, C.

    2017-11-01

    The self-assembly process of different in nature biomaterials leads to the morphogenesis of various nano-structures, where the individual molecule properties (e.g. hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic balance and elasticity), profoundly affect the intermediate surfaces’ interfacial thermodynamics. Herein, the mixing of a phospholipid and an amphiphilic block copolymer, through the thin-film hydration method, gave different morphologies, among which there were vesicles (i.e. liposomes and polymersomes), micelles and worm-like structures. The formation of such variety of structures is attributed to divergent entropic pathways, which are determined by a number of parameters, such as the lipid:polymer molar ratio and the polymer composition. The developed nanosystems are considered as chimeric/mixed, because of the two different in type biomaterials that compose them. The vesicles also exhibited membrane “irregularities”, which are connected with their biophysical behavior. Nature has “chosen” vesicular forms to be the thermodynamically stable “biological apartments”, in which life was enclosed and additionally, vesicles provided compartmentalized systems, where the intracellular environment was built. Phospholipid properties result in membranes/bilayers that harmonically assimilate other molecules, like proteins and retain their integrity and functionality, while gaining additional features. A cause that alters this relationship might induce changes in the membrane composition and morphology, with respect to lipid rafts/domains, what has been linked with the activation and development of certain human disorders/diseases. The self-assembly of two different biomaterials into various structures that present distinct membrane phenomena is believed to simulate these natural processes.

  18. Process comparison for fracture-induced formation of surface structures on polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yueh-Ying [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Yang, Fuqian [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Chen, Chia-Chieh [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan, Taoyuan 32546, Taiwan (China); Lee, Sanboh, E-mail: sblee@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-01

    Using three different splitting approaches such as point-load splitting, tension-splitting and peeling–splitting, different surface ripples were produced on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based polymer films. Independent of the splitting approaches, the spatial wavelength of the surface structures is a linear function of the film thickness with the approximately same differential ratio of the spatial wavelength to the film thickness. The apparent surface residual stress was calculated from the thickness dependence of the spatial frequency, and the magnitude of the apparent surface stress increased with the increase of the film thickness. After exposing the aged PMMA-based photoresist at liquid state to gamma-irradiation, the effects of aging and the gamma-irradiation were investigated on the splitting-induced formation of surface structures. For the peeling–splitting process, the differential ratio of the spatial wavelength to the film thickness for the aged samples is larger than that for non-aged samples. The point-load splitting could not produce any surface pattern on the gamma-irradiated films. None of the splitting approaches could form surface structures for polymer films exposed to irradiation of high dose. Both the spatial wavelength and the apparent surface stress increased with the film thickness for the irradiated polymer films. - Highlights: • Using splitting processes, surface ripples were formed on polymer films. • The surface ripples were induced by compressively apparent surface stress. • The spatial wavelength of the ripples is a linear function of the film thickness. • The spatial wavelength of the ripples is affected by gamma-ray irradiation. • The spatial wavelength of the ripples is affected by aging.

  19. Investigation of the Formation Process of Two Piracetam Cocrystals during Grinding

    OpenAIRE

    Rehder, Sönke; Klukkert, Marten; Löbmann, Korbinian A. M.; Strachan, Clare J.; Sakmann, Albrecht; Gordon, Keith; Rades, Thomas; Leopold, Claudia S.

    2011-01-01

    Cocrystal formation rates during dry grinding and liquid-assisted grinding were investigated by X-ray powder diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy. Two polymorphic forms of piracetam were used to prepare known piracetam cocrystals as model substances, i.e., piracetam-citric acid and piracetam-tartaric acid cocrystals. Raman spectroscopy in combination with principal component analysis was used to visualize the cocrystal formation pathways. During dry grinding, cocrystal formation appeared to ...

  20. In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Stanecki, John

    2010-09-21

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing a drive fluid to a hydrocarbon containing layer of the tar sands formation to mobilize at least some hydrocarbons in the layer. At least some first hydrocarbons from the layer are produced. Heat is provided to the layer from one or more heaters located in the formation. At least some second hydrocarbons are produced from the layer of the formation. The second hydrocarbons include at least some hydrocarbons that are upgraded compared to the first hydrocarbons produced by using the drive fluid.

  1. The ethical formation process of the learners who study Marxism-leninism and History. Particularities o f this process in Rafael Maria de Mendive teachers training university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Cabrera Domínguez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the systematization of the work of different authors about the theme discussed and the analysis made by the author according to the characteristics of the process of ethic formation of the students form the Marxism Leninism and History carrer during the initial formation stage, centred in an interdisciplinary perspective in ̈Rafael Maria de Mendive ̈ University of Pedagogical Sciences ̈ form Pinar del Rio. This work takes as a starting point the materialistic and dialectical method, in the relation man-society, in the Pedagogy and General Didactics and in the current situation of this process.

  2. $\\delta$-Expansion at Finite Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Rudnei O.

    1996-01-01

    We apply the $\\delta$-expansion perturbation scheme to the $\\lambda \\phi^{4}$ self-interacting scalar field theory in 3+1 D at finite temperature. In the $\\delta$-expansion the interaction term is written as $\\lambda (\\phi^{2})^{ 1 + \\delta}$ and $\\delta$ is considered as the perturbation parameter. We compute within this perturbative approach the renormalized mass at finite temperature at a finite order in $\\delta$. The results are compared with the usual loop-expansion at finite temperature.

  3. Delta Morphodynamics Matters! Ecosystem Services, Poverty and Morphodynamic Change in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Mega-Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Adger, N.; Allan, A.; Darby, S. E.; Hutton, C.; Matthews, Z.; Rahman, M.; Whitehead, P. G.; Wolf, J.

    2013-12-01

    between physical drivers, environmental pressures and the human responses to stresses and the resultant impacts on ecosystems. We argue that since the availability of land exerts a fundamental control on the nature and quality of ecosystem services (e.g., agriculture, flood regulation, etc. versus fisheries), an understanding of delta morphodynamic processes is central to the ecosystem services framework. We present an overview of the historical (~last two centuries) morphodynamic evolution of the GBM delta and demonstrate the effects that these changes have had on trade-offs in the nature of ecosystem services that are accessed by the inhabitants of the GBM delta system.

  4. The spatial distribution of microfabric around gravel grains: indicator of till formation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    KalväNs, Andis; Saks, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    Till micromorphology studies in thin sections is an established tool in the field of glacial geology. Often the thin sections are inspected only visually with help of mineralogical microscope. This can lead to subjective interpretation of observed structures. More objective method used in till micromorphology is measurement of apparent microfabric, usually seen as preferred orientation of elongated sand grains. In theses studies only small fraction of elongated sand grains often confined to small area of thin section usually are measured. We present a method for automated measurement of almost all elongated sand grains across the full area of the thin section. Apparently elongated sand grains are measured using simple image analysis tools, the data are processed in a way similar to regular till fabric data and visualised as a grid of rose diagrams. The method allows to draw statistical information about spatial variation of microfabric preferred orientation and fabric strength with resolution as fine as 1 mm. Late Weichselian tills from several sites in Western Latvia were studied and large variations in fabric strength and spatial distribution were observed in macroscopically similar till units. The observed types of microfabric spatial distributions include strong, monomodal and uniform distribution; weak and highly variable in small distances distribution; consistently bimodal distribution and domain-like pattern of preferred sand grain orientation. We suggest that the method can be readily used to identify the basic deformation and sedimentation processes active during the final stages of till formation. It is understood that the microfabric orientation will be significant affected by nearby large particles. The till is highly heterogonous sediment and the source of microfabric perturbations observed in thin section might lie outside the section plane. Therefore we suggest that microfabric distribution around visible sources of perturbation - gravel grains cut

  5. Tidal modulated flow and sediment flux through Wax Lake Delta distributary channels: Implications for delta development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hanegan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a Delft3D model of the Wax Lake Delta was developed to simulate flow and sediment flux through delta distributary channels. The model was calibrated for tidal constituents as well as velocity and sediment concentration across channel transects. The calibrated model was then used to simulate full spring–neap tidal cycles under constant low flow upstream boundary conditions, with grain size variation in suspended load represented using two sediment fractions. Flow and sediment flux results through distributary channel cross-sections were examined for spatial and temporal variability with the goal of characterizing the role of tides in sediment reworking and delta development. The Wax Lake Delta has prograded through channel extension, river mouth bar deposition, and channel bifurcation. Here we show that tidal modulation of currents influences suspended sand transport, and spatial acceleration through distributary channels at low tides is sufficient to suspend sand in distal reaches during lower flows. The basinward-increasing transport capacity in distributary channels indicates that erosive channel extension could be an important process, even during non-flood events.

  6. PHASE COHERENT STAR FORMATION PROCESSES IN THE DISKS OF GRAND DESIGN SPIRALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BECKMAN, JE; CEPA, J; KNAPEN, JH

    1991-01-01

    We show examples of a new technique we have devised to compare star formation efficiencies in the arms and discs of spirals. First results show striking evidence of the presence and influence of density wave systems of star formation in grand design galaxies.

  7. Formation of MgB2 at ambient temperature with an electrochemical process: a plausible mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadhav, A B; Subhedar, K M; Hyam, R S; Talaptra, A; Sen, Pintu; Bandyopadhyay, S K; Pawar, S H

    2005-01-01

    The binary intermetallic MgB 2 superconductor has been synthesized by many research groups. However, the mechanism of its formation is not clearly understood. In this communication, a comprehensive mechanism of the formation of MgB 2 from Le Chatelier's principle of equilibrium reaction has been explained both for solid-state reaction and electrodeposition methods. (rapid communication)

  8. Dense CO2 as a Solute, Co-Solute or Co-Solvent in Particle Formation Processes: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana V. M. Nunes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of dense gases in particle formation processes has attracted great attention due to documented advantages over conventional technologies. In particular, the use of dense CO2 in the process has been subject of many works and explored in a variety of different techniques. This article presents a review of the current available techniques in use in particle formation processes, focusing exclusively on those employing dense CO2 as a solute, co-solute or co-solvent during the process, such as PGSS (Particles from gas-saturated solutions®, CPF (Concentrated Powder Form®, CPCSP (Continuous Powder Coating Spraying Process, CAN-BD (Carbon dioxide Assisted Nebulization with a Bubble Dryer®, SEA (Supercritical Enhanced Atomization, SAA (Supercritical Fluid-Assisted Atomization, PGSS-Drying and DELOS (Depressurization of an Expanded Liquid Organic Solution. Special emphasis is given to modifications introduced in the different techniques, as well as the limitations that have been overcome.

  9. Investigation of the formation process of two piracetam cocrystals during grinding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehder, Sönke; Klukkert, Marten; Löbmann, Korbinian

    2011-01-01

    Cocrystal formation rates during dry grinding and liquid-assisted grinding were investigated by X-ray powder diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy. Two polymorphic forms of piracetam were used to prepare known piracetam cocrystals as model substances, i.e.,piracetam-citric acid and piracetam......-tartaric acid cocrystals. Raman spectroscopy in combination with principal component analysis was used to visualize the cocrystal formation pathways. During dry grinding, cocrystal formation appeared to progress via an amorphous intermediate stage, which was more evident for the piracetam-citric acid than...... for the piracetam-tartaric acid cocrystal. It was shown that liquid-assisted grinding led to faster cocrystal formation than dry grinding, which may be explained by the higher transformation rate due to the presence of liquid. The cocrystal formation rate did not depend on the applied polymorphic form...

  10. Investigation of the Formation Process of Two Piracetam Cocrystals during Grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehder, Sönke; Klukkert, Marten; Löbmann, Korbinian A. M.; Strachan, Clare J.; Sakmann, Albrecht; Gordon, Keith; Rades, Thomas; Leopold, Claudia S.

    2011-01-01

    Cocrystal formation rates during dry grinding and liquid-assisted grinding were investigated by X-ray powder diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy. Two polymorphic forms of piracetam were used to prepare known piracetam cocrystals as model substances, i.e., piracetam-citric acid and piracetam-tartaric acid cocrystals. Raman spectroscopy in combination with principal component analysis was used to visualize the cocrystal formation pathways. During dry grinding, cocrystal formation appeared to progress via an amorphous intermediate stage, which was more evident for the piracetam-citric acid than for the piracetam-tartaric acid cocrystal. It was shown that liquid-assisted grinding led to faster cocrystal formation than dry grinding, which may be explained by the higher transformation rate due to the presence of liquid. The cocrystal formation rate did not depend on the applied polymorphic form of the piracetam and no polymorphic cocrystals were obtained. PMID:24309304

  11. Investigation of the Formation Process of Two Piracetam Cocrystals during Grinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Gordon

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cocrystal formation rates during dry grinding and liquid-assisted grinding were investigated by X-ray powder diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy. Two polymorphic forms of piracetam were used to prepare known piracetam cocrystals as model substances, i.e.,piracetam-citric acid and piracetam-tartaric acid cocrystals. Raman spectroscopy in combination with principal component analysis was used to visualize the cocrystal formation pathways. During dry grinding, cocrystal formation appeared to progress via an amorphous intermediate stage, which was more evident for the piracetam-citric acid than for the piracetam-tartaric acid cocrystal. It was shown that liquid-assisted grinding led to faster cocrystal formation than dry grinding, which may be explained by the higher transformation rate due to the presence of liquid. The cocrystal formation rate did not depend on the applied polymorphic form of the piracetam and no polymorphic cocrystals were obtained.

  12. Anaerobic Transformation of Furfural by Methanococcus deltae (Delta)LH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, N.; Boopathy, R.; Voskuilen, G.

    1997-01-01

    Methanococcus deltae (Delta)LH was grown on H(inf2)-CO(inf2) in the presence of various concentrations of furfural. Furfural at higher concentrations, namely, 20 and 25 mM, inhibited growth of this organism. At concentration of 5 and 10 mM, no inhibition of growth was observed. The other methanogens in this study were not inhibited by 10 mM furfural. Among the methanogens tested, M. deltae was capable of transforming furfural, whereas Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum Marburg, Methanosarcina barkeri 227, Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus, and Methanobrevibacter ruminantium lacked this capability. One hundred percent removal of furfural was observed within 48 h of incubation in M. deltae cultures. The end product observed during furfural metabolism was furfuryl alcohol. An almost stoichiometric amount of furfuryl alcohol was produced by M. deltae. This transformation is likely to be of value in the detoxification of furfural and in its ultimate conversion to methane and CO(inf2) by anaerobic digestion. PMID:16535618

  13. Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs of the delta family (GluD1 and GluD2 and synaptogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zahid Khan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate delta-1 (GluD1 and glutamate delta-2 (GluD2 form the delta family of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs and are distinct from other (iGluRs in that they do not exhibit typical agonist-induced ion channel currents. Recent studies have demonstrated a crucial role of the delta receptors in synapse formation by interacting with presynaptic proteins such as Neurexin1. This review presents current knowledge regarding the expression, structure and function of Glu delta receptors (GluD1, GluD2 in brain, focusing on synapse formation, function and dysfunction.

  14. Independent delta/theta rhythms in the human hippocampus and entorhinal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Mormann

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Theta oscillations in the medial temporal lobe (MTL of mammals are involved in various functions such as spatial navigation, sensorimotor integration, and cognitive processing. While the theta rhythm was originally assumed to originate in the medial septum, more recent studies suggest autonomous theta generation in the MTL. Although coherence between entorhinal and hippocampal theta activity has been found to influence memory formation, it remains unclear whether these two structures can generate theta independently. In this study we analyzed intracranial electroencephalographic (EEG recordings from 22 patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis undergoing presurgical evaluation prior to resection of the epileptic focus. Using a wavelet-based, frequency-band-specific measure of phase synchronization, we quantified synchrony between 10 different recording sites along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampal formation in the non-epileptic brain hemisphere. We compared EEG synchrony between adjacent recording sites (i within the entorhinal cortex, (ii within the hippocampus, and (iii between the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. We observed a significant interregional gap in synchrony for the delta and theta band, indicating the existence of independent delta/theta rhythms in different subregions of the human MTL. The interaction of these rhythms could represent the temporal basis for the information processing required for mnemonic encoding and retrieval.

  15. Gap formation processes in a high-density plasma opening switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossmann, J.M.; Swanekamp, S.B.; Ottinger, P.F.; Commisso, R.J.; Hinshelwood, D.D.; Weber, B.V.

    1995-01-01

    A gap opening process in plasma opening switches (POS) is examined with the aid of numerical simulations. In these simulations, a high density (n e =10 14 --5x10 15 cm -3 ) uniform plasma initially bridges a small section of the coaxial transmission line of an inductive energy storage generator. A short section of vacuum transmission line connects the POS to a short circuit load. The results presented here extend previous simulations in the n e =10 12 --10 13 cm -3 density regime. The simulations show that a two-dimensional (2-D) sheath forms in the plasma near a cathode. This sheath is positively charged, and electrostatic sheath potentials that are large compared to the anode--cathode voltage develop. Initially, the 2-D sheath is located at the generator edge of the plasma. As ions are accelerated out of the sheath, it retains its original 2-D structure, but migrates axially toward the load creating a magnetically insulated gap in its wake. When the sheath reaches the load edge of the POS, the POS stops conducting current and the load current increases rapidly. At the end of the conduction phase a gap exists in the POS whose size is determined by the radial dimensions of the 2-D sheath. Simulations at various plasma densities and current levels show that the radial size of the gap scales roughly as B/n e , where B is the magnetic field. The results of this work are discussed in the context of long-conduction-time POS physics, but exhibit the same physical gap formation mechanisms as earlier lower density simulations more relevant to short-conduction-time POS. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  16. SAMMate: a GUI tool for processing short read alignments in SAM/BAM format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flemington Erik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next Generation Sequencing (NGS technology generates tens of millions of short reads for each DNA/RNA sample. A key step in NGS data analysis is the short read alignment of the generated sequences to a reference genome. Although storing alignment information in the Sequence Alignment/Map (SAM or Binary SAM (BAM format is now standard, biomedical researchers still have difficulty accessing this information. Results We have developed a Graphical User Interface (GUI software tool named SAMMate. SAMMate allows biomedical researchers to quickly process SAM/BAM files and is compatible with both single-end and paired-end sequencing technologies. SAMMate also automates some standard procedures in DNA-seq and RNA-seq data analysis. Using either standard or customized annotation files, SAMMate allows users to accurately calculate the short read coverage of genomic intervals. In particular, for RNA-seq data SAMMate can accurately calculate the gene expression abundance scores for customized genomic intervals using short reads originating from both exons and exon-exon junctions. Furthermore, SAMMate can quickly calculate a whole-genome signal map at base-wise resolution allowing researchers to solve an array of bioinformatics problems. Finally, SAMMate can export both a wiggle file for alignment visualization in the UCSC genome browser and an alignment statistics report. The biological impact of these features is demonstrated via several case studies that predict miRNA targets using short read alignment information files. Conclusions With just a few mouse clicks, SAMMate will provide biomedical researchers easy access to important alignment information stored in SAM/BAM files. Our software is constantly updated and will greatly facilitate the downstream analysis of NGS data. Both the source code and the GUI executable are freely available under the GNU General Public License at http://sammate.sourceforge.net.

  17. In-situ formation of complex oxide precipitates during processing of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasankar, K.; Pandey, Abhishek; Mishra, B.K.; Das, Siddhartha

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Use of dual drive planetary ball mill for Bench scale (>1 kg) production. • X-ray diffraction and TEM were used to study transformations during sintering. • HIPped and rolled samples with nearly 99% density successfully produced. - Abstract: In fusion and fission reactor material development, ODS alloys are the most suitable candidate materials due to its high temperature creep properties and irradiation resistance properties. This paper describes the preparation of oxide dispersion strengthened alloy powder in large quantity (>1 kg batch) in dual drive planetary ball mill using pre-alloyed ferrtic steel powder with nano sized Y_2O_3. The consolidation of the powders was carried out in hot isostatic press (HIP) followed by hot rolling. 99% of the theoretical density was achieved by this method. The vickers hardness values of pressed and rolled samples were in the range of 380 ± 2HV and 719 ± 2HV, respectively. Samples were further investigated using X-ray diffraction particle size analyzer and electron microscope. Initial increase in particle size with milling was observed showing flattening of the particle. It was found that 5 h of milling time is sufficient to reduce the particle size to achieve the desired size. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of milled ODS steel powder revealed a uniform distribution of combustion synthesized nano-Y_2O_3 in ferritic steel matrix after a milling time of 5 h. Preliminary results demonstrated suitability of dual drive planetary ball mill for mass production of alloy within a short time due to various kinds of forces acting at a time during milling process. Fine monoclinic Y_2Si_2O_7 precipitates were also observed in the steel. This study explains the particle characteristics of nano Y_2O_3 dispersed ODS powder and formation of nano clusters in ODS ferritic alloy.

  18. Oxygen nonstoichiometry and ionic transport properties of La0.4Sr0.6CoO3-delta .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitte, W; Bucher, E; Benisek, A; Preis, W

    2001-09-01

    Homogeneous samples of La0.4Sr0.6CoO3-delta were obtained by the glycine nitrate process. The oxygen nonstoichiometry was determined from oxygen exchange measurements as a function of oxygen partial pressure (10(-4) bar PO2 PO2-range between 10(-4) and 10(-2) bar to yield D and the ionic conductivity sigma(i) from the long time solution of the diffusion equation. Values for D from polarization measurements at T= 775 degrees C and from oxygen exchange measurements at T= 725 degrees C are in good agreement with each other. D and sigma(1) increase with increasing PO2 (10(-4) to 10(-2) bar). The ionic conductivity shows a maximum at 3-delta approximately 2.82 and decreases with decreasing oxygen content indicating the possible formation of vacancy ordered structures.

  19. Evaluative Processing of Food Images: A Conditional Role for Viewing in Preference Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Wolf

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggested a role of gaze in preference formation, not merely as an expression of preference, but also as a causal influence. According to the gaze cascade hypothesis, the longer subjects look at an item, the more likely they are to develop a preference for it. However, to date the connection between viewing and liking has been investigated predominately with self-paced viewing conditions in which the subjects were required to select certain items from simultaneously presented stimuli on the basis of perceived visual attractiveness. Such conditions might promote a default, but non-mandatory connection between viewing and liking. To explore whether the connection is separable, we examined the evaluative processing of single naturalistic food images in a 2 × 2 design, conducted completely within subjects, in which we varied both the type of exposure (self-paced versus time-controlled and the type of evaluation (non-exclusive versus exclusive. In the self-paced exclusive evaluation, longer viewing was associated with a higher likelihood of a positive evaluation. However, in the self-paced non-exclusive evaluation, the trend reversed such that longer viewing durations were associated with lesser ratings. Furthermore, in the time-controlled tasks, both with non-exclusive and exclusive evaluation, there was no significant relationship between the viewing duration and the evaluation. The overall pattern of results was consistent for viewing times measured in terms of exposure duration (i.e., the duration of stimulus presentation on the screen and in terms of actual gaze duration (i.e., the amount of time the subject effectively gazed at the stimulus on the screen. The data indicated that viewing does not intrinsically lead to a higher evaluation when evaluating single food images; instead, the relationship between viewing duration and evaluation depends on the type of task. We suggest that self-determination of exposure duration may

  20. Evidence for Parallel Processing of Sensory Information Controlling Dauer Formation in Caenorhabditis Elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, J. H.; Birnby, D. A.; Vowels, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    Dauer formation in Caenorhabditis elegans is induced by chemosensation of high levels of a constitutively secreted pheromone. Seven genes defined by mutations that confer a dauer-formation constitutive phenotype (Daf-c) can be congruently divided into two groups by any of three criteria. Group 1 genes (daf-11 and daf-21) are (1) strongly synergistic with group 2 genes for their Daf-c phenotype, (2) incompletely suppressed by dauer-formation defective (Daf-d) mutations in the genes daf-3 and d...

  1. Sand transport, shear stress, and the building of a delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, W.; Miller, K. L.; Hiatt, M. R.; Mohrig, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    River deltas distribute sediment to the coastal sea through a complex branching network of channels; however, the routing and storage of this sediment in and through the delta is poorly understood. We present results from field studies of the sediment and water transport through the branching Wax Lake Delta on the coast of Louisiana. Two channels studied, Main Pass and East Pass, maintain a near-equal total partitioning of flow and sediment. However, East Pass is narrower and has higher river velocities, lower tidal velocity fluctuations, less alluvial bed cover, and more sediment flux per unit width than Main Pass. We connect these differences to small differences in the geometry of the two channels and feedbacks between these differences. We link trends in measured sediment deposits to both measured and modeled shear velocities in Wax Lake Delta's channels and open water `islands' to understand how hydrologic processes shaped the sedimentary architecture of the delta. These connections define the sediment transport and deposition regimes in the WLD. We extend the results herein to suggest that the relationships between the available sediment and shear stress determines the basic planform of the Wax Lake Delta and cross-sectional geometries of its channels.

  2. Studies of the process of an unsteady formation of hard nitride coatings in an arc plasma flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zake, M.

    1996-01-01

    The kinetic studies of an unsteady formation of hard ZrN and TiN coatings on the surface of metallic (Zr, Ti) samples in an Ar-N plasma flow are carried out. The obtained result is that at the initial stage of an unsteady heating of titanium samples nitrogen atoms penetrate into metal lattice and form interstitial compounds of hard nitrogen solutions in α-phase of Ti. This process is followed by a growth of thin surface layers of titanium nitrides with subsequent changes of surface radiance of exposed samples. Unsteady formation of ZrN is a similar two-stage process which includes the ZrN film growth and formation of a α-hard solution with subsequent changes of total normal emissivity of the surface. (author). 1 ref., 1 fig

  3. Subsurface aeration of anaerobic groundwater : iron colloid formation and the nitrification process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthoorn, A.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Iron, anaerobic groundwater, groundwater purification, heterogeneous oxidation, iron colloid formation, electron microscopy, nitrification In anaerobic groundwater iron and ammonium can be found in relatively high concentrations. These substances need to be removed when groundwater is used

  4. Processes of Formation of Spheroidal Concretions and Inferences for "Blueberries" in Meridiani Planum Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, M. L.

    2005-03-01

    Formation of spheroidal concretions on Earth results generally from reactions of organic matter in oxidized sediments. Had organic matter been present in Merididani Planum it could have produced a reduced iron mineral phase later oxidized to hematite.

  5. THE EFFECTS OF BANKRUPTCY ON THE PREDICTABILITY OF PRICE FORMATION PROCESSES ON WARSAW’S STOCK MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Fiedor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigate how bankruptcy affects the market behaviour of prices of stocks on Warsaw’s Stock Exchange. As the behaviour of prices can be seen in a myriad of ways, we investigate a particular aspect of this behaviour, namely the predictability of these price formation processes. We approximate their predictability as the structural complexity of logarithmic returns. This method of analysing predictability of price formation processes using information theory follows closely the mathematical definition of predictability, and is equal to the degree to which redundancy is present in the time series describing stock returns. We use Shannon’s entropy rate (approximating Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy to measure this redundancy, and estimate it using the Lempel-Ziv algorithm, computing it with a running window approach over the entire price history of 50 companies listed on the Warsaw market which have gone bankrupt in the last few years. This enables us not only to compare the differences between predictability of price formation processes before and after their filing for bankruptcy, but also to compare the changes in predictability over time, as well as divided into different categories of companies and bankruptcies. There exists a large body of research analysing the efficiency of the whole market and the predictability of price changes enlarge, but only a few detailed studies analysing the influence of external stimulion the efficiency of price formation processes. This study fills this gap in the knowledge of financial markets, and their response to extreme external events.

  6. Moessbauer study on the formation process of Fe-K composition in iron-based catalyst for dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Keyu; Zhao Zhenjie; Yang Xielong

    2001-01-01

    Fe-K spinel structure is the predecessor of active phase of potassium promoted iron-based catalyst for dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene. Moessbauer spectroscopy has been used to study the formation process of Fe-K spinel structure which depends on the catalyst composition and preparing condition. The results may prove useful for production of industrial catalyst

  7. Simulation of the Processes of Formation of a Dust Cloud in a Vacuum and in the Absence of Gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdeev, A. V.; Boreisho, A. S.; Ivakin, S. V.; Moiseev, A. A.; Savin, A. V.; Sokolov, E. I.; Smirnov, P. G.

    2018-01-01

    This article is devoted to the simulation of the processes of formation of dust clouds in the absence of gravitation, which is necessary for understanding the processes proceeding in dust clusters in outer space, upper planetary atmosphere, and on the surface of space objects, as well as for evaluating the possibilities of creating disperse structures with given properties. The chief aim of the simulation is to determine the general laws of the dynamics of the dust cloud at the initial stage of its formation. With the use of the original approach based on the particle-in-cell method that permits investigating the mechanics of large ensembles of particles on contemporary computational platforms, we consider the mechanics of a dusty medium in the process of its excitation in a closed container due to the vibration of the walls, and then in the process of particle scattering when the container opens in outer space. The main formation mechanisms of a dust formation have been elucidated, and the possibilities of mathematical simulation for predicting spatial and time characteristics of disperse structures have been shown.

  8. The formation of PSB-like shear bands in cyclically deformed ultrafine grained copper processed by ECAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, S.D.; Wang, Z.G.; Jiang, C.B.; Li, G.Y.; Alexandrov, I.V.; Valiev, R.Z

    2003-06-15

    Cyclic deformation was performed on ultrafine grained copper processed by ECAP. Shear bands (SBs) and adjacent microstructures were investigated using electron channeling contrast in scanning electron microscope. The possible formation mechanism of SB was discussed based on the characteristic distribution of defects introduced by ECAP.

  9. Biogenic amine formation and nitrite reactions in meat batter as affected by high-pressure processing and chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Capillas, C; Aller-Guiote, P; Carballo, J; Colmenero, F Jiménez

    2006-12-27

    Changes in biogenic amine formation and nitrite depletion in meat batters as affected by pressure-temperature combinations (300 MPa/30 min/7, 20, and 40 degrees C), cooking process (70 degrees C/30 min), and storage (54 days/2 degrees C) were studied. Changes in residual nitrite concentration in raw meat batters were conditioned by the temperature and not by the pressure applied. Cooking process decreased (P nitrite concentration in all samples. High-pressure processing and cooking treatment increased (P nitrite concentration decreased with pressure processing, no effect was observed with the heating process of meat batters. High-pressure processing conditions had no effect on the rate of residual nitrite loss throughout the storage. The application of high pressure decreased (P processing conditions, generally, throughout storage biogenic amine levels did not change or increased, although quantitatively this effect was not very important.

  10. A Probabilistic Approach to Network Event Formation from Pre-Processed Waveform Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, B. C.; Given, J.

    2017-12-01

    The current state of the art for seismic event detection still largely depends on signal detection at individual sensor stations, including picking accurate arrivals times and correctly identifying phases, and relying on fusion algorithms to associate individual signal detections to form event hypotheses. But increasing computational capability has enabled progress toward the objective of fully utilizing body-wave recordings in an integrated manner to detect events without the necessity of previously recorded ground truth events. In 2011-2012 Leidos (then SAIC) operated a seismic network to monitor activity associated with geothermal field operations in western Nevada. We developed a new association approach for detecting and quantifying events by probabilistically combining pre-processed waveform data to deal with noisy data and clutter at local distance ranges. The ProbDet algorithm maps continuous waveform data into continuous conditional probability traces using a source model (e.g. Brune earthquake or Mueller-Murphy explosion) to map frequency content and an attenuation model to map amplitudes. Event detection and classification is accomplished by combining the conditional probabilities from the entire network using a Bayesian formulation. This approach was successful in producing a high-Pd, low-Pfa automated bulletin for a local network and preliminary tests with regional and teleseismic data show that it has promise for global seismic and nuclear monitoring applications. The approach highlights several features that we believe are essential to achieving low-threshold automated event detection: Minimizes the utilization of individual seismic phase detections - in traditional techniques, errors in signal detection, timing, feature measurement and initial phase ID compound and propagate into errors in event formation, Has a formalized framework that utilizes information from non-detecting stations, Has a formalized framework that utilizes source information, in

  11. Non-thermal Processes in the Formation of Mercury's Tenuous Exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaible, M. J.; Bennett, C.; Jones, B. M.; Orlando, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Recent observations from the MESSENGER spacecraft orbiting Mercury have established that a quasi-trapped population of ions and electrons with 1-10 keV energy exists at a distance of about 1.5 RM (RM is Mercury's radius) around much of the planet. Recent observations from the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS), taken groups). The sources of these ions are not clear. A newly developed global kinetic transport model suggests that electron-stimulated desorption (ESD), and possibly light ion stimulated desorption (ISD), can directly yield ions that can be transported and dynamically accelerated to the plasma cusp regions observed by FIPS. Neutrals desorbed from the surface by ESD, ISD, photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) and meteorite impact may also be photoionized and transported/injected into the cusp region. Though the relative importance of these mechanisms in the formation of Mercury's tenuous atmosphere and the subsequent effects on the exosphere/magnetosphere dynamics are not known, it is likely that all of these contribute significantly. The goals of this work are to measure desorption cross-sections and ejection velocities for Na+, O+, and water group ions under relevant electron and ion bombardment energies. This program utilizes state-of-the art surface science capabilities to probe the role of ESD and ISD as a source of ions and neutrals present in the exosphere of Mercury. The experimental chamber is equipped with a dosing system, a cryogenic cooled temperature controlled sample holder, as well as pulsed ion and electron sources. The ESD and ISD ion yields and velocity measurements are obtained directly by sampling with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The measured ESD ion yields from adsorbate covered Mercury surface analogs such as the sulfur bearing minerals MgS, Na2S and K2S are low. Additionally, ISD experiments using incident protons also yielded low ion signals. These results implicate PSD and neutral desorption as dominant processes. The

  12. The Process of the Formation of Post-marital Relationship from the Perspective of Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SU Panjehband

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: The Increasing phenomenon of post-marital relationship in the society has had adverse consequences. One of the consequences, is the instability of family foundations and the disintegration of social cells (families. The aim of this study was to determine the formation process of meta-marital relationship from mens viewpoint. Methods: The methodology of this study was grounded theory method. 16 men with purposive sampling method were selected as participants in Gachsaran city, Iran. The data was obtained through semi-structured interviews and was analyzed due to the three stages of "open, axial and selective" coding. Results: Findings of the study were categorized in three major categories: the emotional disproportionate relationship-sexual between men and women's, and, socio-cultural structure predisposing of men and women's sexual dissatisfaction and incorrect criteria for choosing a spouse and one core category named extramarital relationship, hiding object was created. Conclusion: Men Narrative participants indicated that due to spouse selection of "being unemployed, elder girl age, girl escape from his parental house, the divorced couple, and of man being widowed”, were are indications thay they were forced to be married. Also, due to “employed women and pressing sexual desire “was the tool selection. In most of these marriages, men and women had a great age difference, and initially there was no love among them. The prevailing of cold atmospherel and indifference in the marital relations caused led to the fact that they could not meet the emotional needs of each other. Moreover, the culture of modesty dominant over most of the Iranian families has banned the talk of sex and its quality not only in public environments such as schools, universities, radio and television, but also in the family and even between men and women as a "taboo", and these couples can not talk about the quality of their sex life with eachother

  13. Four new Delta Scuti stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutt, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    Four new Delta Scuti stars are reported. Power, modified into amplitude, spectra, and light curves are used to determine periodicities. A complete frequency analysis is not performed due to the lack of a sufficient time base in the data. These new variables help verify the many predictions that Delta Scuti stars probably exist in prolific numbers as small amplitude variables. Two of these stars, HR 4344 and HD 107513, are possibly Am stars. If so, they are among the minority of variable stars which are also Am stars.

  14. Understanding the formation process of the liquid slug in a hilly-terrain wet natural gas pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yan; Li, Jingbo; Wang, Shuli

    2017-01-01

    condition on the liquid slug formation is discussed including pipe diameter, inclination angle, gas superficial velocity and liquid holdup. The results show that the pipe is blocked by the liquid slug at the moment of slug formed. The pipe pressure suddenly increases, and then decreases gradually...... in the process of liquid slug formation and motion. The pipe pressure drop and liquid holdup decrease along with the increasing inclination angle of ascending pipe. On the contrary, they rise with the increase of the inclination angle of descending pipe. Higher gas superficial velocity and liquid holdup result...

  15. Computation of 2-D pinhole image-formation process of large-scale furnaces using the discrete ordinates method

    CERN Document Server

    Li Hong; Lu Ji Dong; Zheng Chu Guan

    2003-01-01

    In most of the discrete ordinate schemes (DOS) reported in the literature, the discrete directions are fixed, and unable to be arbitrarily adjusted; therefore, it is difficult to employ these schemes to calculate the radiative energy image-formation of pulverized-coal furnaces. On the basis of a new DOS, named the discrete ordinate scheme with (an) infinitely small weight(s), which was recently proposed by the authors, a novel algorithm for computing the pinhole image-formation process is developed in this work. The performance of this algorithm is tested, and is found to be also suitable for parallel computation.

  16. Computation of 2-D pinhole image-formation process of large-scale furnaces using the discrete ordinates method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongshun; Zhou Huaichun; Lu Jidong; Zheng Chuguang

    2003-01-01

    In most of the discrete ordinate schemes (DOS) reported in the literature, the discrete directions are fixed, and unable to be arbitrarily adjusted; therefore, it is difficult to employ these schemes to calculate the radiative energy image-formation of pulverized-coal furnaces. On the basis of a new DOS, named the discrete ordinate scheme with (an) infinitely small weight(s), which was recently proposed by the authors, a novel algorithm for computing the pinhole image-formation process is developed in this work. The performance of this algorithm is tested, and is found to be also suitable for parallel computation

  17. Formation and relaxation processes of photoinduced defects in a Ge-doped SiO2 glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, M.; Saito, K.; Ikushima, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    The defect centers induced by ArF laser irradiation in Ge-doped SiO 2 have been investigated by the electron-spin resonance method. In order to observe formation and relaxation processes of the defects, step annealing has been carried out after the irradiation at 77 K. The thermally induced decay of the self-trapped hole (STH) and formation of the so-called Ge(2) centers have been observed with increasing temperature. The result suggests that the holes are transferred from the STH to the Ge(2)

  18. Gas hydrate formation process for pre-combustion capture of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Ju; Lee, Ju Dong; Linga, Praveen; Englezos, Peter; Kim, Young Seok; Lee, Man Sig; Kim, Yang Do

    2010-01-01

    In this study, gas hydrate from CO 2 /H 2 gas mixtures with the addition of tetrahydrofuran (THF) was formed in a semi-batch stirred vessel at various pressures and temperatures to investigate the CO 2 separation/recovery properties. This mixture is of interest to CO 2 separation and recovery from Integrated Gasification Combine Cycle (IGCC) power plants. During hydrate formation the gas uptake was determined and composition changes in the gas phase were obtained by gas chromatography. The impact of THF on hydrate formation from the CO 2 /H 2 was observed. The addition of THF significantly reduced the equilibrium formation conditions. 1.0 mol% THF was found to be the optimum concentration for CO 2 capture based on kinetic experiments. The present study illustrates the concept and provides thermodynamic and kinetic data for the separation/recovery of CO 2 (pre-combustion capture) from a fuel gas (CO 2 /H 2 ) mixture.

  19. Mesophilic co-digestion of dairy manure and lipid rich solid slaughterhouse wastes: process efficiency, limitations and floating granules formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitk, Peep; Palatsi, Jordi; Kaparaju, Prasad; Fernández, Belén; Vilu, Raivo

    2014-08-01

    Lipid and protein rich solid slaughterhouse wastes are attractive co-substrates to increase volumetric biogas production in co-digestion with dairy manure. Addition of decanter sludge (DS), containing 42.2% of lipids and 35.8% of proteins (total solids basis), up to 5% of feed mixture resulted in a stable process without any indication of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) or free ammonia (NH3) inhibition and in 3.5-fold increase of volumetric biogas production. Contrary, only lipids addition as technical fat (TF) at over 2% of feed mixture resulted in formation of floating granules (FG) and process efficiency decrease. Formed FG had low biodegradability and its organic part was composed of lipids and calcium salts of LCFAs. Anaerobic digestion process intentionally directed to FG formation, could be a viable option for mitigation and control of lipids overload and derived LCFA inhibition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocopherols reduce inflammatory angiogenesis in human microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Shannon R; Jennings, Merilyn H; Rome, Courtney; Hadjivassiliou, Vicky; Papas, Konstantinos A; Alexander, Jonathon S

    2010-07-01

    Vitamin E, a micronutrient (comprising alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherols, alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocotrienols), has documented antioxidant and non-antioxidant effects, some of which inhibit inflammation and angiogenesis. We compared the abilities of alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocopherols to regulate human blood cytotoxicity (BEC) and lymphatic endothelial cytotoxicity (LEC), proliferation, invasiveness, permeability, capillary formation and suppression of TNF-alpha-induced VCAM-1 as in vitro models of inflammatory angiogenesis. alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocopherols were not toxic to either cell type up to 40 microM. In BEC, confluent cell density was decreased by all concentrations of delta- and gamma-tocopherol (10-40 microM) but not by alpha-tocopherol. LEC showed no change in cell density in response to tocopherols. delta-Tocopherol (40 microM), but not other isomers, decreased BEC invasiveness. In LEC, all doses of gamma-tocopherol, as well as the highest dose of alpha-tocopherol (40 microM), decreased cell invasiveness. delta-Tocopherol had no effect on LEC invasiveness at any molarity. delta-Tocopherol dose dependently increased cell permeability at 48 h in BEC and LEC; alpha- and gamma-tocopherols showed slight effects. Capillary tube formation was decreased by high dose (40 microM) concentrations of alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol, but showed no effects with smaller doses (10-20 microM) in BEC. gamma-Tocopherol (10-20 microM) and alpha-tocopherol (10 microM), but not delta-tocopherol, increased LEC capillary tube formation. Lastly, in BEC, alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol each dose-dependently reduced TNF-alpha-induced expression of VCAM-1. In LEC, there was no significant change to TNF-alpha-induced VCAM-1 expression with any concentration of alpha-, gamma- or delta-tocopherol. These data demonstrate that physiological levels (0-40 microM) of alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocopherols are nontoxic and dietary tocopherols, especially delta

  1. Modeling the Formation of Giant Planet Cores I: Evaluating Key Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Levison, H. F.; Thommes, E.; Duncan, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most challenging problems we face in our understanding of planet formation is how Jupiter and Saturn could have formed before the the solar nebula dispersed. The most popular model of giant planet formation is the so-called 'core accretion' model. In this model a large planetary embryo formed first, mainly by two-body accretion. This is then followed by a period of inflow of nebular gas directly onto the growing planet. The core accretion model has an Achilles heel, namely the very...

  2. Control of aliphatic halogenated DBP precursors with multiple drinking water treatment processes: Formation potential and integrated toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimeng; Chu, Wenhai; Yao, Dechang; Yin, Daqiang

    2017-08-01

    The comprehensive control efficiency for the formation potentials (FPs) of a range of regulated and unregulated halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPs) (including carbonaceous DBPs (C-DBPs), nitrogenous DBPs (N-DBPs), and iodinated DBPs (I-DBPs)) with the multiple drinking water treatment processes, including pre-ozonation, conventional treatment (coagulation-sedimentation, pre-sand filtration), ozone-biological activated carbon (O 3 -BAC) advanced treatment, and post-sand filtration, was investigated. The potential toxic risks of DBPs by combing their FPs and toxicity values were also evaluated. The results showed that the multiple drinking water treatment processes had superior performance in removing organic/inorganic precursors and reducing the formation of a range of halogenated DBPs. Therein, ozonation significantly removed bromide and iodide, and thus reduced the formation of brominated and iodinated DBPs. The removal of organic carbon and nitrogen precursors by the conventional treatment processes was substantially improved by O 3 -BAC advanced treatment, and thus prevented the formation of chlorinated C-DBPs and N-DBPs. However, BAC filtration leads to the increased formation of brominated C-DBPs and N-DBPs due to the increase of bromide/DOC and bromide/DON. After the whole multiple treatment processes, the rank order for integrated toxic risk values caused by these halogenated DBPs was haloacetonitriles (HANs)≫haloacetamides (HAMs)>haloacetic acids (HAAs)>trihalomethanes (THMs)>halonitromethanes (HNMs)≫I-DBPs (I-HAMs and I-THMs). I-DBPs failed to cause high integrated toxic risk because of their very low FPs. The significant higher integrated toxic risk value caused by HANs than other halogenated DBPs cannot be ignored. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Significant concentration changes of chemical components of PM1 in the Yangtze River Delta area of China and the implications for the formation mechanism of heavy haze-fog pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y W; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y M; Shen, X J; Sun, J Y; Ma, Q L; Yu, X M; Zhu, J L; Zhang, L; Che, H C

    2015-12-15

    Since the winter season of 2013, a number of persistent haze-fog events have occurred in central-eastern China. Continuous measurements of the chemical and physical properties of PM1 at a regional background station in the Yangtze River Delta area of China from 16 Nov. to 18 Dec., 2013 revealed several haze-fog events, among which a heavy haze-fog event occurred between 6 Dec. and 8 Dec. The mean concentration of PM1 was 212μgm(-3) in the heavy haze-fog period, which was about 10 times higher than on clean days and featured a peak mass concentration that reached 298μgm(-3). Organics were the largest contributor to the dramatic rise of PM1 on heavy haze-fog days (average mass concentration of 86μgm(-3)), followed by nitrate (58μgm(-3)), sulfate (35μgm(-3)), ammonium (29μgm(-3)), and chloride (4.0μgm(-3)). Nitrate exhibited the largest increase (~20 factors), associated with a significant increase in NOx. This was mainly attributable to increased coal combustion emissions, relative to motor vehicle emissions, and was caused by short-distance pollutant transport within surrounding areas. Low-volatility oxidized organic aerosols (OA) (LV-OOA) and biomass-burning OA (BBOA) also increased sharply on heavy haze-fog days, exhibiting an enhanced oxidation capacity of the atmosphere and increased emissions from biomass burning. The strengthening of the oxidation capacity during the heavy pollution episode, along with lower solar radiation, was probably due to increased biomass burning, which were important precursors of O3. The prevailing meteorological conditions, including low wind and high relative humidity, and short distance transported gaseous and particulate matter surrounding of the sampling site, coincided with the increased pollutant concentrations mainly from biomass-burning mentioned above to cause the persistent haze-fog event in the YRD area. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Exploitation of a self-limiting process for reproducible formation of ultrathin Ni1-xPtx silicide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhen; Zhu Yu; Rossnagel, Steve; Murray, Conal; Jordan-Sweet, Jean; Yang, Bin; Gaudet, Simon; Desjardins, Patrick; Kellock, Andrew J.; Ozcan, Ahmet; Zhang Shili; Lavoie, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This letter reports on a process scheme to obtain highly reproducible Ni 1-x Pt x silicide films of 3-6 nm thickness formed on a Si(100) substrate. Such ultrathin silicide films are readily attained by sputter deposition of metal films, metal stripping in wet chemicals, and final silicidation by rapid thermal processing. This process sequence warrants an invariant amount of metal intermixed with Si in the substrate surface region independent of the initial metal thickness, thereby leading to a self-limiting formation of ultrathin silicide films. The crystallographic structure, thickness, uniformity, and morphological stability of the final silicide films depend sensitively on the initial Pt fraction.

  5. Biomass co-firing for Delta Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2014-01-01

    efficient than coal due to a higher moisture content. 'It is very difficult to guarantee a stable source of biomass, hence the lack of significant capital investment in this technology by the industry,' said Flood. Delta can manage biomass co-firing up to about 2% of its total output without the requirement for major capital investment, but it isn't satisfied with that cap. This is where the company's interest in investigating CBC comes in (see story below). Not only does it deal with the moisture issue with raw biomass, but can make the process more efficient. 'Part of the current focus for Delta Electricity and Crucible is aimed at removing the final hurdles for commercial deployment,' said Flood

  6. Sedimentary processes in the Carnot Formation (Central African Republic) related to the palaeogeographic framework of Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censier, Claude; Lang, Jacques

    1999-08-01

    The depositional environment, provenance and processes of emplacement of the detrital material of the Mesozoic Carnot Formation are defined, by bedding and sedimentological analysis of its main facies, and are reconstructed within the palaeogeographic framework of Central Africa. The clastic material was laid down between probably the Albian and the end of the Cretaceous, in a NNW-oriented braided stream fluvial system that drained into the Doba Trough (Chad) and probably also into the Touboro Basin (Cameroon). The material was derived from weathering of the underlying Devonian-Carboniferous Mambéré Glacial Formation and of the Precambrian schist-quartzite complex located to the south of the Carnot Formation. These results provide useful indications as to the provenance of diamonds mined in the southwest Central African Republic.

  7. Investigation on the asymmetry of thermal condition and grain defect formation in the customary directional solidification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, D; Wu, Q; Hollad, S; Bührig-Polaczek, A

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the non-uniformity of the thermal condition and the corresponding grain defect formation in the customary Bridgman process were investigated. The casting clusters in radial alignment were directionally solidified in a Bridgman furnace. It was found that in the casting cluster, the shadow side facing the central rod was ineffectively heated in the hot zone and ineffectively cooled in the cooling zone during withdrawal, compared with the heater side facing the furnace heater. The metallographic examination of the simplified turbine blades exhibited that the platforms on the shadow side are very prone to stray grain formation, while the heater side reveals a markedly lower tendency for that. The asymmetric thermal condition causes the asymmetrical formation of these grain defects. This non-uniformity of the thermal condition should be minimized as far as possible, in order to effectively optimize the quality of the SC superalloy components.

  8. Multi-format all-optical processing based on a large-scale, hybridly integrated photonic circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougioukos, M; Kouloumentas, Ch; Spyropoulou, M; Giannoulis, G; Kalavrouziotis, D; Maziotis, A; Bakopoulos, P; Harmon, R; Rogers, D; Harrison, J; Poustie, A; Maxwell, G; Avramopoulos, H

    2011-06-06

    We investigate through numerical studies and experiments the performance of a large scale, silica-on-silicon photonic integrated circuit for multi-format regeneration and wavelength-conversion. The circuit encompasses a monolithically integrated array of four SOAs inside two parallel Mach-Zehnder structures, four delay interferometers and a large number of silica waveguides and couplers. Exploiting phase-incoherent techniques, the circuit is capable of processing OOK signals at variable bit rates, DPSK signals at 22 or 44 Gb/s and DQPSK signals at 44 Gbaud. Simulation studies reveal the wavelength-conversion potential of the circuit with enhanced regenerative capabilities for OOK and DPSK modulation formats and acceptable quality degradation for DQPSK format. Regeneration of 22 Gb/s OOK signals with amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise and DPSK data signals degraded with amplitude, phase and ASE noise is experimentally validated demonstrating a power penalty improvement up to 1.5 dB.

  9. Modulation of Task Demands Suggests That Semantic Processing Interferes with the Formation of Episodic Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Nicole M.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Although episodic and semantic memory share overlapping neural mechanisms, it remains unclear how our pre-existing semantic associations modulate the formation of new, episodic associations. When freely recalling recently studied words, people rely on both episodic and semantic associations, shown through temporal and semantic clustering of…

  10. Modelling the formation of heat-induced contaminants during thermal processing of food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, H.T.

    2015-01-01

    Many of our food products have undergone a heat-treatment before consumption, either at home or at the food industry. Heat treatments not only bring out desired characteristics of the food products such as flavour, texture, taste and safety aspects but also leads to the formation of undesired

  11. The Formation and Development of Cognitive Activity of Students in the Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparkyzy, Zhannat; Isatayeva, Gulzhan; Kozhabekova, Zahida; Zhakesheva, Aimzhan; Koptayeva, Gulzhamal; Agabekova, Gulzhan; Agabekova, Sholpan

    2016-01-01

    In this article we will discuss how the holding of a special and dedicated work helped to change the levels of formation of the major components of cognitive activity. Cognitive activity with the content aspect is a system of perceptual, mnemonic and intellectual activity and from the form--as an individual, joint, or pseudo-individual pseudo…

  12. Isotope-labeling studies on the formation pathway of acrolein during heat processing of oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Alice; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2014-08-20

    Acrolein (2-propenal) is classified as a foodborne toxicant and was shown to be present in significant amounts in heated edible oils. Up to now, its formation was mainly suggested to be from the glycerol part of triacylglycerides, although a clear influence of the unsaturation of the fatty acid moiety was also obvious in previous studies. To unequivocally clarify the role of the glycerol and the fatty acid parts in acrolein formation, two series of labeled triacylglycerides were synthesized: [(13)C(3)]-triacylglycerides of stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acid and [(13)C(54)]-triacylglycerides with labeled stearic, oleic, and linoleic acid, but with unlabeled glycerol. Heating of each of the seven intermediates singly in silicon oil and measurement of the formed amounts of labeled and unlabeled acrolein clearly proved the fatty acid backbone as the key precursor structure. Enzymatically synthesized pure linoleic acid and linolenic acid hydroperoxides were shown to be the key intermediates in acrolein formation, thus allowing the discussion of a radical-induced reaction pathway leading to the formation of the aldehyde. Surprisingly, although several oils contained high amounts of acrolein after heating, deep-fried foods themselves, such as donuts or French fries, were low in the aldehyde.

  13. The general mechanisms of Cu cluster formation in the processes of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sci., Vol. 38, No. 3, June 2015, pp. 701–706. c Indian Academy of Sciences. ... This work represents the basic mechanisms of cluster formation from the gas phase that has been ... required, or in catalytic reactions, where the main factor of effectiveness is the .... ature of liquid nitrogen (77 K), which is used in real exper-.

  14. The Process of Pedagogical Culture Formation in the Future Social Worker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minzhanov, Nurlan A.; Ertysbaeva, Gaukhar N.

    2016-01-01

    The paper is aimed at studying the features of pedagogical culture formation in future social workers and developing methods to improve the professional and pedagogical preparation quality of students in the "Social work" specialty. In the study, a survey of students in the "Social work" specialty (n = 400), and a standardized…

  15. The relationship between level of processing and hippocampal-cortical functional connectivity during episodic memory formation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Björn H; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Wimber, Maria; Fenker, Daniela B; Zierhut, Kathrin C; Seidenbecher, Constanze I; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Walter, Henrik; Düzel, Emrah; Richardson-Klavehn, Alan

    2013-02-01

    New episodic memory traces represent a record of the ongoing neocortical processing engaged during memory formation (encoding). Thus, during encoding, deep (semantic) processing typically establishes more distinctive and retrievable memory traces than does shallow (perceptual) processing, as assessed by later episodic memory tests. By contrast, the hippocampus appears to play a processing-independent role in encoding, because hippocampal lesions impair encoding regardless of level of processing. Here, we clarified the neural relationship between processing and encoding by examining hippocampal-cortical connectivity during deep and shallow encoding. Participants studied words during functional magnetic resonance imaging and freely recalled these words after distraction. Deep study processing led to better recall than shallow study processing. For both levels of processing, successful encoding elicited activations of bilateral hippocampus and left prefrontal cortex, and increased functional connectivity between left hippocampus and bilateral medial prefrontal, cingulate and extrastriate cortices. Successful encoding during deep processing was additionally associated with increased functional connectivity between left hippocampus and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and right temporoparietal junction. In the shallow encoding condition, on the other hand, pronounced functional connectivity increases were observed between the right hippocampus and the frontoparietal attention network activated during shallow study processing. Our results further specify how the hippocampus coordinates recording of ongoing neocortical activity into long-term memory, and begin to provide a neural explanation for the typical advantage of deep over shallow study processing for later episodic memory. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Development of simulator for studying formation process of crustal structure. 1; Chikaku kozo keisei simulator no kaihatsu. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, J. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Murakami, Y.; Okubo, Y.; Matsubayashi, O.; Tanaka, A.; Nakajima, Y.; Morijiri, R. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Rokugawa, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    The purpose of this study is to combine seismic activity and volcanic activity by reproducing the formation process of the crustal structure from a physical viewpoint or developing as its extension a numerical simulator which can predict the future. The phenomenon to which attention is especially paid at present is a relation between the dynamic process and the thermal process in the domain including the crust or the upper mantle. Namely, to elucidate the formation process of the crust structure, diastrophism also including seismic activity, igneous activity, etc., it is important to evaluate effects of the behavior of heat supplied from the deep on the dynamic process. In the finite element method, it is not easy to make the effect of gravity reflect to the calculation for boundary conditions. Accordingly, it is general to pay attention to stress difference, considering that stress by gravity is in proportion to static rock pressure stress. Further, to realize interaction between the thermal process and the dynamic process, effects of thermal stress are expressed combining the heat conducting analysis and the plastic flow analysis. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Perspectives on Bay–Delta Science and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Healey

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available doi: https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss4art6The State of Bay–Delta Science 2008 highlighted seven emerging perspectives on science and management of the Delta. These perspectives had important effects on policy and legislation concerning management of the Delta ecosystem and water exports. From the collection of papers that make up the State of Bay–Delta Science 2016, we derive another seven perspectives that augment those published in 2008. The new perspectives address nutrient and contaminant concentrations in Delta waters, the failure of the Delta food web to support native species, the role of multiple stressors in driving species toward extinction, and the emerging importance of extreme events in driving change in the ecosystem and the water supply. The scientific advances that underpin these new perspectives were made possible by new measurement and analytic tools. We briefly discuss some of these, including miniaturized acoustic fish tags, sensors for monitoring of water quality, analytic techniques for disaggregating complex contaminant mixtures, remote sensing to assess levee vulnerability, and multidimensional hydrodynamic modeling. Despite these new tools and scientific insights, species conservation objectives for the Delta are not being met. We believe that this lack of progress stems in part from the fact that science and policy do not incorporate sufficiently long-term perspectives. Looking forward half a century was central to the Delta Visioning process, but science and policy have not embraced this conceptual breadth. We are also concerned that protection and enhancement of the unique cultural, recreational, natural resource, and agricultural values of the Delta as an evolving place, as required by the Delta Reform Act, has received no critical study and analysis. Adopting wider and longer science and policy perspectives immediately encourages recognition of the need for evaluation, analysis, and public discourse on

  18. Hydrological and Climatic Significance of Martian Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Achille, G.; Vaz, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    We a) review the geomorphology, sedimentology, and mineralogy of the martian deltas record and b) present the results of a quantitative study of the hydrology and sedimentology of martian deltas using modified version of terrestrial model Sedflux.

  19. Adaptive delta management : Roots and branches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, J.S.; Haasnoot, M.; Hermans, L.M.; Kwakkel, J.H.; Rutten, M.M.; Thissen, W.A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Deltas are generally recognized as vulnerable to climate change and therefore a salient topic in adaptation science. Deltas are also highly dynamic systems viewed from physical (erosion, sedimentation, subsidence), social (demographic), economic (trade), infrastructures (transport, energy,

  20. Adaptive Delta Management : Roots and Branches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Jos; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Hermans, Leon; Kwakkel, Jan H.; Rutten, Maarten; Thissen, Wil A.H.; Mynett, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Deltas are generally recognized as vulnerable to climate change and therefore a salient topic in adaptation science. Deltas are also highly dynamic systems viewed from physical (erosion, sedimentation, subsidence), social (demographic), economic (trade), infrastructures (transport, energy,