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Sample records for delta aminolevulinic acid

  1. Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) polymorphism in lead exposed Bangladeshi children and its effect on urinary aminolevulinic acid (ALA)

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    Tasmin, Saira, E-mail: rimzim1612@yahoo.com [Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Furusawa, Hana [Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ahmad, Sk. Akhtar [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Bangladesh Institute of Health Sciences, 125/1, Darus Salam, Mirpur, Dhaka 1216 (Bangladesh); Faruquee, M.H. [Department of Public Health, State University of Bangladesh, 77 Satmasjid Road, Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1205 (Bangladesh); Watanabe, Chiho [Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    Background and objective: Lead has long been recognized as a harmful environmental pollutant. People in developing countries like Bangladesh still have a higher risk of lead exposure. Previous research has suggested that the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) genotype can modify lead toxicity and individual susceptibility. As children are more susceptible to lead-induced toxicity, this study investigated whether the ALAD genotype influenced urinary excretion of delta-aminolevulinic acid (U-ALA) among children exposed to environmental lead in Bangladesh. Methods: Subjects were elementary schoolchildren from a semi-urban industrialized area in Bangladesh. A total of 222 children were studied. Blood and urine were collected to determine ALAD genotypes, blood lead levels and urinary aminolevulinic acid (U-ALA). Results: The mean BPb level was 9.7 µg/dl for the study children. BPb was significantly positively correlated with hemoglobin (p<0.01). In total, allele frequency for ALAD 1 and 2 was 0.83 and 0.17 respectively. The mean U-ALA concentration was lower in ALAD1-2/2-2 carriers than ALAD1-1 carriers for boys (p=0.001). But for girls, U-ALA did not differ significantly by genotype (p=0.26). When U-ALA was compared by genotype at the same exposure level in a multiple linear regression analysis, boys who were ALAD1-2/2-2 carriers still had a lower level of U-ALA compared to ALAD1-1carriers. Conclusion: This study provides information about the influence of ALAD polymorphism and its association with U-ALA in Bangladeshi children. Our results indicate that the ALAD1-2/2-2 genotype may have a protective effect in terms of U-ALA for environmentally lead exposed boys. - Highlights: • High blood lead level for the environmentally exposed schoolchildren. • BPb was significantly correlated with U-ALA and Hb. • Effect of ALAD genotype on U-ALA is differed by sex. • Lower U-ALA in ALAD2 than ALAD1 carriers only for boys at same exposure.

  2. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminolevulinic acid is used in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT; special blue light) to treat actinic keratoses (small crusty ... skin cancer) of the face or scalp. Aminolevulinic acid is in a class of medications called photosensitizing ...

  3. Experimental lead intoxication in dogs: a comparison of blood lead and urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid following intoxication and chelation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R A; Selby, L A; Zumwalt, R W

    1978-01-01

    Intravenous lead administration to dogs produced an acute syndrome of lead intoxication charcterized by depression, vomiting, anorexia and weight loss. The effect of chelation therapy with calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate, penicillamine or both was determined by serially monitoring changes in blood lead and urine delta-aminolevulinic acid. Following therapy, blood lead values were significantly lower in chelated dogs than non-treated lead exposed dogs on days 7 and 10. Urine delta-aminolevulinic acid at day 7 was significantly higher in untreated lead exposed dogs than in other groups. There was no significant difference in blood lead or urine delta-aminolevulinic acid between lead intoxicated dogs which underwent the indicated chelation therapy protocols. There was, however, a trend for higher urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid excretion in those intoxicated dogs undergoing calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate therapy as opposed to those undergoing penicilamine therapy. There was no significant correlation between blood lead and urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid previous to lead exposure. However, after lead exposure significant correlation was present at days 4, 7, 10 and 14. Certain lead exposed dogs following chelation therapy were noted to have normal blood lead levels but elevated urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid suggesting that blood lead does not always correlate with metabolic effects of lead in the body. Urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid was therefore recommended as an additional laboratory parameter which improved assessment of lead exposure in dogs, particularly in determining adequacy of chelation therapy. PMID:667707

  4. Design of PDT protocols using delta-aminolevulinic acid (5ALA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Steven L.; He, Xiao-Yan; Gofstein, Gary

    1993-06-01

    The kinetics of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) synthesis, bioconversion to other metabolic products, and photobleaching were measured in cell cultures after incubation in media containing the metabolic precursor for heme synthesis, (delta) -aminolevulinic acid (5 ALA). A compartmental model described the kinetics in terms of rate constants for the three processes. The maximum amount of PPIX that can be attained in the cells and the concentration of 5 ALA in the medium that obtains this maximum were determined. Using this information, two dosimetry protocols are outlined which both involve complete photobleaching of the PPIX: (1) the classical acute protocol using maximum 5 ALA to produce maximum PPIX and a light treatment of about 0.5 - 1 hr, and (2) a novel prolonged protocol using continuous low-level 5 ALA delivery to produce only slightly elevated PPIX and an extended light exposure time of over 24 hrs.

  5. A facile synthesis of. delta. -aminolevulinic acid (ALA) regio-selectively labeled with sup 13 C and direct observation of enzymatic transformation from ALA to porphobilinogen (PBG)

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    Kurumaya, Katsuyuki; Okazaki, Takeo; Seido, Nobuo; Akasaka, Yuzuru; Kawajiri, Yoshiki; Kajiwara, Masahiro (Meiji College of Pharmacy, Tokyo (Japan)); Kondo, Masao (Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-02-01

    {delta}-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), labeled with {sup 13}C at position 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5, was synthesized from {sup 13}C-labeled glycine, Meldrum's acid, or bromoacetate. The latter compounds were prepared from {sup 13}C-sodium acetate or {sup 13}C-acetic acid. Enzymatic transformation from ALA to porphobilinogen (PBG) was directly observed by {sup 13}C-NMR. (author).

  6. Biosynthetic pathways to delta-aminolevulinic acid induced by blue light in the pigment mutant C-2A' of Scenedesmus obliquus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, O.; Senger, H.

    1978-01-01

    The X-ray induced mutant C-2A' of Scenedesmus obliquus grows heterotrophically but forms only traces of chlorophyll in the dark. Upon illumination, delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is synthesized and chlorophyll is formed. These processes are blue light dependent and ceased immediately when the cells were transferred back into darkness. Addition of levulinic acid (LA) inhibited the light-dependent formation of chlorophyll and caused accumulation of ALA by competitive inhibition of the ALA dehydratase (EC. 4.2.1.24). By feeding specifically labelled 14 C precursors to the pigment mutant, inhibiting the ALA dehydratase with LA, accumulating, extracting and analyzing the ALA, two pathways leading towards ALA could be established: glycine and succinyl CoA can be condensed to ALA and the 5 carbon skeleton of glutamate can completely be incorporated into ALA via a second pathway. The glycine-succinyl CoA pathway dominated over the glutamate pathway, but both led to chlorophyll formation. (author)

  7. Effects of gallic acid on delta - aminolevulinic dehydratase activity and in the biochemical, histological and oxidative stress parameters in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Lizielle Souza; Thomé, Gustavo Roberto; Lopes, Thauan Faccin; Reichert, Karine Paula; de Oliveira, Juliana Sorraila; da Silva Pereira, Aline; Baldissareli, Jucimara; da Costa Krewer, Cristina; Morsch, Vera Maria; Chitolina Schetinger, Maria Rosa; Spanevello, Roselia Maria

    2016-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterised by hyperglycaemia associated with the increase of oxidative stress. Gallic acid has potent antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gallic acid on the biochemical, histological and oxidative stress parameters in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats. Male rats were divided in groups: control, gallic acid, diabetic and diabetic plus gallic acid. DM was induced in the animals by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (65mg/kg). Gallic acid (30mg/kg) was administered orally for 21days. Our results showed an increase in reactive species levels and lipid peroxidation, and a decrease in activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in the liver and kidney of the diabetic animals (PGallic acid treatment showed protective effects in these parameters evaluated, and also prevented a decrease in the activity of catalase and glutathione S-transferase, and vitamin C levels in the liver of diabetic rats. In addition, gallic acid reduced the number of nuclei and increased the area of the core in hepatic tissue, and increased the glomerular area in renal tissue. These results indicate that gallic acid can protect against oxidative stress-induced damage in the diabetic state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Source and impact of lead contamination on {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in several marine bivalve species along the Gulf of Cadiz

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    Company, R.; Serafim, A.; Lopes, B.; Cravo, A. [CIMA, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Kalman, J.; Riba, I.; DelValls, T.A. [Catedra UNESCO/UNITWIN/WiCop, Department of Physical-Chemistry, Faculty Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Blasco, J. [Instituto Ciencias Marinas Andalucia (CSIC), Campus Rio San Pedro, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Delgado, J. [Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Avda Fuerzas Armadas s/n, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Sarmiento, A.M. [Catedra UNESCO/UNITWIN/WiCop, Department of Physical-Chemistry, Faculty Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Avda Fuerzas Armadas s/n, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Nieto, J.M. [Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Avda Fuerzas Armadas s/n, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Shepherd, T.J.; Nowell, G. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Durham, Science Laboratories, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Bebianno, M.J., E-mail: mbebian@ualg.pt [CIMA, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2011-01-17

    Coastal areas and estuaries are particularly sensitive to metal contamination from anthropogenic sources and in the last few decades the study of space-time distribution and variation of metals has been extensively researched. The Gulf of Cadiz is no exception, with several rivers draining one of the largest concentrations of sulphide deposits in the world, the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB). Of these rivers, the Guadiana, one of the most important in the Iberian Peninsula, together with smaller rivers like the Tinto and Odiel, delivers a very high metal load to the adjacent coastal areas. The purpose of this work was to study the source and impact of lead (Pb) drained from historical or active mining areas in the IPB on the activity of a Pb inhibited enzyme ({delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, ALAD) in several bivalve species along the Gulf of Cadiz. Seven marine species (Chamelea gallina, Mactra corallina, Donax trunculus, Cerastoderma edule, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Scrobicularia plana and Crassostrea angulata) were collected at 12 sites from Mazagon, near the mouth of the rivers Tinto and Odiel (Spain), to Cacela Velha (Ria Formosa lagoon system, Portugal). Lead concentrations, ALAD activity and lead isotope ratios ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) were determined in the whole soft tissues. The highest Pb concentrations were determined in S. plana (3.50 {+-} 1.09 {mu}g g{sup -1} Pb d.w.) and D. trunculus (1.95 {+-} 0.10 {mu}g g{sup -1} Pb d.w.), while M. galloprovincialis and C. angulata showed the lowest Pb levels (<0.38 {mu}g g{sup -1} Pb d.w.). In general, ALAD activity is negatively correlated with total Pb concentration. However this relationship is species dependent (e.g. linear for C. gallina ALAD = -0.36[Pb] + 0.79; r = 0.837; or exponential for M. galloprovincialis ALAD = 2.48e{sup -8.3[Pb]}; r = 0.911). This indicates that ALAD activity has considerable potential as a biomarker of Pb and moreover, in

  9. Potential efficacy of a delta 5-aminolevulinic acid thermosetting gel formulation for use in photodynamic therapy of lesions of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourre, Ludovic; Thibaut, Sonia; Briffaud, Amelie; Lajat, Youenn; Patrice, Thierry

    2002-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX may play a role in the treatment of dysplastic Barrett's oesophagus. An ALA thermosetting gel Pluronic F-127) was developed and evaluated in an in vivo mouse model for potential use in PDT of Barrett's mucosa. In vitro studies of the influence of Pluronic F-127 percentage on thermosetting gel temperature, followed by the influence of ALA concentration on thermosetting temperature and ALA-gel stability as a function of time or temperature were studied. In vivo relationships between ALA doses and fluorescence were studied to determine the optimal concentration. Fluorescence measurement in vivo showed that ALA concentration and time had a nonlinear influence on protoporphyrin IX synthesis. For ALA-gel applications longer than 30 min a plateau fluorescence was reached, the maximum fluorescence being obtained after 4 h whatever the time of contact. The maximum intensity (2824 counts s(-1)) was found with 40 mg mL(-1) ALA-gel, and fluorescence intensities differed with time, reaching a maximum after 3-4 h. ALA-Pluronic F-127 is a suitable formulation for treatment of Barrett's oesophagus, allowing easy application in liquid form at 4 degrees C and good adhesion in the oesophagus in gel form, with efficient diffusion of ALA into treated mucosa. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  10. Terapêutica fotodinâmica com ácido delta-aminolevulínico em neoplasias queratinocíticas superficiais Photodynamic therapy with delta-aminolevulinic acid for superficial keratinocytic neoplasms

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    Renato Marchiori Bakos

    2003-04-01

    %, dor em cinco (6,7% e prurido em um caso (1,3%. A maioria dos casos (60% apresentou boa tolerância ao tratamento, não havendo efeitos paralelos dignos de nota. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados obtidos no trabalho assemelham-se, em parte, aos relatados na literatura com aplicação única da terapêutica fotodinâmica com ácido delta-aminolevulínico em neoplasias queratinocíticas superficiais, principalmente nas ceratoses actínicas e na doença de Bowen.BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a treatment technique in which photosensitizing substances are applied in tissues and excited with specific wavelengths of light energy to obtain cell destruction through photoactive cytotoxic substances. This method has been used in several skin neoplasms, with quite successful results. OBJECTIVES: To study the effects of one single session of topical delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA irradiated with incoherent light, in actinic keratosis (AK, superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC and Bowen's disease (BD. PATIENT AND METHODS: Eighty skin lesions, in 52 patients, were treated with an incoherent light source prototype built by the Service of Biomedical Engineering of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA, after the application of 20% ALA under occlusion. Thirty two (40% were superficial BCC, 37 (46.3% AK, and 11 (13.7% BD. Diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy and histology in 23 cases (28.7%. RESULTS: Follow up was not available in five lesions. From the remaining 75, 41 (54.6% were completely resolved, 22 (29.4% showed partial remission, and 12 (16.0% were considered as treatment failures. Considering the 35 treated AK, 23 (65.7% presented complete response, 7 (20% improved, and 5 (14.3% showed no benefit after treatment. Thirty BCC were treated, 10 (33.3% completely resolved, 13 (43.4% improved, and 7 (23.3% remained unaffected. From 10 treated BD, 8 (80% resolved and 2 (20% improved. Observed side effects were burning sensation in 24 lesions (32%, pain in 5 (6.7%, and itch in

  11. Microscopic localisation of protoporphyrin IX in normal mouse skin after topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid or methyl 5-aminolevulinate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, Henriëtte S.; Meijers, Carel; van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, Angélique; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Robinson, Dominic J.

    2008-01-01

    Light fractionation does not enhance the response to photodynamic therapy (PDT) after topical methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) application, whereas it is after topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). The differences in biophysical and biochemical characteristics between MAL and ALA may result in

  12. Delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase activity and oxidative stress markers in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lucca, Leidiane; Rodrigues, Fabiane; Jantsch, Letícia B; Kober, Helena; Neme, Walter S; Gallarreta, Francisco M P; Gonçalves, Thissiane L

    2016-12-01

    Preeclampsia is an important pregnancy-specific multisystem disorder characterized by the onset of hypertension and proteinuria. It is of unknown etiology and involves serious risks for the pregnant women and fetus. One of the main factors involved in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia is oxidative stress, where excess free radicals produce harmful effects, including damage to macromolecules such as lipids, proteins and DNA. In addition, the sulfhydryl delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase enzyme (δ-ALA-D) that is part of the heme biosynthetic pathway in pro-oxidant conditions can be inhibited, which may result in the accumulation of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), associated with the overproduction of free radicals, suggesting it to be an indirect marker of oxidative stress. As hypertensive pregnancy complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality maternal and fetal where oxidative stress appears to be an important factor involved in preeclampsia, the aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of δ-ALA-D and classic oxidative stress markers in the blood of pregnant women with mild and severe preeclampsia. The analysis and quantification of the following oxidative stress markers were performed: thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS); presence of protein and non-protein thiol group; quantification of vitamin C; Catalase and δ-ALA--D activities in samples of blood of pregnant women with mild preeclampsia (n=25), with severe preeclampsia (n=30) and in a control group of healthy pregnant women (n=30). TBARS was significantly higher in women with preeclampsia, while the presence of thiol groups, levels of vitamin C, catalase and δ-ALA-D activity were significantly lower in groups of pregnant women with preeclampsia compared with healthy women. In addition, the results showed no significant difference between groups of pregnant women with mild and severe preeclampsia. The data suggest a state of increased oxidative stress in pregnant women with

  13. Photodynamic Detection of Peritoneal Metastases Using 5-Aminolevulinic Acid (ALA

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    Yutaka Yonemura

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past, peritoneal metastasis (PM was considered as a terminal stage of cancer. From the early 1990s, however, a new comprehensive treatment consisting of cytoreductive surgery and perioperative chemotherapy has been established to improve long-term survival for selected patients with PM. Among prognostic indicators after the treatment, completeness of cytoreduction is the most independent predictors of survival. However, peritoneal recurrence is a main cause of recurrence, even after complete cytoreduction. As a cause of peritoneal recurrence, small PM may be overlooked at the time of cytoreductive surgery (CRS, therefore, development of a new method to detect small PM is desired. Recently, photodynamic diagnosis (PDD was developed for detection of PM. The objectives of this review were to evaluate whether PDD using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA could improve detection of small PM.

  14. Photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid: basic principles and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottier, Roy H.; Kennedy, James C.

    1996-01-01

    Numerous photosensitizing pigments that absorb visible light and are selectively retained in neoplastic tissue are being investigated as potential photochemotherapeutic agents. While much emphasis is being placed on the synthesis of new, far-red absorbing photosensitizers, an alternative approach has been to stimulate the human body to produce its own natural photosensitizer, namely protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Exogenous 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is rapidly bioconverted into PP by mitochondria, the process being particularly efficient in tumor cells. Since PpIX has a natural and rapid clearing mechanism (via the capture of iron in the process of being converted into heme), ALA-PDT does not suffer from lingering skin phototoxicity. ALA may be introduced orally, intravenously, or topically, and ALA-PDT has been shown to be effective in the treatment of both malignant and non-malignant lesions.

  15. 5-aminolevulinic acid in photodynamic diagnosis and therapy of urological malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelius, Thomas; de Riese, Werner T. W.

    2003-06-01

    Completeness and certainty of tumor detection are very important issues in clinical oncology. Recent technological developments in ultrasound, radiologic and magnetic resonance imaging diagnostics are very promising, but could not improve the detection rate of early stage malignancies. One of the most promising new approaches is the use of 5-aminolevulinic acid, a potent photosensitizer, in photodynamic diagnosis and therapy. 5-aminolevulinic acid is meanwhile a well-established tool in the photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer. It has been shown to improve the sensitivity of detection of superficial tumors and carcinoma in situ, which enables to reduce the risk of tumor recurrence related to undetected lesions or incomplete transurethral resection of the primary lesions. The use of 5-aminolevulinic acid is steadily expanding in diagnostics of urological malignancies. First clinical results are now reported in detection of urethral and ureteral lesions as well as in urine fluorescence cytology. Furthermore, due to the selective accumulation in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder, 5-aminolevulinic acid may be an ideal candidate for photodynamic therapy in superficial bladder cancer. Summarizing the data of multiple clinical trials, 5-aminolevulinic acid is a promising agent in photodynamic diagnostics and treatment of superficial bladder cancer.

  16. 5-Aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy for superficial basal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Want, David; Kennedy, James C.; Brundage, Michael; Rothwell, Deanna

    1997-01-01

    Treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) offers an alternative to plastic surgery and radiotherapy with potential for good cosmetic outcome and local control of disease. We report our clinical experience with this technique. Patients were treated prospectively on a study protocol enrolling a total of 118 patients (63 male, 55 female) with an average age of 65 years. Consecutive patients meeting eligibility criteria were invited to participate over a four year period. Median followup was 27 months (range 1 to 76 months). In the study group, 62 patients had single lesions and 56 had multiple lesions. Of the 56 patients with multiple lesions, 33 had 2-4 lesions, 11 had 5-9, and 11 had 10 or more. All patients were treated with 20% ALA dissolved in Glaxal Base applied to the tumors for three to four hours. Following removal of the cream, fluorescence intensity and distribution were assessed using a UV-A lamp, and the lesions were exposed to photoactivating light of wavelength greater than 600 nm for a light dose ranging from 100-150 J/cm2. Lesions were reassessed in followup, and scored as complete or partial responses. At subsequent patient assessments, lesions were scored as continued complete responses or recurrences. In the patients with single lesions, there was an initial complete response rate of 90.3%. Of the 56 patients with multiple lesions, 44 had all of their lesions respond completely, and there was an overall average response rate of 95.5%. Sixty three percent of males and 44% of females had all of their lesions respond completely. (p=0.033, Chi-squared test). There was no difference in response rate with respect to age, or site of lesion. The recurrence rates were 35% for patients with single lesions, and 10.5% for patients with multiple lesions. ALA-PDT would appear to be a promising alternative to conventional treatment for superficial basal cell carcinoma. Based on these results

  17. Vitamin-E reduces the oxidative damage on delta-aminolevulinic dehydratase induced by lead intoxication in rat erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Ramirez, A; Cerbón-Solórzano, J; Maldonado-Vega, M; Quintanar-Escorza, M A; Calderón-Salinas, J V

    2007-09-01

    Lead intoxication induces oxidative damage on lipids and proteins. In the present paper we study in vivo and in vitro the antioxidant effect of vitamin-E and trolox, on the oxidative effects of lead intoxication in rat erythrocytes. Vitamin-E simultaneously administered to erythrocytes treated with lead was capable to prevent the inhibition of delta-aminolevulinic dehydratase activity and lipid oxidation. Partial but important protective effects were found when vitamin-E was administered either after or before lead exposure in rats. In vitro, the antioxidant trolox protected delta-ALA-D activity against damage induced by lead or menadione. These results indicate that vitamin-E could be useful in order to protect membrane-lipids and, notably, to prevent protein oxidation produced by lead intoxication.

  18. Effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid on yield and quality of lettuce in sunlit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ese

    2012-07-03

    Jul 3, 2012 ... The role of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) as a precursor of chlorophyll and heme is well documented. ... Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are widely applied on crops as a means of ..... Seed germination and early seedling growth ...

  19. Theoretical Studies Of Molecular Structure And Vibrational Spectra Of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Hexyl Ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comert, H.

    2010-01-01

    The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of The 5-Aminolevulinic acid's hexyl ester (ALA-H) in the ground state have been calculated using Hartree-Fock (HF) and Density functional method (B3LYP) with 6-31++G(d) basis set. The calculated vibrational spectra and geometric parameters of title compound were compered with experimental ones.

  20. Continuous far red irradiation controls molecular properties of delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase in Raphanus Sativus seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balange, A.P. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 76-Mont Saint Aignan (France). Lab. de Photobiologie); Lambert, C. (U.E.R. Scientifique de Luminy, Dept. de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Marseilles (France))

    1983-12-01

    8-Aminolevulinate dehydratase (EC 4.2.1.24) (ALAD) is a phytochrome-dependent enzyme. Under continuous far red light (FR), the intracellular location of ALAD is modified: in young irradiated seedling cotyledons (48 h from sowing) it is localised in the cytoplasm, as for seedlings kept in continuous darkness or irradiated but treated with erythromycin (ERT). In seedlings kept 120 h under continuous FR light, ALAD is detected in cytoplasm too, but also in etioplasts. Studies from DEAE-cellulose chromatography show that, when ALAD is localised in the cytoplasm it has a stable charge, but an unstable molecular weight. If plastids are allowed to grow normally under continuous FR light, the enzyme can be purified from stroma of etioplasts from 72 h from sowing. The molecule is unstable, both in charge and in molecular weight. ALAD from etioplasts is further transformed into a species stable both in charge and in molecular weight. The relationship between the molecular modifications and physiological results observed previously are discussed. 12 refs.

  1. Comparative study of trichloroacetic acid vs. photodynamic therapy with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid for actinic keratosis of the scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nuzzo, Sergio; Cortelazzi, Chiara; Boccaletti, Valeria; Zucchi, Alfredo; Conti, Maria Luisa; Montanari, Paola; Feliciani, Claudio; Fabrizi, Giuseppe; Pagliarello, Calogero

    2015-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy with 5-methyl-aminolevulinate and photodynamic therapy with trichloroacetic acid 50% are the two techniques utilized in the management of actinic keratosis. This study was planned to compare the efficacy, adverse effects, recurrence and cosmetic outcome of these option therapies in patients with multiple actinic keratosis of the scalp. Thirteen patients with multiple actinic keratosis were treated with one of the two treatments on half of the scalp at baseline, while the other treatment was performed on the other half 15 days apart, randomly. Efficacy, adverse effects, cosmetic outcome and recurrence were recorded at follow-up visit at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. Photodynamic therapy with 5 methyl-aminolevulinate was more effective than trichloroacetic acid although less tolerated by patients as it was more painful. Early adverse effects were almost the same even if trichloroacetic acid leads also to crust formation and to a worse cosmetic outcome characterized by hypopigmentation. Recurrence was lower in the area treated with photodynamic therapy. Trichloroacetic acid 50% is less effective than photodynamic therapy with 5 methyl-aminolevulinate in the treatment of multiple actinic keratosis of the scalp although better tolerated by patients. As this technique is less painful and less expensive than photodynamic therapy, we hypothesize and suggest that more sequential treatments could lead to better results. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Clinical utility of 5-aminolevulinic acid HCl to better visualize and more completely remove gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halani SH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sameer H Halani,1 D Cory Adamson1,2 1Department of Neurosurgery, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Neurosurgery Section, Atlanta VA Medical Center, Decatur, GA, USA Abstract: Surgical resection is typically the first line of treatment for gliomas. However, the neurosurgeon faces a major challenge in achieving maximal resection in high-grade gliomas as these infiltrative tumors make it difficult to discern tumor margins from normal brain with conventional white-light microscopy alone. To aid in resection of these infiltrative tumors, fluorescence-guided surgery has gained much popularity in intraoperative visualization of malignant gliomas, with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA leading the way. First introduced in an article in Neurosurgery, 5-ALA has since become a safe, effective, and inexpensive method to visualize and improve resection of gliomas. This has undoubtedly led to improvements in the clinical course of patients as demonstrated by the increased overall and progression-free survival in patients with such devastating disease. This literature review aims to discuss the major studies and trials demonstrating the clinical utility of 5-ALA and its ability to aid in complete resection of malignant gliomas. Keywords: aminolevulinic acid, 5-ALA, fluorescence, glioblastoma multiforme, high-grade glioma, resection

  3. The possibility of using 5-aminolevulinic acid in lead phytoextraction process

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    Zbigniew Jarosz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies conducted in the greenhouse involving a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. grown in medium containing 200 mg Pb ∙ dm -3 which were designed to evaluate the impact of foliar nutrition with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA on the chemical composition of sunflower in reference to possible use of this plant in the process of induced phytoextraction. The study revealed from 4.8% to 34.1% increase in aboveground matter of sunflower which was sprayed by 5-ALA solution at concentrations of 0.01-0.1 ppm in comparison with plants grown in a medium containing 200 mg Pb ∙ dm -3 with no 5-ALA spraying. The sunflower leaves sprayed by 5-ALA solution contained from 3.78% to 27.1% more lead in comparison to plants not sprayed by this agent. As well as remarkable decrease in lead content from 17.4 to 33.4% was recorded in the roots of sunflower sprayed by 5-ALA solution. The lead content in plant shoots was independent from foliar application of 5-aminolevulinic acid

  4. Topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid hexyl ester and 5-aminolevulinic acid to normal nude mouse skin: Differences in protoporphyrin IX fluorescence kinetics and the role of the stratum corneum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, J. T.; Iani, V.; Star, W. M.; Sterenborg, H. J.; Moan, J.

    2000-01-01

    An important limitation of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-based photodetection and photodynamic therapy is that the amount of the fluorescing and photosensitizing product protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) formed is limited. The reason for this Is probably the limited diffusion of ALA through the stratum

  5. Increase in protoporphyrin IX after 5-aminolevulinic acid based photodynamic therapy is due to local re-synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, Henriëtte S.; Kruijt, Bastiaan; van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, Angélique; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Robinson, Dominic J.

    2007-01-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence that is bleached during aminolevulinic acid (ALA) mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) increases again in time after treatment. In the present study we investigated if this increase in PpIX fluorescence after illumination is the result of local re-synthesis or of

  6. Correlation between macroscopic fluorescence and protoporphyrin IX content in psoriasis and actinic keratosis following application of aminolevulinic acid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, T.; Robles, C.A.; Erp, P.E.J. van; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Gerritsen, M.J.P.

    2005-01-01

    In fluorescence diagnosis with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced porphyrins (FDAP), protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) accumulation can be macroscopically visualized. Interpretation of these data is still problematic because of the low reproducibility of the procedure and poor understanding of the

  7. Enhancement techniques for improving 5-aminolevulinic acid delivery through the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wen Zhang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a popular technique for skin cancer treatment. Protoporphyrin IX, which is a photosensitizing agent, converted enzymatically from the prodrug 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, is used as a photosensitizer in PDT for cancer. However, ALA penetrates with difficulty through intact skin; therefore, improving delivery systems for ALA in the skin will play an important role in ALA-PDT. Enhancement of ALA skin penetration can be achieved by physical methods, such as iontophoresis, laser, microneedles, ultrasound, and by adding chemical penetration enhancers, such as, dimethyl sulfoxide, oleic acid, and others, whereas some researches used lipophilic ALA derivatives and different vehicles to improve the transdermal delivery of ALA. This review introduces several enhancement techniques for increasing ALA permeation through the skin.

  8. Physiological and metabolic effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid for mitigating salinity stress in creeping bentgrass.

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    Zhimin Yang

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine whether foliar application of a chlorophyll precursor, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, could mitigate salinity stress damages in perennial grass species by regulating photosynthetic activities, ion content, antioxidant metabolism, or metabolite accumulation. A salinity-sensitive perennial grass species, creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera, was irrigated daily with 200 mM NaCl for 28 d, which were foliar sprayed with water or ALA (0.5 mg L-1 weekly during the experiment in growth chamber. Foliar application of ALA was effective in mitigating physiological damage resulting from salinity stress, as manifested by increased turf quality, shoot growth rate, leaf relative water content, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. Foliar application of ALA also alleviated membrane damages, as shown by lower membrane electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation, which was associated with increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Leaf content of Na+ was reduced and the ratio of K+/Na+ was increased with ALA application under salinity stress. The positive effects of ALA for salinity tolerance were also associated with the accumulation of organic acids (α-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, and malic acid, amino acids (alanine, 5-oxoproline, aspartic acid, and γ -aminobutyric acid, and sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose, lyxose, allose, xylose, sucrose, and maltose. ALA-mitigation of physiological damages by salinity could be due to suppression of Na+ accumulation and enhanced physiological and metabolic activities related to photosynthesis, respiration, osmotic regulation, and antioxidant defense.

  9. Review of dermatology use of 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy in China from 1997 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peiru; Zhang, Guolong; Wang, Xiuli

    2015-07-01

    The prodrug 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and its ester derivatives have been used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) in dermatology worldwide. In China, ALA-PDT was first used to treat urethral condylomata acuminata and non-melanoma skin cancers in 1997. A powder formulation of ALA hydrochloride was approved by the Chinese Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of condylomata acuminata in 2007. Large successful experience of treating condylomatas was accumulated compared with Western countries. Meanwhile, numerous clinical studies as well as off-label use of ALAPDT have been carried out in China. To reflect the progress of ALA-PDT in China, several major Chinese and English databases were searched and published data were reviewed in this article.

  10. The Effect of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid on Cytochrome P450-Mediated Prodrug Activation.

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    Mai Miura

    Full Text Available Of late, numerous prodrugs are widely used for therapy. The hemeprotein cytochrome P450 (CYP catalyzes the activation of prodrugs to form active metabolites. Therefore, the activation of CYP function might allow the use of lower doses of prodrugs and decrease toxicity. We hypothesized that the addition of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, a precursor in the porphyrin biosynthetic pathway, enhances the synthesis of heme, leading to the up-regulation of CYP activity. To test this hypothesis, we treated a human gastric cancer cell line with ALA and determined the effect on CYP-dependent prodrug activation. For this purpose, we focused on the anticancer prodrug tegafur, which is converted to its active metabolite 5-fluorouracil (5-FU mainly by CYP2A6. We show here that ALA increased CYP2A6-dependent tegafur activation, suggesting that ALA elevated CYP activity and potentiated the activation of the prodrug.

  11. Binding of 14C-5-aminolevulinic acid to a stromal protein from developing pea chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, S.S.; Castelfranco, P.A.; Wilkinson, J.; Benson, G.

    1987-01-01

    14 -5-Aminolevulinic acid ( 14 C-ALA) binds to a stromal protein with an apparent molecular weight of 42-43 KD on LDS and non-denaturing gels. The reaction is rapid. Binding is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents, mM concentrations of levulinic, dihydroxy heptanoic acids and gabaculine, 10 μM N-methylprotoporphyrin. Dicarboxilic acids, such as δKG, Glu, OAA, do not inhibit. Chloramphenicol, ATP, protoporphyrin, anoxia, light, darkness have no effect. The product, once formed, is stable to treatment with 5% conc. HCl in cold acetone. It can be chased in a second incubation with unlabeled ALA, but not with levulinic acid. No activity was detected in the subplastidic membrane fractions. Western blot analysis failed to reveal any homology between the labeled protein and either cytochrome for ALA dehydratase. This ALA-binding protein was not formed in chloroplasts isolated from fully expanded pea leaves. Therefore, it is deemed likely to participate in ALA metabolism during chloroplast development

  12. Limites de aplicabilidade da determinação do ácido delta-aminolevulínico urinário como teste screening na avaliação da intoxicação profissional pelo chumbo Applicability limits of urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid as a screening test to evaluate professional intoxication by lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Caldeira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A aplicabilidade da determinação da concentração do ácido delta-aminolevulínico urinário (ALA-U no controle da saúde de trabalhadores expostos ocupacionalmente ao chumbo foi realizada em dois grupos de trabalhadores. Os valores médios de Pb-S para os dois grupos foram 17,3 µg/dl (6,2-39,4 e 61,5 µg/dl (41,1-91,0, respectivamente. As concentrações de ALA-U foram determinadas por HPLC e por espectrofotometria. Uma correlação significativa (pThe relationship between concentrations of ALA-U and Pb-S for two groups of workers is reported. The first group consisted of workers from a telephone company, and the second, of workers from battery factories with average Pb-S equivalent to 17,3 µg/dl (6,2-39,4 and 61,5 µg/dl (41,1-91,0, respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utilization of ALA-U levels as a screening test for different levels of lead in blood by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and of spectrophotometry. A significant correlation was found between measured ALA and levels of blood lead (R = 0,739 - first group; R = 0,902 - second group; p < 0,001. The validity of ALA-U test to evaluate different levels of lead in blood was also studied. By using ALA levels of 3 mg/g creatinine as a threshold to detect levels of lead in blood equal to or higher than 20 µg/dl, the test results, for the workers in the first group, showed sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 90%. In both groups, the false positives as well as the false negatives were lower than 10%, which was enough to validate the test.

  13. Effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid on kinetics of protoporphyrin IX production in CHO cells.

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    W Warchoł

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA is utilized in a photodynamic therapy as a compound capable of augmenting intracellular pool of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX, which exhibits properties of a photosensitizer. The studies were aimed at monitoring accumulation of endogenous protoporphyrin IX in CHO cells under effect of various concentrations of ALA in culture medium and following removal of the compound from the culture medium. Cell content of PpIX was determined following incubation of the cells for 72 h in a culture medium containing different concentration of ALA. Moreover, the cells were preincubated for 2 h in ALA at various concentrations and separated from the compound by medium change and their PpIX content was monitored following incubation. PpIX content was defined by a fluorescent technique under the confocal microscope. In the course of continuous incubation of cells with ALA, biphasic alterations were noted in cellular PpIX concentration. Removal of ALA from the incubation medium resulted at first in a decrease in PpIX content in cells, which was followed by an evidently augmented accumulation of the compound in the cells. The results suggested that in the case of CHO cells, exogenous ALA was not an exclusive source of PpIX synthesis and that alterations in enzyme activities were responsible for production of PpIX.

  14. 0.5% Liposome-encapsulated 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) photodynamic therapy for acne treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jee-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Dong-Hun; Kim, Byung-Yoon; Cho, Soyun; Kwon, In-Ho; Choi, Won-Woo; Kang, Seong-Min; Won, Chong-Hyun; Chang, Sung-Eun; Lee, Mi-Woo; Choi, Jee-Ho; Moon, Kee-Chan

    2011-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy using topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) has been successful in treating acne vulgaris, but sun avoidance for at least 48 hours after treatment is necessary due to the risk of post-treatment photosensitivity. Recently, a lower concentration of liposome-encapsulated 5-ALA was introduced to minimize this risk. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of liposome-encapsulated 0.5% 5-ALA in the photodynamic therapy of inflammatory acne and its effects on sebum secretion in Asian skin. Thirteen Korean subjects with inflammatory acne were administered 0.5% ALA spray before photoradiation treatment. Photoradiation was performed at 3.5-6.0 J/cm(2) three times during each of two visits, performed 2 weeks apart. Improvement of acne was evaluated subjectively and objectively based on the Korean Acne Grading System. Sebum secretion was measured quantitatively at each visit. The mean reduction in acne grade at the end of the treatment was 43.2%. Of the patients, 69.2% reported improvements in subjective skin oiliness, but fewer showed objective reductions in sebum secretion as determined by the Sebumeter® SM10. No serious adverse events were observed. Photodynamic therapy using liposome-encapsulated 0.5% 5-ALA improved inflammatory acne with minimal side effects in Asians.

  15. Lead Effect on Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Activity of Feral Pigeon (Columba livia in Drenas

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    Albana Plakiqi Milaimi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the effects of environmental pollution with heavy metals from ferro-nickel smelter on Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase (ALAD activity, and to analyze the blood lead level of feral pigeon (Columba livia in ferro-nickel smelter courtyard in Drenas City, Republic of Kosovo. For this purpose, twenty specimens of feral pigeon (20 birds, males and females, were collected in Drenas city which were living in ferro-nickel smelter courtyard, and 20 specimens in Lubizhdë village as control group (non-contaminated area. ALAD activity in Drenas group was significantly inhibited (P<0.001, compared with ALAD activity of controls. The blood lead level was significantly increased (P=0.015 compared to control group. Correlation between ALAD and blood lead level in Drenas group was negative (r=-0.117; P>0.050 and positive in Lubizhdë group (r=0.452; P> 0.050, but not in significant difference between the input groups. Feral pigeons can play an important role as bioindicators, which can used to monitor the environmental pollution with heavy metals that may originate from Nickel metallurgy.

  16. 5-Aminolevulinic acid-mediated sonosensitization of rat RG2 glioma cells in vitro

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    Krzysztof Bilmin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sonodynamic therapy (SDT is a promising technique based on the ability of certain substances, called sonosensitizers, to sensitize cancer cells to non-thermal effects of low-energy ultrasound waves, allowing their destruction. Sonosensitization is thought to induce cell death by direct physical effects such as cavitation and acoustical streaming as well as by complementary chemical reactions generating oxygen free radicals. One of the promising sonosensitizers is 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA which upon selective uptake by cancer cells is metabolized and accumulated as protoporphyrin IX. The objective of the study was to describe ALA-mediated sonodynamic effects in vitro on a rat RG2 glioma cell line. Glioma cells, seeded at the bottom of 96-well plates and incubated with ALA (10 µg/ml for 6 h, were exposed to the sinusoidal US pulses with a resonance frequency of 1 MHz, 1000 µs duration, 0.4 duty-cycle, and average acoustic power varying from 2 W to 6 W. Ultrasound waves were generated by a flat circular piezoelectric transducer with a diameter of 25 mm. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Structural cellular changes were visualized with a fluorescence microscope. Signs of cytotoxicity such as a decrease in cell viability, chromatin condensation and apoptosis were found. ALA-mediated SDT evokes cytotoxic effects of low intensity US on rat RG2 glioma cells in vitro . This cell line is indicated for further preclinical assessment of SDT in in vivo conditions.

  17. Thermosetting gel for the delivery of 5-aminolevulinic acid esters to the cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaud, Sabine; Peng, Qian; Gurny, Robert; Lange, Norbert

    2008-07-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-mediated photodynamic therapy has been proposed as an alternative, cervix-sparing treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). In this context, topical application of 5-ALA to the cervix is beneficial due to the small necessary dose and its minimal side effects. Therefore, lipophilic 5-ALA esters, such as hexylaminolevulinate (HAL), have led to improved local bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. Hydrogels have shown to be more appropriate for the local delivery of these derivatives, but due to the limited long-term stability of such formulations at 25 degrees C, the development of an extemporaneously prepared hydrogel targeting CIN can be advantageous. Therefore, a poloxamer 407 thermosetting gel, which is liquid at room temperature and becomes a semi-solid when in contact with the female genital tract, has been evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Rheological evaluation has shown that a 17.0% poloxamer 407 hydrogel with a sol-gel transition at 24.8 +/- 0.6 degrees C was the best formulation for easy application and optimal residence time. Furthermore, similarly to other hydrogels previously tested, such a formulation shows a more complete HAL release in vitro than conventional cream vehicles, and tends to increase porphyrin accumulation in nude mice skin. Finally, in vitro release profiles were correlated to the in vivo results.

  18. Regulation of ion homeostasis by aminolevulinic acid in salt-stressed wheat seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Türk, Hülya, E-mail: hulyaa.turk@hotmail.com [Biology Department, Science Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey); East Anatolian High Technology Research and Application Center, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Genişel, Mucip, E-mail: m.genisel@hotmail.com [Department of Crop and Animal Production, Vocational High School, Agri (Turkey); Erdal, Serkan, E-mail: serkanerdal25@hotmail.com [Biology Department, Science Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Salinity is regarded as a worldwide agricultural threat, as it seriously limits plant development and productivity. Salt stress reduces water uptake in plants by disrupting the osmotic balance of soil solution. In addition, it creates a damaged metabolic process by causing ion imbalance in cells. In this study, we aim to examine the negative effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) (20 mg/l) on the ion balance in wheat seedling leaves exposed to salt stress (150 mM). Sodium is known to be highly toxic for plant cells at high concentrations, and is significantly increased by salt stress. However, it can be reduced by combined application of ALA and salt, compared to salt application alone. On the other hand, while the K{sup +}/Na{sup +} ratio was reduced by salt stress, ALA application changed this ratio in favor of K{sup +}. Manganese, iron, and copper were also able to reduce stress. However, ALA pre-treatment resulted in mineral level increments. Conversely, the stress-induced rise in magnesium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and molybdenum were further improved by ALA application. These data clearly show that ALA has an important regulatory effect of ion balance in wheat leaves.

  19. Distribution of δ-aminolevulinic acid biosynthetic pathways among phototrophic and related bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avissar, Y.J.; Beale, S.I.; Ormerod, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    Two biosynthetic pathways are known for the universal tetrapyrrole precursor, δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA): condensation of glycine and succinyl-CoA to form ALA with the loss of C-1 of glycine as CO 2 , and conversion of the intact carbon skeleton of glutamate to ALA in a process requiring tRNA Glu , ATP, Mg 2+ , NADPH, and pyridoxal phosphate. The distribution of the two ALA biosynthetic pathways among various bacterial genera was determined, using cell-free extracts obtained from representative organisms. Evidence for the operation of the glutamate pathway was obtained by the measurement of RNase-sensitive label incorporation from glutamate into ALA using 3,4-[ 3 H]glutamate and 1-[ 14 C]glutamate as substrate. The glycine pathway was indicated by RNase-insensitive incorporation of level from 2-[ 14 C]glycine into ALA. The distribution of the two pathways among the bacteria tested was in general agreement with their previously phylogenetic relationships and clearly indicates that the glutamate pathway is the more ancient process, whereas the glycine pathway probably evolved much later. The glutamate pathway is the more widely utilized one among bacteria, while the glycine pathway is apparently limited to the α subgroup of purple bacteria (including Rhodobacter, Rhodospirillum, and Rhizobium). E. coli was found ALA via the glutamate pathway. The ALA-requiring hemA mutant of E. coli was determined to lack the dehydrogenase activity that utilizes glutamyl-tRNA as a substrate

  20. Effects of metal ions on biomass and 5-aminolevulinic acid production in Rhodopseudomonas palustris wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuli; Zhang, Guangming; Li, Jianzheng; Li, Xiangkun; Zhang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This work investigated the effects of eight metal ions on Rhodopseudomonas palustris growth and 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) yield in wastewater treatment. Results show that metal ions (Mg(2+) of 15 mmol/L, Fe(2+) of 400 μmol/L, Co(2+) of 4 μmol/L, Ni(2+) of 8 μmol/L and Zn(2+) of 4 μmol/L) could effectively improve the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, Rp. palustris biomass and ALA yield. The highest ALA yield of 13.1 mg/g-biomass was achieved with Fe(2+) of 400 μmol/L. ALA yields were differentially increased under different metal ions in the following order: Fe(2+) group > Mg(2+) group > Co(2+) group = Ni(2+) group > Zn(2+) group = Mo(2+) group > control. Cu(2+) and Mn(2+) inhibited Rp. palustris growth and ALA production. Mechanism analysis revealed that metal ions changed ALA yields by influencing the activities of ALA synthetase and ALA dehydratase.

  1. FERTILIZATION OF VINE BY A 5-AMINOLEVULINIC ACID-BASED FERTILIZER AND ITS PROFITABILITY

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    VLADIMR IMANSK

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated the effect of different doses of NPKS fertilizer added into the soil for nutrient contents in the soil, as well as the quantity and quality of grapes. During the vegetation of the vine, we tested the 5-aminolevulinic acid-based fertilizer (ALA. We summarize that higher doses of fertilizer added into soil caused higher amounts of available nutrients. During the vegetation of the vine an increase of ALA had a positive effect on the optimal balance of nutrients. Fertilization also increased the grape-vine yield, with the strongest effect (by 68% observed due to the application of ALA during the vegetation period of the vine. Added fertilizers had a statistically significant influence on decreased sugar concentration in the grape-vine however the addition of fertilizer into the soil, mainly the application of ALA during vegetation of the vine (by 57% had a positive effect on increase of the total content of sugar in the grape-vine, produced on 1 hectare. The year had a significant influence on the economical evaluation.

  2. Dynamics of absorption, metabolism, and excretion of 5-aminolevulinic acid in human intestinal Caco-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Saito

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA is a precursor for the biosynthesis of porphyrins and heme. Although the oral administration of ALA has been widely applied in clinical settings, the dynamics of its absorption, metabolism, and excretion within enterocytes remain unknown. In this study, after enterocytic differentiation, Caco-2 cells were incubated with 200 µM ALA and/or 100 µM sodium ferrous citrate (SFC for up to 72 h. Both ALA and the combination of ALA and SFC promoted the synthesis of heme, without affecting the expression of genes involved in intestinal iron transport, such as DMT1 and FPN. The enhanced heme synthesis in Caco-2 cells was more pronounced under the effect of the combination of ALA and SFC than under the effect of ALA alone, as reflected by the induced expression of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1, as well as a reduced protein level of the transcriptional corepressor Bach1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed Bach1 chromatin occupancy at the enhancer regions of HO-1, which were significantly decreased by the addition of ALA and SFC. Finally, Transwell culture of Caco-2 cells suggested that the administered ALA to the intestinal lumen was partially transported into vasolateral space. These findings enhance our understanding of the absorption and metabolism of ALA in enterocytes, which could aid in the development of a treatment strategy for various conditions such as anemia.

  3. Structure of the Mitochondrial Aminolevulinic Acid Synthase, a Key Heme Biosynthetic Enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Breann L; Kardon, Julia R; Sauer, Robert T; Baker, Tania A

    2018-04-03

    5-Aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALAS) catalyzes the first step in heme biosynthesis. We present the crystal structure of a eukaryotic ALAS from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this homodimeric structure, one ALAS subunit contains covalently bound cofactor, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), whereas the second is PLP free. Comparison between the subunits reveals PLP-coupled reordering of the active site and of additional regions to achieve the active conformation of the enzyme. The eukaryotic C-terminal extension, a region altered in multiple human disease alleles, wraps around the dimer and contacts active-site-proximal residues. Mutational analysis demonstrates that this C-terminal region that engages the active site is important for ALAS activity. Our discovery of structural elements that change conformation upon PLP binding and of direct contact between the C-terminal extension and the active site thus provides a structural basis for investigation of disruptions in the first step of heme biosynthesis and resulting human disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 5-aminolevulinic acid and neuronavigation in high-grade glioma surgery: results of a combined approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panciani, Pier Paolo; Fontanella, Marco; Garbossa, Diego; Agnoletti, Alessandro; Ducati, Alessandro; Lanotte, Michele

    2012-02-01

    In high-grade glioma surgery, several techniques are used to achieve the maximum cytoreductive treatment preserving neurological functions. However, the effectiveness of all the methods used alone is reduced by specific limitations of each. We assessed the reliability of a multimodal strategy based on 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) and neuronavigation. We prospectively studied 18 patients with suspected, non eloquent-area malignant gliomas amenable for complete resection. Conventional illumination was used until the excision appeared complete. The cavity was then systematically inspected in violet-blue light to identify any residual tumour. Multiple biopsies of both fluorescent and non-fluorescent tissue were performed in all cases. Each specimen was labelled according to the sampling location (inside or outside the boundary set by the neuronavigator). The samples were analysed by a neuropathologist blinded to the intraoperative classification. We reviewed the results of both methods, either singly or in combination. Individual analysis showed higher 5-ALA reliability compared to neuronavigation. However, several false-negative fluorescent specimens were detected. With the combined use of fluorescence and neuroimaging, only 1 sample (negative for both 5-ALA and navigation) was tumoral tissue. In our experience, the combined approach showed the best sensitivity and it is recommended in cases of lesions involving non-eloquent areas. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of 5-aminolevulinic acid-conjugated gold nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenxi; Wang, Sijia; Xu, Hao; Wang, Bo; Yao, Cuiping

    2015-05-01

    There are three possible mechanisms for 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) conjugated gold nanoparticles (GNPs) through electrostatic bonding for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer: GNPs delivery function, singlet oxygen generation (SOG) by GNPs irradiated by light, and surface resonance enhancement (SRE) of SOG. Figuring out the exact mechanism is important for further clinical treatment. 5-ALA-GNPs and human chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells were used to study delivery function and SOG by GNPs. The SRE of SOG enabled by GNPs was explored by protoporphyrin IX (PpIX)-GNPs conjugate through electrostatic bonding. Cell experiments show that the GNPs can improve the efficiency of PDT, which is due to the vehicle effect of GNPs. PpIX-GNPs conjugate experiments demonstrated that SOG can be improved about 2.5 times over PpIX alone. The experiments and theoretical results show that the local field enhancement (LFE) via localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of GNPs is the major role; the LFE was dependent on the irradiation wavelength and the GNP's size. The LFE increased with an increase of the GNP size (2R ≤50 nm). However, the LSPR function of the GNPs was not found in cell experiments. Our study shows that in 5-ALA-conjugated GNPs PDT, the delivery function of GNPs is the major role.

  6. δ-Aminolevulinic acid cytotoxic effects on human hepatocarcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Siervi, Adriana; Vazquez, Elba S; Rezaval, Carolina; Rossetti, María V; Batlle, Alcira M del [Centro de Investigaciones sobre Porfirinas y Porfirias (CIPYP), Argentine National Research Council (CONICET), Department of Biological Chemistry, FCEN, University of Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2002-01-01

    Acute Intermittent Porphyria is a genetic disorder of heme metabolism, characterized by increased levels of porphyrin precursors, δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and porphobilinogen (PBG). ALA has been reported to generate reactive oxygen species and to cause oxidative damage to proteins, subcellular structures and DNA. It is known that oxidative stress can induce apoptosis. The aim of this work was to study the cytotoxic effect of ALA on two hepatocarcinoma cell lines. We have determined the impact of ALA on HEP G2 and HEP 3B hepatocarcinoma cell lines survival as measured by the MTT assay. ALA proved to be cytotoxic in both cell lines however; HEP G2 was more sensitive to ALA than HEP 3B. Addition of hemin or glucose diminished ALA cytotoxicity in HEP G2 cells; instead it was enhanced in HEP 3B cells. Because apoptosis is usually associated with DNA fragmentation, the DNA of ALA treated and untreated cells were analyzed. The characteristic pattern of DNA fragmentation ladders was observed in ALA treated cells. To elucidate the mechanisms of ALA induced apoptosis, we examined its effect on p53 expression. No changes in p53 mRNA levels were observed after exposure of both cell lines to ALA for 24 h. CDK2 and CDK4 protein levels were reduced after ALA treatment at physiological concentrations.

  7. δ-Aminolevulinic acid cytotoxic effects on human hepatocarcinoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Batlle Alcira M

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute Intermittent Porphyria is a genetic disorder of heme metabolism, characterized by increased levels of porphyrin precursors, δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA and porphobilinogen (PBG. ALA has been reported to generate reactive oxygen species and to cause oxidative damage to proteins, subcellular structures and DNA. It is known that oxidative stress can induce apoptosis. The aim of this work was to study the cytotoxic effect of ALA on two hepatocarcinoma cell lines. Results We have determined the impact of ALA on HEP G2 and HEP 3B hepatocarcinoma cell lines survival as measured by the MTT assay. ALA proved to be cytotoxic in both cell lines however; HEP G2 was more sensitive to ALA than HEP 3B. Addition of hemin or glucose diminished ALA cytotoxicity in HEP G2 cells; instead it was enhanced in HEP 3B cells. Because apoptosis is usually associated with DNA fragmentation, the DNA of ALA treated and untreated cells were analyzed. The characteristic pattern of DNA fragmentation ladders was observed in ALA treated cells. To elucidate the mechanisms of ALA induced apoptosis, we examined its effect on p53 expression. No changes in p53 mRNA levels were observed after exposure of both cell lines to ALA for 24 h. CDK2 and CDK4 protein levels were reduced after ALA treatment at physiological concentrations.

  8. δ-Aminolevulinic acid cytotoxic effects on human hepatocarcinoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Siervi, Adriana; Vazquez, Elba S; Rezaval, Carolina; Rossetti, María V; Batlle, Alcira M del

    2002-01-01

    Acute Intermittent Porphyria is a genetic disorder of heme metabolism, characterized by increased levels of porphyrin precursors, δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and porphobilinogen (PBG). ALA has been reported to generate reactive oxygen species and to cause oxidative damage to proteins, subcellular structures and DNA. It is known that oxidative stress can induce apoptosis. The aim of this work was to study the cytotoxic effect of ALA on two hepatocarcinoma cell lines. We have determined the impact of ALA on HEP G2 and HEP 3B hepatocarcinoma cell lines survival as measured by the MTT assay. ALA proved to be cytotoxic in both cell lines however; HEP G2 was more sensitive to ALA than HEP 3B. Addition of hemin or glucose diminished ALA cytotoxicity in HEP G2 cells; instead it was enhanced in HEP 3B cells. Because apoptosis is usually associated with DNA fragmentation, the DNA of ALA treated and untreated cells were analyzed. The characteristic pattern of DNA fragmentation ladders was observed in ALA treated cells. To elucidate the mechanisms of ALA induced apoptosis, we examined its effect on p53 expression. No changes in p53 mRNA levels were observed after exposure of both cell lines to ALA for 24 h. CDK2 and CDK4 protein levels were reduced after ALA treatment at physiological concentrations

  9. A facile synthesis of δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) regio-selectively labeled with 13C and direct observation of enzymatic transformation from ALA to porphobilinogen (PBG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurumaya, Katsuyuki; Okazaki, Takeo; Seido, Nobuo; Akasaka, Yuzuru; Kawajiri, Yoshiki; Kajiwara, Masahiro; Kondo, Masao

    1989-01-01

    δ-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), labeled with 13 C at position 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5, was synthesized from 13 C-labeled glycine, Meldrum's acid, or bromoacetate. The latter compounds were prepared from 13 C-sodium acetate or 13 C-acetic acid. Enzymatic transformation from ALA to porphobilinogen (PBG) was directly observed by 13 C-NMR. (author)

  10. 5-Aminolevulinic acid induced photodynamic inactivation on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ming Hsieh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop a simple and fast screening technique to directly evaluate the bactericidal effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-mediated photodynamic inactivation (PDI and to determine the optimal antibacterial conditions of ALA concentrations and the total dosage of light in vitro. The effects of PDI on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of various concentrations of ALA (1.0 mM, 2.5 mM, 5.0 mM, 10.0 mM were examined. All bacterial strains were exponentially grown in the culture medium at room temperature in the dark for 60 minutes and subsequently irradiated with 630 ± 5 nm using a light-emitting diode (LED red light device for accumulating the light doses up to 216 J/cm2. Both bacterial species were susceptible to the ALA-induced PDI. Photosensitization using 1.0 mM ALA with 162 J/cm2 light dose was able to completely reduce the viable counts of S. aureus. A significant decrease in the bacterial viabilities was observed for P. aeruginosa, where 5.0 mM ALA was photosensitized by accumulating the light dose of 162 J/cm2. We demonstrated that the use of microplate-based assays—by measuring the apparent optical density of bacterial colonies at 595 nm—was able to provide a simple and reliable approach for quickly choosing the parameters of ALA-mediated PDI in the cell suspensions.

  11. Intraoperative Detection of Superficial Liver Tumors by Fluorescence Imaging Using Indocyanine Green and 5-aminolevulinic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaibori, Masaki; Matsui, Kosuke; Ishizaki, Morihiko; Iida, Hiroya; Okumura, Tadayoshi; Sakaguchi, Tatsuma; Inoue, Kentaro; Ikeura, Tsukasa; Asano, Hiroaki; Kon, Masanori

    2016-04-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) and the porphyrin precursor 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) have been approved as fluorescence imaging agents in the clinical setting. This study evaluated the usefulness of fluorescence imaging with both ICG and 5-ALA for intraoperative identification of latent small liver tumors. There were 48 patients who had main tumors within 5 mm of the liver surface. 5-ALA hydrochloride was orally administered to patients 3 h before surgery. ICG had been intravenously injected within 14 days prior to surgery. Intraoperatively, after visual inspection, manual palpation and ultrasonography fluorescence images of the liver surface were obtained with ICG and 5-ALA prior to resection. With ICG, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for detecting the preoperatively identified main tumors were 96%, 50% and 94%, respectively. Twelve latent small tumors were newly detected on the liver surface using ICG, five of which proved to be carcinomas. With 5-ALA, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for detecting the main tumors were 57%, 100% and 58%, respectively. Five latent small tumors were newly detected using 5-ALA; all were carcinomas. Overall, five new tumors were detected by both ICG and 5-ALA fluorescence imaging; two were hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and three were metastases of colorectal cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of ICG fluorescence imaging for main tumor detection were relatively high and low, respectively, but the opposite was true of 5-ALA imaging. Fluorescence imaging using 5-ALA may provide greater specificity in the detection of surface-invisible malignant liver tumors than using ICG fluorescence imaging alone. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  12. 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Squalene Nanoassemblies for Tumor Photodetection and Therapy: In Vitro Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babič, Andrej; Herceg, V.; Bastien, E.; Lassalle, H.-P.; Bezdetnaya, L.; Lange, Norbert

    2018-01-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) as natural photosensitizer derived from administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) has found clinical use for photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy of several cancers. However, broader use of 5-ALA in oncology is hampered by its charge and polarity that result in its reduced capacity for passing biological barriers and reaching the tumor tissue. Advanced drug delivery platforms are needed to improve the biodistribution of 5-ALA. Here, we report a new approach for the delivery of 5-ALA. Squalenoylation strategy was used to covalently conjugate 5-ALA to squalene, a natural precursor of cholesterol. 5-ALA-SQ nanoassemblies were formed by self-assembly in water. The nanoassemblies were monodisperse with average size of 70 nm, polydispersity index of 0.12, and ζ-potential of + 36 mV. They showed good stability over several weeks. The drug loading of 5-ALA was very high at 26%. In human prostate cancer cells PC3 and human glioblastoma cells U87MG, PpIX production was monitored in vitro upon the incubation with nanoassemblies. They were more efficient in generating PpIX-induced fluorescence in cancer cells compared to 5-ALA-Hex at 1.0 to 3.3 mM at short and long incubation times. Compared to 5-ALA, they showed superior fluorescence performance at 4 h which was diminished at 24 h. 5-ALA-SQ presents a novel nano-delivery platform with great potential for the systemic administration of 5-ALA.

  13. Alleviation of salt-induced oxidative damage by 5-aminolevulinic acid in wheat seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genişel, Mucip; Erdal, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate how 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), the precursor of chlorophyll compounds, affects the defence mechanisms of wheat seedlings induced by salt stress. To determine the possible stimulative effects of ALA against salinity, 11-day old wheat seedlings were sprayed with ALA at two different concentrations (10 and 20 mg.l-1) and then stressed by exposure to salt (150 mM NaCl). The salt stress led to significant changes in the antioxidant activity. While guaiacol peroxidase activity decreased, the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase markedly increased under salt stress. Compared to the salt stress alone, the application of ALA beforehand further increased the activity of these enzymes. This study is the first time the effects of ALA have been monitored with regard to protein content and the isoenzyme profiles of the antioxidant enzymes. Although the salt stress reduced both the soluble protein content and protein band intensities, pre-treating with ALA significantly mitigated these stress-induced reductions. The data for the isoenzyme profiles of the antioxidant enzymes paralleled that of the ALA-induced increases in antioxidant activity. As a consequence of the high antioxidant activity in the seedlings pre-treated with ALA, the stress-induced elevations in the reactive oxygen species, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide contents and lipid peroxidation levels were markedly diminished. Taken together, this data demonstrated that pre-treating with ALA confers resistance to salt stress by modulating the protein synthesis and antioxidant activity in wheat seedlings.

  14. Intraoperative confocal microscopy in the visualization of 5-aminolevulinic acid fluorescence in low-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanai, Nader; Snyder, Laura A; Honea, Norissa J; Coons, Stephen W; Eschbacher, Jennifer M; Smith, Kris A; Spetzler, Robert F

    2011-10-01

    Greater extent of resection (EOR) for patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) corresponds with improved clinical outcome, yet remains a central challenge to the neurosurgical oncologist. Although 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-induced tumor fluorescence is a strategy that can improve EOR in gliomas, only glioblastomas routinely fluoresce following 5-ALA administration. Intraoperative confocal microscopy adapts conventional confocal technology to a handheld probe that provides real-time fluorescent imaging at up to 1000× magnification. The authors report a combined approach in which intraoperative confocal microscopy is used to visualize 5-ALA tumor fluorescence in LGGs during the course of microsurgical resection. Following 5-ALA administration, patients with newly diagnosed LGG underwent microsurgical resection. Intraoperative confocal microscopy was conducted at the following points: 1) initial encounter with the tumor; 2) the midpoint of tumor resection; and 3) the presumed brain-tumor interface. Histopathological analysis of these sites correlated tumor infiltration with intraoperative cellular tumor fluorescence. Ten consecutive patients with WHO Grades I and II gliomas underwent microsurgical resection with 5-ALA and intraoperative confocal microscopy. Macroscopic tumor fluorescence was not evident in any patient. However, in each case, intraoperative confocal microscopy identified tumor fluorescence at a cellular level, a finding that corresponded to tumor infiltration on matched histological analyses. Intraoperative confocal microscopy can visualize cellular 5-ALA-induced tumor fluorescence within LGGs and at the brain-tumor interface. To assess the clinical value of 5-ALA for high-grade gliomas in conjunction with neuronavigation, and for LGGs in combination with intraoperative confocal microscopy and neuronavigation, a Phase IIIa randomized placebo-controlled trial (BALANCE) is underway at the authors' institution.

  15. 5-Aminolevulinic acid induced photodynamic inactivation on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chien-Ming; Huang, Yen-Hao; Chen, Chueh-Pin; Hsieh, Bo-Chuan; Tsai, Tsuimin

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a simple and fast screening technique to directly evaluate the bactericidal effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-mediated photodynamic inactivation (PDI) and to determine the optimal antibacterial conditions of ALA concentrations and the total dosage of light in vitro. The effects of PDI on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of various concentrations of ALA (1.0 mM, 2.5 mM, 5.0 mM, 10.0 mM) were examined. All bacterial strains were exponentially grown in the culture medium at room temperature in the dark for 60 minutes and subsequently irradiated with 630 ± 5 nm using a light-emitting diode (LED) red light device for accumulating the light doses up to 216 J/cm 2 . Both bacterial species were susceptible to the ALA-induced PDI. Photosensitization using 1.0 mM ALA with 162 J/cm 2 light dose was able to completely reduce the viable counts of S. aureus. A significant decrease in the bacterial viabilities was observed for P. aeruginosa, where 5.0 mM ALA was photosensitized by accumulating the light dose of 162 J/cm 2 . We demonstrated that the use of microplate-based assays-by measuring the apparent optical density of bacterial colonies at 595 nm-was able to provide a simple and reliable approach for quickly choosing the parameters of ALA-mediated PDI in the cell suspensions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Modulation of δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Activity by the Sorbitol-Induced Osmotic Stress in Maize Leaf Segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M; Tiwary, S; Gadre, R

    2018-01-01

    Osmotic stress induced with 1 M sorbitol inhibited δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) and aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthesizing activities in etiolated maize leaf segments during greening; the ALAD activity was inhibited to a greater extent than the ALA synthesis. When the leaves were exposed to light, the ALAD activity increased for the first 8 h, followed by a decrease observed at 16 and 24 h in both sorbitol-treated and untreated leaf tissues. The maximum inhibition of the enzyme activity was observed in the leaf segments incubated with sorbitol for 4 to 8 h. Glutamate increased the ALAD activity in the in vitro enzymatic preparations obtained from the sorbitol-treated leaf segments; sorbitol inhibited the ALAD activity in the preparations from both sorbitol-treated and untreated leaves. It was suggested that sorbitol-induced osmotic stress inhibits the enzyme activity by affecting the ALAD induction during greening and regulating the ALAD steady-state level of ALAD in leaf cells. The protective effect of glutamate on ALAD in the preparations from the sorbitol-treated leaves might be due to its stimulatory effect on the enzyme.

  17. 5-Aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy for oral cancers and precancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Ming Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have used both systemic and topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT to treat oral precancers including oral leukoplakia (OL, oral erythroleukoplakia (OEL, and oral verrucous hyperplasia (OVH as well as oral cancers including oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Systemic ALA-PDT has been used to treat oral dysplastic lesions and oral cancers with promising clinical outcomes. The efficacy of a regular topical ALA-PDT (fluence rate, 100 mW/cm2; light dose, 100 J/cm2 was tested on an extensive buccal OVC and an enhanced topical ALA-PDT (fluence rate, 200 mW/cm2; light dose, 200 J/cm2 on an early-invasive OSCC; complete regression of the carcinomas was demonstrated after 28 and 18 PDT treatments, respectively. Several previous studies showed relatively good outcomes for OL lesions treated with topical ALA-PDT. However, it was found that the regular topical ALA-PDT is very effective for OVH and OEL lesions but less so for OL lesions. Better PDT outcomes are significantly associated with OVH and OEL lesions with smaller size, pink to red color, epithelial dysplasia, or thinner surface keratin layer. Moreover, the thicker surface keratin layer on the OL lesions is responsible for the relatively poorer PDT outcomes for OL lesions. In addition, both light emitting diode light- and laser light-mediated topical ALA-PDTs are comparative treatment modalities for OVH and OEL lesions. Methotrexate- or vitamin D3-preconditioned prostate or skin carcinoma cells can accumulate more intracellular protoporphyrin IX, resulting in an increased killing of these preconditioned cells by subsequent ALA-PDT. Because chemotherapy can help destroy carcinoma cells and tumor-associated vasculatures and cryotherapy pretreatment may help the diffusion of ALA into lesional epithelial cells, the chemotherapy or cryotherapy-combined topical ALA-PDT may be a new effective PDT alternative for

  18. Systemic component of protoporphyrin IX production in nude mouse skin upon topical application of aminolevulinic acid depends on the application conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, Johanna T. H. M.; Iani, Vladimir; Star, Willem M.; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Moan, Johan

    2002-01-01

    Topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) for protoporphyrin IX (PpIX)-based photodynamic therapy of skin cancer is generally considered not to induce systemic side effects because PpIX is supposed to be formed locally. However, earlier studies with topically applied ALA have revealed that

  19. Effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid on erythropoiesis: A preclinical in vitro characterization for the treatment of congenital sideroblastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Tohru; Okamoto, Koji; Niikuni, Ryoyu; Takahashi, Kiwamu; Okitsu, Yoko; Fukuhara, Noriko; Onishi, Yasushi; Ishizawa, Kenichi; Ichinohasama, Ryo; Nakamura, Yukio; Nakajima, Motowo; Tanaka, Tohru; Harigae, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Treatment with ALA induces erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. • Transportation of ALA into erythroid cells occurs predominantly via SLC36A1. • ALA restores defects in ALAS2 in human iPS cell-derived erythroblasts. • ALA may represent a novel therapeutic option for CSA caused by ALAS2 mutations. - Abstract: Congenital sideroblastic anemia (CSA) is a hereditary disorder characterized by microcytic anemia and bone marrow sideroblasts. The most common form of CSA is attributed to mutations in the X-linked gene 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase 2 (ALAS2). ALAS2 is a mitochondrial enzyme, which utilizes glycine and succinyl-CoA to form 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a crucial precursor in heme synthesis. Therefore, ALA supplementation could be an effective therapeutic strategy to restore heme synthesis in CSA caused by ALAS2 defects. In a preclinical study, we examined the effects of ALA in human erythroid cells, including K562 cells and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived erythroid progenitor (HiDEP) cells. ALA treatment resulted in significant dose-dependent accumulation of heme in the K562 cell line. Concomitantly, the treatment substantially induced erythroid differentiation as assessed using benzidine staining. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis confirmed significant upregulation of heme-regulated genes, such as the globin genes [hemoglobin alpha (HBA) and hemoglobin gamma (HBG)] and the heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) gene, in K562 cells. Next, to investigate the mechanism by which ALA is transported into erythroid cells, quantitative RT-PCR analysis was performed on previously identified ALA transporters, including solute carrier family 15 (oligopeptide transporter), member (SLC15A) 1, SLC15A2, solute carrier family 36 (proton/amino acid symporter), member (SLC36A1), and solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter), member 13 (SLC6A13). Our analysis revealed that SLC36A1 was abundantly

  20. Effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid on erythropoiesis: A preclinical in vitro characterization for the treatment of congenital sideroblastic anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Tohru [Department of Hematology and Rheumatology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Department of Molecular Hematology/Oncology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Okamoto, Koji; Niikuni, Ryoyu [Department of Hematology and Rheumatology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Takahashi, Kiwamu [SBI Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Okitsu, Yoko; Fukuhara, Noriko; Onishi, Yasushi [Department of Hematology and Rheumatology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Ishizawa, Kenichi [Department of Hematology and Rheumatology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Clinical Research, Innovation and Education Center, Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai (Japan); Ichinohasama, Ryo [Department of Hematopathology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Nakamura, Yukio [Cell Engineering Division, RIKEN BioResource Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakajima, Motowo; Tanaka, Tohru [SBI Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Harigae, Hideo, E-mail: harigae@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Hematology and Rheumatology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Department of Molecular Hematology/Oncology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan)

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • Treatment with ALA induces erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. • Transportation of ALA into erythroid cells occurs predominantly via SLC36A1. • ALA restores defects in ALAS2 in human iPS cell-derived erythroblasts. • ALA may represent a novel therapeutic option for CSA caused by ALAS2 mutations. - Abstract: Congenital sideroblastic anemia (CSA) is a hereditary disorder characterized by microcytic anemia and bone marrow sideroblasts. The most common form of CSA is attributed to mutations in the X-linked gene 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase 2 (ALAS2). ALAS2 is a mitochondrial enzyme, which utilizes glycine and succinyl-CoA to form 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a crucial precursor in heme synthesis. Therefore, ALA supplementation could be an effective therapeutic strategy to restore heme synthesis in CSA caused by ALAS2 defects. In a preclinical study, we examined the effects of ALA in human erythroid cells, including K562 cells and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived erythroid progenitor (HiDEP) cells. ALA treatment resulted in significant dose-dependent accumulation of heme in the K562 cell line. Concomitantly, the treatment substantially induced erythroid differentiation as assessed using benzidine staining. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis confirmed significant upregulation of heme-regulated genes, such as the globin genes [hemoglobin alpha (HBA) and hemoglobin gamma (HBG)] and the heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) gene, in K562 cells. Next, to investigate the mechanism by which ALA is transported into erythroid cells, quantitative RT-PCR analysis was performed on previously identified ALA transporters, including solute carrier family 15 (oligopeptide transporter), member (SLC15A) 1, SLC15A2, solute carrier family 36 (proton/amino acid symporter), member (SLC36A1), and solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter), member 13 (SLC6A13). Our analysis revealed that SLC36A1 was abundantly

  1. [Inhibition rate of gamma-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in erythrocytes as a reliable index for individual workers of low lead exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, H; Omichi, M; Ohishi, H; Ishikawa, K; Hirashima, N

    1983-09-01

    As the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in erythrocytes is decreased by lead exposure, we considered that a net reduction of ALAD activity by lead in blood should be the difference between the activity fully activated with zinc (Zn2+) and dithiothreitol (DTT) and that without activation. The optimal condition of activation of ALAD was found by addition of 0.25 mM of Zn2+ and 10 mM of DTT in the reaction mixture. Judging from our previous results that the amount of inhibition of ALAD activity can be represented as the rate of inhibition and is closely correlated with the dose of lead administered to rabbits, the inhibition rate of ALAD activity and lead content in blood (Pb-B) of lead workers were measured. The scatter diagram obtained from the inhibition rate and lead content in blood has two groups being divided at 50 micrograms/ml of Pb-B. In one group less than 50 micrograms/100 ml of Pb-B, the inhibition rate has been closely related to Pb-B., the regression equation being Y = 1.82 X + 11.7, and the correlation coefficient + 0.926. In another group more than 50 micrograms/100 ml of Pb-B the inhibition rate remained constant at the 90% level. Measurement of the inhibition rate suggests to have practical validity for monitoring lead exposure in workers, and by means of a nomograph lead content in blood can be estimated from the inhibition rate.

  2. Topical methotrexate pretreatment enhances the therapeutic effect of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy on hamster buccal pouch precancers

    OpenAIRE

    Deng-Fu Yang; Jeng-Woei Lee; Hsin-Ming Chen; Yih-Chih Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) is effective for treatment of human oral precancerous lesions. This animal study aimed to assess whether topical methotrexate (MTX) pretreatment could enhance the therapeutic effect of topical ALA-PDT on hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. Methods: Twenty hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions were treated with either topical ALA-PDT with topical MTX pretreatment (topical MTX-ALA-PDT group, n = 10) or topical A...

  3. Aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy combined with topically applied vascular disrupting agent vadimezan leads to enhanced antitumor responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Allison; Becker, Theresa; Sunar, Ulas; Morgan, Janet; Bellnier, David

    2011-01-01

    The tumor vascular-disrupting agent (VDA) vadimezan (5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid, DMXAA) has been shown to potentiate the antitumor activity of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using systemically administered photosensitizers. Here, we characterized the response of subcutaneous syngeneic Colon26 murine colon adenocarcinoma tumors to PDT using the locally applied photosensitizer precursor aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in combination with a topical formulation of vadimezan. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS), a noninvasive method for monitoring blood flow, was utilized to determine tumor vascular response to treatment. In addition, correlative CD31-immunohistochemistry to visualize endothelial damage, ELISA to measure induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and tumor weight measurements were also examined in separate animals. In our previous work, DCS revealed a selective decrease in tumor blood flow over time following topical vadimezan. ALA-PDT treatment also induced a decrease in tumor blood flow. The onset of blood flow reduction was rapid in tumors treated with both ALA-PDT and vadimezan. CD31-immunostaining of tumor sections confirmed vascular damage following topical application of vadimezan. Tumor weight measurements revealed enhanced tumor growth inhibition with combination treatment compared with ALA-PDT or vadimezan treatment alone. In conclusion, vadimezan as a topical agent enhances treatment efficacy when combined with ALA-PDT. This combination could be useful in clinical applications. © 2011 The Authors. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2011 The American Society of Photobiology.

  4. Low-dose topical 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy in the treatment of different severity of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Xiang, Lei-Hong; Yu, Bo; Yin, Rui; Chen, Lei; Wu, Yan; Tan, Zhi-Jian; Liu, Yong-Bin; Tian, Hong-Qing; Li, Hui-Zhong; Lin, Tong; Wang, Xiu-Li; Li, Yuan-Hong; Wang, Wei-Zheng; Yang, Hui-Lan; Lai, Wei

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of low-concentration 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) in the treatment of different severity of acne vulgaris and optimize the treatment regimen. A self-controlled multicenter clinical trial was carried out in 15 centers throughout China. A total of 397 acne patients of grade II-IV received 3- or 4-session PDT treatment. 5% ALA gel was applied topically to acne lesions for 1h incubation. The lesions were irradiated by a LED light of 633 nm at dose levels of 96-120 J/cm(2). Clinical assessment was conducted before and after every treatment up to 8 weeks. The effective rate overall and of grade II, III and IV are 82.1%, 71.6%, 79.6% and 88.2%, respectively. The effective rate rises significantly proportionally to the severity of acne (P0.05). The count of inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions gradually decrease after each treatment (Pacne vulgaris in Chinese patients. Superior efficacy is found in severe cystic acne of grade IV with mild side effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Photodynamic diagnostics of stress-induced gastrointestinal neoplasia in laboratory animals using 5-aminolevulinic acid and Al-phthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Ekaterina; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana; Navolokin, Nikita; Mantareva, Vanya; Angelov, Ivan; Agranovich, Ilana; Khorovodov, Alexander; Shushunova, Natalia; Bodrova, Anastasiya; Fedosov, Ivan; Namykin, Anton; Abdurashitov, Arkady; Avramov, Latchezar

    2018-02-01

    The main research objective is the development of innovative optical technologies for sensitive diagnosis of early stages of development of stomach cancer and monitoring of stress-induced appearance and development of tumors of the gastrointestinal tract by applying endogenous and exogenous fluorescence spectroscopy modalities. Different mechanisms solely and in combination for evaluation of the joint impact of bioenvironmental factors (stress, Helicobacter pillory, exo-toxins in the food, water, soil and air) were applied to induce gastrointestinal tract (GIT) neoplasia in rats. The transformation of damaged areas of the stomach mucosa into malignancies in all parts of gastrointestinal tract were detected using exogenous fluorescence of photosensitizers - 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) and aluminum phthalocyanine (Al-Pc). Fluorescent mapping of different organs (liver, spleen, lungs, brain) also was developed - to evaluate the distribution of the photosensitizers in the whole body on the second hour after photosensitizer application by intravenous injection. Fiber-optic probe was used to measure the organs investigated. Fluorescence spectra were detected by microspectrometer USB4000 (OceanOptics Inc., USA), and FS405 LED source on 405 nm was used as excitation source for both types of photosensitizers applied. Diagnostically-important parameters of oximetry, optical coherence tomography and speckle-imaging of the microcirculation of the stomach were also evaluated, to evaluate changes in the blood flow and vascular architecture, during the formation of the initial phases of the neoplasm development.

  6. Identification of the enzymatic basis for δ-aminolevulinic acid auxotrophy in a hemA mutant of escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avissar, Y.J.; Beale, S.I.

    1989-01-01

    The hemA mutation of Escherichia coli K-12 confers a requirement for δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). Cell extract prepared from the hemA strain SASX41B was incapable of producing ALA from either glutamate or glutamyl-tRNA, whereas extract of the hem + strain HB101 formed colorimetrically detectable amounts of ALA and transferred label from 1-[ 14 C]glutamate and 3,4-[ 3 H]glutamyl-tRNA to ALA. Extracts of both strains converted glutamate-1-semialdehyde to ALA and were capable of aminoacylating tRNA Glu . Glutamyl-tRNA formed by extracts of both strains could be converted to ALA by the extract of hem + cells. The extract of hemA cells did not convert glutamyl-tRNA formed by either strain to ALA. However, the hemA cell extract, when supplemented in vitro with glutamyl-tRNA dehydrogenase isolated from Chlorella vulgaris cells, formed about as much ALA as did the unsupplemented hem + cell extract. We conclude from these observations that the enzyme activity that is lacking in the ALA auxotrophic strain carrying the hemA mutation is that of glutamyl-tRNA dehydrogenase

  7. Evaluation of Hydrogel Suppositories for Delivery of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid and Hematoporphyrin Monomethyl Ether to Rectal Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xuying; Yin, Huijuan; Lu, Yu; Zhang, Haixia; Wang, Han

    2016-10-12

    We evaluated the potential utility of hydrogels for delivery of the photosensitizing agents 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME) to rectal tumors. Hydrogel suppositories containing ALA or HMME were administered to the rectal cavity of BALB/c mice bearing subcutaneous tumors of SW837 rectal carcinoma cells. For comparison, ALA and HMME were also administered by three common photosensitizer delivery routes; local administration to the skin and intratumoral or intravenous injection. The concentration of ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX or HMME in the rectal wall, skin, and subcutaneous tumor was measured by fluorescence spectrophotometry, and their distribution in vertical sections of the tumor was measured using a fluorescence spectroscopy system. The concentration of ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX in the rectal wall after local administration of suppositories to the rectal cavity was 9.76-fold (1 h) and 5.8-fold (3 h) higher than in the skin after cutaneous administration. The maximal depth of ALA penetration in the tumor was ~3-6 mm at 2 h after cutaneous administration. Much lower levels of HMME were observed in the rectal wall after administration as a hydrogel suppository, and the maximal depth of tumor penetration was <2 mm after cutaneous administration. These data show that ALA more readily penetrates the mucosal barrier than the skin. Administration of ALA as an intrarectal hydrogel suppository is thus a potential delivery route for photodynamic therapy of rectal cancer.

  8. Comparative analysis of the effects of CO2 fractional laser and sonophoresis on human skin penetration with 5-aminolevulinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J H; Shin, E J; Jeong, K H; Shin, M K

    2017-11-01

    Successful delivery of a photosensitizer into the skin is an important factor for effective photodynamic therapy (PDT). The effective method to increase drug penetration within short incubation time overcoming skin barrier have been investigated. This study was performed to analyze and compare the effectiveness of ablative fractional laser (FXL) pretreatment and/or sonophoresis for enhancing the penetration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) into human skin in vivo. Twenty-four identical 1 × 1 cm 2 treatment areas were mapped on the backs of ten healthy male subjects. Each area received FXL pretreatment and/or sonophoresis with different energy settings and ALA incubation times. After treatments, porphyrin fluorescence reflecting the ALA penetration were measured. Application of ablative CO 2 FXL pretreatment resulted to higher fluorescence intensities than the non-treatment group. Incubation times were positively correlated with the increments of ALA penetration. However, increasing pulse energy or combining with sonophoresis did not show additional positive effects on ALA penetration. Ablative CO 2 FXL pretreatment effectively facilitated ALA penetration in human skin in vivo. Ablative CO 2 FXL alone without sonophoresis setting pulse energy of 10 and 20 mJ with more than 60 min of ALA incubation time could be an ideal setting for ALA penetration.

  9. The utility of 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic diagnosis in the detection of intraoperative bile leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yoshihiro; Imai, Yoshiro; Fujii, Kensuke; Hirokawa, Fumitoshi; Hayashi, Michihiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhisa

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the utility of the new intraoperative bile leakage test as a preventive measure of postoperative bile leakage. 737 patients were retrospectively analyzed with respect to the management of intra- and post-operative bile leakage. Nine (8.3%) of 109 patients evaluated using conventional white light fluorescent imaging were recognized as having intra-operative bile leakage. However, performance of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-mediated PDD detected bile leakage intraoperatively not only in these 9 patients, but also in an additional 6 patients, such that 'red fluorescence' at the cut surface of the liver, was visualized in a total of 15 patients. The postoperative courses of most patients were uneventful, and postoperative bile leakages occurred in only one (0.9%) patient. 5-ALA fluorescence imaging may be needed to prevent postoperative bile leakage in patients at high risk for this surgical complication after hepatic resection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Treating cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma using 5-aminolevulinic acid polylactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticle-mediated photodynamic therapy in a mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang X

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Xiaojie Wang,1,2,* Lei Shi,2,* Qingfeng Tu,2 Hongwei Wang,3 Haiyan Zhang,2 Peiru Wang,2 Linglin Zhang,2 Zheng Huang,4 Feng Zhao,5 Hansen Luan,5 Xiuli Wang2 1Shanghai Skin Diseases Clinical College of Anhui Medical University, 2Shanghai Skin Disease Hospital, 3Huadong Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 4MOE Key Laboratory of OptoElectronic Science and Technology for Medicine, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, 5National Pharmaceutical Engineering Research Center, China State Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this study Background: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is a common skin cancer, and its treatment is still difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nanoparticle (NP-assisted 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA delivery for topical photodynamic therapy (PDT of cutaneous SCC.Materials and methods: Ultraviolet-induced cutaneous SCCs were established in hairless mice. ALA-loaded polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA NPs were prepared and characterized. The kinetics of ALA PLGA NP-induced protoporphyrin IX fluorescence in SCCs, therapeutic efficacy of ALA NP-mediated PDT, and immune responses were examined.Results: PLGA NPs enhanced protoporphyrin IX production in SCC. ALA PLGA NP-mediated topical PDT was more effective than free ALA of the same concentration in treating cutaneous SCC.Conclusion: PLGA NPs provide a promising strategy for delivering ALA in topical PDT of cutaneous SCC. Keywords: 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA, nanoparticles (NPs, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, photodynamic therapy (PDT, microneedling

  11. Comprehensive analysis of 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydrogenase (ALAD variants and renal cell carcinoma risk among individuals exposed to lead.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M van Bemmel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies are reporting associations between lead exposure and human cancers. A polymorphism in the 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD gene affects lead toxicokinetics and may modify the adverse effects of lead. METHODS: The objective of this study was to evaluate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs tagging the ALAD region among renal cancer cases and controls to determine whether genetic variation alters the relationship between lead and renal cancer. Occupational exposure to lead and risk of cancer was examined in a case-control study of renal cell carcinoma (RCC. Comprehensive analysis of variation across the ALAD gene was assessed using a tagging SNP approach among 987 cases and 1298 controls. Occupational lead exposure was estimated using questionnaire-based exposure assessment and expert review. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: The adjusted risk associated with the ALAD variant rs8177796(CT/TT was increased (OR = 1.35, 95%CI = 1.05-1.73, p-value = 0.02 when compared to the major allele, regardless of lead exposure. Joint effects of lead and ALAD rs2761016 suggest an increased RCC risk for the homozygous wild-type and heterozygous alleles ((GGOR = 2.68, 95%CI = 1.17-6.12, p = 0.01; (GAOR = 1.79, 95%CI = 1.06-3.04 with an interaction approaching significance (p(int = 0.06. No significant modification in RCC risk was observed for the functional variant rs1800435(K68N. Haplotype analysis identified a region associated with risk supporting tagging SNP results. CONCLUSION: A common genetic variation in ALAD may alter the risk of RCC overall, and among individuals occupationally exposed to lead. Further work in larger exposed populations is warranted to determine if ALAD modifies RCC risk associated with lead exposure.

  12. Blood Lead Level and Δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Activity in Pre-Menopausal and Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R Elezaj

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To describe the relationship of blood lead levels (BLL and blood, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase(ALAD activity and haematocrit value(Hct to menopause , were examined 17 pre-or perimenopausal (PreM and 17 postmenopausal women (PosMfrom Prishtina City, the capital ofRepublic Kosovo. The mean age of the PreM women was 28.8 years (21-46, with a mean blood lead level of 1.2 μg/dL (SD=0.583 μg/dL , the mean blood ALAD activity53.2 U/LE (SD= 2.8 U/LE and haematocrit value42.1 % (SD= 4.3 %. The mean age of the PosM women was 53.6 years (43-67, with a mean blood lead level1.9 μg/dL (SD=0.94 μg/dL, the mean blood ALAD activity 44.4 U/LE(SD=7.2 U/LE and haematocrit value 42.1 % ( SD= 4.3 % and 42.2 % (SD=4.4 %. The BPb level of PosM women was significantly higher (P<0.001 in comparison with the BPb level in PreM women. The blood ALAD activity of PosM was significantly inhibited (P<0.002 in comparison with blood ALAD activity in PreM women. The haematocrit values were relatively unchanged. There was established significantly negative correlation between BPb and blood ALAD activity (r=- 0.605; P<0.01 in the PreM women.These results support the hypothesis that release of bone lead stores increases during menopause and constitutes an internal source of exposure possibly associated with adverse health effects on women in menopause transition.

  13. 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy and its strain-dependent combined effect with antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus biofilm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Zhao Zhang

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is hard to be eradicated, not only due to the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains but also because of its ability to form biofilm. Antibiotics are the major approach to treating biofilm infections, but their effects are unsatisfactory. One of the potential alternative treatments for controlling biofilm infections is photodynamic therapy (PDT, which requires the administration of photosensitizer, followed by light activation. 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, a natural photosensitizer prodrug, presents favorable characteristics, such as easy penetration and rapid clearance. These advantages enable ALA-based PDT (ALA-PDT to be well-tolerated by patients and it can be repeatedly applied without cumulative toxicity or serious side effects. ALA-PDT has been proven to be an effective treatment for multidrug resistant pathogens; however, the study of its effect on S. aureus biofilm is limited. Here, we established our PDT system based on the utilization of ALA and a light-emitting diode, and we tested the effect of ALA-PDT on S. aureus biofilm as well as the combined effect of ALA-PDT and antibiotics on S. aureus biofilm. Our results showed that ALA-PDT has a strong antibacterial effect on S. aureus biofilm, which was confirmed by the confocal laser scanning microscope. We also found that lethal photosensitization occurred predominantly in the upper layer of the biofilm, while the residual live bacteria were located in the lower layer of the biofilm. In addition, the improved bactericidal effect was observed in the combined treatment group but in a strain-dependent manner. Our results suggest that ALA-PDT is a potential alternative approach for future clinical use to treat S. aureus biofilm-associated infections, and some patients may benefit from the combined treatment of ALA-PDT and antibiotics, but drug sensitivity testing should be performed in advance.

  14. Evaluation of the risk of liver damage from the use of 5-aminolevulinic acid for intra-operative identification and resection in patients with malignant gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersen, Cecilie Mørck; Skjoeth-Rasmussen, Jane

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical efficacy of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) for fluorescence-guided surgery of malignant gliomas is evident from several studies; however, as post-operative elevations of liver enzymes have been seen, there is a potential risk of liver damage upon administration. The aim...... (September 2012-September 2014) at the University Hospital of Copenhagen, Rigshospitalet, was conducted. All patients received a pre-operative dose of 20 mg/kg bodyweight 5-ALA. The pre- and post-operative enzyme levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltransferase...

  15. Formation of conjugated delta8,delta10-double bonds by delta12-oleic-acid desaturase-related enzymes: biosynthetic origin of calendic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, E B; Ripp, K G; Hall, S E; Kinney, A J

    2001-01-26

    Divergent forms of the plant Delta(12)-oleic-acid desaturase (FAD2) have previously been shown to catalyze the formation of acetylenic bonds, epoxy groups, and conjugated Delta(11),Delta(13)-double bonds by modification of an existing Delta(12)-double bond in C(18) fatty acids. Here, we report a class of FAD2-related enzymes that modifies a Delta(9)-double bond to produce the conjugated trans-Delta(8),trans-Delta(10)-double bonds found in calendic acid (18:3Delta(8trans,10trans,12cis)), the major component of the seed oil of Calendula officinalis. Using an expressed sequence tag approach, cDNAs for two closely related FAD2-like enzymes, designated CoFADX-1 and CoFADX-2, were identified from a C. officinalis developing seed cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequences of these polypeptides share 40-50% identity with those of other FAD2 and FAD2-related enzymes. Expression of either CoFADX-1 or CoFADX-2 in somatic soybean embryos resulted in the production of calendic acid. In embryos expressing CoFADX-2, calendic acid accumulated to as high as 22% (w/w) of the total fatty acids. In addition, expression of CoFADX-1 and CoFADX-2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was accompanied by calendic acid accumulation when induced cells were supplied exogenous linoleic acid (18:2Delta(9cis,12cis)). These results are thus consistent with a route of calendic acid synthesis involving modification of the Delta(9)-double bond of linoleic acid. Regiospecificity for Delta(9)-double bonds is unprecedented among FAD2-related enzymes and further expands the functional diversity found in this family of enzymes.

  16. Randomized Vehicle-Controlled Study of Short Drug Incubation Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy for Actinic Keratoses of the Face or Scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariser, David M; Houlihan, Anna; Ferdon, Mary Beth; Berg, James E

    2016-03-01

    Aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) can be effective and well tolerated when applied over a broad area and for short drug incubation times. To evaluate the effect of short-incubation time and application method on the safety and efficacy of ALA-PDT versus vehicle (VEH-PDT) in the treatment of actinic keratoses (AKs) of the face or scalp. Aminolevulinic acid or VEH was applied to face or scalp as a broad area application for 1, 2, or 3 hours or as a spot application for 2 hours before blue light activation. An identical treatment was repeated at Week 8 if any AK lesions remained. Median AK clearance rate for ALA-treated subjects ranged from 68% to 79% at Week 12, compared with 7% of the VEH-treated group (p 47) at Week 12, compared with 2% (1/46) of the VEH-treated group (p = .0041). The safety profile seen in this study is consistent with previously reported side effects of the therapy. Short-incubation ALA-PDT was found to be superior to VEH-PDT for AK lesion clearance. A second treatment improves efficacy.

  17. Improving contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging using 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX for high-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Junkoh; Kakeda, Shingo; Yoneda, Tetsuya; Ogura, Shun-Ichiro; Shimajiri, Shohei; Tanaka, Tohru; Korogi, Yukunori; Nishizawa, Shigeru

    2017-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a gadolinium-based contrast agent is the gold standard for high-grade gliomas (HGGs). The compound 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) undergoes a high rate of cellular uptake, particularly in cancer cells. In addition, fluorescence-guided resection with 5-ALA is widely used for imaging HGGs. 5-ALA is water soluble, while protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is water insoluble. It was speculated whether converting from 5-ALA to PpIX may relatively increase intracellular water content, and consequently, might enhance the T2 signal intensity in HGG. The aim of the present study was to assess whether 5-ALA-induced PpIX enhances the T2 signal intensity in patients with HGGs. A total of 4 patients who were candidates for HGG surgical treatment were prospectively analyzed with preoperative MRI. Patients received oral doses of 5-ALA (20 mg/kg) 3 h prior to anesthesia. At 2.5 h post-5-ALA administration, T2-weighted images (T2WIs) were obtained from all patients. Subsequently, tumors were evaluated via fluorescence using a modified operating microscope. Fluorescent tumor tissues were obtained to analyze the accumulation of 5-ALA-induced PpIX within the tumors, which was confirmed quantitatively by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The MRI T2 signal intensity within the tumors was evaluated prior to and following 5-ALA administration. Three glioblastoma multiformes (GBMs) and 1 anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) were included in the analysis. Intraoperatively, all GBMs exhibited strong fluorescence of 5-ALA-induced PpIX, whilst no fluorescence was observed in the AO sample. HPLC analysis indicated a higher accumulation of 5-ALA-induced PpIX in the GBM samples compared with the AO sample. In total, 48 regions of interest were identified within the tumors from T2-WIs. In the GBM group, the relative T2 signal intensity value within the tumors following 5-ALA administration was significantly increased compared with the T2 signal

  18. The Relationship of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid on Mood and Coping Ability in Prediabetic Middle Aged and Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael K. Aquino

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, approximately 79 million Americans had prediabetes and about 50 percent of those individuals were 65 years and older. The most effective diabetes prevention method in prediabetic adults is lifestyle modification. However, despite the benefits of lifestyle change, diabetes prevalence continues to increase. Maintaining a regular exercise routine and a healthy eating plan may be difficult because of the negative emotional barriers (i.e., stress, mood that a prediabetic individual faces. This is particularly evident in older individuals when you combine that with decreases in mobility and geriatric syndromes. A potential treatment for these emotional barriers is a natural supplement called 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA. In the current study, the group included 154 participants, both men and women, ranging between the ages of 41 to 71 years old. The study design was a double-blind, randomized parallel-group study. The Psychosocial Depressive Symptoms Questionnaire (PDS and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS were used to examine the effect of two doses of 5-ALA (15 mg and 50 mg on various components of mood (i.e., hopefulness, loneliness, and motivation and coping ability. Using SAS software, an ordered logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between the dose groups (control, 15 mg, and 50 mg and the responses to the two questionnaires, the PDS and PSS, used in this study. An integrative literature review, using the PubMed database, searched for studies on the relationship between 5-ALA administration and mood and coping ability. Our literature review resulted in zero published articles. Next, we found that the intake of 5-ALA was significantly associated with improved coping ability (p = 0.004 and improved self-perception of effort spent (p = 0.002. Finally, we found a significant dose-dependent relationship for the association of 5-ALA intake on measures of effort (p = 0.003, loneliness (p = 0.006, and coping ability (p

  19. 5-aminolevulinic acid-incorporated nanoparticles of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol-chitosan copolymer for photodynamic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung CW

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chung-Wook Chung,1,* Kyu-Don Chung,2,* Young-Il Jeong,1 Dae Hwan Kang,1 1National Research and Development Center for Hepatobiliary Disease, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Gyeongnam, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University, Seoul, Republic of Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: The aim of this study was to make 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA-incorporated nanoparticles using methoxy polyethylene glycol/chitosan (PEG-Chito copolymer for application in photodynamic therapy for colon cancer cells.Methods: 5-ALA-incorporated (PEG-Chito-5-ALA nanoparticles were prepared by ion complex formation between 5-ALA and chitosan. Protoporphyrin IX accumulation in the tumor cells and phototoxicity induced by PEG-Chito-5-ALA nanoparticles were assessed using CT26 cells in vitro.Results: PEG-Chito-5-ALA nanoparticles have spherical shapes with sizes diameters 200 nm. More specifically, microscopic observation revealed a core-shell structure of PEG-Chito-5-ALA nanoparticles. 1H NMR spectra showed that 5-ALA was incorporated in the core of the nanoparticles. In the absence of light irradiation, all components such as 5-ALA, empty nanoparticles, and PEG-Chito-5-ALA nanoparticles did not affect the viability of cells. However, 5-ALA or PEG-Chito-5-ALA nanoparticles induced tumor cell death under light irradiation, and the viability of tumor cells was dose-dependently decreased according to the increase in irradiation time. In particular, PEG-Chito-5-ALA nanoparticles induced increased phototoxicity and higher protoporphyrin IX accumulation into the tumor cells than did 5-ALA alone. Furthermore, PEG-Chito-5-ALA nanoparticles accelerated apoptosis/necrosis of tumor cells, compared to 5-ALA alone.Conclusion: PEG-Chito-5-ALA nanoparticles showed superior delivery capacity of 5-ALA and phototoxicity against tumor cells. These results show that PEG-Chito-5-ALA

  20. Analysis of the role of the Aspergillus niger aminolevulinic acid synthase (hemA) gene illustrates the difference between regulation of yeast and fungal haem- and sirohaem-dependent pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, A.C.; Christien Lokman, B.; Ram, A.F.; Hondel, C.A. van den; Weert, S. de; Punt, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    To increase knowledge on haem biosynthesis in filamentous fungi like Aspergillus niger, pathway-specific gene expression in response to haem and haem intermediates was analysed. This analysis showed that iron, 5′-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and possibly haem control haem biosynthesis mostly via

  1. Analysis of the role of the A. niger aminolevulinic acid synthase (hemA) gene illustrates the difference between regulation of yeast and fungal heme and siroheme dependent pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. Ram; C.A. van den Hondel; Christien Lokman; P.J. Punt; S. de Weert; A. Franken

    2012-01-01

    To increase knowledge on haem biosynthesis in filamentous fungi like Aspergillus niger, pathway-specific gene expression in response to haem and haem intermediates was analysed. This analysis showed that iron, 5'-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and possibly haem control haem biosynthesis mostly via

  2. Evaluation of labelling conditions, quality control and biodistribution study of 99mTc-5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA). A potential liver imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalim Ullah Khan; Mohammad Rafi; Samina Roohi; Rizwana Zahoor; Zafar Iqbal; Mushtaq Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Labelling of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) with 99m Tc was achieved by using SnCl 2 ·2H 2 O as reducing agent. Radiochemical purity and labelling efficiency was determined by instant thin layer chromatography/paper chromatography. Efficiency of labelling was dependent on many parameters such as amount of ligand, reducing agent, pH, and time of incubation. 99m Tc labelled 5-ALA remained stable for 24 h in human serum. Tissue biodistribution of 99m Tc-5-ALA was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. Biodistribution study (% ID/g) in rats revealed that 99m Tc-5-ALA was accumulated significantly in liver, spleen, stomach and intestine after half hour, 4 and 24 h. Significant activity was noted in bladder and urine at 4 h. High liver uptake of 99m Tc-5-ALA makes it a promising liver imaging agent. (author)

  3. Peculiarities of toxic effects exerted by hexyl ether of 5-aminolevulinic acid and grounds for working our regulations of its safe production and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е.К. Vlasenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Our research object was hexyl ether of 5-aminolevulinic acid applied as plants growth regulator which was synthe-sized with an original technology by Bioorganic Chemistry Institute of Belarus National Academy of science. Our research goal was to determine peculiarities of toxic effects exerted by this new plants protector on experimental models in vivo/in vitro and to give grounds for hygienic standards of its contents in various media which were to provide its safe production and application. We conducted our research with the use of toxicological, physiological, hematological, biochemical, immu-nologic, cytogenetic, cytological, and statistical methods. We were the first to perform toxicological assessment of this new plants growth regulator under different regimes, doses and ways of introduction into laboratory animals' bodies and it helped us to detect its toxicometric parameters and peculiarities of its biological effects which became apparent through skin-resorptive and cumulative properties, irritating impacts on mucous tunics, moderate reproductive toxicity without sub-stantial signs of gonadotropic, mutagenic, and allergenic impacts on a body. We detected that toxic impacts exerted by the examined substance on a body was combined with membrane-tropic and cytotoxic effects. We determined criteria and limit-ing parameters of hazardous effects exerted by hexyl ether of 5-aminolevulinic acid in the course of a chronic experiment, and it gave us grounds for fixing allowable daily dose for a man and for working out a number of regulations on the sub-stance contents in environmental objects (working area air, water, and soil, in food raw materials, and in food products (grain, rape, rape and linen oil. The obtained results were used as a basis for fixing 9 hygienic standards and were used for the state registration of this plant growth regulator; it will provide its safe production and application in agriculture.

  4. Acid Rain in Niger Delta Region: Implication on Water Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research focused on the effect of acid rain on the water quality of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Three hundred water samples were collected: 100 water samples from rain, 100 from open wells and 100 from rivers. The water samples were analysed using the paired t-test and multiple correlation analysis to ascertain ...

  5. Improved γ-linolenic acid production in Mucor circinelloides by homologous overexpressing of delta-12 and delta-6 desaturases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Luan, Xiao; Zhang, Huaiyuan; Garre, Victoriano; Song, Yuanda; Ratledge, Colin

    2017-06-21

    γ-Linolenic acid (GLA) is important because of its nutritional value and medicinal applications. Although the biosynthetic pathways of some plant and microbial GLA have been deciphered, current understanding of the correlation between desaturases and GLA synthesis in oleaginous fungi is incomplete. In previous work, we found that a large amount of oleic acid (OA) had not been converted to linoleic acid (LA) or GLA in Mucor circinelloides CBS 277.49, which may be due to inadequate activities of the delta-12 or delta-6 desaturases, and thus leading to the accumulation of OA and LA. Thus, it is necessary to explore the main contributing factor during the process of GLA biosynthesis in M. circinelloides. To enhance GLA production in M. circinelloides, homologous overexpression of delta-12 and two delta-6 desaturases (named delta-6-1 and delta-6-2, respectively) were analyzed. When delta-6 desaturase were overexpressed in M. circinelloides, up to 43% GLA was produced in the total fatty acids, and the yield of GLA reached 180 mg/l, which were, respectively, 38 and 33% higher than the control strain. These findings revealed that delta-6 desaturase (especially for delta-6-1 desaturase) plays an important role in GLA synthesis by M. circinelloides. The strain overexpressing delta-6-1 desaturase may have potential application in microbial GLA production.

  6. Transport of the photodynamic therapy agent 5-aminolevulinic acid by distinct H+-coupled nutrient carriers coexpressed in the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Catriona M H; Jevons, Mark; Thangaraju, Muthusamy; Edwards, Noel; Conlon, Nichola J; Woods, Steven; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Thwaites, David T

    2010-01-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a prodrug used in photodynamic therapy, fluorescent diagnosis, and fluorescent-guided resection because it leads to accumulation of the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in tumor tissues. ALA has good oral bioavailability, but high oral doses are required to obtain selective PpIX accumulation in colonic tumors because accumulation is also observed in normal gut mucosa. Structural similarities between ALA and GABA led us to test the hypothesis that the H(+)-coupled amino acid transporter PAT1 (SLC36A1) will contribute to luminal ALA uptake. Radiolabel uptake and electrophysiological measurements identified PAT1-mediated H(+)-coupled ALA symport after heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes. The selectivity of the nontransported inhibitors 5-hydroxytryptophan and 4-aminomethylbenzoic acid for, respectively, PAT1 and the H(+)-coupled di/tripeptide transporter PepT1 (SLC15A1) were examined. 5-Hydroxytryptophan selectively inhibited PAT1-mediated amino acid uptake across the brush-border membrane of the human intestinal (Caco-2) epithelium whereas 4-aminomethylbenzoic acid selectively inhibited PepT1-mediated dipeptide uptake. The inhibitory effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan and 4-aminomethylbenzoic acid were additive, demonstrating that both PAT1 and PepT1 contribute to intestinal transport of ALA. This is the first demonstration of overlap in substrate specificity between these distinct transporters for amino acids and dipeptides. PAT1 and PepT1 expression was monitored by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using paired samples of normal and cancer tissue from human colon. mRNA for both transporters was detected. PepT1 mRNA was increased 2.3-fold in cancer tissues. Thus, increased PepT1 expression in colonic cancer could contribute to the increased PpIX accumulation observed. Selective inhibition of PAT1 could enhance PpIX loading in tumor tissue relative to that in normal tissue.

  7. Characterization and Influence of Green Synthesis of Nano-Sized Zinc Complex with 5-Aminolevulinic Acid on Bioactive Compounds of Aniseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavallali, Vahid; Rahmati, Sadegh; Rowshan, Vahid

    2017-11-01

    A new water soluble zinc-aminolevulinic acid nano complex (n[Zn(ALA) 2 ]), which was characterized by TEM, IR, and EDX spectra, has been prepared via sonochemical method under green conditions in water. In the current study, the effectiveness of foliar Zn amendment using synthetic Zn-ALA nano complex, as a new introduced Zn-fertilizer here, was evaluated. As the model plant, Pimpinella anisum, the most valuable spice and medicinal plant grown in warm regions, was used. By using zinc nano complex, further twenty compounds were obtained in the essential oil of anise plants. Application of 0.2% (w/v) Zn-ALA nano complex increased the levels of (E)-anethole, β-bisabolene, germacrene D, methyl chavicol, and α-zingiberene in the essential oil. Nano Zn complex at the rate of 0.2% induced considerable high phenolic compounds and zinc content of shoots and seeds. Chlorogenic acid had the highest level between four detected phenolic compounds. The maximum antioxidant activity was monitored through the application of Zn nano complex. According to the results, nanoscale nutrients can be provided with further decreased doses for medicinal plants. Using Zn-ALA nano complex is a new and efficient method to improve the pharmaceutical and food properties of anise plants. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  8. Protoporphyrin IX induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid in bladder cancer cells in voided urine can be extracorporeally quantified using a spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Yasushi; Anai, Satoshi; Onishi, Sayuri; Masaomi, Kuwada; Tatsumi, Yoshihiro; Miyake, Makito; Chihara, Yoshitomo; Tanaka, Nobumichi; Hirao, Yoshihiko; Fujimoto, Kiyohide

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer by spectrophotometric analysis of voided urine samples after extracorporeal treatment with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). Sixty-one patients with bladder cancer, confirmed histologically after the transurethral resection of a bladder tumor, were recruited as the bladder cancer group, and 50 outpatients without history of urothelial carcinoma or cancer-related findings were recruited as the control group. Half of the voided urine sample was incubated with ALA (ALA-treated sample), and the rest was incubated without treatment (ALA-untreated sample). For detecting cellular protoporphyrin IX levels, intensity of the samples at the excitation wavelength of 405 nm was measured using a spectrophotometer. The difference between the intensity of the ALA-treated and ALA-untreated samples at 635 nm was calculated. The differences in the bladder cancer group were significantly greater than those in the control group (p spectrophotometer in patients with bladder cancer. Therefore, this cancer detection system has a potential for clinical use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Topical glycerol monooleate/propylene glycol formulations enhance 5-aminolevulinic acid in vitro skin delivery and in vivo protophorphyrin IX accumulation in hairless mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steluti, Regilene; De Rosa, Fernanda Scarmato; Collett, John; Tedesco, Antônio Cláudio; Bentley, Maria Vitória Lopes Badra

    2005-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a potential therapy for cancer treatment, utilizes exogenously applied or endogenously formed photosensitizers, further activated by light in an appropriate wavelength and dose to induce cell death through free radical formation. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is a pro-drug which can be converted to the effective photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). However, the use of 5-ALA in PDT is limited by the low penetration capacity of this highly hydrophilic molecule into appropriate skin layers. In the present study, we propose to increase 5-ALA penetration by using formulations containing glycerol monooleate (GMO), an interesting and useful component of pharmaceutical formulations. Propylene glycol solutions containing different concentrations of GMO significantly increased the in vitro skin permeation/retention of 5-ALA in comparison to control solutions. In vivo studies also showed increased PpIX accumulation in mouse hairless skin, after the use of topical 5-ALA formulations containing GMO in a concentration-dependent manner. The results show that skin 5-ALA penetration and PpIX accumulation, important factors for the success of topical 5-ALA-PDT in skin cancer, are optimized by GMO/propylene glycol formulations.

  10. The Safety and Tolerability of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Phosphate with Sodium Ferrous Citrate in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saber, Feryal; Aldosari, Waleed; Alselaiti, Mariam; Khalfan, Hesham; Kaladari, Ahmed; Khan, Ghulam; Harb, George; Rehani, Riyadh; Kudo, Sizuka; Koda, Aya; Tanaka, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is prevalent especially in Gulf countries and poses serious long-term risks to patients. A multifaceted treatment approach can include nutritional supplements with antioxidant properties such as 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC). This prospective, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, dose escalating pilot clinical trial assessed the safety of 5-ALA with SFC at doses up to 200 mg 5-ALA/229.42 mg SFC per day in patients living in Bahrain with type 2 diabetes mellitus that was uncontrolled despite the use of one or more antidiabetic drugs. Fifty-three patients (n = 53) from 3 sites at one center were enrolled by Dr. Feryal (Site #01), Dr. Hesham (Site #02), and Dr. Waleed (Site #03) (n = 35, 5-ALA-SFC; n = 18, placebo). There was no significant difference in incidence of adverse events reported, and the most frequent events reported were gastrointestinal in nature, consistent with the known safety profile of 5-ALA in patients with diabetes. No significant changes in laboratory values and no difference in hypoglycemia between patients receiving 5-ALA and placebo were noted. Overall, the current results support that use of 5-ALA-SFC up to 200 mg per day taken as 2 divided doses is safe in patients taking concomitant oral antidiabetic medications and may offer benefits in the diabetic population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02481141. PMID:27738640

  11. Fluorescence Behavior and Dural Infiltration of Meningioma Analyzed by 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Based Fluorescence: Operating Microscope Versus Mini-Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipps, Johannes; Beseoglu, Kerim; Kamp, Marcel; Fischer, Igor; Felsberg, Joerg; Neumann, Lisa M; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Cornelius, Jan F

    2017-12-01

    To compare fluorescence intensity of tumor specimens, as measured by a fluorescence-guided surgery microscope and a spectrometer, to evaluate tumor infiltration of dura mater around meningiomas with help of these 2 different 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-based fluorescence tools, and to correlate fluorescence intensity with histopathologic data. In a clinical series, meningiomas were resected by 5-ALA fluorescence-guided surgery. Fluorescence intensity was semiquantitatively rated by the surgeon at predefined points. Biopsies were harvested and fluorescence intensity measured by a spectrometer and histopathologically analyzed. Sampling was realized at the level of the dura in a centrifugal direction. A total of 104 biopsies (n = 13 tumors) were analyzed. Specificity and sensitivity of the microscope were 0.96 and 0.53 and of the spectrometer 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. Fluorescence intensity as measured by the spectrometer was correlated to histologically confirmed tumor burden. In a centrifugal direction, tumor burden and fluorescence intensity continuously decreased (along the dural tail). Below a threshold value of 639 arbitrary units no tumor was histologically detectable. At the level of the dura the spectrometer was highly sensitive for detection of meningioma cells. The surgical microscope showed false negative results and missed residual tumor cells in more than one half of the cases. The complementary use of both fluorescence tools may improve resection quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Surgery combined with local 5-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy on skin cancer and its effect on the expression of cyclophilin A, cyclophilin B and CD147.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling; Han, Yingsheng

    2017-08-01

    The study evaluated an approach to treat skin cancer using surgery combined with local 5-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT). Seventy-six patients with skin cancer who were admitted to the Liaocheng People's Hospital from May 2014 to April 2015 were randomly divided into a control and an observation group (38 cases in each). The patients in the control group were treated with ALA-PDT alone. Those in the observation group were first subjected to surgical treatment, and then treated with ALA-PDT. The treatment efficacies of the two groups were compared. The expression of cancer markers CyPA, CyPB and CD147 were detected by immunohistochemical methods before and after the treatment. Our results showed the average healing time of the wounds of patients in the observation group was shorter, the number of treatments needed was less, the efficacy rate and the lesion appearance satisfaction were significantly higher, and the recurrence rate at 12 months after treatment and the incidence of adverse reactions were both significantly lower. Additionally, the levels of CyPA, CyPB and CD147 were reduced to a significantly higher degree after treatment in the observation group. No difference was found in the recurrence rate between the two groups at 6 months after treatment. We conclude that surgery combined with ALA-PDT is a safe and reliable treatment method, which can increase the survival rate while improving the recovery rate and appearance satisfaction in patients with skin cancer.

  13. Biomonitoring of lead-contaminated Missouri streams with an assay for erythrocyte δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in fish blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, C.J.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Hunn, J.B.; Nash, T.; Tieger, M. N.; Steadman, B. L.

    1993-01-01

    The activity of the enzyme δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) in erythrocytes has long been used as a biomarker of lead exposure in humans and waterfowl and, more recently, in fishes. The assay was tested for ALA-D activity in fishes from streams affected by lead in combination with other metals from lead-zinc mining and related activities. Fishes (mostly catostomids) were collected from sites affected by historic and current mining activities, and from sites considered to be unaffected by mining (reference sites). A group of potentially toxic elements was measured in blood and carcass samples of individual fish, as were ALA-D activity, total protein (TP), and hemoglobin (Hb) in blood. Concentrations of mining-related metals (lead, zinc, and cadmium) were significantly greater (P<0.05) in fish blood and carcass at sites affected by historic mining activities than at reference and active mining sites. When analyzed by multiple regression, ALA-D activity, Hb, and TP accounted for 66% of blood-lead and 69% of carcass-lead variability. Differences among species were small. ALA-D activity as a biomarker adequately distinguished sites affected by bioavailable environmental lead. Zinc was the only other metal that affected ALA-D activity; it appeared to ameliorate the inactivation of ALA-D by lead.

  14. Differential antioxidant defense and detoxification mechanisms in photodynamically stressed rice plants treated with the deregulators of porphyrin biosynthesis, 5-aminolevulinic acid and oxyfluorfen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Thu-Ha; Jung, Sunyo

    2015-04-03

    This study focuses on differential molecular mechanisms of antioxidant and detoxification systems in rice plants under two different types of photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and oxyfluorfen (OF). The ALA-treated plants with white necrosis exhibited a greater decrease in photochemical quantum efficiency, Fv/Fm, as well as a greater increase in activity of superoxide dismutase, compared to the OF-treated plants. By contrast, the brown necrosis in OF-treated plants resulted in not only more widely dispersed H2O2 production and greater increases in H2O2-decomposing enzymes, catalase and peroxidase, but also lower ascorbate redox state. In addition, ALA- and OF-treated plants markedly up-regulated transcript levels of genes involved in detoxification processes including transport and movement, cellular homeostasis, and xenobiotic conjugation, with prominent up-regulation of serine/threonine kinase and chaperone only in ALA-treated plants. Our results demonstrate that different photodynamic stress imposed by ALA and OF developed differential actions of antioxidant enzymes and detoxification. Particularly, detoxification system may play potential roles in plant protection against photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, thereby contributing to alleviation of photodynamic damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Promotive role of 5-aminolevulinic acid on chromium-induced morphological, photosynthetic, and oxidative changes in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Rehan; Ali, Shafaqat; Hannan, Fakhir; Rizwan, Muhammad; Iqbal, Muhammad; Hassan, Zaidul; Akram, Nudrat Aisha; Maqbool, Saliha; Abbas, Farhat

    2017-03-01

    Chromium (Cr) is among the most toxic pollutants in the environment that adversely affect the living organisms and physiological processes in different plants. The present study investigated the effect of 15 mg L -1 of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) on morpho-physiological attributes of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis L.) under different Cr concentrations (0, 10, 100, and 200 μM) in the growth medium. The results showed that Cr stress decreased the growth, biomass, photosynthetic, and gas exchange parameters. Chromium stress enhanced the activities of enzymatic antioxidants, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD) in response to oxidative stress caused by the elevated levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), and electrolyte leakage (EL) in both roots and leaves of cauliflower. Chromium concentrations and total Cr uptake were increased in leaves, stems, and roots with increasing Cr levels in the culture medium. Foliar application of ALA increased the plant growth parameters, biomass, gas exchange parameters, and photosynthetic pigments under Cr stress compared to the treatments without ALA. Foliar application ALA decreased the levels of MDA, EL, and H 2 O 2 while further improved the performance of antioxidant in both leaves and roots compared to only Cr-stressed plant. Chromium concentrations and total Cr uptake were decreased by the ALA application compared to treatments without ALA application. The results of the present study indicated that foliar application of ALA might be beneficial in minimizing Cr uptake and its toxic effects in cauliflower.

  16. Increase in the amount of erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in workers with moderate lead exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, H.; Sano, S.

    1982-01-01

    The amount of ALA-D in human erythrocytes was determined directly by radioimmunoassay or calculated from the restored activity assayed in the presence of zinc and dithiothreitol, and a good correlation was observed between the RIA-based and the restored activity-based amounts. The RIA-based amount of ALA-D in the blood of 10 normal individuals (blood lead levels of 5.6 +- 2.3 μg/100 ml: mean +- SD) and 19 lead-exposed workers (blood lead levels of 41.2 +- 10.2 μg/100 ml) was 54.1 +- 11.8 μg/ml blood and 92.3 +- 20.6 μg/ml blood, respectively, indicating an apparent increase of the enzyme amount in lead-exposed workers. A significant increase in the amount of erythrocyte ALA-D calculated from the restored activity in lead-exposed workers was observed even in the low blood lead level of 10-20 μg/100 ml, resulting in the range of blood lead level 20-40 μg/100 ml. No significant difference was observed in hematocrit and hemoglobin content between lead-exposed and non-exposed groups. These observations suggested that the increase of erythrocyte ALA-D in lead exposure was not due to anemia, which might result in the increase of young erythrocytes in peripheral blood. This increase in the amount of ALA-D in human erythrocytes might be a result of the function to overcome the inhibition of the enzyme in bone marrow cells during lead exposure, and these findings may throw light on the danger to human health of low-level lead toxicity. (orig.)

  17. Fractional Ablative Laser Followed by Transdermal Acoustic Pressure Wave Device to Enhance the Drug Delivery of Aminolevulinic Acid: In Vivo Fluorescence Microscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waibel, Jill S; Rudnick, Ashley; Nousari, Carlos; Bhanusali, Dhaval G

    2016-01-01

    Topical drug delivery is the foundation of all dermatological therapy. Laser-assisted drug delivery (LAD) using fractional ablative laser is an evolving modality that may allow for a greater precise depth of penetration by existing topical medications, as well as more efficient transcutaneous delivery of large drug molecules. Additional studies need to be performed using energy-driven methods that may enhance drug delivery in a synergistic manner. Processes such as iontophoresis, electroporation, sonophoresis, and the use of photomechanical waves aid in penetration. This study evaluated in vivo if there is increased efficacy of fractional CO2 ablative laser with immediate acoustic pressure wave device. Five patients were treated and biopsied at 4 treatment sites: 1) topically applied aminolevulinic acid (ALA) alone; 2) fractional ablative CO2 laser and topical ALA alone; 3) fractional ablative CO2 laser and transdermal acoustic pressure wave device delivery system; and 4) topical ALA with transdermal delivery system. The comparison of the difference in the magnitude of diffusion with both lateral spread of ALA and depth diffusion of ALA was measured by fluorescence microscopy. For fractional ablative CO2 laser, ALA, and transdermal acoustic pressure wave device, the protoporphyrin IX lateral fluorescence was 0.024 mm on average vs 0.0084 mm for fractional ablative CO2 laser and ALA alone. The diffusion for the acoustic pressure wave device was an order of magnitude greater. We found that our combined approach of fractional ablative CO2 laser paired with the transdermal acoustic pressure wave device increased the depth of penetration of ALA.

  18. Topical methotrexate pretreatment enhances the therapeutic effect of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy on hamster buccal pouch precancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Lee, Jeng-Woei; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2014-09-01

    Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) is effective for treatment of human oral precancerous lesions. This animal study aimed to assess whether topical methotrexate (MTX) pretreatment could enhance the therapeutic effect of topical ALA-PDT on hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. Twenty hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions were treated with either topical ALA-PDT with topical MTX pretreatment (topical MTX-ALA-PDT group, n = 10) or topical ALA-PDT alone (topical ALA-PDT group, n = 10). The intracellular protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) level in another 12 precancerous lesions (n = 6 for either the topical MTX-ALA or topical ALA group) was monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy. The intracellular PpIX reached its peak level in precancerous lesions 6.5 hours and 2.5 hours after topical ALA application for the topical MTX-ALA group (5.63-fold higher in the lesion than in the normal mucosa) and topical ALA group (2.42-fold higher in the lesion than in the normal mucosa), respectively. The complete response rate of precancerous lesions was 80% for the topical MTX-ALA-PDT group and 70% for the topical ALA-PDT group. In addition, the topical MTX-ALA-PDT group required a significantly lower mean treatment number (2.1 ± 0.6) to achieve complete response than the topical ALA-PDT group (4.4 ± 1.3, p topical MTX-ALA-PDT group had a lower recurrence rate (12.5%) than the topical ALA-PDT group (28.6%). We conclude that topical MTX-pretreatment can increase intracellular PpIX production in hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions and significantly improves the outcomes of the precancerous lesions treated with topical ALA-PDT. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Nuclear receptor 5A (NR5A) family regulates 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase 1 (ALAS1) gene expression in steroidogenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yunfeng; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Imamichi, Yoshitaka; Yazawa, Takashi; Matsumura, Takehiro; Kawabe, Shinya; Kanno, Masafumi; Umezawa, Akihiro; Kangawa, Kenji; Miyamoto, Kaoru

    2012-11-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid synthase 1 (ALAS1) is a rate-limiting enzyme for heme biosynthesis in mammals. Heme is essential for the catalytic activities of P450 enzymes including steroid metabolic enzymes. Nuclear receptor 5A (NR5A) family proteins, steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), and liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) play pivotal roles in regulation of steroidogenic enzymes. Recently, we showed that expression of SF-1/LRH-1 induces differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into steroidogenic cells. In this study, genome-wide analysis revealed that ALAS1 was a novel SF-1-target gene in differentiated mesenchymal stem cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter assays revealed that SF-1/LRH-1 up-regulated ALAS1 gene transcription in steroidogenic cells via binding to a 3.5-kb upstream region of ALAS1. The ALAS1 gene was up-regulated by overexpression of SF-1/LRH-1 in steroidogenic cells and down-regulated by knockdown of SF-1 in these cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, a coactivator of nuclear receptors, also strongly coactivated expression of NR5A-target genes. Reporter analysis revealed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α strongly augmented ALAS1 gene transcription caused by SF-1 binding to the 3.5-kb upstream region. Finally knockdown of ALAS1 resulted in reduced progesterone production by steroidogenic cells. These results indicate that ALAS1 is a novel NR5A-target gene and participates in steroid hormone production.

  20. Differential antioxidant defense and detoxification mechanisms in photodynamically stressed rice plants treated with the deregulators of porphyrin biosynthesis, 5-aminolevulinic acid and oxyfluorfen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phung, Thu-Ha; Jung, Sunyo, E-mail: sjung@knu.ac.kr

    2015-04-03

    This study focuses on differential molecular mechanisms of antioxidant and detoxification systems in rice plants under two different types of photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and oxyfluorfen (OF). The ALA-treated plants with white necrosis exhibited a greater decrease in photochemical quantum efficiency, F{sub v}/F{sub m}, as well as a greater increase in activity of superoxide dismutase, compared to the OF-treated plants. By contrast, the brown necrosis in OF-treated plants resulted in not only more widely dispersed H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production and greater increases in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-decomposing enzymes, catalase and peroxidase, but also lower ascorbate redox state. In addition, ALA- and OF-treated plants markedly up-regulated transcript levels of genes involved in detoxification processes including transport and movement, cellular homeostasis, and xenobiotic conjugation, with prominent up-regulation of serine/threonine kinase and chaperone only in ALA-treated plants. Our results demonstrate that different photodynamic stress imposed by ALA and OF developed differential actions of antioxidant enzymes and detoxification. Particularly, detoxification system may play potential roles in plant protection against photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, thereby contributing to alleviation of photodynamic damage. - Highlights: • We employ two different types of photodynamic stress, white and brown necrosis. • We examine molecular mechanisms of antioxidative and detoxification systems. • ALA and OF develop differential actions of antioxidant and detoxification systems. • Coordinated mechanism of antioxidants and detoxification works against toxic ROS. • Detoxification system plays critical roles in protection against photodynamic stress.

  1. Differential antioxidant defense and detoxification mechanisms in photodynamically stressed rice plants treated with the deregulators of porphyrin biosynthesis, 5-aminolevulinic acid and oxyfluorfen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phung, Thu-Ha; Jung, Sunyo

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on differential molecular mechanisms of antioxidant and detoxification systems in rice plants under two different types of photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and oxyfluorfen (OF). The ALA-treated plants with white necrosis exhibited a greater decrease in photochemical quantum efficiency, F v /F m , as well as a greater increase in activity of superoxide dismutase, compared to the OF-treated plants. By contrast, the brown necrosis in OF-treated plants resulted in not only more widely dispersed H 2 O 2 production and greater increases in H 2 O 2 -decomposing enzymes, catalase and peroxidase, but also lower ascorbate redox state. In addition, ALA- and OF-treated plants markedly up-regulated transcript levels of genes involved in detoxification processes including transport and movement, cellular homeostasis, and xenobiotic conjugation, with prominent up-regulation of serine/threonine kinase and chaperone only in ALA-treated plants. Our results demonstrate that different photodynamic stress imposed by ALA and OF developed differential actions of antioxidant enzymes and detoxification. Particularly, detoxification system may play potential roles in plant protection against photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, thereby contributing to alleviation of photodynamic damage. - Highlights: • We employ two different types of photodynamic stress, white and brown necrosis. • We examine molecular mechanisms of antioxidative and detoxification systems. • ALA and OF develop differential actions of antioxidant and detoxification systems. • Coordinated mechanism of antioxidants and detoxification works against toxic ROS. • Detoxification system plays critical roles in protection against photodynamic stress

  2. Perturbed porphyrin biosynthesis contributes to differential herbicidal symptoms in photodynamically stressed rice (Oryza sativa) treated with 5-aminolevulinic acid and oxyfluorfen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Thu-Ha; Jung, Sunyo

    2014-11-01

    This paper focuses on the molecular mechanism of deregulated porphyrin biosynthesis in rice plants under photodynamic stress imposed by an exogenous supply of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and oxyfluorfen (OF). Plants treated with 5 mM ALA or 50 µM OF exhibited differential herbicidal symptoms as characterized by white and brown necrosis, respectively, with substantial increases in cellular leakage and malondialdehyde production. Protoporphyrin IX accumulated to higher levels after 1 day of ALA and OF treatment, whereas it decreased to the control level after 2 days of ALA treatment. Plants responded to OF by greatly decreasing the levels of Mg-protoporphyrin IX (MgProto IX), MgProto IX methyl ester, and protochlorophyllide to levels lower than control, whereas their levels drastically increased 1 day after ALA treatment and then disappeared 2 days after the treatment. Enzyme activity and transcript levels of HEMA1, GSA and ALAD for ALA synthesis greatly decreased in ALA- and OF-treated plants. Transcript levels of PPO1, CHLH, CHLI, and PORB genes involving Mg-porphyrin synthesis continuously decreased in ALA- and OF-treated plants, with greater decreases in ALA-treated plants. By contrast, up-regulation of FC2 and HO2 genes in Fe-porphyrin branch was noticeable in ALA and OF-treated plants 1 day and 2 days after the treatments, respectively. Decreased transcript levels of nuclear-encoded genes Lhcb1, Lhcb6, and RbcS were accompanied by disappearance of MgProto IX in ALA- and OF-treated plants after 2 days of the treatments. Under photodynamic stress imposed by ALA and OF, tight control of porphyrin biosynthesis prevents accumulation of toxic metabolic intermediates not only by down-regulation of their biosynthesis but also by photodynamic degradation. The up-regulation of FC2 and HO2 also appears to compensate for the photodynamic stress-induced damage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 5-Aminolevulinic acid protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity without compromising the anticancer efficiency of cisplatin in rats in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Terada

    Full Text Available Nephrotoxicity is a frequent and major limitation in cisplatin (CDDP-based chemotherapy. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA is widely distributed in animal cells, and it is a precursor of tetrapyrole compounds such as heme that is fundamentally important in aerobic energy metabolism. The aim of this study is to evaluate the protective role of ALA in CDDP-induced acute kidney injury (AKI.We used CDDP-induced AKI rat model and cultured renal tubular cells (NRK-52E. We divided four groups of rats: control, CDDP only, CDDP + ALA(post;(ALA 10 mg/kg + Fe in drinking water after CDDP, CDDP + ALA(pre & post.CDDP increased Cr up to 6.5 mg/dl, BUN up to 230 mg/dl, and ALA significantly reduced these changes. ALA ameliorates CDDP-induced morphological renal damages, and reduced tubular apoptosis evaluated by TUNEL staining and cleaved caspase 3. Protein and mRNA levels of ATP5α, complex(COX IV, UCP2, PGC-1α in renal tissue were significantly decreased by CDDP, and ALA ameliorates reduction of these enzymes. In contrast, Heme Oxigenase (HO-1 level is induced by CDDP treatment, and ALA treatment further up-regulates HO-1 levels. In NRK-52E cells, the CDDP-induced reduction of protein and mRNA levels of mitochondrial enzymes was significantly recovered by ALA + Fe. CDDP-induced apoptosis were ameliorated by ALA + Fe treatment. Furthermore, we evaluated the size of transplantated bladder carcinoma to the rat skin, and ALA did not change the anti cancer effects of CDDP.These data suggested that the protective role of ALA in cisplatin-induced AKI is via protection of mitochondrial viability and prevents tubular apoptosis. Also there are no significant effects of ALA on anticancer efficiency of CDDP in rats. Thus, ALA has the potential to prevent CDDP nephrotoxicity without compromising its anticancer efficacy.

  4. Inhibition of VDAC1 prevents Ca²⁺-mediated oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid mediated sonodynamic therapy in THP-1 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haibo; Gao, Weiwei; Yang, Yang; Guo, Shuyuan; Wang, Huan; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Shuisheng; Zhou, Qi; Xu, Haobo; Yao, Jianting; Tian, Zhen; Li, Bicheng; Cao, Wenwu; Zhang, Zhiguo; Tian, Ye

    2014-12-01

    Ultrasound combined with endogenous protoporphyrin IX derived from 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-SDT) is known to induce apoptosis in multiple cancer cells and macrophages. Persistent retention of macrophages in the plaque has been implicated in the pathophysiology and progression of atherosclerosis. Here we investigated the effects of inhibition of voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) on ALA-SDT-induced THP-1 macrophages apoptosis. Cells were pre-treated with VDAC1 inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) disodium salt for 1 h or downregulated VDAC1 expression by small interfering RNA and exposed to ultrasound. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay, and cell apoptosis along with necrosis was evaluated by Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. Levels of cytochrome c release was assessed by confocal microscope and Western blot. The levels of full length caspases, caspase activation, and VDAC isoforms were analyzed by Western blot. Intracellular reactive oxygen species generation, mitochondrial membrane permeability, and intracellular Ca(2+) [Ca(2+)]i levels were measured with fluorescent probes. We confirmed that the pharmacological inhibition of VDAC1 by DIDS notably prevented ALA-SDT-induced cell apoptosis in THP-1 macrophages. Additionally, DIDS significantly inhibited intracellular ROS generation and apoptotic biochemical changes such as inner mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Moreover, ALA-SDT elevated the [Ca(2+)]i levels and it was also notably reduced by DIDS. Furthermore, both of intracellular ROS generation and cell apoptosis were predominately inhibited by Ca(2+) chelating reagent BAPTA-AM. Intriguingly, ALA-treatment markedly augmented VDAC1 protein levels exclusively, and the downregulation of VDAC1 expression by specific siRNA also significantly abolished cell apoptosis. Altogether, these

  5. SU-F-J-215: Non-Thermal Pulsed High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therapy Combined with 5-Aminolevulinic Acid: An in Vivo Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, B; He, W; Cvetkovic, D; Chen, L; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: It has recently been shown that non-thermal pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU) has a cell-killing effect. The purpose of the study is to investigate the sonosensitizing effect of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid (5-ALA) in non-thermal pHIFU cancer therapy. Methods: FaDu human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells were injected subcutaneously in the flanks of nude mice. After one to two weeks, the tumors reached the volume of 112 ± 8 mm3 and were assigned randomly into a non-thermal pHIFU group (n=9) and a non-thermal sonodynamic therapy (pHIFU after 5-ALA administration) group (n=7). The pHIFU treatments (parameters: 1 MHz frequency; 25 W acoustic power; 0.1 duty cycle; 60 seconds duration) were delivered using an InSightec ExAblate 2000 system with a GE Signa 1.5T MR scanner. The mice in the non-thermal sonodynamic group received 5-ALA tail-vein injection 4 hours prior to the pHIFU treatment. The tumor growth was monitored using the CT scanner on a Sofie-Biosciences G8 PET/CT system. Results: The tumors in this study grew very aggressively and about 60% of the tumors in this study developed ulcerations at various stages. Tumor growth delay after treatments was observed by comparing the treated (n=9 in pHIFU group; n=7 in sonodynamic group) and untreated tumors (n=17). However, no statistically significant differences were found between the non-thermal pHIFU and non-thermal sonodynamic group. The mean normalized tumor volume of the untreated tumors on Day 7 after their first CT scans was 7.05 ± 0.54, while the normalized volume of the treated tumors on Day 7 after treatment was 5.89 ± 0.79 and 6.27 ± 0.47 for the sonodynamic group and pHIFU group, respectively. Conclusion: In this study, no significant sonosensitizing effects of 5-ALA were obtained on aggressive FaDu tumors despite apparent tumor growth delay in some mice treated with non-thermal sonodynamic therapy.

  6. Safety test of a supplement, 5-aminolevulinic acid phosphate with sodium ferrous citrate, in diabetic patients treated with oral hypoglycemic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohide Yamashita

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to examine the safety of 5-aminolevulinic acid phosphate (5-ALA with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC in diabetic patients treated with one or more oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs. Background: Recent intervention studies performed in the USA and Japan have shown that a nutritional supplement of 5-ALA with SFC efficiently reduced blood glucose levels in pre-diabetic population without any adverse events. Thus, it was anticipated that 5-ALA with SFC may potentially be taken as a beneficial supplement by diabetic patients who were being treated with OHA therapy. Nevertheless, it is important to examine its safety and efficacy in diabetic population. Methods: This study was a prospective single-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled and parallel-group comparison study. Medically treated diabetic patients between the ages of 30 and 75 were recruited from the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan and 45 subjects were selected after screening. These subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: daily intake of 15mg 5-ALA, 50mg 5-ALA, and a placebo (n=15, respectively. The supplement or placebo was administered for 12 weeks followed by a four week washout period. The primary endpoint was safety and occurrence of hypoglycemic attack, while the secondary endpoint was changes of fasting blood glucose (FBG and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c. Results: Adverse events related to 5-ALA with SFC were not observed in all the groups. Abnormalities in blood and urine tests were not observed either. Significant decrease in FBG was not detected in all the groups. However, there was a small but significant decrease in HbA1c at 4 and 8 week in the 15 mg 5-ALA group. Significant decrease in HbA1c was not observed in the 50 mg 5-ALA group, although a tendency to decrease after 4 weeks was apparent. Conclusion: 5-ALA with SFC is a safe and potentially beneficial supplement if taken by diabetic patients treated with OHAs.

  7. Counterbalancing risks and gains from extended resections in malignant glioma surgery: a supplemental analysis from the randomized 5-aminolevulinic acid glioma resection study. Clinical article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stummer, Walter; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Mehdorn, Hubertus Maximilian; Nestler, Ulf; Franz, Kea; Goetz, Claudia; Bink, Andrea; Pichlmeier, Uwe

    2011-03-01

    Accumulating data suggest more aggressive surgery in patients with malignant glioma to improve outcome. However, extended surgery may increase morbidity. The randomized Phase III 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) study investigated 5-ALA-induced fluorescence as a tool for improving resections. An interim analysis demonstrated more frequent complete resections with longer progression-free survival (PFS). However, marginal differences were found regarding neurological deterioration and the frequency of additional therapies. Presently, the authors focus on the latter aspects in the final study population, and attempt to determine how safety might be affected by cytoreductive surgery. Patients with malignant gliomas were randomized for fluorescence-guided (ALA group) or conventional white light (WL) (WL group) microsurgery. The final intent-to-treat population consisted of 176 patients in the ALA and 173 in the WL group. Primary efficacy variables were contrast-enhancing tumor on early MR imaging and 6-month PFS. Among secondary outcome measures, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIH-SS) score and the Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score were used for assessing neurological function. More frequent complete resections and improved PFS were confirmed, with higher median residual tumor volumes in the WL group (0.5 vs 0 cm(3), p = 0.001). Patients in the ALA group had more frequent deterioration on the NIH-SS at 48 hours. Patients at risk were those with deficits unresponsive to steroids. No differences were found in the KPS score. Regarding outcome, a combined end point of risks and neurological deficits was attempted, which demonstrated results in patients in the ALA group to be superior to those in participants in the WL group. Interestingly, the cumulative incidence of repeat surgery was significantly reduced in ALA patients. When stratified by completeness of resection, patients with incomplete resections were quicker to deteriorate neurologically (p = 0

  8. Source and impact of lead contamination on δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in several marine bivalve species along the Gulf of Cadiz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Company, R.; Serafim, A.; Lopes, B.; Cravo, A.; Kalman, J.; Riba, I.; DelValls, T.A.; Blasco, J.; Delgado, J.; Sarmiento, A.M.; Nieto, J.M.; Shepherd, T.J.; Nowell, G.; Bebianno, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Coastal areas and estuaries are particularly sensitive to metal contamination from anthropogenic sources and in the last few decades the study of space-time distribution and variation of metals has been extensively researched. The Gulf of Cadiz is no exception, with several rivers draining one of the largest concentrations of sulphide deposits in the world, the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB). Of these rivers, the Guadiana, one of the most important in the Iberian Peninsula, together with smaller rivers like the Tinto and Odiel, delivers a very high metal load to the adjacent coastal areas. The purpose of this work was to study the source and impact of lead (Pb) drained from historical or active mining areas in the IPB on the activity of a Pb inhibited enzyme (δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, ALAD) in several bivalve species along the Gulf of Cadiz. Seven marine species (Chamelea gallina, Mactra corallina, Donax trunculus, Cerastoderma edule, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Scrobicularia plana and Crassostrea angulata) were collected at 12 sites from Mazagon, near the mouth of the rivers Tinto and Odiel (Spain), to Cacela Velha (Ria Formosa lagoon system, Portugal). Lead concentrations, ALAD activity and lead isotope ratios ( 206 Pb/ 204 Pb, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb and 208 Pb/ 204 Pb) were determined in the whole soft tissues. The highest Pb concentrations were determined in S. plana (3.50 ± 1.09 μg g -1 Pb d.w.) and D. trunculus (1.95 ± 0.10 μg g -1 Pb d.w.), while M. galloprovincialis and C. angulata showed the lowest Pb levels ( -1 Pb d.w.). In general, ALAD activity is negatively correlated with total Pb concentration. However this relationship is species dependent (e.g. linear for C. gallina ALAD = -0.36[Pb] + 0.79; r = 0.837; or exponential for M. galloprovincialis ALAD = 2.48e -8.3[Pb] ; r = 0.911). This indicates that ALAD activity has considerable potential as a biomarker of Pb and moreover, in marine bivalve species with different feeding habits. Lead isotope data

  9. 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Mediated Sonodynamic Therapy Alleviates Atherosclerosis via Enhancing Efferocytosis and Facilitating a Shift in the Th1/Th2 Balance Toward Th2 Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: We and other groups have demonstrated that 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-mediated sonodynamic therapy (ALA-SDT induces macrophage and foam cell apoptosis and stabilizes atherosclerosis (AS plaques in animal models. Lymphocytes also play vital roles in the development of AS. The primary purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of ALA-SDT on T helper (Th cell fate and function, Th subset differentiation, and atherosclerotic lesion stability. Methods: We utilized ALA-SDT on Western diet-fed apoE-/-mice in vivo and human Jurkat cells in vitro. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and TUNEL assays were used to evaluate the atherosclerotic plaque size and apoptosis within the atheroma. ALA induced cytotoxicity on cultured Jurkat cells was determined with CCK-8 assay. To address the mechanisms, levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP opening were evaluated by staining with fluorescent probes. Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy were used to analyze the protein levels of caspases, Bax and cytochrome c and the release of cytochrome c. Cell apoptosis and necrosis and phagocytosis were examined by flow cytometry. ELISAs and immunofluorescent staining were used to assess the corresponding cytokine levels and Th subset cell numbers within the atheroma. Results: Our studies revealed that ALA-SDT significantly enhanced CD4+ cell apoptosis and macrophage-mediated phagocytosis and hence reduced the necrotic core size. ALA-SDT activated the mitochondrial apoptotic signaling pathway with minimal necrosis in Jurkat cells. ALA-SDT inhibited the Th1 response and enhanced the Th2 response. These effects of ALA-SDT were mediated primarily through the generation of ROS. Conclusion: ALA-SDT alleviates AS by enhancing cytotoxic effects on Th cells, subsequently stimulating efferocytosis and facilitating a shift in the Th1/Th2

  10. delta 6 Hexadecenoic acid is synthesized by the activity of a soluble delta 6 palmitoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase in Thunbergia alata endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, E B; Cranmer, A M; Shanklin, J; Ohlrogge, J B

    1994-11-04

    delta 6 Hexadecenoic acid (16:1 delta 6) composes more than 80% of the seed oil of Thunbergia alata. Studies were conducted to determine the biosynthetic origin of the double bond of this unusual fatty acid. Assays of fractions of developing T. alata seed endosperm with [1-14C]palmitoyl (16:0)-acyl carrier protein (ACP) revealed the presence of a soluble delta 6 desaturase activity. This activity was greatest when 16:0-ACP was provided as a substrate, whereas no desaturation of the coenzyme A ester of this fatty acid was detected. In addition, delta 6 16:0-ACP desaturase activity in T. alata endosperm extracts was dependent on the presence of ferredoxin and molecular oxygen and was stimulated by catalase. To further characterize this enzyme, a cDNA encoding a diverged acyl-ACP desaturase was isolated from a T. alata endosperm cDNA library using polymerase chain reaction with degenerate oligonucleotides corresponding to conserved amino acid sequences in delta 9 stearoyl (18:0)- and delta 4 16:0-ACP desaturases. The primary structure of the mature peptide encoded by this cDNA shares 66% identity with the mature castor delta 9 18:0-ACP desaturase and 57% identity with the mature coriander delta 4 16:0-ACP desaturase. Extracts of Escherichia coli that express the T. alata cDNA catalyzed the delta 6 desaturation of 16:0-ACP. These results demonstrate that 16:1 delta 6 in T. alata endosperm is formed by the activity of a soluble delta 6 16:0-ACP desaturase that is structurally related to the delta 9 18:0- and delta 4 16:0-ACP desaturases. Implications of this work to an understanding of active site structures of acyl-ACP desaturases are discussed.

  11. Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, serum zinc, delta-5- and delta-6-desaturase activities and incident metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yary, T; Voutilainen, S; Tuomainen, T-P; Ruusunen, A; Nurmi, T; Virtanen, J K

    2017-08-01

    The associations of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with metabolic syndrome have been poorly explored. We investigated the associations of the serum n-6 PUFA and the activities of enzymes involved in the PUFA metabolism, delta-5-desaturase (D5D) and delta-6-desaturase (D6D) with risk of incident metabolic syndrome. We also investigated whether zinc, a cofactor for these enzymes, modifies these associations. A prospective follow-up study was conducted on 661 men who were aged 42-60 years old at baseline in 1984-1989 and who were re-examined in 1998-2001. Men in the highest versus the lowest serum total omega-6 PUFA tertile had a 70% lower multivariate-adjusted risk of incident metabolic syndrome [odds ratio (OR) = 0.30; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.18-0.51, P trend metabolic syndrome components at the re-examinations. Most associations were attenuated after adjustment for body mass index. Finally, the associations of D6D and LA were stronger among those with a higher serum zinc concentration. Higher serum total n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid concentrations and D5D activity were associated with a lower risk of developing metabolic syndrome and higher D6D activity was associated with a higher risk. The role of zinc also needs to be investigated in other populations. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  12. Synthesis of {delta}-aminolevulic acid. Application to the introduction of carbon-14 and of tritium; Syntheses de l'acide {delta} aminolevulique. Application a l'introduction de carbone 14 et de tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loheac, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    Several new syntheses of {delta} aminolevulic acid ({delta} A.L.A.) have been studied. {sup 14}C-4 {delta} - aminolevulic acid has been obtained from {sup 14}C allylacetic carboxylic acid with a yield of 30 per cent with respect to barium carbonate and with a specific activity of 32 mCi/mM. The {sup 14}C-1 or {sup 14}C-2 {delta}-A.L.A. has been prepared from the {sup 14}C-1 or {sup 14}C-2 acetate with a yield of 55 per cent with respect to the acetate. Finally the tritiated {delta}-A.L.A. has been obtained for the first time by tritiation of ethyl phthalimidodehydrolevulate. (author) [French] Plusieurs syntheses nouvelles de l'acide {delta}-aminolevulique ont ete etudiees. L'acide {delta}-aminolevulique {sup 14}C-4 a ete obtenu a partir d'acide allylacetique carboxylique {sup 14}C, avec un rendement global de 30 pour cent par rapport au carbonate de baryum a une activite specifique de 32 mCi/M. Le {delta}-A.A.L. {sup 14}C-1 ou {sup 14}C-2 a ete obtenu a partir d'acetate {sup 14}C-1 ou {sup 14}C-2 avec un rendement de 55 pour cent par rapport a l'acetate. Enfin le {delta}-A.A.L. tritie a ete obtenu pour la premiere fois par tritiation du phtalimidodehydrolevulate d'ethyle. (auteur)

  13. A urinary metabolite of {Delta}{sup 1}-tetrahydrocannabinol. The first synthesis of 4``-hydroxy-{Delta}{sup 1}-tetrahydrocannabinol-7-oic acid labelled with deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szirmai, Maria; Odqvist, Helena [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Pharmacognosy; Halldin, M.M. [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Pharmacology

    1996-04-01

    The first synthesis of 4``-hydroxy-{Delta}-{sup 1}-THC-7-oic acid, one of the three major metabolites of {Delta}{sup 1}-THC identified in human urine is discussed. Methyl 4-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)butanoate was prepared from 3,5-diydroxybenzoic acid in an overall yield of 15% was condensed with a terpene synthon under acidic conditions followed by hydrolysis and conversion of the 4``-carboxylic acid function to the corresponding methyl ketone using methyllithium. Reduction with NaBH{sub 4} afforded the secondary alcohol in the side-chain. Acetylation and removal of the 1,3-dithiane masking group gave the aldehyde in C-7-position which was further oxidized using NaClO{sub 2} followed by deacetylation to give the desired metabolite. The same procedure may be used for the synthesis of unlabelled 4``-hydroxy-{Delta}{sup 1}-THC-7-oic acid. (author).

  14. Synthesis and pharmacology of 3-hydroxy-delta2-isoxazoline-cyclopentane analogues of glutamic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, P; De Amici, M; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2002-01-01

    The synthesis and pharmacology of two potential glutamic acid receptor ligands are described. Preparation of the bicyclic 3-hydroxy-delta2-isoxazoline-cyclopentane derivatives (+/-)-7 and (+/-)-8 was accomplished via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of bromonitrile oxide to suitably protected 1-amino......-cyclopent-3-enecarboxylic acids. Their structure was established using a combination of 1H NMR spectroscopy and molecular mechanics calculations carried out on the intermediate cycloadducts (+/-)-11 and (+/-)-12. Amino acid derivatives (+/-)-7 and (+/-)-8 were assayed at ionotropic and metabotropic glutamic...... acid receptor subtypes and their activity compared with that of trans-ACPD and cis-ACPD. The results show that the replacement of the omega-carboxylic group of the model compounds with the 3-hydroxy-delta2-isoxazoline moiety abolishes or reduces drastically the activity at the metabotropic glutamate...

  15. Metal Accumulation, Blood δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Activity and Micronucleated Erythrocytes of Feral pigeons (Columba Livia Living Near Former Lead-Zinc Smelter “ Trepça” – Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elezaj I. R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of lead in blood and tibia (Pb, zinc (Zn and cupper (Cu in tibia, blood δ- aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D; EC: 4.2.1.24 activity, hematocrit value (Hct and micronuclei frequency (MN of peripheral erythrocytes have been determinated in three different populations of feral pigeons (Columba livia; forma urbana and forma domestica, collected in Mitrovica town (situated close to smelter “Trepça”, down closed in 2000 year and in rural area (Koshare willage . The blood lead level in feral pigeons from Mitrovica (forma urbana was 3 times higher (149.6; 50.5 μg% in comparison with that in feral pigeons from Mitrovica (forma domestica and 27.7 times higher (5.4 μg% in comparison with pigeons from rural area. The Pb concentration of tibia of feral pigeons (froma urbana and forma domestica, from Mitrovica town was significantly higher (P<0.001 in comparison with control. The concentration of Zn in tibia of feral pigeons from Mitrovica town (forma urbana, was significantly higher (P<0.006 in comparison with control. The blood ALA-D activity of feral pigeons from Mitrovica town (forma urbana and froma domestica, was significantly inhibited in comparison with control. The blood ALA-D activity of feral pigeons –forma urbana from Mitrovica town was significantly inhibited (P<0.001 in comparison with the blood ALA-D activity of feral pigeons-forma domestica from Mitrovica town. The erythrocyte MN frequency of feral pigeons from Mitrovica was significantly higher (P <0.001 in comparison with controls. The smelter “Trepça” ten year after closed down pose a threat to the local environment, biota and people’s health.

  16. The Predominant Pathway of Apoptosis in THP-1 Macrophage-Derived Foam Cells Induced by 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Mediated Sonodynamic Therapy is the Mitochondria-Caspase Pathway Despite the Participation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In advanced atherosclerosis, chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress induces foam cells apoptosis and generates inflammatory reactions. Methods: THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells (FC were incubated with 1 mM 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA. After ALA mediated sonodynamic therapy (ALA-SDT, apoptosis of FC was assayed by Annexin V-PI staining. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and mitochondrial membrane potential were detected by staining with CellROX® Green Reagent and jc-1. Pretreatment of FC with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, Z-VAD-FMK or 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA, mitochondria apoptotic pathway associated proteins and C/EBP-homologous (CHOP expressions were assayed by wertern blotting. Results: Burst of apoptosis of FC was observed at 5-hour after ALA-SDT with 6-hour incubation of ALA and 0.4 W/cm2 ultrasound. After ALA-SDT, intracellular ROS level increased and mitochondrial membrane potential collapsed. Translocations of cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytosol and Bax from cytosol into mitochondria, cleaved caspase 9, cleaved caspase 3, upregulation of CHOP, as well as downregulation of Bcl-2 after ALA-SDT were detected, which could be suppressed by NAC. Activation of mitochondria-caspase pathway could not be inhibited by 4-PBA. Cleaved caspase 9 and caspase 3 as well as apoptosis induced by ALA-SDT could be inhibited by Z-VAD-FMK. Conclusion: The mitochondria-caspase pathway is predominant in the apoptosis of FC induced by ALA-SDT though ER stress participates in.

  17. The Value of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid in Low-grade Gliomas and High-grade Gliomas Lacking Glioblastoma Imaging Features: An Analysis Based on Fluorescence, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 18F-Fluoroethyl Tyrosine Positron Emission Tomography, and Tumor Molecular Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Mohammed; Wölfer, Johannes; Ewelt, Christian; Holling, Markus; Hasselblatt, Martin; Niederstadt, Thomas; Zoubi, Tarek; Weckesser, Matthias; Stummer, Walter

    2016-03-01

    Approximately 20% of grade II and most grade III gliomas fluoresce after 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) application. Conversely, approximately 30% of nonenhancing gliomas are actually high grade. The aim of this study was to identify preoperative factors (ie, age, enhancement, 18F-fluoroethyl tyrosine positron emission tomography [F-FET PET] uptake ratios) for predicting fluorescence in gliomas without typical glioblastomas imaging features and to determine whether fluorescence will allow prediction of tumor grade or molecular characteristics. Patients harboring gliomas without typical glioblastoma imaging features were given 5-ALA. Fluorescence was recorded intraoperatively, and biopsy specimens collected from fluorescing tissue. World Health Organization (WHO) grade, Ki-67/MIB-1 index, IDH1 (R132H) mutation status, O-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status, and 1p/19q co-deletion status were assessed. Predictive factors for fluorescence were derived from preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and F-FET PET. Classification and regression tree analysis and receiver-operating-characteristic curves were generated for defining predictors. Of 166 tumors, 82 were diagnosed as WHO grade II, 76 as grade III, and 8 as glioblastomas grade IV. Contrast enhancement, tumor volume, and F-FET PET uptake ratio >1.85 predicted fluorescence. Fluorescence correlated with WHO grade (P fluorescing grade III gliomas was higher than in nonfluorescing tumors, whereas in fluorescing and nonfluorescing grade II tumors, no differences were noted. Age, tumor volume, and F-FET PET uptake are factors predicting 5-ALA-induced fluorescence in gliomas without typical glioblastoma imaging features. Fluorescence was associated with an increased Ki-67/MIB-1 index and high-grade pathology. Whether fluorescence in grade II gliomas identifies a subtype with worse prognosis remains to be determined.

  18. Acid Rain Phenomenon in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: Economic, Biodiversity, and Public Health Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. C. Nduka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rain samples were collected from Warri and Port Harcourt, two major oil-producing cities of Nigeria in April-June, July-August, and September-October 2005 and 2006. Awka, a “non-oil” city was used as control. Samples were collected from three points, using clean plastic basins fastened to a table, 2 m above ground level and 115 m away from tall buildings and trees. Water samples were filtered and acidity determined using digital pHmeter. The results show that the rain samples were acidic. The pH values for the 2 years under study show that the rainfall in Warri was more acidic than that of Port Harcourt. Oil exploration and other anthropogenic sources may be responsible for the acid rain in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

  19. Two-step irradiance schedule versus single-dose tramadol sustained-release tablets for pain control during topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy of condyloma acuminatum in Chinese patients: a randomized comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchepange, Uwesu O; Huang, Chun-Yan; Sun, Yi; Tu, Ya-Ting; Tao, Juan

    2014-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-PDT) offers promising results for the treatment of condyloma acuminatum. However, patients have to dwell with pain to benefit from this otherwise effective and safe "off-label" treatment modality. Several techniques have been explored to control ALA-PDT-induced pain, but the desperate search for a universally accepted method is still ongoing. This study compares the two-step irradiance approach with single-dose administration of 100 mg tramadol sustained-release tablets for pain induced by ALA-PDT of condyloma acuminatum in Chinese patients. Adult Chinese patients with condyloma acuminatum were enrolled in a randomized comparative study. Pain levels were compared using the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) at pre-defined assessment points during and after irradiation. The pain was dominated by characteristics such as burning and pricking and was almost always local and superficial. The median pain scores were lower in the two-step irradiance group at 1 minute (U = 621.5, P = 0.002) but higher at 20 minutes (U = 585.5, P = 0.002). The median pain scores between the two groups did not differ significantly at other assessment points. The pain was moderate in both groups and peaked earlier in the analgesics group (median: 5 minutes) but later in the two-step irradiance group (median: 15 minutes). The pain was generally mild. The median pain scores were equal at each assessment point, except at 3 hours where the median was lower in the analgesics group (1.0) as compared with the two-step irradiance group (2.0) (U = 725.0, P = 0.056). Pain in the two-step irradiance protocol is irradiance-dependent. The two-step irradiance approach produces significant benefits over analgesics during the initial stages of therapy but analgesics offer significant benefits thereafter. There are potential benefits of combining the two approaches in minimizing ALA-PDT-induced pain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals

  20. Fluorescence cytology with 5-aminolevulinic acid in EUS-guided FNA as a method for differentiating between malignant and benign lesions (with video).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeura, Tsukasa; Takaoka, Makoto; Uchida, Kazushige; Shimatani, Masaaki; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Kato, Kota; Ohe, Chisato; Uemura, Yoshiko; Kaibori, Masaki; Kwon, A-Hon; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2015-01-01

    EUS-guided FNA (EUS-FNA) has been increasingly performed to obtain specimens for the pathological evaluation of patients with GI and pancreaticobiliary masses as well as lymphadenopathies of unknown origin. Photodynamic diagnosis by using 5-aminolebulinic acid (ALA) has been reported to be useful for enabling the visual differentiation between malignant and normal tissue in various cancers. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of fluorescence cytology with ALA in EUS-FNA. A prospective study. A single center. A total of 28 consecutive patients who underwent EUS-FNA for the pathological diagnosis of a pancreaticobiliary mass lesion or intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy of unknown origin. Patients were orally administered ALA 3 to 6 hours before EUS-FNA. The sample was obtained via EUS-FNA for fluorescence cytology and conventional cytology. A single gastroenterologist performed the fluorescence cytology by using fluorescence microscopy after the procedure, independently of the conventional cytology by pathologists. The accuracy of fluorescence cytology with ALA in the differentiation between benign and malignant lesions by comparing the results of fluorescence cytology with the final diagnosis. Of the 28 patients included in the study, 22 were considered as having malignant lesions and 6 patients as having benign lesions. Fluorescence cytology could correctly discriminate between benign and malignant lesions in all patients. Therefore, both the sensitivity and specificity of fluorescence cytology were 100% in our study. Fluorescence cytology was performed by only 1 gastroenterologist with a small number of patients. Fluorescence cytology with ALA in EUS-FNA may be an effective and simple method for differentiating between benign and malignant lesions. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. SU-F-T-674: In Vitro Study of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Mediated Photo Dynamic Therapy in Human Cancer Cell Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvetkovic, D; Wang, B; Gupta, R; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Photodynamic therapy (PTD) is a promising cancer treatment modality. 5-sminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a clinically approved photosensitizer. Here we studied the effect of 5-ALA administration with irradiation on several cell lines in vitro. Methods: Human head and neck (FaDu), lung (A549) and prostate (LNCaP) cancer cells (104/well) were seeded overnight in 96-well plates (Figure 1). 5-ALA at a range from 0.1 to 30.0mg/ml was added to confluent cells 3h before irradiation in 100ul of culture medium. 15MV photon beams from a Siemens Artiste linear accelerator were used to deliver 2 Gy dose in one fraction to the cells. Cell viability was evaluated by WST1 assay. The development of orange color was measured 3h after the addition of WST-1 reagent at 450nm on an Envision Multilabel Reader (Figure 2) and directly correlated to cell number. Control, untreated cells were incubated without 5-ALA. The experiment was performed twice for each cell line. Results: The cell viability rates for the head and neck cancer line are shown in Figure 3. FaDu cell viability was reduced significantly to 36.5% (5-ALA) and 18.1% (5-ALA + RT) only at the highest concentration of 5-ALA, 30mg/ml. This effect was observed in neither A549, nor LNCaP cell line. No toxicity was detected at lower 5-ALA concentrations. Conclusion: Application of 5-ALA and subsequent PDT was found to be cytotoxic at the highest dose of the photosensitizer used in the FaDu head and neck cell line, and their effect was synergistic. Further efforts are necessary to study the potential therapeutic effects of 5-ALA PTD in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest 5-ALA may improve the efficacy of radiotherapy by acting as a radiomediator in head and neck cancer.

  2. Kinetics and comparison of δ-aminolevulinic-acid-induced endogenous protoporphyrin-IX in single cell by steady state and multiphoton fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Singaravelu; Elangovan, Masilamani; Periasamy, Ammasi

    2001-04-01

    Photodynamic Therapy has emerged as a new modality in the treatment of various nonmalignant and malignant diseases. It involves the systemic administration of tumor specific photo-sensitizers with the subsequent application of visible light. This combination causes the generation of cytotoxic species, which damage sensitive targets, producing cell injury and tumor destruction. Although, photofrin is the only photosensitizer currently approved for PDT and tumor detection, its concomitant cutaneous photosensitization poses a significant problem. Hence, δ-aminoleuvulinic acid (δ-ALA) a precursor for the endogenous production of Protoporphyrin IX, through heme biosynthesis pathway, has gained significant importance in the Photodynamic Therapy. Though δ-ALA is present naturally in the cells, exogenous δ-ALA helps to synthesis more of PpIX in the tumor cells, as the fast growing tumor cells take up the administered δ-ALA more than the normal cells. Based on these facts, many invasive studies have been reported on the kinetics of δ-ALA at cellular level by chemical extraction of PpIX from the cells. In the present study we have studied the kinetics of δ-ALA induced PpIX fluorescence from Hela cells by perchloric/Methanol extraction method. However, the amount of PpIX synthesized in the cells at different point of incubation time by noninvasive methods has not been reported. Hence we have also used a noninvasive technique of measuring the kinetics δ-ALA induced PPIX fluorescence from Hela, an epithelial cell derived from human cervical cancer by both single photon (steady state) and multi photon excitation. From the studies it is observed that the δ-ALA induced PpIX is more at 2 hours incubation time for 2 mM of δ-ALA concentration. Further, it is observed that with steady state fluorescence imaging method, the excitation light itself cause the Photodynamic damage, due to the prolonged exposure of the cells than in multi photon excitation, leading to the rounding

  3. Photodynamic therapy using aminolevulinic acid (ALA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachor, Ruediger; Reich, Ella D.; Miller, Kurt; Hautmann, Richard E.

    1994-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality for a variety of cancers. Since no ideal photosensitizer is available yet, new photosensitizers are being sought. A new concept of PDT is the use of endogenous photosensitizers. ALA is a metabolite in heme synthesis. It is a precursor of protoporphyrin IX, a potent photosensitizer. After administration of ALA it is transformed by the cells to protoporphyrin IX. The goal of our study was to examine dark toxicity of ALA and its phototoxic potential in two different human cell lines.

  4. The efficacy and tolerability of 5-aminolevulinic acid 5% thermosetting gel photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris. A two-center, prospective assessor-blinded, proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serini, Stefano Maria; Cannizzaro, Maria Vittoria; Dattola, Annunziata; Garofalo, Virginia; Del Duca, Esther; Ventura, Alessandra; Milani, Massimo; Campione, Elena; Bianchi, Luca

    2018-05-22

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, commonly treated with topical or systemic drugs, according to the severity of the condition. Retinoids and antibiotic compounds are considered cornerstone approaches in this condition. However, low adherence to the therapy and the issue of bacterial resistance undermine the efficacy in the long term. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 20% aminolevulinic acid (ALA) has shown to be effective in the treatment of inflammatory acne. Skin tolerability, however, could be a limiting factor for a widespread use of this approach. A new formulation of 5% ALA in thermosetting gel has been recently available. This formulation allows a more convenient application procedure without occlusion and better and more efficient release of the active compound in comparison with traditional ALA formulations like creams or ointments. To evaluate in a two-center, assessor-blinded, prospective, proof-of-concept study, the efficacy, and tolerability of red-light (630 nm) PDT with a new 5-ALA "low-dose" topical gel formulation (5%) in the treatment of inflammatory mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris (AV). A total of 35 subjects with moderate AV of the face (mean age: 24 ± 8 years, 13 men and 22 women) were enrolled, after their written informed consent. The primary outcome was the evolution of GAG (Global Acne Grade System) score at baseline and after an average of three, 630-nm, 15-minute, PDT sessions, performed every 2 weeks. GAG score was also calculated in a follow-up visit 6 months after the last PDT session. Skin tolerability was assessed during PDT sessions with a patient-reported discomfort level evaluation score from 0 (no discomfort at all) to 3 (severe discomfort). At baseline, the GAG score was 21 ± 6. After the last PDT session, the GAG score evaluated in a blinded fashion (digital photographs) was significantly reduced to 6.5 ± 5.7, representing a 70% reduction (P = .0001, Wilcoxon test; mean difference 14.9; 95% CI of

  5. delta 13C analyses of vegetable oil fatty acid components, determined by gas chromatography--combustion--isotope ratio mass spectrometry, after saponification or regiospecific hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, S E; Evershed, R P; Rossell, J B

    1998-05-01

    The delta 13C values of the major fatty acids of several different commercially important vegetable oils were measured by gas chromatography--combustion--isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The delta 13C values obtained were found to fall into two distinct groups, representing the C3 and C4 plants classes from which the oils were derived. The delta 13C values of the oils were measured by continuous flow elemental isotope ratio mass spectrometry and were found to be similar to their fatty acids, with slight differences between individual fatty acids. Investigations were then made into the influence on the delta 13C values of fatty acids of the position occupied on the glycerol backbone. Pancreatic lipase was employed to selectively hydrolyse fatty acids from the 1- and 3-positions with the progress of the reaction being followed by high-temperature gas chromatography in order to determine the optimum incubation time. The 2-monoacylglycerols were then isolated by thin-layer chromatography and fatty acid methyl esters prepared. The delta 13C values obtained indicate that fatty acids from any position on the glycerol backbone are isotopically identical. Thus, whilst quantification of fatty acid composition at the 2-position and measurement of delta 13C values of oils and their major fatty acids are useful criteria in edible oil purity assessment, measurement of delta 13C values of fatty acids from the 2-position does not assist with oil purity assignments.

  6. Enhancing the understanding of earthworm feeding behaviour via the use of fatty acid delta13C values determined by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungait, Jennifer A J; Briones, Maria J I; Bol, Roland; Evershed, Richard P

    2008-06-01

    Litter-dwelling (epigeic) Lumbricus rubellus and soil-dwelling (endogeic) Allolobophora chlorotica earthworms were observed aggregating under C(3) (delta(13)C = -31.3 per thousand; delta(15)N = 10.7 per thousand) and C(4) (delta(13)C = -12.6 per thousand; delta(15)N = 7.5 per thousand) synthetic dung pats applied to a temperate grassland (delta(13)C = -30.3 per thousand; delta(15)N = 5.7 per thousand) in an experiment carried out for 372 days. Bulk delta(13)C values of earthworms collected from beneath either C(3) or C(4) dung after 28, 56, 112 and 372 days demonstrated that (i) L. rubellus beneath C(4) dung were significantly (13)C-enriched after 56 days (delta(13)C = -23.8 per thousand) and 112 days (delta(13)C = -22.4 per thousand) compared with those from C(3) dung treatments (56 days, delta(13)C = -26.5 per thousand; 112 days, delta(13)C = -27.0 per thousand), and (ii) A. chlorotica were 2.1 per thousand (13)C-enriched (delta(13)C = -24.2 per thousand) relative to those from C(3) dung (delta(13)C = -26.3 per thousand) treatments after 372 days. Bulk delta(15)N values did not suggest significant uptake of dung N by either species beneath C(3) or C(4) dung, but showed that the endogeic species (total mean delta(15)N = 3.3 per thousand) had higher delta(15)N values than the epigeic species (total mean delta(15)N = 5.4 per thousand). Although the two species exhibited similar fatty acid profiles, individual fatty acid delta(13)C values revealed extensive routing of dietary C into body tissue of L. rubellus, but minor incorporation into A. chlorotica. In particular, the direct incorporation of microbial biomarker fatty acids (iC(17:0), aC(17:0)) from (13)C-labelled dung in situ, the routing of dung C into de novo synthesised compounds (iC(20:4)(omega)(6),C(20:5)(omega)(3), and the assimilation of essential fatty acids ((C(18:1)(omega)(9), C(18:1)(omega(7), C(18:2)(omega(6), C(18:3)(omega)(3)) derived from dung, were determined. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  7. The remarkable stability of chimeric, sialic acid-derived alpha/delta-peptides in human blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saludes, Jonel P; Natarajan, Arutselvan; DeNardo, Sally J; Gervay-Hague, Jacquelyn

    2010-05-01

    Peptides are labile toward proteolytic enzymes, and structural modifications are often required to prolong their metabolic half-life and increase resistance. One modification is the incorporation of non-alpha-amino acids into the peptide to deter recognition by hydrolytic enzymes. We previously reported the synthesis of chimeric alpha/delta-peptides from glutamic acids (Glu) and the sialic acid derivative Neu2en. Conformational analyses revealed these constructs adopt secondary structures in water and may serve as conformational surrogates of polysialic acid. Polysialic acid is a tumor-associated polysaccharide and is correlated with cancer metastasis. Soluble polysialic acid is rapidly cleared from the blood limiting its potential for vaccine development. One motivation in developing structural surrogates of polysialic acid was to create constructs with increased bioavailability. Here, we report plasma stability profiles of Glu/Neu2en alpha/delta-peptides. DOTA was conjugated at the peptide N-termini by solid phase peptide synthesis, radiolabeled with (111)In, incubated in human blood plasma at 37 degrees C, and their degradation patterns monitored by cellulose acetate electrophoresis and radioactivity counting. Results indicate that these peptides exhibit a long half-life that is two- to three-orders of magnitude higher than natural alpha-peptides. These findings provide a viable platform for the synthesis of plasma stable, sialic acid-derived peptides that may find pharmaceutical application.

  8. Nucleic Acid Polymers Are Active against Hepatitis Delta Virus Infection In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilstein, Frauke; Blanchet, Matthieu; Vaillant, Andrew; Sureau, Camille

    2018-02-15

    In this study, an in vitro infection model for the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) was used to evaluate the antiviral effects of phosphorothioate nucleic acid polymers (NAPs) and investigate their mechanism of action. The results show that NAPs inhibit HDV infection at concentrations less than 4 μM in cultures of differentiated human hepatoma cells. NAPs were shown to be active at viral entry but inactive postentry on HDV RNA replication. Inhibition was independent of the NAP nucleotide sequence but dependent on both size and amphipathicity of the polymer. NAP antiviral activity was effective against HDV virions bearing the main hepatitis B virus (HBV) immune escape substitutions (D144A and G145R) and was pangenomic with regard to HBV envelope proteins. Furthermore, similar to immobilized heparin, immobilized NAPs could bind HDV particles, suggesting that entry inhibition was due, at least in part, to preventing attachment of the virus to cell surface glycosaminoglycans. The results document NAPs as a novel class of antiviral compounds that can prevent HDV propagation. IMPORTANCE HDV infection causes the most severe form of viral hepatitis in humans and one of the most difficult to cure. Currently, treatments are limited to long-term administration of interferon at high doses, which provide only partial efficacy. There is thus an urgent need for innovative approaches to identify new antiviral against HDV. The significance of our study is in demonstrating that nucleic acid polymers (NAPs) are active against HDV by targeting the envelope of HDV virions. In an in vitro infection assay, NAP activity was recorded at concentrations less than 4 μM in the absence of cell toxicity. Furthermore, the fact that NAPs could block HDV at viral entry suggests their potential to control the spread of HDV in a chronically HBV-infected liver. In addition, NAP anti-HDV activity was pangenomic with regard to HBV envelope proteins and not circumvented by HBsAg substitutions associated

  9. Mixing state of oxalic acid containing particles in the rural area of Pearl River Delta, China: implications for the formation mechanism of oxalic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cheng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The formation of oxalic acid and its mixing state in atmospheric particulate matter (PM were studied using a single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS in the summer and winter of 2014 in Heshan, a supersite in the rural area of the Pearl River Delta (PRD region in China. Oxalic-acid-containing particles accounted for 2.5 and 2.7 % in total detected ambient particles in summer and winter, respectively. Oxalic acid was measured in particles classified as elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, elemental and organic carbon (ECOC, biomass burning (BB, heavy metal (HM, secondary (Sec, sodium-potassium (NaK, and dust. Oxalic acid was found predominantly mixing with sulfate and nitrate during the whole sampling period, likely due to aqueous-phase reactions. In summer, oxalic-acid-containing particle number and ozone concentration followed a very similar trend, which may reflect the significant contribution of photochemical reactions to oxalic acid formation. The HM particles were the most abundant oxalic acid particles in summer and the diurnal variations in peak area of iron and oxalic acid show opposite trends, which suggests a possible loss of oxalic acid through the photolysis of iron oxalato-complexes during the strong photochemical activity period. In wintertime, carbonaceous particles contained a substantial amount of oxalic acid as well as abundant carbon clusters and BB markers. The general existence of nitric acid in oxalic-acid-containing particles indicates an acidic environment during the formation process of oxalic acid. The peak areas of nitrate, sulfate and oxalic had similar temporal change in the carbonaceous type oxalic acid particles, and the organosulfate-containing oxalic acid particles correlated well with total oxalic acid particles during the haze episode, which suggests that the formation of oxalic acid is closely associated with the oxidation of organic precursors in the aqueous phase.

  10. Angiopoietin-like 4 mediates PPAR delta effect on lipoprotein lipase-dependent fatty acid uptake but not on beta-oxidation in myotubes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius R Robciuc

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR delta is an important regulator of fatty acid (FA metabolism. Angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4, a multifunctional protein, is one of the major targets of PPAR delta in skeletal muscle cells. Here we investigated the regulation of Angptl4 and its role in mediating PPAR delta functions using human, rat and mouse myotubes. Expression of Angptl4 was upregulated during myotubes differentiation and by oleic acid, insulin and PPAR delta agonist GW501516. Treatment with GW501516 or Angptl4 overexpression inhibited both lipoprotein lipase (LPL activity and LPL-dependent uptake of FAs whereas uptake of BSA-bound FAs was not affected by either treatment. Activation of retinoic X receptor (RXR, PPAR delta functional partner, using bexarotene upregulated Angptl4 expression and inhibited LPL activity in a PPAR delta dependent fashion. Silencing of Angptl4 blocked the effect of GW501516 and bexarotene on LPL activity. Treatment with GW501516 but not Angptl4 overexpression significantly increased palmitate oxidation. Furthermore, Angptl4 overexpression did not affect the capacity of GW501516 to increase palmitate oxidation. Basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis and glucose oxidation were not significantly modulated by Angptl4 overexpression. Our findings suggest that FAs-PPARdelta/RXR-Angptl4 axis controls the LPL-dependent uptake of FAs in myotubes, whereas the effect of PPAR delta activation on beta-oxidation is independent of Angptl4.

  11. One-step synthesis of delta-MnO2 nanoparticles using ascorbic acid and their scavenging properties to Pb(II), Zn(II) and methylene blue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.X.; Pang, P.; Koopal, L.K.; Qiu, G.H.; Wang, Y.; Liu, F.

    2014-01-01

    To obtain delta-MnO2 particles with a large specific surface area, MnO2 was synthesized in an ice-water bath using ascorbic acid (AA) to reduce KMnO4. At pH 3 and 5 and KMnO4/AA molar ratios of 8/1 and 10/1, nanoparticles of delta-MnO2 were produced. The specific surface areas (SSAs) of the samples

  12. Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency selectively up-regulates delta6-desaturase expression and activity indices in rat liver: prevention by normalization of omega-3 fatty acid status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofacer, Rylon; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Magrisso, I Jack; Benoit, Stephen C; McNamara, Robert K

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of perinatal dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid depletion and subsequent repletion on the expression of genes that regulate long-chain (LC) polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in rat liver and brain. It was hypothesized that chronic n-3 fatty acid deficiency would increase liver Fads1 and Fads2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression/activity and that n-3 fatty acid repletion would normalize this response. Adult rats fed the n-3-free diet during perinatal development exhibited significantly lower erythrocyte, liver, and frontal cortex LCn-3 fatty acid composition and reciprocal elevations in LC omega-6 (n-6) fatty acid composition compared with controls (CONs) and repleted rats. Liver Fads2, but not Fads1, Elovl2, or Elovl5, mRNA expression was significantly greater in n-3-deficient (DEF) rats compared with CONs and was partially normalized in repleted rats. The liver 18:3n-6/18:2n-6 ratio, an index of delta6-desturase activity, was significantly greater in DEF rats compared with CON and repleted rats and was positively correlated with Fads2 mRNA expression among all rats. The liver 18:3n-6/18:2n-6 ratio, but not Fads2 mRNA expression, was also positively correlated with erythrocyte and frontal cortex LCn-6 fatty acid compositions. Neither Fads1 or Fads2 mRNA expression was altered in brain cortex of DEF rats. These results confirm previous findings that liver, but not brain, delta6-desaturase expression and activity indices are negatively regulated by dietary n-3 fatty acids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Soil knowledge for farmers, farmer knowledge for soil scientists : the case of acid sulphate soils in the Mekong delta, Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensvoort, van M.E.F.

    1996-01-01


    Half the Mekong delta in Vietnam, i.e. around 2 million hectares, suffers soil related problems due to acid sulphate soils. These soils generate sulphuric acid due to the oxidation of pyrite after aeration. Pyrite is most easily formed in tidal swamps. Human interference through land

  14. Cholic acid is accumulated spontaneously, driven by membrane Delta pH, in many lactobacilli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurdi, P; van Veen, HW; Tanaka, H; Mierau, [No Value; Konings, WN; Tannock, GW; Tomita, F; Yokota, A

    2000-01-01

    Many lactobacilli from various origins were found to apparently lack cholic acid extrusion activity. Cholic acid was accumulated spontaneously, driven by the transmembrane proton gradient. Accumulation is a newly identified kind of interaction between intestinal microbes and unconjugated bile acids

  15. Quantitative evaluation of the biosynthetic pathways leading to δ-aminolevulinic acid from the Shemin precursor glycine via the C5 pathway in Arthrobacter hyalinus by analysis of 13C-labeled coproporphyrinogen III biosynthesized from [2-13C]glycine, [1-13C]acetate, and [2-13C]acetate using 13C NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumi Iida

    2013-01-01

    The biosynthetic pathways leading to δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) from the Shemin precursor glycine via the C5 pathway in Arthrobacter hyalinus were quantitatively evaluated by means of feeding experiments with [2- 13 C]glycine, sodium [1- 13 C]acetate, and sodium [2- 13 C]acetate, followed by analysis of the labeling patterns of coproporphyrinogen III (Copro'gen III) (biosynthesized from ALA) using 13 C NMR spectroscopy. Two biosynthetic pathways leading to ALA from glycine via the C5 pathway were identified: i.e., transformation of glycine to l-serine catalyzed by glycine hydroxymethyltransferase, and glycine synthase-catalyzed catabolism of glycine to N 5 , N 10 -methylene-tetrahydrofolic acid (THF), which reacts with another molecule of glycine to afford l-serine. l-Serine is transformed to acetyl-CoA via pyruvic acid. Acetyl-CoA enters the tricarboxylic acid cycle, affording 2-oxoglutaric acid, which in turn is transformed to l-glutamic acid. The l-glutamic acid enters the C5 pathway, affording ALA in A. hyalinus. A 13 C NMR spectroscopic comparison of the labeling patterns of Copro'gen III obtained after feeding of [2- 13 C]glycine, sodium [1- 13 C]acetate, and sodium [2- 13 C]acetate showed that [2- 13 C]glycine transformation and [2- 13 C]glycine catabolism in A. hyalinus proceed in the ratio of 52 and 48 %. The reaction of [2- 13 C]glycine and N 5 , N 10 -methylene-THF, that of glycine and N 5 , N 10 -[methylene- 13 C]methylene-THF generated from the [2- 13 C]glycine catabolism, and that of [2- 13 C]glycine and N 5 , N 10 -[methylene- 13 C]methylene-THF transformed the fed [2- 13 C]glycine to [1- 13 C]acetyl-CoA, [2- 13 C]acetyl-CoA, and [1,2- 13 C 2 ]acetyl-CoA in the ratios of 42, 37, and 21 %, respectively. These labeled acetyl-CoAs were then incorporated into ALA. Our results provide a quantitative picture of the pathways of biosynthetic transformation to ALA from glycine in A. hyalinus. (author)

  16. Tillage and water management for riceland productivity in acid sulfate soils of the Mekong delta, Vietnam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minh, L.Q.; Tuong, T.P.; Mensvoort, van M.E.F.; Bouma, J.

    1997-01-01

    Acid sulfate soils are characterized by low pH and high concentrations of aluminum, sulfate, iron and hydrogen sulfide. Removal of at least part of these substances is a prerequisite for land use, at least in severely acid soils. In this study, the effectiveness of harrowing and flushing with

  17. Effects of oxidizing adulterants on detection of 11-nor-delta9-THC-9-carboxylic acid in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Buddha D; Jacobs, Aaron

    2002-10-01

    Bleach, nitrite, chromate, and hydrogen peroxide-peroxidase are effective urine adulterants used by the illicit drug users to conceal marijuana-positive results. Methods for detecting nitrite and chromate are available. Effects of other oxidizing agents that could possibly be used as adulterants and are difficult to detect or measure are presented in this report. Urine samples containing 40 ng/mL of 11-nor-delta9-THC-9-carboxylic acid (THC-acid) were treated with 10 mmol/L of commonly available oxidizing agents. Effects of horseradish peroxidase of activity 10 unit/mL and extracts from 2.5 g of red radish (Raphanus sativus, Radicula group), horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus, Daikon group), and black mustard seeds (Brassica nigra), all with 10 mmol/L of hydrogen peroxide, were also examined. After 5 min, 16 h and 48 h of exposure at room temperature (23 degrees C) the specimens were tested by a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for THC-acid. A control group treated with sodium hydrosulfite to reduce the oxidants, was also tested to investigate the effect of oxidizing agents on THC-acid in the extraction method. THC-acid was lost completely in the extraction method when treated with chromate, nitrite, oxone, and hydrogen peroxide/ferrous ammonium sulfate (Fenton's reagent). Some losses were also observed with persulfate and periodate (up to 25%). These oxidants, and other oxidizing agents like permanganate, periodate, peroxidase, and extracts from red radish, horseradish, Japanese radish and black mustard seeds destroyed most of the THC-acid (> 94%) within 48 h of exposure. Chlorate, perchlorate, iodate, and oxychloride under these conditions showed little or no effect. Complete loss was observed when THC-acid was exposed to 50 mmol/L of oxychloride for 48 h. Several oxidizing adulterants that are difficult to test by the present urine adulterant testing methods showed considerable effects on the destruction of THC-acid

  18. Phosphate solubilization and acid phosphatase activity of Serratia sp. isolated from mangrove soil of Mahanadi river delta, Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C. Behera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is an essential element for all life forms. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria are capable of converting phosphate into a bioavailable form through solubilization and mineralization processes. Hence in the present study a phosphate solubilizing bacterium, PSB-37, was isolated from mangrove soil of the Mahanadi river delta using NBRIP-agar and NBRIP-BPB broth containing tricalcium phosphate as the phosphate source. Based on phenotypic and molecular characterization, the strain was identified as Serratia sp. The maximum phosphate solubilizing activity of the strain was determined to be 44.84 μg/ml, accompanied by a decrease in pH of the growth medium from 7.0 to 3.15. During phosphate solubilization, various organic acids, such as malic acid (237 mg/l, lactic acid (599.5 mg/l and acetic acid (5.0 mg/l were also detected in the broth culture through HPLC analysis. Acid phosphatase activity was determined by performing p-nitrophenyl phosphate assay (pNPP of the bacterial broth culture. Optimum acid phosphatase activity was observed at 48 h of incubation (76.808 U/ml, temperature of 45 °C (77.87 U/ml, an agitation rate of 100 rpm (80.40 U/ml, pH 5.0 (80.66 U/ml and with glucose as a original carbon source (80.6 U/ml and ammonium sulphate as a original nitrogen source (80.92 U/ml. Characterization of the partially purified acid phosphatase showed maximum activity at pH 5.0 (85.6 U/ml, temperature of 45 °C (97.87 U/ml and substrate concentration of 2.5 mg/ml (92.7 U/ml. Hence the present phosphate solubilizing and acid phosphatase production activity of the bacterium may have probable use for future industrial, agricultural and biotechnological application.

  19. The Effects of Ppar Delta and Alpha Agonist on Fatty Acid and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors of the nuclear receptor superfamily are het-erodimers with the 9-cis retinoic acid receptor and bind to specific peroxisome proliferators re-sponse elements to regulate the transcription of their target genes resulting in the regulation of lipid, metabolism, glucose homeostasis ...

  20. Mixing state of oxalic acid containing particles in the rural area of Pearl River Delta, China: implication for seasonal formation mechanism of Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA)

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Chunlei; Li, Mei; Chan, Chak K.; Tong, Haijie; Chen, Changhong; Chen, Duohong; Wu, Dui; Li, Lei; Cheng, Peng; Gao, Wei; Huang, Zhengxu; Li, Xue; Fu, Zhong; Bi, Yanru; Zhou, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    The formation of oxalic acid and its mixing state in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) were studied using a single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) in the summer and winter of 2014 in Heshan, a supersite in the rural area of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in China. Oxalic acid-containing particles accounted for 2.5 % and 2.7 % in total detected ambient particles in summer and winter, respectively. Oxalic acid was measured in particles classified as elemental carb...

  1. Photodynamic destruction of Porphyromonas gingivalis induced by delta-aminolaevulinic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieron, Aleksander; Wiczkowski, Andrzej; Adamek, Mariusz; Dyla, Lucja; Mazur, Sebastian; Wierucka-Mlynarczyk, Beata

    2004-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is one of a novel modalities which has recently been exploited to eradicate various microorganisms. In our study we have evaluated bactericidal efficacy of PDT in the presence of 5-δ aminolaevulinic acid (ALA). Porphyromonas gingivalis were incubated with increasing concentration of ALA and subsequently irradiated by progressive light doses. Complete killing effect was obtained for bacteria irradiated with 25J/cm2 in ALA solution final concentration of 1mM, 5mM, 10mM. Statistical analysis has revealed ALA concentration to be a major factor responsible for eradication of bacteria. The latter may be attributable to the known ALA dark toxicity.

  2. Developing management packages for acid sulphate soils based on farmer and expert knowledge : field study in the Mekong Delta, Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Quang Tri, Le

    1996-01-01


    Effective interaction of farmers' expertise and expert knowledge has been a special point of attention for this study. The objectives of the study were to describe the process of interaction between farmers and experts in improving the use of acid sulphate soils and to point out difficulties encountered. Actual conditions for four major areas were described including variabilities. Four representative areas: Tan Thanh, Tri Ton, Phung Hiep, and Hong Dan in the Mekong Delta, Viet Nam...

  3. Delta Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Mette

    . The warming air temperature affects the soil temperature and permafrost thaws and destabilizes the material in the coastal zone. In Greenland, the warming temperature lowers the surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet and more material is transported to the coastal zone. The sea ice extent is thinning...... of a fjord and the second type is a wider fan-shaped open delta. Most deltas are directly coupled to the Greenland Ice Sheet or local icecaps and are highly influenced by the dynamics in the catchments. It is demonstrated how a modern changing climate directly affects delta dynamics, and that Greenlandic...... deltas are prograding, contrary to the global trend showing eroding Arctic coasts. Moreover, it is revealed that the increasing proglacial freshwater runoff, caused by a lowering of the surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet is the main determining agent in delta progradation. The final part...

  4. Glucono-delta-lactone and citric acid as acidulants for lowering the heat resistance of Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 in HTST working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silla Santos, M H; Torres Zarzo, J

    1995-04-01

    The heat resistance of Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 spores has been studied to establish the influence of acidification with glucono-delta-lactone (GDL) and citric acid on the thermal resistance parameters (DT and z) of this microorganism and to compare their effect with phosphate buffer and natural asparagus as reference substrates. A reduction in DT values was observed in asparagus purée as the acidification level increased with both acidulants although this effect was more evident at the lower treatment temperatures studied (121-127 degrees C). Citric acid was more effective for reducing the heat resistance of spores than GDL at all of the temperatures. The reduction in pH diminished the value of the z parameter, although it was necessary to lower the pH to 4.5 to obtain a significant reduction.

  5. Nutritional regulation and role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta in fatty acid catabolism in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Dorte; Luquet, Serge; Nogueira, Véronique

    2003-01-01

    starvation period, PPARdelta mRNA levels are dramatically up-regulated in gastrocnemius muscle of mice and restored to control level upon refeeding. The rise of PPARdelta is accompanied by parallel up-regulations of fatty acid translocase/CD36 (FAT/CD36) and heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP), while...

  6. Precipitation Chemistry and Occurrence of Acid Rain over the Oil-Producing Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kanayo Chukwu Nduka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the nitrate, sulfate, total dissolved solid (TDS, electrical conductivity, total hardness (TH, and bicarbonates of rainwater samples collected from Warri and Port Harcourt between April–June, July–August, and September–October of 2005 and 2006 to depict onset of rainy season, mid-rainy season, and end of rainy season for the two major crude oil–producing cities of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria (although Port Harcourt is also noted for non-oil manufacturing industries. The same was done in Awka, a non-oil producing city in the hinterland of southeastern Nigeria. In each of the cities, rain samples were collected from three points in a triangular equilibrium using a clean plastic basin fastened to a table 2 m above ground level and 115 m away from tall buildings and trees. The parameters were determined after filtering, using their respective standard methods. Averages of 1.50, 1.81, 1.13 and 2.14, 1.50, 1.86 mg/l of nitrate for April–June, July–August, and September–October were recorded for Warri in 2005 and 2006, respectively. While 15.21, 3.23, 22.31 and 20.89, 9.96, and 14.27 mg/l were recorded in Port Harcourt. Sulfate levels for Warri and Port Harcourt for the same periods are follows: 1.38, 1.88, 1.06, 1.50, 1.43, 1.50 and 2.64, 1.15, 5.88, 4.73, 1.90, 1.55 mg/l, respectively. Nitrate levels were higher than sulfate. Other parameters include TDS (5.44, 4.79, 3.30 and 7.63, 3.69, 2.56 mg/l for Warri in 2005 and 2006; 12.57, 2.07, 25.214 and 28.87, 6.73, 7.80 mg/l for Port Harcourt for the same periods. Other parameters also varied in that order for the 2 years in same cities. Crude oil exploration and gas flaring in the Niger Delta, and multiplicity of cottage industries in Awka, impacted on the inorganic ion pollution of the rainwater. This may have public health implications in the region.

  7. Mice Deficient in lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase delta (Lpaatδ)/acylglycerophosphate acyltransferase 4 (Agpat4) Have Impaired Learning and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Ryan M; Mardian, Emily B; Bloemberg, Darin; Aristizabal Henao, Juan J; Mitchell, Andrew S; Marvyn, Phillip M; Moes, Katherine A; Stark, Ken D; Quadrilatero, Joe; Duncan, Robin E

    2017-11-15

    We previously characterized LPAATδ/AGPAT4 as a mitochondrial lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase that regulates brain levels of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and phosphatidylinositol (PI). Here, we report that Lpaat δ -/- mice display impaired spatial learning and memory compared to wild-type littermates in the Morris water maze and our investigation of potential mechanisms associated with brain phospholipid changes. Marker protein immunoblotting suggested that the relative brain content of neurons, glia, and oligodendrocytes was unchanged. Relative abundance of the important brain fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid was also unchanged in phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylglycerol, and cardiolipin, in agreement with prior data on PC, PE and PI. In phosphatidic acid, it was increased. Specific decreases in ethanolamine-containing phospholipids were detected in mitochondrial lipids, but the function of brain mitochondria in Lpaat δ -/- mice was unchanged. Importantly, we found that Lpaat δ -/- mice have a significantly and drastically lower brain content of the N -methyl-d-asparate (NMDA) receptor subunits NR1, NR2A, and NR2B, as well as the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit GluR1, compared to wild-type mice. However, general dysregulation of PI-mediated signaling is not likely responsible, since phospho-AKT and phospho-mTOR pathway regulation was unaffected. Our findings indicate that Lpaat δ deficiency causes deficits in learning and memory associated with reduced NMDA and AMPA receptors. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Metal binding by humic acids isolated from water hyacinth plants (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solm-Laubach: Pontedericeae) in the Nile Delta, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghabbour, Elham A.; Davies, Geoffrey; Lam, Y.-Y.; Vozzella, Marcy E.

    2004-01-01

    Humic acids (HAs) are animal and plant decay products that confer water retention, metal and organic solute binding functions and texture/workability in soils. HAs assist plant nutrition with minimal run-off pollution. Recent isolation of HAs from several live plants prompted us to investigate the HA content of the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solm-Laubach: Pontedericeae), a delicately flowered plant from Amazonian South America that has invaded temperate lakes, rivers and waterways with devastating economic effects. Hyacinth thrives in nutrient-rich and polluted waters. It has a high affinity for metals and is used for phytoremediation. In this work, HAs isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of live water hyacinth plants from the Nile Delta, Egypt were identified by chemical and spectral analysis and by comparison with authentic soil and plant derived HAs. Similar carbohydrate and amino acid distributions and tight metal binding capacities of the HAs and their respective plant components suggest that the presence of HAs in plants is related to their metal binding properties

  9. Is the thin layer of methyl aminolevulinate used during photodynamic therapy sufficient?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, Stine R; Lerche, Catharina M; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: If the recommended 1.0 mm layer of methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) is used during photodynamic therapy (PDT) of large areas with multiple actinic keratoses (AK) huge amounts of cream are needed. OBJECTIVES: To report the amount of MAL used for PDT of AK and basal cell carcinomas (BCC) in...

  10. Concentration and source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phthalic acid esters in the surface water of the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lifei Zhang; Liang Dong; Lijun Ren; Shuangxin Shi; Li Zhou; Ting Zhang; Yeru Huang

    2012-01-01

    The pollution from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in the surface water of the rapidly urbanized Yangtze River Delta region was investigated.Fourteen surface water samples were collected in June 2010.Water samples were liquid-liquid extracted using methylene chloride and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.Concentrations of PAHs and PAEs ranged 12.9-638.1 ng/L and 61-28550 ng/L,respectively.Fluoranthene,naphthalene,pyrene,phenanthrene,di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate,and di-n-butyl phthalate were the most abundant compounds in the samples.The water samples were moderately Polluted with benzo[a]pyrene according to China's environmental quality standard for surface water.The two highest concentrations of PAHs and PAEs occurred in samples from Taihu Lake,Wuxi City and the western section of Yangchenghu Lake.Potential sources of Pollution at S7 were petroleum combustion and the plastics industry,and at Yangchenghu Lake were petroleum combustion and domestic waste.Pollution in samples from the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal originated from diesel engines.There were no obvious sources of pollution for the other water samples.These results can be used as reference levels for future monitoring programs of pollution from PAHs and PAEs.

  11. Evaluation of erythrocyte delta-amino levulinic acid dehydratase activity as a short-term indicator in fish of a harmful exposure to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodson, P.V.; Blunt, B.R.; Spry, D.J.; Austen, K.

    1977-04-01

    The activity of erythrocyte delta-amino levulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) of fish is easily measured under a variety of experimental conditions. Exposure of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), goldfish (Carassius auratus), and pumpkinseeds (Lepomis gibbosus) to lead consistently inhibited ALA-D within 2 wks at concentrations as low as 10, 90, 470, and 90 ..mu..g/l, respectively. In rainbow and brook trout these concentrations were closely related to the published minimum effective concentrations causing sublethal harm. There was a significant linear relationship between ALA-D activity and log of blood lead concentration, between ALA-D activity and log of lead in water, and between blood lead and lead in water. Near lethal exposures to cadmium, copper, zinc, and mercury did not significantly inhibit ALA-D activity. Recovery of ALA-D activity of rainbow trout after transfer from 120 ..mu..g/l lead to clean water occurred in 8 wk. This enzyme provides fast, consistent, specific, and sensitive estimates of lead concentrations causing sublethal harm to fish and may help to relate sources of lead to degree of exposure of fish populations in the field.

  12. Simultaneous quantification of delta-9-THC, THC-acid A, CBN and CBD in seized drugs using HPLC-DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambach, Lars; Penitschka, Franziska; Broillet, Alain; König, Stefan; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Bernhard, Werner

    2014-10-01

    An HPLC-DAD method for the quantitative analysis of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (THCA-A), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabinol (CBN) in confiscated cannabis products has been developed, fully validated and applied to analyse seized cannabis products. For determination of the THC content of plant material, this method combines quantitation of THCA-A, which is the inactive precursor of THC, and free THC. Plant material was dried, homogenized and extracted with methanol by ultrasonication. Chromatographic separation was achieved with a Waters Alliance 2695 HPLC equipped with a Merck LiChrospher 60 RP-Select B (5μm) precolumn and a Merck LiChroCart 125-4 LiChrospher 60 RP-Select B (5μm) analytical column. Analytes were detected and quantified using a Waters 2996 photo diode array detector. This method has been accepted by the public authorities of Switzerland (Bundesamt für Gesundheit, Federal Office of Public Health), and has been used to analyse 9092 samples since 2000. Since no thermal decarboxylation of THCA-A occurs, the method is highly reproducible for different cannabis materials. Two calibration ranges are used, a lower one for THC, CBN and CBD, and a higher one for THCA-A, due to its dominant presence in fresh plant material. As provider of the Swiss proficiency test, the robustness of this method has been tested over several years, and homogeneity tests even in the low calibration range (1%) show high precision (RSD≤4.3%, except CBD) and accuracy (bias≤4.1%, except CBN). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. PM{sub 2.5} acidity at a background site in the Pearl River Delta region in fall-winter of 2007–2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Xiaoxin [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Shenzhen Research Institute, Hong Kong Polytechnic University (China); Guo, Hai, E-mail: ceguohai@polyu.edu.hk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Shenzhen Research Institute, Hong Kong Polytechnic University (China); Wang, Xinming, E-mail: wangxm@gig.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Ding, Xiang; He, Quanfu; Liu, Tengyu; Zhang, Zhou [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • 24-h PM{sub 2.5} samples were collected in fall-winter of 2007–2012. • The annual reduction trends of [H{sup +}]{sub total} and [H{sup +}]{sub in-situ} of PM{sub 2.5} was −32 ± 1.5 and −9 ± 1.7 nmol m{sup −3}, respectively. • On hazy days, the concentration of OM showed significant enhancement when [H{sup +}]{sub in-situ} ranged from 85 to 240 nmol m{sup −3}. • [H{sup +}]{sub in-situ} presented a close relationship with NO{sub 3}{sup −} formation mechanisms in low and high acidity of PM{sub 2.5}. - Abstract: Based on field observations and thermodynamic model simulation, the annual trend of PM{sub 2.5} acidity and its characteristics on non-hazy and hazy days in fall-winter of 2007–2012 in the Pearl River Delta region were investigated. Total acidity ([H{sup +}]{sub total}) and in-situ acidity ([H{sup +}]{sub in-situ}) of PM{sub 2.5} significantly decreased (F-test, p < 0.05) at a rate of −32 ± 1.5 nmol m{sup −3} year{sup −1} and −9 ± 1.7 nmol m{sup −3} year{sup −1}, respectively. The variation of acidity was mainly caused by the change of the PM{sub 2.5} component, i.e., the decreasing rates of [H{sup +}]{sub total} and [H{sup +}]{sub in-situ} due to the decrease of sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}) exceeded the increasing rate caused by the growth of nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup −}). [H{sup +}]{sub total}, [H{sup +}]{sub in-situ} and liquid water content on hazy days were 0.9–2.2, 1.2–3.5 and 2.0–3.0 times those on non-hazy days, respectively. On hazy days, the concentration of organic matter (OM) showed significant enhancement when [H{sup +}]{sub in-situ} increased (t-test, p < 0.05), while this was not observed on non-hazy days. Moreover, when the acidity was low (i.e., R = [NH{sub 4}{sup +}]/(2 × [SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}] + [NO{sub 3}{sup −}]) > 0.6), NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} was most likely formed via homogenous reaction. When the acidity was high (R ≤ 0.6), the gas-phase formation of NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} was

  14. Delta 12-Fatty Acid Desaturase from Candida parapsilosis Is a Multifunctional Desaturase Producing a Range of Polyunsaturated and Hydroxylated Fatty Acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buček, Aleš; Matoušková, Petra; Sychrová, Hana; Pichová, Iva; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2014), e93322/1-e93322/10 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA01011461 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:67985823 Keywords : yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae * omega-3 fatty acid desaturase * heterologous expression Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014 http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0093322

  15. Activation of PPAR{delta} up-regulates fatty acid oxidation and energy uncoupling genes of mitochondria and reduces palmitate-induced apoptosis in pancreatic {beta}-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Jun; Jiang, Li; Lue, Qingguo; Ke, Linqiu [Department of Endocrinology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, 37 Guoxue Lane, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Li, Xiaoyu [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, No. 14, 3rd Section, Renmin South Road, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Tong, Nanwei, E-mail: buddyjun@hotmail.com [Department of Endocrinology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, 37 Guoxue Lane, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China)

    2010-01-15

    Recent evidence indicates that decreased oxidative capacity, lipotoxicity, and mitochondrial aberrations contribute to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {delta} (PPAR{delta}) activation on lipid oxidation, mitochondrial function, and insulin secretion in pancreatic {beta}-cells. After HIT-T15 cells (a {beta}-cell line) were exposed to high concentrations of palmitate and GW501516 (GW; a selective agonist of PPAR{delta}), we found that administration of GW increased the expression of PPAR{delta} mRNA. GW-induced activation of PPAR{delta} up-regulated carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2); alleviated mitochondrial swelling; attenuated apoptosis; and reduced basal insulin secretion induced by increased palmitate in HIT cells. These results suggest that activation of PPAR{delta} plays an important role in protecting pancreatic {beta}-cells against aberrations caused by lipotoxicity in metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

  16. Enhanced uptake and photoactivation of topical methyl aminolevulinate after fractional CO2 laser pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, M; Katsnelson, J; Sakamoto, F H

    2011-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of thick skin lesions is limited by topical drug uptake. Ablative fractional resurfacing (AFR) creates vertical channels that may facilitate topical PDT drug penetration and improve PDT-response in deep skin layers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether pre......-treating the skin with AFR before topically applied methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) could enable a deep PDT-response....

  17. Acidic gases, ammonia and water-soluble ions in PM 2.5 at a coastal site in the Pearl River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min; Wu, Zhijun; Slanina, J.; Lin, Peng; Liu, Shang; Zeng, Limin

    Real-time measurements of acidic trace gases (HCl, HNO 3, HONO, and SO 2), ammonia, and water-soluble ions in PM 2.5 were conducted at Xinken, a coastal site downwind of Guangzhou, from 4 October to 4 November 2004, as part of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) intensive field campaign. The average concentrations of HCl, HONO, HNO 3, SO 2, and NH 3 are 2.8, 2.9, 6.3, 55.4, and 7.3 μg m -3, respectively, and 2.4, 7.2, 24.1, and 9.2 μg m -3 for Cl -, NO 3-, SO 42-, and NH 4+ in PM 2.5. The diurnal variations of both HCl and HNO 3 showed higher concentrations during daytime and lower concentrations at night, and aerosol Cl - and NO 3- showed an opposite diurnal patterns to HCl and HNO 3. The diurnal variation of NH 3 showed the similar pattern to that of aerosol NH 4+ with lower concentration during daytime and higher concentration at night. The average concentration of SO 2 during daytime was higher than that at night. The transportation of urban plumes to the sampling site could explain the higher concentration of SO 2 during daytime. HONO showed a clear diurnal variation with lower concentration during daytime and higher concentration at night. The HONO concentrations were positively correlated with the particle surface area concentrations, suggesting the formation of HONO through the heterogeneous conversion on particle surfaces could be significant. The ionic charge balance analysis included the cations derived from filter measurements indicates that the contribution of the cations in fine particle (PM 1.8) to the charge balance is not pronounced. The theoretical equilibrium constant ( Ke) of NH 4NO 3 is higher than the observed concentration product ( Km=[NH 3]×[HNO 3]) during daytime, and lower than Km at night. This indicates that the atmospheric conditions during the sampling period did not favor the formation of NH 4NO 3 during daytime.

  18. Delta Plaza kohvik = Delta Plaza cafe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Pärnu mnt 141 asuva kohviku Delta Plaza sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Tiiu Truus ja Marja Viltrop (Stuudio Truus OÜ). Tiiu Truusi tähtsamate tööde loetelu. Büroohoone Delta Plaza arhitektid Marika Lõoke ja Jüri Okas (AB J. Okas & M. Lõoke)

  19. delta-vision

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Delta Vision is intended to identify a strategy for managing the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta as a sustainable ecosystem that would continue to support environmental...

  20. Integrated soil and water management in acid sulphate soils : balancing agricultural production and environmental requirements in the Mekong Delta, Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, Q.M.

    1996-01-01


    The objectives of this study in the Mekong delta, Vietnam, were: (1) to obtain a better understanding of the effects of soil physical properties and flow types on solute transport in ASS emphasing aluminum; (2) to quantify environmental hazards resulting from amelioration activities in

  1. An indoor air quality-pharmacokinetic simulation of passive inhalation of marijuana smoke and the resultant buildup of 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, N J

    1997-03-01

    In military courts of law, the good soldier defense is often used by the defendant to explain the presence of 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in urine (hereafter referred to as THCA) above the Department of Defense (DOD) established limit of 15 ng/mL. The defense will contend the defendant unwittingly breathed side-stream marijuana smoke, thus resulting in the presence of THCA in the defendant's urine. The purpose of this work was to link an indoor air quality model (IAQ) with a pharmacokinetic (PK) model to predict a passive marijuana smoker's resultant concentration of the major urinary metabolite THCA.

  2. In vitro activation of sigma-aminolevulinate dehydratase from far-red irradiated radish (Raphanus sativus L. ) seedlings by thioredoxin f

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balange, A.P. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Mont Saint Aignan (France). Laboratoire de Photobiologie); Lambert, C. (UER Scientifique de Luminy, Department de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Marseille, France)

    1983-10-01

    sigma-Aminolevulinate dehydratase has been found to be activated in vitro by dithiotreitol and factors isolated from radish cotyledons grown under continuous far-red light. Cross experiments, between fructose 1-6 bisphosphatase system, and sigma-aminolevulinate dehydratase, show that these factors are functionally identical to thioredoxin f.

  3. Delta-ALA-mediated fluorescence spectroscopy of gastrointestinal tumors: comparison of in vivo and in vitro results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, B.; Borisova, E.; Avramov, L.

    2007-06-01

    The limitations of standard endoscopy for detection of dysplastic changes of mucosa are significant challenge and initiate development of new photodiagnostic techniques, additional to diagnostic possibilities of standard endoscopic equipment. One of the most widely examined optical modalities is the laser- or light-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS), because of its rapid and highly sensitive response to early biochemical and morphological changes in biological tissues. In the recent study delta-aminolevulinic acid/protoporphyrin IX is used as fluorescent marker for dysplasia and tumor detection in esophagus and stomach. The δ -ALA is administered per os six hours before measurements at dose 20mg/kg weight. High-power light-emitting diode at 405 nm is used as an excitation source. Special opto-mechanical device is built to use the light guide of standard video-endoscopic system. Through endoscopic instrumental channel a fiber is applied to return information about fluorescence to microspectrometer. The fluorescence detected from in vivo tumor sites has very complex spectral origins. It consists of autofluorescence, fluorescence from exogenous fluorophores and re-absorption from the chromophores accumulated in the tissue investigated. Mucosa autofluorescence lies at 450-600 nm region. The fluorescence of PpIX is clearly pronounced at the 630-710 nm region. Deep minima in the tumor fluorescence signals are observed in the region 540-575 nm, related to hemoglobin re-absorption. Such high hemoglobin content is an indication of the tumors vascularization and it is clearly pronounced in all dysplastic and tumor sites investigated. After formalin conservation for in vitro samples hemoglobin absorption is strongly reduced that increases mucous fluorescence signal in green-yellow spectral region. Simultaneously the maxima at 635 nm and 720 nm are reduced.

  4. Delta antibody radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kselikova, M; Urbankova, J

    1985-11-15

    The principle and procedure are described of the radioimmunoassay of delta antibody (delta-Ab) using the ABBOTT ANTI-DELTA kit by Abbott Co. A description is given of the kit, the working procedure and the method of evaluation. The results are reported of the incidence of delta-Ab in sera of patients with viral hepatitis B, in haemophiliacs, carriers of the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and blood donors. The presence was detected of delta-Ab in one HBsAg carrier. The necessity is emphasized of delta-Ab determinations in the blood of donors in view of the antibody transfer with blood and blood preparations.

  5. A terapia fotodinâmica com ácido 5-aminolevulínico como modalidade de tratamento para neoplasias cutâneas não-melanoma Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy as a treatment modality for nonmelanoma skin cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lília Bernardini Antunes de Felício

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A terapia fotodinâmica baseia-se na associação de fonte de luz e fotossensibilizador para destruir seletivamente as células. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos imediatos e tardios, a resposta clínica e os resultados estéticos da terapia fotodinâmica com ácido 5-aminolevulínico em neoplasias cutâneas não-melanoma. MÉTODOS: Trinta e quatro lesões, sendo 19 disceratoses de Bowen e 15 carcinomas basocelulares, foram submetidas à aplicação tópica e oclusiva do ácido 5-aminolevulínico a 20%, por seis horas, e posteriormente a sessão única de laser de diodo (630nm. RESULTADOS: Foram registrados: sensação de queimação durante as sessões; eritema, edema e erosões, nas primeiras 72 horas; cicatrização em média de quatro semanas; resultados estéticos variáveis de excelentes a bons. Aos três meses, a resposta clínica foi de 91,2%, sendo reduzida, aos 18 meses, para 73,3%, de modo similar tanto para disceratose de Bowen (72,2% quanto para carcinoma basocelular (75%. Foi evidenciada relação de tendência linear entre a redução da freqüência da resposta clínica e o aumento da dimensão das neoplasias cutâneas não-melanoma (pBACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy is based on the association of a light source and photosensitizer in order to selectively destroy cells. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the short and long-term effects, clinical response, and cosmetic outcome of the photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolaevulinic acid for non-melanoma skin cancer. METHODS: TThirty-four non-melanoma skin cancer - 19 Bowen’s diseases and 15 basal cell carcinomas, were submitted to a single 6-hour topical and occlusive application of 20% 5-aminolaevulinic acid, and were later exposed to 630 nm diode laser single session. RESULTS: Burning sensation during the session; erythema, edema and erosions in the first 72 hours; healing process after 4 weeks on average and excellent or good cosmetic results were observed. After 3 months, tumor

  6. Evolution of cyclizing 5-aminolevulinate synthases in the biosynthesis of actinomycete secondary metabolites: outcomes for genetic screening techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petříčková, Kateřina; Chroňáková, Alica; Zelenka, Tomáš; Chrudimský, Tomáš; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Petříček, Miroslav; Krištůfek, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, AUG 2015 (2015) ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12191 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : 5-aminolevulinate synthase * C5N unit * Streptomyces Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.165, year: 2015

  7. Delta hedging strategies comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Giovanni, Domenico; Ortobelli, S.; Rachev, S.T.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we implement dynamic delta hedging strategies based on several option pricing models. We analyze different subordinated option pricing models and we examine delta hedging costs using ex-post daily prices of S&P 500. Furthermore, we compare the performance of each subordinated model...

  8. Connectivity in river deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, P.; Hiatt, M. R.; Sendrowski, A.

    2016-12-01

    Deltas host approximately half a billion people and are rich in ecosystem diversity and economic resources. However, human-induced activities and climatic shifts are significantly impacting deltas around the world; anthropogenic disturbance, natural subsidence, and eustatic sea-level rise are major causes of threat to deltas and in many cases have compromised their safety and sustainability, putting at risk the people that live on them. In this presentation, I will introduce a framework called Delta Connectome for studying connectivity in river deltas based on different representations of a delta as a network. Here connectivity indicates both physical connectivity (how different portions of the system interact with each other) as well as conceptual (pathways of process coupling). I will explore several network representations and show how quantifying connectivity can advance our understanding of system functioning and can be used to inform coastal management and restoration. From connectivity considerations, the delta emerges as a leaky network that evolves over time and is characterized by continuous exchanges of fluxes of matter, energy, and information. I will discuss the implications of connectivity on delta functioning, land growth, and potential for nutrient removal.

  9. 5-氨基酮戊酸光动力疗法联合二氧化碳激光治疗尖锐湿疣疗效观察%Clinical efficacy of 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy combined with CO2 laser in the treat-ment of genital condylomata acumunata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建平; 刘传真; 刘永生

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察5-氨基酮戊酸光动力疗法(ALA-PDT)联合二氧化碳(CO2)激光治疗尖锐湿疣的临床疗效。方法117例尖锐湿疣患者随机分为2组,A 组(58例)采用 CO2激光治疗, B 组(59例)采用 ALA-PDT 联合 CO2激光治疗。每次治疗后进行疗效评价和观察不良反应。2组均在末次治疗后1、4、8、12、24周进行随访,观察复发率。结果完成治疗及随访的106例患者中, A 组51例,治愈率为72.55%(37/51)、复发率为37.84%(14/37);B 组55例,治愈率为94.55%(52/55)、复发率为5.77%(3/52);B 组治愈率明显优于 A 组(χ2=9.508,P =0.002);B 组复发率也明显低于 A 组(χ2=14.387,P <0.001)。2组患者 CO2激光治疗后均出现局部溃疡,并伴有糜烂、渗出、疼痛,1~2周均自行好转。B 组 ALA-PDT 不良反应有局部红肿、疼痛、糜烂,1~5 d 内自行缓解。结论ALA-PDT 联合 CO2激光治疗尖锐湿疣患者的临床疗效明显优于单用 CO2激光。%Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of combined therapy of topical 5-aminolaevu-linic acid (ALA)photodynamic therapy (PDT)and carbon dioxide laser (CO2 laser)in the treatment of con-dylomata acuminate (CA).Methods In total,1 1 7 cases diagnosed with CA were randomly divided into groups A and B.In group A,the patients were treated with CO2 laser.Those in group B underwent ALA-PDT in combination with CO2 laser.Clinical efficacy and adverse reaction were observed in both groups.All patients were followed up at 1 ,4,8,1 2 and 24 weeks after the final treatment to evaluate the recurrence rate.Results Among 1 1 7 patients,1 06 completed the treatment and subsequent follow-up.The recovery rate in group A was 72.55% (37 /51 )and 94.55% (52 /55)in group B with statistical significance (χ2 =9.508,P =0.002).The recurrence rate in group A was 37.84% (1 4 /37)and 5.77% (3 /52)in group B with statistical signifi-cance (χ2

  10. Hepatitis delta genotypes in chronic delta infection in the northeast of Spain (Catalonia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrina, M; Buti, M; Jardi, R; Quer, J; Rodriguez, F; Pascual, C; Esteban, R; Guardia, J

    1998-06-01

    Based on genetic analysis of variants obtained around the world, three genotypes of the hepatitis delta virus have been defined. Hepatitis delta virus variants have been associated with different disease patterns and geographic distributions. To determine the prevalence of hepatitis delta virus genotypes in the northeast of Spain (Catalonia) and the correlation with transmission routes and clinical disease, we studied the nucleotide divergence of the consensus sequence of HDV RNA obtained from 33 patients with chronic delta hepatitis (24 were intravenous drug users and nine had no risk factors), and four patients with acute self-limited delta infection. Serum HDV RNA was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction technique and a fragment of 350 nucleotides (nt 910 to 1259) was directly sequenced. Genetic analysis of the nucleotide consensus sequence obtained showed a high degree of conservation among sequences (93% of mean). Comparison of these sequences with those derived from different geographic areas and pertaining to genotypes I, II and III, showed a mean sequence identity of 92% with genotype I, 73% with genotype II and 61% with genotype III. At the amino acid level (aa 115 to 214), the mean identity was 87% with genotype I, 63% with genotype II and 56% with genotype III. Conserved regions included the RNA editing domain, the carboxyl terminal 19 amino acids of the hepatitis delta antigen and the polyadenylation signal of the viral mRNA. Hepatitis delta virus isolates in the northeast of Spain are exclusively genotype I, independently of the transmission route and the type of infection. No hepatitis delta virus subgenotypes were found, suggesting that the origin of hepatitis delta virus infection in our geographical area is homogeneous.

  11. Antisera to gamma-aminobutyric acid. I. Production and characterization using a new model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, A J; Penke, B; Erdei, A; Chubb, I W; Somogyi, P

    1985-03-01

    Antisera to the amino acid gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) have been developed with the aim of immunohistochemical visualization of neurons that use it as a neurotransmitter. GABA bound to bovine serum albumin was the immunogen. The reactivities of the sera to GABA and a variety of structurally related compounds were tested by coupling these compounds to nitrocellulose paper activated with polylysine and glutaraldehyde and incubating the paper with the unlabeled antibody enzyme method, thus simulating immunohistochemistry of tissue sections. The antisera did not react with L-glutamate, L-aspartate, D-aspartate, glycine, taurine, L-glutamine, L-lysine, L-threonine, L-alanine, alpha-aminobutyrate, beta-aminobutyrate, putrescine, or delta-aminolevulinate. There was cross-reaction with gamma-amino-beta-hydroxybutyrate, 1-10%, and the homologues of GABA: beta-alanine, 1-10%, delta-aminovalerate, approximately 10%, and epsilon-amino-caproate, approximately 10%. The antisera reacted slightly with the dipeptide gamma-aminobutyrylleucine, but not carnosine or homocarnosine. Immunostaining of GABA was completely abolished by adsorption of the sera to GABA coupled to polyacrylamide beads by glutaraldehyde. The immunohistochemical model is simple, amino acids and peptides are bound in the same way as in aldehyde-fixed tissue and, in contrast to radioimmunoassay, it uses an immunohistochemical detection system. This method has enabled us to define the high specificity of anti-GABA sera and to use them in some novel ways. The model should prove useful in assessing the specificity of other antisera.

  12. Effect of oxidoreduction potential and of gas bubbling on rheological properties and microstructure of acid skim milk gels acidified with glucono-delta-lactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, F; Cayot, N; Marin, A; Journaux, L; Cayot, P; Gervais, P; Cachon, R

    2009-12-01

    Milk oxidoreduction potential was modified using gases during the production of a model dairy product and its effect on gel setting was studied. Acidification by glucono-delta-lactone was used to examine the physicochemistry of gelation and to avoid variations due to microorganisms sensitive to oxidoreduction potential. Four conditions of oxidoreduction potential were applied to milk: milk was gassed with air, nongassed, gassed with N(2), or gassed with N(2)H(2). The rheological properties and microstructure of these gels were determined using viscoelasticimetry, measurement of whey separation, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. It appeared that a reducing environment led to less-aggregated proteins within the matrix and consequently decreased whey separation significantly. The use of gas to modify oxidoreduction potential is a possible way to improve the quality of dairy products.

  13. The davDT operon of Pseudomonas putida, involved in lysine catabolism, is induced in response to the pathway intermediate delta-aminovaleric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revelles, O.; Espinosa-Urgel, M.; Molin, Søren

    2004-01-01

    -aminovaleric acid and then further degraded to glutaric acid via the action of the davDT gene products. We show that the davDT genes form an operon transcribed from a single sigma(70)-dependent promoter. The relatively high level of basal expression from the davD promoter increased about fourfold in response...

  14. Decreased production of interleukin-6 and prostaglandin E2 associated with inhibition of delta-5 desaturation of omega6 fatty acids in mice fed safflower oil diets supplemented with sesamol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavali, S R; Forse, R A

    1999-12-01

    The differences in the immune responses in mice fed sesame oil diets and those fed sesamin may be attributed to the presence of other lignans in the non-fat portion of the oil. The fatty acid composition (mean +/- SD mol. %) of liver membrane phospholipids and the levels of endotoxin-induced prostaglandin (PG) E2, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were determined in mice fed diets supplemented with 5% safflower oil (SO) in the absence or presence of 1% sesamol. The levels of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (20:3omega6) were markedly higher (P<0.025) in the livers from mice fed sesamol supplemented SO diets (1.6 +/- 0.1) compared to the controls (1.4 +/- 0.1). These data suggest that sesamol or its metabolite could inhibit the in vivo delta-5 desaturation of omega6 fatty acids. Further, in animals fed sesamol supplemented SO diets, the levels of PGE2 (228 +/- 41 pg/ml) were markedly lower (P<0.01) compared to those fed SO diet alone (1355 +/- 188 pg/ml). Concomitantly, the concentrations of IL-6 were also lower (P<0.01) in mice fed sesamol diet (63 +/- 11 ng/ml) compared to the controls (143 +/- 22 ng/ml). A marked reduction in the levels of PGE2 in animals fed sesamol diets suggests that sesamol or its metabolite could inhibit the activity of cyclooxygenase enzyme.

  15. Menhaden oil, but not safflower or soybean oil, aids in restoring the polyunsaturated fatty acid profile in the novel delta-6-desaturase null mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have diverse biological effects, from promoting inflammation to preventing cancer and heart disease. Growing evidence suggests that individual PUFA may have independent effects in health and disease. The individual roles of the two essential PUFA, linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), have been difficult to discern from the actions of their highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) downstream metabolites. This issue has recently been addressed through the development of the Δ-6 desaturase knock out (D6KO) mouse, which lacks the rate limiting Δ-6 desaturase enzyme and therefore cannot metabolize LA or ALA. However, a potential confounder in this model is the production of novel Δ-5 desaturase (D5D) derived fatty acids when D6KO mice are fed diets containing LA and ALA, but void of arachidonic acid. Objective The aim of the present study was to characterize how the D6KO model differentially responds to diets containing the essential n-6 and n-3 PUFA, and whether the direct provision of downstream HUFA can rescue the phenotype and prevent the production of D5D fatty acids. Methodology Liver and serum phospholipid (PL) fatty acid composition was examined in D6KO and wild type mice fed i) 10% safflower oil diet (SF, LA rich) ii) 10% soy diet (SO, LA+ALA) or iii) 3% menhaden oil +7% SF diet (MD, HUFA rich) for 28 days (n = 3-7/group). Results Novel D5D fatty acids were found in liver PL of D6KO fed SF or SO-fed mice, but differed in the type of D5D fatty acid depending on diet. Conversely, MD-fed D6KO mice had a liver PL fatty acid profile similar to wild-type mice. Conclusions Through careful consideration of the dietary fatty acid composition, and especially the HUFA content in order to prevent the synthesis of D5D fatty acids, the D6KO model has the potential to elucidate the independent biological and health effects of the parent n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, LA and ALA. PMID:22642787

  16. Menhaden oil, but not safflower or soybean oil, aids in restoring the polyunsaturated fatty acid profile in the novel delta-6-desaturase null mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro Jessica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA have diverse biological effects, from promoting inflammation to preventing cancer and heart disease. Growing evidence suggests that individual PUFA may have independent effects in health and disease. The individual roles of the two essential PUFA, linoleic acid (LA and α-linolenic acid (ALA, have been difficult to discern from the actions of their highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA downstream metabolites. This issue has recently been addressed through the development of the Δ-6 desaturase knock out (D6KO mouse, which lacks the rate limiting Δ-6 desaturase enzyme and therefore cannot metabolize LA or ALA. However, a potential confounder in this model is the production of novel Δ-5 desaturase (D5D derived fatty acids when D6KO mice are fed diets containing LA and ALA, but void of arachidonic acid. Objective The aim of the present study was to characterize how the D6KO model differentially responds to diets containing the essential n-6 and n-3 PUFA, and whether the direct provision of downstream HUFA can rescue the phenotype and prevent the production of D5D fatty acids. Methodology Liver and serum phospholipid (PL fatty acid composition was examined in D6KO and wild type mice fed i 10% safflower oil diet (SF, LA rich ii 10% soy diet (SO, LA+ALA or iii 3% menhaden oil +7% SF diet (MD, HUFA rich for 28 days (n = 3-7/group. Results Novel D5D fatty acids were found in liver PL of D6KO fed SF or SO-fed mice, but differed in the type of D5D fatty acid depending on diet. Conversely, MD-fed D6KO mice had a liver PL fatty acid profile similar to wild-type mice. Conclusions Through careful consideration of the dietary fatty acid composition, and especially the HUFA content in order to prevent the synthesis of D5D fatty acids, the D6KO model has the potential to elucidate the independent biological and health effects of the parent n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, LA and ALA.

  17. In vivo metabolism of the methyl homologues of delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and abn-delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, N K; Harvey, D J

    1988-04-01

    Methyl-delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (methyl-delta-8-THC), methyl-delta-9-THC and abn-methyl-delta-8-THC were synthesized by condensation of orcinol and (1S)-cis-verbenol and were administered to male Charles River CD-1 mice. Extracted hepatic metabolites were isolated by chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and examined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as trimethylsilyl (TMS), (2H9)TMS and methyl ester/TMS derivatives. In addition, metabolic fractions were reduced with lithium aluminium deuteride to convert carboxylic acids to alcohols for structural correlation. Metabolites from methyl-delta-8-THC were similar with respect to the positions substituted to those produced by higher homologues; the major metabolite was methyl-delta-8-THC-11-oic acid. abn-Methyl-delta-8-THC was metabolized in a different manner. The location of the aromatic methyl group at the position adjacent to ring fusion appeared to inhibit metabolism at C(11) to a considerable extent and also to reduce the amount of the resulting alcohol from being oxidized to a carboxylic acid. This caused other metabolic pathways to become dominant, with the result that a compound containing a hydroxy group at the gem-methyl position was the major metabolite. Hydroxylation at this position has not been confirmed with any other cannabinoid, although it is thought to result in trace concentrations of hydroxy metabolites from some compounds. Metabolism of methyl-delta-9-THC was also similar to that of the higher homologues, with the exception that less metabolism occurred at C(8) and a higher percentage of the total metabolic fraction was accounted for by the 11-oic acid metabolite. Minor metabolites were mainly dihydroxy compounds and hydroxylated derivatives of delta-9-THC-11-oic acid.

  18. Comparative effects of sulfuric and nitric acid rain on litter decomposition and soil microbial community in subtropical plantation of Yangtze River Delta region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Wenrui; Wang, Ling; Xie, Dejin; Huo, Wentong; Wu, Yanwen; Zhang, Jinchi

    2017-12-01

    Acid rain is mainly caused by dissolution of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere, and has a significant negative effect on ecosystems. The relative composition of acid rain is changing gradually from sulfuric acid rain (SAR) to nitric acid rain (NAR) with the rapidly growing amount of nitrogen deposition. In this study, we investigated the impact of simulated SAR and NAR on litter decomposition and the soil microbial community over four seasons since March 2015. Results first showed that the effects of acid rain on litter decomposition and soil microbial were positive in the early period of the experiment, except for SAR on soil microbes. Second, soil pH with NAR decreased more rapidly with the amount of acid rain increased in summer than with SAR treatments. Only strongly acid rain (both SAR and NAR) was capable of depressing litter decomposition and its inhibitory effect was stronger on leaf than on fine root litter. Meanwhile, NAR had a higher inhibitory effect on litter decomposition than SAR. Third, in summer, autumn and winter, PLFAs were negatively impacted by the increased acidity level resulting from both SAR and NAR. However, higher acidity level of NAR (pH=2.5) had the strongest inhibitory impact on soil microbial activity, especially in summer. In addition, Gram-negative bacteria (cy19:0) and fungi (18:1ω9) were more sensitive to both SAR and NAR, and actinomycetes was more sensitive to SAR intensity. Finally, soil total carbon, total nitrogen and pH were the most important soil property factors affecting soil microbial activity, and high microbial indices (fungi/bacteria) with high soil pH. Our results suggest that the ratio of SO 4 2- to NO 3 - in acid rain is an important factor which could affect litter decomposition and soil microbial in subtropical forest of China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid on yield and quality of lettuce in sunlit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ese

    2012-07-03

    Jul 3, 2012 ... Here, we report the effects of ALA on photosynthetic rate, yield and quality of lettuce in sunlit ... Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are widely applied on crops as a means of ..... This research was made possible by financial.

  20. The Niger Delta Crisis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2013-09-28

    Sep 28, 2013 ... Department of History & International Studies, Delta State University, Abraka,. Nigeria. .... democracy implies popular power. That is ... Okonta (2006:5) draws attention to Anna Zalik's treatise called 'Petro-Vio- lence' and ...

  1. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Hepatitis D (Delta agent) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the ...

  2. Delta 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skott, Jeppe; Skott, Charlotte Krog; Jess, Kristine

    DELTA 2.0 er en ny og helt opdateret udgave af Delta, der i ti år været brugt i matematiklærernes grund-, efter- og videreuddannelse. DELTA 2.0 er seriens almene fagdidaktik. Der er også fagdidaktiske overvejelser i de øvrige bøger i serien, men de er knyttet til specifikt matematisk indhold. DELTA...... 2.0 behandler mere generelle matematikdidaktiske problemstillinger såsom læringsteoretiske overvejelser i forbindelse med matematik, centrale aspekter af det at undervise i matematik og digitale teknologier som værktøj til at støtte elevers faglige læring af matematik....

  3. Dietary fish oil supplements increase tissue n-3 fatty acid composition and expression of delta-6 desaturase and elongase-2 in Jade Tiger hybrid abalone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Hintsa T; Lewandowski, Paul A; Su, Xiao Q

    2011-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fish oil (FO) supplements on fatty acid composition and the expression of ∆6 desaturase and elongase 2 genes in Jade Tiger abalone. Five test diets were formulated to contain 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% of FO respectively, and the control diet was the normal commercial abalone diet with no additional FO supplement. The muscle, gonad and digestive glands (DG) of abalone fed with all of the five test diets showed significantly high levels of total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid n-3 (DPAn-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) than the control group. In all three types of tissue, abalone fed diet supplemented with 1.5% FO showed the highest level of these fatty acids (P abalone fed diet supplemented with 2% FO (P abalone fed diet supplemented with 1.5% FO (P abalone fed with diet containing 0.5% FO supplement (P abalone, with 1.5% being the most effective supplementation level.

  4. Bio-toxicological supervision op workers exposed to lead poisoning hazard. Systematic examination of amino acids, in urine and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harduin, Jean-Claude

    1971-01-01

    A bio-toxicological chart was established for the workers in a firm handling lead. The known facts concerning professional lead poisoning are outlined, after which the importance of lead work in a nuclear center is discussed. The work station of each man is described and the results of analyses made during atmospheric checks on the site are given with sampling techniques. Since the biological chart is centered on the chromatographic exploration of amino acids in blood and urine, the analytical technique used is described and the different technical modifications made to the standard technique reported. The results obtained on reference subjects are compared with those found in the specialized literature. The results found in lead workers are then presented in the form of histograms, which better illustrate the differences observed with respect to the reference subjects. An hematological and toxicological balance-sheet is drawn up and the correlation existing between the results of coproporphyrine, lead and delta-aminolevulinic acid analyses in urine is checked. Biological detection of lead-poisoning has the advantage of providing an early diagnosis, thus enabling the works doctor to forestall the effects of this professional disease before any clinical symptoms appear. (author) [fr

  5. Rigid Dipeptide Mimics: Synthesis of Enantiopure 5- and 7-Benzyl and 5,7-Dibenzyl Indolizidinone Amino Acids via Enolization and Alkylation of delta-Oxo alpha,omega-Di-[N-(9-(9-phenylfluorenyl))amino]azelate Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Felix; Lubell, William D.

    1998-08-21

    Azabicyclo[X.Y.0]alkane amino acids are tools for constructing mimics of peptide structure and templates for generating combinatorial libraries for drug discovery. Our methodology for synthesizing these conformationally rigid dipeptides has been elaborated such that alkyl groups can be appended onto the heterocycle to generate mimics of peptide backbone and side-chain structure. Inexpensive glutamic acid was employed as chiral educt in a Claisen condensation/ketone alkylation/reductive amination/lactam cyclization sequence that furnished alkyl-branched azabicyclo[4.3.0]alkane amino acid. Enantiopure 5-benzyl-, 7-benzyl-, and 5,7-dibenzylindolizidinone amino acids 2-4 were stereoselectively synthesized via efficient reaction sequences featuring the alkylation of di-tert-butyl alpha,omega-di-[N-(PhF)amino]azelate delta-ketone 5. A variety of alkyl halides were readily added to the enolate of ketone 5 to provide mono- and dialkylated ketones 6 and 7. Hydride additions to 6 and 7, methanesulfonations, and intramolecular S(N)2 displacements by the PhF amine gave 5-alkylprolines that were converted by lactam cyclizations into 7- and 5-benzyl-, as well as 5,7-dibenzyl-2-oxo-3-N-(BOC)amino-1-azabicyclo[4.3.0]nonane-9-carboxylate methyl esters 10, 11, and 14. Epimerization of the alkyl-branched stereocenter via an iminium-enaminium equilibrium proved effective for controlling diastereoselectivity in reductive aminations with 6 and 7 in order to furnish 5-alkylprolines that were similarly converted to 7- benzyl- and 5,7-dibenzylindolizidinone N-(BOC)amino esters 10 and 14. Ester hydrolysis with hydroxide ion and potassium trimethylsilanolate then gave enantiopure indolizidinone amino acids 2-4. Epimerization at C-9 of benzylindolizidinone amino esters was also used to provide alternative diastereomers of 10, 11, and 14. This practical methodology for introducing side-chain groups onto the heterocycle with regioselective and diastereoselective control is designed to enhance

  6. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Interacts with the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta to Induce Genes Affecting Fatty Acid Oxidation in Human Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kemmerer

    Full Text Available AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK maintains energy homeostasis by suppressing cellular ATP-consuming processes and activating catabolic, ATP-producing pathways such as fatty acid oxidation (FAO. The transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ also affects fatty acid metabolism, stimulating the expression of genes involved in FAO. To question the interplay of AMPK and PPARδ in human macrophages we transduced primary human macrophages with lentiviral particles encoding for the constitutively active AMPKα1 catalytic subunit, followed by microarray expression analysis after treatment with the PPARδ agonist GW501516. Microarray analysis showed that co-activation of AMPK and PPARδ increased expression of FAO genes, which were validated by quantitative PCR. Induction of these FAO-associated genes was also observed upon infecting macrophages with an adenovirus coding for AMPKγ1 regulatory subunit carrying an activating R70Q mutation. The pharmacological AMPK activator A-769662 increased expression of several FAO genes in a PPARδ- and AMPK-dependent manner. Although GW501516 significantly increased FAO and reduced the triglyceride amount in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL-loaded foam cells, AMPK activation failed to potentiate this effect, suggesting that increased expression of fatty acid catabolic genes alone may be not sufficient to prevent macrophage lipid overload.

  7. Women of Niger Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion Dept

    The Indispensability of Women in Conflict Resolution in the Niger Delta ... The situation leads to a shift in gender roles with a dramatic increase in the number of women .... organization is to work in partnership with the Nigerian Government and the .... that “women are the impartial arbitrators in family or clan disputes or.

  8. Conservative Delta Hedging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    an exact method for converting such intervals into arbitrage based prices of financial derivatives or industrial or contractual options. We call this...procedure conservative delta hedging . As existing procedures are of an ad hoc nature, the proposed approach will permit an institution’s man agement a greater oversight of its exposure to risk.

  9. Mystery of the delta(980)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahn, R.N.; Landshoff, P.V.

    1986-01-01

    The apparent conflict between the dominance of the decay delta->etaπ in D->deltaπ and its absence in iota->deltaπ is analyzed. Explicit models are presented in which the nearby Kanti K threshold plays an important role in resolving the conflict. (orig.)

  10. Aminolevulinate dehydrogenase polymorphisms did not modified lead serum and memory relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantip Rujito

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Lead accumulation in the blood widely known affecting the formation of heme and oxygen transport processes in vital organs, Leading to organ failure including the brain synapses. Lead affinity has been recognized influenced by constitutional genotype of aminolevulinate dehydrogenase (ALAD, which encodes for heme synthesis. This research aimed to determine the relationship between plumbum (Pb and short term memory on each ALAD gene genotyping (ALAD 1-1, ALAD 1-2 or ALAD 2-2 in gas station workers. METHODS Seventy six probands from gas station workers were recruited to participate in this research. Each probands was carried out ALAD genotyping using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCRRFLP method, lead serum level using atomic absorbent spectrophotometer (AAS, and short term memory was measurement by intelligence structure test (IST. RESULTS Proportion of δ ALAD 1-1, 1-2, and 2-2 were 91.8%, 8.2% and 0% respectively. Lead serum showed 15.84 ppb in homozygous 1-1, and 20.79 ppb in heterozygous. Short term memory in the probands varied from 85 until 117, with average in 99.71. There was significant negative relationship between lead serum and short term memory (r=-0.24; p=0.038. However, we could not find any significant correlation in each δ ALAD genotypes. CONCLUSION The δ ALAD genotypes did not modified the relationship between serum lead level and short term memory in gas station workers.

  11. Liver δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity is Inhibited by Neonicotinoids and Restored by Antioxidant Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Sauer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoids represent the most used class of insecticides worldwide, and their precursor, imidacloprid, is the most widely marketed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of imidacloprid on the activity of hepatic δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D, protective effect of potential antioxidants against this potential effect and presence of chemical elements in the constitution of this pesticide. We observed that δ-ALA-D activity was significantly inhibited by imidacloprid at all concentrations tested in a dose-dependent manner. The IC50 value was obtained and used to evaluate the restoration of the enzymatic activity. δ-ALA-D inhibition was completely restored by addition of dithiotreitol (DTT and partly by ZnCl2, demonstrating that the inhibition occurs by oxidation of thiol groups and by displacement of the Zn (II, which can be explained by the presence of chemical elements found in the constitution of pesticides. Reduced glutathione (GSH had the best antioxidant effect against to δ-ALA-D inhibition caused by imidacloprid, followed by curcumin and resveratrol. It is well known that inhibition of the enzyme δ-ALA-D may result in accumulation of its neurotoxic substrate (δ-ALA, in this line, our results suggest that further studies are needed to investigate the possible neurotoxicity induced by neonicotinoids and the involvement of antioxidants in cases of poisoning by neonicotinoids.

  12. Positive response of a recurrent keloid scar to topical methyl aminolevulinate-photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhuxiang; Bayat, Ardeshir; Behzad, Farhad; Rhodes, Lesley E

    2010-12-01

    A 36-year-old Caucasian female of Iranian origin presented with a persistently raised dermal lesion under her chin, confirmed histologically to be a keloid scar. There was a 4-year history of a negative response to a range of conventional treatments including topical silicone gel sheets, steroid creams, steroid injections and surgical excision. In view of treatment failure and an in vitro study indicating a positive effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT)on keloid fibroblasts, we treated our patient's lesion with five sessions of methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) over a period of 5 months. Following this treatment regime, her keloid scar had considerably reduced in size and become flattened.The surface of the keloid also became smooth, with attenuation in erythema at the margin as well as an improvement in the colour of the scar, which was better matched to the surrounding skin. There was no recurrence at 1-year follow-up and this treatment resulted in an overall acceptable cosmetic outcome. This case report presents PDT as a potential treatment option for persistent keloid lesions unresponsive to conventional scar modulation therapies and suggests a need for further research in this area.

  13. DELTAS: A new Global Delta Sustainability Initiative (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2013-12-01

    Deltas are economic and environmental hotspots, food baskets for many nations, home to a large part of the world population, and hosts of exceptional biodiversity and rich ecosystems. Deltas, being at the land-water interface, are international, regional, and local transport hubs, thus providing the basis for intense economic activities. Yet, deltas are deteriorating at an alarming rate as 'victims' of human actions (e.g. water and sediment reduction due to upstream basin development), climatic impacts (e.g. sea level rise and flooding from rivers and intense tropical storms), and local exploration (e.g. sand or aggregates, groundwater and hydrocarbon extraction). Although many efforts exist on individual deltas around the world, a comprehensive global delta sustainability initiative that promotes awareness, science integration, data and knowledge sharing, and development of decision support tools for an effective dialogue between scientists, managers and policy makers is lacking. Recently, the international scientific community proposed to establish the International Year of Deltas (IYD) to serve as the beginning of such a Global Delta Sustainability Initiative. The IYD was proposed as a year to: (1) increase awareness and attention to the value and vulnerability of deltas worldwide; (2) promote and enhance international and regional cooperation at the scientific, policy, and stakeholder level; and (3) serve as a launching pad for a 10-year committed effort to understand deltas as complex socio-ecological systems and ensure preparedness in protecting and restoring them in a rapidly changing environment. In this talk, the vision for such an international coordinated effort on delta sustainability will be presented as developed by a large number of international experts and recently funded through the Belmont Forum International Opportunities Fund. Participating countries include: U.S., France, Germany, U.K., India, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Brazil, Bangladesh

  14. Absence of in vivo genotoxicity of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol and associated fatty acid esters in a 4-week comprehensive toxicity study using F344 gpt delta rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onami, Saeko; Cho, Young-Man; Toyoda, Takeshi; Horibata, Katsuyoshi; Ishii, Yuji; Umemura, Takashi; Honma, Masamitsu; Nohmi, Takehiko; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Ogawa, Kumiko

    2014-07-01

    3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) is regarded as a rat renal and testicular carcinogen and has been classified as a possible human carcinogen (group 2B) by International Agency for Research on Cancer. This is potentially of great importance given that esters of this compound have recently found to be generated in many foods and food ingredients as a result of food processing. There have been a few reports about their toxicity, although we have recently found that the toxicity profile of 3-MCPD esters was similar to that of 3-MCPD in a rat 13-week repeated dose study, except for the acute renal toxicity seen in 3-MCPD-treated females. In the present study, to examine in vivo genotoxicity we administered equimolar doses of 3-MCPD or 3-MCPD fatty acid esters (palmitate diester, palmitate monoester and oleate diester) to 6-week-old male F344 gpt delta rats carrying a reporter transgene for 4 weeks by intragastric administration. In vivo micronucleus, Pig-a mutation and gpt assays were performed, as well as investigations of major toxicological parameters including histopathological features. As one result, the relative kidney weights of the 3-MCPD and all three ester groups were significantly increased compared with the vehicle control group. However, the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes and Pig-a mutant red blood cells did not differ among groups. Moreover, no changes were observed in mutant frequencies of gpt and red/gam (Spi(-)) genes in the kidney and the testis of 3-MCPD and 3-MCPD-fatty-acid-esters-treated rats. In histopathological analyses, no treatment related changes were observed, except for decrease of eosinophilic bodies in the kidneys of all treated groups. These results suggest that 3-MCPD and its fatty acid esters are not in vivo genotoxins, although they may exert renal toxicity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  15. Review of photodynamic therapy with 5-methyl aminolevulinate in actinic keratosis, epidermoid carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallas Moya, Said

    2013-01-01

    A bibliographic review was conduced on the use of 5-methyl aminolevulinate in dermatology, specifically in the treatment of actinic keratosis, epidermoid carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma. The basic fundamentals of photodynamic therapy are described. The preparation and method of use of photodynamic therapy with 5-methyl aminolevulinate (MAL-PDT) are detailed. The clinical studies that were realized with photodynamic therapy for the treatment of actinic keratosis, epidermoid carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma are mentioned. Different photo-inducible agents and other current therapeutic options of first-line are compared. The MAL-PDT has have the advantage of to present less side effects and the same have been more tolerable than liquid nitrogen and 5 fluorouracil. The MAL-PDT has been considered as an effective option for the treatment of Bowen's disease. Invasive epidermoid carcinoma has existed without evidence to support the routine use of this therapeutic. For superficial basal cell carcinoma, the MAL-PDT has presented a high cure rate and transient and manageable side effects in extensive and multiple lesions. The MAL-PDT has been an effective and safe treatment in patients with basal cell carcinoma, for those with less depth of 2mm. The MAL-PDT could play an important role in the field of prevention with immunosuppressed patients, particularly, those that have required transplant and its immunosuppression has been pharmacological. The use or not of the MAL-PDT, should be evaluated individually for each patient and to have suitable characteristics for each disease that was cited in this review. The photodynamic therapy with 5-methyl aminolevulinate has been a therapeutic modality of considerable economy, however, it should be evaluated in the context of number of inquiries and side effects that have offered other therapeutic modalities [es

  16. Levulinic Acid Biorefineries: New Challenges for Efficient Utilization of Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileidis, Filoklis D; Titirici, Maria-Magdalena

    2016-03-21

    Levulinic acid is a sustainable platform molecule that can be upgraded to valuable chemicals and fuel additives. This article focuses on the catalytic upgrading of levulinic acid into various chemicals such as levulinate esters, δ-aminolevulinic acid, succinic acid, diphenolic acid, γ-valerolactone, and γ-valerolactone derivatives such valeric esters, 5-nonanone, α-methylene-γ valerolactone, and other various molecular-weight alkanes (C9 and C18-C27 olefins). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Effects of light irradiation upon photodynamic therapy based on 5-aminolevulinic acid–gold nanoparticle conjugates in K562 cells via singlet oxygen generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu H

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hao Xu, Chen Liu, Jiansheng Mei, Cuiping Yao, Sijia Wang, Jing Wang, Zheng Li, Zhenxi ZhangKey Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Education Ministry, Institute of Biomedical Analytical Technology and Instrumentation, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shannxi, People’s Republic of ChinaPurpose: As a precursor of the potent photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX, 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA, was conjugated onto cationic gold nanoparticles (GNPs to improve the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT.Methods: Cationic GNPs reduced by branched polyethyleneimine and 5-ALA were conjugated onto the cationic GNPs by creating an electrostatic interaction at physiological pH. The efficacy of ALA-GNP conjugates in PDT was investigated under irradiation with a mercury lamp (central wavelength of 395 nm and three types of light-emitting diode arrays (central wavelengths of 399, 502, and 621 nm, respectively. The impacts of GNPs on PDT were then analyzed by measuring the intracellular PpIX levels in K562 cells and the singlet oxygen yield of PpIX under irradiation.Results: The 2 mM ALA-GNP conjugates showed greater cytotoxicity against K562 cells than ALA alone. Light-emitting diode (505 nm irradiation of the conjugates caused a level of K562 cell destruction similar to that with irradiation by a mercury lamp, although it had no adverse effects on drug-free control cells. These results may be attributed to the singlet oxygen yield of PpIX, which can be enhanced by GNPs.Conclusion: Under irradiation with a suitable light source, ALA-GNP conjugates can effectively destroy K562 cells. The technique offers a new strategy of PDT.Keywords: nonradiative energy transfer, photodamage, protoporphyrin IX, selective destruction, singlet oxygen sensor green reagent, surface plasmon resonance

  18. Thermostatted delta f

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The delta f simulation method is revisited. Statistical coarse-graining is used to rigorously derive the equation for the fluctuation delta f in the particle distribution. It is argued that completely collisionless simulation is incompatible with the achievement of true statistically steady states with nonzero turbulent fluxes because the variance of the particle weights w grows with time. To ensure such steady states, it is shown that for dynamically collisionless situations a generalized thermostat or W-stat may be used in lieu of a full collision operator to absorb the flow of entropy to unresolved fine scales in velocity space. The simplest W-stat can be implemented as a self-consistently determined, time-dependent damping applied to w. A precise kinematic analogy to thermostatted nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) is pointed out, and the justification of W-stats for simulations of turbulence is discussed. An extrapolation procedure is proposed such that the long-time, steady-state, collisionless flux can be deduced from several short W-statted runs with large effective collisionality, and a numerical demonstration is given

  19. People of the Delta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregoire, L.

    2007-09-15

    The potential impacts of both global warming and the $16 billion Mackenzie pipeline project on communities in the Mackenzie Delta were discussed. A consortium of oil and gas developers is now planning to exploit the natural gas reserves located near the mouth of the Delta, whose largest town is Inuvik. The project is expected to place a significant burden on the resources and infrastructure of the town, which currently has a population of 6000. The community, comprised of a diverse international population and an Inuit majority, is largely in favour of the pipeline project. The Inuvialuit people have invested a significant amount of time to ensure that the project, which was stalled due to land claims in 1977, benefits their communities. Public hearings are now being held to consider the potential environmental and socio-economic impacts of the project. Separate hearings are also being held to consider the project's design. The pipeline project includes 3 natural gas production facilities, a gas-processing facility, a pipeline gathering system, a 480 km natural gas liquids pipeline to the Northwest Territories, and a 1220 km natural gas pipeline to northern Alberta. The pipeline will be buried to minimize environmental impacts. The project is expected to create 8200 jobs at the height of its construction. However, communities located near the site of the natural gas reserves, such as the town of Tuktoyaktuk are now threatened by soil erosion that has been attributed to global warming. 21 figs.

  20. Phenotypic expressions of CCR5-Delta 32/Delta 32 homozygosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, GT; Carrington, M; Beeler, JA; Dean, M; Aledort, LM; Blatt, PM; Cohen, AR; DiMichele, D; Eyster, ME; Kessler, CM; Konkle, B; Leissinger, C; Luban, N; O'Brien, SJ; Goedert, JJ; O'Brien, TR

    1999-01-01

    Objective: As blockade of CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) has been proposed as therapy for HIV-1, we examined whether the CCR5-Delta 32/Delta 32 homozygous genotype has phenotypic expressions other than those related to HIV-1. Design: Study subjects were white homosexual men or men with hemophilia

  1. Peat compaction in deltas : implications for Holocene delta evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselen, S.

    2010-01-01

    Many deltas contain substantial amounts of peat, which is the most compressible soil type. Therefore, peat compaction potentially leads to high amounts of subsidence in deltas. The main objective of this research was to quantify subsidence due to peat compaction in Holocene fluvial-deltaic settings

  2. Comparison of topical methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy with cryotherapy or Fluorouracil for treatment of squamous cell carcinoma in situ: Results of a multicenter randomized trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morton, C.; Horn, M.; Leman, J.; Tack, B.; Bedane, C.; Tjioe, M.; Ibbotson, S.; Khemis, A.; Wolf, P.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy, tolerability, and cosmetic outcome of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using topical methyl aminolevulinate with cryotherapy or topical fluorouracil for treatment of squamous cell carcinoma in situ. DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled study, with follow-up at 3 and

  3. Daylight photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolevulinate cream as a convenient, similarly effective, nearly painless alternative to conventional photodynamic therapy in actinic keratosis treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubel, D M; Spelman, L; Murrell, D F

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Daylight photodynamic therapy (DL-PDT) of actinic keratosis (AK) has shown preliminary efficacy and safety results comparable to conventional photodynamic therapy (c-PDT), using methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) cream. OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the efficacy and safety of DL-PDT vs. c...

  4. Challenges, Approaches and Experiences from Asian Deltas and the Rhine-Meuse Delta : Regional Training Workshop on Delta Planning and Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wosten, J.H.M.; Douven, W.; Long Phi, H.; Fida Abdullah Khan, M.

    2013-01-01

    River delta's, like the Mekong Delta (Vietnam), Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (Bangladesh), Ayeyarwady Delta (Myanmar), Nile (Egypt) and Ciliwung Delta (Indonesia) are developing rapidly and are characterised by large-scale urbanisation and industrialization processes. They are facing serious planning

  5. Mida pakub Delta? / Teele Kurm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurm, Teele

    2011-01-01

    Politsei- ja Piirivalveamet võtab kasutusele ühise Siseministeeriumi infotehnoloogia- ja arenduskeskuse ning Webmedia AS koostööna loodud dokumendihaldussüsteemi Delta. Kust sai Delta oma nime? Projekti "Dokumendihaldussüsteemi juurutamine Siseministeeriumi haldusalas" eesmärgid

  6. Delta isobars in neutron stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagliara Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of delta isobars in beta-stable matter is regulated by the behavior of the symmetry energy at densities larger than saturation density. We show that by taking into account recent constraints on the density derivative of the symmetry energy and the theoretical and experimental results on the excitations of delta isobars in nuclei, delta isobars are necessary ingredients for the equations of state used for studying neutron stars. We analyze the effect of the appearance of deltas on the structure of neutron stars: as in the case of hyperons, matter containing delta is too soft for allowing the existence of 2M⊙ neutron stars. Quark stars on the other hand, could reach very massive configurations and they could form from a process of conversion of hadronic stars in which an initial seed of strangeness appears through hyperons.

  7. DELTA 3D PRINTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘOVĂILĂ Florin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing is a very used process in industry, the generic name being “rapid prototyping”. The essential advantage of a 3D printer is that it allows the designers to produce a prototype in a very short time, which is tested and quickly remodeled, considerably reducing the required time to get from the prototype phase to the final product. At the same time, through this technique we can achieve components with very precise forms, complex pieces that, through classical methods, could have been accomplished only in a large amount of time. In this paper, there are presented the stages of a 3D model execution, also the physical achievement after of a Delta 3D printer after the model.

  8. Environmental Degradation in Oil Producing Areas of Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to oil exploration and other human activities in the Niger Delta region, there is evidence of environmental degradation all over the area (Oronto, 1998). Environmental degradation is occasioned by consistent flow of industrial waste, oil spills, gas flares, fire disaster, acid rain, flooding erosion, etc., which has led to the ...

  9. Human urinary excretion profile after smoking and oral administration of [14C]delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, E.; Gillespie, H.K.; Halldin, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    The urinary excretion profiles of delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 1-THC) metabolites have been evaluated in two chronic and two naive marijuana users after smoking and oral administration of [ 14 C]delta 1-THC. Urine was collected for five days after each administration route and analyzed for total delta 1-THC metabolites by radioactivity determination, for delta 1-THC-7-oic acid by high-performance liquid chromatography, and for cross-reacting cannabinoids by the EMIT d.a.u. cannabinoid assay. The average urinary excretion half-life of 14 C-labeled delta 1-THC metabolites was calculated to be 18.2 +/- 4.9 h (+/- SD). The excretion profiles of delta 1-THC-7-oic acid and EMIT readings were similar to the excretion profile of 14 C-labeled metabolites in the naive users. However, in the chronic users the excretion profiles of delta 1-THC-7-oic acid and EMIT readings did not resemble the radioactive excretion due to the heavy influence from previous Cannabis use. Between 8-14% of the radioactive dose was recovered in the urine in both user groups after oral administration. Lower urinary recovery was obtained both in the chronic and naive users after smoking--5 and 2%, respectively

  10. Fast delta Hadamard transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.; Weston, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    In many fields (e.g., spectroscopy, imaging spectroscopy, photoacoustic imaging, coded aperture imaging) binary bit patterns known as m sequences are used to encode (by multiplexing) a series of measurements in order to obtain a larger throughput. The observed measurements must be decoded to obtain the desired spectrum (or image in the case of coded aperture imaging). Decoding in the past has used a technique called the fast Hadamard transform (FHT) whose chief advantage is that it can reduce the computational effort from N 2 multiplies of N log 2 N additions or subtractions. However, the FHT has the disadvantage that it does not readily allow one to sample more finely than the number of bits used in the m sequence. This can limit the obtainable resolution and cause confusion near the sample boundaries (phasing errors). Both 1-D and 2-D methods (called fast delta Hadamard transforms, FDHT) have been developed which overcome both of the above limitations. Applications of the FDHT are discussed in the context of Hadamard spectroscopy and coded aperture imaging with uniformly redundant arrays. Special emphasis has been placed on how the FDHT can unite techniques used by both of these fields into the same mathematical basis

  11. Energy deposition by delta rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigand, F.C.; Braby, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations for proton tracks were extended to projectile with more complex electronic structures which add additional delta ray production processes. An experimental apparatus was used to detect gas gain and resolution for H 2+ and 3 He ++

  12. Niger Delta Development Commission and Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Niger Delta Development Commission and Sustainable Development of Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: The Case of Rivers State. Goddey Wilson. Abstract. The study is on Niger Delta Development Commission and sustainable development of Niger Delta region of Nigeria, the case of Rivers State. The main objective of the ...

  13. $\\delta$-Expansion at Finite Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Rudnei O.

    1996-01-01

    We apply the $\\delta$-expansion perturbation scheme to the $\\lambda \\phi^{4}$ self-interacting scalar field theory in 3+1 D at finite temperature. In the $\\delta$-expansion the interaction term is written as $\\lambda (\\phi^{2})^{ 1 + \\delta}$ and $\\delta$ is considered as the perturbation parameter. We compute within this perturbative approach the renormalized mass at finite temperature at a finite order in $\\delta$. The results are compared with the usual loop-expansion at finite temperature.

  14. Anaerobic Transformation of Furfural by Methanococcus deltae (Delta)LH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, N.; Boopathy, R.; Voskuilen, G.

    1997-01-01

    Methanococcus deltae (Delta)LH was grown on H(inf2)-CO(inf2) in the presence of various concentrations of furfural. Furfural at higher concentrations, namely, 20 and 25 mM, inhibited growth of this organism. At concentration of 5 and 10 mM, no inhibition of growth was observed. The other methanogens in this study were not inhibited by 10 mM furfural. Among the methanogens tested, M. deltae was capable of transforming furfural, whereas Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum Marburg, Methanosarcina barkeri 227, Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus, and Methanobrevibacter ruminantium lacked this capability. One hundred percent removal of furfural was observed within 48 h of incubation in M. deltae cultures. The end product observed during furfural metabolism was furfuryl alcohol. An almost stoichiometric amount of furfuryl alcohol was produced by M. deltae. This transformation is likely to be of value in the detoxification of furfural and in its ultimate conversion to methane and CO(inf2) by anaerobic digestion. PMID:16535618

  15. Photodetection with 5-Aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX in the rat abdominal cavity: drug-dose-dependent fluorescence kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalders, M. C.; Sterenborg, H. J.; Stewart, F. A.; van der Vange, N.

    2000-01-01

    In 75% of cases, ovarian carcinoma has already metastasized in the abdominal cavity at the time of diagnosis. For determination of the necessity for a supplementary therapy, in addition to surgical resection, it is important to localize and stage microscopical intraperitoneal metastases of the

  16. The effects of visual fluorescence marking induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid for endoscopic diagnosis of urinary bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniltchenko, Dmitri I.; Koenig, Frank; Schnorr, Dietmar; Valdman, Alexander; Al-Shukri, Salman; Loening, Stefan A.

    2003-10-01

    During cystoscopy procedure, fluorescence diagnostics induced by 5-ALA improves visual detection of the bladder cancer. Macroscopic ALA-fluorescence allows visualizing of small flat tumors, carcinoma in situ, true neoplasm margins and dysplasias of the bladder. Following ALA instillation, cystoscopy has been performed under both standard and blue light illumination. Totally, 153 biopsies have been carried out at 53 patients with suspicion of bladder cancer. The results were compared to ALA-fluorescence data. In 13% of the patients, bladder cancer and dysplasia were found out in addition, due to red fluorescence. The sensitivity and specificity of ALA-fluorescence technique aggregated 96% and 52% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of 5-ALA-fluorescent detection exceeded standard endoscopy under white light on 20%. The new method does not exclude a false positive and a false negative fluorescent luminescence. The ALA-based fluorescence detection system enhances the diagnosis of malignant/dysplastic bladder lesions significantly.

  17. Four new Delta Scuti stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutt, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    Four new Delta Scuti stars are reported. Power, modified into amplitude, spectra, and light curves are used to determine periodicities. A complete frequency analysis is not performed due to the lack of a sufficient time base in the data. These new variables help verify the many predictions that Delta Scuti stars probably exist in prolific numbers as small amplitude variables. Two of these stars, HR 4344 and HD 107513, are possibly Am stars. If so, they are among the minority of variable stars which are also Am stars.

  18. Hydrological and Climatic Significance of Martian Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Achille, G.; Vaz, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    We a) review the geomorphology, sedimentology, and mineralogy of the martian deltas record and b) present the results of a quantitative study of the hydrology and sedimentology of martian deltas using modified version of terrestrial model Sedflux.

  19. Adaptive delta management : Roots and branches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, J.S.; Haasnoot, M.; Hermans, L.M.; Kwakkel, J.H.; Rutten, M.M.; Thissen, W.A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Deltas are generally recognized as vulnerable to climate change and therefore a salient topic in adaptation science. Deltas are also highly dynamic systems viewed from physical (erosion, sedimentation, subsidence), social (demographic), economic (trade), infrastructures (transport, energy,

  20. Adaptive Delta Management : Roots and Branches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Jos; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Hermans, Leon; Kwakkel, Jan H.; Rutten, Maarten; Thissen, Wil A.H.; Mynett, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Deltas are generally recognized as vulnerable to climate change and therefore a salient topic in adaptation science. Deltas are also highly dynamic systems viewed from physical (erosion, sedimentation, subsidence), social (demographic), economic (trade), infrastructures (transport, energy,

  1. Delta Vegetation and Land Use [ds292

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vegetation and land use are mapped for the approximately 725,000 acres constituting the Legal Delta portion of the Sacramento and San Joaquin River Delta area....

  2. Delta Scuti variables. Lecture 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    The class of variables near or on the upper main sequence, the delta Scuti variables, are not only the usual ones about the masses, radii, and luminosities, but also the age, rotation, element diffusion to change the surface layer composition, the occurance of convection and the presence of radial and nonradial pulsation modes

  3. about the Dirac Delta Function(?)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Balakrishnan is in the. Department of ... and sweet as befits this impatient age. It said (in its en- ... to get down to real work by shutting down the system and reverting to ... the Dirac delta function" - but do note the all-important question mark in ...

  4. Two different zinc sites in bovine 5-aminolevulinate dehydratase distinguished by extended x-ray absorption fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dent, A.J.; Hasnain, S.S.; Beyersmann, D.; Block, C.

    1990-01-01

    The zinc coordination in 5-aminolevulinate dehydratase was investigated by extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) associated with the zinc K-edge. The enzyme binds 8 mol of zinc/mol of octameric protein, but only four zinc ions seem sufficient for full activity. The authors have undertaken a study on four forms of the enzyme: (a) the eight-zinc native enzyme; (b) the enzyme with only the four zinc sites necessary for full activation occupied; (c) the enzyme with the vacant sites of (b) occupied by four lead ions; (d) the product complex between (b) and porphobilinogen. They have shown that two structurally distinct types of zinc sites are available in the enzyme. The site necessary for activity has an average zinc environment best described by two/three histidines and one/zero oxygen from a group such as tyrosine or a solvent molecule at 2.06 ± 0.02 angstrom, one tyrosine or aspartate at 1.91 ± 0.03 angstrom, and one cysteine sulfur at 2.32 ± 0.03 angstrom with a total coordination of five ligands. The unoccupied site in (b) is dominated by a single contribution of four cysteinyl sulfur atoms at 2.28 ± 0.02 angstrom. Spectra from samples (c) and (d) show only small changes from that of (b), reflecting a slight rearrangement of the ligands around the zinc atom

  5. Variation in leaf water delta D and delta 18O values during the evapotranspiration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leopoldo, P.R.; Foloni, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical model was developed to evaluate leaf water delta D and delta 18 O variation in relation to: leaf temperature, relative humidity converted to leaf temperature and delta D and delta 18 O values of atmospheric water vapour and soil water. (M.A.C.) [pt

  6. An analytical framework for strategic delta planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seijger, C.; Douven, W.; Halsema, van G.; Hermans, L.; Evers, J.; Phi, H.L.; Khan, M.F.; Brunner, J.; Pols, L.; Ligtvoet, W.; Koole, S.; Slager, K.; Vermoolen, M.S.; Hasan, S.; Thi Minh Hoang, Vo

    2017-01-01

    Sectoral planning on water, agriculture and urban development has not been able to prevent increased flood risks and environmental degradation in many deltas. Governments conceive strategic delta planning as a promising planning approach and develop strategic delta plans. Such plans are linked to

  7. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    and the possibility of using predicates to specify state changes. In this paper a formal semantics for Delta is defined and analysed using Petri nets. Petri nets was chosen because the ideas behind Petri nets and Delta concide on several points. A number of proposals for changes in Delta, which resulted from...

  8. Reduction of 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-chol-6-en-24-oic acid to lithocholic acid in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, K.; Ogura, M.

    1988-01-01

    After [24- 14 C]delta 6-lithocholic acid was injected into the cecum of rats, [ 14 C]lithocholic acid was identified as a metabolite in feces. When the labeled delta 6-bile acid was injected intraperitoneally into bile-fistula rats, radioactivity excreted in bile was contained most abundantly in the taurine-conjugated fraction of bile acids. In the fraction, taurine conjugate of [ 14 C]delta 6-lithocholic acid but of neither [ 14 C]lithocholic acid nor other bile acids was found. The results showed that [24- 14 C]delta 6-lithocholic acid was reduced to [ 14 C]lithocholic acid by the intestinal flora but not by the liver, which, however, was capable of conjugating delta 6-lithocholic acid with taurine

  9. Identification of di- and tri-substituted hydroxy and ketone metabolites of delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol in mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, D J; Martin, B R; Paton, W D

    1977-08-01

    In vivo liver metabolites of delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta1-THC) were examined with a gas chromatograph--mass spectrometer--computer system as trimethylsilyl (TMS), [2H9]TMS and methyloxime-TMS derivatives. In addition to the reported monohydroxy, acid, and hydroxyacid metabolites, the following multiply substituted metabolites were identified: 2'',7-, 3'', 7-, and 6beta,7-dihydroxy-delta1-THC; 2'',6alpha,7-, and 3'',6alpha,7-trihydroxy-delta1-THC; 2''-, 3''-, and 7-hydroxy-6-oxo-delta1-THC, and 2'',7- and 3'',7-dihydroxy-6-oxo-delta1-THC. The ketones and hydroxyacids were reduced to common alcohols with lithium aluminium deuteride and the number of deuterium atoms in the product was used to distinguish the metabolic alcohols from those produced by reduction.

  10. Future Change to Tide-Influenced Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhuis, Jaap H.; Hoitink, A. J. F. (Ton); Törnqvist, Torbjörn E.

    2018-04-01

    Tides tend to widen deltaic channels and shape delta morphology. Here we present a predictive approach to assess a priori the effect of fluvial discharge and tides on deltaic channels. We show that downstream channel widening can be quantified by the ratio of the tide-driven discharge and the fluvial discharge, along with a second metric representing flow velocities. A test of our new theory on a selection of 72 deltas globally shows good correspondence to a wide range of environments, including wave-dominated deltas, river-dominated deltas, and alluvial estuaries. By quantitatively relating tides and fluvial discharge to delta morphology, we offer a first-order prediction of deltaic change that may be expected from altered delta hydrology. For example, we expect that reduced fluvial discharge in response to dam construction will lead to increased tidal intrusion followed by enhanced tide-driven sediment import into deltas, with implications for navigation and other human needs.

  11. Identification of anthropogenic and natural inputs of sulfate and chloride into the karstic ground water of Guiyang, SW China: combined delta37Cl and delta34S approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong-Qiang; Lang, Yun-Chao; Satake, Hiroshi; Wu, Jiahong; Li, Si-Liang

    2008-08-01

    Because of active exchange between surface and groundwater of a karstic hydrological system, the groundwater of Guiyang, the capital city of Guizhou Province, southwest China, has been seriously polluted by anthropogenic inputs of NO3-, SO4(2-), Cl-, and Na+. In this work, delta37Cl of chloride and delta34S variations of sulfate in the karstic surface/groundwater system were studied, with a main focus to identify contaminant sources, including their origins. The surface, ground, rain, and sewage water studied showed variable delta37Cl and delta34S values, in the range of -4.1 to +2.0 per thousand, and -20.4 to +20.9 per thousand for delta37Cl and delta34S (SO4(2-)), respectively. The rainwater samples yielded the lowest delta37Cl values among those observed to date for aerosols and rainwater. Chloride in the Guiyang area rain waters emanated from anthropogenic sources rather than being of marine origin, probably derived from HCl (g) emitted by coal combustion. By plotting 1/SO4(2-) vs delta34S and 1/Cl- vs delta37Cl, respectively, we were able to identify some clusters of data, which were assigned as atmospheric deposition (acid rain component), discharge from municipal sewage, paleo-brine components in clastic sedimentary rocks, dissolution of gypsum mainly in dolomite, oxidation of sulfide minerals in coal-containing clastic rocks, and possibly degradation of chlorine-containing organic matter. We conclude that human activities give a significant input of sulfate and chloride ions, as well as other contaminants, into the studied groundwater system through enhanced atmospheric deposition and municipal sewage, and that multiple isotopic tracers constitute a powerful tool to ascertain geochemical characteristics and origin of complex contaminants in groundwater.

  12. Human urinary excretion profile after smoking and oral administration of ( sup 14 C)delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, E.; Gillespie, H.K.; Halldin, M.M. (BMC, Uppsala (Sweden))

    1990-05-01

    The urinary excretion profiles of delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 1-THC) metabolites have been evaluated in two chronic and two naive marijuana users after smoking and oral administration of ({sup 14}C)delta 1-THC. Urine was collected for five days after each administration route and analyzed for total delta 1-THC metabolites by radioactivity determination, for delta 1-THC-7-oic acid by high-performance liquid chromatography, and for cross-reacting cannabinoids by the EMIT d.a.u. cannabinoid assay. The average urinary excretion half-life of {sup 14}C-labeled delta 1-THC metabolites was calculated to be 18.2 +/- 4.9 h (+/- SD). The excretion profiles of delta 1-THC-7-oic acid and EMIT readings were similar to the excretion profile of {sup 14}C-labeled metabolites in the naive users. However, in the chronic users the excretion profiles of delta 1-THC-7-oic acid and EMIT readings did not resemble the radioactive excretion due to the heavy influence from previous Cannabis use. Between 8-14% of the radioactive dose was recovered in the urine in both user groups after oral administration. Lower urinary recovery was obtained both in the chronic and naive users after smoking--5 and 2%, respectively.

  13. Astrometric Observation of Delta Cepheus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Naomi; Wilson, Betsie; Estrada, Chris; Crisafi, Kim; King, Jackie; Jones, Stephany; Salam, Akash; Warren, Glenn; Collins, S. Jananne; Genet, Russell

    2012-04-01

    Members of a Cuesta College astronomy research seminar used a manually-controlled 10-inch Newtonian Reflector telescope to determine the separation and position angle of the binary star Delta Cepheus. It was observed on the night of Saturday, October 29, 2011, at Star Hill in Santa Margarita, California. Their values of 40.2 arc seconds and 192.4 degrees were similar to those reported in the WDS (1910).

  14. Deformation characteristics of {delta} phase in the delta-processed Inconel 718 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.Y., E-mail: haiyanzhang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhang, S.H., E-mail: shzhang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Cheng, M. [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li, Z.X. [Beijing Institute of Aeronautica1 Materials, Beijing 100095 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The hot working characteristics of {delta} phase in the delta-processed Inconel 718 alloy during isothermal compression deformation at temperature of 950 deg. C and strain rate of 0.005 s{sup -1}, were studied by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and quantitative X-ray diffraction technique. The results showed that the dissolution of plate-like {delta} phase and the precipitation of spherical {delta} phase particles coexisted during the deformation, and the content of {delta} phase decreased from 7.05 wt.% to 5.14 wt.%. As a result of deformation breakage and dissolution breakage, the plate-like {delta} phase was spheroidized and transferred to spherical {delta} phase particles. In the center with largest strain, the plate-like {delta} phase disappeared and spherical {delta} phase appeared in the interior of grains and grain boundaries.

  15. Migration in Deltas: An Integrated Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert J.; Hutton, Craig W.; Lazar, Attila; Adger, W. Neil; Allan, Andrew; Arto, Inaki; Vincent, Katharine; Rahman, Munsur; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Sugata, Hazra; Ghosh, Tuhin; Codjoe, Sam; Appeaning-Addo, Kwasi

    2017-04-01

    Deltas and low-lying coastal regions have long been perceived as vulnerable to global sea-level rise, with the potential for mass displacement of exposed populations. The assumption of mass displacement of populations in deltas requires a comprehensive reassessment in the light of present and future migration in deltas, including the potential role of adaptation to influence these decisions. At present, deltas are subject to multiple drivers of environmental change and often have high population densities as they are accessible and productive ecosystems. Climate change, catchment management, subsidence and land cover change drive environmental change across all deltas. Populations in deltas are also highly mobile, with significant urbanization trends and the growth of large cities and mega-cities within or adjacent to deltas across Asia and Africa. Such migration is driven primarily by economic opportunity, yet environmental change in general, and climate change in particular, are likely to play an increasing direct and indirect role in future migration trends. The policy challenges centre on the role of migration within regional adaptation strategies to climate change; the protection of vulnerable populations; and the future of urban settlements within deltas. This paper reviews current knowledge on migration and adaptation to environmental change to discern specific issues pertinent to delta regions. It develops a new integrated methodology to assess present and future migration in deltas using the Volta delta in Ghana, Mahanadi delta in India and Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta across India and Bangladesh. The integrated method focuses on: biophysical changes and spatial distribution of vulnerability; demographic changes and migration decision-making using multiple methods and data; macro-economic trends and scenarios in the deltas; and the policies and governance structures that constrain and enable adaptation. The analysis is facilitated by a range of

  16. Tides Stabilize Deltas until Humans Interfere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoitink, T.; Zheng Bing, W.; Vermeulen, B.; Huismans, Y.; Kastner, K.

    2017-12-01

    Despite global concerns about river delta degradation caused by extraction of natural resources, sediment retention by reservoirs and sea-level rise, human activity in the world's largest deltas intensifies. In this review, we argue that tides tend to stabilize deltas until humans interfere. Under natural circumstances, delta channels subject to tides are more stable than their fluvial-dominated counterparts. The oscillatory tidal flow counteracts the processes responsible for bank erosion, which explains why unprotected tidal channels migrate only slowly. Peak river discharges attenuate the tides, which creates storage space to accommodate the extra river discharge during extreme events and as a consequence, reduce flood risk. With stronger tides, the river discharge is being distributed more evenly over the various branches in a delta, preventing silting up of smaller channels. Human interference in deltas is massive. Storm surge barriers are constructed, new land is being reclaimed and large-scale sand excavation takes place, to collect building material. Evidence from deltas around the globe shows that in human-controlled deltas the tidal motion often plays a destabilizing role. In channels of the Rhine-Meuse Delta, some 100 scour holes are identified, which relates to the altered tidal motion after completion of a storm surge barrier. Sand mining has led to widespread river bank failures in the tidally-influenced Mekong Delta. The catastrophic flood event in the Gauges-Brahmaputra Delta by Cyclone Aila, which caused the inundation of an embanked polder area for over two years, was preceded by river bank erosion at the mouths of formal tidal channels that were blocked by the embankment. Efforts to predict the developments of degrading deltas are few. Existing delta models are capable of reproducing expanding deltas, which is essentially a matter of simulating the transport of sediment from source in a catchment to the sink in a delta. Processes of soil

  17. Future Deltas Utrecht University research focus area: towards sustainable management of sinking deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stouthamer, E.; van Asselen, S.

    2015-11-01

    Deltas are increasingly under pressure from human impact and climate change. To deal with these pressures that threat future delta functioning, we need to understand interactions between physical, biological, chemical and social processes in deltas. This requires an integrated approach, in which knowledge on natural system functioning is combined with knowledge on spatial planning, land and water governance and legislative frameworks. In the research focus area Future Deltas of Utrecht University an interdisciplinary team from different research groups therefore works together. This allows developing integrated sustainable and resilient delta management strategies, which is urgently needed to prevent loss of vital delta services.

  18. COMMD1 regulates the delta epithelial sodium channel ({delta}ENaC) through trafficking and ubiquitination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Tina; Ke, Ying; Ly, Kevin [Department of Physiology, University of Otago, P.O. Box 913, Dunedin 9054 (New Zealand); McDonald, Fiona J., E-mail: fiona.mcdonald@otago.ac.nz [Department of Physiology, University of Otago, P.O. Box 913, Dunedin 9054 (New Zealand)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} The COMM domain of COMMD1 mediates binding to {delta}ENaC. {yields} COMMD1 reduces the cell surface population of {delta}ENaC. {yields} COMMD1 increases the population of {delta}ENaC-ubiquitin. {yields} Both endogenous and transfected {delta}ENaC localize with COMMD1 and transferrin suggesting they are located in early/recycling endosomes. -- Abstract: The delta subunit of the epithelial sodium channel ({delta}ENaC) is a member of the ENaC/degenerin family of ion channels. {delta}ENaC is distinct from the related {alpha}-, {beta}- and {gamma}ENaC subunits, known for their role in sodium homeostasis and blood pressure control, as {delta}ENaC is expressed in brain neurons and activated by external protons. COMMD1 (copper metabolism Murr1 domain 1) was previously found to associate with and downregulate {delta}ENaC activity. Here, we show that COMMD1 interacts with {delta}ENaC through its COMM domain. Co-expression of {delta}ENaC with COMMD1 significantly reduced {delta}ENaC surface expression, and led to an increase in {delta}ENaC ubiquitination. Immunocytochemical and confocal microscopy studies show that COMMD1 promoted localization of {delta}ENaC to the early/recycling endosomal pool where the two proteins were localized together. These results suggest that COMMD1 downregulates {delta}ENaC activity by reducing {delta}ENaC surface expression through promoting internalization of surface {delta}ENaC to an intracellular recycling pool, possibly via enhanced ubiquitination.

  19. The Niger Delta Amnesty Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A. Okonofua

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The armed conflict between militias and government forces in Nigeria’s Niger Delta region has spanned for more than two decades, defying all solutions. A disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR program was established in August 2015 in effort to end the violence and has remained in place. It is a radically different approach from past approaches that displayed zero tolerance to all political challenges to oil production or the allocation of oil profits. The approach appeared to be immediately successful in that it forced a ceasefire, engaged militants in planned programs to rehabilitate and reintegrate them into civilian society, and opened up the oil wells (many of which had been shut due to the crisis with the effect of increasing government revenue, which depends 85% on oil exports. Yet, few studies have attempted to understand the dynamics within the country that are responsible for the design and implementation of this broad policy shift or to understand whether and how the current initiative is able to end the conflict and institute peace beyond the short term. This study, therefore, is important because it provides a critical perspective that anticipates and explains emerging issues with the Niger Delta Amnesty Program, which have implications for DDR adaptation and implementation all over the world. Ultimately, the research demonstrates how the DDR program both transforms the Niger Delta conflict and becomes embroiled in intense contestations not only about the mechanism for transforming the targeted population but also whether and how the program incorporates women who are being deprioritized by the program.

  20. Red versus blue light illumination in hexyl 5-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy: the influence of light color and irradiance on the treatment outcome in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, Linda; Krokan, Hans E.; Johnsson, Anders; Gederaas, Odrun A.; Plaetzer, Kristjan

    2014-08-01

    Hexyl 5-aminolevulinate (HAL) is a lipophilic derivative of 5-aminolevulinate, a key intermediate in biosynthesis of the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). The photodynamic efficacy and cell death mode after red versus blue light illumination of HAL-induced PpIX have been examined and compared using five different cancer cell lines. LED arrays emitting at 410 and 624 nm served as homogenous and adjustable light sources. Our results show that the response after HAL-PDT is cell line specific, both regarding the shape of the dose-survival curve, the overall dose required for efficient cell killing, and the relative amount of apoptosis. The ratio between 410 and 624 nm in absorption coefficient correlates well with the difference in cell killing at the same wavelengths. In general, the PDT efficacy was several folds higher for blue light as compared with red light, as expected. However, HAL-PDT624 induced more apoptosis than HAL-PDT410 and illumination with low irradiance resulted in more apoptosis than high irradiance at the same lethal dose. This indicates differences in death modes after low and high irradiance after similar total light doses. From a treatment perspective, these differences may be important.

  1. Red versus blue light illumination in hexyl 5-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy: the influence of light color and irradiance on the treatment outcome in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, Linda; Krokan, Hans E; Johnsson, Anders; Gederaas, Odrun A; Plaetzer, Kristjan

    2014-08-01

    Hexyl 5-aminolevulinate (HAL) is a lipophilic derivative of 5-aminolevulinate, a key intermediate in biosynthesis of the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). The photodynamic efficacy and cell death mode after red versus blue light illumination of HAL-induced PpIX have been examined and compared using five different cancer cell lines. LED arrays emitting at 410 and 624 nm served as homogenous and adjustable light sources. Our results show that the response after HAL-PDT is cell line specific, both regarding the shape of the dose-survival curve, the overall dose required for efficient cell killing, and the relative amount of apoptosis. The ratio between 410 and 624 nm in absorption coefficient correlates well with the difference in cell killing at the same wavelengths. In general, the PDT efficacy was several folds higher for blue light as compared with red light, as expected. However, HAL-PDT₆₂₄ induced more apoptosis than HAL-PDT₄₁₀ and illumination with low irradiance resulted in more apoptosis than high irradiance at the same lethal dose. This indicates differences in death modes after low and high irradiance after similar total light doses. From a treatment perspective, these differences may be important.

  2. The Role of Reactive Iron in Organic Carbon Burial of the Wax Lake Delta, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, T. S.; Shields, M. R.; Gelinas, Y.; Allison, M. A.; Twilley, R.

    2016-02-01

    Deltaic systems are responsible for 41% of the total organic carbon buried on continental shelves (Smith et al., 2015). Furthermore, 21.5 ± 8.6% of the organic carbon in marine sediments is reported to be associated to reactive iron phases (Lalonde et al., 2012). Here, we examine the role of reactive iron in preserving organic carbon across a chronosequence in deltaic soils/sediments of the Wax Lake Delta, Louisiana. This prograding delta is part of the youngest subdelta of the Mississippi River Delta and serves as a model for deltas in an active progradational stage. We report the proportion, δ13C, lignin phenol content, and fatty acid content of organic carbon associated to iron in three unique environments along the delta topset. We found that over 15 % of the organic carbon in the top 0.5 meters was associated to reactive iron phases at our sampling locations. However, this amount varied between the mudflat, meadow, and canopy dominated sites. Moreover, the type of binding shifts from 1:1 sorption in the sediment dominated (mudflat) region to chelation/co-precipitation in the more soil-dominated regions. Acidic lignin phenols are preferentially sorbed in the mudflat region, which likely occurs pre-depositionally. These results add to our knowledge of the carbon burial processes in young deltas and present new questions about the selective preservation of organic compounds in deltaic sediments.

  3. Penelope Delta, recently discovered writer

    OpenAIRE

    MALAPANI A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a Greek writer, Penelope Delta. This writer has recently come up in the field of the studies of the Greek literature and, although thereare neither many translations of her works in foreign languages nor many theses or dissertations, she was chosen for the great interest for her works. Her books have been read by many generations, so she is considered a classical writer of Modern Greek Literature. The way she uses the Greek language, the unique characters...

  4. Climate change and the Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettinger, Michael; Anderson, Jamie; Anderson, Michael L.; Brown, Larry R.; Cayan, Daniel; Maurer, Edwin P.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change amounts to a rapidly approaching, “new” stressor in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta system. In response to California’s extreme natural hydroclimatic variability, complex water-management systems have been developed, even as the Delta’s natural ecosystems have been largely devastated. Climate change is projected to challenge these management and ecological systems in different ways that are characterized by different levels of uncertainty. For example, there is high certainty that climate will warm by about 2°C more (than late-20th-century averages) by mid-century and about 4°C by end of century, if greenhouse-gas emissions continue their current rates of acceleration. Future precipitation changes are much less certain, with as many climate models projecting wetter conditions as drier. However, the same projections agree that precipitation will be more intense when storms do arrive, even as more dry days will separate storms. Warmer temperatures will likely enhance evaporative demands and raise water temperatures. Consequently, climate change is projected to yield both more extreme flood risks and greater drought risks. Sea level rise (SLR) during the 20th century was about 22cm, and is projected to increase by at least 3-fold this century. SLR together with land subsidence threatens the Delta with greater vulnerabilities to inundation and salinity intrusion. Effects on the Delta ecosystem that are traceable to warming include SLR, reduced snowpack, earlier snowmelt and larger storm-driven streamflows, warmer and longer summers, warmer summer water temperatures, and water-quality changes. These changes and their uncertainties will challenge the operations of water projects and uses throughout the Delta’s watershed and delivery areas. Although the effects of climate change on Delta ecosystems may be profound, the end results are difficult to predict, except that native species will fare worse than invaders. Successful

  5. The acidic functional groups of humic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanxiang, Li; Shuhe, Sun; Zhai Zongxi, Wu Qihu

    1983-09-01

    The acidic functional groups content, pK value, DELTAH and DELTAS of humic acid (HA) and nitro-humic acid (NHA) were determined by potentiometry, conductometry and calorimetric titration. The thermodynamic parameters of carboxylic groups and phenolic hydroxyl groups of humic acid are similar to that of simple hydroxy-benzoic acid. The configuration sites of acidic functional groups in humic acid from different coals are different. The carbonyl groups on aromatic rings are probably ortho to phenolic -OH for HA and NHA extracted from Huangxian's brown coal and Japanese lignite, while those from Lingshi's weathered coal are not. The weak -COOH groups of the latter possess higher chemical activity. The -COOH content in HA increases, phenolic -OH group decreases and the chemical acidity of acidic functional groups increases when HA is oxidized by nitric acid. (14 refs.)

  6. From Natural to Design River Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giosan, Liviu

    2016-04-01

    Productive and biologically diverse, deltaic lowlands attracted humans since prehistory and may have spurred the emergence of the first urban civilizations. Deltas continued to be an important nexus for economic development across the world and are currently home for over half a billion people. But recently, under the double whammy of sea level rise and inland sediment capture behind dams, they have become the most threatened coastal landscape. Here I will address several deceptively simple questions to sketch some unexpected answers using example deltas from across the world from the Arctic to the Tropics, from the Danube to the Indus, Mississippi to Godavari and Krishna, Mackenzie to Yukon. What is a river delta? What is natural and what is not in a river delta? Are the geological and human histories of a delta important for its current management? Is maintaining a delta the same to building a new one? Can we design better deltas than Nature? These answers help us see clearly that survival of deltas in the next century depends on human intervention and is neither assured nor simple to address or universally applicable. Empirical observations on the hydrology, geology, biology and biochemistry of deltas are significantly lagging behind modeling capabilities endangering the applicability of numerical-based reconstruction solutions and need to be ramped up significantly and rapidly across the world.

  7. Biosynthesis of vitamin B12: concerning the origin of the methine protons of the corrin nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, A.I.; Kajiwara, M.; Santander, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    13C NMR spectroscopy has been used to locate six deuterium atoms incorporated biosynthetically on the periphery of the corrin nucleus of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) derived from cells of Propionibacterium shermanii grown in a medium containing 50% 2 H 2 O and 13 C-enriched delta-aminolevulinic acid. The implications of these results for the mechanism of vitamin B12 biosynthesis are discussed, and it is concluded that the same oxidation level of the intermediates is maintained throughout the biosynthetic pathway, from delta-aminolevulinic acid to corrin

  8. An analytical framework for strategic delta planning : negotiating consent for long-term sustainable delta development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seijger, C.; Douven, W; Hermans, L.M.; Evers, J.; Phi, H. L.; Brunner, J.; Pols, L.; Ligtvoet, W.; Koole, S.; Slager, K.; Vermoolen, M.S.; Hasan, S.; Hoang, V. T M; van Halsema, G

    2016-01-01

    Sectoral planning on water, agriculture and urban development has not been able to prevent increased flood risks and environmental degradation in many deltas. Governments conceive strategic delta planning as a promising planning approach and develop strategic delta plans. Such plans are linked to

  9. Entropy and optimality in river deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Alejandro; Longjas, Anthony; Edmonds, Douglas A.; Zaliapin, Ilya; Georgiou, Tryphon T.; Rinaldo, Andrea; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2017-10-01

    The form and function of river deltas is intricately linked to the evolving structure of their channel networks, which controls how effectively deltas are nourished with sediments and nutrients. Understanding the coevolution of deltaic channels and their flux organization is crucial for guiding maintenance strategies of these highly stressed systems from a range of anthropogenic activities. To date, however, a unified theory explaining how deltas self-organize to distribute water and sediment up to the shoreline remains elusive. Here, we provide evidence for an optimality principle underlying the self-organized partition of fluxes in delta channel networks. By introducing a suitable nonlocal entropy rate (nER) and by analyzing field and simulated deltas, we suggest that delta networks achieve configurations that maximize the diversity of water and sediment flux delivery to the shoreline. We thus suggest that prograding deltas attain dynamically accessible optima of flux distributions on their channel network topologies, thus effectively decoupling evolutionary time scales of geomorphology and hydrology. When interpreted in terms of delta resilience, high nER configurations reflect an increased ability to withstand perturbations. However, the distributive mechanism responsible for both diversifying flux delivery to the shoreline and dampening possible perturbations might lead to catastrophic events when those perturbations exceed certain intensity thresholds.

  10. A Modal Logic for Abstract Delta Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.S. de Boer (Frank); M. Helvensteijn (Michiel); J. Winter (Joost)

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractAbstract Delta Modeling is a technique for implementing (software) product lines. Deltas are put in a partial order which restricts their application and are then sequentially applied to a core product in order to form specific products in the product line. In this paper we explore the

  11. Tidal controls on river delta morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoitink, A.J.F.; Wang, Z.B.; Vermeulen, B.; Huismans, Y.; Kästner, K.

    2017-01-01

    River delta degradation has been caused by extraction of natural resources, sediment retention by reservoirs, and sea-level rise. Despite global concerns about these issues, human activity in the world's largest deltas intensifies. Harbour development, construction of flood defences, sand mining and

  12. Tidal controls on river delta morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoitink, A.J.F.; Wang, Zhengbing; Vermeulen, B.; Huismans, Y; Kästner, K

    River delta degradation has been caused by extraction of natural resources, sediment retention by reservoirs, and sea-level rise. Despite global concerns about these issues, human activity in the world’s largest deltas intensifies. Harbour development, construction of flood defences, sand mining and

  13. Floating City IJmeer : Accelerator for Delta Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Graaf, R.; Fremouw, M.; Van Bueren, B.; Czapiewska, K.; Kuijper, M.

    2006-01-01

    Climate change, sea level rise, population growth and ongoing urbanization result in higher vulnerability of the Rhine delta because it will result in increased flooding frequency, increasing investments and increased use of water, energy and other resources. The Rhine Delta also faces strong

  14. Entendiendo Delta desde las Humanidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Calvo Tello

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stylometry is one of the research areas in greater development within Digital Humanities. However, few studies have worked until recently with texts in Spanish and even less so from Spanish-speaking countries. The aim of this paper is to present in Spanish, and without prior statistical knowledge from the reader, one of the main methods used in stylometry, the measure of textual distance Burrows’ Delta. This paper explains this measure using a very small corpus of proverbs and then checks the results in a corpus of Spanish novels. Both data and Python scripts are available to the community through GitHub, commented step by step so that you can play and visualize each step.

  15. EEHG at FLASH and DELTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molo, Robert; Hoener, Markus; Huck, Holger; Hacker, Kirsten; Khan, Shaukat; Schick, Andreas; Ungelenk, Peter; Zeinalzadeh, Maryam [Center for Synchrotron Radiation (DELTA), TU Dortmund University (Germany); Meulen, Peter van der; Salen, Peter [Stockholm University (Sweden); Angelova Hamberg, Gergana; Ziemann, Volker [Uppsala University (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    The echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) scheme utilizes two modulators with two magnetic chicanes in order to generate an electron density modulation with high harmonic content. In contrast to free-electron lasers (FEL) based on self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), the radiation of an EEHG FEL has better longitudinal coherence and is naturally synchronized with an external laser, which is advantageous for pump-probe applications. At the free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH), an EEHG experiment is currently under preparation. The short-pulse facility at DELTA (a 1.5-GeV synchrotron light source operated by the TU Dortmund University) based on coherent harmonic generation (CHG) will be upgraded using the EEHG technique in order to reach shorter wavelengths.

  16. Combination photodynamic therapy using 5-fluorouracil and aminolevulinate enhances tumor-selective production of protoporphyrin IX and improves treatment efficacy of squamous skin cancers and precancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maytin, Edward V.; Anand, Sanjay

    2016-03-01

    In combination photodynamic therapy (cPDT), a small-molecule drug is used to modulate the physiological state of tumor cells prior to giving aminolevulinate (ALA; a precursor for protoporphyrin IX, PpIX). In our laboratory we have identified three agents (methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, and vitamin D) that can enhance therapeutic effectiveness of ALAbased photodynamic therapy for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). However, only one (5-fluorouracil; 5-FU) is FDA-approved for skin cancer management. Here, we describe animal and human studies on 5-FU mechanisms of action, in terms of how 5-FU pretreatment leads to enhanced PpIX accumulation and improves selectivity of ALA-PDT treatment. In A431 subcutaneous tumors in mice, 5-FU changed expression of heme enzyme (upregulating coproporphyrinogen oxidase, and down-regulating ferrochelatase), inhibited tumor cell proliferation (Ki-67), enhanced differentiation (E-cadherin), and led to strong, tumor-selective increases in apoptosis. Interestingly, enhancement of apoptosis by 5-FU correlated strongly with an increased accumulation of p53 in tumor cells that persisted for 24 h post- PDT. In a clinical trial using a split-body, bilaterally controlled study design, human subjects with actinic keratoses (AK; preneoplastic precursors of SCC) were pretreated on one side of the face, scalp, or forearms with 5-FU cream for 6 days, while the control side received no 5-FU. On the seventh day, the levels of PpIX in 4 test lesions were measured by noninvasive fluorescence dosimetry, and then all lesions were treated with PDT using methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) and red light (635 nm). Relative amounts of PpIX were found to be increased ~2-fold in 5-FU pretreated lesions relative to controls. At 3 months after PDT, the overall clinical response to PDT (reduction in lesion counts) was 2- to 3-fold better for the 5-FU pretreated lesions, a clinically important result. In summary, 5-FU is a useful adjuvant to aminolevulinate-based PDT

  17. Growth laws for delta crevasses in the Mississippi River Delta: observations and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yocum, T. A.; Georgiou, I. Y.

    2016-02-01

    River deltas are accumulations of sedimentary deposits delivered by rivers via a network of distributary channels. Worldwide they are threatened by environmental changes, including subsidence, global sea level rise and a suite of other local factors. In the Mississippi River Delta (MRD) these impacts are exemplified, and have led to proposed solutions to build land that include sediment diversions, thereby reinitiating the delta cycle. While economically efficient, there are too few analogs of small deltas aside from laboratory studies, numerical modeling studies, theoretical approaches, and limited field driven observations. Anthropogenic crevasses in the modern delta are large enough to overcome limitations of laboratory deltas, and small enough to allow for "rapid" channel and wetland development, providing an ideal setting to investigate delta development mechanics. Crevasse metrics were obtained using a combination of geospatial tools, extracting key parameters (bifurcation length and width, channel order and depth) that were non-dimensionalized and compared to river-dominated delta networks previously studied. Analysis showed that most crevasses in the MRD appear to obey delta growth laws and delta allometry relationships, suggesting that crevasses do exhibit similar planform metrics to larger Deltas; the distance to mouth bar versus bifurcation order demonstrated to be a very reasonable first order estimate of delta-top footprint. However, some crevasses exhibited different growth metrics. To better understand the hydrodynamic and geomorphic controls governing crevasse evolution in the MRD, we assess delta dynamics via a suite of field observations and numerical modeling in both well-established and newly constructed crevasses. Our analysis suggests that delta development is affected by the relative influence of external (upstream and downstream) and internal controls on the hydrodynamic and sediment transport patterns in these systems.

  18. Influence of different organic fertilizers on quality parameters and the delta(15)N, delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O values of orange fruit (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, Paolo; Camin, Federica; Fabroni, Simona; Perini, Matteo; Torrisi, Biagio; Intrigliolo, Francesco

    2010-03-24

    To investigate the influence of different types of fertilizers on quality parameters, N-containing compounds, and the delta(15)N, delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta (34)S, and delta(18)O values of citrus fruit, a study was performed on the orange fruit cv. 'Valencia late' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), which was harvested in four plots (three organic and one conventional) located on the same farm. The results demonstrated that different types of organic fertilizers containing the same amount of nitrogen did not effect important changes in orange fruit quality parameters. The levels of total N and N-containing compounds such as synephrine in fruit juice were not statistically different among the different treatments. The delta(15)N values of orange fruit grown under fertilizer derived from animal origin as well as from vegetable compost were statistically higher than those grown with mineral fertilizer. Therefore, delta(15)N values can be used as an indicator of citrus fertilization management (organic or conventional), because even when applied organic fertilizers are of different origins, the natural abundance of (15)N in organic citrus fruit remains higher than in conventional ones. These treatments also did not effect differences in the delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O values of fruit.

  19. Tidal controls on river delta morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoitink, A. J. F.; Wang, Z. B.; Vermeulen, B.; Huismans, Y.; Kästner, K.

    2017-09-01

    River delta degradation has been caused by extraction of natural resources, sediment retention by reservoirs, and sea-level rise. Despite global concerns about these issues, human activity in the world’s largest deltas intensifies. Harbour development, construction of flood defences, sand mining and land reclamation emerge as key contemporary factors that exert an impact on delta morphology. Tides interacting with river discharge can play a crucial role in the morphodynamic development of deltas under pressure. Emerging insights into tidal controls on river delta morphology suggest that--despite the active morphodynamics in tidal channels and mouth bar regions--tidal motion acts to stabilize delta morphology at the landscape scale under the condition that sediment import during low flows largely balances sediment export during high flows. Distributary channels subject to tides show lower migration rates and are less easily flooded by the river because of opposing non-linear interactions between river discharge and the tide. These interactions lead to flow changes within channels, and a more uniform distribution of discharge across channels. Sediment depletion and rigorous human interventions in deltas, including storm surge defence works, disrupt the dynamic morphological equilibrium and can lead to erosion and severe scour at the channel bed, even decades after an intervention.

  20. Topical methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy using red light-emitting diode light for treatment of multiple actinic keratoses: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariser, David; Loss, Robert; Jarratt, Michael; Abramovits, William; Spencer, James; Geronemus, Roy; Bailin, Philip; Bruce, Suzanne

    2008-10-01

    The use of light-emitting diode light offers practical advantages in photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) for management of actinic keratoses (AK). We sought to evaluate the efficacy of MAL PDT using red light-emitting diode light. We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, randomized study. A total of 49 patients with 363 AK lesions had 16.8% MAL cream applied under occlusion for 3 hours, and 47 patients with 360 AK lesions had vehicle cream similarly applied. The lesions were then illuminated (630 nm, light dose 37 J/cm2) with repeated treatment 1 week later. Complete lesion and patient (all lesions showing complete response) response rates were evaluated 3 months after last treatment. MAL PDT was superior (PAK. MAL PDT using red light-emitting diode light is an appropriate treatment alternative for multiple AK lesions.

  1. Rise and Fall of one of World's largest deltas; the Mekong delta in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minderhoud, P. S. J.; Eslami Arab, S.; Pham, H. V.; Erkens, G.; van der Vegt, M.; Oude Essink, G.; Stouthamer, E.; Hoekstra, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Mekong delta is the third's largest delta in the world. It is home to almost 20 million people and an important region for the food security in South East Asia. As most deltas, the Mekong delta is the dynamic result of a balance of sediment supply, sea level rise and subsidence, hosting a system of fresh and salt water dynamics. Ongoing urbanization, industrialization and intensification of agricultural practices in the delta, during the past decades, resulted in growing domestic, agricultural and industrial demands, and have led to a dramatic increase of fresh water use. Since the year 2000, the amount of fresh groundwater extracted from the subsurface increased by 500%. This accelerated delta subsidence as the groundwater system compacts, with current sinking rates exceeding global sea level rise up to an order of magnitude. These high sinking rates have greatly altered the sediment budget of the delta and, with over 50% of the Mekong delta surface elevated less than 1 meter above sea level, greatly increase vulnerability to flooding and storm surges and ultimately, permanent inundation. Furthermore, as the increasingly larger extractions rapidly reduce the fresh groundwater reserves, groundwater salinization subsequently increases. On top of that, dry season low-flows by the Mekong river cause record salt water intrusion in the delta's estuarine system, creating major problems for rice irrigation. We present the work of three years research by the Dutch-Vietnamese `Rise and Fall' project on land subsidence and salinization in both groundwater and surface water in the Vietnamese Mekong delta.

  2. Proof of cannabis administration by sensitive detection of 11-nor-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in hair using selective methylation and application of liquid chromatography- tandem and multistage mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Detlef; Sachs, Hans; Uhl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The identification of 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCCOOH) in hair represents an exceptional forensic analytical challenge due to low target concentrations in a complex matrix. Several dedicated techniques [gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS/MS) or GC-GC-MS couplings] were specifically introduced into forensic toxicology aiming to a selective and sensitive identification of THCCOOH in hair. The combination of liquid-chromatography (LC) and MS/MS gained an outstanding relevance in forensic toxicology (including the detection of cannabinoids). However, its application to hair matrix is characterized by a lack of specificity which is due to the unspecific decarboxylation as most abundant fragmentation reaction. Therefore, various chemical modifications of the carboxyl and/or phenolic hydroxyl groups were examined to improve the selectivity. The selective methylation of the 9-carboxyl-group proved to be the most efficient derivatization procedure. Hair extracts were redissolved in acetonitrile and after addition of few milligrams of solid sodium carbonate derivatized with 25 μL methyl iodide. The resulting THC-9-carboxymethylester was separated by conventional reverse phase LC and selectively detected using negative electrospray ionization by recording the fragmentation reactions 357➔325 and 357➔297. Resulting limits of quantification were below 100 fg/mg. A further significant improvement was achieved by application of the multistage MS3 fragmentation 357➔325➔297. To verify the validity of this procedure, a systematic quantitative comparison of THCCOOH concentrations in hair with data from a well established GC-NCI-MS/MS technique was performed. Both techniques proved to be in good accordance (R(2)=0.647, p = <0.001) and equally suitable for hair testing of THCCOOH. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Delta Electroproduction in 12-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLauchlan, Steven [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2003-01-01

    The Δ-nucleus potential is a crucial element in the understanding of the nuclear system. Previous electroexcitation measurements in the delta region reported a Q2 dependence of the Δ mass indicating that this potential is dependent on the momentum of the Δ. Such a dependence is not observed for protons and neutrons in the nuclear medium. This thesis presents the experimental study of the electroexcitation of the Δ resonance in 12C, performed using the high energy electron beam at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, and the near 4π acceptance detector CLAS that enables the detection of the full reaction final state. Inclusive, semi inclusive, and exclusive cross sections were measured with an incident electron beam energy of 1.162GeV over the Q2 range 0.175-0.475 (GeV/c)2. A Q2 dependence of the Δ mass was only observed in the exclusive measurements indicating that the Δ-nucleus potential is affected by the momentum of the Δ.

  4. Legal Delta Boundary, 2001, DWR [ds586

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The original topographic maps containing the drawn delta border were scanned from the Department of Water Resources. Images were registered to 1:24,000 USGS DRG's in...

  5. sheltered creeks in Niger Delta, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-03-18

    Mar 18, 2015 ... 273 and 115,000 barrels, respectively, making the delta. *Corresponding author. .... content was transferred to savillex digestion bombs and concen- trated hydrochloric ... metals (Zn, Pb and Cu) by flame atomic absorption.

  6. South Local Government Area, Delta S

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    environs, Aniocha- South Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria was carried out with a view to determining the ... supply for physical industrial development to achieve maximum human .... the Schlumberger O' Neil software package.

  7. Delta-nucleus dynamics: proceedings of symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.S.H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Schiffer, J.P. (eds.)

    1983-10-01

    The appreciation of the role in nuclear physics of the first excited state of the nucleon, the delta ..delta..(1232), has grown rapidly in the past decade. The delta resonance dominates nuclear reactions induced by intermediate energy pions, nucleons, and electromagnetic probes. It is also the most important non-nucleonic degree of freedom needed to resolve many fundamental problems encountered in the study of low-energy nuclear phenomena. Clearly, a new phase of nuclear physics has emerged and conventional thinking must be extended to account for this new dimension of nuclear dynamics. The most challenging problem we are facing is how a unified theory can be developed to describe ..delta..-nucleus dynamics at all energies. In exploring this new direction, it is important to have direct discussions among researchers with different viewpoints. Separate entries were prepared for the 49 papers presented. (WHK)

  8. Damped Oscillator with Delta-Kicked Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manko, O. V.

    1996-01-01

    Exact solutions of the Schrodinger equation for quantum damped oscillator subject to frequency delta-kick describing squeezed states are obtained. The cases of strong, intermediate, and weak damping are investigated.

  9. On the origin of delta spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.

    1983-01-01

    Mount Wilson sunspot drawings from 1966 through 1980 were used in conjunction with Hα filtergrams from Big Bear Solar Observatory to examine the origin of delta spots, spots with bipolar umbrae within one penumbra. Of the six cases we studied, five were formed by the union of non-paired spots. They are either shoved into one another by two neighboring growing bipoles or by a new spot born piggy-back style on an existing spot of opposite polarity. Proper motions of the growing spots take on curvilinear paths around one another to avoid a collision. This is the shear motion observed in delta spots (Tanaka, 1979). In the remaining case, the delta spot was formed by spots that emerged as a pair. Our findings indicate no intrinsic differences in the formation or the behavior between delta spots of normal magnetic configuration. (orig.)

  10. 2016 Rose Ojowhoh Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OJOHWOH ROSE

    The study examined staff development and library services in academic libraries in Bayelsa and Delta States. ... academic libraries, whose responsibility will be to cater for the development of staff in all ramifications. ..... Human resource.

  11. AMNESTY IN THE NIGER DELTA: VERTICAL MOVEMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLAWUYI

    federal government, the Niger Delta communities claim that they are entitled to ... instability, macroeconomic challenges, inconsistent policy regimes to ..... continues they cannot threaten the stability of the country nor affect its continued.

  12. Astrobee Periodic Technical Review (PTR) Delta 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, Christopher; Smith, Marion F.; Smith, Ernest Everett; Bualat, Maria Gabriele; Barlow, Jonathan Spencer

    2017-01-01

    Astrobee is a free flying robot for the inside of the International Space Station (ISS). The Periodic Technical Review (PTR) delta 3 is the final design review of the system presented to stakeholders.

  13. Migration in Vulnerable Deltas: A Research Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, C.; Nicholls, R. J.; Allan, A.

    2015-12-01

    C. Hutton1, & R. J. Nicholls1, , 1 University of Southampton, University Road, Southampton, Hampshire, United Kingdom, SO17 1BJ. cwh@geodata. soton.ac.ukAbstractGlobally, deltas contain 500 million people and with rising sea levels often linked to large number of forced migrants are expected in the coming century. However, migration is already a major process in deltas, such as the growth of major cities such as Dhaka and Kolkata. Climate and environmental change interacts with a range of catchment and delta level drivers, which encompass a nexus of sea-level rise, storms, freshwater and sediment supply from the catchment, land degradation, subsidence, agricultural loss and socio-economic stresses. DECCMA (Deltas, Vulnerability and Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation/CARRIA) is investigating migration in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM), Mahanadi and Volta Deltas, including the influence of climate change. The research will explore migration from a range of perspectives including governance and stakeholder analysis, demographic analysis, household surveys of sending and receiving areas, macro-economic analysis, and hazards and hotspot analysis both historically and into the future. Migration under climate change will depend on other adaptation in the deltas and this will be examined. Collectively, integrated analysis will be developed to examine migration, other adaptation and development pathways with a particular focus on the implications for the poorest. This will require the development of input scenarios, including expert-derived exogenous scenarios (e.g., climate change) and endogenous scenarios of the delta developed in a participatory manner. This applied research will facilitate decision support methods for the development of deltas under climate change, with a focus on migration and other adaptation strategies.

  14. A novel mouse PKC{delta} splice variant, PKC{delta}IX, inhibits etoposide-induced apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung D. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Kwang W. [Department of Internal Medicines, Ulsan University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun A.; Quang, Nguyen N. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hong R. [Department of Surgery, Ulsan University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Center, Ulsan University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Byungsuk, E-mail: bskwon@mail.ulsan.as.kr [School of Biological Sciences, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Center, Ulsan University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: {yields} A novel PKC{delta} isoform, named PKC{delta}IX, that lacks the C1 domain and the ATP-binding site is ubiquitously expressed. {yields} PKC{delta}IX inhibits etoposide-induced apoptosis. {yields} PKC{delta}IX may function as an endogenous dominant negative isoform for PKC{delta}. -- Abstract: Protein kinase C (PKC) {delta} plays an important role in cellular proliferation and apoptosis. The catalytic fragment of PKC{delta} generated by caspase-dependent cleavage is essential for the initiation of etoposide-induced apoptosis. In this study, we identified a novel mouse PKC{delta} isoform named PKC{delta}IX (Genebank Accession No. (HQ840432)). PKC{delta}IX is generated by alternative splicing and is ubiquitously expressed, as seen in its full-length PKC{delta}. PKC{delta}IX lacks the C1 domain, the caspase 3 cleavage site, and the ATP binding site but preserves an almost intact c-terminal catalytic domain and a nuclear localization signal (NLS). The structural characteristics of PKC{delta}IX provided a possibility that this PKC{delta} isozyme functions as a novel dominant-negative form for PKC{delta} due to its lack of the ATP-binding domain that is required for the kinase activity of PKC{delta}. Indeed, overexpression of PKC{delta}IX significantly inhibited etoposide-induced apoptosis in NIH3T3 cells. In addition, an in vitro kinase assay showed that recombinant PKC{delta}IX protein could competitively inhibit the kinase activity of PKC{delta}. We conclude that PKC{delta}IX can function as a natural dominant-negative inhibitor of PKC{delta}in vivo.

  15. In vivo metabolism of (+)-trans-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, D J

    1988-01-15

    (+)-trans-Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol [(+)-delta-9-THC], a biologically inactive isomer of (-)-trans-delta-9-THC, the major psychoactive constituent of cannabis, was administered intraperitoneally to male Charles River CD-1 mice; hepatic metabolites were extracted with ethyl acetate and isolated by chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 in chloroform. The metabolites were converted into trimethylsilyl (TMS), 2H9-TMS and methyl ester/TMS derivatives for examination by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and additional samples were prepared by reduction of metabolic fractions with lithium aluminium deuteride. Sixteen metabolites were characterized: these were alcohols and carboxylic acids, together with several of their hydroxylated analogues. The major biotransformation pathway was hydroxylation at C(11) to give the major metabolite, followed by oxidation of this compound to a carboxylic acid. Hydroxylated analogues of these two compounds were substituted mainly in the side-chain. Although metabolism was very similar to that of the naturally occurring (-)-isomer as far as positions of substitution were concerned, some differences were observed. These related mainly to the positions of hydroxylation on the side-chain, where 1'-hydroxylation was preferred to hydroxylation at the 2'-position. The major difference in metabolism between the two isomers was that much less oxidation of the 11-hydroxy group to a carboxylic acid occurred and there was less hydroxylation at the 8-position. Thus, 11-hydroxy-(+)-trans-delta-9-THC was the major metabolite and most other metabolites were hydroxylated derivatives of this compound.

  16. Delta infection evidenced by radioimmunoanalysis in selected collectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kselikova, M; Horejsi, J; Urbankova, J

    1987-01-01

    The presence of the Delta agent within the population was tested by means of the Delta-antibody radioimmunoassay using competitive kits of the firms ABBOTT (ABBOTT-ANTI-DELTA) and SORIN (AB-DELTAK). The Delta-antibody was found in 3.2% HBV patients, 5% HBsAg carriers, and in 20.8% of specific anti-Hbs-immunoglobulin. In hemophiliacs and blood donors no Delta-antibody was seen.

  17. Delta infection evidenced by radioimmunoanalysis in selected collectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kselikova, M.; Horejsi, J.; Urbankova, J.

    1987-01-01

    The presence of the Delta agent within the population was tested by means of the Delta-antibody radioimmunoassay using competitive kits of the firms ABBOTT (ABBOTT-ANTI-DELTA) and SORIN (AB-DELTAK). The Delta-antibody was found in 3.2% HBV patients, 5% HBsAg carriers, and in 20.8% of specific anti-Hbs-immunoglobulin. In hemophiliacs and blood donors no Delta-antibody was seen. (author)

  18. Growth laws for sub-delta crevasses in the Mississippi River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yocum, T. A.; Georgiou, I. Y.; Straub, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    River deltas are threatened by environmental change, including subsidence, global sea level rise, reduced sediment inputs and other local factors. In the Mississippi River Delta (MRD) these impacts are exemplified, and have led to proposed solutions to build land that include sediment diversions to reinitiate the delta cycle. Deltas were studied extensively using numerical models, theoretical and conceptual frameworks, empirical scaling relationships, laboratory models and field observations. But predicting the future of deltas relies on field observations where for most deltas data are still lacking. Moreover, empirical and theoretical scaling laws may be influenced by the data used to develop them, while laboratory deltas may be influenced by scaling issues. Anthropogenic crevasses in the MRD are large enough to overcome limitations of laboratory deltas, and small enough to allow for rapid channel and wetland development, providing an ideal setting to investigate delta development mechanics. Here we assessed growth laws of sub-delta crevasses (SDC) in the MRD, in two experimental laboratory deltas (LD - weakly and strongly cohesive) and compared them to river dominated deltas worldwide. Channel and delta geometry metrics for each system were obtained using geospatial tools, bathymetric datasets, sediment size, and hydrodynamic observations. Results show that SDC follow growth laws similar to large river dominated deltas, with the exception of some that exhibit anomalous behavior with respect to the frequency and distance to a bifurcation and the fraction of wetted delta shoreline (allometry metrics). Most SDC exhibit a systematic decrease of non-dimensional channel geometries with increased bifurcation order, indicating that channels are adjusting to decreased flow after bifurcations occur, and exhibit linear trends for land allometry and width-depth ratio, although geometries decrease more rapidly per bifurcation order. Measured distance to bifurcations in SDC

  19. Investigation of the biodistribution, breakdown and excretion of delta inulin adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixin; Barclay, Thomas; Song, Yunmei; Joyce, Paul; Sakala, Isaac G; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Garg, Sanjay

    2017-08-03

    Insoluble, nanostructured delta inulin particles enhance the immunogenicity of co-administered protein antigens and consequently are used as a vaccine adjuvant (Advax™). To better understand their immunomodulatory properties, the in vitro hydrolysis and in vivo distribution of delta inulin particles were investigated. Delta inulin particle hydrolysis under bio-relevant acidic conditions resulted in no observable change to the bulk morphology using SEM, and HPLC results showed that only 6.1% of the inulin was hydrolysed over 21days. However, 65% of the terminal glucose groups were released, showing that acid hydrolysis relatively rapidly releases surface bound chemistries. This was used to explain in vivo biodistribution results in which delta inulin particles surface-labelled with fluorescein-5-thiosemicabizide were administered to mice using intramuscular (I.M.) or subcutaneous (S.C.) routes. Comparison analysis of the fluorescence of soluble inulin in the supernatants of homogenised tissues maintained at room temperature or heated to 100°C to solubilise particulate inulin was used to distinguish between fluorescent probe on soluble inulin and probe bound to inulin within particles. Following both I.M. and S.C. injection delta inulin exhibited a depot behaviour with local injection site residence for several weeks. Over this time, as injection site inulin reduced, there was measurable transport of intact delta inulin particles by macrophages to secondary lymphoid organs and the liver. Ultimately, the injected delta inulin became solubilised resulting in its detection in the plasma and in the urine. Thus injected delta inulin particles are initially taken up by macrophages at the site of injection, trafficked to secondary lymphoid tissue and the liver, and hydrolysed resulting in their becoming soluble and diffusing into the blood stream, from whence they are glomerularly filtered and excreted into the urine. These results provide important insights into the

  20. Houtman Abrolhos Isotope (delta 18O, delta 13C) Data for 1795 to 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — DESCRIPTION: VARIABLES AND UNITS: Column #1: core depth in mm Column #2: delta C-13 vs V-PDB Column #3: delta O-18 vs V-PDB Column #4: assigned date in years A.D....

  1. The Enabling Delta Life Initiative - Global Programme of Action on Deltas - Programme description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, van W.F.; Skyllerstedt, S.; Wosten, J.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Being ‘hotspots’ of human activity with generally high population densities, deltas are vulnerable to changes induced by a range of driving forces, both natural and anthropogenic. In addition to already existing challenges, uncertainty of the possible impacts of climate change, low lying deltas

  2. Characterization of the nuclear localization signal of the hepatitis delta virus antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Carolina; Freitas, Natalia; Cunha, Celso

    2008-01-01

    The delta antigen (HDAg) is the only protein encoded by the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) RNA genome. The HDAg contains an RNA binding domain, a dimerization domain, and a nuclear localization signal (NLS). The nuclear import of HDV RNPs is thought to be one of the first tasks of the HDAg during the HDV replication cycle. Using c-myc-PK fusions with several regions of the HDAg in transfection assays in Huh7 cells, we found that the HDAg NLS consists of a single stretch of 10 amino acids, EGAPPAKRAR, located in positions 66-75. Deletion and mutation analysis of this region showed that both the acidic glutamic acid residue at position 66 and the basic arginine residue at position 75 are essential for promoting nuclear import

  3. Measurement of urinary porphyrins and porphyrin precursors in Dutch hospital laboratories: a review of quality control over 5 years.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuijderhoudt, F.M.; Weykamp, C.W.; Willems, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We evaluated a quality control scheme for the measurement of urinary uroporphyrin, coproporphyrin, total urinary porphyrins and precursors of urinary porphyrins, delta-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen that was performed in The Netherlands during a period of 5 years. METHODS: Six

  4. Lead and PCB's in canvasback ducks: Relationship between enzyme levels and residues in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, M.P.; Perry, M.C.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1976-01-01

    Blood samples were taken for two successive years from canvasback ducks trapped in the Chesapeake Bay. The first winter (1972?1973) five plasma enzymes known to respond to organochlorine poisoning were examined. Abnormal enzyme elevations suggested that 20% of the population sampled (23/115 ducks) might contain organochlorine contaminants, but no residue analyses were performed. The second winter (1974) two of the same enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase, and a third enzyme known to be specifically inhibited by lead, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, were assayed in 95 blood samples. Blood residues of organochlorine compounds and of lead were determined in representative samples, and the correlations between residue levels and enzyme changes were examined. The enzyme bioassays in 1974 indicated that lead was a more prevalent environmental contaminant than organochlorine compounds in canvasback ducks; 17% of the blood samples had less than one-half of the normal delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, but only 11% exhibited abnormal aspartate aminotransferase or lactate dehydrogenase activities. These findings were confirmed by residue analyses that demonstrated lead concentrations four times higher than background levels, but only relatively low organochlorine concentrations. There was a highly significant inverse correlation between delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity and blood lead concentrations (Pcontamination in waterfowl. In canvasback ducks 200 ppb of lead in the blood caused a 75% decrease in delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, a magnitude of enzyme inhibition that disturbs heme synthesis and is regarded as detrimental in humans.

  5. Functional assignments for the carboxyl-terminal domains of the ferrochelatase from Synechocystis PCC 6803: The CAB domain plays a regulatory role, and region II is essential for catalysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobotka, Roman; Tichý, Martin; Wilde, A.; Hunter, C. N.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 155, č. 4 (2011), 1735-1747 ISSN 0032-0889 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/1000 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : TRANSFER-RNA REDUCTASE * DELTA-AMINOLEVULINIC-ACID * PHOTOSYSTEM-II Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 6.535, year: 2011

  6. Evolution of the Tetrapyrrole Biosynthetic Pathway in Secondary Algae: Conservation, Redundancy and Replacement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cihlář, J.; Füssy, Z.; Horák, A.; Oborník, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 11 (2016), e0166338 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : DELTA-AMINOLEVULINIC-ACID * PLASTID EVOLUTION * EUGLENA-GRACILIS Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  7. Holocene evolution of a wave-dominated fan-delta: Godavari delta, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Y.; Nageswara Rao, K.; Nagakumar, K.; Demudu, G.; Rajawat, A.; Kubo, S.; Li, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The Godavari delta is one of the world's largest wave-dominated deltas. The Godavari River arises in the Western Ghats near the west coast of India and drains an area of about 3.1x10^5 km^2, flowing about 1465 km southeast across the Indian peninsula to the Bay of Bengal. The Godavari delta consists of a gentle seaward slope from its apex (12 m elevation) at Rajahmundry and a coastal beach-ridge plain over a distance of about 75 km and covers ~5200 km^2 as a delta plain. The river splits into two major distributary channels, the Gautami and the Vasishta, at a barrage constructed in the mid-1800s. The coastal environment of the deltaic coast is microtidal (~1 m mean tidal range) and wave-dominated (~1.5 m mean wave height in the June-September SW monsoon season, ~0.8 m in the NE monsoon season). Models of the Holocene evolution of the Godavari delta have changed from a zonal progradation model (e.g. Nageswara Rao & Sadakata, 1993) to a truncated cuspate delta model (Nageswara Rao et al., 2005, 2012). Twelve borehole cores (340 m total length), taken in the coastal delta plain during 2010-2013, yielded more than 100 C-14 dates. Sediment facies and C-14 dates from these and previous cores and remote-sensing data support a new delta evolution model. The Holocene coastal delta plain is divided into two parts by a set of linear beach ridges 12-14 km landward from the present shoreline in the central part of the delta. The location of the main depocenter (lobe) has shifted during the Holocene from 1) the center to 2) the west, 3) east, 4) center, 5) west, and 6) east. The linear beach ridges separate the first three from the last three stages. These lobe shifts are controlled by river channel shifts near the apex. Just as the current linear shoreline of the central part of the delta and the concave-up nearshore topography are the result of coastal erosion of a cuspate delta, the linear beach ridges indicate a former eroded shoreline. An unconformity within the deltaic

  8. Open source integrated modeling environment Delta Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchyts, G.; Baart, F.; Jagers, B.; van Putten, H.

    2012-04-01

    In the last decade, integrated modelling has become a very popular topic in environmental modelling since it helps solving problems, which is difficult to model using a single model. However, managing complexity of integrated models and minimizing time required for their setup remains a challenging task. The integrated modelling environment Delta Shell simplifies this task. The software components of Delta Shell are easy to reuse separately from each other as well as a part of integrated environment that can run in a command-line or a graphical user interface mode. The most components of the Delta Shell are developed using C# programming language and include libraries used to define, save and visualize various scientific data structures as well as coupled model configurations. Here we present two examples showing how Delta Shell simplifies process of setting up integrated models from the end user and developer perspectives. The first example shows coupling of a rainfall-runoff, a river flow and a run-time control models. The second example shows how coastal morphological database integrates with the coastal morphological model (XBeach) and a custom nourishment designer. Delta Shell is also available as open-source software released under LGPL license and accessible via http://oss.deltares.nl.

  9. QCD in the {delta}-regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, W. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares; Cundy, N. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Lattice Gauge Theory Research Center; Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R.; Zanotti, J.M. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Nakamura, Y. [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Center for Computational Sciences; Pleiter, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    The {delta}-regime of QCD is characterised by light quarks in a small spatial box, but a large extent in (Euclidean) time. In this setting a specific variant of chiral perturbation theory - the {delta}-expansion - applies, based on a quantum mechanical treatment of the quasi onedimensional system. In particular, for vanishing quark masses one obtains a residual pion mass M{sup R}{sub {pi}}, which has been computed to the third order in the {delta}-expansion. A comparison with numerical measurements of this residual mass allows for a new determination of some Low Energy Constants, which appear in the chiral Lagrangian. We first review the attempts to simulate 2-flavour QCD directly in the {delta}-regime. This is very tedious, but results compatible with the predictions for M{sup R}{sub {pi}} have been obtained. Then we show that an extrapolation of pion masses measured in a larger volume towards the {delta}-regime leads to good agreement with the theoretical predictions. From those results, we also extract a value for the (controversial) sub-leading Low Energy Constant anti l{sub 3}. (orig.)

  10. El plan del delta - Holanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1963-09-01

    Full Text Available Holland is very poor in land resources. Hence its development has been directed towards intensive industrialization and maximum agricultural exploitation. The western part of the country is below sea level and is occupied by 65 percent of the population. Originally the coast consisted of a number of islands, estuaries and slight elevations. Man has transformed this coastline, first making a number of artificial lakes, or polders, and then converting these into fertile districts. These projects protect the soil by means of dykes, which require careful conservation, but even so violent floods are not infrequent. One of the difficult problems involved in this vast enterprise is the complex system of water supply, lines of communication and flow of the rivers into the sea along the estuary zone. This zone is on the south west, and to protect it a National Commission has been set up. After careful study, it was decided that the best defense against the violence of the sea would consist in closing off the inroads of the sea into the continental coastline. The set of hydraulic projects which constitutes this plan for the improvement of the sea defences will take 25 years to fulfil. The general project is highly ambitious and includes both maritime, road and structural works, in which there is a variety of stonework constructions. This paper describes, in brief outline, the main contents of the 11 headings into which the general construction project has been subdivided. In addition, this is supplemented with information on the projects which are already initiated and on the constructional procedure that is being adopted. Of these latter projects, the Nabla bridge is of particular interest. It is situated on the delta. It is made in prestressed concrete, and consists of 17 spans, of 60 length each. This enormous structure, in addition to its great length, and supporting a 22.8 ms wide roadway, is subjected to the tremendous forces 11» of the sea on one

  11. Large old trees influence patterns of delta13C and delta15N in forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Pascale; Bol, Roland; Dixon, Liz; Bardgett, Richard D

    2008-06-01

    Large old trees are the dominant primary producers of native pine forest, but their influence on spatial patterns of soil properties and potential feedback to tree regeneration in their neighbourhood is poorly understood. We measured stable isotopes of carbon (delta(13)C) and nitrogen (delta(15)N) in soil and litter taken from three zones of influence (inner, middle and outer zone) around the trunk of freestanding old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees, to determine the trees' influence on below-ground properties. We also measured delta(15)N and delta(13)C in wood cores extracted from the old trees and from regenerating trees growing within their three zones of influence. We found a significant and positive gradient in soil delta(15)N from the inner zone, nearest to the tree centre, to the outer zone beyond the tree crown. This was probably caused by the higher input of (15)N-depleted litter below the tree crown. In contrast, the soil delta(13)C did not change along the gradient of tree influence. Distance-related trends, although weak, were visible in the wood delta(15)N and delta(13)C of regenerating trees. Moreover, the wood delta(15)N of small trees showed a weak negative relationship with soil N content in the relevant zone of influence. Our results indicate that large old trees control below-ground conditions in their immediate surroundings, and that stable isotopes might act as markers for the spatial and temporal extent of these below-ground effects. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  12. Abraham Reef Stable Isotope Data (delta 13C, delta 18O, delta 14C) for 1635-1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site: Abraham Reef, 22ó 06'S, 153ó 00'E, Porites australiensus, Radiocarbon (delta 14C) and Stable Isotope (del 18O and del 13C) results from bi-annual samples from...

  13. Murine FATP alleviates growth and biochemical deficiencies of yeast fat1Delta strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirusso, C C; Connell, E J; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2000-01-01

    following incubation of the cells with exogenous oleate. Expression of either Fat1p or murine FATP from a plasmid in a fat1Delta strain restored these phenotypic and biochemical deficiencies. Fat1p and FATP restored growth of fat1Delta cells in the presence of cerulenin and under hypoxic conditions....... Furthermore, fatty-acid transport was restored and was found to be chain length specific: octanoate, a medium-chain fatty acid was transported in a Fat1p- and FATP-independent manner while the long-chain fatty acids myristate, palmitate, and oleate required either Fat1p or FATP for maximal levels of transport....... Lignoceryl CoA synthetase activities were restored to wild-type levels in fat1Delta strains expressing either Fat1p or FATP. Fat1p or FATP also restored wild-type levels of beta-oxidation of exogenous long-chain fatty acids. These data show that Fat1p and FATP are functionally equivalent when expressed...

  14. Deltas on the move. Making deltas cope with the effects of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reker, J.; Van Winden, A.; Braakhekke, W.; Vermaat, J.; Eleveld, M.; Janssen, R.; De Reus, N.; Omzigt, N.

    2006-01-01

    This scoping study is the first phase of a study aimed at: (a) providing knowledge on the potential of a system-based approach to deal with the effects of climate change as an alternative for the more traditional technical measures such as dams, dikes and surge barriers. This should be shown for both rich and poor countries and should address hydrological, ecological as well as socio-economic aspects; and (b) identifying the potential to market these results worldwide. To reach these objectives four research steps are defined: (1) to make an inventory of deltas: their vulnerability to the effects of climate change; (2) development of indicators for successful use of a system-based approach; (3) to provide an overview of the potential of soft measures for these deltas; (4) to select a number of deltas with potential for marketing system-based measures and the development of strategies to link economic and ecological objectives. This scoping study addresses step 1 only. The results from step 1 will be used as a starting point for steps 2 and 3. The outputs of this scoping study are threefold: a background report (this report); a flyer with a brief description of the findings; a website with information on delta's and how these may be affected by climate change. The scoping study will roughly outline which deltas are still functioning in a more or less natural manner - or could be (re)developed in that direction - and thus would be good candidates for a system-based approach. Chapter 2 gives a description of the geomorphological and ecological processes in a delta. In addition, those aspects of climate change that can have an effect on deltas are described. The third chapter deals with human interventions in deltas and whether or not they fit within a system-based approach. In a system-based approach, as presented in Chapter 4, natural processes are given free reign where possible. Chapter 5 shows how available data on deltas could be used in such a system

  15. The hydroxypyridinone iron chelator CP94 increases methyl-aminolevulinate-based photodynamic cell killing by increasing the generation of reactive oxygen species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuktee Dogra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Methyl-aminolevulinate-based photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT is utilised clinically for the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancers and pre-cancers and the hydroxypyridinone iron chelator, CP94, has successfully been demonstrated to increase MAL-PDT efficacy in an initial clinical pilot study. However, the biochemical and photochemical processes leading to CP94-enhanced photodynamic cell death, beyond the well-documented increases in accumulation of the photosensitiser protoporphyrin IX (PpIX, have not yet been fully elucidated. This investigation demonstrated that MAL-based photodynamic cell killing of cultured human squamous carcinoma cells (A431 occurred in a predominantly necrotic manner following the generation of singlet oxygen and ROS. Augmenting MAL-based photodynamic cell killing with CP94 co-treatment resulted in increased PpIX accumulation, MitoSOX-detectable ROS generation (probably of mitochondrial origin and necrotic cell death, but did not affect singlet oxygen generation. We also report (to our knowledge, for the first time the detection of intracellular PpIX-generated singlet oxygen in whole cells via electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in conjunction with a spin trap.

  16. Tissue responses to hexyl 5-aminolevulinate-induced photodynamic treatment in syngeneic orthotopic rat bladder cancer model: possible pathways of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arum, Carl-Jørgen; Gederaas, Odrun A.; Larsen, Eivind L. P.; Randeberg, Lise L.; Hjelde, Astrid; Krokan, Hans E.; Svaasand, Lars O.; Chen, Duan; Zhao, Chun-Mei

    2011-02-01

    Orthotopic bladder cancer model in rats mimics human bladder cancer with respect to urothelial tumorigenesis and progression. Utilizing this model at pT1 (superficial stage), we analyze the tissue responses to hexyl 5-aminolevulinate-induced photodynamic therapy (HAL-PDT). In comparison to untreated rats, HAL-PDT causes little change in tumor-free rat bladder but induces inflammatory changes with increased lymphocytes and mononuclear cell infiltration in rat bladders with tumor. Immunohistochemistry reveals that HAL-PDT is without effect on proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression within the tumor and increases caspase-3 expression in both normal urothelium and the tumor. Transmission electron microscopy reveals severe mitochondrial damage, formations of apoptotic bodies, vacuoles, and lipofuscin bodies, but no microvillus-formed niches in HAL-PDT-treated bladder cancer rats. Bioinformatics analysis of the gene expression profile indicates an activation of T-cell receptor signaling pathway in bladder cancer rats without PDT. HAL-PDT increases the expression of CD3 and CD45RA in the tumor (determined by immunohistochemistry). We suggest that pathways of action of HAL-PDT may include, at least, activations of mitochondrial apoptosis and autophagy, breakdown of cancer stem cell niches, and importantly, enhancement of T-cell activation.

  17. The Economic Dimensions of the Niger Delta Ethnic Conflicts (Pp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    1970, the price of international oil stepped upwards following the Middle. Eastern Yom Kippur .... Over the years, the pleas of the Niger Delta people for accommodation are ignored or .... In a labour surplus region like the Niger Delta, budget.

  18. Conceptualizing delta forms and processes in Arctic coastal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Mette; Kroon, Aart

    2017-01-01

    Climate warming in the Arctic directly causes two opposite changes in Arctic coastal systems: increased melt-water discharge through rivers induces extra influx of sediments and extended open water season increases wave impact which reworks and erodes the shores. A shoreline change analysis along...... and popped up as hotspots. The Tuapaat delta and Skansen delta showed large progradation rates (1.5 and 7m/yr) and migration of the adjacent barriers and spits. The dynamic behavior at the delta mouths was mainly caused by classic delta channel lobe switching at one delta (Tuapaat), and by a breach...... of the fringing spit at the other delta (Skansen). The longshore and cross-shore transports are responsible for reworking the sediment with a result of migrating delta mouths and adjacent subaqueous mouth bars. Seaward progradation of the deltas is limited due to the steep nature of the bathymetry in Disko Bay...

  19. Binding energies of two deltas bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Saito, Koichi.

    1982-06-01

    Bound states of the two-deltas system are investigated by employing the realistic one boson exchange potential. It is found that there exist many bound states in each isospin channel and also found that the tensor interaction plays important role in producing these bound states. Relationship between these bound states and dibaryon resonances is discussed. (J.P.N.)

  20. Solubility of hydrogen in delta iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapovalov, V.I.; Trofimenko, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    The solubility of hydrogen in iron (less than 0.002 % impurities) at temperatures of 800-1510 deg C and a pressure of 100 atm was measured. The heat of solution of hydrogen in delta-Fe, equal to 73 kJ/g-atom, is by far greater than the corresponding values for α- and γ-Fe

  1. Applications of Dirac's Delta Function in Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuri, Andre

    2004-01-01

    The Dirac delta function has been used successfully in mathematical physics for many years. The purpose of this article is to bring attention to several useful applications of this function in mathematical statistics. Some of these applications include a unified representation of the distribution of a function (or functions) of one or several…

  2. Managing flood risks in the Mekong Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, Long Phi; Biesbroek, Robbert; Tri, Van Pham Dang; Kummu, Matti; Vliet, van Michelle T.H.; Leemans, Rik; Kabat, Pavel; Ludwig, Fulco

    2018-01-01

    Climate change and accelerating socioeconomic developments increasingly challenge flood-risk management in the Vietnamese Mekong River Delta—a typical large, economically dynamic and highly vulnerable delta. This study identifies and addresses the emerging challenges for flood-risk management.

  3. Bioluminescent hydrocarbonclastic bacteria of the Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of three petroleum hydrocarbons (Mobil SAE 40 Engine Oil, Diesel and Bonny light Crude Oil) by four bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio harveyi, V. fisheri, Photobacterium leiognathi and P. Phosphoreum isolated from the Bonny estuary in the Niger Delta, Nigeria was investigated. Microbial utilization was monitored ...

  4. The Delta Team: Empowering Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Marian White

    1994-01-01

    In response to adolescent girls' concerns about teen violence, rumors, grooming, careers, and equity, four women teachers and a woman administrator at a Maryland middle school developed the Delta Program. The program provides positive learning experiences, teaches social skills and conflict management techniques, empowers girls through mentoring…

  5. delta. -isobars and photodisintegration at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzumura, Jun-ichi; Futami, Yasuhiko [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Noda, Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    1982-12-01

    The dynamics of the peak considered to be due to the two-nucleon process in the reaction /sup 9/Be(gamma, p) anything is investigated with the quasi-deuteron model. We show that the process is dominated by a two-nucleon mechanism with pion and rho-meson exchange through virtual delta-isobar formation (author).

  6. gamma-linolenic acid does not augment long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-3 status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, DAJ; Hettema, Y; van Doormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ

    Augmentation of long chain polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acid (LCPUFA omega 3) status can be reached by consumption of fish oil or by improvement of the conversion of a-linolenic acid (ALA) to LCPUFA omega 3. Since gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) might activate the rate-limiting Delta-6 desaturation, we

  7. Morphodynamics of a cyclic prograding delta: the Red River, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maren, D.S. van

    2004-01-01

    River deltas are inhabited by over 60% of the world population, and are, consequently, of paramount agricultural and economical importance. They constitute unique wetland envi ronments which gives river deltas ecological importance as well. Additionally, many deltas contain large accumulations of

  8. Environmental challenges in Nigeria's Delta Region and Agriculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discussed the environmental challenges in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria with emphasis on the impacts on agricultural production. It thus discussed the concepts of Niger-Delta, Environmental pollution, Niger-Delta crises and Agriculture. The paper posits that there are positive relationships between these ...

  9. Total mercury concentrations in surface water and sediments from Danube Delta lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODOROF Liliana

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The samples were collected from surface water and sediments of Danube Delta lakes, during april and may 2006. The sediments were digested with nitric acid, and the surface water with real aqua, at Microwave Oven Anton Paar and analised at FIMS 400 Perkin Elmer. The results show that the total mercury is compared with the maximum allowed limits according with Normative 161/2006.

  10. Protoporphyrin IX formation after topical application of methyl aminolaevulinate and BF-200 aminolaevulinic acid declines with age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, C V; Philipsen, P A; Wulf, H C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a popular treatment modality in dermatology. The effect of PDT in epidermal cells depends on formation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) from 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). A variety of physiological changes in epidermal function occur with increasing age...... assessed. Treatment efficacy in relation to age was evaluated in 100 basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) treated with MAL-PDT. RESULTS: Both photosensitizers induced significantly more PpIX formation in the younger group. Linear regression revealed a significant age-related decline in PpIX formation after...

  11. deltaPlotR: An R Package for Di?erential Item Functioning Analysis with Ango? s Delta Plot

    OpenAIRE

    David Magis; Bruno Facon

    2014-01-01

    Angoff's delta plot is a straightforward and not computationally intensive method to identify differential item functioning (DIF) among dichotomously scored items. This approach was recently improved by proposing an optimal threshold selection and by considering several item purification processes. Moreover, to support practical DIF analyses with the delta plot and these improvements, the R package deltaPlotR was also developed. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to outline the delta plot ...

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls as inducers of hepatic porphyria in Japanese quail, with special reference to δ-aminolevulinic acid synthetase activity, fluorescence, and residues in the liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.G.; Strik, J.T.W.A.; Holsteyn, C.W.M. van; Pennings, J.H.

    1971-01-01

    Male Japanese quail were orally dosed, daily for 7 days, with 1000, 500, 250, 100, 50, and 0 mg PCB (Aroclor 1260) per kg body weight. The birds receiving 1000 mg/kg died. A dose-related increase in liver and liver: body weight ratio was found. Macroscopic and microscopic examination under

  13. Spectroscopic detection of oral and skin tissue transformation in a model for squamous cell carcinoma: Autofluorescence versus systemic aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderBreggen, E. W. J.; Rem, A. I.; Christian, M. M.; Yang, C. J.; Calhoun, K. H.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.; Motamedi, M.

    1996-01-01

    In recent Sears, applications of fluorescence spectroscopy to detect premalignant and malignant changes in various types of tissue has been proposed, The development of a safe and specific fluorescent agent that could enhance the spectroscopic contrast between normal and malignant tissue is highly

  14. Poor results of 5-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy for residual high-grade dysplasia and early cancer in barrett esophagus after endoscopic resection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, F.; Kara, M.; Rosmolen, W.; Aalders, M.; ten Kate, F.; Krishnadath, K.; van Lanschot, J.; Fockens, P.; Bergman, J.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of residual high-grade dysplasia or early cancer (HGD/EC) after endoscopic resection in Barrett esophagus. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Study patients were separated into group A,

  15. Topical methotrexate pretreatment enhances the therapeutic effect of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy on hamster buccal pouch precancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng-Fu Yang

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that topical MTX-pretreatment can increase intracellular PpIX production in hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions and significantly improves the outcomes of the precancerous lesions treated with topical ALA-PDT.

  16. Effects of mercury and selenite on δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase activity and on selected oxidative stress parameters in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perottoni, Juliano; Lobato, L.P.; Silveira, Aline; Rocha, J.B.T.; Emanuelli, Tatiana

    2004-01-01

    The present study evaluates the effects of Na 2 SeO 3 and HgCl 2 on kidney and liver of adult rats. In vivo, HgCl 2 (17 μmol/kg, sc) reduced ascorbic acid levels in liver (∼15%), whereas in kidney it reduced ALA-D activity (∼60%) and ascorbic acid levels (∼35%) and increased TBARS content (∼50%). Na 2 SeO 3 (17 μmol/kg, sc) exposure increased the content of nonprotein thiol groups in liver (35-60%) and kidney (∼50-160%), partially prevented mercury-induced ALA-D inhibition in kidney, and completely prevented a mercury-induced increase of TBARS content and decrease of ascorbic acid levels in kidney. In vitro, HgCl 2 and Na 2 SeO 3 inhibited renal and hepatic ALA-D, while HgCl 2 increased TBARS in renal and hepatic tissue preparations. Na 2 SeO 3 increased the rate of glutathione oxidation in vitro. Results indicated that Na 2 SeO 3 protected against HgCl 2 effects in vivo (prevention of mercury interaction with thiol groups and of mercury-induced oxidative damage). In vitro, Na 2 SeO 3 did not prevent mercury effects, but potentiated ALA-D inhibition by mercury, probably due to its ability to oxidize thiol groups

  17. The effect of sorbic acid and esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid on the protonmotive force in Escherichia coli membrane vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, T

    1985-01-01

    The effect of three food preservatives, sorbic acid and methyl and butyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, on the protonmotive force in Escherichia coli membrane vesicles was investigated. Radioactive chemical probes were used to determine the two components of the protonmotive force: delta pH (pH difference) and delta psi (membrane potential). Both types of compound selectively eliminated delta pH across the membrane, while leaving delta psi much less disturbed indicating that transport inhibition by neutralization of the protonmotive force cannot be the only mechanism of action for the food preservatives tested.

  18. Three New Offset {delta}{sup 11}B Isotope Reference Materials for Environmental Boron Isotope Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, M. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin (Germany); IsoAnalysis UG, Berlin (Germany); Vogl, J. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    The isotopic composition of boron is a well established tool in various areas of science and industry. Boron isotope compositions are typically reported as {delta}{sup 11}B values which indicate the isotopic difference of a sample relative to the isotope reference material NIST SRM 951. A significant drawback of all of the available boron isotope reference materials is that none of them covers a natural boron isotope composition apart from NIST SRM 951. To fill this gap of required {delta}{sup 11}B reference materials three new solution boric acid reference materials were produced, which cover 60 per mille of the natural boron isotope variation (-20 to 40 per mille {delta}{sup 11}B) of about 100 per mille . The new reference materials are certified for their {delta}{sup 11}B values and are commercially available through European Reference Materials (http://www.erm-crm.org). The newly produced and certified boron isotope reference materials will allow straightforward method validation and quality control of boron isotope data. (author)

  19. Delta-nucleus dynamics: proceedings of symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.S.H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Schiffer, J.P.

    1983-10-01

    The appreciation of the role in nuclear physics of the first excited state of the nucleon, the delta Δ(1232), has grown rapidly in the past decade. The delta resonance dominates nuclear reactions induced by intermediate energy pions, nucleons, and electromagnetic probes. It is also the most important non-nucleonic degree of freedom needed to resolve many fundamental problems encountered in the study of low-energy nuclear phenomena. Clearly, a new phase of nuclear physics has emerged and conventional thinking must be extended to account for this new dimension of nuclear dynamics. The most challenging problem we are facing is how a unified theory can be developed to describe Δ-nucleus dynamics at all energies. In exploring this new direction, it is important to have direct discussions among researchers with different viewpoints. Separate entries were prepared for the 49 papers presented

  20. Inhibition of cortiocosteroidogenesis by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, W; Harris, L S; Carchman, R A

    1977-12-01

    ACTH, cholera toxin, cyclic AMP but not pregnenolone-induced steroidogenesis in Y-1 functional mouse adrenal tumor cells was significantly inhibited by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, and cannabinol. The inhibition of steroidogenesis could not be correlated with a general depression in cell function or viability. The data suggest that cannabinoids inhibit corticosteroidogenesis at a site between the synthesis of cAMP and of pregnenolone.

  1. Determination of the positions and residues of the. delta. /sup + +/ and. delta. /sup 0/ poles. [Phase shifts,coulomb corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasan, S S [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1976-04-19

    The poles and the associated residues in the ..pi..N P/sub 33/ amplitude corresponding to the resonances ..delta../sup + +/ and ..delta../sup 0/ are determined by fitting the ..pi../sup +/p and ..pi../sup -/p hadronic phase shifts from the Carter 73 analysis. The ..delta../sup + +/ and ..delta../sup 0/ pole positions are determined also from the nuclear phase shifts, these being the phase shifts made up of the hadronic phase shifts plus the Coulomb corrections. The pole positions obtained from the two sets of phase shifts are different, the differences being larger in the case of the ..delta../sup + +/.

  2. Spanish-Portuguese consensus statement on use of daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolevulinate in the treatment of actinic keratosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilaberte, Y; Aguilar, M; Almagro, M; Correia, O; Guillén, C; Harto, A; Pérez-García, B; Pérez-Pérez, L; Redondo, P; Sánchez-Carpintero, I; Serra-Guillén, C; Valladares, L M

    2015-10-01

    Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new type of PDT that is as effective as conventional PDT in grade 1 and 2 actinic keratosis but with fewer adverse effects, resulting in greater efficiency. The climatic conditions in the Iberian Peninsula require an appropriately adapted consensus protocol. We describe a protocol for the treatment of grade 1 and 2 actinic keratosis with daylight-mediated PDT and methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) adapted to the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of Spanish and Portuguese patients and the climatic conditions of both countries. Twelve dermatologists from different parts of Spain and Portugal with experience in the treatment of actinic keratosis with PDT convened to draft a consensus statement for daylight-mediated PDT with MAL in these countries. Based on a literature review and their own clinical experience, the group developed a recommended protocol. According to the recommendations adopted, patients with multiple grade 1 and 2 lesions, particularly those at risk of developing cancer, are candidates for this type of therapy. Daylight-mediated PDT can be administered throughout the year, although it is not indicated at temperatures below 10°C or at excessively high temperatures. Likewise, therapy should not be administered when it is raining, snowing, or foggy. The procedure is simple, requiring application of a sunscreen with a protection factor of at least 30 based exclusively on organic filters, appropriate preparation of the lesions, application of MAL without occlusion, and activation in daylight for 2hours. This consensus statement represents a practical and detailed guideline to achieve maximum effectiveness of daylight-mediated PDT with MAL in Spain and Portugal with minimal adverse effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  3. Adaptive Delta Management: cultural aspects of dealing with uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Jos; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Hermans, Leon; Kwakkel, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Deltas are generally recognized as vulnerable to climate change and therefore a salient topic in adaptation science. Deltas are also highly dynamic systems viewed from physical (erosion, sedimentation, subsidence), social (demographic), economic (trade), infrastructures (transport, energy, metropolization) and cultural (multi-ethnic) perspectives. This multi-faceted dynamic character of delta areas warrants the emergence of a branch of applied adaptation science, Adaptive Delta Management, which explicitly focuses on climate adaptation of such highly dynamic and deeply uncertain systems. The application of Adaptive Delta Management in the Dutch Delta Program and its active international dissemination by Dutch professionals results in the rapid dissemination of Adaptive Delta Management to deltas worldwide. This global dissemination raises concerns among professionals in delta management on its applicability in deltas with cultural conditions and historical developments quite different from those found in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom where the practices now labelled as Adaptive Delta Management first emerged. This research develops an approach and gives a first analysis of the interaction between the characteristics of different approaches in Adaptive Delta Management and their alignment with the cultural conditions encountered in various delta's globally. In this analysis, first different management theories underlying approaches to Adaptive Delta Management as encountered in both scientific and professional publications are identified and characterized on three dimensions: The characteristics dimensions used are: orientation on today, orientation on the future, and decision making (Timmermans, 2015). The different underlying management theories encountered are policy analysis, strategic management, transition management, and adaptive management. These four management theories underlying different approaches in Adaptive Delta Management are connected to

  4. Delta count-rate monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Etten, D.; Olsen, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    A need for a more effective way to rapidly search for gamma-ray contamination over large areas led to the design and construction of a very sensitive gamma detection system. The delta count-rate monitoring system was installed in a four-wheel-drive van instrumented for environmental surveillance and accident response. The system consists of four main sections: (1) two scintillation detectors, (2) high-voltage power supply amplifier and single-channel analyzer, (3) delta count-rate monitor, and (4) count-rate meter and recorder. The van's 6.5-kW generator powers the standard nuclear instrument modular design system. The two detectors are mounted in the rear corners of the van and can be run singly or jointly. A solid-state bar-graph count-rate meter mounted on the dashboard can be read easily by both the driver and passenger. A solid-state strip chart recorder shows trends and provides a permanent record of the data. An audible alarm is sounded at the delta monitor and at the dashboard count-rate meter if a detected radiation level exceeds the set background level by a predetermined amount

  5. The sensitivity of the ESA DELTA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C.; Walker, R.; Klinkrad, H.

    Long-term debris environment models play a vital role in furthering our understanding of the future debris environment, and in aiding the determination of a strategy to preserve the Earth orbital environment for future use. By their very nature these models have to make certain assumptions to enable informative future projections to be made. Examples of these assumptions include the projection of future traffic, including launch and explosion rates, and the methodology used to simulate break-up events. To ensure a sound basis for future projections, and consequently for assessing the effectiveness of various mitigation measures, it is essential that the sensitivity of these models to variations in key assumptions is examined. The DELTA (Debris Environment Long Term Analysis) model, developed by QinetiQ for the European Space Agency, allows the future projection of the debris environment throughout Earth orbit. Extensive analyses with this model have been performed under the auspices of the ESA Space Debris Mitigation Handbook and following the recent upgrade of the model to DELTA 3.0. This paper draws on these analyses to present the sensitivity of the DELTA model to changes in key model parameters and assumptions. Specifically the paper will address the variation in future traffic rates, including the deployment of satellite constellations, and the variation in the break-up model and criteria used to simulate future explosion and collision events.

  6. Understanding delta-sigma data converters

    CERN Document Server

    Pavan, Shanti; Temes, Gabor C

    2017-01-01

    This new edition introduces novel analysis and design techniques for delta-sigma (ΔΣ) converters in physical and conceptual terms, and includes new chapters that explore developments in the field over the last decade. This book explains the principles and operation of delta-sigma analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) in physical and conceptual terms in accordance with the most recent developments in the field. The interest of ΔΣ converter designers has shifted significantly over the past decade, due to many new applications for data converters at the far ends of the frequency spectrum. Continuous-time delta-sigma A/D converters with GHz clocks, of both lowpass and bandpass types, are required for wireless applications. At the other extreme, multiplexed ADCs with very narrow (sometimes 10 Hz wide) signal bandwidths, but very high accuracy are needed in the interfaces of biomedical and environmental sensors. To reflect the changing eeds of designers, the second edition includes significant new material on bo...

  7. Biomass co-firing for Delta Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2014-01-01

    Electricity generator Delta Electricity has implemented a biomass co-firing program at its Vales Point power station on the Central Coast to reduce its reliance on coal and emissions of CO 2 . The program comprises two parts: direct co-firing with coal of up to 5% biomass; and development of Continuous Biomass Converter (CBC) technology with the Crucible Group to remove technology constraints and enable much higher rates of biomass co-firing. It is talking industrial scale tests. Delta increased biomass co-firing in 2013/14 to 32,000 tonnes, up from just 3,000 tonnes the previous year, and conducted biochar co-firing trials at a rate equivalent to 400,000 tonnes per annum to demonstrate the potential of CBC technology. It reduced CO 2 emissions in 2013/14 by more than 32,000 tonnes. 'Legislation and regulations define biomass as renewable,' said Delta Electricity sustainability manager Justin Flood. 'By preferring biomass over coal, the carbon in the coal is not burnt and remains locked up.' One biomass source is wood waste that would normally go to landfill, but the primary driver of Delta's recent increase in co-firing is sawmill residues. 'Previously there was a higher value market for the residues for paper pulp. However, when that market evaporated the timber industry was left with a sizable problem in terms of what to do with its residues and the loss of revenue,' said Flood. The way greenhouse gas accounting is conducted in Australia, with carbon emissions based on site activities, makes it difficult to undertake a life cycle assessment of the program. 'However, some of the international studies looking at this issue have concluded that the net carbon emissions of the biomass system are significantly lower than the coal system because of the uptake of carbon during biomass growth,' said Flood. Delta identified two challenges, sourcing the feedstock and that biomass conversion to electricity is slightly less

  8. Modeling of the Ebola Virus Delta Peptide Reveals a Potential Lytic Sequence Motif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Gallaher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Filoviruses, such as Ebola and Marburg viruses, cause severe outbreaks of human infection, including the extensive epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD in West Africa in 2014. In the course of examining mutations in the glycoprotein gene associated with 2014 Ebola virus (EBOV sequences, a differential level of conservation was noted between the soluble form of glycoprotein (sGP and the full length glycoprotein (GP, which are both encoded by the GP gene via RNA editing. In the region of the proteins encoded after the RNA editing site sGP was more conserved than the overlapping region of GP when compared to a distant outlier species, Tai Forest ebolavirus. Half of the amino acids comprising the “delta peptide”, a 40 amino acid carboxy-terminal fragment of sGP, were identical between otherwise widely divergent species. A lysine-rich amphipathic peptide motif was noted at the carboxyl terminus of delta peptide with high structural relatedness to the cytolytic peptide of the non-structural protein 4 (NSP4 of rotavirus. EBOV delta peptide is a candidate viroporin, a cationic pore-forming peptide, and may contribute to EBOV pathogenesis.

  9. Autoradiographic localization of mu and delta opioid receptors in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilts, R.P. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    In vitro autoradiographic techniques were coupled with selective chemical lesions of the A10 dopamine cells and intrinsic perikarya of the region to delineate the anatomical localization of mu and delta opioid receptors, as well as, neurotensin receptors. Mu opioid receptors were labeled with {sup 125}I-DAGO. Delta receptors were labeled with {sup 125}I-DPDPE. Neurotensin receptors were labeled with {sup 125}I-NT3. Unilateral lesions of the dopamine perikarya were produced by injections of 6-OHDA administered in the ventral mesencephalon. Unilateral lesions of intrinsic perikarya were induced by injections of quinolinic acid in to the A10 dopamine cell region. Unilateral lesions produced with 6-OHDA resulted in the loss of neurotensin receptors in the A10 region and within the terminal fields. Mu opioid receptors were unaffected by this treatment, but delta opioid receptors increased in the contralateral striatum and nucleus accumbens following 6-OHDA administration. Quinolinic acid produced a reduction of mu opioid receptors within the A10 region with a concomitant reduction in neurotensin receptors in both the cell body region and terminal fields. These results are consistent with a variety of biochemical and behavioral data which suggest the indirect modulation of dopamine transmission by the opioids. In contrast these results strongly indicate a direct modulation of the mesolimbic dopamine system by neurotensin.

  10. Synoptic Lithostratigraphy of The Niger Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwajide, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    The Tertiary Niger Delta is stratigraphically framed by the Dahomey, Anambra, Abakaliki, Afikpo and Calabar Flank basins. From the apex at Onitsha a fluvial plain splays southwards and translates progressively into a freshwater swamp, succeeded by a mangrove swamp belt. Along the coast is a strip of wave-washed barrier bars indented by large estuaries, fronted by submerged moth bars. Habitation in the delta is on levees, point bars, and barrier bars. These landforms provided the firm salients for buildings the ports that facilitated international trade from the pre-colonial times.There are four lithofacies-clean, pebbly, and muddy sandstones, and mudstones. Their subdivision, based on sedimentary structures, textures and fossil content yields twenty reservoir and seven nonreservoir classes. Their environments of deposition, identified using facies associations, fall into fluvial, wave-and tide-dominated, marginal, and shallow marine, with localised canyons incised into the delta front and filled with deeper marine facies.The reservoirs are composed of 70 90% quartz, 4 15% feldspar, and 3 13% clay matrix, with minor mica, bioclasts, carbonaceous debris, glauconite, and heavy minerals. Grain size varies from very fine to coarse and pebbly, implying the presence of sands of varying textural and compositional maturities. Silica, K-feldspar, and carbonates constitute the cements.Porosity in the reservoirs has remained about the same as at deposition due to low mechanical compaction occasioned by shallow burial. Meteoric water-flushed progradational sequence are characterised by cementation with quartz and kaolinite. In contrast, marine water-flushed transgressive sands show grain coating illite-smectite, chlorite and K-feldspar overgrowths

  11. THE RURAL TOURISM IN DANUBE DELTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica SOARE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the rural areas has market size and forecast its development as an economic activity. The present paper aims at analyzing the rural areas has in Danube Delta. In an enviable BAs which have responsibility for their particular isolated, such as the Danube Delta and the Danube that used, fishing and rural areas has the main activities that provide jobs and income sources for local populations. Design/methodology/approach - A survey was administered to customers’ rural hostel accommodation in Danube Delta. Descriptive statistics method was mainly adopted to calculate the mean with standard deviation of entry assumes variable, and to examine the different levels of consumers' awareness. The index values of product familiarity, the ratio between entries assumes product's familiarity value and the average value. Findings - the research results show hash has rural consumers have different perception and accomplished through behaviour. The information channels of brand hash mainly from friends, relatives and neighbours, so word of mouth spreading is very important for a brand. Women show a higher sensitivity in health and are currently operating the propensity than referred to follow the recommendations for nutrition. Research limitations/implications - This item is intended to synthesize developments and challenges," on June 13th rural market growth has. The results of this paper should be considered tentatively until has also features replicated by larger has rural consumers. Originality/value - members of rural areas has consumer's behavior would improve marketing and the development of rural areas has products, in order to reduce consumer confusion.

  12. Stratigraphy and Evolution of Delta Channel Deposits, Jezero Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudge, T. A.; Mohrig, D.; Cardenas, B. T.; Hughes, C. M.; Fassett, C. I.

    2017-01-01

    The Jezero impact crater hosted an open-basin lake that was active during the valley network forming era on early Mars. This basin contains a well exposed delta deposit at the mouth of the western inlet valley. The fluvial stratigraphy of this deposit provides a record of the channels that built the delta over time. Here we describe observations of the stratigraphy of the channel deposits of the Jezero western delta to help reconstruct its evolution.

  13. Tracks, spurs, blobs and delta-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, J.L.; Chatterjee, A.

    1983-01-01

    The track of a high-energy particle is the collection of all transient species created by the particle in the total degradation of its energy. Visible electron tracks are called delta rays. A microscopic description of the track with all its knocked-out electrons leads to spurs, blobs, and short tracks. Energy deposition criteria for these three track entities are 6 to 100 eV, 100 to 500 eV, and 500 eV to 5 keV, respectively

  14. The situation in the Niger Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitalis, E.

    2007-01-01

    An energy issue for the United States and a political challenge for Europe, Nigeria is experiencing growing instability and is on the verge of civil war; the ecosystem and the population of the Niger Delta are the main victims. The State, corrupt, is powerless to contain the rising violence and redistribute the proceeds of oil sales. It is high time for oil-consuming countries, starting with the United States, to concern themselves with stabilizing the region. Europe must contribute to the lasting development of this country. (author)

  15. Thermochemistry of aqueous pyridine-3-carboxylic acid (nicotinic acid)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Elsa M. [Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Politecnico de Setubal, ESTBarreiro, Rua Americo da Silva Marinho, 2839-001 Lavradio (Portugal); Rego, Talita S. [Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Minas da Piedade, Manuel E., E-mail: memp@fc.ul.p [Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: {yields} We determined the {Delta}{sub sol}H{sub m} of solid nicotinic acid (NA) in water by solution calorimetry. {yields} We determined {Delta}{sub dil}H{sub m} of an aqueous nicotinic acid solution by flow calorimetry. {yields} We determined (aq, {infinity}) for the 3 NA species involved in acid/base equilibria. {yields} We determined the enthalpy of formation of NA(aq) under saturation conditions.. - Abstract: The molar enthalpy of solution of solid nicotinic acid (NA) at T = 298.15 K, to give an aqueous solution of molality m = 3.748 . 10{sup -3} mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}, was determined as {Delta}{sub sol}H{sub m} = (19,927 {+-} 48) J {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, by solution calorimetry. Enthalpies of dilution, {Delta}{sub dil}H{sub m}, of 0.1005 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} aqueous nicotinic acid to yield final solutions with molality in the approximate range (0.03 to 0.09) mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} were also measured by flow calorimetry. Combining the two sets of data and the results of pH measurements, with values of proton dissociation enthalpies and {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(NA, cr) selected from the literature, it was possible to derive the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the three nicotinic acid species involved in protonation/deprotonation equilibria, at infinite dilution: {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(HN{sup +}C{sub 5}H{sub 4}COOH.{infinity}H{sub 2}O,aq) = (328.2 {+-} 1.2) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(HN{sup +}C{sub 5}H{sub 4}COO{sup -}.{infinity}H{sub 2}O,aq) = (325.0 {+-} 1.2) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, and {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(NC{sub 5}H{sub 4}COO{sup -}.{infinity}H{sub 2}O,aq) = (313.7 {+-} 1.2) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}. Finally, the enthalpy of solution of nicotinic acid at T = 298.15 K, under saturation conditions (m = 0.138 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}), and the standard molar enthalpy of formation of the corresponding solution could also be obtained as {Delta

  16. Adaptive delta management: a comparison between the Netherlands and Bangladesh Delta Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zevenbergen, Chris; Khan, Shah Alam; Alphen, van Jos; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Catharien; Veerbeek, William

    2018-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the central government, water authorities, provinces and municipalities are working together on a new Delta Program on Flood Risk Management and Fresh Water Supply (DP). Its primary goal is to protect the Netherlands against floods and ensure the availability of fresh water, now

  17. Tidal modulated flow and sediment flux through Wax Lake Delta distributary channels: Implications for delta development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hanegan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a Delft3D model of the Wax Lake Delta was developed to simulate flow and sediment flux through delta distributary channels. The model was calibrated for tidal constituents as well as velocity and sediment concentration across channel transects. The calibrated model was then used to simulate full spring–neap tidal cycles under constant low flow upstream boundary conditions, with grain size variation in suspended load represented using two sediment fractions. Flow and sediment flux results through distributary channel cross-sections were examined for spatial and temporal variability with the goal of characterizing the role of tides in sediment reworking and delta development. The Wax Lake Delta has prograded through channel extension, river mouth bar deposition, and channel bifurcation. Here we show that tidal modulation of currents influences suspended sand transport, and spatial acceleration through distributary channels at low tides is sufficient to suspend sand in distal reaches during lower flows. The basinward-increasing transport capacity in distributary channels indicates that erosive channel extension could be an important process, even during non-flood events.

  18. Delta Plaza kohvik = The Delta Plaza Café / Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Margit, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Pärnu mnt. 141 asuva kohviku Delta Plaza sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Tiiu Truus ja Marja Viltrop (Stuudio Truus OÜ). Hoone arhitektid Jüri Okas ja Marika Lõoke (AB J. Okas & M. Lõoke). Žürii liikme Mait Summataveti arvamus kohvikust

  19. Studying medium effects with the optimized {delta} expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krein, G [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Menezes, D P [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Nielsen, M [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Pinto, M B [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France). Lab. de Physique Mathematique

    1995-04-01

    The possibility of using the optimized {delta} expansion for studying medium effects on hadronic properties in quark or nuclear matter is investigated. The {delta} expansion is employed to study density effects with two commonly used models in hadron and nuclear physics, the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model for the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and the Walecka model for the equation of state of nuclear matter. The results obtained with the {delta} expansion are compared to those obtained with the traditional Hartree-Fock approximation. Perspectives for using the {delta} expansion in other field theoretic models in hadron and nuclear physics are discussed. (author). 17 refs, 9 figs.

  20. Optimality and self-organization in river deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, A.; Longjas, A.; Edmonds, D. A.; Zaliapin, I. V.; Georgiou, T. T.; Rinaldo, A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2017-12-01

    Deltas are nourished by channel networks, whose connectivity constrains, if not drives, the evolution, functionality and resilience of these systems. Understanding the coevolution of deltaic channels and their flux organization is crucial for guiding maintenance strategies of these highly stressed systems from a range of anthropogenic activities. However, in contrast to tributary channel networks, to date, no theory has been proposed to explain how deltas self-organize to distribute water and sediment to the delta top and the shoreline. Here, we hypothesize the existence of an optimality principle underlying the self-organized partition of fluxes in delta channel networks. Specifically, we hypothesize that deltas distribute water and sediment fluxes on a given delta topology such as to maximize the diversity of flux delivery to the shoreline. By introducing the concept of nonlocal Entropy Rate (nER) and analyzing ten field deltas in diverse environments, we present evidence that supports our hypothesis, suggesting that delta networks achieve dynamically accessible maxima of their nER. Furthermore, by analyzing six simulated deltas using the Delf3D model and following their topologic and flux re-organization before and after major avulsions, we further study the evolution of nER and confirm our hypothesis. We discuss how optimal flux distributions in terms of nER, when interpreted in terms of resilience, are configurations that reflect an increased ability to withstand perturbations.

  1. Upper-division student difficulties with the Dirac delta function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany R. Wilcox

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Dirac delta function is a standard mathematical tool that appears repeatedly in the undergraduate physics curriculum in multiple topical areas including electrostatics, and quantum mechanics. While Dirac delta functions are often introduced in order to simplify a problem mathematically, students still struggle to manipulate and interpret them. To characterize student difficulties with the delta function at the upper-division level, we examined students’ responses to traditional exam questions and a standardized conceptual assessment, and conducted think-aloud interviews. Our analysis was guided by an analytical framework that focuses on how students activate, construct, execute, and reflect on the Dirac delta function in the context of problem solving in physics. Here, we focus on student difficulties using the delta function to express charge distributions in the context of junior-level electrostatics. Common challenges included invoking the delta function spontaneously, translating a description of a charge distribution into a mathematical expression using delta functions, integrating 3D or non-Cartesian delta function expressions, and recognizing that the delta function can have units. We also briefly discuss implications of these difficulties for instruction.

  2. Relationship of urinary arsenic metabolites to intake estimates in residents of the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Minh, Tu Binh; Pham Thi Kim Trang; Iwata, Hisato; Pham Hung Viet; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the status of arsenic (As) exposure from groundwater and rice, and its methylation capacity in residents from the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Arsenic levels in groundwater ranged from <1.8 to 486 μg/L. Remarkably, 86% of groundwater samples exceeded WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg/L. Also, estimated inorganic As intake from groundwater and rice were over Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (15 μg/week/kg body wt.) by FAO/WHO for 92% of the residents examined. Inorganic As and its metabolite (monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid) concentrations in human urine were positively correlated with estimated inorganic As intake. These results suggest that residents in these areas are exposed to As through consumption of groundwater and rice, and potential health risk of As is of great concern for these people. Urinary concentration ratios of dimethylarsinic acid to monomethylarsonic acid in children were higher than those in adults, especially among men, indicating greater As methylation capacity in children. - Positive correlations between estimated arsenic intake and urinary inorganic arsenic and its metabolites were observed in human from the Red River Delta, Vietnam

  3. Relationship of urinary arsenic metabolites to intake estimates in residents of the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agusa, Tetsuro [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Enya 89-1, Izumo 693-8501 (Japan); Kunito, Takashi [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Minh, Tu Binh [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Department of Biology and Chemistry (BCH), City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Pham Thi Kim Trang [Center for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi National University, 334 Nguyen Trai Street, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Pham Hung Viet [Center for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi National University, 334 Nguyen Trai Street, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2009-02-15

    This study investigated the status of arsenic (As) exposure from groundwater and rice, and its methylation capacity in residents from the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Arsenic levels in groundwater ranged from <1.8 to 486 {mu}g/L. Remarkably, 86% of groundwater samples exceeded WHO drinking water guideline of 10 {mu}g/L. Also, estimated inorganic As intake from groundwater and rice were over Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (15 {mu}g/week/kg body wt.) by FAO/WHO for 92% of the residents examined. Inorganic As and its metabolite (monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid) concentrations in human urine were positively correlated with estimated inorganic As intake. These results suggest that residents in these areas are exposed to As through consumption of groundwater and rice, and potential health risk of As is of great concern for these people. Urinary concentration ratios of dimethylarsinic acid to monomethylarsonic acid in children were higher than those in adults, especially among men, indicating greater As methylation capacity in children. - Positive correlations between estimated arsenic intake and urinary inorganic arsenic and its metabolites were observed in human from the Red River Delta, Vietnam.

  4. Catalyzing action towards the sustainability of deltas: deltas as integrated socio-ecological systems and sentinels of regional and global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Tessler, Z. D.; Brondizio, E.; Overeem, I.; Renaud, F.; Sebesvari, Z.; Nicholls, R. J.; Anthony, E.

    2016-12-01

    Deltas are highly dynamic and productive environments: they are food baskets of the world, home to biodiverse and rich ecosystems, and they play a central role in food and water security. However, they are becoming increasingly vulnerable to risks arising from human activities, land subsidence, regional water management, global sea-level rise, and climate extremes. Our Belmont Forum DELTAS project (BF-DELTAS: Catalyzing actions towards delta sustainability) encompasses an international network of interdisciplinary research collaborators with focal areas in the Mekong, Ganges Brahmaputra, and the Amazon deltas. The project is organized around five main modules: (1) developing an analytical framework for assessing delta vulnerability and scenarios of change (Delta-SRES), (2) developing an open-acess, science-based integrative modeling framework for risk assessment and decision support (Delta-RADS), (3) developing tools to support quantitative mapping of the bio-physical and socio-economic environments of deltas and consolidate bio-physical and social data within shared data repositories (Delta-DAT), (4) developing Global Delta Vulnerability Indices (Delta-GDVI) that capture current and projected scenarios for major deltas around the world , and (5) collaborating with regional stakeholders to put the science, modeling, and data into action (Delta-ACT). In this talk, a research summary will be presented on three research domains around which significant collaborative work was developed: advancing biophysical classification of deltas, understanding deltas as coupled socio-ecological systems, and analyzing and informing social and environmental vulnerabilities in delta regions.

  5. Human influence on the sedimentation in the delta of the river Kyroenjoki, western Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkilae, R.

    1999-01-01

    of the 1970s below the level of 1930s, due to the construction of water reservoirs. On the basis of the chemical analyses of the sediment surface the delta was divided into two parts according to the sedimentary conditions. In the inner part with acid river water dominating, the conditions were reducing. The Fe/Mn ratio of the sediment was high, and the heavy metal content usually low. In the outer part of the delta, where weakly basic brackish water dominates, the sedimentary conditions were mostly oxidizing. The Fe/Mn ratio was low, and the heavy metal content usually high in the accumulation areas. This is because the fine-grained allochthonous material, which has a high heavy metal content, flocculates and precipitates when it reaches the brackish water of the Gulf of Bothnia, and the salinity and pH get higher. Due to land uplift and accumulation of the sediment, which together are approximately 2 cm a year, the delta gradually moves towards the sea. The present-day shallow bays will be filled and the deeper ones are formed into lakes. (orig.)

  6. Superconducting bandpass delta-sigma modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulzacchelli, J.F.; Lee, H.-S.; Misewich, J.A.; Ketchen, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Bandpass delta-sigma modulators digitize narrowband signals with high dynamic range and linearity. The required sampling rate is only a few times higher than the centre frequency of the input. This paper presents a superconducting bandpass delta-sigma modulator for direct analogue-to-digital conversion of RF signals in the GHz range. The input signal is capacitively coupled to one end of a microstrip transmission line, and a single flux quantum balanced comparator quantizes the current flowing out of the other end. Quantization noise is suppressed at the quarter-wave resonance of the transmission line (about 2 GHz in our design). Circuit performance at a 20 GHz sampling rate has been studied with several long JSIM simulations. Full-scale (FS) input sensitivity is 20 mV (rms), and in-band noise is -53 dBFS and -57 dBFS over bandwidths of 39 MHz and 19.5 MHz, respectively. In-band intermodulation distortion is better than -69 dBFS. (author)

  7. Sediment and Vegetation Controls on Delta Channel Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzon, R.; Murray, A. B.; Piliouras, A.; Kim, W.

    2016-12-01

    Numerous factors control the patterns of distributary channels formed on a delta, including water and sediment discharge, grain size, sea level rise rates, and vegetation type. In turn, these channel networks influence the shape and evolution of a delta, including what types of plant and animal life - such as humans - it can support. Previous fluvial modeling and flume experiments, outside of the delta context, have addressed how interactions between sediment and vegetation, through their influence on lateral transport of sediment, determine what type of channel networks develops. Similar interactions likely also shape delta flow patterns. Vegetation introduces cohesion, tending to reduce channel migration rates and strengthen existing channel banks, reinforcing existing channels and resulting in localized, relatively stable flow patterns. On the other hand, sediment transport processes can result in lateral migration and frequent switching of active channels, resulting in flow resembling that of a braided stream. While previous studies of deltas have indirectly explored the effects of vegetation through the introduction of cohesive sediment, we directly incorporate key effects of vegetation on flow and sediment transport into the delta-building model DeltaRCM to explore how these effects influence delta channel network formation. Model development is informed by laboratory flume experiments at UT Austin. Here we present initial results of experiments exploring the effects of sea level rise rate, sediment grain size, vegetation type, and vegetation growth rate on delta channel network morphology. These results support the hypothesis that the ability for lateral transport of sediment to occur plays a key role in determining the evolution of delta channel networks and delta morphology.

  8. The Concentration Dependence of the (Delta)s Term in the Gibbs Free Energy Function: Application to Reversible Reactions in Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Ronald K.

    2004-01-01

    The concentration dependence of (delta)S term in the Gibbs free energy function is described in relation to its application to reversible reactions in biochemistry. An intuitive and non-mathematical argument for the concentration dependence of the (delta)S term in the Gibbs free energy equation is derived and the applicability of the equation to…

  9. Complex rearrangements within the human J delta-C delta/J alpha-C alpha locus and aberrant recombination between J alpha segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baer, R.; Boehm, T.; Yssel, H.; Spits, H.; Rabbitts, T. H.

    1988-01-01

    We have examined DNA rearrangements within a 120 kb cloned region of the human T cell receptor J delta-C delta/J alpha-C alpha locus. Three types of pattern emerge from an analysis of T cell lines and clones. Firstly, cells with two rearrangements within J delta-C delta; secondly, cells with one

  10. Spatio-temporal distributions of delta18O, delta D and salinity in the Arabian Sea: Identifying processes and controls

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshpande, R.D; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Singh, R.L.; Kumar, B.; Rao, M.S.; Dave, M.; Sivakumar, K.U.; Gupta, S.K.

    the geographic distributions of the delta18O and S; (2) in spite of a large scatter, a statistically significant delta18O–S relationship can be identified in much of the investigated part of the AS; (3) the delta18Odelta...

  11. 78 FR 21491 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [License No. 02/02-0662, 02/02-0661] DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P. and DeltaPoint...

  12. Changes to subaqueous delta bathymetry following a high river flow event, Wax Lake Delta, LA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaling, A. R.; Shaw, J.

    2017-12-01

    Sediment transport capacity is increased during high river flow (flood) events which are characterized by discharges that exceed the 15 year median daily statistic. The Wax Lake Delta (WLD) in coastal Louisiana has experienced 19 of these high flow events in the past 20 years, yet the depositional patterns of single floods are rarely measured in a field-scale deltaic setting. We characterize flood deposition and erosion patterns on the subaqueous portion of the WLD by differencing two Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) constructed from bathymetric surveys before and after the third largest flood in the WLD's recorded history. The total suspended sediment discharge for the 496 day inter-survey period was 2.14x107 cubic meters measured 21 km upstream of the delta apex. The difference map showed 1.06x107 cubic meters of sediment was deposited and 8.2x106 cubic meters was eroded, yielding 2.40x106 cubic meters of net deposition in the survey area ( 79.7 km2 ). Therefore the average deposition rate was 0.061 mm/day. Channel planform remained relatively unchanged for five out of six distributary passes however Gadwall Pass experienced a maximum channel displacement of 166 m ( 1 channel width) measured from the thalweg centerline. Channel tip extension was negligible. In addition, channel displacement was not concentrated at any portion along the channel centerline. Maximum erosion occurred within channel margins and increased upstream whereas maximum deposition occurred immediately outside the channel margins. Sediment eroded from the survey area was either subsequently re-deposited or transported out of the system. Our results show that up to 77.4% of deposition in the survey area originated from sediment eroded during the flood. Surprisingly, only 11.2% of the total suspended sediment discharge was retained in the subaqueous portion of the delta after the flood. We conclude that a high flow event does not produce channel progradation. Rather, high flow causes delta

  13. Niger Delta Crisis and Security Implications for the Nation State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Niger Delta is the nation's treasure base, the Niger Delta provides over 80 percent of government revenue, 95 percent of export receipts, and 90 percent of ... The government should tackle the fundamental issue of basic necessities – provision of good motorable roads, pipe borne water, electricity, good hospitals, good ...

  14. Morphodynamics of the Manyema tidal delta 1 LIST OF TABLES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kheira Kortenbout

    Morphodynamics of the Manyema tidal delta. 1. LIST OF ... Location of Manyema Creek and its associated tidal delta platform at Kunduchi. Fig. 2. ... platform. Beachcomber. Hotel. Whitesands. Hotel. Kunduchi. Beach Hotel. Giraffe. Hotel. INDIAN. OCEAN. Mombasa. Dar es. Salaam. KUNDUCHI. KENYA. TANZANIA.

  15. Towards a Comprehensive Framework for Adaptive Delta Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchand, M.; Ludwig, F.

    2014-01-01

    Deltas are dynamic landforms at the boundary of land and sea, involving intricate mazes of rivers and small waterways, wetlands, estuaries and coastal barrier islands. They are home to over half a billion people. Deltas are also home to rich ecosystems, such as mangroves and marshes. They are

  16. Conflict resolution among Niger delta communities: A historical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conflict related issues have assumed endemic proportion in the Niger Delta. A proper assessment of the critical factors in motion must take cognizance of their historical underpinnings. Peaceful co-existence, the hallmark of conflict resolution, can be feasible in the Niger Delta, through sustainable dialogue. These, among

  17. Upper-Division Student Difficulties with the Dirac Delta Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Pollock, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    The Dirac delta function is a standard mathematical tool that appears repeatedly in the undergraduate physics curriculum in multiple topical areas including electrostatics, and quantum mechanics. While Dirac delta functions are often introduced in order to simplify a problem mathematically, students still struggle to manipulate and interpret them.…

  18. Caribbean piracy and youth restiveness in Niger delta: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our aim in this paper is to make a comparative analysis of Caribbean piracy and youth restiveness in Niger Delta of Nigeria. It will not be out of place to carry out such an analysis having seen, heard or read of the ongoing chaos, insecurity in the. Niger Delta Zone in Nigeria. We have to look at the past to find out such similar

  19. 78 FR 45592 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ..., Suite 160, Pittsford, NY 14534. The financing was contemplated for working capital. The financing is... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [License No. 02/02-0662] DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP; Notice Seeking... given that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., 45 East Avenue, 6th Floor, Rochester, NY 14604, Federal...

  20. Central Delta languages: An overview | Kari | Stellenbosch Papers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an overview of the phonology, morphology and syntax of Central Delta languages. It also provides information on the geo-linguistic, demographic and sociolinguistic situation of these languages. It notes that Central Delta languages have a 20-vowel system, which divides into two sets of 10 vowels ...

  1. Downstream hydraulic geometry of a tidally influenced river delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassi, M.G.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Brye, de B.; Deleersnijder, E.

    2012-01-01

    Channel geometry in tidally influenced river deltas can show a mixed scaling behavior between that of river and tidal channel networks, as the channel forming discharge is both of river and tidal origin. We present a method of analysis to quantify the tidal signature on delta morphology, by

  2. Delta: the first pion nucleon resonance - its discovery and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagle, D.E.

    1984-07-01

    It is attempted to recapture some of the fun and excitement of the pion-scattering work that led to the discovery of what is now called the delta particle. How significant this discovery was became apparent only gradually. That the delta is alive today and thriving at Los Alamos (as well as other places) is described

  3. Wastewater disposal at safari lodges in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater disposal at safari lodges in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. TS McCarthy, T Gumbricht, RG Stewart, D Brandt, PJ Hancox, J McCarthy, AG Duse. Abstract. Many safari lodges in the Okavango Delta obtain their water supply from boreholes in near-surface aquifers while disposing of their wastewater via ...

  4. Remote stereocontrol by sulfinyl groups: reduction of delta-ketosulfoxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Ruano, José L; Fernández-Ibáñez, M Angeles; Maestro, M Carmen; Rodríguez-Fernández, M Mercedes

    2005-03-04

    The reduction of delta-ketosulfoxides constitutes the first evidence of the efficiency of the sulfinyl group to control the stereoselectivity of 1,5-asymmetric induction processes. The use of DIBAL/Yb(OTf)3 or L-Selectride as the reducing agents provides delta-hydroxysulfoxides with the opposite configuration at the hydroxylic carbon in a highly stereoselective way.

  5. Quark sea and the. delta. I=1/2 rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, J F [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Physics; Golowich, E [Massachusetts Univ., Amherst (USA)

    1977-08-29

    The effect on nonleptonic processes of quark-antiquark pairs due to quantum chromodynamics is studied. Their presence improves agreement between theory and experiment for hyperon decays. In kaon decays a new ..delta..I=1/2 contribution is found, but ..delta..I=3/2 effects are still too large to be in agreement.

  6. Antinociceptive activity of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol non-ionic microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, P; Fadda, P; Marchese, G; Casu, G L; Pani, L

    2010-06-30

    Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC), the major psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa L., has been widely studied for its potential pharmaceutical application in the treatment of various diseases and disturbs. This sparingly soluble terpeno-phenolic compound is not easy to handle and to be formulated in pharmaceutical preparations. The aim of this work was to develop a stable aqueous Delta(9)-THC formulation acceptable for different ways of administration, and to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the new Delta(9)-THC based preparation for pain treatment. Due to the thermodynamic stability and advantages of microemulsion based systems, the study was focused on the identification of aqueous microemulsion based systems containing Delta(9)-THC. Oil in water Delta(9)-THC microemulsions were individuated through phase diagrams construction, using the non-ionic surfactant Solutol HS15, being this surfactant acceptable for parenteral administration in human. A selected microemulsion samples containing 0.2 wt% of Delta(9)-THC, stable up to 52 degrees C, was successfully assayed on animal models of pain. Significant antinociceptive activity has been detected by both intraperitoneal and intragastric administration of the new Delta(9)-THC pharmaceutical preparation. The effect has been highlighted in shorter time if compared to a preparation of the same active principle based on previously reported conventional preparation. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An annotated list of Fishes from the Niger Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeseman, M.

    1963-01-01

    At the end of November 1960, the Leiden Museum received an interesting collection of animals, mostly fishes, from the Niger delta. All specimens were collected by Mr. H. J. G. Beets, at the time employed by Shell B.P. — Delta Investigations, during the period May to August 1960, and in the region

  8. Topological Mappings via B&delta;g-Closed Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Maruthamuthu, Raja; Narayanasamy, Seenivasagan; Otchanathevar, Ravi

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new class of functions called  B&delta;g-continuous functions. We obtain several characterizations and some their properties. Also we investigate its relationship with other types of functions. Further we introduce and study a new class of functions namely B&delta;g-irresolute.

  9. Estimation of Thermal Conductivity in the North- Western Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermal conductivity estimates are computed from nineteen petroleum wells in the north-western Niger Delta, Nigeria, using a geometric mean model. Sonic and gamma-ray logs were digitised and used in the estimation of in situ conductivity. The Niger Delta is composed of three major diachronous lithostratigraphic units of ...

  10. How to deal with subsidence in the Dutch delta?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouthamer, E.; Erkens, G.

    2017-01-01

    In many deltas worldwide subsidence still is an underestimated problem, while the threat posed by land subsidence low-lying urbanizing and urbanized deltas exceeds the threat of sea-level rise induced by climate change. Human-induced subsidence is driven by the extraction of hydrocarbons and

  11. Dousing the tension in the Niger delta through administrative agency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dousing the tension in the Niger delta through administrative agency: A programme evaluation of Niger delta development commission as an intervention regime. ... the study concludes that because of systemic constraints arising from the hegemonic interests of the dominant coalitions in the Nigerian Social formation, ...

  12. Drones on the delta | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    25 nov. 2016 ... Waves wash ashore at Fuvemeh, a town in Ghana's Volta River delta that's threatened by coastal erosion and flooding. Brian Owens, Canadian Geographic. Ghana's Volta River delta is an area vulnerable to climate change, with rising seas and increasingly powerful storms driving flooding and erosion, ...

  13. Homosexuality amongst migrant oil workers in the Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: To determine the prevalence of homosexuality among migrant oil workers in Niger Delta. Methods: A prospective questionnaire – based study was conducted among migrant oil workers in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The design was to determine the prevalence of homosexuality in the workers in oil workers.

  14. T gamma/delta lymphocytes in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raasveld, M. H.; Bloemena, E.; Surachno, S.; ten Berge, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    T gamma/delta lymphocytes are able to perform allospecific cytotoxicity and natural killer cytotoxicity in vitro. However, very little is known about their function in vivo. To investigate the possible involvement of T gamma/delta lymphocytes in the immune response to renal allografts, fine-needle

  15. Clinical-scale investigation of stable isotopes in human blood: delta13C and delta15N from 406 patients at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Rebecca A; Jahren, A Hope; Saudek, Christopher D

    2008-11-01

    Objective chemical biomarkers are needed in clinical studies of diet-related diseases to supplement subjective self-reporting methods. We report on several critical experiments for the development of clinically legitimate dietary stable isotope biomarkers within human blood. Our examination of human blood revealed the following: (1) Within blood clot and serum from anonymous individuals (201 males, 205 females) we observed: mean serum delta13C = -19.1 +/- 0.8 per thousand (standard deviation, SD); clot, -19.3 +/- 0.8 per thousand (SD); range = -15.8 per thousand to -23.4 per thousand. Highly statistically significant differences are observed between clot and serum, males and females for both clot and serum. For 15N (n = 206), mean serum = +8.8 +/- 0.5 per thousand (SD); clot +7.4 +/- 0.4 per thousand (SD); range = +6.3 per thousand to +10.5 per thousand. Blood serum is enriched in 15N relative to blood clot by +1.4 per thousand on average, which may reflect differing protein amino acid content. Serum nitrogen is statistically significantly different for males and females, however, clot shows no statistical difference. (2) Relative to clot, capillary blood is marginally different for 13C, but not 15N. Clot 13C is not significantly different from serum; however, it is depleted in 15N by 1.5 per thousand relative to serum. (3) We assessed the effect of blood additives (sodium fluoride and polymerized acrylamide resin) and laboratory process (autoclaving, freeze drying) commonly used to preserve or prepare venous blood. On average, no alteration in delta13C or delta15N is detected compared with unadulterated blood from the same individual. (4) Storage of blood with and without the additives described above for a period of up to 115 days exhibits statistically significant differences for 13C and 15N for sodium fluoride. However, storage for unadulterated blood and blood preserved with polymerized acrylamide resin does not change the delta13C or delta15N isotopic

  16. The evolution of a subaqueous delta in the Anthropocene: A stratigraphic investigation of the Brazos River delta, TX USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Joseph A.; Dellapenna, Timothy M.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, deltas are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic activities. As a result, deltas now evolve through the combined effects of natural and human-induced processes occurring throughout the fluvial-deltaic system. The Brazos River delta, located along the Texas coast in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, and its watershed have been impacted by direct and indirect human activities since the late 19th century. This provides an opportunity to investigate how such alterations have shaped the evolution of a delta in the Anthropocene, a time when humans are drivers of geological change. Historic alteration to the delta and watershed include extensive agricultural activity, jetty construction at the mouth in the late 1890s, mouth diversion ~10 km to the southwest in 1929, and reservoir construction throughout the early and mid 20th Century. Three subaerial deltaic geometries provided the framework to connect subaerial deltaic responses, to the anthropogenic alterations, to the resulting stratigraphic characteristics observed in the subaqueous delta. This study utilized high-resolution geophysical data (swath bathymetry, side scan sonar, CHIRP subbottom profiling) on the subaqueous delta to investigate the subaqueous delta stratigraphy and infer the processes that shaped the deltaic record over time. The results showed distinct areas across the subaqueous delta that were dominated by erosion and deposition. Erosional areas corresponded to earlier growth phase depocenters being exposed at the surface, while the depositional areas corresponded to areas with the most recent growth phase depocenter overlying the earlier depocenters. These results highlight that the subaqueous depocenter has migrated westward over time, consistent with the observed changes to the subaerial delta. Additionally, the data showed that evidence for these past growth phases and depocenters may be preserved within the subaqueous delta, even after subaerial portions of the delta returned to pre

  17. Losing ground in mega-deltas: basin-scale response to existential threats to the Mekong Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, M. E.; Kondolf, G. M.; Schmitt, R. J. P.; Carling, P. A.; Darby, S. E.; Bizzi, S.; Castelletti, A.; Cochrane, T. A.; Gibson, S.; Kummu, M.; Oeurng, C.; Rubin, Z.; Wild, T. B.

    2017-12-01

    The Mekong Delta is, in terms of the number of livelihoods it supports, its economic importance, and in its vulnerability to climate change and sinking lands, one of the world's critically threatened mega-deltas. Livelihoods depend on the mere existence of the delta, but also on ecosystem services provided by the delta's drainage basin spanning 795,000 km2 in six abutting countries. These ecosystem services include delivery of sand required to build delta land in the face of rising sea-levels and sediment bound nutrients, provision of spawning habitat for fish that are ultimately harvested in the delta, and hydrologic regulation driving the delta's unique flood-pulse regime. However, while the delta is mainly located in Vietnam, the basin of the Mekong River is shared among China, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam. In the context of the region's dynamic growth, individual countries are pushing their own development agendas, which include extensive dam building, in-channel sand mining, construction of dykes and canals, and groundwater pumping, all of which contribute to subsidence and erosion of the Delta. Our synthesis of recent research indicates that most of the Mekong's delta land will likely fall below sea-level by 2100 as result of these drivers, exacerbating the impacts of global climatic changes. In this context, local infrastructural projects and changes in land- and water-management may temporarily mitigate some negative effects, but do not address the existential threat to the delta as a whole. To prevent, or at least substantially postpone, the drowning of the Mekong Delta requires identification of the key drivers and immediate concerted management actions on the basin-scale to change the trajectory of subsidence and sediment deficit. A specific challenge is to find the institutional arrangements in this transnational context that could support the needed management changes and equitably distribute costs and impacts. The Mekong Delta is

  18. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta activation leads to increased transintestinal cholesterol efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrins, Carlos L. J.; van der Velde, Astrid E.; van den Oever, Karin; Levels, Johannes H. M.; Huet, Stephane; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPAR delta) is involved in regulation of energy homeostasis. Activation of PPAR delta markedly increases fecal neutral sterol secretion, the last step in reverse cholesterol transport. This phenomenon can neither be explained by increased

  19. Measurement of delta-rays in ATLAS silicon sensors

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    In the inner detector of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, $\\delta$-rays originating from particle interactions in the silicon sensors may cause additional hit channels. A method for identifying silicon hit clusters that are enlarged due to the emission of a $\\delta$-ray is presented. Using pp collision data the expectation is confirmed that the $\\delta$-ray production rate depends linearly on the path length of the particle in silicon, independently of layer radius and detector technology. The range of the $\\delta$-rays, which is a property of the material and should not depend on anything else, is indeed found to be constant as a function of detector layer, path length in silicon and momentum of the particle traversing the silicon. As a by-product of this analysis a method is proposed that could correct for the effect of these $\\delta$-rays, and this could be used to improve track reconstruction.

  20. (p,. pi. /sup -/) reaction and. delta. /sup + +/ components of nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisslinger, L S; Miller, G A [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1975-12-08

    The use of the (p,..pi../sup -/) reaction as a probe to determine ..delta../sup + +/(1232) components of nuclear wave functions is examined within the framework of a model which treats baryon resonances on the same footing as nucleons. Nuclear structure properties which affect the ..delta..-probability are discussed. Estimates of cross sections, at several energies, are made for the ..delta../sup + +/ transfer contribution as well as for the competing processes: proton charge exchange (p,n) followed by an (n,..gamma../sup -/) reaction; emission of a ..pi../sup 0/ followed by pion charge exchange (..pi../sup -/,..pi../sup 0/). Even with ..delta..-probabilities as small as 0.0001 the ..delta..-transfer process can compete with ordinary background charge-exchange reactions.

  1. Spectral factorization using the delta operator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Morten; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Ravn, Ole

    1994-01-01

    In recent years many papers have been published abouth the gamma-operator, mostly caused by the better numerical properties and the rapprochement between continuous and discrete time. A major problem within the LQG-design of a delta-based input-output relation has been how to spectral-factorize...... solution to the spectral factorization problem. The key idea is to use the gamma-operator resembled by its behavior to the differential operator....... in an efficient way. The discrete-time method of Kuccera will not be applied since numerical word-length characteristics will be poor for fast sampling rates. In this paper a new approach is considered. A new gamma-operator (Tustin operator) is introduced, in order to make an iterative and numerical stable...

  2. $\\delta N$ formalism from superpotential and holography

    CERN Document Server

    Garriga, Jaume; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2016-02-16

    We consider the superpotential formalism to describe the evolution of scalar fields during inflation, generalizing it to include the case with non-canonical kinetic terms. We provide a characterization of the attractor behaviour of the background evolution in terms of first and second slow-roll parameters (which need not be small). We find that the superpotential is useful in justifying the separate universe approximation from the gradient expansion, and also in computing the spectra of primordial perturbations around attractor solutions in the $\\delta N$ formalism. As an application, we consider a class of models where the background trajectories for the inflaton fields are derived from a product separable superpotential. In the perspective of the holographic inflation scenario, such models are dual to a deformed CFT boundary theory, with $D$ mutually uncorrelated deformation operators. We compute the bulk power spectra of primordial adiabatic and entropy cosmological perturbations, and show that the results...

  3. Head orientation prediction: delta quaternions versus quaternions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himberg, Henry; Motai, Yuichi

    2009-12-01

    Display lag in simulation environments with helmet-mounted displays causes a loss of immersion that degrades the value of virtual/augmented reality training simulators. Simulators use predictive tracking to compensate for display lag, preparing display updates based on the anticipated head motion. This paper proposes a new method for predicting head orientation using a delta quaternion (DQ)-based extended Kalman filter (EKF) and compares the performance to a quaternion EKF. The proposed framework operates on the change in quaternion between consecutive data frames (the DQ), which avoids the heavy computational burden of the quaternion motion equation. Head velocity is estimated from the DQ by an EKF and then used to predict future head orientation. We have tested the new framework with captured head motion data and compared it with the computationally expensive quaternion filter. Experimental results indicate that the proposed DQ method provides the accuracy of the quaternion method without the heavy computational burden.

  4. Dependence of {delta}E effect on internal stresses in nickel: Experimental results by laser interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chicharro, J.M. [Dept. de Mecanica Aplicada e Ingenieria de Proyectos, E.T.S.I. Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Avd. Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)]. E-mail: josemanuel.chicharro@uclm.es; Bayon, A. [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada a los Recursos Naturales, E.T.S.I. Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c/Rios Rosas, 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Salazar, F. [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada a los Recursos Naturales, E.T.S.I. Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c/Rios Rosas, 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-02-15

    The speckle heterodyne interferometry is applied to the study of the dependence of Young's modulus on both the magnetic field and the internal stresses in a soft ferromagnetic material. Young's modulus is determined from the first natural longitudinal frequency of a slender magnetic rod positioned within a solenoid. Vibration of the sample is detected by an optical heterodyne system with a wide bandwidth. The samples are heated to above the Curie point and then cooled at several rates in order to induce different internal stresses. The study refers to nickel rods 10mm in diameter and 110mm in length. The grain sizes of the samples are also determined and related to changes in {delta}E.

  5. Multimode delta-E effect magnetic field sensors with adapted electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabel, Sebastian; Fichtner, Simon; Kirchhof, Christine; Quandt, Eckhard; Faupel, Franz, E-mail: ff@tf.uni-kiel.de [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Materials Science, Kiel University, Kaiserstraße 2, 24143 Kiel (Germany); Reermann, Jens; Schmidt, Gerhard [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Electrical Engineering, Kiel University, Kaiserstraße 2, 24143 Kiel (Germany); Wagner, Bernhard [Fraunhofer Institute for Silicon Technology ISIT, Fraunhoferstraße 1, 25524 Itzehoe (Germany)

    2016-05-30

    We present an analytical and experimental study on low-noise piezoelectric thin film resonators that utilize the delta-E effect of a magnetostrictive layer to measure magnetic fields at low frequencies. Calculations from a physical model of the electromechanical resonator enable electrode designs to efficiently operate in the first and second transversal bending modes. As predicted by our calculations, the adapted electrode design improves the sensitivity by a factor of 6 and reduces the dynamic range of the sensor output by 16 dB, which significantly eases the requirements on readout electronics. Magnetic measurements show a bandwidth of 100 Hz at a noise level of about 100 pTHz{sup −0.5}.

  6. Perspectives on bay-delta science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Michael; Dettinger, Michael; Norgaard, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The State of Bay–Delta Science 2008 highlighted seven emerging perspectives on science and management of the Delta. These perspectives had important effects on policy and legislation concerning management of the Delta ecosystem and water exports. From the collection of papers that make up the State of Bay–Delta Science 2016, we derive another seven perspectives that augment those published in 2008. The new perspectives address nutrient and contaminant concentrations in Delta waters, the failure of the Delta food web to support native species, the role of multiple stressors in driving species toward extinction, and the emerging importance of extreme events in driving change in the ecosystem and the water supply. The scientific advances that underpin these new perspectives were made possible by new measurement and analytic tools. We briefly discuss some of these, including miniaturized acoustic fish tags, sensors for monitoring of water quality, analytic techniques for disaggregating complex contaminant mixtures, remote sensing to assess levee vulnerability, and multidimensional hydrodynamic modeling. Despite these new tools and scientific insights, species conservation objectives for the Delta are not being met. We believe that this lack of progress stems in part from the fact that science and policy do not incorporate sufficiently long-term perspectives. Looking forward half a century was central to the Delta Visioning process, but science and policy have not embraced this conceptual breadth. We are also concerned that protection and enhancement of the unique cultural, recreational, natural resource, and agricultural values of the Delta as an evolving place, as required by the Delta Reform Act, has received no critical study and analysis. Adopting wider and longer science and policy perspectives immediately encourages recognition of the need for evaluation, analysis, and public discourse on novel conservation approaches. These longer and wider perspectives

  7. The Atchafalaya River Delta. Report 7. Analytical Analysis of the Development of the Atchafalaya River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    responsible for the abrupt increases in subaerial delta growth. 64. Through using satellite imagery, color infrared photog- raphy, and digital current...w RO CF = HO/A/BO/(2.-D) w (HH wo (2.-D) - 1.) + O.5/AA X2 = BO m 2.m AA a HHow(D-1.) o CF AREA = (2.wAAwB~ ww2 ) im (CKI*(1. + AmBO/HOwRO) ww2 &+ CK2 a

  8. Impact of alpha-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol on the radiation induced oxidation of rapeseed oil triacylglycerols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunrath, Robert; Isnardy, Bettina; Solar, Sonja, E-mail: sonja.solar@univie.ac.at; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2010-07-15

    Gamma-irradiation (doses: 2, 4, 7, and 10 kGy) was used as oxidation tool to study the antioxidant effects of alpha-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol (enrichments 500-5000 ppm) in purified rapeseed oil triacylglycerols (RSOTG). Fatty acid composition, tocopherol degradation, primary (conjugated dienes (CD) and peroxide value (POV)) and secondary (p-anisidine value) oxidation products were chosen as test parameters. Fatty acid composition did not change. While secondary oxidation products could not be found in the irradiated samples, the POVs and CDs showed a significant, dose-dependent increase. alpha-Tocopherol did not inhibit the formation of peroxides, whereas gamma- and delta-tocopherol reduced the POVs by more than 30%. No uniform effect of the different tocopherol concentrations at the particular doses could be established. The influence of the individual tocopherols on the CD formation was not pronounced. The degradation of the tocopherols decreased with increasing concentration. None of the tocopherols showed a prooxidant effect.

  9. Carrier-mediated γ-aminobutyric acid transport across the basolateral membrane of human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Carstensen, Mette; Brodin, Birger

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the transport of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) across the basolateral membrane of intestinal cells. The proton-coupled amino acid transporter, hPAT1, mediates the influx of GABA and GABA mimetic drug substances such as vigabatrin and gaboxadol and the anticancer prodrug δ-aminolevulinic acid across the apical membrane of small intestinal enterocytes. Little is however known about the basolateral transport of these substances. We investigated basolateral transport of GABA in mature Caco-2 cell monolayers using isotope studies. Here we report that, at least two transporters seem to be involved in the basolateral transport of GABA. The basolateral uptake consisted of a high-affinity system with a K(m) of 290 μM and V(max) of 75 pmol cm(-2) min(-1) and a low affinity system with a K(m) of approximately 64 mM and V(max) of 1.6 nmol cm(-2) min(-1). The high-affinity transporter is Na(+) and Cl(-) dependent. The substrate specificity of the high-affinity transporter was further studied and Gly-Sar, Leucine, gaboxadol, sarcosine, lysine, betaine, 5-hydroxythryptophan, proline and glycine reduced the GABA uptake to approximately 44-70% of the GABA uptake in the absence of inhibitor. Other substances such as β-alanine, GABA, 5-aminovaleric acid, taurine and δ-aminolevulinic acid reduced the basolateral GABA uptake to 6-25% of the uptake in the absence of inhibitor. Our results indicate that the distance between the charged amino- and acid-groups is particular important for inhibition of basolateral GABA uptake. Thus, there seems to be a partial substrate overlap between the basolateral GABA transporter and hPAT1, which may prove important for understanding drug interactions at the level of intestinal transport. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Neutralization and Acid Dissociation of Hydrogen Carbonate Ion: A Thermochemical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Nobuyoshi; Shigedomi, Kana; Kimura, Tomoyasu; Tatsuoka, Tomoyuki; Mishima, Saki

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory inquiry into the thermochemical relationships in the reaction between aqueous solutions of NaHCO[subscript 3] and NaOH is described. The enthalpy change for this reaction, delta[subscript r]H, and that for neutralization of strong acid and NaOH(aq), delta[subscript n]H, are determined calorimetrically; the explanation for the…

  11. Primary production in the Delta: Then and now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.; Robinson, April; Richey, Amy; Grenier, Letitia; Grossinger, Robin; Boyer, Katharyn E.; Burau, Jon; Canuel, Elizabeth A.; DeGeorge, John F.; Drexler, Judith Z.; Enright, Chris; Howe, Emily R.; Kneib, Ronald; Mueller-Solger, Anke; Naiman, Robert J.; Pinckney, James L.; Safran, Samuel M.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Simenstad, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the role of restoration in the recovery of the Delta ecosystem, we need to have clear targets and performance measures that directly assess ecosystem function. Primary production is a crucial ecosystem process, which directly limits the quality and quantity of food available for secondary consumers such as invertebrates and fish. The Delta has a low rate of primary production, but it is unclear whether this was always the case. Recent analyses from the Historical Ecology Team and Delta Landscapes Project provide quantitative comparisons of the areal extent of 14 habitat types in the modern Delta versus the historical Delta (pre-1850). Here we describe an approach for using these metrics of land use change to: (1) produce the first quantitative estimates of how Delta primary production and the relative contributions from five different producer groups have been altered by large-scale drainage and conversion to agriculture; (2) convert these production estimates into a common currency so the contributions of each producer group reflect their food quality and efficiency of transfer to consumers; and (3) use simple models to discover how tidal exchange between marshes and open water influences primary production and its consumption. Application of this approach could inform Delta management in two ways. First, it would provide a quantitative estimate of how large-scale conversion to agriculture has altered the Delta's capacity to produce food for native biota. Second, it would provide restoration practitioners with a new approach—based on ecosystem function—to evaluate the success of restoration projects and gauge the trajectory of ecological recovery in the Delta region.

  12. How Rapid Change Affects Deltas in the Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, I.; Bendixen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Deltas form where the river drains into the ocean. Consequently, delta depositional processes are impacted by either changes in the respective river drainage basin or by changes in the regional marine environment. In a warming Arctic region rapid change has occurred over the last few decades in both the terrestrial domain as well as in the marine domain. Important terrestrial controls include 1) change in permafrost possibly destabilizing river banks, 2) strong seasonality of river discharge due to a short melting season, 3) high sediment supply if basins are extensively glaciated, 4) lake outbursts and ice jams favoring river flooding. Whereas in the Arctic marine domain sea ice loss promotes wave and storm surge impact, and increased longshore transport. We here ask which of these factors dominate any morphological change in Arctic deltas. First, we analyze hydrological data to assess change in Arctic-wide river discharge characteristics and timing, and sea ice concentration data to map changes in sea ice regime. Based on this observational analysis we set up a number of scenarios of change. We then model hypothetical small-scale delta formation considering change in these primary controls by setting up a numerical delta model, and combining it dynamically with a permafrost model. We find that for typical Greenlandic deltas changes in river forcing due to ice sheet melt dominate the morphological change, which is corroborated by mapping of delta progradation from aerial photos and satellite imagery. Whereas in other areas, along the North Slope and the Canadian Arctic small deltas are more stable or experienced retreat. Our preliminary coupled model allows us to further disentangle the impact of major forcing factors on delta evolution in high-latitude systems.

  13. Hot deformation behavior of delta-processed superalloy 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y., E-mail: wangyanhit@yahoo.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Shao, W.Z.; Zhen, L.; Zhang, B.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} The peak stress for hot deformation can be described by the Z parameter. {yields} The grain size of DRX was inversely proportional to the Z parameter. {yields} The dissolution of {delta} phases was greatly accelerated under hot deformation. {yields}The {delta} phase stimulated nucleation can serve as the main DRX mechanism. - Abstract: Flow stress behavior and microstructures during hot compression of delta-processed superalloy 718 at temperatures from 950 to 1100 deg. C with strain rates of 10{sup -3} to 1 s{sup -1} were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The relationship between the peak stress and the deformation conditions can be expressed by a hyperbolic-sine type equation. The activation energy for the delta-processed superalloy 718 is determined to be 467 kJ/mol. The change of the dominant deformation mechanisms leads to the decrease of stress exponent and the increase of activation energy with increasing temperature. The dynamically recrystallized grain size is inversely proportional to the Zener-Hollomon (Z) parameter. It is found that the dissolution rate of {delta} phases under hot deformation conditions is much faster than that under static conditions. Dislocation, vacancy and curvature play important roles in the dissolution of {delta} phases. The main nucleation mechanisms of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) for the delta-processed superalloy 718 include the bulging of original grain boundaries and the {delta} phase stimulated DRX nucleation, which is closely related to the dissolution behavior of {delta} phases under certain deformation conditions.

  14. Primary Production in the Delta: Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Cloern

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss3art1To evaluate the role of restoration in the recovery of the Delta ecosystem, we need to have clear targets and performance measures that directly assess ecosystem function. Primary production is a crucial ecosystem process, which directly limits the quality and quantity of food available for secondary consumers such as invertebrates and fish. The Delta has a low rate of primary production, but it is unclear whether this was always the case. Recent analyses from the Historical Ecology Team and Delta Landscapes Project provide quantitative comparisons of the areal extent of 14 habitat types in the modern Delta versus the historical Delta (pre-1850. Here we describe an approach for using these metrics of land use change to: (1 produce the first quantitative estimates of how Delta primary production and the relative contributions from five different producer groups have been altered by large-scale drainage and conversion to agriculture; (2 convert these production estimates into a common currency so the contributions of each producer group reflect their food quality and efficiency of transfer to consumers; and (3 use simple models to discover how tidal exchange between marshes and open water influences primary production and its consumption. Application of this approach could inform Delta management in two ways. First, it would provide a quantitative estimate of how large-scale conversion to agriculture has altered the Delta's capacity to produce food for native biota. Second, it would provide restoration practitioners with a new approach—based on ecosystem function—to evaluate the success of restoration projects and gauge the trajectory of ecological recovery in the Delta region.

  15. LIVER TRANSPLANTATION IN HEPATITIS DELTA: SOUTH AMERICA EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Souza LIMA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The Amazon region is one of the main endemic areas of hepatitis delta in the world and the only one related to the presence of genotype 3 of the delta virus. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the profile, mortality and survival of cirrhotic patients submitted to liver transplantation for chronic hepatitis delta virus and compare with those transplanted by hepatitis B virus monoinfection. METHODS: Retrospective, observational and descriptive study. From May 2002 to December 2011, 629 liver transplants were performed at the Walter Cantídio University Hospital, of which 29 patients were transplanted due to cirrhosis caused by chronic delta virus infection and 40 by hepatitis B chronic monoinfection. The variables analyzed were: age, sex, MELD score, Child-Pugh score, upper gastrointestinal bleeding and hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence before the transplantation, perioperative platelet count, mortality and survival. RESULTS: The Delta Group was younger and all came from the Brazilian Amazon Region. Group B presented a higher proportion of male patients (92.5% compared to Group D (58.6%. The occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding before transplantation, MELD score, and Child-Pugh score did not show statistical differences between groups. The occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality were higher in the hepatitis B Group. The survival in 4 years was 95% in the Delta Group and 75% in the B Group, with a statistically significant difference (P=0.034. Patients with hepatitis delta presented more evident thrombocytopenia in the pre-transplantation and in the immediate postoperative period. CONCLUSION: The hepatitis by delta virus patients who underwent liver transplantation were predominantly male, coming from the Brazilian Amazon region and with similar liver function to the hepatitis B virus patients. They had a lower incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma, more marked perioperative thrombocytopenia levels and frequent

  16. Delta Evolution at Røde Elv, Disko Island, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, A.; Arngrimson, J.; Bendixen, M.; Sigsgaard, C.

    2017-12-01

    Ice, snow and freezing temperatures have a large impact on coastal morphodynamics in Arctic polar environments. A recent warming of the Arctic climate induces many changes along the arctic shorelines. Sea-levels are rising due to thermal expansion and due to an increased fresh water flux from the glaciers and land ice masses. At the same time, the ice coverage of the coastal waters reduces and the open water periods in summer extend. There is a strong seasonal variation with open waters and active rivers in summer and ice-covered coastal waters and inactive rivers in winter. Coastal processes by waves and tides are thus limited to the summer and early fall. Besides, there is also a strong daily variation in fluvial discharges due to the daily variations in glacier melt with maximum melt in the afternoon and minimum values at night. At the same time, the actual flux of the river to the coastal bay is influenced by the tidal phase. Low tides will enhance the transport to the delta front, while high tides will create stagnant waters over the delta plain. The delta of the Røde Elv is located in southwestern Disko Island in west Greenland. It has a relatively small (ca. 101 km2) and partly glaciated drainage basin (ca. 20%) and its sediments consist of a mixture of basaltic sands and gravels. The Røde Elv delta is located at the end of a pro-glacial and fluvial valley at about 20 km from the glacier. The shores of the delta are reworked by waves, predominantly from southwestern, southern (largest fetch, over 50 km), and southeastern directions. The environment has a micro- to meso- tidal range with a spring tidal range of 2.7 m. The morphologic changes on the delta over the last decades clearly showed a seaward extension of the delta and a periodic shift in the location of the main delta channel. In this presentation, we focus on quantification of water discharges and suspended sediment fluxes to the Røde Elv delta in western Greenland, and on the morphological

  17. Late quaternary evolution of the Orinoco Delta, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, A.G.; Guevara, E.H.; Aslan, A.

    2002-01-01

    The modern Orinoco Delta is the latest of a series of stacked deltas that have infilled the Eastern Venezuelan Basin (EVB) since the Oligocene. During the late Pleistocene sea-level lowstand (20,000 to 16,000 yrs BP), bedrock control points at the position of the present delta apex prevented the river channel from incising as deeply as many other major river systems. Shallow seismic data indicate that the late Pleistocene Orinoco incised into the present continental shelf, where it formed a braided-river complex that transported sediment to a series of shelf-edge deltas. As sea level rose from 16,000 to 9,500 yrs BP, the Orinoco shoreline shifted rapidly landward, causing shallow-marine waves and currents to form a widespread transgressive sand unit. Decelerating sea-level rise and a warmer, wetter climate during the early Holocene (9,500 to 6,000 yrs BP) induced delta development within the relatively quiet-water environment of the EVB embayment. Sea level approached its present stand in the middle Holocene (6,000 to 3,000 yrs BP), and the Orinoco coast prograded, broadening the delta plain and infilling the EVB embayment. Significant quantities of Amazon sediment began to be transported to the Orinoco coast by littoral currents. Continued progradation in the late Holocene caused the constriction at Boca de Serpientes to alter nearshore and shelf hydrodynamics and subdivide the submarine delta into two distinct areas: the Atlantic shelf and the Gulf of Paria. The increased influence of littoral currents along the coast promoted mudcape development. Because most of the water and sediment were transported across the delta plain through the Rio Grande distributary in the southern delta, much of the central and northwestern delta plain became sediment starved, promoting widespread accumulation of peat deposits. Human impacts on the delta are mostly associated with the Volca??n Dam on Can??o Manamo. However, human activities have had relatively little effect on the

  18. Is there a self-organization principle of river deltas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Alejandro; Longjas, Anthony; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2017-04-01

    River deltas are known to possess a complex topological and flux-partitioning structure which has recently been quantified using spectral graph theory [Tejedor et al., 2015a,b]. By analysis of real and simulated deltas it has also been shown that there is promise in formalizing relationships between this topo-dynamic delta structure and the underlying delta forming processes [e.g., Tejedor et al., 2016]. The question we pose here is whether there exists a first order organizational principle behind the self-organization of river deltas and whether this principle can be unraveled from the co-evolving topo-dynamic structure encoded in the delta planform. To answer this question, we introduce a new metric, the nonlocal Entropy Rate (nER) that captures the information content of a delta network in terms of the degree of uncertainty in delivering fluxes from any point of the network to the shoreline. We hypothesize that if the "guiding principle" of undisturbed deltas is to efficiently and robustly build land by increasing the diversity of their flux pathways over the delta plane, then they would exhibit maximum nonlocal Entropy Rate at states at which geometry and flux dynamics are at equilibrium. At the same time, their nER would be non-optimal at transient states, such as before and after major avulsions during which topology and dynamics adjust to each other to reach a new equilibrium state. We will present our results for field and simulated deltas, which confirm this hypothesis and open up new ways of thinking about self-organization, complexity and robustness in river deltas. One particular connection of interest might have important implications since entropy rate and resilience are related by the fluctuation theorem [Demetrius and Manke, 2005], and therefore our results suggest that deltas might in fact self-organize to maximize their resilience to structural and dynamic perturbations. References: Tejedor, A., A. Longjas, I. Zaliapin, and E. Foufoula

  19. Holocene evolution of the western Orinoco Delta, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, A.; White, W.A.; Warne, A.G.; Guevara, E.H.

    2003-01-01

    The pristine nature of the Orinoco Delta of eastern Venezuela provides unique opportunities to study the geologic processes and environments of a major tropical delta. Remote-sensing images, shallow cores, and radiocarbon-dating of organic remains form the basis for describing deltaic environments and interpreting the Holocene history of the delta. The Orinoco Delta can be subdivided into two major sectors. The southeast sector is dominated by the Rio Grande-the principal distributary-and complex networks of anastomosing fluvial and tidal channels. The abundance of siliciclastic deposits suggests that fluvial processes such as over-bank flooding strongly influence this part of the delta. In contrast, the northwest sector is represented by few major distributaries, and overbank sedimentation is less widespread relative to the southeast sector. Peat is abundant and occurs in herbaceous and forested swamps that are individually up to 200 km2 in area. Northwest-directed littoral currents transport large volumes of suspended sediment and produce prominent mudcapes along the northwest coast. Mapping of surface sediments, vegetation, and major landforms identified four principal geomorphic systems within the western delta plain: (1) distributary channels, (2) interdistributary flood basins, (3) fluvial-marine transitional environments, and (4) marine-influenced coastal environments. Coring and radiocarbon dating of deltaic deposits show that the northern delta shoreline has prograded 20-30 km during the late Holocene sea-level highstand. Progradation has been accomplished by a combination of distributary avulsion and mudcape progradation. This style of deltaic progradation differs markedly from other deltas such as the Mississippi where distributary avulsion leads to coastal land loss, rather than shoreline progradation. The key difference is that the Orinoco Delta coastal zone receives prodigious amounts of sediment from northwest-moving littoral currents that transport

  20. The DELTA 181 lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ralph M.; Brown, Lawrence E.; Leigh, A. P.

    In 1986, the Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) undertook the development of a sensor module for the DELTA 181 spacecraft, a low earth orbit (LEO) mission of less than two months duration. A large lithium thionyl chloride battery was developed as the spacecraft's primary power source, the first known such use for this technology. The exceptionally high energy density of the lithium thionyl chloride cell was the primary driver for its use, resulting in a completed battery with a specific energy density of 120 Wh/lb. Safety requirements became the primary driver shaping all aspects of the power system design and development due to concerns about the potential hazards of this relatively new, high-energy technology. However, the program was completed without incident. The spacecraft was launched on February 8, 1988, from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) with over 60,000 Wh of battery energy. It reentered on April 2, 1988, still operating after 55 days, providing a successful, practical, and visible demonstration of the use of this technology for spacecraft applications.

  1. Chiral model for nucleon and delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birse, M.C.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1985-01-01

    We propose a model of the nucleon and delta based on the idea that strong QCD forces on length scales approx.0.2--1 fm result in hidden chiral SU(2) x SU(2) symmetry and that there is a separation of roles between these forces which are also responsible for binding quarks in hadrons and the forces which produce absolute confinement. This leads us to study a linear sigma model describing the interactions of quarks, sigma mesons, and pions. We have solved this model in the semiclassical (mean-field) approximation for the hedgehog baryon state. We refer to this solution as a chiral soliton. In the semiclassical approximation the hedgehog state is a linear combination of N and Δ. We project this state onto states of good spin and isospin to calculate matrix elements of various operators in these states. Our results are in reasonable agreement with the observed properties of the nucleon. The mesonic contributions to g/sub A/ and sigma(πN) are about two to three times too large, suggesting the need for quantum corrections

  2. Delta Morphodynamics Matters! Ecosystem Services, Poverty and Morphodynamic Change in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Mega-Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Adger, N.; Allan, A.; Darby, S. E.; Hutton, C.; Matthews, Z.; Rahman, M.; Whitehead, P. G.; Wolf, J.

    2013-12-01

    The world's deltas are probably the most vulnerable type of coastal environment, and they face multiple stresses in the coming decades. These stresses include, amongst others, local drivers due to land subsidence, population growth and urbanisation within the deltas, regional drivers due to changes in catchment management (e.g. upstream land use and dam construction), as well as global climate change impacts such as sea-level rise. At the same time, the ecosystem services of river deltas support high population densities, with around 14% of the global population inhabiting deltas. A large proportion of these people experience extremes of poverty and they are therefore severely exposed to vulnerability from environmental and ecological stress and degradation. In areas close to or below the poverty boundary, both subsistence and cash elements of the economy tend to rely disproportionately heavily on ecosystem services which underpin livelihoods. Therefore, to sustainably manage delta environments they must be viewed as complex social-environmental systems where change is only partially driven by physical drivers such as sea level rise and climate change, and human-induced development activities are also critical. Here we outline a new conceptual framework for the development of methods to understand and characterise the key drivers of change in ecosystem services that affect the environment and economic status of populous deltas, focusing specifically on the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) mega-delta. The GBM delta is characterised by densely populated coastal lowlands with significant poverty, with livelihoods supported to a large extent by natural ecosystems such as the Sunderbahns (the largest mangrove forest in the world). However, the GBM delta is under severe development pressure due to many growing cities. At present the importance of ecosystems services to poverty and livelihoods is poorly understood. This is due to due to the complexity of interactions

  3. Whole-genome analysis of genetic recombination of hepatitis delta virus: molecular domain in delta antigen determining trans-activating efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Mei; Lin, Chia-Chi; Lin, Feng-Ming; Li, Hsin-Pai; Iang, Shan-Bei

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is the only animal RNA virus that has an unbranched rod-like genome with ribozyme activity and is replicated by host RNA polymerase. HDV RNA recombination was previously demonstrated in patients and in cultured cells by analysis of a region corresponding to the C terminus of the delta antigen (HDAg), the only viral-encoded protein. Here, a whole-genome recombination map of HDV was constructed using an experimental system in which two HDV-1 sequences were co-transfected into cultured cells and the recombinants were analysed by sequencing of cloned reverse transcription-PCR products. Fifty homologous recombinants with 60 crossovers mapping to 22 junctions were identified from 200 analysed clones. Small HDAg chimeras harbouring a junction newly detected in the recombination map were then constructed. The results further indicated that the genome-replication level of HDV was sensitive to the sixth amino acid within the N-terminal 22 aa of HDAg. Therefore, the recombination map established in this study provided a tool for not only understanding HDV RNA recombination, but also elucidating the related mechanisms, such as molecular elements responsible for the trans-activation levels of the small HDAg.

  4. The small delta antigen of hepatitis delta virus is an acetylated protein and acetylation of lysine 72 may influence its cellular localization and viral RNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, J.-J.; Tsay, Y.-G.; Juan, L.-J.; Fu, T.-F.; Huang, W.-H.; Chen, D.-S.; Chen, P.-J.

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a single-stranded RNA virus that encodes two viral nucleocapsid proteins named small and large form hepatitis delta antigen (S-HDAg and L-HDAg). The S-HDAg is essential for viral RNA replication while the L-HDAg is required for viral assembly. In this study, we demonstrated that HDAg are acetylated proteins. Metabolic labeling with [ 3 H]acetate revealed that both forms of HDAg could be acetylated in vivo. The histone acetyltransferase (HAT) domain of cellular acetyltransferase p300 could acetylate the full-length and the N-terminal 88 amino acids of S-HDAg in vitro. By mass spectrometric analysis of the modified protein, Lys-72 of S-HDAg was identified as one of the acetylation sites. Substitution of Lys-72 to Arg caused the mutant S-HDAg to redistribute from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. The mutant reduced viral RNA accumulation and resulted in the earlier appearance of L-HDAg. These results demonstrated that HDAg is an acetylated protein and mutation of HDAg at Lys-72 modulates HDAg subcellular localization and may participate in viral RNA nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and replication

  5. Characterization of the guinea pig 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta5-Delta4-isomerase expressed in the adrenal gland and gonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durocher, Francine; Sanchez, Rocio; Ricketts, Marie-Louise; Labrie, Yvan; Laudet, Vincent; Simard, Jacques

    2005-11-01

    The guinea pig adrenal gland, analogous to the human, possesses the capacity to synthesize C(19) steroids. In order to further understand the control of guinea pig adrenal steroidogenesis we undertook the characterization of the guinea pig 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta(5)-Delta(4)-isomerase (3beta-HSD) expressed in the adrenal gland. A cDNA clone encoding guinea pig 3beta-HSD isolated from a guinea pig adrenal library is predicted to encode a protein of 373 amino acid residues and 41,475Da. Ribonuclease protection assay suggests that this cDNA corresponds to the predominant, if not the sole, mRNA species detectable in total RNA from the guinea pig adrenal gland, ovary and testis. The guinea pig 3beta-HSD shows a similar affinity for both pregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone, and in addition, a 17beta-HSD type II-like activity was also observed. A phylogenetical analysis of the 3beta-HSD gene family demonstrates that the guinea pig is in a parallel branch to the myomorpha group supporting the hypothesis that the guinea pig lineage has branched off after the divergence among primates, artiodactyls and rodents, suggesting the paraphyly of the order rodentia.

  6. The situation in the Niger Delta; La situation dans le delta du Niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitalis, E

    2007-07-15

    An energy issue for the United States and a political challenge for Europe, Nigeria is experiencing growing instability and is on the verge of civil war; the ecosystem and the population of the Niger Delta are the main victims. The State, corrupt, is powerless to contain the rising violence and redistribute the proceeds of oil sales. It is high time for oil-consuming countries, starting with the United States, to concern themselves with stabilizing the region. Europe must contribute to the lasting development of this country. (author)

  7. The Niger Delta Avengers, Autonomous Ethnic Clans and Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    therefore investigated the sudden emergence of Niger Delta Avengers ... hardship, deprivations and environmental degradation occasioned by oil pipeline .... analysis of coded materials of the library such as books, magazines, journals,.

  8. Rarotonga Radiocarbon (delta 14C) for 1950 to 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rarotonga coral radiocarbon (14C) timeseries. Coral radiocarbon (Delta-14C) on untreated, low-speed drilled samples. Precision is +/- 4 per mil as documented by an...

  9. Novel urinary metabolite of d-delta-tocopherol in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiku, S.; Hamamura, K.; Nakamura, T.

    1984-01-01

    A novel metabolite of d-delta-tocopherol was isolated from the urine of rats given d-3,4-[ 3 H 2 ]-delta-tocopherol intravenously. The metabolite was collected from the urine of rats given d-delta-tocopherol in the same manner as that of the labeled compound. It was found that the metabolites consisted of sulfate conjugates. The portion of the major metabolite released with sulfatase was determined to be 2,8-dimethyl-2-(2'-carboxyethyl)-6-chromanol by infrared spectra, nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and mass spectra. The proposed structure was confirmed by comparing the analytical results with those of a synthetically derived compound. As a result of the structural elucidation of this novel metabolite, a pathway for the biological transformation of delta-tocopherol is proposed which is different from that of alpha-tocopherol. A characteristic feature of the pathway is the absence of any opening of the chroman ring throughout the sequence

  10. Environmental Law and Underdevelopment in the Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Law and Underdevelopment in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. ... is composed of many ecosystems of great economic and social importance, ... producing companies contribute to the degradation of the environment which in ...

  11. Delta-ray spectroscopy of quasi-atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozhuharov, C.

    1983-01-01

    The spectroscopy of high energy delta-rays, emitted in collisions of very heavy ions, is studied. The ''orange''-type beta-spectrometer and the achromatic electron channel are the experimental setups. Delta ray production probabilities are studied as a function of the distance of closest approach R /SUB min/ or the impact parameter b. Coulomb ionization, ion trajectory, scaling laws, double differential cross sections, and K-X-rays information is extracted from the experiment. The dependence of delta-ray emission on the united charge number Z /SUB u/ is discussed. Asymmetric collision systems with Z x alpha approx. = 1 (delta ray spectrum from Pb→Sn collisions) are studied. Finally, very heavy collisions, such as 208 Pb + 208 Pb collisions at bombarding energy fas below the Coulomb barrier are touched upon

  12. precise delta extraction scheme for reprogramming of wireless

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords- reprogramming; operating system, wireless sensor network, Delta. 1. INTRODUCTION ... It entails the transmission of only modified modules that are then ... higher power consumption and slow system execution are drawbacks ...

  13. Pattern of Complicated Unsafe Abortions in Niger Delta University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    of cases of complicated unsafe abortion managed at the. Niger Delta University ... previous termination of pregnancy and 87.3% of the patients had ... and outcome were obtained. ... life-threatening complications, post- abortion family planning.

  14. DEltas, vulnerability and Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Hutton C.W.

    Stakeholder Dialogue, London, June 19th, 2014. DEltas, vulnerability and Climate. Change: Migration and Adaptation. (DECCMA). Stakeholder Dialogue. Radisson Blu Edwardian Grafton Hotel, London, UK. June 19th, 2014 ...

  15. Ecohealth Approach to Flood Recession Farming in Okavango Delta ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In the Okavango Delta, Botswana, flood-recession farming (molapu) is a lucrative but ... Moreover, some practices involved in molapu farming may pose a threat to the ... Linking research to urban planning at the ICLEI World Congress 2018.

  16. What are Pregnant Women in a Rural Niger Delta Community's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Buchanan House, Glasgow Caledonian University Email: Caroline. ... exploratory qualitative study was carried out to identify pregnant women in a rural Niger Delta community's perceptions of ..... sometimes you stay for the whole day.

  17. Inventory Management in Delta Allied Wire Industries Limited Asaba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A good inventory system reduces production cost and consequently increases profit. Optimum management of inventory in the Delta – Allied Wire Industries ... under review and customers' handling processes equally studied for improvement.

  18. Nucleon and delta masses in twisted mass chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker-Loud, Andre; Wu, Jackson M.S.

    2005-01-01

    We calculate the masses of the nucleons and deltas in twisted mass heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. We work to quadratic order in a power counting scheme in which we treat the lattice spacing, a, and the quark masses, m q , to be of the same order. We give expressions for the mass and the mass splitting of the nucleons and deltas both in and away from the isospin limit. We give an argument using the chiral Lagrangian treatment that, in the strong isospin limit, the nucleons remain degenerate and the delta multiplet breaks into two degenerate pairs to all orders in chiral perturbation theory. We show that the mass splitting between the degenerate pairs of the deltas first appears at quadratic order in the lattice spacing. We discuss the subtleties in the effective chiral theory that arise from the inclusion of isospin breaking

  19. Restoration of Delta Streams: A Case History and Conceptual Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Killgore, K. J; Hoover, Jan J; Murphy, Catherine E; Parrish, Kent D; Johnson, David R; Myers, Karen F

    2008-01-01

    .... Low water, excessive sedimentation in smaller delta streams, and the accumulation of pesticides such as DDT are the consequences of these anthropogenic disturbances resulting in dominance of tolerant fish species...

  20. LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California from the California Department of Water Resources. Bare earth grids from LiDAR.This data is in ESRI Grid format with 2...

  1. Environmental Risk Profiling of the Volta Delta, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, B. K.; Appeaning-Addo, K.; Amisigo, B.

    2017-12-01

    Volta Delta communities find it difficult to absorb or bear risk at different levels, because of the physical and economic impacts of environmental hazards. In this regards various agencies and organizations have in recent years launched initiatives to measure and identify risk areas with a set of indicators and indices. The theory underpinning this study is concepts of Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT). The Cox proportional hazards regression model will be used as the model for the risk profile. Finding the optimal level of environmental risk for activities in the Volta Delta considering the risk required, risk capacity and risk tolerance. Using data from different sources, an environmental risk profile was developed for the Volta Delta. The result indicates that risks are distributed across the Delta. However, areas that have government interventions, such as sea defense system and irrigation facilities have less threat. In addition wealthy areas do effectively reduce the threat of any form of disaster.

  2. Sedimentation patterns in floodplains of the Mekong Delta - Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Manh, Nguyen; Merz, Bruno; Viet Dung, Nguyen; Apel, Heiko

    2013-04-01

    Quantification of floodplain sedimentation during the flood season in the Mekong Delta (MD) plays a very important role in the assessment of flood deposits for a sustainable agro-economic development. Recent studies on floodplain sedimentation in the region are restricted to small pilot sites because of the large extend of the Delta, and the complex channel. This research aims at a quantification of the sediment deposition in floodplains of the whole Mekong Delta, and to access the impacts of the upstream basin development on the sedimentation in the Delta quantitatively. To achieve this, a suspended sediment transport model is developed based on the quasi-2D hydrodynamic model of the whole Mekong Delta developed by Dung et al. (2011). The model is calibrated and validated using observed data derived from several sediment measurement campaigns in channel networks and floodplains. Measured sediment data and hydrodynamic model quantify the spatio-temporal variability of sediment depositions in different spatial units: individual dyke compartments, and the sub-regions Plain of Reeds, Long Xuyen Quadrangle and the area between Tien River and Hau River. It is shown that the distribution of sediment deposition over the delta is highly depended on the flood magnitude, that in turn drives the operation policy of flood control systems in floodplains of the Mekong Delta. Thus, the sedimentation distribution is influenced by the protection level of the dyke systems in place and the distance to the Tien River and Hau River, the main branches of the Mekong in the Delta. This corroborates the main findings derived from data analysis obtained from a small scale test site by Hung et al, (2011, 2012a). Moreover, the results obtained here underlines the importance of the main channels for the sediment transport into the floodplains, and the deposition rate in floodplains is strongly driven by the intake locations and the distance from these to the main channels as well.

  3. Studies of Louisiana's Deltas and Wetlands using SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable coastal environments exist in delicate balance between subsidence, erosion, and sea level rise on one hand and accretion of sediment and retention of decomposing organic matter on the other. In this talk we present results from a series of studies using an airborne L-band SAR (UAVSAR) to measure changing conditions in the Mississippi River Delta and coastal wetlands of Louisiana. Change within the Mississippi River delta (MRD), which is a highly engineered environment, is contrasted to those in the Wax Lake Delta, a small, naturally evolving delta located to the west of the current-day lobe of the MRD. The UAVSAR studies provide evidence that in the MRD subsidence and erosion related to human activities are increasing risk of flooding, submergence, and land loss. These are not seen in the Wax Lake Delta, where new land is forming. We evaluate geomorphic and hydrologic changes In the Wax Lake Delta and wetlands hydrologically connected to the Wax Lake Outlet canal that are apparent on the timescales of the UAVSAR data set, which consists of both near-yearly acquisitions (2009-2016) and several series of repeat acquisitions in 2015 and 2016 capturing conditions across a tidal cycle. Using the yearly data, we observe the evolution of subaqueous channels and crevasses in the delta and changes in distributary channels within the wetlands. We use water level change derived from InSAR applied to the rapid repeat data acquired during different stages of a tidal cycle to study the natural pattern of water flux within the delta and the coastal wetlands. The studies, results, and plans for future work will be presented. This work was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contracts with the California Dept. of Water Resources and with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  4. The Great Diversion: Danube Delta under Human Control (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giosan, L.

    2009-12-01

    Many deltas around the world are suffering from sediment deficits that render them unstable to current and predicted rates of sea level rise. One solution proposed to alleviate the complete or partial drowning of such deltas is the use of river diversions to increase the quantity of sediment supplied to the delta plain to support marsh accretion. We examine the results of a half century old program of diversion in the Danube delta that led to the creation of an extensive diversion channel network akin in scope and size to a natural deltaic network. Danube’s importance as a shipping route increased after the Crimean War in the 1850s; the European Danube Commission was charged with maintaining the Sulina distributary as a shipping channel until 1940s. In the same period, several canals were dug to aid fishing in lakes and bring freshwater to brackish lagoons. After World War II, Communist authorities dramatically increased the number of canals for fishing, fish-farming and reed harvesting. New data on sedimentation rates and estimates of sediment fluxes suggest that the intensive canalization in the second half of the 20th Century led to increased sediment deposition that compensated the decreasing sediment discharge linked to damming within the internal fluvial part of the delta; however, the external marine delta has become increasingly sediment starved during the same interval. We emphasize the similarities and contrasts between the “human-controlled” and natural deltaic channel networks of the Danube delta and discuss the sustainability of the delta as a sediment budget problem within a sea level rise context.

  5. Governance of ‘long term delta planning’ in Bangladesh, Vietnam and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staveren, van M.F.

    2014-01-01

    The Deltas in Times of Climate Change Conference II, taking place in September 2014, Rotterdam, presented a suitable occasion to discuss both delta challenges and interesting approaches to how ‘delta dynamics’ are being dealt with worldwide.1 Delta dynamics include here both environmental (including

  6. Challenges and Approaches in River Delta Planning - Annexes to report on training workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wosten, J.H.M.; Douven, W.; Long Phi, H.; Fida Abdullah Khan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Programme, participants and all powerpoint presentations of the Delta Alliance Training Workshop: Challenges and approaches in river delta planning, sharing experiences from SE Asian Deltas and the Rhine-Meuse Delta. 22-26 October 2012, WACC, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

  7. Natural levee evolution in the Rhine-Meuse delta, the Netherlands, during the first millennium CE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, H.J.; Stouthamer, E.; Cohen, K.M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents reconstructions on natural levee development in the Rhine-Meuse delta, the Netherlands, during the first millennium CE, covering the full delta plain. It is the first study that performs this on a delta scale, which allows seeing the delta-wide trends on levee-forming controls

  8. An integrated assessment framework for land subsidence in delta cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. M. Bucx

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In many delta cities land subsidence exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten by excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without change, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other delta (and coastal cities will sink below sea level. Increased flooding and also other widespread impacts of land subsidence result already in damage of billions of dollars per year. In order to gain insight in the complex, multi-sectoral aspects of subsidence, to raise awareness and to support decision making on appropriate adaptation strategies and measures, an Integrated Assessment Framework (IAF for subsidence is introduced, illustrated by several (delta case studies. Based on that a list of 10 generic key issues and possible solutions is presented in order to further develop and support a (generic approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas. For exchange of experiences and knowledge development.on subsidence in deltas the Delta Alliance, a knowledge network of deltas worldwide, can be supportive.

  9. Sand transport, shear stress, and the building of a delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, W.; Miller, K. L.; Hiatt, M. R.; Mohrig, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    River deltas distribute sediment to the coastal sea through a complex branching network of channels; however, the routing and storage of this sediment in and through the delta is poorly understood. We present results from field studies of the sediment and water transport through the branching Wax Lake Delta on the coast of Louisiana. Two channels studied, Main Pass and East Pass, maintain a near-equal total partitioning of flow and sediment. However, East Pass is narrower and has higher river velocities, lower tidal velocity fluctuations, less alluvial bed cover, and more sediment flux per unit width than Main Pass. We connect these differences to small differences in the geometry of the two channels and feedbacks between these differences. We link trends in measured sediment deposits to both measured and modeled shear velocities in Wax Lake Delta's channels and open water `islands' to understand how hydrologic processes shaped the sedimentary architecture of the delta. These connections define the sediment transport and deposition regimes in the WLD. We extend the results herein to suggest that the relationships between the available sediment and shear stress determines the basic planform of the Wax Lake Delta and cross-sectional geometries of its channels.

  10. The State of Bay–Delta Science 2016: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Healey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss2art5The State of Bay–Delta Science 2016 (SBDS is a collection of papers that summarizes the scientific understanding of the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, emphasizing progress made during the past decade.It builds on the first SBDS edition (Healey et al. 2008. Paper topics for this edition address the most relevant scientific issues in the Delta identified by senior scientists and managers. The topical papers cover issues ranging from contaminants in the Delta to levee stability, and from Delta food webs to recent discoveries about salmon migration. These papers are written for a scientific audience. Two additional papers, one describing the challenges of managing water and ecosystems in the Delta and another that discusses policy implications of the recent scientific findings, are written for a general audience. The papers will be published in at least two issues of San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science and will be available as a set electronically.

  11. Metallicism and pulsation: an analysis of the delta Delphini stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    Fine abundance analyses of seven delta Delphini stars and one delta Scuti star relative to four comparison standards are presented. Five of the delta Del stars are shown to have abundances most similar to the evolved Am stars. It is argued that these abundances are different from the classical Am star and Ap star abundances and that similarities to the Ba II star abundances are coincidental. We suggest that the anomalous abundance delta Del stars are evolved metallic line stars on the basis of their abundances, position in the β, M/sub v/ plane, inferred rotational velocities, and perhaps their binary incidence. Some of the delta Del stars are delta Scuti pulsators. We argue that pulsation and metallicism are mutually exclusive among the classical Am stars but may coexist in other stars related to the classical Am stars. A preference for the diffusion hypothesis model for the metallic line stars is stated and supported and the implications of the coexistence of pulsation and diffusion are discussed

  12. How yield relates to ash content, Delta 13C and Delta 18O in maize grown under different water regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Bosquet, Llorenç; Sánchez, Ciro; Araus, José Luis

    2009-11-01

    Stable isotopes have proved a valuable phenotyping tool when breeding for yield potential and drought adaptation; however, the cost and technical skills involved in isotope analysis limit its large-scale application in breeding programmes. This is particularly so for Delta(18)O despite the potential relevance of this trait in C(4) crops. The accumulation of minerals (measured as ash content) has been proposed as an inexpensive way to evaluate drought adaptation and yield in C(3) cereals, but little is known of the usefulness of this measure in C(4) cereals such as maize (Zea mays). The present study investigates how yield relates to ash content, Delta(13)C and Delta(18)O, and evaluates the use of ash content as an alternative or complementary criterion to stable isotopes in assessing yield potential and drought resistance in maize. A set of tropical maize hybrids developed by CIMMYT were subjected to different water availabilities, in order to induce water stress during the reproductive stages under field conditions. Ash content and Delta(13)C were determined in leaves and kernels. In addition, Delta(18)O was measured in kernels. Water regime significantly affected yield, ash content and stable isotopes. The results revealed a close relationship between ash content in leaves and the traits informing about plant water status. Ash content in kernels appeared to reflect differences in sink-source balance. Genotypic variation in grain yield was mainly explained by the combination of ash content and Delta(18)O, whilst Delta(13)C did not explain a significant percentage of such variation. Ash content in leaves and kernels proved a useful alternative or complementary criterion to Delta(18)O in kernels for assessing yield performance in maize grown under drought conditions.

  13. Population dynamics, delta vulnerability and environmental change: comparison of the Mekong, Ganges–Brahmaputra and Amazon delta regions

    OpenAIRE

    Szabo, S.; Brondizio, E.; Renaud, F.G.; Hetrick, S.; Nicholls, R.; Matthews, Z.; Tessler, Z; Tejedor, A; Sebesvari, Z; Foufoula-Georgiou, E; da Costa, S; Dearing, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical delta regions are at risk of multiple threats including relative sea level rise and human alterations, making them more and more vulnerable to extreme floods, storms, surges, salinity intrusion, and other hazards which could also increase in magnitude and frequency with a changing climate. Given the environmental vulnerability of tropical deltas, understanding the interlinkages between population dynamics and environmental change in these regions is crucial for ensuring efficient pol...

  14. pH-metric studies on the mixed ligand-chelates of oxovanadium(IV) with 2,2'-bipyridyl and dicarboxylic or hydroxy acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, A K; Kumari, V; Chaturvedi, G K [Agra Coll. (India)

    1978-12-01

    The interaction of vanadyl ion with 2,2'-bipyridyl and some dicarboxylic or hydroxy acids (where dicarboxylic acid = oxalic (OX), malonic (MALN), phthalic (PHA), maleic (MAL) acids; hydroxy acids salicylic (SA), 5-sulfosalicylic (5-SSA), mandelic (MAND) and glycollic (HG) acids was studied potentiometrically. pH-titrations of the reaction mixtures containing vanadyl sulphate, 2,2'-bipyridyl and one of the dicarboxylic or hydroxy acids (OX, MALN, PHA, MAL, SA, 5-SSA, MAND and HG acids) in equimolar ratio exhibited the formation of 1:1:1 mixed ligand chelates. The formation constants of the resulting biligand chelates were calculated, at 35/sup +/-1/sup 0/ and 45/sup +/-1/sup 0/ and also the thermodynamic functions viz. ..delta..F, ..delta..H and ..delta..S (..mu..=0.1M KNO/sub 3/) (auth.).

  15. Evolution of the Tetrapyrrole Biosynthetic Pathway in Secondary Algae: Conservation, Redundancy and Replacement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cihlář, Jaromír; Füssy, Zoltán; Horák, Aleš; Oborník, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 11 (2016), č. článku e0166338. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1522 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : delta aminolevulinic acid * plastid evolution * Euglena gracilis * gene transfer * diatom endosymbionts * Bigelowiella natans * chloroplast genome * sequence alignment * nuclear genomes * protein import Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  16. Mean proloculus size, delta super(13) C and delta super(18) O variations in recent benthic foraminifera from the west coast of India and their climatic implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Sarkar, A.

    The interrelationship between mean proloculus size (MPS), delta super(18) O and delta super(13) C vatiations in benthic foraminiferal species Rotalidium annectens and their relation with temperature (T) and salinity (S) have been studied in samples...

  17. Perspectives on Bay–Delta Science and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Healey

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available doi: https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss4art6The State of Bay–Delta Science 2008 highlighted seven emerging perspectives on science and management of the Delta. These perspectives had important effects on policy and legislation concerning management of the Delta ecosystem and water exports. From the collection of papers that make up the State of Bay–Delta Science 2016, we derive another seven perspectives that augment those published in 2008. The new perspectives address nutrient and contaminant concentrations in Delta waters, the failure of the Delta food web to support native species, the role of multiple stressors in driving species toward extinction, and the emerging importance of extreme events in driving change in the ecosystem and the water supply. The scientific advances that underpin these new perspectives were made possible by new measurement and analytic tools. We briefly discuss some of these, including miniaturized acoustic fish tags, sensors for monitoring of water quality, analytic techniques for disaggregating complex contaminant mixtures, remote sensing to assess levee vulnerability, and multidimensional hydrodynamic modeling. Despite these new tools and scientific insights, species conservation objectives for the Delta are not being met. We believe that this lack of progress stems in part from the fact that science and policy do not incorporate sufficiently long-term perspectives. Looking forward half a century was central to the Delta Visioning process, but science and policy have not embraced this conceptual breadth. We are also concerned that protection and enhancement of the unique cultural, recreational, natural resource, and agricultural values of the Delta as an evolving place, as required by the Delta Reform Act, has received no critical study and analysis. Adopting wider and longer science and policy perspectives immediately encourages recognition of the need for evaluation, analysis, and public discourse on

  18. Lava delta deformation as a proxy for submarine slope instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Traglia, Federico; Nolesini, Teresa; Solari, Lorenzo; Ciampalini, Andrea; Frodella, William; Steri, Damiano; Allotta, Benedetto; Rindi, Andrea; Marini, Lorenzo; Monni, Niccolò; Galardi, Emanuele; Casagli, Nicola

    2018-04-01

    The instability of lava deltas is a recurrent phenomenon affecting volcanic islands, which can potentially cause secondary events such as littoral explosions (due to interactions between hot lava and seawater) and tsunamis. It has been shown that Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a powerful technique to forecast the collapse of newly emplaced lava deltas. This work goes further, demonstrating that the monitoring of lava deltas is a successful strategy by which to observe the long-term deformation of subaerial-submarine landslide systems on unstable volcanic flanks. In this paper, displacement measurements derived from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery were used to detect lava delta instability at Stromboli volcano (Italy). Recent flank eruptions (2002-2003, 2007 and 2014) affected the Sciara del Fuoco (SdF) depression, created a "stacked" lava delta, which overlies a pre-existing scar produced by a submarine-subaerial tsunamigenic landslide that occurred on 30 December 2002. Space-borne X-band COSMO-SkyMED (CSK) and C-band SENTINEL-1A (SNT) SAR data collected between February 2010 and October 2016 were processed using the SqueeSAR algorithm. The obtained ground displacement maps revealed the differential ground motion of the lava delta in both CSK and SNT datasets, identifying a stable area (characterized by less than 2 mm/y in both datasets) within the northern sector of the SdF and an unstable area (characterized by velocity fields on the order of 30 mm/y and 160 mm/y in the CSK and SNT datasets, respectively) in the central sector of the SdF. The slope stability of the offshore part of the SdF, as reconstructed based on a recently performed multibeam bathymetric survey, was evaluated using a 3D Limit Equilibrium Method (LEM). In all the simulations, Factor of Safety (F) values between 0.9 and 1.1 always characterized the submarine slope between the coastline and -250 m a.s.l. The critical surfaces for all the search volumes corresponded to

  19. Initial isotopic geochemistry ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) of fluids from wells of the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field; Geoquimica isotopica ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) inicial de fluidos de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmb@iie.org.mx; Ramirez Montes, Miguel; Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2010-01-15

    Isotopic data ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) from fluids from production wells at the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field were analyzed to investigate the possible origin of these fluids and the dominant processes of the reservoir at its initial state. According to pre-exploitation data, it is suggested the Los Humeros reservoir fluids are made of a mixture of meteoric water of very light isotopic composition (paleo-fluids) and andesitic water. The relationship {delta} D vs {delta} 18 O from pre-exploitation data indicates the produced fluids are composed of a mixture of (at least) two fluids with distinct isotopic compositions. At the more enriched end of the mixing relationship are the isotopic compositions of the wells H-23 and H-18 (located in the southern area of the field), while the lighter fluids were found in well H-16 (originally) and then in well H-16 (repaired). It was found that the liquid phases of deep wells are more enriched in {delta} 18 O while the shallow wells present lower values, suggesting a convection process at the initial state. Based on this isotopic profile, it is considered that even the production depths of the wells H-1, H-12 and H-16 (repaired) are just about the same, but their respective isotopic compositions are quite different. The {delta} 18 O value for well H-16 (repaired) seems to be that of condensate steam, while the corresponding values for wells H-1 and H-12 fall within the value interval of the deep wells (H-23). This suggests wells H-1 and H-12 are collecting very deep fluids enriched in {delta} 18 O. These results could be useful in creating a conceptual model of the reservoir. [Spanish] Se analizaron datos isotopicos ({delta}18 O, {delta}D) de los fluidos de pozos productores del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue., para investigar el posible origen de los fluidos asi como los procesos dominantes del yacimiento en su estado inicial. De acuerdo con datos previos a la explotacion, se plantea que los fluidos del yacimiento

  20. Measurement of the delta34S value in methionine by double spike multi-collector thermal ionization mass spectrometry using Carius tube digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Jacqueline L; Kelly, W Robert

    2010-09-15

    Methionine is an essential amino acid and is the primary source of sulfur for humans. Using the double spike ((33)S-(36)S) multi-collector thermal ionization mass spectrometry (MC-TIMS) technique, three sample bottles of a methionine material obtained from the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements have been measured for delta(34)S and sulfur concentration. The mean delta(34)S value, relative to Vienna Canyon Diablo Troilite (VCDT), determined was 10.34 +/- 0.11 per thousand (n = 9) with the uncertainty reported as expanded uncertainties (U). These delta(34)S measurements include a correction for blank which has been previously ignored in studies of sulfur isotopic composition. The sulfur concentrations for the three bottles range from 56 to 88 microg/g. The isotope composition and concentration results demonstrate the high accuracy and precision of the DS-MC-TIMS technique for measuring sulfur in methionine.

  1. Stratigraphy and paleohydrology of delta channel deposits, Jezero crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudge, Timothy A.; Mohrig, David; Cardenas, Benjamin T.; Hughes, Cory M.; Fassett, Caleb I.

    2018-02-01

    The Jezero crater open-basin lake contains two well-exposed fluvial sedimentary deposits formed early in martian history. Here, we examine the geometry and architecture of the Jezero western delta fluvial stratigraphy using high-resolution orbital images and digital elevation models (DEMs). The goal of this analysis is to reconstruct the evolution of the delta and associated shoreline position. The delta outcrop contains three distinct classes of fluvial stratigraphy that we interpret, from oldest to youngest, as: (1) point bar strata deposited by repeated flood events in meandering channels; (2) inverted channel-filling deposits formed by avulsive distributary channels; and (3) a valley that incises the deposit. We use DEMs to quantify the geometry of the channel deposits and estimate flow depths of ∼7 m for the meandering channels and ∼2 m for the avulsive distributary channels. Using these estimates, we employ a novel approach for assessing paleohydrology of the formative channels in relative terms. This analysis indicates that the shift from meandering to avulsive distributary channels was associated with an approximately four-fold decrease in the water to sediment discharge ratio. We use observations of the fluvial stratigraphy and channel paleohydrology to propose a model for the evolution of the Jezero western delta. The delta stratigraphy records lake level rise and shoreline transgression associated with approximately continuous filling of the basin, followed by outlet breaching, and eventual erosion of the delta. Our results imply a martian surface environment during the period of delta formation that supplied sufficient surface runoff to fill the Jezero basin without major drops in lake level, but also with discrete flooding events at non-orbital (e.g., annual to decadal) timescales.

  2. Anadromous salmonids in the Delta: New science 2006–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Russell W.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Brandes, Patricia L.; Burau, Jon R.; Israel, Joshua A

    2016-01-01

    As juvenile salmon enter the Sacramento–SanJoaquin River Delta (“the Delta”) they disperse among its complex channel network where they are subject to channel-specific processes that affect their rate of migration, vulnerability to predation, feeding success, growth rates, and ultimately, survival. In the decades before 2006, tools available to quantify growth, dispersal, and survival of juvenile salmon in this complex channel network were limited.Fortunately, thanks to technological advances such as acoustic telemetry and chemical and structural otolith analysis, much has been learned over the past decade about the role of the Delta in the life cycle of juvenile salmon. Here, we review new science between 2006and 2016 that sheds light on how different life stages and runs of juvenile salmon grow, move, and survive in the complex channel network of the Delta. One of the most important advances during the past decade has been the widespread adoption of acoustic telemetry techniques. Use of telemetry has shed light on how survival varies among alternative migration routes and the proportion of fish that use each migration route. Chemical and structural analysis of otoliths has provided insights about when juveniles left their natal river and provided evidence of extended rearing in the brackish or saltwater regions of the Delta. New advancements in genetics now allow individuals captured by trawls to be assigned to specific runs. Detailed information about movement and survival in the Delta has spurred development of agent-based models of juvenile salmon that are coupled to hydrodynamic models. Although much has been learned, knowledge gaps remain about how very small juvenile salmon (fry and parr) use the Delta. Understanding how all life stages of juvenile salmon grow, rear, and survive in the Delta is critical for devising management strategies that support a diversity of life history strategies.

  3. Clinical applications of gamma delta T cells with multivalent immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew C Deniger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gamma delta T cells hold promise for adoptive immunotherapy because of their reactivity to bacteria, viruses, and tumors. However, these cells represent a small fraction (1-5% of the peripheral T-cell pool and require activation and propagation to achieve clinical benefit. Aminobisphosphonates specifically expand the Vgamma9Vdelta2 subset of gamma delta T cells and have been used in clinical trials of cancer where objective responses were detected. The Vgamma9Vdelta2 TCR heterodimer binds multiple ligands and results in a multivalent attack by a monoclonal T cell population. Alternatively, populations of gamma delta T cells with oligoclonal or polyclonal TCR repertoire could be infused for broad-range specificity. However, this goal has been restricted by a lack of applicable expansion protocols for non-Vgamma9Vdelta2 cells. Recent advances using immobilized antigens, agonistic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs, tumor-derived artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPC, or combinations of activating mAbs and aAPC have been successful in expanding gamma delta T cells with oligoclonal or polyclonal TCR repertoires. Immobilized MHC Class-I chain-related A was a stimulus for gamma delta T cells expressing TCRdelta1 isotypes, and plate-bound activating antibodies have expanded Vdelta1 and Vdelta2 cells ex vivo. Clinically-sufficient quantities of TCRdelta1, TCRdelta2, and TCRdelta1negTCRdelta2neg have been produced following co-culture on aAPC, and these subsets displayed differences in memory phenotype and reactivity to tumors in vitro and in vivo. Gamma delta T cells are also amenable to genetic modification as evidenced by introduction of alpha beta TCRs, chimeric antigen receptors (CARs, and drug-resistance genes. This represents a promising future for the clinical application of oligoclonal or polyclonal gamma delta T cells in autologous and allogeneic settings that builds on current trials testing the safety and efficacy of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells.

  4. Metabolites of the 1',2'-dimethylheptyl analogue of delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol in the mouse and their identification by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, D J; Brown, N K

    1990-10-01

    Metabolism of the 1,2-dimethylheptyl analogue of delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-8-DMHP) was studied in vitro using mouse hepatic microsomes and in vivo in mouse liver. Metabolites were extracted with ethyl acetate, concentrated by chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and examined by low-resolution mass spectrometry as trimethylsilyl (TMS), (2H9)TMS and methyl ester/TMS derivatives. Reduction of metabolites with lithium aluminium deuteride also provided structural information. The electron-impact-induced mass spectrum of the TMS derivative of DMHP differed from that of its unbranched side-chain analogues in that prominent ions were produced by fragmentation of the side-chain at the expense of the retro-Diels-Alder fragmentation that was prominent in the spectra of the latter compounds. This, however, was found to reduce the relative abundance of ions diagnostic of side-chain hydroxy substitution in the spectra of the metabolites. In vitro, the only significant metabolite was 11-hydroxy-delta-8-DMHP. This is in contrast with metabolism of the corresponding delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-8-THC, n-C5-side-chain) where a number of other monohydroxy metabolites are produced. Fifteen metabolites were found in vivo, of which nine were identified. Mass spectral information was not sufficient to determine the position of one of the hydroxy groups in the other six metabolites. The major site of hydroxylation was at C-11 and the resulting hydroxy metabolite was oxidized to delta-8-DMHP-11-oic acid. In this respect metabolism paralleled that of delta-8-THC. Dihydroxylation of the double bond also occurred, presumably via the epoxide.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Challenges and Approaches in Delta Planning and Management - Sharing experiences from SE Asian Deltas and the Rhine-Meuse Delta -Report on Regional Training Workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long Phi, H.; Fida Abdullah Khan, M.; Wosten, J.H.M.; Douven, W.

    2014-01-01

    The training workshop consisted of a balanced mix of lectures on specific delta topics, work on group assignments, group and plenary discussions, and group presentations. Due to high professional level of the participants the discussions often reached the level of a policy dialogue among equals

  6. Effect of Leu-enkephalin and delta sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) on endogenous noradrenaline release by rat brain synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozhanets, V.V.; Anosov, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    The nonapeptide delta-sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) causes specific changes in the encephalogram of recipient animals: It prolongs the phase of long-wave or delta sleep. The cellular mechanism of action of DSIP has not yet been explained. To test the hyporhesis that this peptide or its degradation product may be presynaptic regulators of catecholamine release, the action of Leu-enkephaline, DSIP, and amino acids composing DSIP on release of endogenous noradrenalin (NA) from synaptosomes during depolarization was compared. Subcellular fractions from cerebral hemisphere of noninbred male albino rats were isolated. Lactate dehydrogenase activity was determined in the suspension of synaptosomes before and after addition of 0.5% Triton X-100. The results were subjected to statistical analysis, using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney nonparametric test

  7. Doubly truncated FosB isoform (Delta2DeltaFosB) induces osteosclerosis in transgenic mice and modulates expression and phosphorylation of Smads in osteoblasts independent of intrinsic AP-1 activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabatakos, George; Rowe, Glenn C; Kveiborg, Marie

    2008-01-01

    DeltaFosB and a further truncated isoform (Delta2DeltaFosB) that lacks known transactivation domains but, like DeltaFosB, induces increased expression of osteoblast marker genes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To test Delta2DeltaFosB's ability to induce bone formation in vivo, we generated transgenic mice......6 expression. CONCLUSIONS: DeltaFosB's AP-1 transactivating function is not needed to induce increased bone formation, and Delta2DeltaFosB may act, at least in part, by increasing Smad1 expression, phosphorylation, and translocation to the nucleus....

  8. Preparing the Dutch delta for future droughts: model based support in the national Delta Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Maat, Judith; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; van der Vat, Marnix; Hunink, Joachim; Prinsen, Geert; Visser, Martijn

    2014-05-01

    Keywords: uncertainty, policymaking, adaptive policies, fresh water management, droughts, Netherlands, Dutch Deltaprogramme, physically-based complex model, theory-motivated meta-model To prepare the Dutch Delta for future droughts and water scarcity, a nation-wide 4-year project, called Delta Programme, is established to assess impacts of climate scenarios and socio-economic developments and to explore policy options. The results should contribute to a national adaptive plan that is able to adapt to future uncertain conditions, if necessary. For this purpose, we followed a model-based step-wise approach, wherein both physically-based complex models and theory-motivated meta-models were used. First step (2010-2011) was to make a quantitative problem description. This involved a sensitivity analysis of the water system for drought situations under current and future conditions. The comprehensive Dutch national hydrological instrument was used for this purpose and further developed. Secondly (2011-2012) our main focus was on making an inventory of potential actions together with stakeholders. We assessed efficacy, sell-by date of actions, and reassessed vulnerabilities and opportunities for the future water supply system if actions were (not) taken. A rapid assessment meta-model was made based on the complex model. The effects of all potential measures were included in the tool. Thirdly (2012-2013), with support of the rapid assessment model, we assessed the efficacy of policy actions over time for an ensemble of possible futures including sea level rise and climate and land use change. Last step (2013-2014) involves the selection of preferred actions from a set of promising actions that meet the defined objectives. These actions are all modeled and evaluated using the complex model. The outcome of the process will be an adaptive management plan. The adaptive plan describes a set of preferred policy pathways - sequences of policy actions - to achieve targets under

  9. Hydrology and morphology of two river mouth regions (temperate Vistula Delta and subtropical Red River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pruszak

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative analysis of two different river mouths from two different geographical zones (subtropical and temperate climatic regions. One is the multi-branch and multi-spit mouth of the Red River on the Gulf of Tonkin (Vietnam, the other is the smaller delta of the river Vistula on a bay of the Baltic Sea (Poland. The analysis focuses on the similarities and differences in the hydrodynamics between these estuaries and the adjacent coastal zones, the features of sediment transport, and the long-term morphodynamics of the river outlets. Salinity and water level are also discussed, the latter also in the context of the anticipated global effect of accelerated sea level rise. The analysis shows that the climatic and environmental conditions associated with geographical zones give rise to fundamental differences in the generation and dynamic evolution of the river mouths.

  10. Community structure of spiders in coastal habitats of a Mediterranean delta region (Nestos Delta, NE Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Buchholz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (pp 101-115Habitat zonation and ecology of spider assemblages have been poorly studied in Mediterranean ecosystems. A first analysis of spider assemblages in coastal habitats in the east Mediterranean area is presented. The study area is the 250 km² Nestos Delta, located in East Macedonia in the North-East of Greece. Spiders were caught in pitfall traps at 17 sites from the beginning of April to the end of June 2004. Nonparametric estimators were used to determine species richness and alpha diversity. Ordination analysis (redundancy analysis indicated four clearly separable spider species groups (salt meadows, dunes, mea-dows and floodplain forests, along a soil salinity and moisture gradient. Based on these results we discuss the habitat preferences of these spiders and include the first ecological data on several species.

  11. Soils, people and policy: land resource management conundrum in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatoyin Dare Kolawole

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The multi-faceted aspects of natural resource governance underscore the complex nature of the subject. The intricacies associated with the skewed power relations between those who allocate these resources (land, in this case and those who access and use them vis à vis environmental conservation make the subject a daunting one. Based on preliminary field observations and farmers’ opinions on soil health conditions in the Okavango Delta, the paper assesses the nutrient status of selected farmers’ fields and how the smallholders and government respond to this peculiar ecological environment. It specifically analyses small farmers’ perceptions on the political ecology of soil management in the area. We used a multi-stage sampling procedure to sample 228 smallholder farmers. The smallholders were interviewed using interview schedules. Key informant interviews were used to collect qualitative data from farmers as well. Thirty-three (33 composite soil samples were collected from 30 farmers’ plots in three farming communities (Makalamabedi, Nokaneng and Mohembo. Laboratory analysis shows that most soils in the wetland and its dryland surroundings are generally acidic, low in essential nutients as well as in cation-exchange-capacity (CEC. However, the results of a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA conducted shows significant differences in soil nutrient levels in different locations within the Delta. While farming remains an important livelihood of rural communities, policies on natural resource governance particularly along the river channels delimit local farmers’ ability to engage in meaningful soil fertility management. The low CEC of the soils is an indication that holistic cultural practices, which are beyond mere chemical fertilizations are critical and more desirable for improved soil health and sustainable rural livelihoods in the Delta.

  12. Geochronology of priority pollutants in sedimentation zones of the Volga and Danube delta in comparison with the Rhine delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkels, H.J.; Kroonenberg, S.B.; Lychagin, M.Y.; Marin, G.; Rusakov, G.V.; Kasimov, N.S.

    1998-01-01

    Six sediment cores were taken in sedimentation zones of the Volga river (located in the southern part of the Russian Federation) and, additionally, 6 sediment cores were taken in several lakes (sedimentation zones) in the central and western part of the Danube delta in Romania. Priority pollutants (8 metals, 7 polychlorinated biphenyls and 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) were determined in all samples of all cores. Present-day and historical levels of pollutants since the late 1930s were established through the use of radionuclide time tracers ( 137 Cs, 134 Cs). For the persistent metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, trends in the concentration profiles during the last 5 decades are described. Low and hardly changing concentrations of As, Cu, Zn and all studied PAHs were observed during the last five decades in the sediments of the Volga river. Recently deposited sediments show slightly increasing levels for the heavy metals Zn and Cr and As in the Volga delta. For the studied metals and PAHs, maximum concentrations were found around 1987 in the sediments of the Danube delta. Sediments deposited around 1940 and recently deposited sediments in the Danube delta showed lower pollutant levels. If the contents of heavy metals, PAHs and PCBs in the aquatic sediments in the deltas of the rivers Rhine, Danube and Volga are compared, it is clear that the Volga delta is and was the cleanest delta during the last 5 decades. Nowadays the contents of heavy metals (except Cu and Ni), PAHs and PCBs in the aquatic sediments of the river Rhine are still highest compared to the other two rivers. The recent load of heavy metals (except Cd and Zn) in the sediments of the river Danube is the highest compared to the other two rivers. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  13. The case for selection at CCR5-Delta32.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The C-C chemokine receptor 5, 32 base-pair deletion (CCR5-Delta32 allele confers strong resistance to infection by the AIDS virus HIV. Previous studies have suggested that CCR5-Delta32 arose within the past 1,000 y and rose to its present high frequency (5%-14% in Europe as a result of strong positive selection, perhaps by such selective agents as the bubonic plague or smallpox during the Middle Ages. This hypothesis was based on several lines of evidence, including the absence of the allele outside of Europe and long-range linkage disequilibrium at the locus. We reevaluated this evidence with the benefit of much denser genetic maps and extensive control data. We find that the pattern of genetic variation at CCR5-Delta32 does not stand out as exceptional relative to other loci across the genome. Moreover using newer genetic maps, we estimated that the CCR5-Delta32 allele is likely to have arisen more than 5,000 y ago. While such results can not rule out the possibility that some selection may have occurred at C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5, they imply that the pattern of genetic variation seen atCCR5-Delta32 is consistent with neutral evolution. More broadly, the results have general implications for the design of future studies to detect the signs of positive selection in the human genome.

  14. Delta Cafés (Portugal: Sustainable Business Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olgierd Swiatkiewicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the case study of Delta Cafés we discuss the sustainable development of the Portuguese company and brand over the 55 years of their existence. Delta Cafés has already been analyzed in terms of marketing activity, social responsibility, management control systems, etc. In this paper, we refer to these studies, and we reach the sources, i.e. the information provided by the Delta Cafés itself. Due to the nature of the coffee market and the use of case study methodology, we start the presentation of this case from a broader context, describing the coffee market in the world and characterizing the coffee market in Portugal as well. Then we present the history of the development of the company and the brand Delta Cafés. The paper ends with concluding remarks in which we discuss the issues of social and environmental responsibility in the light of the development of Delta Cafés business and brand strategies. 

  15. The case for selection at CCR5-Delta32.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardis C Sabeti

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The C-C chemokine receptor 5, 32 base-pair deletion (CCR5-Delta32 allele confers strong resistance to infection by the AIDS virus HIV. Previous studies have suggested that CCR5-Delta32 arose within the past 1,000 y and rose to its present high frequency (5%-14% in Europe as a result of strong positive selection, perhaps by such selective agents as the bubonic plague or smallpox during the Middle Ages. This hypothesis was based on several lines of evidence, including the absence of the allele outside of Europe and long-range linkage disequilibrium at the locus. We reevaluated this evidence with the benefit of much denser genetic maps and extensive control data. We find that the pattern of genetic variation at CCR5-Delta32 does not stand out as exceptional relative to other loci across the genome. Moreover using newer genetic maps, we estimated that the CCR5-Delta32 allele is likely to have arisen more than 5,000 y ago. While such results can not rule out the possibility that some selection may have occurred at C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5, they imply that the pattern of genetic variation seen at CCR5-Delta32 is consistent with neutral evolution. More broadly, the results have general implications for the design of future studies to detect the signs of positive selection in the human genome.

  16. Isoforms of acyl carrier protein involved in seed-specific fatty acid synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, M C; Schultz, D J; Ohlrogge, J B

    1999-03-01

    Seeds of coriandrum sativum (coriander) and Thunbergia alata (black-eyed Susan vine) produce unusual monoenoic fatty acids which constitute over 80% of the total fatty acids of the seed oil. The initial step in the formation of these fatty acids is the desaturation of palmitoyl-ACP (acyl carrier protein) at the delta(4) or delta(6) positions to produce delta(4)-hexadecenoic acid (16:1(delta(4)) or delta(6)-hexadecenoic acid (16:1(delta(6)), respectively. The involvement of specific forms of ACP in the production of these novel monoenoic fatty acids was studied. ACPs were partially purified from endosperm of coriander and T. alata and used to generate 3H- and 14C-labelled palmitoyl-ACP substrates. In competition assays with labelled palmitoyl-ACP prepared from spinach (Spinacia oleracea), delta(4)-acyl-ACP desaturase activity was two- to threefold higher with coriander ACP than with spinach ACP. Similarly, the T. alata delta(6) desaturase favoured T. alata ACP over spinach ACP. A cDNA clone, Cs-ACP-1, encoding ACP was isolated from a coriander endosperm cDNA library. Cs-ACP-1 mRNA was predominantly expressed in endosperm rather than leaves. The Cs-ACP-1 mature protein was expressed in E. coli and comigrated on SDS-PAGE with the most abundant ACP expressed in endosperm tissues. In in vitro delta(4)-palmitoyl-ACP desaturase assays, the Cs-ACP-1 expressed from E. coli was four- and 10-fold more active than spinach ACP or E. coli ACP, respectively, in the synthesis of delta(4)-hexadecenoic acid from palmitoyl-ACP. In contrast, delta(9)-stearoyl-ACP desaturase activity from coriander endosperm did not discriminate strongly between different ACP species. These results indicate that individual ACP isoforms are specifically involved in the biosynthesis of unusual seed fatty acids and further suggest that expression of multiple ACP isoforms may participate in determining the products of fatty acid biosynthesis.

  17. Quality of 'Delta Valencia' orange grown in semiarid climate and stored under refrigeration after coating with wax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlândia da Silva Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of carnauba-based wax on the quality of 'Delta Valencia' orange produced in Ceará state, Brazil, were studied. The fruits were coated with carnauba-based wax and refrigerated (7 ± 2 ºC and 85 ± 2% R.H. for 28 days. The quality attribute parameters assessed were weight loss, peel color (brightness, hue angle, and chromaticity, peel moisture, pH, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, SS/TA ratio, ascorbic acid, total soluble sugars, reducing sugars, yellow flavonoids, and polyphenols. The results showed that 'Delta Valencia' oranges grown in the dry climate of Ceará state has excellent quality. The coated fruits lost mass at a lower rate than the the control fruits. No significant loss of soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, and SS/TA ratio was observed, while ascorbic acid, soluble sugars, reducing sugars, yellow flavonoids, and polyphenols increased during storage in both the coated and control fruits. Carnauba-based wax coated fruits showed no signal of dehydration keeping their shiny green peel up to the end of the storage. The use of coating was crucial for the maintenance of visual quality by reducing mass loss, as well as keeping peel moisture.

  18. Oxygen Nonstoichiometry and Defect Chemistry Modeling of Ce0.8Pr0.2O2-delta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2010-01-01

    (DeltaHPrexc=aHdelta) and a completely random distribution of defects (referred to as “delta-linear”), or a “generalized delta-linear” solution model, where the excess Gibbs energy change in the reduction reaction of the dopant linearly varies with delta (DeltaGPrexc=aGdelta). A comparison of the partial...

  19. Flipped SU(5) predicts {delta}T/T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyae, Bumseok [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 207-43, Cheongnyangni-Dong, Dongdaemun-Gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: bkyae@kias.re.kr; Shafi, Qaisar [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)]. E-mail: shafi@bartol.udel.edu

    2006-04-20

    We discuss hybrid inflation in supersymmetric flipped SU(5) model such that the cosmic microwave anisotropy {delta}T/T is essentially proportional to (M/M{sub P}){sup 2}, where M denotes the symmetry breaking scale and M{sub P} (=2.4x10{sup 18} GeV) is the reduced Planck mass. The magnitude of M determined from {delta}T/T measurements can be consistent with the value inferred from the evolution of SU(3) and SU(2) gauge couplings. In other words, one could state that flipped SU(5) predicts (more precisely 'postdicts') {delta}T/T. The scalar spectral index n{sub s}=0.993+/-0.007, the scalar to tensor ratio satisfies r-bar 10{sup -6}, while dn{sub s}/dlnk-bar 4x10{sup -4}.

  20. Fracture Analyses of Cracked Delta Eye Plates in Ship Towing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiangbing; Huang, Xingling; Sun, Jizheng

    2018-01-01

    Based on fracture mechanics, a safety analysis approach is proposed for cracked delta eye plates in ship towing. The static analysis model is presented when the delta eye plate is in service, and the fracture criterion is introduced on basis of stress intensity factor, which is estimated with domain integral method. Subsequently, three-dimensional finite element analyses are carried out to obtain the effective stress intensity factors, and a case is studied to demonstrate the reasonability of the approach. The results show that the classical strength theory is not applicable to evaluate the cracked plate while fracture mechanics can solve the problem very well, and the load level, which a delta eye plate can carry on, decreases evidently when it is damaged.

  1. Cystic fibrosis Delta F508 heterozygotes, smoking, and reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A; Wittrup, H H

    1998-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is the most common fatal autosomal recessive disease affecting Caucasian populations. It remains a puzzle how this disease is maintained at such a remarkably high incidence, however, it could be due to a reproductive advantage in cystic fibrosis heterozygotes. We tested this hypot......Cystic fibrosis is the most common fatal autosomal recessive disease affecting Caucasian populations. It remains a puzzle how this disease is maintained at such a remarkably high incidence, however, it could be due to a reproductive advantage in cystic fibrosis heterozygotes. We tested.......001). In conclusion, overall these results do not support a reproductive advantage for cystic fibrosis DeltaF508 heterozygotes. However, the data cannot totally exclude the possibility that nonsmoking DeltaF508 heterozygotes experience a reproductive advantage while smoking DeltaF508 heterozygotes experience...... the opposite, a reproductive disadvantage. Accordingly, the data suggest a previously undocumented role of smoking on fecundity among cystic fibrosis heterozygotes....

  2. Implementation of an ESA delta-DOR capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Nick; Abello, Ricard; Lanucara, Marco; Mercolino, Mattia; Maddè, Roberto

    2009-06-01

    This paper describes the implementation of delta-DOR (delta-differential one-way ranging) receivers within the ESA Deep Space ground station network. Delta-DOR provides very accurate plane-of-sky measurements of spacecraft position which complement existing line-of-sight ranging and Doppler measurements. We discuss how this technique has been adapted and implemented at the two ESA deep-space ground stations using existing equipment and infrastructure. These new capabilities were added by writing new software modules for the standard ESA digital receiver (the intermediate frequency modem system—IFMS). With these upgrades the receiver has the ability to record accurately timetagged signals from up to eight IF sub-channels. These sub-channels can have bandwidths of 50 kHz-2 MHz with a sample quantization of 1-16 bits per component. The IF samples are stored locally for subsequent retrieval over a WAN by the correlator facility at ESOC.

  3. Parametrization of the. delta. residue function. [Complex functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasan, S S [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1976-04-19

    The complex residues at the ..delta..(1236) and ..delta..(1950) poles in the relevant partial-wave amplitudes provide information on the behaviour of the ..delta.. Regge residue function in the resonance region u>0. Attempts to incorporate this information in parametrizations of the residue by functions that are real on the real u-axis result in residues which have unsatisfactory behaviour in the region u<1GeV/sup 2/. The choice of complex functions for the trajectory and residue removes this undesirable feature and provides a better representation of the residue in the resonance region, suggesting that complex parametrizations would be better suited to Regge analyses of near-backward scattering.

  4. Effects of external influences in subsonic delta wing vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Anthony E.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to examine inconsistencies in reported studies for the vortical flow over highly-swept delta wings. A 76-deg swept delta wing was tested in three facilities with open and closed test sections and different model-support systems. The results obtained include surface oil-flow patterns, off-body laser-light-sheet flow visualization, and aerodynamic load measurements. Parameters such as the wall boundaries and model-support systems can drastically alter the loads. The effect of a high level of free-stream turbulence on the delta-wing flowfield was also examined and found to be significant. The increase in free-stream turbulence caused boundary-layer transition, unsteadiness in the vortex core positions, and altered the loads and moments.

  5. [Transport characteristics of air pollutants over the Yangtze Delta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Chai, Fa-He; Wang, Yong-Hong; Liu, Ming

    2008-05-01

    Meteorological field of January, April, July and October in 2004 was obtained by running MM5 with NCEP datasets. Then we used HYSPLIT 4.8 model to calculate the backward and forward trajectories of representative cities. Distributions of trajectories and the affected areas vary with seasons. Transport current affecting Yangtze River Delta is mainly from Mongolia, North China or Northeast region, via Yellow Sea area, Shandong, Jiangsu province or Shanghai. Another important transport path is current from southwest because of the Southwest monsoon. A movement of East Asia monsoon plays an important part in the mesoscale transport of pollutants in Yangtze Delta. Winter monsoon is a main mechanism which moves the air pollutants in Yangtze Delta to South China and West Pacific ocean. Another important transport system is the subtropical anticyclone over the western Pacific Ocean which controls the east coast of our country in spring and summer. This circulation system mainly affects the inland area of our country.

  6. Dendroclimatology of the Slave River Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, S.; Buhay, W. M.; Blair, D.; Tardif, J.; Bailey, D.

    2004-05-01

    It is well documented that changing hydrological conditions impact delta ecosystems. Such changes can also affect local inhabitants who have historical connections to the area and its resources. During the summer of 2003 a multifaceted paleo-environmental project was initiated to reconstruct the frequencies of floods and droughts in the Slave River Delta (SRD), Northwest Territories, Canada. The project goal is to forecast future hydrological and ecological conditions in the SRD in light of anticipated climate change and increasing demand on water resources. With the intent of expanding the climate history of the SRD, this particular aspect of the project will employ white spruce tree-ring chronologies constructed from six sites visited within the delta. Work is currently in progress to build a master chronology estimated to span over 300 years. In addition, a climate model for the SRD is also being developed and will be highlighted.

  7. Dynamic controls on shallow clinoform geometry: Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidam, E. F.; Nittrouer, C. A.; Ogston, A. S.; DeMaster, D. J.; Liu, J. P.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nguyen, T. N.

    2017-09-01

    Compound deltas, composed of a subaerial delta plain and subaqueous clinoform, are common termini of large rivers. The transition between clinoform topset and foreset, or subaqueous rollover point, is located at 25-40-m water depth for many large tide-dominated deltas; this depth is controlled by removal of sediment from the topset by waves, currents, and gravity flows. However, the Mekong Delta, which has been classified as a mixed-energy system, has a relatively shallow subaqueous rollover at 4-6-m depth. This study evaluates dynamical measurements and seabed cores collected in Sep 2014 and Mar 2015 to understand processes of sediment transfer across the subaqueous delta, and evaluate possible linkages to geometry. During the southwest rainy monsoon (Sep 2014), high river discharge, landward return flow under the river plume, and regional circulation patterns facilitated limited sediment flux to the topset and foreset, and promoted alongshore flux to the northeast. Net observed sediment fluxes in Sep 2014 were landward, however, consistent with hypotheses about seasonal storage on the topset. During the northeast rainy monsoon, low river discharge and wind-driven currents facilitated intense landward and southwestward fluxes of sediment. In both seasons, bed shear velocities frequently exceeded the 0.01-0.02 m/s threshold of motion for sand, even in the absence of strong wave energy. Most sediment transport occurred at water depths 4 cm/yr at energy-limited, and thus rollover depths cannot be predicted solely by bed-stress distributions. In systems like the subaqueous Mekong Delta, direction of transport may have a key impact on morphology.

  8. Structure of the [delta]-opioid receptor bound to naltrindole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granier, Sébastien; Manglik, Aashish; Kruse, Andrew C.; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Thian, Foon Sun; Weis, William I.; Kobilka, Brian K. (Stanford-MED)

    2012-07-11

    The opioid receptor family comprises three members, the {mu}-, {delta}- and {kappa}-opioid receptors, which respond to classical opioid alkaloids such as morphine and heroin as well as to endogenous peptide ligands like endorphins. They belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, and are excellent therapeutic targets for pain control. The {delta}-opioid receptor ({delta}-OR) has a role in analgesia, as well as in other neurological functions that remain poorly understood. The structures of the {mu}-OR and {kappa}-OR have recently been solved. Here we report the crystal structure of the mouse {delta}-OR, bound to the subtype-selective antagonist naltrindole. Together with the structures of the {mu}-OR and {kappa}-OR, the {delta}-OR structure provides insights into conserved elements of opioid ligand recognition while also revealing structural features associated with ligand-subtype selectivity. The binding pocket of opioid receptors can be divided into two distinct regions. Whereas the lower part of this pocket is highly conserved among opioid receptors, the upper part contains divergent residues that confer subtype selectivity. This provides a structural explanation and validation for the 'message-address' model of opioid receptor pharmacology, in which distinct 'message' (efficacy) and 'address' (selectivity) determinants are contained within a single ligand. Comparison of the address region of the {delta}-OR with other GPCRs reveals that this structural organization may be a more general phenomenon, extending to other GPCR families as well.

  9. Salinity Impacts on Agriculture and Groundwater in Delta Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D.; Salehin, M.; Jairuddin, M.; Saleh, A. F. M.; Rahman, M. M.; Parks, K. E.; Haque, M. A.; Lázár, A. N.; Payo, A.

    2015-12-01

    Delta regions are attractive for high intensity agriculture due to the availability of rich sedimentary soils and of fresh water. Many of the world's tropical deltas support high population densities which are reliant on irrigated agriculture. However environmental changes such as sea level rise, tidal inundation and reduced river flows have reduced the quantity and quality of water available for successful agriculture. Additionally, anthropogenic influences such as the over abstraction of ground water and the increased use of low quality water from river inlets has resulted in the accumulation of salts in the soils which diminishes crop productivity. Communities based in these regions are usually reliant on the same water for drinking and cooking because surface water is frequently contaminated by commercial and urban pollution. The expansion of shallow tube well systems for drinking water and agricultural use over the last few decades has resulted in mobilisation of salinity in the coastal and estuarine fringes. Sustainable development in delta regions is becoming constrained by water salinity. However salinity is often studied as an independent issue by specialists working in the fields of agriculture, community water supply and groundwater. The lack of interaction between these disciplines often results in corrective actions being applied to one sector without fully assessing the effects of these actions on other sectors. This paper describes a framework for indentifying the causes and impacts of salinity in delta regions based on the source-pathway-receptor framework. It uses examples and scenarios from the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta in Bangladesh together with field measurements and observations made in vulnerable coastal communities. The paper demonstrates the importance of creating an holistic understanding of the development and management of water resources to reduce the impact of salinity in fresh water in delta regions.

  10. Stable isotope deltas: Tiny, yet robust signatures in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Willi A.; Coplen, Tyler B.

    2012-01-01

    Although most of them are relatively small, stable isotope deltas of naturally occurring substances are robust and enable workers in anthropology, atmospheric sciences, biology, chemistry, environmental sciences, food and drug authentication, forensic science, geochemistry, geology, oceanography, and paleoclimatology to study a variety of topics. Two fundamental processes explain the stable isotope deltas measured in most terrestrial systems: isotopic fractionation and isotope mixing. Isotopic fractionation is the result of equilibrium or kinetic physicochemical processes that fractionate isotopes because of small differences in physical or chemical properties of molecular species having different isotopes. It is shown that the mixing of radioactive and stable isotope end members can be modelled to provide information on many natural processes, including 14C abundances in the modern atmosphere and the stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of the oceans during glacial and interglacial times. The calculation of mixing fractions using isotope balance equations with isotope deltas can be substantially in error when substances with high concentrations of heavy isotopes (e.g. 13C, 2H, and 18O ) are mixed. In such cases, calculations using mole fractions are preferred as they produce accurate mixing fractions. Isotope deltas are dimensionless quantities. In the International System of Units (SI), these quantities have the unit 1 and the usual list of prefixes is not applicable. To overcome traditional limitations with expressing orders of magnitude differences in isotope deltas, we propose the term urey (symbol Ur), after Harold C. Urey, for the unit 1. In such a manner, an isotope delta value expressed traditionally as−25 per mil can be written as−25 mUr (or−2.5 cUr or−0.25 dUr; the use of any SI prefix is possible). Likewise, very small isotopic differences often expressed in per meg ‘units’ are easily included (e.g. either+0.015 ‰ or+15 per meg

  11. DNA repair synthesis in human fibroblasts requires DNA polymerase delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, C.; Reinhard, P.; Linn, S.

    1988-01-01

    When UV-irradiated cultured diploid human fibroblasts were permeabilized with Brij-58 then separated from soluble material by centrifugation, conservative DNA repair synthesis could be restored by a soluble factor obtained from the supernatant of similarly treated HeLa cells. Extensive purification of this factor yielded a 10.2 S, 220,000-dalton polypeptide with the DNA polymerase and 3'- to 5'-exonuclease activities reported for DNA polymerase delta II. Monoclonal antibody to KB cell DNA polymerase alpha, while binding to HeLa DNA polymerase alpha, did not bind to the HeLa DNA polymerase delta. Moreover, at micromolar concentrations N2-(p-n-butylphenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate (BuPdGTP) and 2-(p-n-butylanilino)-2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate (BuAdATP) were potent inhibitors of DNA polymerase alpha, but did not inhibit the DNA polymerase delta. Neither purified DNA polymerase alpha nor beta could promote repair DNA synthesis in the permeabilized cells. Furthermore, under conditions which inhibited purified DNA polymerase alpha by greater than 90%, neither monoclonal antibodies to DNA polymerase alpha, BuPdGTP, nor BuAdATP was able to inhibit significantly the DNA repair synthesis mediated by the DNA polymerase delta. Thus, it appears that a major portion of DNA repair synthesis induced by UV irradiation might be catalyzed by DNA polymerase delta. When xeroderma pigmentosum human diploid fibroblasts were utilized, DNA repair synthesis dependent upon ultraviolet light could be restored by addition of both T4 endonuclease V and DNA polymerase delta, but not by addition of either one alone

  12. Nigeria. Petroleum, pollution and poverty in the Niger Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    The oil industry has operated in the Niger Delta in Nigeria for more than half a century - bringing almost no benefit to the people living there. Instead, widespread and unchecked human rights violations have pushed many people deeper into poverty and deprivation, fuelled conflict and led to a pervasive sense of powerlessness and frustration. This multidimensional crisis is driven by many factors - abuses committed by the security forces and militant groups, extensive pollution of land and water, corruption, serious corporate bad practice and government neglect. Nigeria: Petroleum, pollution and poverty in the Niger Delta focuses on one dimension of the crisis: the impact of pollution and environmental damage caused by the oil industry on the human rights of those living in the Niger Delta. Many people in the oil-producing areas of the delta rely on fisheries, subsistence agriculture and associated processing industries for their livelihood. Decades of pollution and environmental damage have resulted in violations of the right to an adequate standard of living - including food and water - violations of the right to gain a living through work, and violations of the right to health. The report examines who is responsible for this situation in a context where multinational oil companies have been operating for decades. It highlights how companies take advantage of the weak regulatory systems that characterize many poor countries, and how the poorest people are often the most vulnerable to exploitation. The people of the Niger Delta have seen their human rights undermined by oil companies that their government can not - or will not - hold to account. They have been systematically denied access to information about how oil exploration and production will affect them, and are repeatedly denied access to justice. The Niger Delta provides a stark case study of the lack of accountability of a government to the people, and of multinational companies' almost total lack of

  13. Delta progradation in Greenland driven by increasing glacial mass loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Mette; Iversen, Lars Lonsmann; Bjork, Anders Anker

    2017-01-01

    imagery. We find that delta progradation was driven by high freshwater runoff from the Greenland Ice Sheet coinciding with periods of open water. Progradation was controlled by the local initial environmental conditions (that is, accumulated air temperatures above 0 degrees C per year, freshwater runoff...... of erosion and accretion along the large deltas of the main rivers in the Arctic5-7. Our results improve the understanding of Arctic coastal evolution in a changing climate, and reveal the impacts on coastal areas of increasing ice mass loss and the associated freshwater runoff and lengthening of open-water...

  14. A divergent synthesis of the delta(13)-9-isofurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Douglass F; Gu, Peiming; Li, Rui

    2009-08-07

    A stereodivergent total synthesis of the Delta(13)-9-isofurans has been developed. The four core substituted tetrahydrofurans were prepared by the Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation and Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation followed by cascade cyclization. The relative configuration at C-8 was inverted by oxidation followed by immediate L-Selectride reduction. The relative configuration of the C-15 diastereomers was assigned by (S)-Binol/LAH/EtOH reduction of the corresponding enone. This synthesis of the Delta(13)-9-isofurans will provide sufficient material for further investigation of their biological activity.

  15. Halotolerance of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum delta H and Marburg.

    OpenAIRE

    Ciulla, R; Clougherty, C; Belay, N; Krishnan, S; Zhou, C; Byrd, D; Roberts, M F

    1994-01-01

    Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum delta H and Marburg were adapted to grow in medium containing up to 0.65 M NaCl. From 0.01 to 0.5 M NaCl, there was a lag before cell growth which increased with increasing external NaCl. The effect of NaCl on methane production was not significant once the cells began to grow. Intracellular solutes were monitored by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy as a function of osmotic stress. In the delta H strain, the major intracellular small organic s...

  16. Changing Course - the Baird Team Solution: a Delta for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairn, R. B.

    2016-02-01

    The Changing Course Design competition was initiated to evaluate options for re-positioning the mouth of the Mississippi River and modifying the management of the Lower Mississippi River to support the 2017 Master Plan for the Louisiana coast. This paper will present the findings of one of the selected competitors: the Baird Team and their "Delta for All" approach. A key to success in the future management of the lower Mississippi River is the development of an integrated, holistic approach to management that recognizes the need to harness the full land/wetland building and restorative potential of the river at the same time as improving flood protection and navigation. Fundamentally the Baird solution recognized the underlying geomorphic challenges of the Delta: it receives three to four times less sediment from the Mississippi River than it did historically and sea level is rising two to three times faster than it did historically and is predicted to rise much faster in the future. The result will be a smaller delta in the future. Our approach seeks to harness as close to 100% of the land building potential of the river to make the smaller future delta as large as possible. This compares to the 2012 State Master Plan which would harness approximately 50% of the land-building potential. Our approach also recognizes that the further inland new distributary mouths and associated sub-deltas are located, the greater the delta building potential. Our approach builds with the river by creating and managing new river distributaries that are opened and closed every 50 years or so to build new sub-deltas within a defined sustainable delta footprint. By placing the last outlet somewhere in the vicinity of English Turn the lower Mississippi River would become a tidal channel. These two simple concepts of harnessing 100% of the river and placing the last outlet near English Turn result in immediate and significant benefits for flood protection and navigation. Through the

  17. Mazda kiintotyövaiheiden perustaminen : Delta Auto Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Schreck, Ville

    2012-01-01

    Täyden palvelun autoliikeketju Delta Auto myy ja huoltaa Kia-, Mitsubishi- ja Mazda-merkkisiä autoja paikkakuntakohtaisesti kahdessakymmenessäviidessä toimipisteessä. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tehdä toimiva ratkaisu Mazdan työvaiheiden sekä työpakettien myyntiin Automaster-ohjelmistoon. Työvaiheet sekä ohjeajat tulevat käyttöön kaikkiin Delta Auton toimipisteisiin ympäri Suomea. Työn lähdemateriaalin sain Inchcape Motor Finland Oy:ltä, joka toimii Suomessa Mazdan maahantuojana. Tarve tä...

  18. CMOS sigma-delta converters practical design guide

    CERN Document Server

    De la Rosa, Jose M

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive overview of Sigma-Delta Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs) and a practical guide to their design in nano-scale CMOS for optimal performance. This book presents a systematic and comprehensive compilation of sigma-delta converter operating principles, the new advances in architectures and circuits, design methodologies and practical considerations - going from system-level specifications to silicon integration, packaging and measurements, with emphasis on nanometer CMOS implementation. The book emphasizes practical design issues - from high-level behavioural modelling i

  19. Measurement of $\\Delta^{++}$(1232) production in hadronic Z decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Agasi, E; Ajinenko, I; Aleksan, Roy; Alekseev, G D; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Alvsvaag, S J; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Anykeyev, V B; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barate, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Blyth, S; Bocci, V; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Bosworth, S; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brillault, L; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Buys, A; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carrilho, P; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerrito, L; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Chauveau, J; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contreras, J L; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Daum, A; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; De Boeck, H; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Dufour, Y; Dupont, F; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Ershaidat, N; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Ferrer, A; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gibbs, M; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Haedinger, U; Hahn, F; Hahn, M; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Ioannou, P; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köhne, J H; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Kramer, P H; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Królikowski, J; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamblot, S; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Last, I; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemoigne, Y; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Lokajícek, M; Loken, J G; López, J M; López-Fernandez, A; López-Aguera, M A; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; Maehlum, G; Maio, A; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Maron, T; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Pindo, M; Plaszczynski, S; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Prest, M; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rybicki, K; Rybin, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siccama, I; Siegrist, P; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stepaniak, K; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Waldner, F; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zacharatou-Jarlskog, C; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zhigunov, V P; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zuberi, R; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1995-01-01

    A measurement of the \\Delta^{++}(1232) inclusive production in hadronic decays of the Z at LEP is presented, based on 1.3 million hadronic events collected~ by the DELPHI~ detector in the 1994 LEP running~ period. The DELPHI ring imaging Cherenkov counters are used for identifying hadrons. The average \\Delta^{++}(1232) multiplicity per hadronic event is 0.079 \\pm 0.015 which is more than a factor of two below the JETSET, HERWIG and UCLA model predictions. It agrees with a recently proposed universal mass dependence of particle production rates in e^{+}e^- annihilations.

  20. Water and nitrogen conditions affect the relationships of Delta13C and Delta18O to gas exchange and growth in durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Bosquet, Llorenç; Molero, Gemma; Nogués, Salvador; Araus, José Luis

    2009-01-01

    Whereas the effects of water and nitrogen (N) on plant Delta(13)C have been reported previously, these factors have scarcely been studied for Delta(18)O. Here the combined effect of different water and N regimes on Delta(13)C, Delta(18)O, gas exchange, water-use efficiency (WUE), and growth of four genotypes of durum wheat [Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum (Desf.) Husn.] cultured in pots was studied. Water and N supply significantly increased plant growth. However, a reduction in water supply did not lead to a significant decrease in gas exchange parameters, and consequently Delta(13)C was only slightly modified by water input. Conversely, N fertilizer significantly decreased Delta(13)C. On the other hand, water supply decreased Delta(18)O values, whereas N did not affect this parameter. Delta(18)O variation was mainly determined by the amount of transpired water throughout plant growth (T(cum)), whereas Delta(13)C variation was explained in part by a combination of leaf N and stomatal conductance (g(s)). Even though the four genotypes showed significant differences in cumulative transpiration rates and biomass, this was not translated into significant differences in Delta(18)O(s). However, genotypic differences in Delta(13)C were observed. Moreover, approximately 80% of the variation in biomass across growing conditions and genotypes was explained by a combination of both isotopes, with Delta(18)O alone accounting for approximately 50%. This illustrates the usefulness of combining Delta(18)O and Delta(13)C in order to assess differences in plant growth and total transpiration, and also to provide a time-integrated record of the photosynthetic and evaporative performance of the plant during the course of crop growth.

  1. Stimulation of accumbal GABAA receptors inhibits delta2-, but not delta1-, opioid receptor-mediated dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, Yuri; Kiguchi, Yuri; Watanabe, Yuriko; Waddington, John L; Saigusa, Tadashi

    2017-11-15

    The nucleus accumbens contains delta-opioid receptors that may reduce inhibitory neurotransmission. Reduction in GABA A receptor-mediated inhibition of accumbal dopamine release due to delta-opioid receptor activation should be suppressed by stimulating accumbal GABA A receptors. As delta-opioid receptors are divided into delta2- and delta1-opioid receptors, we analysed the effects of the GABA A receptor agonist muscimol on delta2- and delta1-opioid receptor-mediated accumbal dopamine efflux in freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis. Drugs were administered intracerebrally through the dialysis probe. Doses of compounds indicate total amount administered (mol) during 25-50min infusions. The delta2-opioid receptor agonist deltorphin II (25.0nmol)- and delta1-opioid receptor agonist DPDPE (5.0nmol)-induced increases in dopamine efflux were inhibited by the delta2-opioid receptor antagonist naltriben (1.5nmol) and the delta1-opioid receptor antagonist BNTX (150.0pmol), respectively. Muscimol (250.0pmol) inhibited deltorphin II (25.0nmol)-induced dopamine efflux. The GABA A receptor antagonist bicuculline (50.0pmol), which failed to affect deltorphin II (25.0nmol)-induced dopamine efflux, counteracted the inhibitory effect of muscimol on deltorphin II-induced dopamine efflux. Neither muscimol (250.0pmol) nor bicuculline (50.0 and 500.0pmol) altered DPDPE (5.0nmol)-induced dopamine efflux. The present results show that reduction in accumbal GABA A receptor-mediated inhibition of dopaminergic activity is necessary to produce delta2-opioid receptor-induced increase in accumbal dopamine efflux. This study indicates that activation of delta2- but not delta1-opioid receptors on the cell bodies and/or terminals of accumbal GABAergic interneurons inhibits GABA release and, accordingly, decreases GABA A receptor-mediated inhibition of dopaminergic terminals, resulting in enhanced accumbal dopamine efflux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization and comparison of fatty acyl Delta6 desaturase cDNAs from freshwater and marine teleost fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X; Seiliez, I; Hastings, N; Tocher, D R; Panserat, S; Dickson, C A; Bergot, P; Teale, A J

    2004-10-01

    Fish are the most important dietary source of the n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), that have particularly important roles in human nutrition reflecting their roles in critical physiological processes. The objective of the study described here was to clone, functionally characterize and compare expressed fatty acid desaturase genes involved in the production of EPA and DHA in freshwater and marine teleost fish species. Putative fatty acid desaturase cDNAs were isolated and cloned from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and turbot (Psetta maximus). The enzymic activities of the products of these cDNAs, together with those of cDNAs previously cloned from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), were determined by heterologous expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The carp and turbot desaturase cDNAs included open reading frames (ORFs) of 1335 and 1338 base pairs, respectively, specifying proteins of 444 and 445 amino acids. The protein sequences possessed all the characteristic features of microsomal fatty acid desaturases, including three histidine boxes, two transmembrane regions, and N-terminal cytochrome b(5) domains containing the haem-binding motif, HPGG. Functional expression showed all four fish cDNAs encode basically unifunctional Delta6 fatty acid desaturase enzymes responsible for the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of HUFA from 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6. All the fish desaturases were more active towards the n-3 substrate with 59.5%, 31.5%, 23.1% and 7.0% of 18:3n-3 being converted to 18:4n-3 in the case of turbot, trout, sea bream and carp, respectively. The enzymes also showed very low, probably physiologically insignificant, levels of Delta5 desaturase activity, but none of the products showed Delta4 desaturase activity. The cloning and characterization of desaturases from these fish is an important advance, as they are species in which

  3. Stable Isotope (delta OXYGEN-18, Delta Deuterium, Delta CARBON-13) Dendroclimatological Studies in the Waterloo Region of Southern Ontario, Canada, Between AD 1610 and 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhay, William Mark

    Oxygen (delta^{18} O), hydrogen (delta^2H) and carbon (delta^{13}C) isotopes were measured in wood cellulose from elm, white pine and maple trees that grew in southwestern Ontario, Canada. The measured oxygen and hydrogen isotopic data were used for model-based reconstructions of delta^{18}{O}_{meteoric water}, mean annual temperature (MAT) and relative humidity for a period, AD 1610 to 1880, that precedes instrumental records of climate. The carbon isotope measurements were compared with the Cellulose Model inferred climate data to reveal additional environmental information. Modifications made to the Cellulose Model focused on the dynamics of oxygen and hydrogen isotopic fractionation in plants during evapotranspiration and photosynthetic assimilation. For instance, kinetic fractionation of ^{18}O was found to be predictable from theoretical considerations of leaf energy balance and boundary layer dynamics. Kinetic fractionation during evapotranspiration is sensitive to the nature of the boundary layer, which is controlled by leaf size and morphology. Generally, plants with small segmented leaves have a lower component of turbidity in the leaf boundary layer, which results in higher kinetic fractionation values, than do plants having large simple leaves and more turbulent boundary layers. Kinetic ^2H enrichment in plant leaf water can also be rationalized in terms of leaf size and morphology when an apparent temperature-dependent isotope effect, acting in opposition to evaporative enrichment, is taken into account. Accounting for this temperature -dependent isotope effect helps to: (1) reconcile hydrogen kinetic fractionation inconsistencies for different leaves; (2) explain a temperature effect previously attributed to variable biochemical fractionation during cellulose synthesis, and; (3) verify hydrogen biochemical effects in plants. This improved characterization of the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic effects in plants, using the modified Cellulose Model, helped

  4. Polarized antiquark flavor asymmetry DELTA anti u(x)-DELTA anti d(x) and the pion cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Fries, R J; Weiss, C

    2003-01-01

    The flavor asymmetry of the unpolarized antiquark distributions in the proton, anti u(x)- anti d(x)0. Using a simple chiral linear sigma model as an example, we demonstrate that in the meson cloud picture a large positive DELTA anti u(x)-DELTA anti d(x) can be obtained from pi-sigma interference contributions. This calls into question previous estimates based on rho-meson contributions alone, and indicates how the results of the meson cloud picture may be reconciled with those of quark-based models. (orig.)

  5. Carrier-mediated ¿-aminobutyric acid transport across the basolateral membrane of human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Carstensen, Mette; Brodin, Birger

    2012-01-01

    and the anticancer prodrug d-aminolevulinic acid across the apical membrane of small intestinal enterocytes. Little is however known about the basolateral transport of these substances. We investigated basolateral transport of GABA in mature Caco-2 cell monolayers using isotope studies. Here we report that, at least...... two transporters seem to be involved in the basolateral transport of GABA. The basolateral uptake consisted of a high-affinity system with a K(m) of 290µM and V(max) of 75pmolcm(-2)min(-1) and a low affinity system with a K(m) of approximately 64mM and V(max) of 1.6nmolcm(-2)min(-1). The high...

  6. Deltorphins: a family of naturally occurring peptides with high affinity and selectivity for delta opioid binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erspamer, V; Melchiorri, P; Falconieri-Erspamer, G; Negri, L; Corsi, R; Severini, C; Barra, D; Simmaco, M; Kreil, G

    1989-07-01

    Deltorphins are endogenous linear heptapeptides, isolated from skin extracts of frogs belonging to the genus Phyllomedusa, that have a higher affinity and selectivity for delta opioid binding sites than any other natural compound known. Two deltorphins with the sequence Tyr-Ala-Phe-Asp(or Glu)-Val-Val-Gly-NH2 have been isolated from skin extracts of Phyllomedusa bicolor. The alanine in position 2 is in the D configuration. These peptides, [D-Ala2]deltorphins I and II, show an even higher affinity for delta receptors than the previously characterized deltorphin, which contains D-methionine as the second amino acid. These peptides show some similarity to another constituent of Phyllomedusa skin, dermorphin, which is highly selective for mu-opioid receptors. These peptides all have the N-terminal sequence Tyr-D-Xaa-Phe, where D-Xaa is either D-alanine or D-methionine. While this structure seems to be capable of activating both mu and delta opioid receptors, differences in the C-terminal regions of these peptides are probably responsible for the observed high receptor selectivity of dermorphin and deltorphin.

  7. 77 FR 61592 - Arkansas Electric Cooperative Corporation; Mississippi Delta Energy Agency; Clarksdale Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL12-110-000] Arkansas Electric Cooperative Corporation; Mississippi Delta Energy Agency; Clarksdale Public Utilities Commission.... 825(h), Arkansas Electric Cooperative Corporation, Mississippi Delta Energy Agency, and its two...

  8. Profitability and constraints in the marketing of poultry birds in Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profitability and constraints in the marketing of poultry birds in Delta central agricultural zone, Delta state, Nigeria. ... Randomly selected 54 poultry bird marketers were surveyed in 5 major markets. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  9. Crude Oil, a Blessing and Impediment in Niger Delta Polity: Tanure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Special Edition 2011 > ... Oil has constituted a physical problem to Delta State and Nigeria as a whole. ... impediment in Delta of Nigeria; Economic growth constraints, socio-political problems and Neo-colonialism; and finally,

  10. Application in Down-hole Milling Operations In Niger Delta.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ENGINEERS

    export terminals, 275 flow stations, 10 gas plants, 3 refineries and a massive natural ..... clear of the Niger Delta', adding that, 'The Chinese government by investing in stolen .... Development Agency (SMEDAN); to help boost the growth of both countries' ..... “The Rule of Oil: Petro-Politics and the Anatomy of an Insurgency”.

  11. Gambiense Sleeping Sickness In The Abraka Region Of Delta State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gambiense Sleeping Sickness In The Abraka Region Of Delta State, Nigeria: Passive Case Detection (Pcd) At The Baptist Medical Centre (BMC) Eku 1999 – 2004. ... The highest prevalence of infection was among patients aged between 26-35 years with 35.6% infection rate, 23.3 percent was recorded among those aged ...

  12. year Review of Patients on DOTS in Delta State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNIBEN

    1Department of Community Medicine, Delta State University Teaching ... Therapy Short-course (DOTS), DOTS plus, and the Stop TB Strategy. ... Methods: In this descriptive records review of years 2011-2015, existing data ... Treatment success rate improved from 68.3% in ..... exploration and social interventions to curb it.

  13. Delta-gamma-theta Hedging of Crude Oil Asian Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Hruška

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Black-Scholes formula was derived, many methods have been suggested for vanilla as well as exotic options pricing. More of investing and hedging strategies have been developed based on these pricing models. Goal of this paper is to derive delta-gamma-theta hedging strategy for Asian options and compere its efficiency with gamma-delta-theta hedging combined with predictive model. Fixed strike Asian options are type of exotic options, whose special feature is that payoff is calculated from the difference of average market price and strike price for call options and vice versa for the put options. Methods of stochastic analysis are used to determine deltas, gammas and thetas of Asian options. Asian options are cheaper than vanilla options and therefore they are more suitable for precise portfolio creation. On the other hand their deltas are also smaller as well as profits. That means that they are also less risky and more suitable for hedging. Results, conducted on chosen commodity, confirm better feasibility of Asian options compering with vanilla options in sense of gamma hedging.

  14. Assessing School Facilities in Public Secondary Schools in Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated school facilitates in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria. The purpose of the study was to find out the state of the facilities, the types of maintenance carried out on the facilities by school administrators, the factors encouraging school facilities depreciation and the roles of school ...

  15. Monte Carlo simulations of the stability of delta-Pu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landa, A.; Soderlind, P.; Ruban, Andrei

    2003-01-01

    The transition temperature (T-c) for delta-Pu has been calculated for the first time. A Monte Carlo method is employed for this purpose and the effective cluster interactions are obtained from first-principles calculations incorporated with the Connolly-Williams and generalized perturbation methods...

  16. Evolution of the Niger Delta, present dynamics and the future ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evolution of the Niger Delta is closely linked to the geodynamics related to the separation of the African and South American continents and the tectonics of the formation of the Benue Trough. Tectonic activities, climate and eustasy are the major factors responsible for transgression and regression through the entrant point ...

  17. Validity and reliability of the Delta Healthy Eating Attitudes Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate psychometric properties of an instrument developed to measure psychosocial factors related to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans for a nutrition intervention in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD). Social Cognitive Theory constructs social support (SS), s...

  18. 75 FR 56094 - Delta-Mendota Canal Intertie Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... Project AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Record of Decision and... maintain a new 69-kilovolt (kV) transmission line and fiber optic cable for delivery of project use power...) Delta-Mendota Canal (DMC)/California Aqueduct Intertie (Intertie) project. The Intertie, including the...

  19. Eating Habits of the Elderly in Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The study was undertaken to describe the eating habits of literate elderly in Asaba, urban city in Delta State of Nigeria. Methods: A total of 176 elderly male (62.5%) and female (37.5%) aged 50years and above who attended Medical Lectures of the Ebreme foundation for the elderly were enrolled in this study.

  20. Morphodynamics of the Manyema Tidal Delta at Kunduchi, Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Morphodynamics, Kunduchi, Manyema, shoreline change, tidal creek, tidal delta. Abstract—The prevailing northward longshore drift of beach sand on the northern part of Msasani Bay, north of Dar es Salaam, is interrupted at Kunduchi by the tidal flushing of ... Western Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci. Vol. 11, No. 2, pp.