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Sample records for delta 13c values

  1. Carbon isotope ratio (delta13C) values of urinary steroids for doping control in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, Adam T; Trout, Graham J; Kazlauskas, Rymantas; Howe, Christopher J; George, Adrian V

    2009-03-01

    The detection of steroids originating from synthetic precursors in relation to their chemically identical natural analogues has proven to be a significant challenge for doping control laboratories accredited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Endogenous steroid abuse may be confirmed by utilising the atomic specificity of gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) that enables the precise measurement of differences in stable isotope ratios that arise as a result of fractionation patterns inherent in the source of steroids. A comprehensive carbon isotope ratio (delta(13)C) profiling study (n=1262) of urinary ketosteroids is reported that demonstrates the inter-individual variation that can be expected from factors such as diet, ethnicity, gender and age within and between different populations (13 countries). This delta(13)C distribution is shown by principal component analysis (PCA) to provide a statistical comparison to delta(13)C values observed following administration of testosterone enanthate. A limited collection of steroid diol data (n=100; consisting of three countries) is also presented with comparison to delta(13)C values of excreted testosterone to validate criteria for WADA accredited laboratories to prove doping offences.

  2. [Characteristics of foliar delta13C values of common shrub species in various microhabitats with different karst rocky desertification degrees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xue-Lian; Wang, Shi-Jie; Rong, Li

    2011-12-01

    By measuring the foliar delta13C values of 5 common shrub species (Rhamnus davurica, Pyracantha fortuneana, Rubus biflorus, Zanthoxylum planispinum, and Viburnum utile) growing in various microhabitats in Wangjiazhai catchment, a typical karst desertification area in Guizhou Province, this paper studied the spatial heterogeneity of plant water use at niche scale and the response of the heterogeneity to different karst rocky desertification degrees. The foliar delta13C values of the shrub species in the microhabitats followed the order of stony surface > stony gully > stony crevice > soil surface, and those of the majority of the species were more negative in the microhabitat soil surface than in the others. The foliar delta13C values decreased in the sequence of V. utile > R. biflorus > Z. planispinum > P. fortuneana > R. davurica, and the mean foliar delta13C value of the shrubs and that of typical species in various microhabitats all increased with increasing karst rocky desertification degree, differed significantly among different microhabitats. It was suggested that with the increasing degree of karst rocky desertification, the structure and functions of karst habitats were impaired, microhabitats differentiated gradually, and drought degree increased.

  3. Intraspecific variation in hair delta(13)C and delta(15)N values of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) with known individual histories, behavior, and feeding ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, James E; Sponheimer, Matt; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P

    2007-07-01

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions were analyzed from hair samples of 30 sympatric ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) inhabiting the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar. All lemurs were known individuals involved in a longitudinal study, which allowed us to explore the degree to which group membership, sex, health status, and migration influenced their stable isotope compositions. The differences in delta(13)C and delta(15)N values between groups were small (lemur conservation. There were few sex differences, but significant differences did occur between individuals of normal and suboptimal health, with those in poor health (especially those in the worst condition) being enriched in (15)N and to a lesser degree (13)C compared with healthy individuals. Moreover, lemurs that had emigrated between 2003 and 2004 had different delta(13)C and delta(15)N compositions than their original groups. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Delta13C values of grasses as a novel indicator of pollution by fossil-fuel-derived greenhouse gas CO2 in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtfouse, Eric; Lichtfouse, Michel; Jaffrézic, Anne

    2003-01-01

    A novel fossil fuel pollution indicator based on the 13C/12C isotopic composition of plants has been designed. This bioindicator is a promising tool for future mapping of the sequestration of fossil fuel CO2 into urban vegetation. Theoretically, plants growing in fossil-fuel-CO2-contaminated areas, such as major cities, industrial centers, and highway borders, should assimilate a mixture of global atmospheric CO2 of delta13C value of -8.02 per thousand and of fossil fuel CO2 of average delta13C value of -27.28 per thousand. This isotopic difference should, thus, be recorded in plant carbon. Indeed, this study reveals that grasses growing near a major highway in Paris, France, have strikingly depleted delta13C values, averaging at -35.08 per thousand, versus rural grasses that show an average delta13C value of -30.59 per thousand. A simple mixing model was used to calculate the contributions of fossil-fuel-derived CO2 to the plant tissue. Calculation based on contaminated and noncontaminated isotopic end members shows that urban grasses assimilate up to 29.1% of fossil-fuel-CO2-derived carbon in their tissues. The 13C isotopic composition of grasses thus represents a promising new tool for the study of the impact of fossil fuel CO2 in major cities.

  5. Seasonal inter-relationships in atmospheric methane and companion delta13C values: effects of sinks and sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassey, K. R.; Mikaloff Fletcher, S. E. (NIWA, Wellington (New Zealand)), e-mail: k.lassey@niwa.co.nz; Allan, W. (Allan Planning and Research Ltd., Petone (New Zealand))

    2011-07-15

    Recent developments in applying carbon-isotope information to better understand regional and global methane budgets infer a strong role by a highly fractionating seasonal sink such as atomic chlorine. Specifically, OH as the predominant seasonal sink cannot account for the 'phase ellipses' based on observed seasonal cycles of methane mixing ratio and isotope ratio, delta13C. Although a strong role by atomic chlorine is inferred empirically, open questions remain about the interplay between sources and sinks in determining the properties of phase ellipses. This paper employs a simple didactic model of the seasonal cycling of atmospheric methane to understand such interplay. We demonstrate that a single seasonal sink and seasonal source act together to imprint anti-phase seasonalities on atmospheric methane and delta13C, which lead to phase ellipses that collapse onto a straight line with slope characteristic of that sink. This explains empirical findings of these anti-phase relationships in three-dimensional modelling studies. We also demonstrate that multiple seasonal sinks acting with a seasonal source can yield surprising properties for the phase ellipse that not only explain some features of phase ellipses reported in modelling studies but also have the potential to explain marked inter-annual variation in phase ellipses based on observation

  6. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations and {delta}{sup 13}C values across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current between New Zealand and Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longinelli, Antonio; Selmo, Enricomaria [Univ. of Parma, (Italy). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Giglio, Federico; Langone, Leonardo; Lenaz, Renzo; Ori, Carlo [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Bologna (Italy). Inst. of Marine Sciences, Marine Geology Section

    2007-02-15

    Measurements of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations were repeatedly carried out on the vessel 'Italica' of the Italian National Research Program in Antarctica, during cruises from Italy to Antarctica. Discrete air samples were also collected in 4-L Pyrex flasks during these cruises in order to carry out {delta}{sup 13}C analyses on atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The results acquired between New Zealand and Antarctica are reported here. The mean growth rate of the CO{sub 2} concentration from 1996 to 2003 in this area of the Southern Oceans is of about 1.8 ppmv/yr, in good agreement with NOAA/CMDL measurements. The rates of increase from cruise to cruise are rather variable. From 1996-1997 to 1998-1999 cruise the yearly growth rate is 2.75 ppmv/yr, close to the large growth rates measured in several areas and mainly related to the most severe El Nino event of the last years. The other yearly growth rates are of about 1.3 and 2 ppmv for the periods 1998-1999 to 2001-2002 and 2001-2002 to 2003-2004, respectively. The large difference between these two values is probably related to the uncertainty on the only two 2001-2002 discrete measurements of CO{sub 2} concentration in this area. The measured {delta}{sup 13}C values show two completely different distributions and a large interannual variability. The 1998-1999, 2002-2003, and 2003-2004 results obtained between about 55 deg S and 65 deg S across the Antarctic Polar Front show a marked negativization of up to more than 0.2% when compared to the background values. The results are related to local source regions of CO{sub 2}, as frequently found in the Southern Ocean by several authors; the negative {delta}{sup 13}C values are tentatively related to the possible contribution of different causes. Among them, the southward negative gradient of {delta}{sup 13}C of the dissolved inorganic carbon, the contribution from upwelling deep waters and from subsurface processes between the Northern SubAntarctic Front and the

  7. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations and (delta){sup 13}C values across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current between New Zealand and Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longinelli, Antonio; Selmo, Enricomaria [Univ. of Parma, (Italy). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Giglio, Federico; Langone, Leonardo; Lenaz, Renzo; Ori, Carlo [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Bologna (Italy). Inst. of Marine Sciences, Marine Geology Section

    2007-02-15

    Measurements of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations were repeatedly carried out on the vessel 'Italica' of the Italian National Research Program in Antarctica, during cruises from Italy to Antarctica. Discrete air samples were also collected in 4-L Pyrex flasks during these cruises in order to carry out (delta){sup 13}C analyses on atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The results acquired between New Zealand and Antarctica are reported here. The mean growth rate of the CO{sub 2} concentration from 1996 to 2003 in this area of the Southern Oceans is of about 1.8 ppmv/yr, in good agreement with NOAA/CMDL measurements. The rates of increase from cruise to cruise are rather variable. From 1996-1997 to 1998-1999 cruise the yearly growth rate is 2.75 ppmv/yr, close to the large growth rates measured in several areas and mainly related to the most severe El Nino event of the last years. The other yearly growth rates are of about 1.3 and 2 ppmv for the periods 1998-1999 to 2001-2002 and 2001-2002 to 2003-2004, respectively. The large difference between these two values is probably related to the uncertainty on the only two 2001-2002 discrete measurements of CO{sub 2} concentration in this area. The measured (delta){sup 13}C values show two completely different distributions and a large interannual variability. The 1998-1999, 2002-2003, and 2003-2004 results obtained between about 55 deg S and 65 deg S across the Antarctic Polar Front show a marked negativization of up to more than 0.2% when compared to the background values. The results are related to local source regions of CO{sub 2}, as frequently found in the Southern Ocean by several authors; the negative (delta){sup 13}C values are tentatively related to the possible contribution of different causes. Among them, the southward negative gradient of (delta){sup 13}C of the dissolved inorganic carbon, the contribution from upwelling deep waters and from subsurface processes between the Northern SubAntarctic Front and the

  8. delta(13)C and delta(2)H isotope ratios in amphetamine synthesized from benzaldehyde and nitroethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael; Salouros, Helen; Cawley, Adam T; Robertson, James; Heagney, Aaron C; Arenas-Queralt, Andrea

    2010-06-15

    Previous work in these laboratories and by Butzenlechner et al. and Culp et al. has demonstrated that the delta(2)H isotope value of industrial benzaldehyde produced by the catalytic oxidation of toluene is profoundly positive, usually in the range +300 per thousand to +500 per thousand. Synthetic routes leading to amphetamine, methylamphetamine or their precursors and commencing with such benzaldehyde may be expected to exhibit unusually positive delta(2)H values. Results are presented for delta(13)C and delta(2)H isotope values of 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene synthesized from an industrial source of benzaldehyde, having a positive delta(2)H isotope value, by a Knoevenagel condensation with nitroethane. Results are also presented for delta(13)C and delta(2)H isotope values for amphetamine prepared from the resulting 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene. The values obtained were compared with delta(13)C and delta(2)H isotope values obtained for an amphetamine sample prepared using a synthetic route that did not involve benzaldehyde. Finally, results are presented for samples of benzaldehyde, 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene and amphetamine that had been seized at a clandestine amphetamine laboratory. Copyright (c) 2010 Commonwealth of Australia. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Paleogeographic variations of pedogenic carbonate delta13C values from Koobi Fora, Kenya: implications for floral compositions of Plio-Pleistocene hominin environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Rhonda L; Lepre, Christopher J; Wright, James D; Feibel, Craig S

    2007-11-01

    Plio-Pleistocene East African grassland expansion and faunal macroevolution, including that of our own lineage, are attributed to global climate change. To further understand environmental factors of early hominin evolution, we reconstruct the paleogeographic distribution of vegetation (C(3)-C(4) pathways) by stable carbon isotope (delta(13)C) analysis of pedogenic carbonates from the Plio-Pleistocene Koobi Fora region, northeast Lake Turkana Basin, Kenya. We analyzed 202 nodules (530 measurements) from ten paleontological/archaeological collecting areas spanning environments over a 50-km(2) area. We compared results across subregions in evolving fluviolacustrine depositional environments in the Koobi Fora Formation from 2.0-1.5 Ma, a stratigraphic interval that temporally brackets grassland ascendancy in East Africa. Significant differences in delta(13)C values between subregions are explained by paleogeographic controls on floral composition and distribution. Our results indicate grassland expansion between 2.0 and 1.75 Ma, coincident with major shifts in basin-wide sedimentation and hydrology. Hypotheses may be correct in linking Plio-Pleistocene hominin evolution to environmental changes from global climate; however, based on our results, we interpret complexity from proximate forces that mitigated basin evolution. An approximately 2.5 Ma tectonic event in southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya exerted strong effects on paleography in the Turkana Basin from 2.0-1.5 Ma, contributing to the shift from a closed, lacustrine basin to one dominated by open, fluvial conditions. We propose basin transformation decreased residence time for Omo River water and expanded subaerial floodplain landscapes, ultimately leading to reduced proportions of wooded floras and the establishment of habitats suitable for grassland communities.

  10. Variation in woody plant delta(13)C along a topoedaphic gradient in a subtropical savanna parkland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Edith; Boutton, Thomas W; Liu, Feng; Wu, X Ben; Archer, Steven R

    2008-06-01

    delta(13)C values of C(3) plants are indicators of plant carbon-water relations that integrate plant responses to environmental conditions. However, few studies have quantified spatial variation in plant delta(13)C at the landscape scale. We determined variation in leaf delta(13)C, leaf nitrogen per leaf area (N(area)), and specific leaf area (SLA) in April and August 2005 for all individuals of three common woody species within a 308 x 12-m belt transect spanning an upland-lowland topoedaphic gradient in a subtropical savanna in southern Texas. Clay content, available soil moisture, and soil total N were all negatively correlated with elevation. The delta(13)C values of Prosopis glandulosa (deciduous N(2)-fixing tree legume), Condalia hookeri (evergreen shrub), and Zanthoxylum fagara (evergreen shrub) leaves increased 1-4 per thousand with decreasing elevation, with the delta(13)C value of P. glandulosa leaves being 1-3 per thousand higher than those of the two shrub species. Contrary to theory and results from previous studies, delta(13)C values were highest where soil water was most available, suggesting that some other variable was overriding or interacting with water availability. Leaf N(area) was positively correlated with leaf delta(13)C of all species (p < 0.01) and appeared to exert the strongest control over delta(13)C along this topoedaphic gradient. Since leaf N(area) is positively related to photosynthetic capacity, plants with high leaf N(area) are likely to have low p (I)/p (a) ratios and therefore higher delta(13)C values, assuming stomatal conductance is constant. Specific leaf area was not correlated significantly with leaf delta(13)C. Following a progressive growing season drought in July/August, leaf delta(13)C decreased. The lower delta(13)C in August may reflect the accumulation of (13)C-depleted epicuticular leaf wax. We suggest control of leaf delta(13)C along this topoedaphic gradient is mediated by leaf N(area) rather than by stomatal

  11. Leaf and twig delta13C during growth in relation to biochemical composition and respired CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglin, Thomas; Fresneau, Chantal; Lelarge-Trouverie, Caroline; Francois, Christophe; Damesin, Claire

    2009-06-01

    In deciduous trees, the delta(13)C values of leaves are known to diverge during growth from those of woody organs. The main purpose of this study is to determine whether the divergence in delta(13)C between leaves and current-year twigs of Fagus sylvatica (L.) is influenced by changes (i) in the relative contents of organic matter fractions and (ii) in the delta(13)C of respired CO(2). The delta(13)C values of bulk matter, extractive-free matter, lignin, holocellulose, starch, soluble sugars, water-soluble fraction and respired CO(2), as well as their relative contents in bulk matter were determined. The delta(13)C values of biochemical fractions and respired CO(2) showed very similar temporal variations for both leaves and twigs. Variations in bulk matter delta(13)C during growth were, therefore, poorly explained by changes in biochemical composition or in respiratory fractionation and were attributed to the transition from (13)C-enriched reserves (mainly starch) to (13)C-depleted new photoassimilates. The divergence between leaves and twigs was related to higher values of soluble sugar delta(13)C in twigs. However, the difference between lignin and holocellulose delta(13)C varied during growth. This phenomenon was attributed to the delay between holocellulose and lignin deposition. These results may have implications for analysis of organic matter delta(13)C in trees and forest ecosystems.

  12. Seasonal mercury concentrations and {delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 13}C values of benthic macroinvertebrates and sediments from a historically polluted estuary in south central Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Jaramillo, Mauricio, E-mail: mdiazjaramillo@conicet.gov.ar [Aquatic Systems Research Unit, EULA Chile Environmental Sciences Centre, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Munoz, Claudia; Rudolph, Ignacio [Aquatic Systems Research Unit, EULA Chile Environmental Sciences Centre, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Servos, Mark [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, ON (Canada); Barra, Ricardo [Aquatic Systems Research Unit, EULA Chile Environmental Sciences Centre, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile)

    2013-01-01

    The Lenga Estuary is one of the most industrialized sites in south central Chile where the historic operation of chlor-alkali plants resulted in large quantities of mercury (Hg) being deposited into the estuary. This historical contamination may still represent a risk to the biota in the estuary. To investigate this four macroinvertebrates, Neotrypaea uncinata (ghostshrimp), Elminius kingii (barnacle), Hemigrapsus crenulatus (shore crab) and Perinereis gualpensis (ragworm) were collected seasonally from three different sites in the Lenga Estuary and one in a reference estuary (Tubul Estuary), and analyzed for Hg and stable isotopes ({delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 13}C). Mercury concentrations in Lenga sediments ranged from 0.4 {+-} 0.1 to 13 {+-} 3 mg/kg, while those in Tubul sediments ranged from 0.02 {+-} 0.01 to 0.07 {+-} 0.09 mg/kg. Total Hg concentrations of invertebrates were significantly different between estuaries (p < 0.05), but not by species or season for each estuary (p > 0.05). In contrast, organic Hg concentrations were different by species and season with shore crab muscle tissues exhibiting the greatest percent difference. Site-specific relationships demonstrated that total Hg concentrations in ragworm best reflected the total Hg sediment mercury concentrations. Signatures of {delta}{sup 13}C were correlated to the organic Hg % rather than total Hg. This suggests that organic Hg concentrations in these species were related to the carbon sources. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hg in sediments and biota from Lenga Estuary were elevated compared to nearby estuary. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Invertebrates showed interspecific and seasonal differences in terms of organic Hg %. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Total Hg levels in the ragworm best reflect Hg sediment gradient in Lenga Estuary. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interspecific variation in {delta}{sup 13}C signatures indicated different feeding modes. Black

  13. On the status of IAEA delta-13C stable isotope reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assonov, Sergey; Groening, Manfred; Fajgelj, Ales

    2016-04-01

    For practical reasons all isotope measurements are performed on relative scales realized through the use of international, scale-defining primary standards. In fact these standards were materials (artefacts, similar to prototypes of meter and kg) selected based on their properties. The VPDB delta-13C scale is realised via two highest-level reference materials NBS19 and LSVEC, the first defining the scale and the second aimed to normalise lab-to-lab calibrations. These two reference materials (RMs) have been maintained and distributed by IAEA and NIST. The priority task is to maintain these primary RMs at the required uncertainty level, thus ensuring the long-term scale consistency. The second task is to introduce replacements when needed (currently for exhausted NBS19, work in progress). The next is to produce a family of lower level RMs (secondary, tertiary) addressing needs of various applications (with different delta values, in different physical-chemical forms) and their needs for the uncertainty; these RMs should be traceable to the highest level RMs. Presently three is a need for a range of RMs addressing existing and newly emerging analytical techniques (e.g. optical isotopic analysers) in form of calibrated CO2 gases with different delta-13C values. All that implies creating a family of delta-13C stable isotope reference materials. Presently IAEA works on replacement for NBS19 and planning new RMs. Besides, we found that LSVEC (introduced as second anchor for the VPDB scale in 2006) demonstrate a considerable scatter of its delta-13C value which implies a potential bias of the property value and increased value uncertainty which may conflict with uncertainty requirements for atmospheric monitoring. That is not compatible with the status of LSVEC, and therefore it should be replaced as soon as possible. The presentation will give an overview of the current status, the strategic plan of developments and the near future steps.

  14. South American tree rings show declining [delta][sup 13]C trend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leavitt, S.W. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Lab. of Tree-Ring Research); Lara, A. (Univ. Austral de Chile, Valdivia (Chile). Inst. de Silvicultura)

    1994-04-01

    A composite, 290-year tree-ring [delta][sup 13]C chronology was developed from a site in Chile where 5 Fitzroya cupressoides (alerce) trees were sampled, 2 increment cores per tree, and the holocellulose component was analyzed in 5-year ring groups. This chronology shows a decreasing [delta][sup 13]C trend of approximately 1.2 per mille, primarily since the turn of this century. This [delta][sup 13]C decline is similar to that of major tree-ring studies in the Northern Hemisphere, but it is the only major Southern Hemisphere study which clearly exhibits such a [delta][sup 13]C trend. This is the first evidence for any interhemispheric reproducibility of tree-ring [delta][sup 13]C chronologies, and furthermore, the Fitzroya [delta][sup 13]C trend conforms well to that of [delta][sup 13]C of atmospheric CO[sub 2] determined from ice cores and direct measurements. This correspondence suggests the alerce [delta][sup 13]C trend has not been substantially influenced by systematic changes in environmental factors such as light, relative humidity and soil moisture or by changing atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentration, all of which are, in theory, capable of altering C[sub i]/C[sub a] ratios and obscuring the atmospheric [delta][sup 13]C record contained in the tree rings. 31 refs, 2 figs

  15. Abraham Reef Stable Isotope Data (delta 13C, delta 18O, delta 14C) for 1635-1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site: Abraham Reef, 22ó 06'S, 153ó 00'E, Porites australiensus, Radiocarbon (delta 14C) and Stable Isotope (del 18O and del 13C) results from bi-annual samples from...

  16. Within-canopy and ozone fumigation effects on delta13C and Delta18O in adult beech (Fagus sylvatica) trees: relation to meteorological and gas exchange parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessler, Arthur; Löw, Markus; Heerdt, Christian; de Beeck, Maarten Op; Schumacher, Johannes; Grams, Thorsten E E; Bahnweg, Günther; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Werner, Herbert; Matyssek, Rainer; Rennenberg, Heinz; Haberer, Kristine

    2009-11-01

    In this study, the effects of different light intensities either in direct sunlight or in the shade crown of adult beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees on delta13C and Delta18O were determined under ambient (1 x O3) and twice-ambient (2 x O3) atmospheric ozone concentrations during two consecutive years (2003 and 2004). We analysed the isotopic composition in leaf bulk, leaf cellulose, phloem and xylem material and related the results to (a) meteorological data (air temperature, T and relative humidity, RH), (b) leaf gas exchange measurements (stomatal conductance, g(s); transpiration rate, E; and maximum photosynthetic activity, A(max)) and (c) the outcome of a steady-state evaporative enrichment model. Delta13C was significantly lower in the shade than in the sun crown in all plant materials, whilst Delta18O was increased significantly in the shade than in the sun crown in bulk material and cellulose. Elevated ozone had no effect on delta13C, although Delta18O was influenced by ozone to varied degrees during single months. We observed significant seasonal changes for both parameters, especially in 2004, and also significant differences between the study years. Relating the findings to meteorological data and gas exchange parameters, we conclude that the differences in Delta18O between the sun and the shade crown were predominantly caused by the Péclet effect. This assumption was supported by the modelled Delta18O values for leaf cellulose. It was demonstrated that independent of RH, light-dependent reduction of stomatal conductance (and thus transpiration) and of A(max) can drive the pattern of Delta18O increase with the concomitant decrease of delta13C in the shade crown. The effect of doubling ozone levels on time-integrated stomatal conductance and transpiration as indicated by the combined analysis of Delta18O and delta13C was much lower than the influence caused by the light exposure.

  17. Metabolic origin of the {delta}{sup 13}C of respired CO{sub 2} in roots of Phaseolus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathellier, C.; Tcherkez, G.; Cornic, G.; Ghashghaie, J. [Laboratoire d' Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution - ESE, CNRS-UMR 8079 - IFR 87, Batiment 362, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405-Orsay Cedex (France); Tcherkez, G. [Plateforme Metabolisme-Metabolome, IFR87 La Plante et son Environnement, Institut de Biotechnologie des Plantes, Batiment 630, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405-Orsay Cedex (France); Bligny, R.; Gout, E. [Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Vegetale CEA-Grenoble 17, rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2009-07-01

    - Root respiration is a major contributor to soil CO{sub 2} efflux, and thus an important component of ecosystem respiration. But its metabolic origin, in relation to the carbon isotope composition ({delta}{sup 13}C), remains poorly understood. - Here, {sup 13}C analysis was conducted on CO{sub 2} and metabolites under typical conditions or under continuous darkness in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) roots. {sup 13}C contents were measured either under natural abundance or following pulse-chase labeling with {sup 13}C-enriched glucose or pyruvate, using isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. - In contrast to leaves, no relationship was found between the respiratory quotient and the {delta}{sup 13}C of respired CO{sub 2}, which stayed constant at a low value (c. -27.5 per thousand) under continuous darkness. With labeling experiments, it is shown that such a pattern is explained by the {sup 13}C-depleting effect of the pentose phosphate pathway; and the involvement of the Krebs cycle fueled by either the glycolytic input or the lipid/protein recycling. The anaplerotic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPc) activity sustained glutamic acid (Glu) synthesis, with no net effect on respired CO{sub 2}. - These results indicate that the root {delta}{sup 13}C signal does not depend on the availability of root respiratory substrates and it is thus plausible that, unless the {sup 13}C photosynthetic fractionation varies at the leaf level, the root {delta}{sup 13}C signal hardly changes under a range of natural environmental conditions. (authors)

  18. [Eco-environmental evolution inferred from n-alkanes and delta13C records in the sediments of Shijiu Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Jie; Wang, Yan-Hua; Yang, Hao; Hu, Jian-Fang; Chen, Xia; Zou, Jun; Xie, Yun

    2013-02-01

    The study of global changes has focused on the reconstruction of paleovegetation and paleoclimate by n-alkanes and delta13C. 210Pb contents were measured for dating. The distribution characteristics of n-alkanes and delta13C were used to indicate the source of the organic matter in the sediments of Shijiu Lake. The relationship between modern eco-environmental evolution and human behaviors was discussed in this paper. The combination characteristics of n-alkanes showed a significant odd-even predominance in high-carbon number and main peak at C29, suggesting that the organic matter in the sediments were mainly derived from macrophytes and terrestrial higher plants. The delta13C contents of C27, C29 and C31 n-alkanes were analyzed. Results indicated that C3 plants are the dominant species. The distribution characteristics of n-alkanes and delta13C in different periods revealed the impact of human behaviors on Shijiu Lake. From 1862 to 1970, the low relative content of TOC, TN, C17-C25 and the light delta13C25-31 values showed that there were less human behaviors effects on Shijiu Lake and the eco-environment around the lake was stable. From 1970 to 1983, the relative content of TOC, TN and C17-C25 increased significantly, the delta13C25-31 values became weight. In this period, large areas of Shijiu Lake turned into farmland; pollution by fertilizers and pesticides was serious; large amounts of industrial and domestic wastewater were discharged into the lake. All these human behaviors resulted in the degradation of terrestrial higher plants around the lake. Meanwhile, the eutrophication levels were significantly increased. From 1983 to 2010, the relative contents of TOC, TN and C17-C25 were still in high-value ranges, the problem of eutrophication was not effectively controlled and the eco-environment of Shijiu Lake was relatively degradated.

  19. A nuclear magnetic resonance (1H and 13C) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (delta13C, delta2H and delta18O) study of Andalusian olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramendía, María A; Marinas, Alberto; Marinas, José M; Sánchez, Elena; Urbano, Francisco J; Guillou, Claude; Moreno Rojas, José M; Moalem, Mustafa; Rallo, Luis

    2010-05-30

    We have determined delta(13)C, delta(2)H and delta(18)O isotopic abundances in Andalusian olive oils. In addition, the fatty acid composition and the distribution of isomers at positions 1,3 and 2 of glycerol were determined by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, respectively. Isotopic results obtained for four series of oil samples extracted from olives harvested in the 2004/05 and 2005/06 seasons are discussed in terms of olive variety, ripeness, geographical origin, fatty acid composition and growing altitude. A distinction was also established between olives grown in irrigated and in dry land by studying selected samples of the previous series and others from the 2005/06, 2006/07, 2007/08 and 2008/09 seasons. The results showed that olive ripeness does not influence the abundance of any of the three isotopes studied. On the other hand, the olive variety influences the abundance of the oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, and also, less markedly, that of carbon. No clear-cut effect of height or latitude on isotope values is observed, probably because the olive variety also changes with height and latitude, thus masking such influences. The oil samples from dryland-grown olives had increased delta(13)C values relative to irrigation-grown olives. In addition, no definite relationship appears to exist between isotope distribution and fatty acid composition. Finally, oil samples from olives harvested in the 2005/06 season in Italy could be distinguished from those from Spain in terms of their isotopic values (delta(2)H mainly). Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Automated system for simultaneous analysis of delta(13)C, delta(18)O and CO(2) concentrations in small air samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Carbo, Miquel; Still, Chris; Berry, Joe

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present an automated system for simultaneous measurement of CO(2) concentration, delta(13)C and delta(18)O from small (CMDL analyzed air samples was 0.08 ppm for the CO(2) concentration, 0.01 per thousand for delta(13)C and 0.00 per thousand for delta(18)O. A specific list of the parts and operation of the system is detailed as well as some of the applications for micrometeorological and ecophysiological applications. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Espiritu Santo, Vanuatu Stable Isotope (delta 18O, delta 13C) Data for 1806 to 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site: Espiritu Santo Island, Vanuatu, 15S, 167E. 173 year record of d18O and d13C. Variable names: QSR Age, QSR 13C, QSR 18O, GRL Age, GRL Qtrly 13C, GRL Qtrly 18O,...

  2. Association between tree-ring and needle delta13C and leaf gas exchange in Pinus halepensis under semi-arid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Tamir; Hemming, Deborah; Lin, Tongbao; Grünzweig, José M; Maseyk, Kadmiel; Rotenberg, Eyal; Yakir, Dan

    2005-06-01

    Associations between delta13C values and leaf gas exchanges and tree-ring or needle growth, used in ecophysiological compositions, can be complex depending on the relative timing of CO2 uptake and subsequent redistribution and allocation of carbon to needle and stem components. For palaeoenvironmental and dendroecological studies it is often interpreted in terms of a simple model of delta13C fractionation in C3 plants. However, in spite of potential complicating factors, few studies have actually examined these relationships in mature trees over inter- and intra-annual time-scales. Here, we present results from a 4 years study that investigated the links between variations in leaf gas-exchange properties, growth, and dated delta13C values along the needles and across tree rings of Aleppo pine trees growing in a semi-arid region under natural conditions or with supplemental summer irrigation. Sub-sections of tissue across annual rings and along needles, for which time of formation was resolved from growth rate analyses, showed rapid growth and delta13C responses to changing environmental conditions. Seasonal cycles of growth and delta13C (up to approximately 4 per thousand) significantly correlated (P < 0.01) with photosynthetically active radiation, vapour pressure deficit, air temperature, and soil water content. The irrigation significantly increased leaf net assimilation, stomatal conductance and needle and tree-ring growth rate, and markedly decreased needle and tree-ring delta13C values and its sensitivity to environmental parameters. The delta13C estimates derived from gas-exchange parameters, and weighted by assimilation, compared closely with seasonal and inter-annual delta13C values of needle- and tree-ring tissue. Higher stomatal conductances of the irrigated trees (0.22 vs. 0.08 mol m(-2) s(-1) on average) corresponded with approximately 2.0 per thousand lower average delta13C values, both measured and derived. Derived and measured delta13C values also

  3. Intrapopulation variation in gray wolf isotope (delta(15)N and delta(13)C) profiles: implications for the ecology of individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urton, Erin J M; Hobson, Keith A

    2005-09-01

    Trophic relationships among organisms in terrestrial boreal ecosystems define ecological communities and are important in determining dynamics of energy flow and ecosystem function. We examined trophic relationships between the gray wolf (Canis lupus) and 18 mammalian species from the boreal forest of central Saskatchewan, Canada, using delta(13)C and delta(15)N stable isotope values measured in guard hair samples. Variance in isotope values for wolves and other carnivores was investigated as a proxy for variation in diet among individuals. Isosource, an isotopic source partitioning model, quantified the relative range in proportions of five most-likely prey items in the diets of wolves. The distribution of feasible contributions from each source was dominated by elk (Cervus elaphus; mean: 48%, range:11-75%), followed by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; mean: 21%, range: 0-54%), moose (Alces alces; mean:14%, range: 0-41%), beaver (Castor canadensis; mean: 8%, range:0-25%) and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus; mean: 8%, range: 0-24%). Despite social foraging, our results indicate highly variable diets among individuals and we discuss this in terms of individual versus group ecology of boreal wolves.

  4. Trace elements and stable isotopes ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N) in shallow and deep-water organisms from the East China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asante, Kwadwo Ansong [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); CSIR Water Research Institute, P. O. Box AH 38, Achimota, Accra (Ghana); Agusa, Tetsuro [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Department of Legal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Shimane University, Enya 89-1, Izumo 693-8501 (Japan); Mochizuki, Hiroko; Ramu, Karri; Inoue, Suguru [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Kubodera, Tsunemi [Department of Zoology, National Science Museum, 3-23-1 Hyakunincho, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-0073 (Japan); Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2008-12-15

    Trace elements (22) and stable isotope ratios ({delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 13}C) were analyzed in marine organisms from shallow (SW) and deep-water (DW) of the East China Sea to understand biomagnification and prey source of trace elements. In the benthic marine organisms from DW, {delta}{sup 15}N values were negatively correlated with Ba, Cu, Ag, Mo, Sr, As, and Co concentrations. This may be due to the specific accumulation in lower trophic animals and/or the biodilution through the food web in DW. Relationships between {delta}{sup 15}N and concentrations of Co, Cr, Bi, and Tl in fish and Ag, Bi, V, Hg, and Tl in crustaceans showed positive correlations, suggesting that trophic position was affecting the concentrations of those elements in phyla, with higher trophic animals retaining higher concentrations than the lower trophic animals. Positive correlations between {delta}{sup 13}C and Rb were observed in marine organisms. Therefore, Rb may be a possible substitute of {delta}{sup 13}C as tracer of prey source in the East China Sea although further investigation is required. - This is the first study on trophic transfer and prey source of trace elements in marine organisms from the East China Sea.

  5. Houtman Abrolhos Isotope (delta 18O, delta 13C) Data for 1795 to 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — DESCRIPTION: VARIABLES AND UNITS: Column #1: core depth in mm Column #2: delta C-13 vs V-PDB Column #3: delta O-18 vs V-PDB Column #4: assigned date in years A.D....

  6. Isotopic variations ({delta}{sup 13} C and {delta}{sup 18} O) in Siderastrea stellata (Cnidaria-Anthozoa), Itamaraca island, State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Valderez P.; Sial, Alcides N. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Lab. de Isotopos Estaveis; Mayeal, Elga M.; Exner, Marco Antonio [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia. Lab. de Macro e Megabentos

    1998-12-01

    Isotopic determinations for O and C were performed in coral skeletons collected in beach rocks from two localities (Orange and Catuama), Itamaraca Island, north littoral of the State of pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. Large variations of {delta}{sup 18} O and {delta}{sup 13} C in corals from both localities are found, the largest ones being observed at the Orange locality {delta}{sup 13} C in this locality varies from -0.8 to +1.8% PDB and {delta}{sup 1.8} O from -5.3 to -1.8% PDB, while at the Catuama locality, they vary from -1.8 to 0.1% PDB and -3.8 to -2.7% PDB, respectively. Large variations in {delta}{sup 18} O (up to 2.5%) coupled with weakly defined positive correlation between {delta}{sup 18} O and {delta}{sup 13} C, can be attributed to temperature variations as consequence of climatic perturbations. Temperature estimates, calculated from {delta}{sup 18} O values, assuming isotopic equilibrium with seawater, yield values between 24.9 deg C and 43.1 deg C at Orange, and from 28.4 deg C to 35 deg C at Catuama, all of them (expect one growth band from one sample) are high enough for the full development of the coral colony. Temperature average is 31.4 deg C at Orange, which is a little bit higher than that at Catuama, but both of them indicate thermal stress conditions. In all analyzed specimens, expect for one, at Orange, T increases was accompanied by decreasing in the organic activity, as suggested by corresponding negative {delta}{sup 13} C anomaly. Therefore, the observed bleaching is possibly related to thermal stress and the high T may be related to the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) warning event. On the other hand, anthropogenic action at Orange, local of intense tourism throughout the year, coupled with high rate of sedimentation in the region, may contribute to the observed coral bleaching. (author)

  7. Mean proloculus size, delta super(13) C and delta super(18) O variations in recent benthic foraminifera from the west coast of India and their climatic implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Sarkar, A.

    The interrelationship between mean proloculus size (MPS), delta super(18) O and delta super(13) C vatiations in benthic foraminiferal species Rotalidium annectens and their relation with temperature (T) and salinity (S) have been studied in samples...

  8. How well do we know VPDB? Variability of delta13C and delta18O in CO2 generated from NBS19-calcite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Willi A; Huang, Lin; Mukai, Hitoshi; Chivulescu, Alina; Richter, Jürgen M; Rothe, Michael

    2009-03-01

    then mixed into CO2-free air. The resulting artificial air samples then were measured by the same three laboratories for the stable isotopic composition of CO2 using locally established extraction and evaluation procedures. Comparison of the results with the prior CO2 values and between the laboratories revealed additional systematic differences owing to the local CO2 extraction processes and standardization procedures. For delta13C the results showed a narrow range of discrepancies of about 0.02 per thousand; for delta18O cumulative disagreements in the range of 0.1 per thousand were observed. From these results the following conclusions are inferred: NBS19-CO2 is a reliable primary anchor to the VPDB delta13C scale. Although prepared by different methods an accuracy of better than +/-0.003 per thousand has been reached. This applies to sample amounts of 5 mg calcite or more.NBS19-CO2 can be used as a general anchor to the VPDB delta18O scale only for accuracy requirements of +/-0.1 per thousand. For a higher scale resolution additional agreements regarding details of the acid digestion reaction will have to be worked out and agreed upon.Narcis II-CO2 comprises an ideal set of test samples for the VPDB scale. The delta13C value is +1.923+/-0.003 per thousand (combined uncertainty); delta18O is between -2.50 and -2.65 per thousand versus VPDB-CO2, with most of the variation in this figure depending on details of the NBS19-CO2 preparation used for the calibration. (Ampoule to ampoule homogeneity is better than 0.01 per thousand.)When mixing NBS19-CO2 into artificial air and using this to test performance between laboratories, the delta13C offsets are small with a remaining discrepancy of only 0.02 per thousand. For delta18O, systematic disagreements are considerably larger than those found for the pure CO2 comparison. Further experimental clarification is required.Artificial air samples such as NBS19-CO2 in air can be used as reliable anchors to create a unified stable

  9. The use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for rapid measurements of the delta13C of animal breath for physiological and ecological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Sophia; Lease, Hilary M; McDowell, Nate G; Corbett, Alyssa H; Wolf, Blair O

    2009-05-01

    In this study we introduce the use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) as a technique for making measurements of the delta13C of animal 'breath' in near real time. The carbon isotope ratios (delta13C) of breath CO2 trace the carbon source of the materials being metabolized, which can provide insight into the use of specific food resources, e.g. those derived from plants using C3 versus C4 or CAM photosynthetic pathways. For physiological studies, labeled substrates and breath analyses provide direct evidence of specific physiological (e.g. fermentative digestion) or enzymatic (e.g. sucrase activity) processes. Although potentially very informative, this approach has rarely been taken in animal physiological or ecological research. In this study we quantify the utilization of different plant resources (photosynthetic types--C3 or C4) in arthropod herbivores by measuring the delta13C of their 'breath' and comparing it with bulk tissue values. We show that breath delta13C values are highly correlated with bulk tissues and for insect herbivores reflect their dietary guild, in our case C3-specialists, C4-specialists, or generalists. TDLAS has a number of advantages that will make it an important tool for physiologists, ecologists and behaviorists: it is non-invasive, fast, very sensitive, accurate, works on animals of a wide range of body sizes, per-sample costs are small, and it is potentially field-deployable. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Reduction of bias in static closed chamber measurement of delta13C in soil CO2 efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, K E Anders

    2010-01-01

    The (13)C/(12)C ratio of soil CO(2) efflux (delta(e)) is an important parameter in studies of ecosystem C dynamics, where the accuracy of estimated C flux rates depends on the measurement uncertainty of delta(e). The static closed chamber method is frequently used in the determination of delta(e), where the soil CO(2) efflux is accumulated in the headspace of a chamber placed on top of the soil surface. However, it has recently been shown that the estimate of delta(e) obtained by using this method could be significantly biased, which potentially diminish the usefulness of delta(e) for field applications. Here, analytical and numerical models were used to express the bias in delta(e) as mathematical functions of three system parameters: chamber height (H), chamber radius (R(c)), and soil air-filled porosity (theta). These expressions allow optimization of chamber size to yield a bias, which is at a level suitable for each particular application of the method. The numerical model was further used to quantify the effects on the delta(e) bias from (i) various designs for sealing of the chamber to ground, and (ii) inclusion of the commonly used purging step for reduction of the initial headspace CO(2) concentration. The present modeling work provided insights into the effects on the delta(e) bias from retardation and partial chamber bypass of the soil CO(2) efflux. The results presented here supported the continued use of the static closed chamber method for the determination of delta(e), with improved control of the bias component of its measurement uncertainty. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. {delta}{sup 13}C in Tibetan juniper trees - climate trends through the past 1600 years; {delta}{sup 13}C in tibetischen Wacholdern - Klimaentwicklung der letzten 1600 Jahre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, B.

    1998-09-01

    A {delta}{sup 13}C{sub Zell}-chronology of juniper tree cellulose from the upper treeline covering the last 1600 years was set up. The tree site is situated close to Qamdo in southeast Tibet at an altitude of 4350 m a.s.l. The southwest slope gets rain during the Indian summer monsoon. Ten trees have been sampled either by coring or by cutting of trunc-sections in pentad sampling interval. Three trees were analysed in two different radial directions. The very positive {delta}{sup 13}C{sub Zell}-data generally varying around -18,75 permille show the typical low fractionation of high mountain plants. Different interpretations are suggested for data before and after 1800 A.D. (orig.) [Deutsch] An Zellulose von Wacholdern der oberen Waldgrenze in Suedost-Tibet wurde eine 1600-jaehrige {delta}{sup 13}C{sub Zell}-Chronologie aufgestellt. Der Standort liegt in 4350 m ue.M. in der Naehe von Qamdo, ist nach Suedwest geneigt und erhaelt Niederschlaege in den Sommermonaten durch den Indischen-Suedwest-Monsun. Zehn Baeume wurden anhand von Kernen und Stammscheiben in Abschnitten von fuenf Jahren beprobt. An drei Baeumen konnten zwei Segmente desselben Baumes untersucht werden. Die im Mittel sehr positiven {delta}{sup 13}C{sub Zell}-Daten um -18,75 permille deuten auf eine fuer Hochgebirgspflanzen typische geringere Fraktionierung hin. Unterschiedliche Interpretationswege werden fuer die Daten vor und nach 1800 verfolgt. (orig.)

  12. Delta(13)C and tree-ring width reflect different drought responses in Quercus ilex and Pinus halepensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrio, J P; Florit, A; Vega, A; Serrano, L; Voltas, J

    2003-12-01

    Holm oak (Quercus ilexL.) and Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensisMill) are representative of two different functional types of trees extensively found in the Mediterranean: evergreen sclerophyllous and drought-adapted conifers. The former is considered a partially drought-tolerant species, whereas the latter is a typically drought-avoiding, water-saving species. We postulated that contrasting strategies in response to water deficits in Q. ilex and P. halepensis would lead to a differential sensitivity to changes in water availability. To test this hypothesis, we compared the response of both species in growth rate (measured as radial increments) and intrinsic water use efficiency WUE(i), as inferred from carbon isotope discrimination (Delta(13)C) in wood samples] among sites from different provenance regions in NE Spain. We found significant differences in Delta(13)C and growth among provenance regions, partly explained by contrasting water availability. Wood Delta(13)C was positively related with precipitation and the ratio between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (P/ E). However, these relationships were stronger in P. halepensis (for P / E, r(2)=0.67, P ilex ( r(2)=0.42, P ilex. We concluded that P. halepensis was more sensitive than Q. ilex to water availability, showing faster increase in WUE(i) in response to water stress. We also found that the effect of north/south aspect on Delta(13)C and growth was site-specific, and unrelated to climatic variables.

  13. Ice record of delta13C for atmospheric CH4 across the Younger Dryas-Preboreal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Hinrich; Whiticar, Michael J; Brook, Edward J; Petrenko, Vasilii V; Ferretti, Dominic F; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P

    2006-08-25

    We report atmospheric methane carbon isotope ratios (delta13CH4) from the Western Greenland ice margin spanning the Younger Dryas-to-Preboreal (YD-PB) transition. Over the recorded approximately 800 years, delta13CH4 was around -46 per mil (per thousand); that is, approximately 1 per thousand higher than in the modern atmosphere and approximately 5.5 per thousand higher than would be expected from budgets without 13C-rich anthropogenic emissions. This requires higher natural 13C-rich emissions or stronger sink fractionation than conventionally assumed. Constant delta13CH4 during the rise in methane concentration at the YD-PB transition is consistent with additional emissions from tropical wetlands, or aerobic plant CH4 production, or with a multisource scenario. A marine clathrate source is unlikely.

  14. δ13C values of grass species collected in the northern Sahara desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Klaus; Troughton, John H; Card, Kay A

    1976-06-01

    δ13C values were measured for 45 Poaceae species collected in the northern Sahara desert, at the foot of the Saharan Atlas. The results indicate a clear relationship between carbon isotope discrimination and phytogeographical distribution of the grasses. Mediterranean species predominantly had δ13C values indicating the C3 pathway of photosynthesis. By contrast, nearly all species belonging to the Saharo-Arabian and /or Sudanian group showed a C4 like carbon isotope composition. Leaf material of two species, Lygeum spartum and Stipa tenacissima, had δ13C values in the region of-20‰, i.e. intermediate between the mean δ13C values of C3 and C4 plants. However, additional speciments of both these grasses obtained from a different source (herbarium of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem) yielded a C3 like carbon isotope composition.

  15. A new instrument for stable isotope measurements of 13C and 18O in CO2 - instrument performance and ecological application of the Delta Ray IRIS analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden-Behrens, Jelka; Yan, Yuan; Knohl, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    We used the recently developed commercially available Delta Ray isotope ratio infrared spectrometer (IRIS) to continuously measure the CO2 concentration c and its isotopic composition δ13C and δ18O in a managed beech forest in central Germany. Our objectives are (a) to characterize the Delta Ray IRIS and evaluate its internal calibration procedure and (b) to quantify the seasonal variability of c, δ13C, δ18O and the isotopic composition of nighttime net ecosystem CO2 exchange (respiration) Reco13C and Reco18O derived from Keeling plot intercepts. The analyzer's minimal Allan deviation (as a measure of precision) was below 0.01 ppm for the CO2 concentration and below 0.03 ‰ for both δ values. The potential accuracy (defined as the 1σ deviation from the respective linear regression that was used for calibration) was approximately 0.45 ppm for c, 0.24 ‰ for 13C and 0.3 ‰ for 18O. For repeated measurements of a target gas in the field, the long-term standard deviation from the mean was 0.3 ppm for c and below 0.3 ‰ for both δ values. We used measurements of nine different inlet heights to evaluate the isotopic compositions of nighttime net ecosystem CO2 exchange Reco13C and Reco18O in a 3-month measurement campaign in a beech forest in autumn 2015. During this period, an early snow and frost event occurred, coinciding with a change in the observed characteristics of both Reco13C and Reco18O. Before the first snow, Reco13C correlated significantly (p 0.1) for the period after the first snow, indicating a decoupling of δ13C of respiration from recent assimilates. For 18O, we measured a decrease of 30 ‰ within 10 days in Reco18O after the snow event, potentially reflecting the influence of 18O depleted snow on soil moisture. This decrease was 10 times larger than the corresponding decrease in δ18O in ambient CO2 (below 3 ‰) and took 3 times longer to recover (3 weeks vs. 1 week). In summary, we conclude that (1) the new Delta Ray IRIS with its

  16. The effect of chemical processing on the δ 13C value of plant tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Water, Peter K.

    2002-04-01

    The effect of standard processing techniques on the δ13C value of plant tissue was tested using species representing the three photosynthetic pathways, including angiosperms and gymnosperms within the C3 taxonomic division. The species include Cowania mexicana (C3 angiosperm), Juniperus osteosperma (C3 gymnosperm), Opuntia spp. (crassulacean acid metabolism [CAM] angiosperm), and Atriplex canescens (C4 angiosperm). Each species is represented by 5 plants collected at two different sites, for a total of 10 samples. The samples were processed to whole plant tissue, holocellulose, α-cellulose, and nitrocellulose. An additional process was added with the discovery of residual Ca-oxalate crystals in holocellulose samples. Both C3 species show δ13C values becoming 13C enriched with increased processing. The CAM representative shows the opposite trend, with 13C depletion during the progression of treatments. The greatest range of values and most inconsistent trends occur in the C4 representative. Removal of the Ca-oxalate fraction resulted in different mean weight percentages and δ13C values among the species. Calculated δ13C values of the Ca-oxalate crystals show depletion from the tissue values in the two C3 species and enrichment in the C4 and CAM representatives. The C. mexicana samples show the greatest change between the tissue and Ca-oxalates (7.3‰) but the least mean weight percentage (11%), whereas A. canescens shows the greatest overall change, with a -2.8‰ isotopic shift and over 48% mean weight percentage. Variability within the samples undergoing each treatment remained relatively unchanged even with increased cellulose purity. This paper provides estimates of isotopic offsets necessary to correct from one treatment to another. Significant differences in δ13C among different treatments confirm the need to state the tissue fraction analyzed when reporting δ13C results.

  17. Forest soil respiration rate and delta13C is regulated by recent above ground weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblad, Alf; Boström, Björn; Holm, Anders; Comstedt, Daniel

    2005-03-01

    Soil respiration, a key component of the global carbon cycle, is a major source of uncertainty when estimating terrestrial carbon budgets at ecosystem and higher levels. Rates of soil and root respiration are assumed to be dependent on soil temperature and soil moisture yet these factors often barely explain half the seasonal variation in soil respiration. We here found that soil moisture (range 16.5-27.6% of dry weight) and soil temperature (range 8-17.5 degrees C) together explained 55% of the variance (cross-validated explained variance; Q2) in soil respiration rate (range 1.0-3.4 micromol C m(-2) s(-1)) in a Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest. We hypothesised that this was due to that the two components of soil respiration, root respiration and decomposition, are governed by different factors. We therefore applied PLS (partial least squares regression) multivariate modelling in which we, together with below ground temperature and soil moisture, used the recent above ground air temperature and air humidity (vapour pressure deficit, VPD) conditions as x-variables. We found that air temperature and VPD data collected 1-4 days before respiration measurements explained 86% of the seasonal variation in the rate of soil respiration. The addition of soil moisture and soil temperature to the PLS-models increased the Q2 to 93%. delta13C analysis of soil respiration supported the hypotheses that there was a fast flux of photosynthates to root respiration and a dependence on recent above ground weather conditions. Taken together, our results suggest that shoot activities the preceding 1-6 days influence, to a large degree, the rate of root and soil respiration. We propose this above ground influence on soil respiration to be proportionally largest in the middle of the growing season and in situations when there is large day-to-day shifts in the above ground weather conditions. During such conditions soil temperature may not exert the major control on root respiration.

  18. Interpreting the 13C / 12C ratio of carbon dioxide in an urban airshed in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaping; Lee, Xuhui; Xiao, Wei; Cao, Chang; Liu, Shoudong; Wen, Xuefa; Xu, Jingzheng; Zhang, Zhen; Zhao, Jiayu

    2017-03-01

    Observations of atmospheric CO2 mole fraction and the 13C / 12C ratio (expressed as δ13C) in urban airsheds provide constraints on the roles of anthropogenic and natural sources and sinks in local and regional carbon cycles. In this study, we report observations of these quantities in Nanjing at hourly intervals from March 2013 to August 2015, using a laser-based optical instrument. Nanjing is the second largest city located in the highly industrialized Yangtze River Delta (YRD), eastern China. The mean CO2 mole fraction and δ13C were (439.7 ± 7.5) µmol mol-1 and (-8.48 ± 0.56) ‰ over this observational period. The peak monthly mean δ13C (-7.44 ‰, July 2013) was 0.74 ‰ higher than that observed at Mount Waliguan, a WMO (World Meteorological Organization) baseline site on the Tibetan Plateau and upwind of the YRD region. The highly 13C-enriched signal was partly attributed to the influence of cement production in the region. By applying the Miller-Tans method to nighttime and daytime observations to represent signals from the city of Nanjing and the YRD, respectively, we showed that the 13C / 12C ratio of CO2 sources in the Nanjing municipality was (0.21 ± 0.53) ‰ lower than that in the YRD. Flux partitioning calculations revealed that natural ecosystems in the YRD were a negligibly small source of atmospheric CO2.

  19. Ruminant Methane δ (13C/12C) - Values: Relation to Atmospheric Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Fleet

    1981-03-01

    The δ (13C/12C) - values of methane produced by fistulated steers, dairy cattle, and wethers, and dairy and beef cattle herds show a bimodal distribution that appears to be correlated with the plant type (C3 or C4, that is, producing either a three- or a four-carbon acid in the first step of photosynthesis) consumed by the animals. These results indicate that cattle and sheep, on a global basis, release methane with an average δ (13C/12C) value of -60 and -63 per mil, respectively. Together they are a source of atmospheric methane whose δ (13C/12C) is similar to published values for marsh gas and cannot explain the 20 per mil higher values for atmospheric methane.

  20. Impact of carbohydrate supply on stem growth, wood and respired CO2 delta13C: assessment by experimental girdling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunoury-Danger, Florence; Fresneau, Chantal; Eglin, Thomas; Berveiller, Daniel; François, Christophe; Lelarge-Trouverie, Caroline; Damesin, Claire

    2010-07-01

    The present study examines the impact of the C source (reserves vs current assimilates) on tree C isotope signals and stem growth, using experimental girdling to stop the supply of C from leaves to stem. Two-year-old sessile oaks (Quercus petraea) were girdled at three different phenological periods during the leafy period: during early wood growth (Girdling Period 1), during late wood growth (Girdling Period 2) and just after growth cessation (Girdling Period 3). The measured variables included stem respiration rates, stem radial increment, delta(13)C of respired CO(2) and contents of starch and water-soluble fraction in stems (below the girdle) and leaves. Girdling stopped growth, even early in the growing season, leading to a decrease in stem CO(2) efflux (CO(2R)). Shift in substrate use from recently fixed carbohydrate to reserves (i.e., starch) induced (13)C enrichment of CO(2) respired by stem. However, change in substrate type was insufficient to explain alone all the observed CO(2R) delta(13)C variations, especially at the period corresponding to large growth rate of control trees. The below-girdle mass balance suggested that, during girdling periods, stem C was invested in metabolic pathways other than respiration and stem growth. After Girdling Period 1, the girdle healed and the effects of girdling on stem respiration were reversed. Stem growth restarted and total radial increment was similar to the control one, indicating that growth can be delayed when a stress event occurs early in the growth period. Concerning tree ring, seasonal shift in substrate use from reserves (i.e., starch) to recently fixed carbohydrate is sufficient to explain the observed (13)C depletion of tree ring during the early wood growth. However, the inter-tree intra-ring delta(13)C variability needs to be resolved in order to improve the interpretation of intra-seasonal ring signals in terms of climatic or ecophysiological information. This study highlighted, via carbohydrate

  1. A dynamic soil chamber system coupled with a tunable diode laser for online measurements of delta-13C, delta-18O, and efflux rate of soil respired CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Heath H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcdowell, Nate [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hanson, David [UNM; Hunt, John [LANDCARE RESEARCH

    2009-01-01

    High frequency observations of the stable isotopic composition of CO(2) effluxes from soil have been sparse due in part to measurement challenges. We have developed an open-system method that utilizes a flow-through chamber coupled to a tunable diode laser (TDL) to quantify the rate of soil CO(2) efflux and its delta(13)C and delta(18)O values (delta(13)C(R) and delta(18)O(R), respectively). We tested the method first in the laboratory using an artificial soil test column and then in a semi-arid woodland. We found that the CO(2) efflux rates of 1.2 to 7.3 micromol m(-2) s(-1) measured by the chamber-TDL system were similar to measurements made using the chamber and an infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) (R(2) = 0.99) and compared well with efflux rates generated from the soil test column (R(2) = 0.94). Measured delta(13)C and delta(18)O values of CO(2) efflux using the chamber-TDL system at 2 min intervals were not significantly different from source air values across all efflux rates after accounting for diffusive enrichment. Field measurements during drought demonstrated a strong dependency of CO(2) efflux and isotopic composition on soil water content. Addition of water to the soil beneath the chamber resulted in average changes of +6.9 micromol m(-2) s(-1), -5.0 per thousand, and -55.0 per thousand for soil CO(2) efflux, delta(13)C(R) and delta(18)O(R), respectively. All three variables initiated responses within 2 min of water addition, with peak responses observed within 10 min for isotopes and 20 min for efflux. The observed delta(18)O(R) was more enriched than predicted from temperature-dependent H(2)O-CO(2) equilibration theory, similar to other recent observations of delta(18)O(R) from dry soils (Wingate L, Seibt U, Maseyk K, Ogee J, Almeida P, Yakir D, Pereira JS, Mencuccini M. Global Change Biol. 2008; 14: 2178). The soil chamber coupled with the TDL was found to be an effective method for capturing soil CO(2) efflux and its stable isotope composition at high

  2. A 3PG-based Model to Simulate Delta-13C Content in Three Tree Species in The Mica Creek Experiment Watershed, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, L.; Marshall, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    averages. For testing the model, tree cores were collected from each stand and species. Ring-widths of tree cores were measured and cross-dated with a ring-width chronology obtained from MCEW. δ13C contents of tree- ring samples from known year were tested. Preliminary results indicate 3PG-δ13C simulated values are consistent with observed values in tree-rings. δ13C values of modeled species are different: western red cider has the highest delta13C values among the three species and western larch has the lowest.

  3. Hydrological budget, carbon sources and biogeochemical processes in Lac Pavin (France): Constraints from {delta}{sup 18}O of water and {delta}{sup 13}C of dissolved inorganic carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assayag, N. [Laboratoire de Geochimie des Isotopes Stables, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Universite Paris 7, UMR CNRS 7154, 2, Place Jussieu, 75251 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Centre de Recherches sur le Stockage Geologique du CO2, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, 4, Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)], E-mail: nass07@esc.cam.ac.uk; Jezequel, D. [Laboratoire de Geochimie des Eaux, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Universite Paris 7, UMR CNRS 7154, 2, Place Jussieu, 75251 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Ader, M. [Laboratoire de Geochimie des Isotopes Stables, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Universite Paris 7, UMR CNRS 7154, 2, Place Jussieu, 75251 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Centre de Recherches sur le Stockage Geologique du CO2, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, 4, Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Viollier, E.; Michard, G.; Prevot, F. [Laboratoire de Geochimie des Eaux, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Universite Paris 7, UMR CNRS 7154, 2, Place Jussieu, 75251 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Agrinier, P. [Laboratoire de Geochimie des Isotopes Stables, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Universite Paris 7, UMR CNRS 7154, 2, Place Jussieu, 75251 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Centre de Recherches sur le Stockage Geologique du CO2, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, 4, Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2008-10-15

    Lac Pavin (French Massif Central) is a permanently stratified lake: the upper water layers (mixolimnion, from 0 to 60 m depth) are affected by seasonal overturns, whereas the bottom water layers (monimolimnion, from 60 to 90 m depth) remain isolated and are never mixed. Hence, they are capable of storing important quantities of dissolved gases, mainly CO{sub 2}. With the aim of better constraining the water balance and of gaining new insights into the carbon cycle of Lac Pavin, an isotopic approach is used. The {delta}{sup 18}O{sub H{sub 2}}{sub O} profiles lead the authors to give a new evaluation of the evaporation flow rate (8 L s{sup -1}), and to propose and characterize two sub-surface springs. The sub-surface spring located at the bottom of the lake can be deduced from the 1% isotopic difference between the upper water layers (mean {delta}{sup 18}O{sub H{sub 2}}{sub O} value: -7.3 per mille) and the bottom water layers ({delta}{sup 18}O{sub H{sub 2}}{sub O}=-8.4 per mille ). It is argued that this sub-surface spring has isotopic and chemical characteristics similar to those of the magmatic CO{sub 2}-rich spring (i.e. Fontaine Goyon, {delta}{sup 18}O{sub H{sub 2}}{sub O}=-9.4 per mille), and we calculate its flow rate of 1.6 L s{sup -1}. The second sub-surface spring is located around 45 m depth, with a composition close to those of the water surface streams ({delta}{sup 18}O{sub H{sub 2}}{sub O}<-7.6 per mille ). Methane (4 mM) and dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations ({approx}14 mM) allow the re-estimation of the relative DIC contributions in the bottom of the lake (90 m depth): 1/3 deriving from methanogenesis ({delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC} {approx} +7 per mille ) and 2/3 from the magmatic CO{sub 2}-rich spring ({delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC} {approx} -5 per mille ). Above 80 m depth, the variations in DIC concentrations (ranging from 0.5 to 10 mM) and {delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC} values (ranging from -6.5 per mille to 4.4 per mille ) are partly explained by the

  4. Variation in delta13C and delta15N diet-vibrissae trophic discrimination factors in a wild population of California sea otters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Seth D; Bentall, Gena B; Tinker, M Tim; Oftedal, Olav T; Ralls, Katherine; Estes, James A; Fogel, Marilyn L

    2010-09-01

    The ability to quantify dietary inputs using stable isotope data depends on accurate estimates of isotopic differences between a consumer (c) and its diet (d), commonly referred to as trophic discrimination factors (TDFs) and denoted by delta(c-d). At present, TDFs are available for only a few mammals and are usually derived in captive settings. The magnitude of TDFs and the degree to which they vary in wild populations is unknown. We determined delta13C and delta15N TDFs for vibrissae (i.e., whiskers), a tissue that is rapidly becoming an informative isotopic substrate for ecologists, of a wild population of sea otters for which individual diet has been quantified through extensive observational study. This is one of the very few studies that report TDFs for free-living wild animals feeding on natural diets. Trophic discrimination factors of 2.2 per thousand +/- 0.7 per thousand for delta13C and 3.5 per thousand +/- 0.6 per thousand for delta15N (mean +/- SD) were similar to those reported for captive carnivores, and variation in individual delta13C TDFs was negatively but significantly related to sea urchin consumption. This pattern may relate to the lipid-rich diet consumed by most sea otters in this population and suggests that it may not be appropriate to lipid-extract prey samples when using the isotopic composition of keratinaceous tissues to examine diet in consumers that frequently consume lipid-rich foods, such as many marine mammals and seabirds. We suggest that inherent variation in TDFs should be included in isotopically based estimates of trophic level, food chain length, and mixing models used to quantify dietary inputs in wild populations; this practice will further define the capabilities and limitations of isotopic approaches in ecological studies.

  5. Investigations of (Delta)14C, (delta)13C, and (delta)15N in vertebrae of white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) from the eastern North Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, L A; Andrews, A H; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A; Coale, K H

    2006-06-08

    The white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) has a complex life history that is characterized by large scale movements and a highly variable diet. Estimates of age and growth for the white shark from the eastern North Pacific Ocean indicate they have a slow growth rate and a relatively high longevity. Age, growth, and longevity estimates useful for stock assessment and fishery models, however, require some form of validation. By counting vertebral growth band pairs, ages can be estimated, but because not all sharks deposit annual growth bands and many are not easily discernable, it is necessary to validate growth band periodicity with an independent method. Radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) age validation uses the discrete {sup 14}C signal produced from thermonuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s that is retained in skeletal structures as a time-specific marker. Growth band pairs in vertebrae, estimated as annual and spanning the 1930s to 1990s, were analyzed for {Delta}{sup 14}C and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N). The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of {sup 14}C age validation for a wide-ranging species with a complex life history and to use stable isotope measurements in vertebrae as a means of resolving complexity introduced into the {sup 14}C chronology by ontogenetic shifts in diet and habitat. Stable isotopes provided useful trophic position information; however, validation of age estimates was confounded by what may have been some combination of the dietary source of carbon to the vertebrae, large-scale movement patterns, and steep {sup 14}C gradients with depth in the eastern North Pacific Ocean.

  6. A new instrument for stable isotope measurements of 13C and 18O in CO2 – instrument performance and ecological application of the Delta Ray IRIS analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Braden-Behrens

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We used the recently developed commercially available Delta Ray isotope ratio infrared spectrometer (IRIS to continuously measure the CO2 concentration c and its isotopic composition δ13C and δ18O in a managed beech forest in central Germany. Our objectives are (a to characterize the Delta Ray IRIS and evaluate its internal calibration procedure and (b to quantify the seasonal variability of c, δ13C, δ18O and the isotopic composition of nighttime net ecosystem CO2 exchange (respiration Reco13C and Reco18O derived from Keeling plot intercepts. The analyzer's minimal Allan deviation (as a measure of precision was below 0.01 ppm for the CO2 concentration and below 0.03 ‰ for both δ values. The potential accuracy (defined as the 1σ deviation from the respective linear regression that was used for calibration was approximately 0.45 ppm for c, 0.24 ‰ for 13C and 0.3 ‰ for 18O. For repeated measurements of a target gas in the field, the long-term standard deviation from the mean was 0.3 ppm for c and below 0.3 ‰ for both δ values. We used measurements of nine different inlet heights to evaluate the isotopic compositions of nighttime net ecosystem CO2 exchange Reco13C and Reco18O in a 3-month measurement campaign in a beech forest in autumn 2015. During this period, an early snow and frost event occurred, coinciding with a change in the observed characteristics of both Reco13C and Reco18O. Before the first snow, Reco13C correlated significantly (p  <  10−4 with time-lagged net radiation Rn, a driver of photosynthesis and photosynthetic discrimination against 13C. This correlation became insignificant (p  >  0.1 for the period after the first snow, indicating a decoupling of δ13C of respiration from recent assimilates. For 18O, we measured a decrease of 30 ‰ within 10 days in Reco18O after the snow event, potentially reflecting the influence of 18O depleted snow on soil moisture. This decrease was 10

  7. The fate of organic matter in a papyrus (Cyperus papyrus L.) dominated tropical wetland ecosystem in Nyanza Gulf (Lake Victoria, Kenya) inferred from delta13C and delta15N analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gichuki, John W; Triest, Ludwig; Dehairs, Frank

    2005-12-01

    Papyrus swamps usually form at the interface between river inlet and open lake. From one such wetland ecosystem (the Kibos system located in the Nyanza Gulf, Lake Victoria, Kenya), three sediment cores were recovered using piston corer in order to determine the fate of organic matter derived from papyrus and possible nutrient pathways in this system. The coring represented a transect from the river through the floating papyrus mat to the lake. Two short cores were retrieved from the lake and river. One long core (2 m) was recovered on a floating papyrus mat. The C:N ratio showed similar trends down core from the three locations. This may possibly be due to diagenic processes such as autolysis, dissolution and microbial mineralisation occurring in the sediments. Statistical analysis through one-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences in the C:N ratios between stations. Results of the stable carbon isotope ratios revealed that the delta(13)C of the river and lake samples were persistently more negative than -20 per thousand over the whole profile indicating possible contribution from terrestrial derived carbon. Regarding the floating mat core, the delta(13)C values ranged from -18.99 per thousand on the top of the floating mat but gradually increased to -16.82 per thousand towards the bottom of the core indicating possible contribution of carbon from Cyperus papyrus that has a delta(13)C value of -13.45+/-0.62 per thousand. Statistical analysis through one-way ANOVA revealed significant differences in the delta(13)C values between stations. The stable nitrogen isotope values were highly positive both in the river and in the lake station (delta(15)N > 10 per thousand), indicating possible contamination from sewage wastes. Values in the swamp were less positive suggesting first, the formation of ammonium depleted in (15)N from intense organic matter mineralisation, secondly indicating the delta(15)N signal of papyrus and, finally that nitrogen fixation processes

  8. Determination of underivatized amino acid delta(13)C by liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry for nutritional studies: the effect of dietary non-essential amino acid profile on the isotopic signature of individual amino acids in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, James; Gaye-Siessegger, Julia; Focken, Ulfert

    2008-06-01

    This study provides data for the effect of dietary non-essential amino acid composition on the delta(13)C values of individual amino acids in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using liquid chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS). In this experiment, trout were reared either on a control diet or on three experimental diets, differing in the composition of non-essential/conditionally essential amino acids, for a period of 6 weeks. The control diet was a commercial trout starter feed with fish meal as the main protein source. The experimental diets contained no protein, only synthetic amino acids. Diet 1 resembled the composition of fish meal in both essential and non-essential amino acids, Diet 2 had all essential amino acids, but cysteine, glycine, proline and tyrosine were replaced by the corresponding amounts of their precursors, and in Diet 3 all non-essential amino acids were replaced by glutamate. LC/IRMS was used for the determination of delta(13)C values of individual amino acids from diets and tissues without derivatization. Diet affected the delta(13)C of individual amino acids in fish. For fish on Diets 1-3 amino acid delta(13)C values showed a similar trend: phenylalanine showed very little change from diet to body tissue. Arginine, lysine, tyrosine and proline showed strong depletion from diet to body tissue and glycine, alanine, aspartate and serine all showed variable but strong enrichment in (13)C. Improvements are necessary before all amino acid delta(13)C values can be determined; however, this study demonstrates that measuring amino acid isotopic signatures by LC/IRMS is a promising new technique for nutritional physiologists.

  9. Drying method has no substantial effect on δ(15)N or δ(13)C values of muscle tissue from teleost fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessey, Cindy; Vanderklift, Mathew A

    2014-02-15

    Stable isotope analysis (SIA) is a powerful tool in many fields of research that enables quantitative comparisons among studies, if similar methods have been used. The goal of this study was to determine if three different drying methods commonly used to prepare samples for SIA yielded different δ(15)N and δ(13)C values. Muscle subsamples from 10 individuals each of three teleost species were dried using three methods: (i) oven, (ii) food dehydrator, and (iii) freeze-dryer. All subsamples were analysed for δ(15)N and δ(13)C values, and nitrogen and carbon content, using a continuous flow system consisting of a Delta V Plus mass spectrometer and a Flush 1112 elemental analyser via a Conflo IV universal interface. The δ(13)C values were normalized to constant lipid content using the equations proposed by McConnaughey and McRoy. Although statistically significant, the differences in δ(15)N values between the drying methods were small (mean differences ≤0.21‰). The differences in δ(13)C values between the drying methods were not statistically significant, and normalising the δ(13)C values to constant lipid content reduced the mean differences for all treatments to ≤0.65‰. A statistically significant difference of ~2% in C content existed between tissues dried in a food dehydrator and those dried in a freeze-dryer for two fish species. There was no significant effect of fish size on the differences between methods. No substantial effect of drying method was found on the δ(15)N or δ(13)C values of teleost muscle tissue. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Evaluation of biosynthetic pathways to delta-aminolevulinic acid in Propionibacterium shermanii based on biosynthesis of vitamin B12 from D-[1-13C]glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, K; Kajiwara, M

    2000-04-04

    Analysis of the (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of (13)C-labeled vitamin B(12) biosynthesized from D-[1-(13)C]glucose by Propionibacterium shermanii provided evidence suggesting that delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) incorporated in the (13)C-labeled vitamin B(12) may have been synthesized via both the Shemin pathway and the C5 pathway under anaerobic conditions in the ratio of 1 < [(ratio of ALA biosynthesis from the Shemin pathway)/(that from the C5 pathway)] < 1.8. The D-ribose moiety of vitamin B(12) was labeled with (13)C at R-1, R-3, and R-5. The aminopropanol moiety of vitamin B(12) was labeled on Pr-1 and Pr-2, but not Pr-3.

  11. (14)C, delta(13)C and total C content in soils around a Brazilian PWR nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Cíntia Melazo; Telles, Everaldo C; Santos, Roberto Ventura; Stenström, Kristina; Nícoli, Iêda Gomes; da Silveira Corrêa, Rosangela; Skog, Göran

    2009-04-01

    Nuclear power plants release (14)C during routine operation mainly as airborne gaseous effluents. Because of the long half-life (5730 years) and biological importance of this radionuclide (it is incorporated in plant tissue by photosynthesis), several countries have monitoring programs in order to quantify and control these emissions. This paper compares the activity of (14)C in soils taken within 1km from a Brazilian nuclear power plant with soils taken within a reference area located 50km away from the reactor site. Analyses of total carbon, delta(13)C and (137)Cs were also performed in order to understand the local soil dynamics. Except for one of the profiles, the isotopic composition of soil organic carbon reflected the actual forest vegetation present in both areas. The (137)Cs data show that the soils from the base of hills are probably allocthonous. The (14)C measurements showed that there is no accumulation due to the operation of the nuclear facility, although excess (14)C was found in the litter taken in the area close to power plant. This indicates that the anthropogenic signal observed in the litter fall has not been transferred yet to the soil. This study is part of an extensive research programme in which other samples including air, vegetation and gaseous effluents (taken in the vent stack of the Brazilian nuclear power reactors Angra I and II) were also analyzed. The present paper aimed to evaluate how (14)C emissions from the nuclear power plant are transferred and stored by soils present in the surroundings of the reactor site. This is the first study concerning anthropogenic (14)C in soils in Brazil.

  12. Prognostic value of (13)C-phenylalanine breath test on predicting survival in patients with chronic liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Wong, I; Morán, S; Rodríguez-Leal, G; Castañeda-Romero, B; Mera, R; Poo, J; Uribe, M; Dehesa, M

    2007-09-14

    To evaluate the prognostic value of percentage of (13)C-phenylalanine oxidation ((13)C-PheOx) obtained by (13)C-phenylalanine breath test ((13)C-PheBT) on the survival of patients with chronic liver failure. The hepatic function was determined by standard liver blood tests and the percentage of (13)C-PheOx in 118 chronic liver failure patients. The follow-up period was of 64 mo. Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and variables that were significant (P < 0.10) in univariate analysis and subsequently introduced in a multivariate analysis according to the hazard model proposed by Cox. Forty-one patients died due to progressive liver failure during the follow-up period. The probability of survival at 12, 24, 36, 48 and 64 mo was 0.88, 0.78, 0.66, 0.57 and 0.19, respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that Child-Pugh classes, age, creatinine and the percentage of (13)C-PheOx (HR 0.338, 95% CI: 0.150-0.762, P = 0.009) were independent predictors of survival. When Child-Pugh classes were replaced by all the parameters of the score, only albumin, bilirubin, creatinine, age and the percentage of (13)C-PheOx (HR 0.449, 95% CI: 0.206-0.979, P = 0.034) were found to be independent predictors of survival. Percentage of (13)C-PheOx obtained by (13)C-PheBT is a strong predictor of survival in patients with chronic liver disease.

  13. Prognostic value of 13C-phenylalanine breath test on predicting survival in patients with chronic liver failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Wong, I; Morán, S; Rodríguez-Leal, G; Castañeda-Romero, B; Mera, R; Poo, J; Uribe, M; Dehesa, M

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prognostic value of percentage of 13C-phenylalanine oxidation (13C-PheOx) obtained by 13C-phenylalanine breath test (13C-PheBT) on the survival of patients with chronic liver failure. METHODS: The hepatic function was determined by standard liver blood tests and the percentage of 13C-PheOx in 118 chronic liver failure patients. The follow-up period was of 64 mo. Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and variables that were significant (P < 0.10) in univariate analysis and subsequently introduced in a multivariate analysis according to the hazard model proposed by Cox. RESULTS: Forty-one patients died due to progressive liver failure during the follow-up period. The probability of survival at 12, 24, 36, 48 and 64 mo was 0.88, 0.78, 0.66, 0.57 and 0.19, respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that Child-Pugh classes, age, creatinine and the percentage of 13C-PheOx (HR 0.338, 95% CI: 0.150-0.762, P = 0.009) were independent predictors of survival. When Child-Pugh classes were replaced by all the parameters of the score, only albumin, bilirubin, creatinine, age and the percentage of 13C-PheOx (HR 0.449, 95% CI: 0.206-0.979, P = 0.034) were found to be independent predictors of survival. CONCLUSION: Percentage of 13C-PheOx obtained by 13C-PheBT is a strong predictor of survival in patients with chronic liver disease. PMID:17729409

  14. A new method to reconstruct fish diet and movement patterns from δ 13 C values in otolith amino acids

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Kelton W.

    2011-08-01

    Fish ecologists have used geochemical values in otoliths to examine habitat use, migration, and population connectivity for decades. However, it remains difficult to determine an unambiguous dietary δ 13C signature from bulk analysis of otolith. Studies to date have focused on the aragonite component of otoliths with less attention paid to the organic fraction. We describe the application of compound-specific stable isotope analysis (SIA) to analyze amino acid (AA) δ 13C values from small amounts (<1 mg) of otolith powder. We examined δ 13C values of otolith and muscle AAs from a reef-associated snapper (Lutjanus ehrenbergii (Peters, 1869)) collected along a carbon isotope gradient (isoscape) from seagrass beds to coral reefs. Carbon isotope values in otolith and muscle samples were highly correlated within and among coastal habitats. Moreover, δ 13C values of otolith AAs provided a purely dietary record that avoided dilution from dissolved inorganic carbon. Otolith AAs served as a robust tracer of δ 13C values at the base of the food web, making compound-specific SIA a powerful tool for dietary reconstructions and tracking the movement of fishes across isoscapes.

  15. Variation in hair δ13C and δ15N values in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) from Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Michael A.; Castellini, J. Margaret; Stricker, Craig A.; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Lee, Benjamin P.Y.-H.

    2014-01-01

    Much of the primatology literature on stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) has focused on African and New World species, with comparatively little research published on Asian primates. Here we present hair δ13C and δ15N isotope values for a sample of 33 long-tailed macaques from Singapore. We evaluate the suggestion by a previous researcher that forest degradation and biodiversity loss in Singapore have led to a decline in macaque trophic level. The results of our analysis indicated significant spatial variability in δ13C but not δ15N. The range of variation in δ13C was consistent with a diet based on C3 resources, with one group exhibiting low values consistent with a closed canopy environment. Relative to other macaque species from Europe and Asia, the macaques from Singapore exhibited a low mean δ13C value but mid-range mean δ15N value. Previous research suggesting a decline in macaque trophic level is not supported by the results of our study.

  16. Impact of carbohydrate supply on stem growth, wood and respired CO{sub 2} {delta}{sup 13}C : assessment by experimental girdling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maunoury-Danger, F. [Paris-Sud Univ., Orsay Cedex (France). Laboratoire Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Orsay CEDEX (France); AgroParisTech, Paris (France); Paul Verlaine-Metz Univ., Metz (France). Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie Biodiversite Ecosystemes; Fresneau, C.; Eglin, T.; Berveiller, D.; Francois, C.; Damesin, C. [Paris-Sud Univ., Orsay Cedex (France). Laboratoire Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Orsay CEDEX (France); AgroParisTech, Paris (France); Lelarge-Trouverie, C. [Paris-Sud Univ., Orsay Cedex (France). Inst. de Biotechnologie des Plantes, Plateforme Metabolisme-Metabolome

    2010-07-15

    In trees, carbohydrate storage and remobilization may affect the carbon isotope signals of sugars exported from leaves, tree organic matter and respired carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This study characterized the impact of a change in the carbon (C) source used for stem functioning on the {delta}{sup 13} C of stem organic matter and respired CO{sub 2}. Girdling experiments were carried out on 2-year old oaks that consisted in removing the bark and phloem around the stem so that the sap would cease to flow. The stem was therefore forced to use its own C reserves to maintain metabolic activity. Trees were girdled at 3 different periods, notably just after budburst, during stem growth, and just after cessation of stem radial growth. Stem radial growth and respiration rate were measured throughout the year. Other measured variables included {delta}{sup 13} C of respired CO{sub 2} and contents of starch and water-soluble fraction in stems and leaves. The study showed that girdling stopped growth, even early in the growing season, leading to a decrease in stem CO{sub 2} efflux. The study demonstrated that leaf carbohydrate supply versus reserve use could be an important factor controlling stem growth and {delta}{sup 13} C of both ring and stem CO{sub 2} efflux. 69 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  17. Laser-ablation-combustion-GC-IRMS -- a new method for online analysis of intra-annual variation of {delta}13C in tree rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, B.; Wirth, C.; Linke, P.; Brand, W. A.; Kuhlmann, I.; Horna, V.; Schulze, E-D. [Max Planck Institut fuer Biogeochemie, Jena (Germany)

    2004-11-01

    A method for high resolution on-line determination of {delta}13C in tree rings is described. The proposed method combines laser ablation, combustion, gas chromatography and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Sample material was extracted from two Scotch pine tree cores at six minute intervals using ultra-violet laser. The wood dust was combusted to carbon dioxide at 700 degrees C, separated from other gases on a gas chromatography column and injected into an isotope ratio mass spectrometer after removal of water vapor. Results showed patterns of {delta}13C along three parallel ablation lines on the same core to be highly congruent. The isotopic patterns of the two Scotch pine trees were broadly similar, suggesting a signal related to the forest stand's climate history. There was a sharp decline in {delta}13C during latewood formation and a rapid increase with early growth. Overall, the proposed method showed high accuracy when compared to conventional methods involving microtome slicing, elemental analysis and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Major application of the new ablation method is expected to be in high-resolution dendroclimatology and plant physiology. 62 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Evolutionary history biases inferences of ecology and environment from δ13C but not δ18O values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Kirsty M; Hull, Pincelli M; Ezard, Thomas H G

    2017-10-24

    Closely related taxa are, on average, more similar in terms of their physiology, morphology and ecology than distantly related ones. How this biological similarity affects geochemical signals, and their interpretations, has yet to be tested in an explicitly evolutionary framework. Here we compile and analyze planktonic foraminiferal size-specific stable carbon and oxygen isotope values13C and δ18O, respectively) spanning the last 107 million years. After controlling for dominant drivers of size-δ13C and size-δ18O trends, such as geological preservation, presence of algal photosymbionts, and global environmental changes, we identify that shared evolutionary history has shaped the evolution of species-specific vital effects in δ13C, but not in δ18O. Our results lay the groundwork for using a phylogenetic approach to correct species δ13C vital effects through time, thereby reducing systematic biases in interpretations of long-term δ13C records-a key measure of holistic organismal biology and of the global carbon cycle.

  19. Additional Value of CH₄ Measurement in a Combined (13)C/H₂ Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Els; De Preter, Vicky; Billen, Jaak; Van Ranst, Marc; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-09-07

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H₂) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined (13)C/H₂ lactose breath test that measures breath (13)CO₂ as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H₂ and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 (13)C/H₂ lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH₄ in addition to H₂ and (13)CO₂. Based on the (13)C/H₂ breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH₄ further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H₂-excretion were found to excrete CH₄. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH₄-concentrations has an added value to the (13)C/H₂ breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO.

  20. Application of Nitrogen and Carbon Stable Isotopes ([delta]15N and [delta]13C) to Quantify Food Chain Length and Trophic Structure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matthew J Perkins; McDonald, Robbie; Veen, J; Kelly, Simon; Rees, Gareth; Bearhop, Stuart

    2014-01-01

      Increasingly, stable isotope ratios of nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) are used to quantify trophic structure, though relatively few studies have tested accuracy of isotopic structural measures...

  1. The Okavango delta: The value of tourism

    OpenAIRE

    G Mopelwa; J Blignaut

    2014-01-01

    In Botswana, tourism is the second most important economic activity after diamond mining and trading. The Okavango Delta in northern Botswana is the largest single tourist centre in the country. This study estimates the total economic value of tourism in the Okavango Delta and compares this value to that of other sectors in the economy of Botswana. The results are compared to results of similar studies for tourist destinations elsewhere in the world, and the policy implications of the finding...

  2. Application of δ13c Values Recorded in Neoproterozoic Marine Dolomite As a Marker for Global Correlations: Significance of Major δ13c Variations for the Carbon Cycle Based on Studies of Modern Dolomite Precipitating Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, J. A.; Bontognali, T. R. R.; Bahniuk, A.; Vasconcelos, C.

    2014-12-01

    Since the early Paleozoic, the average bulk δ13C value of marine carbonates has remained relatively positive varying between 0 and +4‰ with distinctive positive excursions that are associated with global changes in the carbon cycle. Unlike the Phanerozoic δ13C data for marine limestones, a major δ13C excursion has been recorded in a globally deposited Neoproterozoic marine dolomite formation, known as the cap dolostone. This excursion with δ13C values ranging systematically between -3 and -5‰ represents a global chronstratigraphic marker used to correlate the end of the major Marinoan glaciation at 636 Ma1. Does this excursion signify a primary seawater value and how might it be interpreted as a primary carbon cycle signal, considering the widespread distribution of the cap dolostone? Studies of modern dolomite precipitating environments, such as supratidal sabkhas of Abu Dhabi, U.A.E. and Qatar and coastal hypersaline lagoons of Rio de Janiero State, Brazil, indicate that microbial activity or the biological products, thereof, influence or mediate mineral formation. The precipitating solutions are sourced from normal seawater, which has experienced variable stages of concentration through evaporative processes. Comparison of δ13C values of sabkha dolomite with that formed in the hypersaline lagoons reveals that the former are always rather positive (approx. +2 to +7 ‰), whereas the latter are always negative (approx. -5‰ to -11‰). During very early diagenesis, the original δ13C value of the initial precipitate is not necessarily retained, indicating that synsedimentary processes can alter the carbon signal prior to burial and later diagenesis. However, the potential for very early lithification of microbial dolomite promotes the preservation of original δ13C values, which, thus, can be useful for evaluation of the ancient carbon cycle. 1Halverson, G.P. et al., 2005. Toward a Neoproterozoic composite carbon-isotope record, GSA Bulletin, v. 117, p

  3. On the acid dissociation constants of bilirubin and biliverdin. pKa values from 13C NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightner, D A; Holmes, D L; McDonagh, A F

    1996-02-02

    Biliverdin and bilirubin are naturally-occurring tetrapyrrolic bile pigments containing two propionic acid side chains. These side chains, and their propensity for ionization, are critical in the biological disposition of the pigments. Surprisingly, accurate dissociation constants for the propionic acid groups of biliverdin are unknown, and a wide range of values, extending over some 4 orders of magnitude, has been suggested for the Ka values of the propionic acid groups of bilirubin in aqueous solutions. Recently, pKa values of 6.7-9.3 have been reported for bilirubin--values much greater than the value of approximately 5 typical of propionic acid groups. These curiously high values, currently being used to explain the biological transport and metabolism of bilirubin and related compounds, have been attributed to intramolecular hydrogen bonding. We have determined the pKa values of 99% 13C-enriched (13CO2H) [8(3),12(3)-13C2]mesobilirubin-XIII, alpha, the corresponding biliverdin, and several monopropionic model compounds by 13C NMR spectroscopy. This technique allows direct observation and quantitative measurement of the carboxylic acid and carboxylate anion carbon signals. Analysis of the variation of carboxyl 13C NMR chemical shift with pH gave rubin pKa values of 4.2 and 4.9 and verdin pKa values of 3.9 and 5.3 in aqueous buffers containing only a very small quantity (0.086 mol fraction) of dimethyl sulfoxide. When extrapolated to water, the pKa values are essentially unchanged. The data provide the first experimentally-determined pKa values for a biliverdin. They indicate that intramolecular hydrogen bonding has little effect on the acid dissociation of bilirubin and suggest that the equilibrium acidity of the bilirubin carboxylic acid groups is not abnormally high but similar to the thermodynamic acidity found in other carboxylic acids, as originally suggested by Overbeek et al. (Overbeek, J. T. G., Vink, C. L. J., and Deenstra, H. (1955) Recl. Trav. Chim

  4. Sediment features, macrozoobenthic assemblages and trophic relationships ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N analysis) following a dystrophic event with anoxia and sulphide development in the Santa Giusta lagoon (western Sardinia, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magni, P. [CNR-IAMC National Research Council - Institute for Coastal Marine Environment c/o IMC - International Marine Centre, Loc. Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); IMC - International Marine Centre, Loc. Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.magni@iamc.cnr.it; Rajagopal, S. [Department of Animal Ecology and Ecophysiology, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Velde, G. van der [Department of Animal Ecology and Ecophysiology, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); National Museum of Natural History Naturalis, P.O. Box 9517, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Fenzi, G. [IMC - International Marine Centre, Loc. Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); Kassenberg, J. [Department of Animal Ecology and Ecophysiology, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Vizzini, S.; Mazzola, A. [Dipartimento di Biologia Animale, Universita di Palermo, via Archirafi 18, 90123 Palermo (Italy); Giordani, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Universita di Parma, Via Usberti 33/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)

    2008-07-01

    Macrozoobenthic assemblages and stable carbon ({delta}{sup 13}C) and nitrogen ({delta}{sup 15}N) isotope values of various primary producers (macroalgae and angiosperms) and consumers (macroinvertebrate filter/suspension feeders, deposit feeders, detritivores/omnivores and carnivores and fishes) were studied in the Santa Giusta lagoon (Sardinia, Italy) before (spring) and after (autumn) a dystrophic event which occurred in the summer of 2004. A few days after the dystrophy, the physico-chemical characteristics of sediments and macrozoobenthic assemblages were also investigated. In the latter occasion, high total organic carbon (3.9%) and organic matter (15.9%) contents of surface sediments went together with peaks in acid-volatile sulphide concentrations. Certain immediate effects were quite extreme, such as the drastic reduction in macrozoobenthos and the massive fish kill in August 2004. Among the macrozoobenthos, there were few individuals of chironomid larvae and Capitella cf. capitata left. However, by October, chironomid larvae were numerous, indicating a lack of predators (e.g. fish) and competitors. In addition, some bivalve species and polychaetes which were absent, or present in small numbers before the event, became relatively numerous. The results are discussed based on a knowledge of the sulphide tolerance of these species. Stable isotope analysis clearly showed that the basal level of the food web for most consumers consisted mainly of macroalgae and sedimentary organic matter, and that the values before and after the dystrophic event were not significantly different from one another. This indicates that the relations among different trophic levels were quickly restored following the dystrophic event.

  5. Punta Pitt Stable Isotope and Ion Data (delta 18O, delta 13C, Cd/Ca, Mn/Ca) for 1936 to 1982.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File contains data presented by Shen et al. (1992a). Table includes d18O, d13C, Cd/Ca, Mn/Ca, and Ba/Ca data from a 2m coral head and, for comparison, SST records...

  6. The Okavango delta: The value of tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Mopelwa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In Botswana, tourism is the second most important economic activity after diamond mining and trading. The Okavango Delta in northern Botswana is the largest single tourist centre in the country. This study estimates the total economic value of tourism in the Okavango Delta and compares this value to that of other sectors in the economy of Botswana. The results are compared to results of similar studies for tourist destinations elsewhere in the world, and the policy implications of the findings are highlighted. The study uses secondary data to estimate the direct consumptive and non-consumptive use value, and a survey among tourists to determine the existence value of the Okavango Delta.

  7. Re-evaluating the isotopic divide between angiosperms and gymnosperms using n-alkane δ13C values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, R. T.; McInerney, F. A.

    2009-12-01

    Angiosperm δ13C values are typically 1-3‰ more negative than those of co-occurring gymnosperms. This is known for both bulk leaf and compound-specific values from n-alkanes, which are stable, straight-chain hydrocarbons (C23-C35) found in the epicuticular leaf wax of vascular plants. For n-alkanes, there is a second distinction between the δ13C values of angiosperms and gymnosperms—δ13C values generally decrease with increasing chain-length in angiosperms, while in gymnosperms they increase. These two distinctions have been used to support the ‘plant community change hypothesis’ explaining the difference between the terrestrial and marine carbon isotope excursions during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM.) Preserved n-alkanes from terrestrial paleosols in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming reveal a negative carbon isotope excursion during the PETM of 4-5‰, which is 1-2‰ greater than the excursion recorded by marine carbonates. The local plant community, known from macrofossils as well as palynoflora, shifted from a deciduous, mixed angiosperm/gymnosperm flora to a suite of evergreen angiosperm species during the PETM. At the end of the PETM, the community returned to a mixed deciduous flora very similar to the original. This change in the plant community could thus magnify the terrestrial negative carbon isotope excursion to the degree necessary to explain its divergence from the marine record. However, the comparison between modern angiosperms and gymnosperms has been made mostly between broadleaf, deciduous angiosperms and evergreen, coniferous gymnosperms. New data analyzing deciduous, coniferous gymnosperms, including Metasequoia glyptostroboides and Taxodium distichum, suggests that the division previously ascribed to taxonomy may actually be based on leaf habit and physiology, specifically broadleaf, deciduous versus needle-leaf, evergreen plants. If differences in n-alkane δ13C values can be described not as angiosperms versus gymnosperms

  8. [Effects of different soil types on the foliar δ13C values of common local plant species in karst rocky desertification area in central Guizhou Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xue-lian; Wang, Shi-jie; Luo, Xu-qiang

    2014-09-01

    By measuring the foliar δ13C values of common local plant species grown in different soil types in Wangjiazhai catchments, a typical karst desertification area in Qingzhen City, Central Guizhou, we studied the impact of soil type and rocky desertification grade on the foliar δ13C values. The results showed that the foliar δ13C values were more negative in yellow soil area than those in black calcareous area and there was no obvious difference in foliar δ13C values between these two soil types. The distribution interval of foliar δ13C values in yellow soil area was narrower than those in black calcareous area and the variation coefficient of foliar δ13C values in yellow soil area were smaller than those in black calcareous area. With increasing degree of karst rocky desertification, the foliar δ13C values of plant community in black calcareous area increased, whereas those in yellow soil area first increased and then decreased. The result of multiple comparison showed that the difference in foliar δ13C values of plant community among rocky desertification grade was not obvious in yellow soil area, but it was obvious in black calcareous area. Correlation analysis between the foliar δ13C values of plant species and the main environmental factors indicated that slope and soil thickness were the main factors which affected the foliar δ13C values of plants in yellow soil area and soil water contant was the main factor in black calcareous area. The impact of soil on the foliar δ13C values was realized by adjusting the soil moisture in study area.

  9. Characterization of terrestrial organic matter transported through the Lena River Delta (NE Siberia) to its adjacent nearshore zone using lignin phenols, δ13C and Δ14C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterfeld, M.; Goni, M. A.; Just, J.; Hefter, J.; Han, P.; Mollenhauer, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Lena River in central Siberia is one of the major pathways translocating terrestrial organic matter (OMterr) from its southernmost reaches near Lake Baikal to the coastal zone of the Laptev Sea and the Arctic Ocean. Permafrost soils from its vast catchment area store huge amounts of pre-aged OM, which is expected to be remobilized due to climate warming. To characterize the composition and vegetation sources of OM discharged by the Lena River, we analyzed the lignin phenol and carbon isotopic composition (δ13C and Δ14C) in total suspended matter (TSM) from surface waters collected in spring and summer, surface sediments from the Buor Khaya Bay along with soils from the Lena Delta. A simple linear mixing model based on the lignin phenol distributions indicates OM in TSM samples from the delta and Buor Khaya Bay surface sediments contains comparable contributions from gymnosperm sources, which are primarily from the taiga forests south of the delta, and angiosperm material typical for tundra vegetation. Considering the small area covered by tundra (~12% of total catchment), the input of tundra-derived OM input is substantial and likely to increase in a warming Arctic. Radiocarbon compositions (Δ14C) of bulk OM in TSM samples varied from -55 to -391‰, i.e. 14C ages of 395 to 3920 yrs BP. Using δ13C compositions to estimate the fraction of phytoplankton-derived OM and assuming that this material has a modern 14C signature, we inferred the Δ14C compositions of OMterr in TSM exported by the Lena River to range between -190 and -700‰. Such variability in the ages of OMTERR (i.e. 1640 to 9720 14C yrs BP) reflects the heterogeneous composition and residence time of OM in the Lena River catchment soils (Holocene to Pleistocene ages). Lignin phenol and Δ14C compositions of surface sediments from the adjacent Buor Khaya Bay suggest that OMTERR deposited there is older and more degraded than materials present in river particles and catchment soils. Stronger

  10. Accounting for the effects of lipids in stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N values) analysis of skin and blubber of balaenopterid whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Conor; McHugh, Brendan; Trueman, Clive N; Harrod, Chris; Berrow, Simon D; O'Connor, Ian

    2012-12-15

    Stable isotope values (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) of darted skin and blubber biopsies can shed light on habitat use and diet of cetaceans, which are otherwise difficult to study. Non-dietary factors affect isotopic variability, chiefly the depletion of (13)C due to the presence of (12)C-rich lipids. The efficacy of post hoc lipid-correction models (normalization) must be tested. For tissues with high natural lipid content (e.g., whale skin and blubber), chemical lipid extraction or normalization is necessary. C:N ratios, δ(13)C values and δ(15)N values were determined for duplicate control and lipid-extracted skin and blubber of fin (Balaenoptera physalus), humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae) and minke whales (B. acutorostrata) by continuous-flow elemental analysis isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-EA-IRMS). Six different normalization models were tested to correct δ(13)C values for the presence of lipids. Following lipid extraction, significant increases in δ(13)C values were observed for both tissues in the three species. Significant increases were also found for δ(15)N values in minke whale skin and fin whale blubber. In fin whale skin, the δ(15)N values decreased, with no change observed in humpback whale skin. Non-linear models generally out-performed linear models and the suitability of models varied by species and tissue, indicating the need for high model specificity, even among these closely related taxa. Given the poor predictive power of the models to estimate lipid-free δ(13)C values, and the unpredictable changes in δ(15)N values due to lipid-extraction, we recommend against arithmetical normalization in accounting for lipid effects on δ(13)C values for balaenopterid skin or blubber samples. Rather, we recommend that duplicate analysis of lipid-extracted (δ(13)C values) and non-treated tissues (δ(15)N values) be used. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Inter- and intra-specific variability in δ13C and δ18O values of freshwater gastropod shells from Lake Lednica, western Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinarska, Karina; Pełechaty, Mariusz

    2017-09-01

    This study focuses on the inter- and intra-specific variability in δ13C and δ18O values of shells and opercula of gastropods sampled live from the littoral zone of Lake Lednica, western Poland. The δ13C and δ18O values were measured in individual opercula of Bithynia tentaculata and in shells of Bithynia tentaculata, Gyraulus albus, Gyraulus crista, Lymnaea sp., Physa fontinalis, Radix auricularia, Theodoxus fluviatilis and Valvata cristata. The gastropods selected for the study are among the species most commonly found in European Quaternary lacustrine sediments. The carbon isotope composition of the gastropod shells was species-specific and the same order of species from the most to the least 13C-depleted was observed at all sites sampled. Differences in shell δ13C values between species were similar at all sampling sites, thus the factors influencing shell isotopic composition were interpreted as species-specific. The δ18O values of shells were similar in all the species investigated. Significant intra-specific variability in shell δ13C and δ18O values was observed not only within the populations of Lake Lednica, which can be explained by heterogeneity of δ13C DIC, δ18O water and water temperature between the sites where macrophytes with snails attached were sampled, but also between individuals sampled from restricted areas of the lake's bottom. The latter points to the importance of factors related to the ontogeny of individual gastropods.

  12. δ18O and δ13C Values in Living and Holocene Brachiopods and the Relationship with Oceanographic Variability across Australia's Vast Southern Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, R.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of brachiopods are commonly used to reconstruct secular changes in ocean chemistry through the Phanerozoic but few studies have focused on the variations that occur laterally and concurrently across a single vast depositional system. Previous studies have identified significant isotopic variability to occur within an individual stratigraphic layer and the scatter in values has been attributed to diagenesis, non-equilibrium fractionation effects, and variability in oceanography. In order to further investigate these hypotheses, this study evaluates the δ18O and δ13C values from 346 living and Holocene brachiopods collected from surficial sediments across the latitude-parallel southern Australian shelf, a lateral distance of ~3000 km. Modern oceanographic measurements were used to calculate the range in δ18O values of calcite precipitated in apparent equilibrium with ambient seawater. A total of 84% of δ18O values from brachiopod samples (n = 684) fall within the range of calculated equilibrium calcite and accurately record a combination of normal shelf water conditions, winter downwelling across the shelf, and local summer upwelling. Most δ18O outliers are attributed to seasonal upwelling (90 of 108 outliers) and imply that either upwelling occurred in an area that has not been well established as an upwelling zone, or it occurred in a known upwelling area but the intensity was greater than previously measured. The δ13C values of brachiopods increase with increasing depth, which is the opposite of what is reported elsewhere. This unusual δ13C trend is caused by deeper slope currents being sourced from surface water southwest of Tasmania, an area with relatively high δ13C of DIC. The δ13C values of living specimens are consistently lower by 0.5-1.0‰ than most dead specimens, which is attributed to the decrease in δ13C values in the carbon cycle due to combustion of isotopically light fossil fuels over the last 200

  13. High precision measurement by mass spectrometry of isotopic ratios {delta} {sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O of carbon dioxide; Mesure haute precision par spectrometrie de masse des rapports isotopiques {delta} {sup 13}C et {delta}{sup 18}O du dioxyde de carbone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, Chr.; Ciais, Ph.

    1998-02-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is the second natural greenhouse gas in the Earth's atmosphere, after vapor water. Its concentration levels have been increasing by 25% due to human activities over the past 200 years, thus increasing the radiative forcing at the surface and potentially including major climate change for the next centuries. It is of primary importance to better quantify the role of carbon contained into the oceans and the land biota in moderating the anthropic perturbation. To do so, {sup 13}C and {sup 18}O isotopes are unique tools which allow to estimate indirectly the terrestrial CO{sub 2} fluxes based on atmospheric measurements. The present reports describes the experimental set-up used at the CFR-LMCE laboratory to measure the {sup 13}C and {sup 18}O natural abundance in atmospheric carbon dioxide. This technique requires high levels of both precision and accuracy because the geochemical signal nevertheless consists of very small changes in isotopic composition (on the order of 0.01 permits). Also, given the large number of samples to analyses routinely, it must be run in an automatic mode. Our experiment design consists of 'extraction line' where CO{sub 2} is separated cryogenically from the air, which is coupled to a (Finnigan MAT 252) mass spectrometer. (authors)

  14. Simulating dynamics of {delta}{sup 13}C of CO{sub 2} in the planetary boundary layer a boreal forest region: covariation between surface fluxes and atmospheric mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Baozhang; Chen, Jing M. [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Tans, Pieter P. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Huang, Lin [Environment Canada, Toronto, ON (Canada). Atmospheric Science and Technology Directorate

    2006-11-15

    Stable isotopes of CO{sub 2} contain unique information on the biological and physical processes that exchange CO{sub 2} between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. Ecosystem exchange of carbon isotopes with the atmosphere is correlated diurnally and seasonally with the planetary boundary layer (PBL) dynamics. The strength of this kind of covariation affects the vertical gradient of {delta}{sup 13}C and thus the global {delta}{sup 13}C distribution pattern. We need to understand the various processes involved in transport/diffusion of carbon isotope ratio in the PBL and between the PBL and the biosphere and the troposphere. In this study, we employ a one-dimensional vertical diffusion/transport atmospheric model (VDS), coupled to an ecosystem isotope model (BEPS-EASS) to simulate dynamics of {sup 13}CO{sub 2} in the PBL over a boreal forest region in the vicinity of the Fraserdale (FRD) tower (49 deg 52 min 29.9 sec N, 81 deg 34 min 12.3 sec W) in northern Ontario, Canada. The data from intensive campaigns during the growing season in 1999 at this site are used for model validation in the surface layer. The model performance, overall, is satisfactory in simulating the measured data over the whole course of the growing season. We examine the interaction of the biosphere and the atmosphere through the PBL with respect to {delta}{sup 13}C on diurnal and seasonal scales. The simulated annual mean vertical gradient of {delta}{sup 13}C in the PBL in the vicinity of the FRD tower was about 0.025% in 1999. The {delta}{sup 13}C vertical gradient exhibited strong diurnal (29%) and seasonal (71%) variations that do not exactly mimic those of CO{sub 2}. Most of the vertical gradient (96.5% {+-}) resulted from covariation between ecosystem exchange of carbon isotopes and the PBL dynamics, while the rest (3.5%{+-}) was contributed by isotopic disequilibrium between respiration and photosynthesis. This disequilibrium effect on {delta}{sup 13}C of CO{sub 2} dynamics in PBL

  15. Simulating dynamics of (delta){sup 13}C of CO{sub 2} in the planetary boundary layer a boreal forest region: covariation between surface fluxes and atmospheric mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Baozhang; Chen, Jing M. [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Tans, Pieter P. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Huang, Lin [Environment Canada, Toronto, ON (Canada). Atmospheric Science and Technology Directorate

    2006-11-15

    Stable isotopes of CO{sub 2} contain unique information on the biological and physical processes that exchange CO{sub 2} between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. Ecosystem exchange of carbon isotopes with the atmosphere is correlated diurnally and seasonally with the planetary boundary layer (PBL) dynamics. The strength of this kind of covariation affects the vertical gradient of (delta){sup 13}C and thus the global (delta){sup 13}C distribution pattern. We need to understand the various processes involved in transport/diffusion of carbon isotope ratio in the PBL and between the PBL and the biosphere and the troposphere. In this study, we employ a one-dimensional vertical diffusion/transport atmospheric model (VDS), coupled to an ecosystem isotope model (BEPS-EASS) to simulate dynamics of {sup 13}CO{sub 2} in the PBL over a boreal forest region in the vicinity of the Fraserdale (FRD) tower (49 deg 52 min 29.9 sec N, 81 deg 34 min 12.3 sec W) in northern Ontario, Canada. The data from intensive campaigns during the growing season in 1999 at this site are used for model validation in the surface layer. The model performance, overall, is satisfactory in simulating the measured data over the whole course of the growing season. We examine the interaction of the biosphere and the atmosphere through the PBL with respect to (delta){sup 13}C on diurnal and seasonal scales. The simulated annual mean vertical gradient of (delta){sup 13}C in the PBL in the vicinity of the FRD tower was about 0.025% in 1999. The (delta){sup 13}C vertical gradient exhibited strong diurnal (29%) and seasonal (71%) variations that do not exactly mimic those of CO{sub 2}. Most of the vertical gradient (96.5% {+-}) resulted from covariation between ecosystem exchange of carbon isotopes and the PBL dynamics, while the rest (3.5%{+-}) was contributed by isotopic disequilibrium between respiration and photosynthesis. This disequilibrium effect on (delta){sup 13}C of CO{sub 2} dynamics in PBL

  16. Additional Value of CH4 Measurement in a Combined 13C/H2 Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Els; De Preter, Vicky; Billen, Jaak; Van Ranst, Marc; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H2) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined 13C/H2 lactose breath test that measures breath 13CO2 as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H2 and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 13C/H2 lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH4 in addition to H2 and 13CO2. Based on the 13C/H2 breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH4 further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H2-excretion were found to excrete CH4. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH4-concentrations has an added value to the 13C/H2 breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. PMID:26371034

  17. Atypical delta sup(13) C signature in Globigerina bulloides at the ODP site 723A (Arabian Sea): Implications of environmental changes caused by upwelling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.; Niitsuma, N.

    CO 2 and re- spired CO 2 accounts for nearly 10% of the shell carbon in G. bulloides. Experimental culturing studies on the isotopic composition of G. bulloides show that 8–15% of d 13 C signal is due to fractionation mech- anisms involving...

  18. Fish tissue lipid-C:N relationships for correcting δ(13) C values and estimating lipid content in aquatic food-web studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Joel C; Sierszen, Michael E; Cotter, Anne M

    2015-11-15

    Normalizing δ(13) C values of animal tissue for lipid content is necessary to accurately interpret food-web relationships from stable isotope analysis. To reduce the effort and expense associated with chemical extraction of lipids, various studies have tested arithmetic mass balance to mathematically normalize δ(13) C values for lipid content; however, the approach assumes that lipid content is related to the tissue C:N ratio. We evaluated two commonly used models for estimating tissue lipid content based on C:N ratio (a mass balance model and a stoichiometric model) by comparing model predictions to measure the lipid content of white muscle tissue. We then determined the effect of lipid model choice on δ(13) C values normalized using arithmetic mass balance. To do so, we used a collection of fish from Lake Superior spanning a wide range in lipid content (5% to 73% lipid). We found that the lipid content was positively related to the bulk muscle tissue C:N ratio. The two different lipid models produced similar estimates of lipid content based on tissue C:N, within 6% for tissue C:N values 1.0‰. Published in 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  19. Variation in δ15N and δ13C values of forages for Arctic caribou: Effects of location, phenology and simulated digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansomeren, Lindsey L.; Barboza, Perry S.; Gustine, David D.; Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia

    2017-01-01

    RationaleThe use of stable isotopes for dietary estimates of wildlife assumes that there are consistent differences in isotopic ratios among diet items, and that the differences in these ratios between the diet item and the animal tissues (i.e., fractionation) are predictable. However, variation in isotopic ratios and fractionation of δ13C and δ15N values among locations, seasons, and forages are poorly described for arctic herbivores especially migratory species such as caribou (Rangifer tarandus).MethodsWe measured the δ13C and δ15N values of seven species of forage growing along a 200-km transect through the range of the Central Arctic caribou herd on the North Slope of Alaska over 2 years. We compared forages available at the beginning (May; n = 175) and the end (n = 157) of the growing season (September). Purified enzymes were used to measure N digestibility and to assess isotopic fractionation in response to nutrient digestibility during simulated digestion.ResultsValues for δ13C declined by 1.38 ‰ with increasing latitude across the transect, and increased by 0.44 ‰ from the beginning to the end of the season. The range of values for δ15N was greater than that for δ13C (13.29 vs 5.60 ‰). Differences in values for δ13C between graminoids (Eriophorum and Carex spp.) and shrubs (Betula and Salix spp.) were small but δ15N values distinguished graminoids (1.87 ± 1.02 ‰) from shrubs (−2.87 ± 2.93 ‰) consistently across season and latitude. However, undigested residues of forages were enriched in 15N when the digestibility of N was less than 0.67.ConclusionsAlthough δ15N values can distinguish plant groups in the diet of arctic herbivores, variation in the digestibility of dietary items may need to be considered in applying fractionation values for 15N to caribou and other herbivores that select highly digestible items (e.g. forbs) as well as heavily defended plants (e.g. woody browse).

  20. Variation in δ15 N and δ13 C values of forages for Arctic caribou: effects of location, phenology and simulated digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansomeren, Lindsay L; Barboza, Perry S; Gustine, David D; Syndonia Bret-Harte, M

    2017-05-15

    The use of stable isotopes for dietary estimates of wildlife assumes that there are consistent differences in isotopic ratios among diet items, and that the differences in these ratios between the diet item and the animal tissues (i.e., fractionation) are predictable. However, variation in isotopic ratios and fractionation of δ13 C and δ15 N values among locations, seasons, and forages are poorly described for arctic herbivores especially migratory species such as caribou (Rangifer tarandus). We measured the δ13 C and δ15 N values of seven species of forage growing along a 200-km transect through the range of the Central Arctic caribou herd on the North Slope of Alaska over 2 years. We compared forages available at the beginning (May; n = 175) and the end (n = 157) of the growing season (September). Purified enzymes were used to measure N digestibility and to assess isotopic fractionation in response to nutrient digestibility during simulated digestion. Values for δ13 C declined by 1.38 ‰ with increasing latitude across the transect, and increased by 0.44 ‰ from the beginning to the end of the season. The range of values for δ15 N was greater than that for δ13 C (13.29 vs 5.60 ‰). Differences in values for δ13 C between graminoids (Eriophorum and Carex spp.) and shrubs (Betula and Salix spp.) were small but δ15 N values distinguished graminoids (1.87 ± 1.02 ‰) from shrubs (-2.87 ± 2.93 ‰) consistently across season and latitude. However, undigested residues of forages were enriched in 15 N when the digestibility of N was less than 0.67. Although δ15 N values can distinguish plant groups in the diet of arctic herbivores, variation in the digestibility of dietary items may need to be considered in applying fractionation values for 15 N to caribou and other herbivores that select highly digestible items (e.g. forbs) as well as heavily defended plants (e.g. woody browse). Published in 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in

  1. The stable isotopic composition of Daphnia ephippia reflects changes in δ13C and δ18O values of food and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilder, J.; Tellenbach, C.; Möst, M.; Spaak, P.; van Hardenbroek, M.; Wooller, M. J.; Heiri, O.

    2015-06-01

    The stable isotopic composition of fossil resting eggs (ephippia) of Daphnia spp. is being used to reconstruct past environmental conditions in lake ecosystems. However, the underlying assumption that the stable isotopic composition of the ephippia reflects the stable isotopic composition of the parent Daphnia, of their diet and of the environmental water have yet to be confirmed in a controlled experimental setting. We performed experiments with Daphnia pulicaria cultures, which included a control treatment conducted at 12 °C in filtered lake water and with a diet of fresh algae and three treatments in which we manipulated the stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C value) of the algae, stable oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O value) of the water and the water temperature, respectively. The stable nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N value) of the algae was similar for all treatments. At 12 °C, differences in algal δ13C values and in δ18O values of water were reflected in those of Daphnia. The differences between ephippia and Daphnia stable isotope ratios were similar in the different treatments (δ13C: +0.2 ± 0.4 ‰ (standard deviation); δ15N: -1.6 ± 0.4 ‰; δ18O: -0.9 ± 0.4 ‰), indicating that changes in dietary δ13C values and in δ18O values of water are passed on to these fossilizing structures. A higher water temperature (20 °C) resulted in lower δ13C values in Daphnia and ephippia than in the other treatments with the same food source and in a minor change in the difference between δ13C values of ephippia and Daphnia (to -1.3 ± 0.3 ‰). This may have been due to microbial processes or increased algal respiration rates in the experimental containers, which may not affect Daphnia in natural environments. There was no significant difference in the offset between δ18O and δ15N values of ephippia and Daphnia between the 12 and 20 °C treatments, but the δ18O values of Daphnia and ephippia were on average 1.2 ‰ lower at 20 °C than at

  2. Preservation in 70% ethanol solution does not affect δ13C and δ15N values of reindeer blood samples – relevance for stable isotope studies of diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan J. Halley

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We compared duplicate samples of whole blood samples from 18 reindeer that were preserved either by immediate freezing or by immersion in 70 % ethanol. All samples were dried at 60 °C, powdered, treated with 1:1 chloroform: methanol, and dried again before isotope analysis. There were no differences in the values of δ13C and δ15N between the methods of preservation. Isotopic differences were absolutely small (δ13C = 0.1±0.10/00; δ15N=0.2±0.20/00, random in direction, and within the limits of analytical precision for the mass spectrometer. Preservation in ethanol thus appears to be an effective and efficient method for preserving blood samples for stable isotope analysis under field conditions. Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag:Konservering av blodprøver fra rein i 70% etanolløsning påvirker ikke verdiene av δ13C and δ15N–verdiene og er en fullgod metode for analyse av stabile isotoperVi sammenlignet to og to prøver av blodprøver fra 18 reinsdyr. Prøvene var enten konservert ved umiddelbar frysing eller ved bruk av 70% etanol. Alle prøver ble tørket ved 60 °C, pulverisert og behandlet med kloroform:metanol i forholdet 1:1. Til slutt ble de tørket på nytt før gjennomføring av isotopanalysen. Vi fant ingen forskjell i verdiene av δ13C and δ15N mellom de to konserveringsmetodene. I absolutte verdier var isotopforskjellene små (δ13C = 0.1±0.1 0/00; δ15N=0.2±0.2 0/00. Forskjellene var tilfeldige og innenfor grensene for massespektrometerets presisjon. Bruk av etanol framstår som en effektiv og fullgod metode til konservering av blodprøver for analyse av stabile isotoper under feltforhold.

  3. Studying ancient crop provenance: implications from δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of charred barley in a Middle Bronze Age silo at Ebla(NW Syria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Girolamo; Caracuta, Valentina; Casiello, Grazia; Longobardi, Francesco; Sacco, Antonio

    2012-02-15

    The discovery of a storeroom full of barley and other cereals (L.9512) in the proto-historic site of Ebla has provided a unique opportunity to study the centralized storage system of the early city-state from a different perspective. Epigraphic evidence available within the site reveals a complex system of taxation which included gathering grain tributes from satellite sites and redistributing semi-finished products such as flour. In this paper, we intend to explore the possibilities of a combined approach to studying the storage system, based on estimated barley grain volumes and δ(13)C-δ(15)N analyses. This approach is used to distinguish between grain from different harvesting sites and to identify any grain cultivated using special agricultural practices (e.g. manuring or irrigation). The basic assumption for this kind of analysis is that the growth-site conditions, natural or anthropogenic, of harvested cereals are reflected in their grain size and δ(13)C-δ(15)N values. Since the remains found in the storeroom were charred, the first task was to evaluate the effect of carbonization on the δ(13)C-δ(15)N and the size of the grains. Thus, the effect of charring was tested on modern samples of Syrian barley landraces. Once it had been ascertained that fresh grains reduced to charred remains retain their original biometric and isotopic traits, the ancient material was examined. Thirteen groups were identified, each characterized by a specific average volume and specific carbon and nitrogen values. The analysis revealed that what had first appeared to be a homogeneous concentration of grain was in fact an assemblage of barley harvested from different sites. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. 1H, 13C and 15N NMR assignments of the C1A and C1B subdomains of PKC-delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Brian P; Brian, P Ziemba; Booth, Jamie C; Jamie, C Booth; Jones, David N M; David, Jones N M

    2011-10-01

    The Protein Kinase C family of enzymes is a group of serine/threonine kinases that play central roles in cell-cycle regulation, development and cancer. A key step in the activation of PKC is translocation to membranes and binding of membrane-associated activators including diacylglycerol (DAG). Interaction of novel and conventional isotypes of PKC with DAG and phorbol esters occurs through the two C1 regulatory domains (C1A and C1B), which exhibit distinct ligand binding selectivity that likely controls enzyme activation by different co-activators. PKC has also been implicated in physiological responses to alcohol consumption and it has been proposed that PKCα (Slater et al. J Biol Chem 272(10):6167-6173, 1997; Slater et al. Biochemistry 43(23):7601-7609, 2004), PKCε (Das et al. Biochem J 421(3):405-413, 2009) and PKCδ (Das et al. J Biol Chem 279(36):37964-37972, 2004; Das et al. Protein Sci 15(9):2107-2119, 2006) contain specific alcohol-binding sites in their C1 domains. We are interested in understanding how ethanol affects signal transduction processes through its affects on the structure and function of the C1 domains of PKC. Here we present the (1)H, (15)N and (13)C NMR chemical shift assignments for the Rattus norvegicus PKCδ C1A and C1B proteins.

  5. Transformations in occluded light fraction organic matter in a clayey oxisol: evidence from 13C-CPMAS-NMR and delta13C Signature Transformações na fração leve oclusa da matéria orgânica em um Latossolo argiloso: evidência a partir do 13C-RMN-PCAMR e abundância natural de 13C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Roscoe

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesised that, during occlusion inside granular aggregates of oxide-rich soils, the light fraction organic matter would undergo a strong process of decomposition, either due to the slow process of aggregate formation and stabilisation or due to digestion in the macro- and meso-fauna guts. This process would favour the accumulation of recalcitrant materials inside aggregates. The aim of this study was to compare the dynamics and the chemical composition of free and occluded light fraction organic matter in a natural cerrado vegetation (woodland savannah and a nearby pasture (Brachiaria spp. to elucidate the transformations during occlusion of light fraction in aggregates of a clayey Oxisol. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of the 13C, with Cross Polarisation and Magic Angle Spinning (13C-CPMAS-NMR, and 13C/12C isotopic ratio were combined to study organic matter composition and changes in carbon dynamics, respectively. The occluded light fraction had a slower turnover than the free light fraction and the heavy fraction. Organic matter in the occluded fraction also showed a higher degree of decomposition. The results confirm that processes of soil organic matter occlusion in the typical "very fine strong granular" structure of the studied oxide-rich soil led to an intense transformation, selectively preserving stable organic matter. The small amount of organic material stored as occluded light faction, as well as its stability, suggests that this is not an important or manageable sink for sequestration of atmospheric CO2.O presente estudo tomou, como referência, a hipótese de que, durante a oclusão dentro de agregados granulares de solos ricos em óxidos, a fração leve da matéria orgânica do solo passa por um intenso processo de decomposição, decorrente do lento processo de formação desses agregados ou da digestão no trato digestivo da meso e macrofauna. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a dinâmica e a composição química das

  6. Correlation of bulk sedimentary and compound-specific δ13C values indicates minimal pre-aging of n-alkanes in a small tropical watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Chad S.; Horn, Sally P.; Taylor, Zachary P.; Kerr, Matthew T.

    2016-08-01

    Inherent to sedimentary compound-specific isotopic proxies of paleoecological and paleoclimate change is the assumption that biomarkers are coeval with the surrounding sedimentary matrix. Compound-specific radiocarbon analyses of lake and nearshore marine sediments have indicated a potential offset between the ages of terrestrial biomarkers and their surrounding sediments that could confound efforts to establish strong chronological control for compound-specific isotopic data. We conducted high-resolution compound-specific δ13C analyses of n-alkanes (δ13Calkane) in a well-studied sediment core from Laguna Castilla, Dominican Republic, and compared the results to bulk sedimentary δ13C (δ13Cbulk), fossil pollen, and sediment geochemistry to assess potential 'pre-aging' of alkanes in the terrestrial environment prior to deposition. We found significant positive correlations between δ13Cbulk values and δ13Calkane values, indicating little or no temporal lag in the response of δ13Calkane values to vegetation change and thus little or no offset in the age of terrestrially-derived compounds and the organic fraction of the sedimentary matrix. While this study highlights the need for further research into the variables affecting age offsets between proxy data, we propose the comparison of δ13Cbulk and δ13Calkane values as a method to assess potential age offsets between compound-specific and other proxy datasets, particularly in small watersheds with sediment records containing a high proportion of allochthonous organic matter. This method is more available to researchers than obtaining numerous compound-specific radiocarbon analyses, which are costly and not a routine service offered by radiocarbon facilities.

  7. δ13C and δ15N values of sediment-trap particles in the Japan and Yamato Basins and comparison with the core-top values in the East/Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khim, Boo-Keun; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Park, Kyung-Ae; Noriki, Shinichiro

    2018-01-01

    Investigation of sediment-trap deployments in the East/Japan Sea (EJS) showed that distinct seasonal variations in particulate organic carbon (POC) fluxes of intermediate-water sediment-traps clearly corresponded to changes in chlorophyll a concentrations estimated from SeaWiFS data. The prominent high POC flux periods (e.g., March) were strongly correlated with the enhanced surface-water phytoplankton blooms. Deep-water sedimenttraps exhibited similar variation patterns to intermediate-water sediment-traps. However, their total flux and POC flux were higher than those of intermediate-water sediment-traps during some months (e.g., April and May), indicating the lateral delivery of some particles to the deep-water sediment-traps. Distinct seasonal δ13C and δ15N variations in settling particles of the intermediate-water sediment-traps were observed, strongly supporting the notion of seasonal primary production. Seasonal variations in δ13C and δ15N values from the deep-water sediment-traps were similar to those of the intermediate-water sediment-traps. However, the difference in δ13C and δ15N values between the intermediate-water and the deepwater sediment-traps may be attributed to degradation of organic matter as it sank through the water column. Comparison of fluxweighted δ13C and δ15N mean values between the deep-water sediment-traps and the core-top sediments showed that strong selective loss of organic matter components (lipids) depleted in 13C and 15N occurred during sediment burial. Nonetheless, the results of our study indicate that particles in the deep-water sediment-trap deposited as surface sediments on the seafloor preserve the record of surface-water conditions, highlighting the usefulness of sedimentary δ13C and δ15N values as a paleoceanographic application in the EJS.

  8. Effects of preservation methods of muscle tissue from upper-trophic level reef fishes on stable isotope values13C and δ15N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Stallings

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Research that uses stable isotope analysis often involves a delay between sample collection in the field and laboratory processing, therefore requiring preservation to prevent or reduce tissue degradation and associated isotopic compositions. Although there is a growing literature describing the effects of various preservation techniques, the results are often contextual, unpredictable and vary among taxa, suggesting the need to treat each species individually. We conducted a controlled experiment to test the effects of four preservation methods of muscle tissue from four species of upper trophic-level reef fish collected from the eastern Gulf of Mexico (Red Grouper Epinephelus morio, Gag Mycteroperca microlepis, Scamp Mycteroperca phenax, and Red Snapper Lutjanus campechanus. We used a paired design to measure the effects on isotopic values for carbon and nitrogen after storage using ice, 95% ethanol, and sodium chloride (table salt, against that in a liquid nitrogen control. Mean offsets for both δ13C and δ15N values from controls were lowest for samples preserved on ice, intermediate for those preserved with salt, and highest with ethanol. Within species, both salt and ethanol significantly enriched the δ15N values in nearly all comparisons. Ethanol also had strong effects on the δ13C values in all three groupers. Conversely, for samples preserved on ice, we did not detect a significant offset in either isotopic ratio for any of the focal species. Previous studies have addressed preservation-induced offsets in isotope values using a mass balance correction that accounts for changes in the isotope value to that in the C/N ratio. We tested the application of standard mass balance corrections for isotope values that were significantly affected by the preservation methods and found generally poor agreement between corrected and control values. The poor performance by the correction may have been due to preferential loss of lighter isotopes

  9. Stable isotope composition (δ(13)C and δ(15)N values) of slime molds: placing bacterivorous soil protozoans in the food web context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiunov, Alexei V; Semenina, Eugenia E; Aleksandrova, Alina V; Tsurikov, Sergey M; Anichkin, Alexander E; Novozhilov, Yuri K

    2015-08-30

    Data on the bulk stable isotope composition of soil bacteria and bacterivorous soil animals are required to estimate the nutrient and energy fluxes via bacterial channels within detrital food webs. We measured the isotopic composition of slime molds (Myxogastria, Amoebozoa), a group of soil protozoans forming macroscopic spore-bearing fruiting bodies. An analysis of largely bacterivorous slime molds can provide information on the bulk stable isotope composition of soil bacteria. Fruiting bodies of slime molds were collected in a monsoon tropical forest of Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam, and analyzed by continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Prior to stable isotope analysis, carbonates were removed from a subset of samples by acidification. To estimate the trophic position of slime molds, their δ(13) C and δ(15) N values were compared with those of plant debris, soil, microbial destructors (litter-decomposing, humus-decomposing, and ectomycorrhizal fungi) and members of higher trophic levels (oribatid mites, termites, predatory macroinvertebrates). Eight species of slime molds represented by at least three independent samples were 3-6‰ enriched in (13) C and (15) N relative to plant litter. A small but significant difference in the δ(13) C and δ(15) N values suggests that different species of myxomycetes can differ in feeding behavior. The slime molds were enriched in (15) N compared with litter-decomposing fungi, and depleted in (15) N compared with mycorrhizal or humus-decomposing fungi. Slime mold sporocarps and plasmodia largely overlapped with oribatid mites in the isotopic bi-plot, but were depleted in (15) N compared with predatory invertebrates and humiphagous termites. A comparison with reference groups of soil organisms suggests strong trophic links of slime molds to saprotrophic microorganisms which decompose plant litter, but not to humus-decomposing microorganisms or to mycorrhizal fungi. Under the assumption that slime molds are

  10. Identification of animal fats via compound specific δ13C values of individual fatty acids: assessments of results for reference fats and lipid extracts of archaeological pottery vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Evershed

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of obtaining molecular information from lipid residues associated with archaeological pottery has dramatically increased the potential for deriving new information on the use of ancient vessels and the commodities processed therein. Motivated by the high proportion of the archaeological potsherds that have been shown to contain animal fats, a new approach invol- ving compound specific stable isotope analysis of remnant fats has been developed to retrieve infor- mation which will allow new insights into animal exploitation, dietary preferences and vessel use amongst prehistoric peoples. The new approach uses the δ13C values of the major saturated fatty acid (C16:0 and C18:0 determined by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC–C–IRMS to characterise the origins of animal fat recovered from archaeological pottery.

  11. Emission characterization and δ{sup 13}C values of parent PAHs and nitro-PAHs in size-segregated particulate matters from coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruwei [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environments, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710075 Shaanxi (China); Yousaf, Balal; Sun, Ruoyu [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environments, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zhang, Hong [Anhui Department of Environmental Protection, Anhui Academy of Environmental Science, Hefei 230071 (China); Zhang, Jiamei [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environments, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Liu, Guijian, E-mail: lgj@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environments, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710075 Shaanxi (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • pPAHs and NPAHs were strongly associated with PM{sub 1–2.5} and PM{sub 1} compared with PM{sub 2.5–10}. • Combustion conditions and WFGD showed typical effects on PAH level and profile. • Diagnostic ratio of PAH was to indicative of emission sources to a certain degree. • δ{sup 13}C values of PAHs were useful for differentiating coal combustion source. • δ{sup 13}C values of PAHs were unable to differentiate coal-processing sources. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to characterize parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) and their nitrated derivatives (NPAHs) in coarse (PM{sub 2.5–10}), intermediate (PM{sub 1–2.5}) and fine (PM{sub 1}) particulate matters emitted from coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in Huainan, China. The diagnostic ratios and the stable carbon isotopic approaches to characterize individual PAHs were applied in order to develop robust tools for tracing the origins of PAHs in different size-segregated particular matters (PMs) emitted CFPP coal combustion. The concentrations of PAH compounds in flue gas emissions varied greatly, depending on boiler types, operation and air pollution control device (APCD) conditions. Both pPAHs and NPAHs were strongly enriched in PM{sub 1–2.5} and PM{sub 1}. In contrary to low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs were more enriched in finer PMs. The PAH diagnostic ratios in size-segregated PMs are small at most cases, highlighting their potential application in tracing CFPP emitted PAHs attached to different sizes of PMs. Yet, substantial uncertainty still exists to directly apply PAH diagnostic ratios as emission tracers. Although the stable carbon isotopic composition of PAH molecular was useful in differentiating coal combustion emissions from other sources such as biomass combustion and vehicular exhausts, it was not feasible to differentiate isotopic fractionation processes such as low-temperature carbonization, high

  12. Shifts in Ross Sea food web structure as indicated by δ15N and δ13C values of fossil Antarctic seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, A.; Brault, E.; McMahon, K.

    2013-12-01

    As climate change continues to mount, there is a growing need for understanding its effects on biological-physical interactions of marine ecosystems. Assessing the effects of anthropogenic activities on the coastal marine ecosystem involves understanding the underlying mechanisms driving these changes as well as establishing baselines of the natural system. Preliminary findings have indicated shifts in bulk carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotopic values of southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) samples, collected in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica in the Ross Sea region, over approximately the last 7,000 years. These shifts could result from 1) seals changing their foraging location and/or diet over this time, 2) climate change-induced shifts in the biogeochemistry at the base of the food web, or 3) some combination of both processes. We explored the patterns of long-term change in Ross Sea food web structure by examining the stable isotope values of three top predators in this system, Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii), leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx), and crabeater seals (Lobodon carcinophagus). Fossil seal samples were collected in the Dry Valleys during the austral summer of 2012/13 and then analyzed for bulk C and N isotopes via an elemental analyzer/isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (EA/IRMS). Our initial findings indicate that C isotopic values of fossil seal samples from Weddell, leopard, and crabeater seals were more enriched than isotopic values of modern seals of the same species (e.g., δ13C = -22.79 × 0.92 ‰ and -26.71 × 0.50 ‰ for fossil and modern crabeater seals, respectively). Given the relatively consistent diet of crabeater seals, these findings suggest a shift in baseline food web structure occurred over the last 10,000 years, either through changes in foraging location or local shifts in biogeochemistry. For all species, N isotopic values are widely variable (e.g., 7.28 to 16.0 δ15N ‰ for the Weddell seal), which may be a result of

  13. Evaluating climate signal recorded in tree-ring δ13C and δ18O values from bulk wood and α-cellulose for six species across four sites in the northeastern US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, Rossella; Jennings, Katie; Belmecheri, Soumaya; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Ollinger, Scott

    2017-12-30

    We evaluated the applicability of tree-ring δ 13 C and δ 18 O values in bulk wood - instead of the more time and lab-consuming α-cellulose δ 13 C and δ 18 O values, to assess climate and physiological signals across multiple sites and for six tree species along a latitudinal gradient (35°97'N to 45°20'N) of the northeastern United States. Wood cores (n = 4 per tree) were sampled from ten trees per species. Cores were cross-dated within and across trees at each site, and for the last 30 years. Seven years, including the driest on record, were selected for this study. The δ 13 C and δ 18 O values were measured on two of the ten trees from the bulk wood and the α-cellulose. The offsets between materials in δ 13 C and δ 18 O values were assessed. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to evaluate the strength of the climate signal across sites. Finally the relationship between δ 13 C and δ 18 O values in bulk wood vs α-cellulose was analyzed to assess the consistency of the interpretation, in terms of CO 2 assimilation and stomatal conductance, from both materials. We found offsets of 1.1‰ and 5.6‰ between bulk and α-cellulose for δ 13 C and δ 18 O values, respectively, consistent with offset values reported in the literature. Bulk wood showed similar or stronger correlations to climate parameters than α-cellulose for the investigated sites. In particular, temperature and vapor pressure deficit and standard precipitation-evaporation index (SPEI) were the most visible climate signals recorded in δ 13 C and δ 18 O values, respectively. For most of the species, there was no relationship between δ 13 C and δ 18 O values, regardless of the wood material considered. Extraction of α-cellulose was not necessary to detect climate signals in tree rings across the four investigated sites. Furthermore, the physiological information inferred from the dual isotope approach was similar for most of the species regardless of the material

  14. Effect of in-stream physicochemical processes on the seasonal variations in δ13C and δ18O values in laminated travertine deposits in a mountain stream channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hao; Liu, Zaihua; Sun, Hailong

    2017-04-01

    Travertines are potential archives of continental paleoclimate. Records of stable carbon and oxygen isotopic composition (δ13C and δ18O) in laminated travertine deposits from endogene spring waters show regular cyclic patterns which may be due to seasonal change in climate determinants such as temperature and rainfall. In this study, δ13C and δ18O measurements of three travertine specimens that grew naturally over the eight years, 2004-2011, at upstream, middle and downstream sites in a canal at Baishuitai, SW China, are presented. They exhibit clear seasonal variations that generally correlate with biannual laminations. Specifically, δ13C and δ18O values show significant positive correlation with each other for the three travertine specimens, with the correlation coefficients increasing downstream along the canal. To reveal the factors governing the seasonal and spatial variations in δ13C and δ18O values, newly formed travertines precipitated on Plexiglas substrates are also examined. Both δ13C and δ18O of the substrate travertines are low in the summer/rainy season and high in the winter/dry season, showing a great consistency with the patterns in the natural travertines. Spatially, isotope values increase downstream in both seasons, with higher increase rates in winter that are related to removal of larger fractions of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from the solution and stronger kinetic isotopic fractionation in winter. Due to in-stream physicochemical processes, including CaCO3 precipitation and the associated degassing of CO2, seasonal changes in δ13C and δ18O in the travertines are amplified by two times between the upstream and downstream sites: this is opposite to trends for epigene (meteogene) tufas whose seasonal changes in stable isotope compositions are reduced downstream. We suggest in-stream physicochemical processes are a potential reason for underestimation of annual temperature ranges that are inferred from epigene tufa δ18O data.

  15. Global ocean climatology of the 13C Suess effect and preindustrial δ13C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Marie; Olsen, Are; Ninnemann, Ulysses; Eldevik, Tor; Johannessen, Truls

    2017-04-01

    We present the first observationally based estimate of the full global ocean 13C Suess effect since preindustrial times. This was constructed by using Olsen and Ninnemann's [2010] back-calculation method to calculate the 13C Suess effect with data from 29 cruises spanning the world ocean. We find a strong 13C Suess effect in the upper 1000 m of all basins, with strongest decrease in the Subtropical Gyres of the Northern Hemisphere, where δ13C has decreased by more than 0.8‰ since the industrial revolution. At greater depths, a significant 13C Suess effect can only be detected in the northern parts of the North Atlantic Ocean. The magnitude of the 13C Suess effect is correlated with the concentration of anthropogenic carbon, but their relationship varying strongly between water masses, reflecting the degree to which source waters are equilibrated with the atmospheric 13C Suess effect before sinking. From the 13C Suess effect estimates, we have estimated the preindustrial δ13C (δ13CPI) along the 29 sections. Further, we developed regional multilinear regression equations, which were applied on the World Ocean Atlas data to construct the δ13CPI climatology, which reveals the natural δ13C distribution in the global ocean. Compared to the modern distribution, the preindustrial δ13C spans a larger range of values, and we find that in some regions in the high northern latitudes, the gradient in modern ocean δ13C is completely reversed compared to the preindustrial. Maximum δ13CPI, of up to 1.8‰, are found in the subtropical gyres of all basins, in the upper and intermediate waters of the North Atlantic, as well as in mode waters with a Southern Ocean origin. Particularly strong gradients occur at intermediate depths, revealing a strong potential for using δ13C as a tracer for changes in water mass geometry at these levels. Further, we identify a much tighter relationship between δ13C and Apparent Oxygen Utilization (AOU) than between δ13C and phosphate that

  16. The Localizing Value Of Focal Delta Slowing In Temporal Lobe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Clinical and structural correlates of lateralized interictal delta activity in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have been well documented in the literature. Nevertheless, its occurrence has not been considered a significant clinical feature. Objective To evaluate the significance of focal delta- range slowing ...

  17. The 13C bicarbonate method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junghans, Peter; Larsson, Caroline; Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    We reconsider the principle of the (13)C bicarbonate (NaH(13)CO3) method ((13)C-BM) for the determination of the CO2 production to obtain an estimate of energy expenditure (EE). Its mathematical concept based on a three-compartmental model is related to the [(15)N]glycine end product method. The CO...... correlation between the results of (13)C-BM and IC with RCO2(IC) = 0.703 × RaCO2((13)C), (R(2) = 0.99). The slope of this correlation corresponds to the fractional (13)C recovery (RF((13)C)) of (13)C in breath CO2 after administration of NaH(13)CO3. Significant increase in RF((13)C) was found in physically.......07; n = 8; p = .026). We suggest considering the (13)C-BM as a 'stand-alone' method to provide information on the total CO2 production as an index of EE....

  18. Reconstructing Mid-Pleistocene paleovegetation and paleoclimate in the Golan Heights using the δ(13)C values of modern vegetation and soil organic carbon of paleosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Gideon

    2011-04-01

    The Golan Heights borders the Upper Jordan Valley on its eastern side and likely served as a prime foraging area for hominin groups that inhabited the Upper Jordan Valley during the Mid-Pleistocene. This study tests the hypothesis that Mid-Pleistocene climate in the Golan region was similar to that of the present day. Carbon isotope composition of present day plant communities and soil organic carbon from the Golan were compared to those of paleosols from Nahal Orvim to reconstruct Mid-Pleistocene paleoclimatic conditions. After correcting the paleosol values for recent changes in atmospheric carbon isotope values and potential biodegradation, the isotopic results show a strong similarity to those of present day local plants and soils. These results indicate that during the Mid-Pleistocene, the Golan was dominated by C(3) vegetation, shared similar climatic conditions with the present day, and displayed long-term environmental stability. The span of time of paleosol formation is unknown and might cover multiple climatic episodes; thus, although short climatic fluctuations may have occurred, their impact was not substantial enough to be detected in the Nahal Orvim paleosols. This study concludes that the Golan slopes provided hominins and large grazers with a reliable and highly nutritious foraging area that complemented the Jordan Valley riparian ecosystem. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. a Comparison of δ13C & pMC Values for Ten Cretaceous-Jurassic Dinosaur Bones from Texas to Alaska USA, China and Europe with that of Coal and Diamonds Presented in the 2003 Agu Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H. R.; Dennett, R.; de Pontcharra, J.; Giertych, M.; Kline, O.; van Oosterwych, M. C.; Owen, H.; Taylor, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    There is convincing evidence that soft tissue and other biomolecules can survive long periods of fossilization by their interaction with blood iron and/or carbonate absorption. Here are presented the results of investigations showing that ancient biomolecules and their decay products contain significantly more pMC's (% modern 14C) than diamond and coal presented during a poster session held at the AGU 2003 SF convention. The title was: The Enigma of the Ubiquity of 14C in organic samples older than 100,000 K. The given range for five diamonds from Botswana and South Africa ranged from 0.096 to 0.146 pMC. Ten coal specimens from the United States from the Eocene to Pennsylvanian geologic interval yielded 0.1 to 0.46 pMC's. In our extensive field and lab study ten dinosaurs from Texas to Alaska, and China yielded much higher pMC's of 0.76 to 5.59 after pretreatment to remove modern contaminants. When 2g of a Belgium Mosasaur from Europe was pretreated to remove contaminants the pMC was 4.68 or 24,600 RC years on Lund Un AMS in Sweden (Lindgren et al. 2011, PloS ONE, page 9). The endogenous sources of dinosaur pMC's were further enhanced by the δ13C range of -20.1 to -23.8 for collagen, 16.6-28.4 for bulk organic and -3.1 to -9.1 for CO3 fractions. The δ13C values compare favorably to δ13C values of -23 to -27 in a similar study of dinosaur δ13C values from the Judith River formation in Alberta, Canada that (Ostrom et al. 1993, Geology, v. 21). . Diamonds from South America (Taylor-Southon, Nuclear Instruments 2007 ) yielded ages of 66,000 to 80,000 years leaving little doubt that at least the dinosaur ages of 22,020 ± 50 to 39,230 ± 140 were not machine error or a result of contamination anymore than the coal samples. This data explains more clearly why such biomolecules have persisted and therefore should not be ignored as the implications are of utmost importance to science and humanity. Thus the experimental results presented here demonstrate the need for

  20. Sequential nearest-neighbor effects on computed {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vila, Jorge A. [Cornell University, Baker Laboratory of Chemistry and Chemical Biology (United States); Serrano, Pedro; Wuethrich, Kurt [The Scripps Research Institute, Department of Molecular Biology (United States); Scheraga, Harold A., E-mail: has5@cornell.ed [Cornell University, Baker Laboratory of Chemistry and Chemical Biology (United States)

    2010-09-15

    To evaluate sequential nearest-neighbor effects on quantum-chemical calculations of {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts, we selected the structure of the nucleic acid binding (NAB) protein from the SARS coronavirus determined by NMR in solution (PDB id 2K87). NAB is a 116-residue {alpha}/{beta} protein, which contains 9 prolines and has 50% of its residues located in loops and turns. Overall, the results presented here show that sizeable nearest-neighbor effects are seen only for residues preceding proline, where Pro introduces an overestimation, on average, of 1.73 ppm in the computed {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts. A new ensemble of 20 conformers representing the NMR structure of the NAB, which was calculated with an input containing backbone torsion angle constraints derived from the theoretical {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts as supplementary data to the NOE distance constraints, exhibits very similar topology and comparable agreement with the NOE constraints as the published NMR structure. However, the two structures differ in the patterns of differences between observed and computed {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts, {Delta}{sub ca,i}, for the individual residues along the sequence. This indicates that the {Delta}{sub ca,i} -values for the NAB protein are primarily a consequence of the limited sampling by the bundles of 20 conformers used, as in common practice, to represent the two NMR structures, rather than of local flaws in the structures.

  1. Measurement of delta13C and delta18O Isotopic Ratios of CaCO3 by a Thermoquest Finnigan GasBench II Delta Plus XL Continous Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer with Application to Devils Hole Core DH-11 Calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revesz, Kinga M.; Landwehr, Jurate Maciunas; Keybl, Jaroslav Edward

    2001-01-01

    A new method was developed to analyze the stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of small samples (400?20 ?g) of calcium carbonate. This new method streamlines the classical phosphoric acid - calcium carbonate (H3PO4 - CaCO3) reaction method by making use of a Thermoquest-Finnigan GasBench II preparation device and a Delta Plus XL continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer. To obtain reproducible and accurate results, optimal conditions for the H3PO4 - CaCO3 reaction had to be determined. At the acid-carbonate reaction temperature suggested by the equipment manufacturer, the oxygen isotope ratio results were unsatisfactory (standard deviation () greater than 1.5 per mill), probably because of a secondary reaction. When the acid-carbonate reaction temperature was lowered to 26?C and the reaction time was increased to 24 hours, the precision of the carbon and oxygen isotope ratios for duplicate analyses improved to 0.1 and 0.2 per mill, respectively. The method was tested by analyzing calcite from Devils Hole, Nevada, which was formed by precipitation from ground water onto the walls of a sub-aqueous cavern during the last 500,000 years. Isotope-ratio values previously had been obtained by the classical method for Devils Hole core DH-11. The DH-11 core had been recently re-sampled, and isotope-ratio values were obtained using this new method. The results were comparable to those obtained by the classical method. The consistency of the isotopic results is such that an alignment offset could be identified in the re-sampled core material, a cutting error that was then independently confirmed. The reproducibility of the isotopic values is demonstrated by a correlation of approximately 0.96 for both isotopes, after correcting for an alignment offset. This result indicates that the new method is a viable alternative to the classical method. In particular, the new method requires less sample material permitting finer resolution and allows automation of some processes

  2. 13C-isotopic fingerprint of Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus sylvestris L. wood related to the quality of standing tree mass in forests from NW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Irene; González-Prieto, Serafin J; Cabaneiro, Ana

    2005-01-01

    Pine forest plantations of Pinus pinaster Ait. and P. sylvestris L. located in Galicia, NW Spain, were selected to study the 13C/12C-isotopic fingerprint in wood core samples in order to find possible relationships between the delta(13)C at natural abundance levels and the quality of the standing tree mass. For each pine species, 24 forests growing on acidic soils were studied: half developed over granite and half over schists. Two dominant trees from each plot, corresponding to all possible combinations of forest stands with high or low site index and with adults or young trees, were drilled at the basal part of trunks using a Pressler drill to obtain tree ring samples. The C-isotopic compositions of the litter and the soil organic matter from different soil depths were also determined and statistically significant correlations between these values and the 13C content of the wood were observed. Despite internal variations due to the influence of site index, tree age and parent material, the isotopic fingerprint of P. pinaster wood (mean value delta13C=-26.2+/-0.8 per thousand) significantly differed (P<0.001) from that of P. sylvestris (mean value delta13C=-24.6+/-0.7 per thousand). Relationships between the quality of the stand and the C-isotopic composition of the wood were observed, high quality stands having trees more 13C-depleted than low quality ones. A high correlation between wood delta13C and site index values for P. pinaster stands (r=-0.667, P<0.001) was found, this correlation being even clearer when only P. pinaster growing over schists (r=-0.833, P<0.001) are considered. Again, the correlation between the site index and the wood delta13C of young P. pinaster trees is higher when plots over granite or schists are separately considered. A similar fact occurs for adult P. sylvestris trees from schists stands, high quality specimens being 13C-depleted compared with low quality ones. On the other hand, 13C natural abundance of wood from P. sylvestris

  3. Stable isotopes of carbon in environment of Madrid (atmosphere, freshwater rivers and groundwaters); Variacion de ``13 C en el ambiente de Madrid (atmosfera, aguas superciciales y aguas subterraneas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Vera, F.; Tejado, J.J.; Fabian, E.; gomez Artola, C.; Redondo, R.

    1995-12-31

    Stable isotopes of carbon are studied in atmosphere, freshwater (rivers) and groundwater of the region of Madrid. Sampling and analytical techniques are adapted for the isotopic study of carbon in the environment. The atmosphere samples show delta ``13 C values from -13.92 to-15.67%, closely related to the pollution level of air. The water from wells, to the Tertiary aquifer, with delta``13 C among-13.92 and 15.67%. The dissolution of carbonatic rocks and the biologic activity could be the origin of the wide variations delta ``13 C from-7.07 to -11.85% found in the waters from rivers Jarama Guadalix and Guadarrama. (Author) 11 refs.

  4. Multiple stable isotope (18O, 13C, 15N and 34S) analysis of human hair to identify the recent migrants in a rural community in SW England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol, Roland; Marsh, Jen; Heaton, Tim H E

    2007-01-01

    Relationships between recent migration and hair delta(18)O values were examined for 40 people living in a rural community in SW England. The isotopic contents of 35 'local' hair samples were compared with those of 5 recently arrived individuals (from Australia, Canada, Chile, Germany and the USA). The hair delta(18)O values of these 'visitors' were +7.9 (Omaha, USA), +11.2 (Jena, Germany), +12.1 (Osorno, Chile), +12.6 (Montreal, Canada) and +14.3 per thousand (Adelaide, Australia). The hair value for the USA visitor (+7.9 per thousand) fell outside the range for the 33 local adult residents, +10.5 to +14.3 per thousand (+12.7 +/- 0.8 per thousand). Hair delta(18)O values did not identify the individuals from Adelaide, Montreal and Osorno as 'visitors', but hair delta(13)C or delta(34)S data did. Combining the hair delta(18)O, delta(13)C and delta(34)S values using principal components analysis (two components explained 89% of the overall variation among the 40 subjects) helped to more clearly distinguish European from non-European individuals, indicating the existence of global overall isotope (geo-origin) relationships. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Does low dose13C-urea breath test maintain a satisfactory accuracy in diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Vaz Coelho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The standard doses of 13C-urea in 13C-urea breath test is 75 mg. OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of 13C-urea breath test containing 25 mg of 13C-urea comparing with the standard doses of 75 mg in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. METHODS: Two hundred seventy adult patients (96 males, 174 females, median age 41 years performed the standard 13C-urea breath test (75 mg 13C-urea and repeated the 13C-urea breath test using only 25 mg of 13C-urea within a 2 week interval. The test was performed using an infrared isotope analyzer. Patients were considered positive if delta over baseline was >4.0‰ at the gold standard test. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-one (59.6% patients were H. pylori negative and 109 (40.4% were positive by the gold standard test. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis we established a cut-off value of 3.4% as the best value of 25 mg 13C-urea breath test to discriminate positive and negative patients, considering the H. pylori prevalence (95% CI: 23.9-37.3 at our setting. Therefore, we obtained to 25 mg 13C-urea breath test a diagnostic accuracy of 92.9% (95% CI: 88.1-97.9, sensitivity 83.5% (95% CI: 75.4-89.3, specificity 99.4% (95% CI: 96.6-99.9, positive predictive value 98.3% (95% CI: 92.4-99.4, and negative predictive value 93.0% (95% CI: 88.6-96.1. CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose 13C-urea breath test (25 mg 13C-urea does not reach accuracy sufficient to be recommended in clinical setting where a 30% prevalence of H. pylori infection is observed. Further studies should be done to determine the diagnostic accuracy of low doses of 13C-urea in the urea breath test.

  6. Multisite Kinetic Modeling of 13C Metabolic MR Using [1-13C]Pyruvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Gómez Damián

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperpolarized 13C imaging allows real-time in vivo measurements of metabolite levels. Quantification of metabolite conversion between [1-13C]pyruvate and downstream metabolites [1-13C]alanine, [1-13C]lactate, and [13C]bicarbonate can be achieved through kinetic modeling. Since pyruvate interacts dynamically and simultaneously with its downstream metabolites, the purpose of this work is the determination of parameter values through a multisite, dynamic model involving possible biochemical pathways present in MR spectroscopy. Kinetic modeling parameters were determined by fitting the multisite model to time-domain dynamic metabolite data. The results for different pyruvate doses were compared with those of different two-site models to evaluate the hypothesis that for identical data the uncertainty of a model and the signal-to-noise ratio determine the sensitivity in detecting small physiological differences in the target metabolism. In comparison to the two-site exchange models, the multisite model yielded metabolic conversion rates with smaller bias and smaller standard deviation, as demonstrated in simulations with different signal-to-noise ratio. Pyruvate dose effects observed previously were confirmed and quantified through metabolic conversion rate values. Parameter interdependency allowed an accurate quantification and can therefore be useful for monitoring metabolic activity in different tissues.

  7. Correlation between the synthetic origin of methamphetamine samples and their {sup 15}N and {sup 13}C stable isotope ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billault, Isabelle [Laboratoire d' Analyse Isotopique et Electrochimique de Metabolismes, CNRS UMR6006, University of Nantes, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes (France)]. E-mail: Isabelle.Billault@univ-nantes.fr; Courant, Frederique [Laboratoire d' Analyse Isotopique et Electrochimique de Metabolismes, CNRS UMR6006, University of Nantes, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes (France); Pasquereau, Leo [Laboratoire d' Analyse Isotopique et Electrochimique de Metabolismes, CNRS UMR6006, University of Nantes, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes (France); Derrien, Solene [Laboratoire d' Analyse Isotopique et Electrochimique de Metabolismes, CNRS UMR6006, University of Nantes, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes (France); Robins, Richard J. [Laboratoire d' Analyse Isotopique et Electrochimique de Metabolismes, CNRS UMR6006, University of Nantes, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes (France); Naulet, Norbert [Laboratoire d' Analyse Isotopique et Electrochimique de Metabolismes, CNRS UMR6006, University of Nantes, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes (France)

    2007-06-12

    The active ingredient of ecstasy, N-methyl-3,4-methyldioxyphenylisopropylamine (MDMA) can be manufactured by a number of easy routes from simple precursors. We have synthesised 45 samples of MDMA following the five most common routes using N-precursors from 12 different origins and three different precursors for the aromatic moiety. The {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N contents of both the precursors and the MDMA samples derived therefrom were measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry coupled to an elemental analyser (EA-IRMS). We show that within-pathway correlation between the {sup 15}N content of the precursor and that of the derived MDMA can be strong but that no general pattern of correlation can be defined. Rather, it is evident that the {delta} {sup 15}N values of MDMA are strongly influenced by a combination of the {delta} {sup 15}N values of the source of nitrogen used, the route by which the MDMA is synthesised, and the experimental conditions employed. Multivariate analysis (PCA) based on the {delta} {sup 15}N values of the synthetic MDMA and of the {delta} {sup 15}N and {delta} {sup 13}C values of the N-precursors leads to good discrimination between the majority of the reaction conditions tested.

  8. Seasonal and inter-annual variability in 13C composition of ecosystem carbon fluxes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torn, M.S.; Biraud, S.; Still, C.J.; Riley, W.J.; Berry, J.A.

    2010-09-22

    The {delta}{sup 13}C signature of terrestrial carbon fluxes ({delta}{sub bio}) provides an important constraint for inverse models of CO{sub 2} sources and sinks, insight into vegetation physiology, C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} vegetation productivity, and ecosystem carbon residence times. From 2002-2009, we measured atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and {delta}{sup 13}C-CO{sub 2} at four heights (2 to 60 m) in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) and computed {delta}{sub bio} weekly. This region has a fine-scale mix of crops (primarily C{sub 3} winter wheat) and C{sub 4} pasture grasses. {delta}{sub bio} had a large and consistent seasonal cycle of 6-8{per_thousand}. Ensemble monthly mean {delta}{sub bio} ranged from -25.8 {+-} 0.4{per_thousand} ({+-}SE) in March to -20.1 {+-} 0.4{per_thousand} in July. Thus, C{sub 3} vegetation contributed about 80% of ecosystem fluxes in winter-spring and 50% in summer-fall. In contrast, prairie-soil {delta}{sub 13}C values were about -15{per_thousand}, indicating that historically the region was dominated by C{sub 4} vegetation and had more positive {delta}{sub bio} values. Based on a land-surface model, isofluxes ({delta}{sub bio} x NEE) in this region have large seasonal amplitude because {delta}{sub bio} and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) covary. Interannual variability in isoflux was driven by variability in NEE. The large seasonal amplitude in {delta}{sub bio} and isoflux imply that carbon inverse analyses require accurate estimates of land cover and temporally resolved {sup 13}CO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} fluxes.

  9. Nicotine, acetanilide and urea multi-level 2H-, 13C- and 15N-abundance reference materials for continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmelmann, Arndt; Albertino, Andrea; Sauer, Peter E; Qi, Haiping; Molinie, Roland; Mesnard, François

    2009-11-01

    Accurate determinations of stable isotope ratios require a calibration using at least two reference materials with different isotopic compositions to anchor the isotopic scale and compensate for differences in machine slope. Ideally, the delta values of these reference materials should bracket the isotopic range of samples with unknown delta values. While the practice of analyzing two isotopically distinct reference materials is common for water (VSMOW-SLAP) and carbonates (NBS 19 and L-SVEC), the lack of widely available organic reference materials with distinct isotopic composition has hindered the practice when analyzing organic materials by elemental analysis/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS). At present only L-glutamic acids USGS40 and USGS41 satisfy these requirements for delta13C and delta15N, with the limitation that L-glutamic acid is not suitable for analysis by gas chromatography (GC). We describe the development and quality testing of (i) four nicotine laboratory reference materials for on-line (i.e. continuous flow) hydrogen reductive gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass-spectrometry (GC-IRMS), (ii) five nicotines for oxidative C, N gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass-spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS, or GC-IRMS), and (iii) also three acetanilide and three urea reference materials for on-line oxidative EA-IRMS for C and N. Isotopic off-line calibration against international stable isotope measurement standards at Indiana University adhered to the 'principle of identical treatment'. The new reference materials cover the following isotopic ranges: delta2H(nicotine) -162 to -45 per thousand, delta13C(nicotine) -30.05 to +7.72 per thousand, delta15N(nicotine) -6.03 to +33.62 per thousand; delta15N(acetanilide) +1.18 to +40.57 per thousand; delta13C(urea) -34.13 to +11.71 per thousand, delta15N(urea) +0.26 to +40.61 per thousand (recommended delta values refer to calibration with NBS 19, L-SVEC, IAEA-N-1, and IAEA-N-2). Nicotines fill a gap as

  10. Tequila authenticity assessment by headspace SPME-HRGC-IRMS analysis of 13C/12C and 18O/16O ratios of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Cisneros, Blanca O; López, Mercedes G; Richling, Elke; Heckel, Frank; Schreier, Peter

    2002-12-18

    By use of headspace SPME sampling and a PLOT column, on-line capillary gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry was employed in the combustion (C) and the pyrolysis (P) modes (HRGC-C/P-IRMS) to determine the delta(13)C(VPDB) and delta(18)O(VSMOW) values of ethanol in authentic (n = 14) and commercial tequila samples (n = 15) as well as a number of other spirits (n = 23). Whereas with delta(13)C(VPDB) values ranging from -12.1 to -13.2 per thousand and from -12.5 to -14.8 per thousand similar variations were found for 100% agave and mixed tequilas, respectively, the delta(18)O(VSMOW) data differed slightly within these categories: ranges from +22.1 to +22.8 per thousand and +20.8 to +21.7 per thousand were determined for both the authentic 100% agave and mixed products, respectively. The data recorded for commercial tequilas were less homogeneous; delta(13)C(VPDB) data from -10.6 to -13.9 per thousand and delta(18)O(VSMOW) values from +15.5 to +22.7 per thousand were determined in tequilas of both categories. Owing to overlapping data, attempts to differentiate between white, rested, and aged tequilas within each of the two categories failed. In addition, discrimination of tequila samples from other spirits by means of delta(13)C(VPDB) and delta(18)O(VSMOW) data of ethanol was restricted to the products originating from C(3) as well as C(4)/CAM raw materials.

  11. High and low value fish chains in the Mekong Delta: challenges for livelihoods and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vo Thi Thanh Loc,; Bush, S.R.; Xuan Sinh, Le; Nguyen Tri Khiem,

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the structure, function and wealth distribution within the Pangasius hypophthalmus and Henicorhynchus spp./Labiobarbus spp. value chains in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. The analysis is driven by key questions relating to the form and function of value chains, their

  12. An indirect method for in vivo T2 mapping of [1-(13) C] pyruvate using hyperpolarized (13) C CSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Eunhae; Lee, Hansol; Lee, Joonsung; Yang, Seungwook; Choi, Young-Suk; Wang, Eunkyung; Song, Ho-Taek; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2017-05-01

    An indirect method for in vivo T2 mapping of (13) C-labeled metabolites using T2 and T2 * information of water protons obtained a priori is proposed. The T2 values of (13) C metabolites are inferred using the relationship to T2 ' of coexisting (1) H and the T2 * of (13) C metabolites, which is measured using routine hyperpolarized (13) C CSI data. The concept is verified with phantom studies. Simulations were performed to evaluate the extent of T2 estimation accuracy due to errors in the other measurements. Also, bias in the (13) C T2 * estimation from the (13) C CSI data was studied. In vivo experiments were performed from the brains of normal rats and a rat with C6 glioma. Simulation results indicate that the proposed method provides accurate and unbiased (13) C T2 values within typical experimental settings. The in vivo studies found that the estimated T2 of [1-(13) C] pyruvate using the indirect method was longer in tumor than in normal tissues and gave values similar to previous reports. This method can estimate localized T2 relaxation times from multiple voxels using conventional hyperpolarized (13) C CSI and can potentially be used with time resolved fast CSI. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Distinct fungal and bacterial δ13C signatures can drive the increase in soil δ13C with depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Lukas; Laganièrea, Jérôme; Edwards, Kate A.; Billings, Sharon A.; Morrill, Penny L.; Van Biesen, Geert; Ziegler, Susan E.

    2015-04-01

    Soil microbial biomass is a key precursor of soil organic carbon (SOC), and the enrichment in 13C during SOC diagenesis has been purported to be driven by increasing proportions of microbially derived SOC. Yet, little is known about how the δ13C of soil microbial biomass - and by extension the δ13C of microbial inputs to SOC - vary in space, time, or with the composition of the microbial community. Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) can be analyzed to measure the variation of the natural abundance δ13C values of both individual groups of microorganisms and the microbial community as a whole. Here, we show how variations of δ13CPLFA within the soil profile provides insight into C fluxes in undisturbed soils and demonstrate that distinct δ13C of fungal and bacterial biomass and their relative abundance can drive the increase of bulk δ13CSOC with depth. We studied the variation in natural abundance δ13C signatures of PLFA in podzolic soil profiles from mesic boreal forests in Atlantic Canada. Samples from the organic horizons (L,F,H) and the mineral (B; top 10 cm) horizons were analyzed for δ13C values of PLFA specific to fungi, G+ bacteria, or G- bacteria as proxies for the δ13C of the biomass of these groups, and for δ13C values of PLFA produced by a wide range of microorganisms (e.g. 16:0) as a proxy for the δ13C value of microbial biomass as a whole. Results were compared to fungi:bacteria ratios (F:B) and bulk δ13CSOC values. The δ13C values of group-specific PLFA were driven by differences among source organisms, with fungal PLFA consistently depleted (2.1 to 6.4‰) relative to and G+ and G- bacterial PLFA in the same sample. All group-specific PLFA, however, exhibited nearly constant δ13C values throughout the soil profile, apparently unaffected by the over 2.8‰ increase in δ13CSOC with depth from the L to B horizons. This indicates that bulk SOC poorly represents the substrates actually consumed by soil microorganisms in situ. Instead, our

  14. Hyperpolarized 13C MR angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipsø, Hans Kasper Wigh; Magnusson, Peter; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a non-invasive technology that can be used for diagnosis and monitoring of cardiovascular disease; the number one cause of mortality worldwide. Hyperpolarized imaging agents provide signal enhancement of more than 10, 000 times, which implies large reduction...... in acquisition time and improved spatial resolution. We review the role of hyperpolarized 13C agents for MR angiography and present the literature in the field. Furthermore, we present a study of the benefit of intra-arterial injection over intravenous injection of hyperpolarized agent for cerebral angiography...... in the rat, and compare the performance of two standard angiographic pulse sequences, the gradient echo (GRE) sequence and the balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP). 2D coronal cerebral angiographies using intra-arterial injections were acquired with a GRE sequence with in-plane resolution of 0.27 mm...

  15. Shoot δ(15)N and δ (13)C values of non-host Brassica rapa change when exposed to ±Glomus etunicatum inoculum and three levels of phosphorus and nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Henrique M; Berbara, Ricardo L; Daft, Melvin J

    2001-08-01

    Glasshouse experiments were conducted to study the response of non-host Brassica rapa and host Sorghum bicolor to inoculation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus etunicatum when given different levels of N (0.9 mmol kg(-1) sand, 2.7 mmol kg(-1) sand, 8.1 mmol kg(-1) sand) and P (3.6 µmol kg(-1) sand, 10.7 µmol kg(-1) sand, 32.0 µmol kg(-1) sand) fertiliser. On both plant species, the presence of G. etunicatum inoculum (+AMF) was associated with significant changes of shoot δ(15)N values, with +AMF plants having larger average δ(15)N values than uninoculated plants (-AMF). These values are the largest average differences in shoot δ(15)N yet recorded for AMF and nutrient effects. B. rapa shoot δ(15)N average differences ranged from 1.67‰ to 2.70‰, while for S. bicolor they range between 2.07‰ and 4.40‰. For shoot δ(13)C only the non-host B. rapa responded to ±AMF and added N. Although the harvested dry weight biomass (-35.2% B. rapa; +39.8% S. bicolor) of both plant species responded to AMF inoculation, no direct relationship was observed between isotopic discrimination and growth inhibition for the non-host B. rapa. In this paper we discuss some implications regarding AMF inocula on the basis of our findings and current literature.

  16. Trophic ecology of European sardine Sardina pilchardus and European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus in the Bay of Biscay (north-east Atlantic) inferred from δ13C and δ15N values of fish and identified mesozooplanktonic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouvelon, T.; Chappuis, A.; Bustamante, P.; Lefebvre, S.; Mornet, F.; Guillou, G.; Violamer, L.; Dupuy, C.

    2014-01-01

    European sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) are two species of economical and ecological significance in the Bay of Biscay (north-east Atlantic). However, the trophic ecology of both species is still poorly known in the area, and more generally, few studies have considered the potential trophic overlap between sardines and anchovies worldwide. This study aims to highlight the trophic links between the mesozooplankton and adults of these two pelagic fish in the Bay of Biscay, through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis (SIA). Mesozooplankton and individuals of sardines and anchovies were collected during one season (spring 2010), over spatially contrasted stations within the study area. First, the potential effect of preservation (ethanol vs. freezing) and of delipidation (by cyclohexane) on mesozooplankton δ13C and δ15N values was assessed. Results demonstrated the necessity to correct for the preservation effect and for lipid contents in mesozooplankton for further analyses of sardines' and anchovies' diet through SIA. Next, this study highlighted the interest of working on identified mesozooplanktonic organisms instead of undetermined assemblages when unravelling food sources of planktivorous fish using stable isotopes. The inter-specific variability of isotope values within a planktonic assemblage was effectively high, probably depending on the various feeding behaviours that can occur among mesozooplankton species. Intra-specific variability was also significant and related to the spatial variations of baseline signatures in the area. To investigate the foraging areas and potential diet overlap of S. pilchardus and E. encrasicolus, mixing models (SIAR) were applied. Both fish species appeared to feed mainly in the neritic waters of the Bay of Biscay in spring and to select mainly small- to medium-sized copepods (e.g. Acartia sp., Temora sp.). However, E. encrasicolus showed a greater trophic plasticity by

  17. Changes in 13C/12C of oil palm leaves to understand carbon use during their passage from heterotrophy to autotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamade, Emmanuelle; Setiyo, Indra Eko; Girard, Sébastien; Ghashghaie, Jaleh

    2009-08-30

    The carbon isotope composition of leaf bulk organic matter was determined on the tropical tree Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (oil palm) in North Sumatra (Indonesia) to get a better understanding of the changes in carbon metabolism during the passage from heterotrophy to autotrophy of the leaves. Leaf soluble sugar (sucrose, glucose and fructose) contents, stomatal conductance and dark respiration, as well as leaf chlorophyll and nitrogen contents, were also investigated. Different growing stages were sampled from leaf rank -6 to rank 57. The mean values for the delta(13)C of bulk organic matter were -29.01 +/- 0.9 per thousand for the leaflets during the autotrophic stage, -27.87 +/- 1.08 per thousand for the petioles and -28.17 +/- 1.09 per thousand for the rachises, which are in the range of expected values for a C(3) plant. The differences in delta(13)C among leaf ranks clearly revealed the changes in the origin of the carbon source used for leaf growth. Leaves were (13)C-enriched at ranks below zero (around -27 per thousand). During this period, the 'spear' leaves were completely heterotrophic and reserves from storage organs were mobilised for the growth of these young emerging leaves. (13)C-depletion was then observed when the leaf was expanding at rank 1, and there was a continuous decrease during the progressive passage from heterotrophy until reaching full autotrophy. Thereafter, the delta(13)C remained more or less constant at around -29.5 per thousand. Changes in sugar content and in delta(13)C related to leaf ranks showed an interesting similarity of the passage from heterotrophy to autotrophy of oil palm leaves to the budburst of some temperate trees or seed germination reported in the literature. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Soil compaction effects on water status of ponderosa pine assessed through 13C/12C composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, G Armando; Singer, Michael J; Powers, Robert F; Horwath, William R

    2002-05-01

    Soil compaction is a side effect of forest reestablishment practices resulting from use of heavy equipment and site preparation. Soil compaction often alters soil properties resulting in changes in plant-available water. The use of pressure chamber methods to assess plant water stress has two drawbacks: (1) the measurements are not integrative; and (2) the method is difficult to apply extensively to establish seasonal soil water status. We evaluated leaf carbon isotopic composition (delta13C) as a means of assessing effects of soil compaction on water status and growth of young ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws) stands across a range of soil textures. Leaf delta13C in cellulose and whole foliar tissue were highly correlated. Leaf delta13C in both whole tissue and cellulose (holocellulose) was up to 1.0 per thousand lower in trees growing in non-compacted (NC) loam or clay soils than in compacted (SC) loam or clay soils. Soil compaction had the opposite effect on leaf delta13C in trees growing on sandy loam soil, indicating that compaction increased water availability in this soil type. Tree growth response to compaction also varied with soil texture, with no effect, a negative effect and a positive effect as a result of compaction of loam, clay and sandy loam soils, respectively. There was a significant correlation between 13C signature and tree growth along the range of soil textures. Leaf delta13C trends were correlated with midday stem water potentials. We conclude that leaf delta13C can be used to measure retrospective water status and to assess the impact of site preparation on tree growth. The advantage of the leaf delta13C approach is that it provides an integrative assessment of past water status in different aged leaves.

  19. [Isotopic signature (15N/14N and 13C/12C) confirms similarity of trophic niches of millipedes (Myriapoda, Diplopoda) in a temperate deciduous forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeniuk, I I; Tiunov, A V

    2011-01-01

    The species composition, abundance, and isotopic signature of millipedes (Myriapoda, Diplopoda) were investigated in seven biotopes of Kaluzhskie Zaseki State Nature Reserve. Nine Diplopoda species were found in total, and the local species diversity (within a sampling plot) reached seven species. The Diplopoda tissues were similar to the plant litter in the isotopic composition of nitrogen (delta15N was by 0.4% per hundred higher, on average), but were more strongly enriched in heavy carbon (delta13C was by 4% per hundred higher, on average). Removal of mineral carbon from the cuticle reduced delta13C of Diplopoda by about 1.4% per hundred on average. Differences in the delta15N and delta13C values between the species did not exceed 2.5 per hundred. Differences in the isotopic compositions of the considered species are insignificant, and thus, it is impossible to distinguish particular trophic guilds in the Diplopoda community. Analysis of the published data confirmed that isotopic differentiation of millipedes was much less pronounced than in other investigated groups of soil animals. Hence, millipedes of the deciduous forest form a uniform trophic group.

  20. Inter-specific and ontogenic differences in delta C-13 and delta N-15 values and Hg and Cd concentrations in cephalopods

    OpenAIRE

    Chouvelon, Tiphaine; Spitz, Jerome; Cherel, Y; Caurant, Florence; Sirmel, R.; Mendez-Fernandez, P.; Bustamante, Paco

    2011-01-01

    Chemical tracers (e. g. stable isotopes or trace metals) are increasingly used to study trophic ecology and feeding habits of marine organisms and various factors can affect their values. The aim of the present study was to provide information on ontogenic effects on stable carbon and nitrogen values (delta C-13 and delta N-15) and on cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) concentrations in 5 cephalopod species from the Bay of Biscay (North-East Atlantic Ocean). To this end, individuals belonging to 3...

  1. Reconstruction of forest site history in Ethiopian highlands based on {sup 13}C natural abundance of soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eshetu, Z.; Hoegberg, P. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    2000-03-01

    Deforestation has been occurring in Ethiopia for millennia and has accelerated during the last century. On the other hand, historical accounts indicate that restricted afforestation of mountainous areas was initiated already 550 years ago. One of these areas was the Menagesha Forest. To reconstruct forest site history, soil samples from the Menagesha Forest and Wendo-Genet areas were analyzed for {sup 13}C natural abundance and C concentration. In soils from Menagesha, {delta}{sup 13}C values ranged from -17 per mille to -23 per mille in the deeper horizons, and from -24 per mille to -27 per mille in the surface mineral soils and litter layer. This indicates that C{sub 4} grasses were once an important component of this ecosystem, and supports the historical accounts. In the Wendo-Genet area, {delta}{sup 13}C values ranged from -16 per mille to -14 per mille in the deeper horizons, and from -23 per mille to -16 per mille in the topsoil in both cultivated lands and forested sites, suggesting more recent shifts from grassland to woodland or forest. With regard to reforestation and soil conservation, it is encouraging that productive forest with high soil organic carbon concentration could be established on the steep slopes at Menagesha. The study also shows that Ethiopian forest history is more complex than commonly appreciated, and that there has not been a simple unbroken trend of deforestation.

  2. A point-value enhanced finite volume method based on approximate delta functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Li-Jun; Majdalani, Joseph

    2018-02-01

    We revisit the concept of an approximate delta function (ADF), introduced by Huynh (2011) [1], in the form of a finite-order polynomial that holds identical integral properties to the Dirac delta function when used in conjunction with a finite-order polynomial integrand over a finite domain. We show that the use of generic ADF polynomials can be effective at recovering and generalizing several high-order methods, including Taylor-based and nodal-based Discontinuous Galerkin methods, as well as the Correction Procedure via Reconstruction. Based on the ADF concept, we then proceed to formulate a Point-value enhanced Finite Volume (PFV) method, which stores and updates the cell-averaged values inside each element as well as the unknown quantities and, if needed, their derivatives on nodal points. The sharing of nodal information with surrounding elements saves the number of degrees of freedom compared to other compact methods at the same order. To ensure conservation, cell-averaged values are updated using an identical approach to that adopted in the finite volume method. Here, the updating of nodal values and their derivatives is achieved through an ADF concept that leverages all of the elements within the domain of integration that share the same nodal point. The resulting scheme is shown to be very stable at successively increasing orders. Both accuracy and stability of the PFV method are verified using a Fourier analysis and through applications to the linear wave and nonlinear Burgers' equations in one-dimensional space.

  3. Simultaneous Multiagent Hyperpolarized 13C Perfusion Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Morze, Cornelius; Bok, Robert A.; Reed, Galen D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate simultaneous hyperpolarization and imaging of three 13C-labeled perfusion MRI contrast agents with dissimilar molecular structures ([13C]urea, [13C]hydroxymethyl cyclopropane, and [13C]t-butanol) and correspondingly variable chemical shifts and physiological characteristics......, and to exploit their varying diffusibility for simultaneous measurement of vascular permeability and perfusion in initial preclinical studies. Methods: Rapid and efficient dynamic multislice imaging was enabled by a novel pulse sequence incorporating balanced steady state free precession excitation and spectral...... in simulations. "Tripolarized" perfusion MRI methods were applied to initial preclinical studies with differential conditions of vascular permeability, in normal mouse tissues and advanced transgenic mouse prostate tumors. Results: Dynamic imaging revealed clear differences among the individual tracer...

  4. Paleovegetation reconstruction using δ13C of Soil Organic Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Su

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The relative contributions of C3 and C4 plants to vegetation at a given locality may be estimated by means of δ13C of soil organic matter. This approach holds a great potential for paleoecological reconstruction using paleosols. However, two main uncertainties exist, which limits the accuracy of this application. One is δ13C-enrichment as the plant carbon becomes incorporated into soil organic matter. The other is due to environmental influences on δ13C of plants. Two types of data were collected and analyzed with an objective of narrowing the error of paleovegetation reconstruction. First, we investigated δ13C variations of 557 C3 and 136 C4 plants along a precipitation gradient in North China. A strong negative correlation is found between the δ13C value of C3 plants averaged for each site and the annual precipitation with a coefficient of −0.40‰/100mm, while no significant coefficients were found for C4 plants. Second, we measured δ13C of soil organic matters for 14 soil profiles at three sites. The isotopic difference between vegetation and soil organic matter are evaluated to be 1.8‰ for the surface soil and 2.8‰ for the soil at the bottom of soil profiles. We conducted a sample reconstruction of paleovegetation at the central Chinese Loess Plateau during the Holocene and the Last Glacial (LG, and conclude that, without corrections for δ13C-enrichment by decomposition, the C4 abundance would be overestimated. The importance and uncertainties of other corrections are also discussed.

  5. Ecosystem Service Value for the Common Reed Wetlands in the Liaohe Delta, Northeast China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Siyuan; Laws, Edward A.; Costanza, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The largest reed field in the world, with an area of 1000 km2 in 1953, is located in the Liaohe Delta, which lies in the five-point-in-a-line economic strategic zone of northeastern China. However, the area of reeds has declined dramatically in recent years to accommodate oil field infrastructure...... by the 800 km2 of reed wetland totaled approximately US $2.68 billion. Remarkably, aquaculture and the production of pulp from reeds accounted for only 19% of the total value of the reed wetland services. About 32% of the value of the ecosystem services was attributed to non-consumptive recreation, an easily...... to valuation of similarly endangered wetlands throughout China....

  6. Synthesis of Gemcitabine-13C, 15N2 and Gemcitabine-13C, 15N2 Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Cheng-gu;YANG Shao-zu;YAN Sheng-wang;FANG Ning-jing;CAI Ding-long;LI Gang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Homemade urea-13C, 15N2 was used to react with 3-methyl acrylonitrile closure to form cytosine-13C, 15N2 (2,which was protected by trimethylsilylation with BSA and condensed with 2-deoxy-2,2-difluoro-D-erythro-pentofuranose-3,5-dibenzoate-1-methanesulfonate at 120 ℃ to afford blocked gemcitabine-13C, 15N2. Hydrolytic removal of the blocking groups of gemcitabine-13C, 15N2 with NaOH gave gemcitabine-13C, 15N2, and its metabolite was obtained by further hydrolytic deamination of gemcitabine-13C, 15N2. The final products were characterized and detected by HPLC, LC-MS and NMR, and confirmed that the chemical purities were higher than 98%, isotopic abundances were 99% 13C, 98% 15N, and they were suitable for drug metabolism studies.

  7. IRMS detection of testosterone manipulated with {sup 13}C labeled standards in human urine by removing the labeled {sup 13}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jingzhu, E-mail: wangjingzhu@chinada.cn [National Anti-Doping Laboratory, China Anti-Doping Agency, Beijing (China); Yang, Rui [Sport Science College, Beijing Sport University Beijing, Beijing (China); Yang, Wenning [School of Pharmacy, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing (China); Liu, Xin; Xing, Yanyi; Xu, Youxuan [National Anti-Doping Laboratory, China Anti-Doping Agency, Beijing (China)

    2014-12-10

    Highlights: • {sup 13}C labeled testosterone can be used to adjust the isotope ratio of testosterone. • The novel testosterone cannot be detected by the regular IRMS method in doping test. • A method was explored to remove the labeled {sup 13}C. • The established method can be used to detect the manipulated testosterone. - Abstract: Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) is applied to confirm testosterone (T) abuse by determining the carbon isotope ratios (δ{sup 13}C value). However, {sup 13}C labeled standards can be used to control the δ{sup 13}C value and produce manipulated T which cannot be detected by the current method. A method was explored to remove the {sup 13}C labeled atom at C-3 from the molecule of androsterone (Andro), the metabolite of T in urine, to produce the resultant (A-nor-5α-androstane-2,17-dione, ANAD). The difference in δ{sup 13}C values between Andro and ANAD (Δδ{sup 13}C{sub Andro–ANAD}, ‰) would change significantly in case manipulated T is abused. Twenty-one volunteers administered T manipulated with different {sup 13}C labeled standards. The collected urine samples were analyzed with the established method, and the maximum value of Δδ{sup 13}C{sub Andro–ANAD} post ingestion ranged from 3.0‰ to 8.8‰. Based on the population reference, the cut-off value of Δδ{sup 13}C{sub Andro–ANAD} for positive result was suggested as 1.2‰. The developed method could be used to detect T manipulated with 3-{sup 13}C labeled standards.

  8. Does the Shuram δ13C excursion record Ediacaran oxygenation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, J. M.; Maloof, A. C.; Schoene, B.; Higgins, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The most negative carbon isotope excursion in Earth history is found in carbonate rocks of the Ediacaran Period (635-542 Ma). Known colloquially as the the 'Shuram' excursion, workers have long noted its tantalizing, broad concordance with the rise of abundant macro-scale fossils in the rock record, variously interpreted as animals, giant protists, macro-algae and lichen, and known as the 'Ediacaran Biota.' Thus, the Shuram excursion has been interpreted by many in the context of a dramatically changing redox state of the Ediacaran oceans - e.g., a result of methane cycling in a low O2 atmosphere, the final destruction of a large pool of recalcitrant dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and the step-wise oxidation of the Ediacaran oceans. More recently, diagenetic interpretations of the Shuram excursion - e.g. sedimentary in-growth of very δ13C depleted authigenic carbonates, meteoric alteration of Ediacaran carbonates, late-stage burial diagenesis - have challenged the various Ediacaran redox models. A rigorous geologic context is required to discriminate between these explanatory models, and determine whether the Shuram excursion can be used to evaluate terminal Neoproterozoic oxygenation. Here, we present chemo-stratigraphic data (δ13C, δ18O, δ44/42Ca and redox sensitive trace element abundances) from 12 measured sections of the Ediacaran-aged Wonoka Formation (Fm.) of South Australia that require a syn-depositional age for the extraordinary range of δ13C values (-12 to +4‰) observed in the formation. In some locations, the Wonoka Fm. is ~700 meters (m) of mixed shelf limestones and siliclastics that record the full 16 ‰ δ13C excursion in a remarkably consistent fashion across 100s of square kilometers of basin area. Fabric-altering diagenesis, where present, occurs at the sub-meter vertical scale, only results in sub-permil offsets in δ13C and cannot be used to explain the full δ13C excursion. In other places, the Wonoka Fm. is host to deep (1 km

  9. Using delta15N- and delta18O-values to identify nitrate sources in karst ground water, Guiyang, southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong-Qiang; Li, Si-Liang; Lang, Yun-Chao; Xiao, Hua-Yun

    2006-11-15

    Nitrate pollution of the karstic groundwater is an increasingly serious problem with the development of Guiyang, the capital city of Guizhou Province, southwest China. The higher content of NO3- in groundwater compared to surface water during both summer and winter seasons indicates that the karstic groundwater system cannot easily recover once contaminated with nitrate. In order to assess the sources and conversion of nitrate in the groundwater of Guiyang, we analyzed the major ions, delta(15)N-NH4+, delta(15)N-NO3-, and delta(18)O-NO3- in surface and groundwater samples collected during both summer and winter seasons. The results show that nitrate is the major dominant species of nitrogen in most water samples and there is a big variation of nitrate sources in groundwater between winter and summer season, due to fast response of groundwater to rain or surface water in the karst area. Combined with information on NO3- /Cl-, the variations of the isotope values of nitrate in the groundwater show a mixing process of multiple sources of nitrate, especially in the summer season. Chemical fertilizer and nitrification of nitrogen-containing organic materials contribute nitrate to suburban groundwater, while the sewage effluents and denitrification mainly control the nitrate distribution in urban groundwater.

  10. Spectroscopy of exotic states of 13C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demyanova A.S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The differential cross-sections of the elastic and inelastic 13C + α scattering were measured at E(α = 65 MeV. The radii of the states: 8.86 (1/2−, 3.09 (1/2+ and 9.90 (3/2− MeV were determined by the Modified diffraction model (MDM. The radii of the first two levels are enhanced relatively that of the ground state of 13C, confirming the suggestion that the 8.86 MeV state could be an analogue of the Hoyle state in 12C and the 3.09 MeV state has a neutron halo. No enhancement of the radius of the 9.90 MeV state was observed.

  11. Solid state {sup 13}C NMR analysis of Brazilian cretaceous ambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Ricardo; Azevedo, Debora A., E-mail: ricardopereira@iq.ufrj.b, E-mail: debora@iq.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IQ/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Geoquimica Organica Molecular e Ambiental; San Gil, Rosane A.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de RMN de Solidos; Carvalho, Ismar S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geologia; Fernandes, Antonio Carlos S. [Museu Nacional (MN/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia e Paleontologia

    2011-07-01

    {sup 13}C cross polarization with magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 13}C CPMAS NMR) spectra have been obtained for the first time to three Cretaceous amber samples from South America. The samples were dated to Lower Cretaceous and collected in sediments from the Amazonas, Araripe and Reconcavo basins, Brazil. All samples have very similar spectra, consistent with a common paleobotanical source. Some aspects of the spectra suggest a relationship between Brazilian ambers and Araucariaceae family, such as intense resonances at 38-39 ppm. All samples are constituted by polylabdane structure associated to Class Ib resins, constituted by polymers of labdanoid diterpenes. Finally, information concerning some structural changes during maturation, such as isomerization of {Delta}{sup 8(17)} and {Delta}{sup 12(13)} unsaturations, were obtained by {sup 13}C NMR analyses. The results concerning botanical affinities are in accordance with previous results obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). (author)

  12. PEDOGENIC CARBONATE δ13C AND ENVIRONMENTAL PRECIPITATION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Catoni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon isotopic analysis is a useful tool for investigating paleoenvironments, as the pedogenic carbonate δ13C is related to δ13CSOM and to the proportions of C3/C4 plants. In this work we interpreted the paleoenvironmental conditions at the time of carbonate precipitation in soils formed under different climates and during different geological ages. Samples were taken from a Bk (PR1, Holocene and from two Bkm horizons (PR2 and PR3, Pleistocene. When the mean δ13C plant values and the most plausible paleotemperatures were used in the evaluation, PR1 showed a lower percentage of C4 plants (48% than Pleistocene soils (~53%, in agreement with paleoclimate changes. When instead the δ13C values of current plants were used for PR1, C4 plants ranged from 59 (12°C to 66% (18°C, suggesting two possible interpretations: either plant species changed during the Holocene, or the plant mean values normally used in the literature are not suitable for Pleistocene reconstructions

  13. The effect of {sup 13}C enrichment in the glassing matrix on dynamic nuclear polarization of [1-{sup 13}C]pyruvate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumata, Lloyd; Kovacs, Zoltan; Malloy, Craig; Sherry, A Dean; Merritt, Matthew, E-mail: matthew.merritt@utsouthwestern.edu [Advanced Imaging Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 (United States)

    2011-03-07

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) can effectively form a glassy matrix necessary for dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments. We tested the effects of {sup 13}C enrichment in DMSO on DNP of [1-{sup 13}C]pyruvate doped with trityl radical OX063Me. We found that the polarization build-up time {tau} of pyruvate in {sup 13}C-labeled DMSO glassing solution is twice as fast as the unenriched DMSO while the nuclear magnetic resonance enhancement was unchanged. This indicates that {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C spin diffusion is a limiting factor in the kinetics of DNP in this system, but it has a minimal effect on the absolute value of polarization achievable for the target. (note)

  14. A global ocean climatology of preindustrial and modern ocean δ13C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Marie; Olsen, Are; Ninnemann, Ulysses S.; Johannessen, Truls

    2017-03-01

    We present a global ocean climatology of dissolved inorganic carbon δ13C (‰) corrected for the 13C-Suess effect, preindustrial δ13C. This was constructed by first using Olsen and Ninnemann's (2010) back-calculation method on data from 25 World Ocean Circulation Experiment cruises to reconstruct the preindustrial δ13C on sections spanning all major oceans. Next, we developed five multilinear regression equations, one for each major ocean basin, which were applied on the World Ocean Atlas data to construct the climatology. This reveals the natural δ13C distribution in the global ocean. Compared to the modern distribution, the preindustrial δ13C spans a larger range of values. The maxima, of up to 1.8‰, occurs in the subtropical gyres of all basins, in the upper and intermediate waters of the North Atlantic, as well as in mode waters with a Southern Ocean origin. Particularly strong gradients occur at intermediate depths, revealing a strong potential for using δ13C as a tracer for changes in water mass geometry at these levels. Further, we identify a much tighter relationship between δ13C and apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) than between δ13C and phosphate. This arises because, in contrast to phosphate, AOU and δ13C are both partly reset when waters are ventilated in the Southern Ocean and underscore that δ13C is a highly robust proxy for past changes in ocean oxygen content and ocean ventilation. Our global preindustrial δ13C climatology is openly accessible and can be used, for example, for improved model evaluation and interpretation of sediment δ13C records.

  15. Nauru Island Isotope (delta 18O, delta 13C) Data for 1891 to 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nauru coral stable isotope timeseries. (166E, 0.5S, 14m bottom depth). Coral stable isotope analyses on untreated, low-speed drilled samples. Precision is +/- 0.05...

  16. Tarawa Stable Isotope (delta 18O, delta 13C) and Mineralogy Data for 1959 to 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site: Tarawa Atoll, Republic of Kiribati (1 deg N, 172 deg E). Water depth: 2-4m. Coral species Hydnophora microconos. Time span: 1959-79 at monthly resolution....

  17. Malindi, Kenya Stable Isotope Data (delta 18O, delta 13C) for 1801-1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Malindi annual oxygen isotopic composition, 1801-1994. Notes on the data: File includes columns for Year AD, Coral d18O, and SST (degrees C). The SST data are sparse...

  18. Kiritimati Isotope (delta 13C, delta 18O, Sr/Ca) Data for 1938 to 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The following is excerpted from Evans et al., J.Geophys. Res., in review, 1998 (please see this paper for references made in this readme file): Proxy climate data...

  19. Aqaba Core 18, Jordan Isotope (delta 18O, delta 13C) Data for 1788 to 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site: Aqaba, Jordan, Marine Science Station Reef, cores C18 and C19 (29ó 26' N, 34ó 58' E) Water Depth 1m. collected 11/01/92 (upper 0-120cm), 11/01/93 (120-320cm)...

  20. Maiana Atoll Isotope (delta 18O, delta 13C) Data for 1840 to 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Maiana bimonthly oxygen isotopic composition, 1840-1995. Notes on the data: File includes columns for Year AD (bimonthly resolution = dec/jan, feb/mar) and coral...

  1. Aqaba Core 19, Jordan Isotope (delta 18O, delta 13C) Data for 1788 to 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site: Aqaba, Jordan, Marine Science Station Reef, cores C18 and C19 (29ó 26' N, 34ó 58' E) Water Depth 1m. collected 11/01/92 (upper 0-120cm), 11/01/93 (120-320cm)...

  2. A reconnaissance study of 13C-13C clumping in ethane from natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clog, Matthieu; Lawson, Michael; Peterson, Brian; Ferreira, Alexandre A.; Santos Neto, Eugenio V.; Eiler, John M.

    2018-02-01

    Ethane is the second most abundant alkane in most natural gas reservoirs. Its bulk isotopic compositions (δ13C and δD) are used to understand conditions and progress of cracking reactions that lead to the accumulation of hydrocarbons. Bulk isotopic compositions are dominated by the concentrations of singly-substituted isotopologues (13CH3-12CH3 for δ13C and 12CDH2-12CH3 for δD). However, multiply-substituted isotopologues can bring additional independent constraints on the origins of natural ethane. The 13C2H6 isotopologue is particularly interesting as it can potentially inform the distribution of 13C atoms in the parent biomolecules whose thermal cracking lead to the production of natural gas. This work presents methods to purify ethane from natural gas samples and quantify the abundance of the rare isotopologue 13C2H6 in ethane at natural abundances to a precision of ±0.12 ‰ using a high-resolution gas source mass spectrometer. To investigate the natural variability in carbon-carbon clumping, we measured twenty-five samples of thermogenic ethane from a range of geological settings, supported by two hydrous pyrolysis of shales experiments and a dry pyrolysis of ethane experiment. The natural gas samples exhibit a range of 'clumped isotope' signatures (Δ13C2H6) at least 30 times larger than our analytical precision, and significantly larger than expected for thermodynamic equilibration of the carbon-carbon bonds during or after formation of ethane, inheritance from the distribution of isotopes in organic molecules or different extents of cracking of the source. However we show a relationship between the Δ13C2H6 and the proportion of alkanes in natural gas samples, which we believe can be associated to the extent of secondary ethane cracking. This scenario is consistent with the results of laboratory experiments, where breaking down ethane leaves the residue with a low Δ13C2H6 compared to the initial gas. Carbon-carbon clumping is therefore a new

  3. Ecosystem Service Value for the Common Reed Wetlands in the Liaohe Delta, Northeast China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Siyuan; Laws, Edward A.; Costanza, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The largest reed field in the world, with an area of 1000 km2 in 1953, is located in the Liaohe Delta, which lies in the five-point-in-a-line economic strategic zone of northeastern China. However, the area of reeds has declined dramatically in recent years to accommodate oil field infrastructure...

  4. Cut-off optimization for (13)C-urea breath test in a community-based trial by mathematic, histology and serology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe-Xuan; Huang, Lei-Lei; Liu, Cong; Formichella, Luca; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Yu-Mei; Zhang, Lian; Ma, Jun-Ling; Liu, Wei-Dong; Ulm, Kurt; Wang, Jian-Xi; Zhang, Lei; Bajbouj, Monther; Li, Ming; Vieth, Michael; Quante, Michael; Zhou, Tong; Wang, Le-Hua; Suchanek, Stepan; Soutschek, Erwin; Schmid, Roland; Classen, Meinhard; You, Wei-Cheng; Gerhard, Markus; Pan, Kai-Feng

    2017-05-18

    The performance of diagnostic tests in intervention trials of Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) eradication is crucial, since even minor inaccuracies can have major impact. To determine the cut-off point for (13)C-urea breath test ((13)C-UBT) and to assess if it can be further optimized by serologic testing, mathematic modeling, histopathology and serologic validation were applied. A finite mixture model (FMM) was developed in 21,857 subjects, and an independent validation by modified Giemsa staining was conducted in 300 selected subjects. H.pylori status was determined using recomLine H.pylori assay in 2,113 subjects with a borderline (13)C-UBT results. The delta over baseline-value (DOB) of 3.8 was an optimal cut-off point by a FMM in modelling dataset, which was further validated as the most appropriate cut-off point by Giemsa staining (sensitivity = 94.53%, specificity = 92.93%). In the borderline population, 1,468 subjects were determined as H.pylori positive by recomLine (69.5%). A significant correlation between the number of positive H.pylori serum responses and DOB value was found (rs = 0.217, P mathematical approach such as FMM might be an alternative measure in optimizing the cut-off point for (13)C-UBT in community-based studies, and a second method to determine H.pylori status for subjects with borderline value of (13)C-UBT was necessary and recommended.

  5. Incorporation of Socio-Cultural Values in Damage Assessment Valuations of Contaminated Lands in the Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor A. Akujuru

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Damages on contaminated land have been mostly assessed for developments subsisting on the land, neglecting the goods and services derived from the land which possess only socio-cultural values. This paper aims to ascertain the importance of socio-cultural values in the total economic value of contaminated land, drawing from the experience of a coastal community oil spillage in the Niger Delta. The paper examines what constitutes a valuable interest on contaminated land and how socio-cultural factors are valued in the damage assessment process. After reviewing the literature and decided cases, a questionnaire survey was conducted and a sample valuation report was analysed. It is concluded that there exists a socio-cultural interest on contaminated land which professional valuers do not reflect in damage assessment claims. It is recommended that any comprehensive damage assessment requires the incorporation of socio-cultural values in the valuations.

  6. Breath test measurements in combination with indirect calorimetry for estimation of 13C-leucine oxidation in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla; Kanska, Katarzyna

    2000-01-01

    Gas exchange measurements by means of indirect calorimetry can be used to calculate quantitative substrate oxidation. The results represents average net oxidation values (substrate disappearance rate), but they cannot describe the dynamics of the oxidation processes. Breath test measurements...... to feeding and fasting. Twelve 1-year-old male mink (Mustela vison) were measured in each five consecutive periods by means of indirect calorimetry and simultaneous breath test. In Periods 1, 3 and 5, each lasting 3 days, the animals were fed ad libitum and Periods 2 and 4 were fasting periods, each of 48 h...... before measurements started and expired air was then sucked out of the respiration chamber and collected into breath bags at frequent intervals until 5.5 h after the start of measurements. The ratio of 13C/12C was measured by means of an IRIS infrared analyser and results are reported in terms of delta...

  7. Controls on dissolved inorganic carbon and δ 13C in cave waters from DeSoto Caverns: Implications for speleothem δ 13C assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, W. Joe; Aharon, Paul

    2011-02-01

    Unraveling the factors controlling the carbon chemistry and transport of carbon within extant karst systems has important implications concerning the assessment of time-series δ 13C records of speleothems. Here we report the results of a 3-year study of total dissolved inorganic carbon [DIC] and δ 13C DIC from cave waters at DeSoto Caverns (Southeastern USA) that offer valuable insight on carbon transport and the accompanied isotope fractionations from end-member sources to speleothems. [DIC] and δ 13C DIC values of cave waters range from 0.2 to 6.0 mM and 2.7 to -12.9 (‰ VPDB), respectively. [DIC] and δ 13C DIC of "seasonal drips" show seasonal, albeit noisy, variability and are inversely related (δ 13C DIC = -2.49[DIC] + 0.64, r2 = 0.84). A shallow pool fed by multiple drips shows a bimodal δ 13C DIC distribution with an isotopically heavier mode during winter (-4‰ to -5‰ VPDB) relative to summer months (-9‰ to -10‰ VPDB). A multi-year trend of decreasing water availability during the study period is not reflected in a response of cave water carbon chemistry suggesting that rainfall amount may not be a significant controlling factor of the carbon chemistry. Coupled cave air winter ventilation/summer stagnation and varying CO 2 fluxes through the soil horizon and epikarst exert the strongest influence on seasonal [DIC] and δ 13C DIC variability. Measured values of high [DIC] and low δ 13C DIC from cave waters collected during the summer/early fall closely approximate isotopic equilibrium conditions. Conversely, low [DIC] and high δ 13C DIC values during winter/early months indicate kinetically enhanced isotopic fractionations within the cave waters. The kinetically enhanced isotopic fractionation of HCO3- partitioned between degassed CO 2 and precipitated CaCO 3(1000lnα-HCO)+(CaCO(AR)-HCO)]/2) is greater by about a factor of two (-6.7 ± 0.3‰) relative to the same isotopic fractionation under equilibrium conditions (-3.1‰). On the basis of

  8. Natural (13) C distribution in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and consequences for allocation pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamade, Emmanuelle; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Darlan, Nuzul Hijri; Rodrigues, Rosario Lobato; Fresneau, Chantal; Mauve, Caroline; Lamothe-Sibold, Marlène; Sketriené, Diana; Ghashghaie, Jaleh

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm has now become one of the most important crops, palm oil representing nearly 25% of global plant oil consumption. Many studies have thus addressed oil palm ecophysiology and photosynthesis-based models of carbon allocation have been used. However, there is a lack of experimental data on carbon fixation and redistribution within palm trees, and important C-sinks have not been fully characterized yet. Here, we carried out extensive measurement of natural (13) C-abundance (δ(13) C) in oil palm tissues, including fruits at different maturation stages. We find a (13) C-enrichment in heterotrophic organs compared to mature leaves, with roots being the most (13) C-enriched. The δ(13) C in fruits decreased during maturation, reflecting the accumulation in (13) C-depleted lipids. We further used observed δ(13) C values to compute plausible carbon fluxes using a steady-state model of (13) C-distribution including metabolic isotope effects ((12) v/(13) v). The results suggest that fruits represent a major respiratory loss (≈39% of total tree respiration) and that sink organs such as fruits are fed by sucrose from leaves. That is, glucose appears to be a quantitatively important compound in palm tissues, but computations indicate that it is involved in dynamic starch metabolism rather that C-exchange between organs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Synthesis of (5,6-/sup 13/C/sub 2/, 1-/sup 14/C)olivetolic acid, methyl (1'-/sup 13/C)olivetolate and (5,6-/sup 13/C/sub 2/, 1-/sup 14/C)cannabigerolic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porwoll, J.P.; Leete, E. (Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis (USA). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1985-03-01

    Potential advanced intermediates in the biosynthesis of delta/sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol, the major psychoactive principle of marijuana, have been synthesized labeled with two contiguous /sup 13/C atoms and /sup 14/C. Methyl (5,6-/sup 13/C/sub 2/, 1-/sup 14/C)olivetolate was prepared from lithium (/sup 13/C/sub 2/)acetylide and dimethyl (2-/sup 14/C)malonate. Reaction with geranyl bromide afforded methyl (5,6-/sup 13/C/sub 2/, 1-/sup 14/C)cannabigerolate, and hydrolysis of these methyl esters with lithium propyl mercaptide yielded the corresponding labeled acids. The /sup 13/C-/sup 13/C couplings observable in the /sup 13/C NMR spectra of these /sup 13/C-enriched compounds and their synthetic precursors are recorded. Methyl (1'-/sup 14/C)olivetolate was prepared from /sup 13/CO/sub 2/ to confirm assignments of the /sup 13/C chemical shifts in the pentyl side chain of these compounds.

  10. Dynamic polarization of {sup 13}C nuclei in solid {sup 13}C labeled pyruvic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, W., E-mail: meyer@ep1.rub.d [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Experimentalphysik I, Universitaetsstr. 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Heckmann, J.; Hess, C.; Radtke, E.; Reicherz, G.; Triebwasser, L. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Experimentalphysik I, Universitaetsstr. 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Wang, L. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Experimentalphysik I, Universitaetsstr. 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Physics Department, School of Science, Donghua University, 200051 Shanghai (China)

    2011-03-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) has proved to be one of the most effective methods to increase the nuclear spin polarization in inorganic as well as organic materials since several decades. In combination with methods to rapidly dissolve the polarized solid sample it is possible to obtain a solution of molecules containing hyperpolarized nuclei. This has enabled new applications in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy as well as medical applications in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). We studied the dynamic nuclear {sup 13}C polarization in solid [1-{sup 13}C] pyruvic acid doped with the trityl radical AH 111 501 at different temperatures and magnetic fields. The measurements were performed in a {sup 4}He evaporation refrigerator operated inside a superconducting solenoid system. Working points at temperatures between 900 and 1350 mK have been adjusted and the polarization measurements have been performed at magnetic fields of 2.5, 3.5 and 5 T, respectively. This set of measurements allows to draw a clear picture of the temperature and magnetic field dependency of the {sup 13}C polarization within the given range. The highest polarization measured was 74.7% at a temperature of 900 mK in a magnetic field of 5 T.

  11. Galactose oxidation using 13C in healthy and galactosemic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R. Resende-Campanholi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactosemia is an inborn error of galactose metabolism that occurs mainly as the outcome of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT deficiency. The ability to assess galactose oxidation following administration of a galactose-labeled isotope (1-13C-galactose allows the determination of galactose metabolism in a practical manner. We aimed to assess the level of galactose oxidation in both healthy and galactosemic Brazilian children. Twenty-one healthy children and seven children with galactosemia ranging from 1 to 7 years of age were studied. A breath test was used to quantitate 13CO2 enrichment in exhaled air before and at 30, 60, and 120 min after the oral administration of 7 mg/kg of an aqueous solution of 1-13C-galactose to all children. The molar ratios of 13CO2 and 12CO2 were quantified by the mass/charge ratio (m/z of stable isotopes in each air sample by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. In sick children, the cumulative percentage of 13C from labeled galactose (CUMPCD in the exhaled air ranged from 0.03% at 30 min to 1.67% at 120 min. In contrast, healthy subjects showed a much broader range in CUMPCD, with values from 0.4% at 30 min to 5.58% at 120 min. The study found a significant difference in galactose oxidation between children with and without galactosemia, demonstrating that the breath test is useful in discriminating children with GALT deficiencies.

  12. Galactose oxidation using 13C in healthy and galactosemic children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende-Campanholi, D.R.; Porta, G.; Ferrioli, E.; Pfrimer, K.; Ciampo, L.A. Del; Junior, J.S. Camelo

    2015-01-01

    Galactosemia is an inborn error of galactose metabolism that occurs mainly as the outcome of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) deficiency. The ability to assess galactose oxidation following administration of a galactose-labeled isotope (1-13C-galactose) allows the determination of galactose metabolism in a practical manner. We aimed to assess the level of galactose oxidation in both healthy and galactosemic Brazilian children. Twenty-one healthy children and seven children with galactosemia ranging from 1 to 7 years of age were studied. A breath test was used to quantitate 13CO2 enrichment in exhaled air before and at 30, 60, and 120 min after the oral administration of 7 mg/kg of an aqueous solution of 1-13C-galactose to all children. The molar ratios of 13CO2 and 12CO2 were quantified by the mass/charge ratio (m/z) of stable isotopes in each air sample by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. In sick children, the cumulative percentage of 13C from labeled galactose (CUMPCD) in the exhaled air ranged from 0.03% at 30 min to 1.67% at 120 min. In contrast, healthy subjects showed a much broader range in CUMPCD, with values from 0.4% at 30 min to 5.58% at 120 min. The study found a significant difference in galactose oxidation between children with and without galactosemia, demonstrating that the breath test is useful in discriminating children with GALT deficiencies. PMID:25608239

  13. Comparison and Evaluation of Annual NDVI Time Series in China Derived from the NOAA AVHRR LTDR and Terra MODIS MOD13C1 Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Hongyan; Wu, Zhengfang; Zhao, Jianjun; Zhang, Zhengxiang

    2017-06-06

    Time series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from multiple satellite sensors are crucial data to study vegetation dynamics. The Land Long Term Data Record Version 4 (LTDR V4) NDVI dataset was recently released at a 0.05 × 0.05° spatial resolution and daily temporal resolution. In this study, annual NDVI time series that are composited by the LTDR V4 and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NDVI datasets (MOD13C1) are compared and evaluated for the period from 2001 to 2014 in China. The spatial patterns of the NDVI generally match between the LTDR V4 and MOD13C1 datasets. The transitional zone between high and low NDVI values generally matches the boundary of semi-arid and sub-humid regions. A significant and high coefficient of determination is found between the two datasets according to a pixel-based correlation analysis. The spatially averaged NDVI of LTDR V4 is characterized by a much weaker positive regression slope relative to that of the spatially averaged NDVI of the MOD13C1 dataset because of changes in NOAA AVHRR sensors between 2005 and 2006. The measured NDVI values of LTDR V4 were always higher than that of MOD13C1 in western China due to the relatively lower atmospheric water vapor content in western China, and opposite observation appeared in eastern China. In total, 18.54% of the LTDR V4 NDVI pixels exhibit significant trends, whereas 35.79% of the MOD13C1 NDVI pixels show significant trends. Good agreement is observed between the significant trends of the two datasets in the Northeast Plain, Bohai Economic Rim, Loess Plateau, and Yangtze River Delta. By contrast, the datasets contrasted in northwestern desert regions and southern China. A trend analysis of the regression slope values according to the vegetation type shows good agreement between the LTDR V4 and MOD13C1 datasets. This study demonstrates the spatial and temporal consistencies and discrepancies between the AVHRR LTDR and MODIS MOD13C1 NDVI

  14. Factors influencing stable isotope ratios in CH4 and CO2 within subenvironments of freshwater wetlands: implications for delta-signatures of emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornibrook, E R; Longstaffe, F J; Fyfe, W S

    2000-01-01

    Much uncertainty still exists regarding spatial and temporal variability of stable isotope ratios (13C/12C and D/H) in different CH4-emission sources. Such variability is especially prevalent in freshwater wetlands where a range of processes can influence stable isotope compositions, resulting in variations of up to approximately 50% for delta13C-CH4 and approximately 50% for deltaD-CH4 values. Within a temperate-zone bog and marsh situated in southwestern Ontario, Canada, gas bubbles in pond sediments exhibit only minor seasonal and spatial variation in delta13C-CH4, deltaD-CH4 and delta13C-CO2 values. In pond sediments, CO2 appears to be the main source of carbon during methanogenesis either directly via CO2 reduction or indirectly through dissimilation of autotrophic acetate. In contrast, CH4 production occurs primarily via acetate fermentation at shallow depths in peat soils adjacent to ponds at each wetland. At greater depths within soils, sigmaCO2 and H2O increasingly exert an influence on delta13C- and deltaD-CH4 values. Secondary alteration processes (e.g., methanotrophy or diffusive transport) are unlikely to be responsible for depth-related changes in stable isotope values of CH4. Recent models that attempt to predict deltaD-CH4 values in freshwater environments from D/H ratios in local precipitation do not adequately account for such changes with depth. Subenvironments (i.e., soil-forming and open water areas) in wetlands should be considered separately with respect to stable isotope signatures in CH4 emission models.

  15. /sup 13/C NMR studies of bacterial dihydrofolate reductase containing (methyl-/sup 13/C)methionine and (guanido-/sup 13/C)arginine. [Streptococcus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matwiyoff, N.A.; London, R.E.; Walker, T.E.; Blakley, R.L.; Cocco, L.

    1978-01-01

    (Methyl-/sup 13/C)methionine and (guanido-/sup 13/C)arginine have been incorporated with high efficiency by Streptococcus faecium var. Durans strain A into dihydrofolate reductase isoenzyme 2 and /sup 13/C NMR spectra have been obtained for the labeled enzymes and their complexes with substrates, co-factors, and inhibitors. The /sup 13/C NMR spectra exhibit a high degree of discrimination--up to six guanido-/sup 13/C resonances spanning a 1.2 ppM range have been resolved for the eight arginine residues and, under certain conditions, seven methyl-/sup 13/C resonances spanning a 3 ppM chemical shift range have been resolved for the seven methionine residues of the enzyme. The /sup 13/C chemical shifts and spin lattice relaxation times of these distinct, relatively narrow resonances can be interpreted in terms of the conformational states of the enzyme and the interactions of the /sup 13/C-labeled residues with bound ligands. In a larger context, the results reported here provide experimental data which bear on a central question in the use of /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy to probe the structure of labeled macromolecules, vis.: Where should the /sup 13/C label be incorporated to ensure a relatively narrow resonance whose chemical shift is nonetheless sensitive to perturbations of the macromolecule. Contrary to one accepted view, this study demonstrates that a significant degree of internal motion for a class of amino acid residues is not necessarily incompatible with a large chemical shift dispersion within the class.

  16. Teste respiratório da 13C-metacetina na doença hepática crônica pelo vírus C 13C-methacetin breath test in hepatitis C chronic liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Oliveira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O teste respiratório da metacetina marcada com carbono 13 (13C-metacetina é método não-invasivo que permite examinar a função hepática microssomal, permitindo avaliação quantitativa da massa hepática funcional. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a utilidade clinica do teste respiratório da 13C-metacetina na avaliação de pacientes com doença crônica do fígado pelo vírus da hepatite C. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Setenta e oito pacientes com hepatite crônica C e 13 indivíduos saudáveis pareados por sexo e idade foram estudados. Pacientes infectados cronicamente pelo vírus C foram classificados como portadores de hepatite crônica (n = 51 ou cirrose hepática (n = 27, sendo 7 deles classificados como descompensados pela presença de ascite, icterícia e/ou encefalopatia. Pacientes co-infectados HbsAg/HIV, em uso crônico de álcool, com outras doenças crônicas ou em uso de medicamentos que pudessem interferir com a atividade do citocromo P450, foram excluídos. O estádio e a atividade da doença nos fragmentos de biopsia foram determinados de acordo com os critérios da Sociedade Brasileira de Hepatologia. O teste respiratório da 13C-metacetina foi realizado com 75 mg de 13C-metacetina e a concentração de 13CO2 no ar expirado foi medido através de espectrometria infravermelha não dispersiva. Foram calculados o "delta over baseline" e o percentual de recuperação cumulativo do 13CO2 aos 40 (teste respiratório da 13C-metacetina 40 min e aos 120 minutos (teste respiratório da 13C-metacetina 120 min. RESULTADOS: Os parâmetros do teste respiratório da 13C-metacetina se correlacionaram com avaliação estrutural histológica, mas não com a atividade necroinflamatória no tecido hepático, sendo que a melhor correlação foi obtida entre o grau de estádio e o teste respiratório da 13C-metacetina 120 min. Os valores médios do teste respiratório da 13C-metacetina 120 min foram significantemente mais reduzidos nos grupos cirr

  17. Biokinetics of13C in the human body after oral administration of13C-labeled glucose as an index for the biokinetics of14C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Tsuyoshi; Tako, Yasuhiro; Matsushita, Kensaku; Takeda, Hiroshi; Endo, Masahiro; Nakamura, Yuji; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2016-09-01

    The retention of 13 C in the human body after oral administration of 13 C-labeled glucose was studied in three healthy volunteer subjects to estimate the 50 year cumulative body burden for 13 C as an index of the committed dose of the radioisotope 14 C. After administration of 13 C-labeled glucose, the volunteers ingested controlled diets with a fixed number of calories for 112 d. Samples of breath and urine were collected up to 112 d after administration. Samples of feces were collected up to 14 d after administration. Hair samples were obtained at 119 d after administration and analyzed as a representative index of the rate of excretion of organic 13 C via pathways such as skin cell exfoliation and mucus secretion. All samples were analyzed for 13 C/ 12 C atomic ratio to determine the rate of excretion via each pathway. We then constructed a metabolic model with a total of four pathways (breath, urine, feces, and other) comprising seven compartments. We determined the values of the biokinetic parameters in the model by using the obtained excretion data. From 74% to 94% of the 13 C administered was excreted in breath, whereas    0.1). In addition, the dataset for one of the three subjects was markedly different from those of the other two. When we estimated the 50 year cumulative body burden for 13 C by using our model and we included non-statistically significant parameters, a considerable cumulative body burden was found in the compartments excreting to the other pathway. Although our results on the cumulative body burden of 13 C from orally administered carbon as glucose were inconclusive, we found that the compartments excreting to the other pathway had a markedly long residence time and therefore should be studied further to clarify the fate of carbon in the human body. In addition to excreta, data for serum and blood cell samples were also collected from the subjects to examine the metabolism of 13 C in human body.

  18. Variability of 13C-labeling in plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Tu, Thanh Thuy; Biron, Philippe; Maseyk, Kadmiel; Richard, Patricia; Zeller, Bernd; Quénéa, Katell; Alexis, Marie; Bardoux, Gérard; Vaury, Véronique; Girardin, Cyril; Pouteau, Valérie; Billiou, Daniel; Bariac, Thierry

    2013-09-15

    Plant tissues artificially labeled with (13)C are increasingly used in environmental studies to unravel biogeochemical and ecophysiological processes. However, the variability of (13)C-content in labeled tissues has never been carefully investigated. Hence, this study aimed at documenting the variability of (13)C-content in artificially labeled leaves. European beech and Italian ryegrass were subjected to long-term (13)C-labeling in a controlled-environment growth chamber. The (13)C-content of the leaves obtained after several months labeling was determined by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The (13)C-content of the labeled leaves exhibited inter- and intra-leaf variability much higher than those naturally occurring in unlabeled plants, which do not exceed a few per mil. This variability was correlated with labeling intensity: the isotope composition of leaves varied in ranges of ca 60‰ and 90‰ for experiments that led to average leaf (13)C-content of ca +15‰ and +450‰, respectively. The reported variability of isotope composition in (13)C-enriched leaves is critical, and should be taken into account in subsequent experimental investigations of environmental processes using (13)C-labeled plant tissues. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Late Quaternary Biomass Changes from 13C Measurements in a Highland Peatbog from Equatorial Africa (Burundi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucour, Anne-Marie; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Bonnefille, Raymonde

    1994-03-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios of total organic matter were measured in two cores collected from the Kashiru peatbog in Burundi, Equatorial Africa. The record, which spans at least the last 40,000 yr, documents the C 3-C 4 biomass balance in the organic sediment. Among the major modern peat formers, most plants are C 3 species and are characterized by δ 13C values of -25.5 ± 2.3% (vs PDB). The C 4 plants, which are characterized by higher δ 13C values (-11.3 ± 0.7%) belong to the Gramineae ( Miscanthidium sp.) and Cyperaceae families ( Cyperus latifolius, C. papyrus, Pycreus nigricans). In the fossil record, δ 13C values of total organic matter vary between -28 and -15% in response to the relative fluxes of C 3 and C 4 plants. Before 30,000 yr B.P., low δ 13C values (-23.5 ± 1.1%) match high arboreal pollen contents. From 30,000 to 15,000 yr B.P., higher δ 13C values (-17.6 ± 1.1%) correspond to a significant increase in percentages of grass pollen. During this episode, a short and sharp shift toward lighter carbon isotopic compositions at 21,000 yr B.P. is synchronous with higher input of arboreal pollen. From 15,000 to 12,000 yr B.P., the 13C content decreases (δ 13C = -22.9 ± 1.4%). This shift, which cannot be explained by an increase in the arboreal vegetation, could be explained by the spreading of C 3 Gramineae or C 3 Cyperaceae. The interval from 12,000 to 7000 yr B.P. is poorly documented in these cores due to much lower organic matter accumulation. Low δ 13C values13C = -25.2 ± 1.3%) are observed from 7000 to 5000 yr B.P., when the pollen data show development of C 3 mountain forest. The Late Holocene is characterized by a mixed C 3-C 4 organic matter accumulation (δ 13C = -20.9 ± 1.6%). This study depicts a change in the dominant photosynthetic pathway among the herbaceous components, notably at the glacial-interglacial transition, when C 3 plants were favored by increased water supply and/or higher atmospheric CO 2 concentration.

  20. (13)C-Breath testing in animals: theory, applications, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Marshall D; Welch, Kenneth C

    2016-04-01

    The carbon isotope values in the exhaled breath of an animal mirror the carbon isotope values of the metabolic fuels being oxidized. The measurement of stable carbon isotopes in carbon dioxide is called (13)C-breath testing and offers a minimally invasive method to study substrate oxidation in vivo. (13)C-breath testing has been broadly used to study human exercise, nutrition, and pathologies since the 1970s. Owing to reduced use of radioactive isotopes and the increased convenience and affordability of (13)C-analyzers, the past decade has witnessed a sharp increase in the use of breath testing throughout comparative physiology--especially to answer questions about how and when animals oxidize particular nutrients. Here, we review the practical aspects of (13)C-breath testing and identify the strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches including the use of natural abundance versus artificially-enriched (13)C tracers. We critically compare the information that can be obtained using different experimental protocols such as diet-switching versus fuel-switching. We also discuss several factors that should be considered when designing breath testing experiments including extrinsic versus intrinsic (13)C-labelling and different approaches to model nutrient oxidation. We use case studies to highlight the myriad applications of (13)C-breath testing in basic and clinical human studies as well as comparative studies of fuel use, energetics, and carbon turnover in multiple vertebrate and invertebrate groups. Lastly, we call for increased and rigorous use of (13)C-breath testing to explore a variety of new research areas and potentially answer long standing questions related to thermobiology, locomotion, and nutrition.

  1. 13C Urea Breath Testing to Diagnose Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette Deslandres

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The causal relationship between Helicobacter pylori colonization of the gastric mucosa and gastritis has been proven. Endoscopy and subsequent histological examination of antral biopsies have been regarded as the gold standard for diagnosing H pylori gastritis. The 13C urea breath test is a noninvasive test with a high specificity and sensitivity for H pylori colonization. Increasingly, it is becoming an important tool for use in diagnosing H pylori infection in paediatric populations. This test is particularly well suited for epidemiological studies evaluating reinfection rates, spontaneous clearance of infection and eradication rates after therapy. However, few groups have validated the test in the pediatric age group. The testing protocol has not yet been standardized. Variables include fasting state, dose of urea labelled with 13C, delta cutoff level of 13C carbon dioxide, choice of test meal and timing of collection of expired breath samples. Further studies are urgently needed to evaluate critically the impact of H pylori infection in children. The 13C urea breath test should prove very useful in such prospective studies.

  2. Tooth Enamel δ13C and δ18O Variations in Modern and Archaeological Horses From Northern Kazakhstan as Indicators of Regional Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, M. T.; Rosenmeier, M. F.; Stacy, E. M.; Olsen, S. L.

    2007-12-01

    In this study, the oxygen and carbon isotope values of tooth enamel were measured in forty-one modern and twenty-three Copper Age (3600 - 3100 B.C.) horse specimens from the grassland steppe region of northern Kazakhstan. Modern tooth enamel δ13C and δ18O values were compared with the carbon isotopic compositions of local vegetation and the δ18O values of meteoric waters. Tooth enamel isotope values within the Copper Age specimens (attributed to the so-called Botai culture) were, in turn, compared with modern samples. Average carbon isotopic values within modern bulk tooth enamel samples ranged between -13.7 and -12.0‰ (VPDB). This suggests that the diet of modern northern Kazakhstani horses is comprised almost entirely of C3 plants (considering enamel-diet fractionation factors) consistent with documented grassland compositions within the region. The observed amplitude of δ13C variations within individual teeth (typically less than ~2‰) suggests only minimal seasonal variation in the δ13C of grasses attributed to heat and water stress. Alternatively, the minimal seasonal changes observed within intra-tooth δ13C values may be the direct result of fodder provisioning. Ingested water δ18O values derived from oxygen isotope ratios within bulk tooth enamel samples appear statistically indistinguishable from estimates of regional precipitation, suggesting that Kazakhstani horse tooth enamel δ18O measurements may be used as a direct estimate of the oxygen isotopic composition of meteoric waters. Intra-tooth oxygen isotopic variations therefore reflect the pronounced seasonal variability in precipitation δ18O values tied to temperature changes and amount effects observed annually within Kazakhstan. However, these intra-tooth isotopic variations exhibit slightly reduced amplitudes relative to meteoric water values, suggesting that horses likely consume water from buffered sources such as lakes and wells. Average bulk tooth enamel δ13C values within

  3. NMR structure analysis of uniformly 13C-labeled carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Carolina; Kovacs, Helena; Widmalm, Göran

    2014-06-01

    In this study, a set of nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, some of them commonly used in the study of (13)C-labeled proteins and/or nucleic acids, is applied for the structure determination of uniformly (13)C-enriched carbohydrates. Two model substances were employed: one compound of low molecular weight [(UL-(13)C)-sucrose, 342 Da] and one compound of medium molecular weight ((13)C-enriched O-antigenic polysaccharide isolated from Escherichia coli O142, ~10 kDa). The first step in this approach involves the assignment of the carbon resonances in each monosaccharide spin system using the anomeric carbon signal as the starting point. The (13)C resonances are traced using (13)C-(13)C correlations from homonuclear experiments, such as (H)CC-CT-COSY, (H)CC-NOESY, CC-CT-TOCSY and/or virtually decoupled (H)CC-TOCSY. Based on the assignment of the (13)C resonances, the (1)H chemical shifts are derived in a straightforward manner using one-bond (1)H-(13)C correlations from heteronuclear experiments (HC-CT-HSQC). In order to avoid the (1) J CC splitting of the (13)C resonances and to improve the resolution, either constant-time (CT) in the indirect dimension or virtual decoupling in the direct dimension were used. The monosaccharide sequence and linkage positions in oligosaccharides were determined using either (13)C or (1)H detected experiments, namely CC-CT-COSY, band-selective (H)CC-TOCSY, HC-CT-HSQC-NOESY or long-range HC-CT-HSQC. However, due to the short T2 relaxation time associated with larger polysaccharides, the sequential information in the O-antigen polysaccharide from E. coli O142 could only be elucidated using the (1)H-detected experiments. Exchanging protons of hydroxyl groups and N-acetyl amides in the (13)C-enriched polysaccharide were assigned by using HC-H2BC spectra. The assignment of the N-acetyl groups with (15)N at natural abundance was completed by using HN-SOFAST-HMQC, HNCA, HNCO and (13)C-detected (H)CACO spectra.

  4. Assessing the use of delta C-13 natural abundance in separation of root and microbial respiration in a Danish beech (¤Fagus Sylvatica¤ L.) forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Formanek, P.; Ambus, P.

    2004-01-01

    Our understanding of forest biosphere-atmosphere interactions is fundamental for predicting forest ecosystem responses to climatic changes. Currently, however, our knowledge is incomplete partly due to inability to separate the major components of soil CO2 effluxes, viz. root respiration, microbial...... decomposition of soil organic matter and microbial decomposition of litter material. In this study we examined whether the delta(13)C characteristics of solid organic matter and respired CO2 from different soil-C components and root respiration in a Danish beech forest were useful to provide information...... layers (delta(13)C range -23.6 to -23.4parts per thousand). The CO2 evolved from root respiration in isolated young beech plants revealed a value intermediate between those for the soil humus and mineral horizons, delta(13)C(root) = -22.2parts per thousand, but was associated with great variability (SE...

  5. Anthropogenic nitrogen input traced by means of {delta} {sup 15}N values in macroalgae: Results from in-situ incubation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, Barbara [Baltic Sea Research Institute, Seestr. 15, 18119 Rostock (Germany)]. E-mail: barbara.deutsch@io-warnemuende.de; Voss, Maren [Baltic Sea Research Institute, Seestr. 15, 18119 Rostock (Germany)

    2006-08-01

    The macroalgae species Fucus vesiculosus (Phaeophyta), Polysiphonia sp., and Ceramium rubrum (Rhodophyta) originally grown at an unpolluted brackish site of the southern Baltic Sea were incubated for 10 and 14 days at 12 stations along a salinity gradient in a highly polluted estuary. We have expected an adaptation of the initially low {delta} {sup 15}N values to the higher ones within the incubation period. In addition to the macroalgae the {delta} {sup 15}N values of NO{sub 3} {sup -} were measured to evaluate fractionation processes of the source nitrate. Inside the estuary, {delta} {sup 15}N-NO{sub 3} {sup -} values were 6.2-9.7 per mille , indicating anthropogenic nitrogen sources. The red macroalgae adequately reflected the nitrate isotope values in the surrounding waters, whereas for F. vesiculosus the results were not that clear. The reasons were assumed to be higher initial {delta} {sup 15}N values of F. vesiculosus and presumably a too slow nitrogen uptake and growth rate. The method of macroalgae incubations seems suitable as a simple monitoring to study the influence of anthropogenic nitrogen loading in an estuarine environment.

  6. Effect of light and brine shrimp on skeletal δ 13C in the Hawaiian coral Porites compressa: a tank experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grottoli, Andréa G.

    2002-06-01

    Previous experimental fieldwork showed that coral skeletal δ13C values decreased when solar intensity was reduced, and increased in the absence of zooplankton. However, actual seasonal changes in solar irradiance levels are typically less pronounced than those used in the previous experiment and the effect of increases in the consumption of zooplankton in the coral diet on skeletal δ13C remains relatively unknown. In the present study, the effects of four different light and heterotrophy regimes on coral skeletal δ13C values were measured. Porites compressa corals were grown in outdoor flow-through tanks under 112%, 100%, 75%, and 50% light conditions at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, Hawaii. In addition, corals were fed either zero, low, medium, or high concentrations of brine shrimp. Decreases in light from 100% resulted in significant decreases in δ13C that is most likely due to a corresponding decrease in photosynthesis. Increases in light to 112% also resulted in a decrease in δ13C values. This latter response may be a consequence of photoinhibition. The overall curved response in δ13C values was described by a significant quadratic function. Increases in brine shrimp concentrations resulted in increased skeletal δ13C levels. This unexpected outcome appears to be attributable to enhanced nitrogen supply associated with the brine shrimp diet which led to increased zooxanthellae concentrations, increased photosynthesis rates, and thus increased δ13C values. This result highlights the potential influence of nutrients from heterotrophically acquired carbon in maintaining the zooxanthellae-host symbiosis in balance. In addition, evidence is presented that suggests that coral skeletal growth and δ13C are decoupled. These results increase our knowledge of how light and heterotrophy affects the δ13C of coral skeletons.

  7. (13)C discrimination between diet, faeces, milk and milk components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stephan; Auerswald, Karl; Bellof, Gerhard; Schnyder, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis is a fundamental tool in food origin and authenticity testing. Its use in livestock production requires knowledge of isotope discrimination between product and diet. Here, we report (13)C discrimination ((13)Δ) for milk, milk components (fat, casein and lactose) and faeces in eight lactating dairy cows, which grazed pasture or were fed fresh pasture herbage in the stall. Cows were supplemented with grain maize at 1.72 kg d(-1) (dry matter). Feed components were collected daily, and faeces, milk fat, casein, lactose and whole milk 4 times per week during an 8-week-long sampling period. Carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) of each sample was analysed. δ(13)C was lowest in milk fat (-29.8‰) and highest in casein (-26.4‰). Compared to the diet, whole milk was depleted in (13)C ((13)Δ = 0.4‰) due to a strong (13)C-depletion of fat ((13)Δ = 2.2‰), which was not fully compensated by the (13)C-enrichment of casein ((13)Δ = -1.1‰) and lactose ((13)Δ = -0.7‰). Faeces were also depleted in (13)C ((13)Δ =1.7‰). Influences of feeding environment (stall vs. pasture) and herbage quality were minor (products. Also, the study covered both stall- and pasture-feeding scenarios in realistic settings with long periods of equilibration. This is the first comprehensive analysis of (13)C discrimination between diet and all main milk components (as well as faeces). Thus, the results will improve the use of stable isotope analyses in regard to authenticity testing and proof of origin.

  8. Preparation of a 1 mg/cm{sup 2} {sup 13}C target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, John P. E-mail: greene@anl.gov; Thomas, George E.; Garcia, Alejandro; Komives, Alexander; Stoner, John O

    1999-12-01

    We give a description for the production of {sup 13}C foils and the preparation of an approximately 1-mg/cm{sup 2} thick target. A recent experiment to measure the mass of {sup 36}Ca, via the {sup 40}Ca({sup 4}He,{sup 8}He){sup 36}Ca reaction, required precise determination of the accelerated beam energy and calibration of the focal plane of a magnetic spectrometer to achieve the most accurate value for the {sup 36}Ca mass. A 1 mg/cm{sup 2} {sup 13}C target was essential for these purposes. Target preparation and performance along with some preliminary results will be discussed.

  9. Can δ15N and δ13C stable isotopes and fatty acid signatures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temporal changes in fatty acid composition and δ15N, δ13C stable isotope values of the phytobenthos growing on artificial clay substrates under natural conditions over a 28-day period at an upstream and a downstream site in the Kowie River near Grahamstown were investigated in 2012. High concentrations of diatom ...

  10. Last Glacial Maximum CO2 and δ13C successfully reconciled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouttes, N.; Paillard, D.; Roche, D. M.; Brovkin, V.; Bopp, L.

    2011-01-01

    During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ˜21,000 years ago) the cold climate was strongly tied to low atmospheric CO2 concentration (˜190 ppm). Although it is generally assumed that this low CO2 was due to an expansion of the oceanic carbon reservoir, simulating the glacial level has remained a challenge especially with the additional δ13C constraint. Indeed the LGM carbon cycle was also characterized by a modern-like δ13C in the atmosphere and a higher surface to deep Atlantic δ13C gradient indicating probable changes in the thermohaline circulation. Here we show with a model of intermediate complexity, that adding three oceanic mechanisms: brine induced stratification, stratification-dependant diffusion and iron fertilization to the standard glacial simulation (which includes sea level drop, temperature change, carbonate compensation and terrestrial carbon release) decreases CO2 down to the glacial value of ˜190 ppm and simultaneously matches glacial atmospheric and oceanic δ13C inferred from proxy data. LGM CO2 and δ13C can at last be successfully reconciled.

  11. Late Pleistocene to Holocene composite speleothem 18O and 13C chronologies from South Island, New Zealand—did a global Younger Dryas really exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P. W.; King, D. N. T.; Zhao, J.-X.; Collerson, K. D.

    2005-02-01

    Oxygen and carbon data from eight stalagmites from northwest South Island are combined to produce composite records of δ18O and δ13C from 23.4 ka to the present. The chronology is anchored by 43 thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) uranium series ages. Delta 18O values are interpreted as having a first order positive relationship to temperature, but also to be influenced by precipitation in a complex manner. Delta 13C is interpreted as responding negatively to increases in atmospheric CO 2 concentration, biological activity and precipitation amount. Six climatic phases are recognized. After adjustment of 1.2‰ for the ice volume effect, the δ18O record between 23 and 18 ka varies around -3.72‰ compared to the Holocene average of -3.17‰. Late-glacial warming commenced between 18.2 and 17.8 ka and accelerated after 16.7 ka, culminating in a positive excursion between 14.70 and 13.53 ka. This was followed by a significant negative excursion between 13.53 and 11.14 ka of up to 0.55‰ depth that overlapped the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR) and spanned the Younger Dryas (YD). Positive δ18O excursions at 11.14 ka and 6.91-6.47 ka represent the warmest parts of the Holocene. The mid-Holocene from 6 to 2 ka was marked by negative excursions that coincide with increased glacial activity in the South Island. A short positive excursion from 0.71 to 0.57 ka was slightly later than the Medieval Warm Period of Europe. Delta 13C values were high until 17.79 ka after which there was an abrupt decrease to 17.19 ka followed by a steady decline to a minimum at 10.97 ka. Then followed a general increase, suggesting a drying trend, to 3.23 ka followed by a further general decline. The abrupt decrease in δ-values after 17.79 ka probably corresponds to an increase in atmospheric CO 2 concentration, biological activity and wetness at the end of the Last Glaciation, but the reversal identified in the δ18O record from 13.53 to 11.14 ka was not reflected in δ13C changes

  12. Amino acid δ13C analysis of hair proteins and bone collagen using liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavan, Maanasa; McCullagh, James S. O.; Lynnerup, Niels

    2010-01-01

    We report a novel method for the chromatographic separation and measurement of stable carbon isotope ratios (delta(13)C) of individual amino acids in hair proteins and bone collagen using the LC-IsoLink system, which interfaces liquid chromatography (LC) with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS......). This paper provides baseline separation of 15 and 13 of the 18 amino acids in bone collagen and hair proteins, respectively. We also describe an approach to analysing small hair samples for compound-specific analysis of segmental hair sections. The LC/IRMS method is applied in a historical context...... by the delta(13)C analysis of hair proteins and bone collagen recovered from six individuals from Uummannaq in Greenland. The analysis of hair and bone amino acids from the same individual, compared for the first time in this study, is of importance in palaeodietary reconstruction. If hair proteins can be used...

  13. Hyperpolarized 13 C,15 N2 -urea T2 relaxation changes in acute kidney injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariager, Christian Østergaard; Nielsen, Per Mose; Qi, Haiyun

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the correlation between renal ischemia and 13 C-urea T2 relaxation rate in an acute kidney injury (AKI) rat model. METHODS: Six rats subjected to unilateral renal ischemia were investigated. Creatinine clearance, urine output, plasma creatinine as well as blood-urea nitrogen...... (BUN) values were acquired before and after the procedure. 1 H T2* mapping was acquired using blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) MRI and hyperpolarized 13 C-urea T2 mapping was acquired using a 2D golden-angle radial approach. Kidney perfusion was estimated using noncontrast flow alternating...... inversion recovery arterial spin labeling. RESULTS: All rats showed clinical signs of AKI with increased plasma creatinine and increased BUN. Whole kidney 13 C-urea T2 significantly decreased 26% (P = 0.001) 24 h after reperfusion. A significantly different (3.7 times steeper; P = 0.008) osmolality gradient...

  14. A scientific workflow framework for (13)C metabolic flux analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalman, Tolga; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Nöh, Katharina

    2016-08-20

    Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) with (13)C labeling data is a high-precision technique to quantify intracellular reaction rates (fluxes). One of the major challenges of (13)C MFA is the interactivity of the computational workflow according to which the fluxes are determined from the input data (metabolic network model, labeling data, and physiological rates). Here, the workflow assembly is inevitably determined by the scientist who has to consider interacting biological, experimental, and computational aspects. Decision-making is context dependent and requires expertise, rendering an automated evaluation process hardly possible. Here, we present a scientific workflow framework (SWF) for creating, executing, and controlling on demand (13)C MFA workflows. (13)C MFA-specific tools and libraries, such as the high-performance simulation toolbox 13CFLUX2, are wrapped as web services and thereby integrated into a service-oriented architecture. Besides workflow steering, the SWF features transparent provenance collection and enables full flexibility for ad hoc scripting solutions. To handle compute-intensive tasks, cloud computing is supported. We demonstrate how the challenges posed by (13)C MFA workflows can be solved with our approach on the basis of two proof-of-concept use cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Novel Imaging Contrast Methods for Hyperpolarized 13 C Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Galen Durant

    Magnetic resonance imaging using hyperpolarized 13C-labeled small molecules has emerged as an extremely powerful tool for the in vivo monitoring of perfusion and metabolism. This work presents methods for improved imaging, parameter mapping, and image contrast generation for in vivo hyperpolarized 13C MRI. Angiography using hyperpolarized urea was greatly improved with a highly T2-weighted acquisition in combination with 15N labeling of the urea amide groups. This is due to the fact that the T2 of [13C]urea is strongly limited by the scalar coupling to the neighboring quadrupolar 14N. The long in vivo T2 values of [13C, 15N2]urea were utilized for sub-millimeter projection angiography using a contrast agent that could be safely injected in concentrations of 10-100 mM while still tolerated in patients with renal insufficiency. This study also presented the first method for in vivo T2 mapping of hyperpolarized 13C compounds. The in vivo T2 of urea was short in the blood and long within the kidneys. This persistent signal component was isolated to the renal filtrate, thus enabling for the first time direct detection of an imaging contrast agent undergoing glomerular filtration. While highly T2-weighted acquisitions select for molecules with short rotational correlation times, high diffusion weighting selects for those with the long translational correlation times. A specialized spin-echo EPI sequence was developed in order to generate highly diffusion-weighted hyperpolarized 13C images on a clinical MRI system operating within clinical peak- RF and gradient amplitude constraints. Low power adiabatic spin echo pulses were developed in order to generate a sufficiently large refocused bandwidth while maintaining low nominal power. This diffusion weighted acquisition gave enhanced tumor contrast-to-noise ratio when imaging [1-13C]lactate after infusion of [1-13C]pyruvate. Finally, the first in-man hyperpolarized 13C MRI clinical trial is discussed.

  16. A synthesis of marine sediment core δ13C data over the last 150 000 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. M. Rickaby

    2010-10-01

    concentration during these intervals. Similarly, MIS 6 is only distinguishable from MIS 2 or 4 due to globally lower δ13C values both in benthic and planktonic data. This result is obtained despite individual records showing differences between these intervals, indicating that care must be used in interpreting large scale signals from a small number of records.

  17. Empirical correlation between protein backbone 15N and 13C secondary chemical shifts and its application to nitrogen chemical shift re-referencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liya; Markley, John L

    2009-06-01

    The linear analysis of chemical shifts (LACS) has provided a robust method for identifying and correcting 13C chemical shift referencing problems in data from protein NMR spectroscopy. Unlike other approaches, LACS does not require prior knowledge of the three-dimensional structure or inference of the secondary structure of the protein. It also does not require extensive assignment of the NMR data. We report here a way of extending the LACS approach to 15N NMR data from proteins, so as to enable the detection and correction of inconsistencies in chemical shift referencing for this nucleus. The approach is based on our finding that the secondary 15N chemical shift of the backbone nitrogen atom of residue i is strongly correlated with the secondary chemical shift difference (experimental minus random coil) between the alpha and beta carbons of residue i-1. Thus once alpha and beta 13C chemical shifts are available (their difference is referencing error-free), the 15N referencing can be validated, and an appropriate offset correction can be derived. This approach can be implemented prior to a structure determination and can be used to analyze potential referencing problems in database data not associated with three-dimensional structure. Application of the LACS algorithm to the current BMRB protein chemical shift database, revealed that nearly 35% of the BMRB entries have delta 15N values mis-referenced by over 0.7 ppm and over 25% of them have delta 1HN values mis-referenced by over 0.12 ppm. One implication of the findings reported here is that a backbone 15N chemical shift provides a better indicator of the conformation of the preceding residue than of the residue itself.

  18. A simple mixing explanation for late Pleistocene changes in the Pacific-South Atlantic benthic δ13C gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Lisiecki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The fact that the deep-ocean benthic δ13C minimum shifted from the North Pacific to the South Atlantic during the Last Glacial Maximum is often interpretted as evidence of a change in deep water circulation, such as the development of deep water ventilation in the North Pacific or a decrease in Southern Ocean overturning. This study re-evaluates the implications of changes in benthic δ13C gradients by comparing Pacific Deep Water (PDW δ13C measurements with the values expected for the null hypothesis that PDW ventilation sources remained unchanged throughout the Late Pleistocene. The δ13C compositions of PDW, Northern Component Water (NCW and Southern Component Water (SCW are estimated from regional benthic δ13C stacks of 3–6 sites. Changes in PDW δ13C and PDW-SCW δ13C gradients over the past 800 kyr are found to be well described by a constant mixture of 60% NCW and 40% SCW plus a constant Pacific remineralization offset of −0.5‰. Thus, a change in PDW ventilation cannot be inferred solely on the basis of changes in the Pacific-South Atlantic benthic δ13C gradient.

  19. Inclusion of 13C and D in protonated acetylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenberry, Ryan C.; Roueff, Evelyne; Lee, Timothy J.

    2016-04-01

    The rovibrational spectrum of cyclic, protonated acetylene has been established. The improvement in modern telescopes coupled with the different branching ratios in reaction models welcomes study of 13C-substitution for C2H3+. Quartic force fields (QFFs) have been previously utilized to predict the antisymmetric HCCH stretch in standard c-C2H3+ to within 0.1 cm-1 of experiment and are employed here to generate rovibrational insights for the 13C isotopologues. The zero-point energies are also given for the cyclic and 'Y'-shaped isomers for both 13C and D substitutions. Vibrational intensities and the dipole moments are provided in order to characterize more fully this simple cation.

  20. Direct 13C NMR Detection in HPLC Hyphenation Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubshet, Sileshi Gizachew; Johansen, Kenneth; Nyberg, Nils

    2012-01-01

    is indubitable in simplifying structural elucidations. In the current study, we demonstrated direct (13)C NMR detection of triterpenoids from a Ganoderma lucidum extract in hyphenation mode. The combined advantage of a cryogenically cooled probe, miniaturization, and multiple trapping enabled the first reported......Solid phase extraction (SPE) was introduced as a crucial step in the HPLC-SPE-NMR technique to enable online analyte enrichment from which proton-detected NMR experiments on submicrogram amounts from complex mixtures were possible. However, the significance of direct-detected (13)C NMR experiments...... application of HPLC-SPE-NMR analysis using direct-detected (13)C NMR spectra. HPLC column loading, accumulative SPE trappings, and the effect of different elution solvents were evaluated and optimized. A column loading of approximately 600 mug of a prefractionated triterpenoid mixture, six trappings...

  1. Applicability of a short/rapid 13C-urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori: retrospective multicenter chart review study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmilovitz-Weiss Hemda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbon labeled urea breath tests usually entail a two point sampling with a 20 to 30-minute gap. Our aim was to evaluate the duration of time needed for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori by the BreathID® System. Methods This is a retrospective multicenter chart review study. Test location, date, delta over baseline, and duration of the entire test were recorded. Consecutively 13C urea breath tests results were extracted from the files over a nine year period. Results Of the 12,791 tests results, 35.1% were positively diagnosed and only 0.1% were inconclusive. A statistically significant difference in prevalence among the countries was found: Germany showing the lowest, 13.3%, and Israel the highest, 44.1%. Significant differences were found in time to diagnosis: a positive diagnosis had the shortest and an inconclusive result had the longest. Overall test duration averaged 15.1 minutes in Germany versus approximately 13 minutes in other countries. Diagnosis was achieved after approximately 9 minutes in Israel, Italy and Switzerland, but after 10 on average in the others. The mean delta over baseline value for a negative diagnosis was 1.03 ± 0.86, (range, 0.9 - 5, versus 20.2 ± 18.9, (range, 5.1 - 159.4 for a positive one. Conclusions The BreathID® System used in diagnosing Helicobacter pylori can safely shorten test duration on average of 10-13 minutes without any loss of sensitivity or specificity and with no test lasting more than 21 minutes.

  2. Transport and imaging of brute-force (13)C hyperpolarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Matthew L; Smith, Bryce A; Mattingly, Mark; Goloshevsky, Artem G; Rosay, Melanie; Kempf, James G

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate transport of hyperpolarized frozen 1-(13)C pyruvic acid from its site of production to a nearby facility, where a time series of (13)C images was acquired from the aqueous dissolution product. Transportability is tied to the hyperpolarization (HP) method we employ, which omits radical electron species used in other approaches that would otherwise relax away the HP before reaching the imaging center. In particular, we attained (13)C HP by 'brute-force', i.e., using only low temperature and high-field (e.g., Tthermal mixing (yielding ∼0.1% (13)C polarization). By avoiding polarization agents (a.k.a. relaxation agents) that are needed to hyperpolarize by the competing method of dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (d-DNP), the (13)C relaxation time was sufficient to transport the sample for ∼10min before finally dissolving in warm water and obtaining a (13)C image of the hyperpolarized, dilute, aqueous product (∼0.01% (13)C polarization, a >100-fold gain over thermal signals in the 1T scanner). An annealing step, prior to polarizing the sample, was also key for increasing T1∼30-fold during transport. In that time, HP was maintained using only modest cryogenics and field (T∼60K and B=1.3T), for T1((13)C) near 5min. Much greater time and distance (with much smaller losses) may be covered using more-complete annealing and only slight improvements on transport conditions (e.g., yielding T1∼5h at 30K, 2T), whereas even intercity transfer is possible (T1>20h) at reasonable conditions of 6K and 2T. Finally, it is possible to increase the overall enhancement near d-DNP levels (i.e., 10(2)-fold more) by polarizing below 100mK, where nanoparticle agents are known to hasten T1 buildup by 100-fold, and to yield very little impact on T1 losses at temperatures relevant to transport. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Diet-tissue stable isotope (Δ(13)C and Δ(15)N) discrimination factors for multiple tissues from terrestrial reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinitz, Ronnie; Lemm, Jeffrey M; Pasachnik, Stesha A; Kurle, Carolyn M

    2016-01-15

    Stable isotope analysis is a powerful tool for reconstructing trophic interactions to better understand drivers of community ecology. Taxon-specific stable isotope discrimination factors contribute to the best use of this tool. We determined the first Δ(13)C and Δ(15)N values for Rock Iguanas (Cyclura spp.) to better understand isotopic fractionation and estimate wild reptile foraging ecology. The Δ(13)C and Δ(15)N values between diet and skin, blood, and scat were determined from juvenile and adult iguanas held for 1 year on a known diet. We measured relationships between iguana discrimination factors and size/age and quantified effects of lipid extraction and acid treatment on stable isotope values from iguana tissues. Isotopic and elemental compositions were determined by Dumas combustion using an elemental analyzer coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer using standards of known composition. The Δ(13)C and Δ(15)N values ranged from -2.5 to +6.5‰ and +2.2 to +7.5‰, respectively, with some differences among tissues and between juveniles and adults. The Δ(13)C values from blood and skin differed among species, but not the Δ(15)N values. The Δ(13)C values from blood and skin and Δ(15)N values from blood were positively correlated with size/age. The Δ(13)C values from scat were negatively correlated with size (not age). Treatment with HCl (scat) and lipid extraction (skin) did not affect the isotope values. These results should aid in the understanding of processes driving stable carbon and nitrogen isotope discrimination factors in reptiles. We provide estimates of Δ(13)C and Δ(15)N values and linear relationships between iguana size/age and discrimination factors for the best interpretation of wild reptile foraging ecology. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Uncertainties of fluxes and 13C / 12C ratios of atmospheric reactive-gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, Sergey; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Jöckel, Patrick

    2017-07-01

    We provide a comprehensive review of the proxy data on the 13C / 12C ratios and uncertainties of emissions of reactive carbonaceous compounds into the atmosphere, with a focus on CO sources. Based on an evaluated set-up of the EMAC model, we derive the isotope-resolved data set of its emission inventory for the 1997-2005 period. Additionally, we revisit the calculus required for the correct derivation of uncertainties associated with isotope ratios of emission fluxes. The resulting δ13C of overall surface CO emission in 2000 of -(25. 2 ± 0. 7) ‰ is in line with previous bottom-up estimates and is less uncertain by a factor of 2. In contrast to this, we find that uncertainties of the respective inverse modelling estimates may be substantially larger due to the correlated nature of their derivation. We reckon the δ13C values of surface emissions of higher hydrocarbons to be within -24 to -27 ‰ (uncertainty typically below ±1 ‰), with an exception of isoprene and methanol emissions being close to -30 and -60 ‰, respectively. The isotope signature of ethane surface emission coincides with earlier estimates, but integrates very different source inputs. δ13C values are reported relative to V-PDB.

  5. Soil Organic δ13C Change Along a Vertical Gradient in the Northern Slop of Tianshan Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Wen-qiang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon (SOC pool integrated the vegetation succession information from several years to thousands of years scales. It is an ideal tool to understand carbon isotope composition change and terrestrial ecosystem pathways. In this study, the Sangong river watershed was taken as a case. We had estimated the change of vegetation and soil organic along a vertical gradient using the carbon isotopic method, and analyzed the variations of mean SOC δ13C values with the annual precipitation, and researched the variations in SOC and δ13C values with profile depth in the study area. The results showed that the SOC δ13C decreased significantly with the increasing annual precipitation (R2=0.97 where the annual precipitation was less than 300 mm. When the annual precipitation was 300 mm~500 mm, the SOC δ13C was not significant changed with the increasing annual precipitation (R2=0.04. The enrichment effect of SOC δ13C with depth was significant in the sample site of pure C3 vegetation, that means lower layer SOC δ13C of profile was greater than the upper layer. The average difference of SOC δ13C between lower layer and upper layer was 1.01‰. The opposite trend of SOC δ13C was presented in the Desert and Shrubland sites. And that, the SOC δ13C value of upper layer closed to C4 vegetation source, and the lower layer closed to C3 vegetation source. Therefore, we can infer that the vegetation may have experienced from C3 to C4 in the sandy desert and terrene desert sites.

  6. Turnover of carbon in the {sup 13}C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Vladimir E.; Andreazzi, Mariana; Cury, Caio S.; Bassetto Junior, Carlos A.Z.; Rodrigues, Maria A.M.; Ducatti, Carlos, E-mail: vladimir@ibb.unesp.br, E-mail: ducatti@ibb.unesp.br, E-mail: mariana.andreazazi@gmail.com, E-mail: caiocury@hotmail.com, E-mail: juniorbassett@hotmail.com, E-mail: mariar@fmb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    To obtain a standard protocol for the application of {sup 13}C-urea breath test ({sup 13}C-UBT) analyzed by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (IRMS) to detect helicobacter pylori infection in the population is necessary to know the behavior of the turnover of {sup 13}C during the test in different individuals. The aims of this study was to find out a pattern for the turnover of the {sup 13}C in the {sup 13}C-UBT, analyzed by IRMS, in patients infected with H. pylori, in a Brazilian population, to define a protocol test application. We found that the isotopic ratio {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C in expired CO{sub 2} from patients infected with H. pylori and subjected to {sup 13}C-UBT does not follow a single pattern of behavior. However this behavior can be similar in subjects having the same maximum values following an inverse proportional relationship between the maximum value and the time of appearance in the curve. (author)

  7. δ13C-CH4 in ice core samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperlich, Peter

    Ice core records of δ13C-CH4 reflect the variability of CH4 biogeochemistry in response to climate change and show this system is far more complex than expected. The first part of this work is concerned with the development of analytical techniques that allow 1) precise referencing and 2) measure......Ice core records of δ13C-CH4 reflect the variability of CH4 biogeochemistry in response to climate change and show this system is far more complex than expected. The first part of this work is concerned with the development of analytical techniques that allow 1) precise referencing and 2......) measurements of δ13C-CH4 in ice core samples as is required when δ13C-CH4 records that are measured in several laboratories are merged for analysis. Both the referencing and measurement techniques have been compared to further laboratories which proofed the accuracy of the analytical systems. The second part...

  8. Revisiting the metathesis of 13C-monolabeled ethane

    KAUST Repository

    Maury, Olivier

    2010-12-13

    The metathesis of 13C-monolabeled ethane leads to the parallel occurrence of degenerate and productive reactions, affording the statistical distribution of the various product isotopomers, which can be rationalized in terms of a mechanistic reaction scheme combining both processes. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  9. Recent insights into intramolecular 13C isotope composition of biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, A.; Yamada, K.; Julien, M.; Yoshida, N.; Remaud, G.; Robins, R.

    2016-12-01

    In 1961 Abelson & Hoering shown that the intramolecular 13C distribution in amino acids was not homogeneous, namely the carboxylic acid positions were 13C-enriched compared with the mean of the remaining C-atoms in the molecule [1]. Nearly 20 years later, Monson & Hayes were able to demonstrate that even and odd positions in acetogenic fatty acids also showed non-statistical 13C isotope distributions, and that the pattern varied depending on the organism [2]. It took a further decade for the intramolecular 13C distribution in the key metabolite, glucose, to be defined [3]. Although informative, much of this work was incomplete, a number of positions having to be deduced by difference. This limitation arose mainly due to the lack of techniques enabling the separation and quantification of 13C isotopomers of the target molecule. In the past decade, quantitative 13C NMR has been developed for the determination of the intramolecular isotope composition of a given molecule with a precision of 1‰ or better [4]. This breakthrough has made possible a comprehensive view of the determinants governing intramolecular isotope composition of biological molecules. In particular, it can be shown that intramolecular pattern in sugars is influenced by the C-assimilation pathway and by post-photosynthetic fractionation associated with carbohydrate metabolism [5]. In addition, analysis by NMR of the alkyl chain of acetogenic lipids (fatty acids, n-alkanes) shows an alternation between odd and even C-atom positions, as observed by Monson& Hayes [2], throughout the molecule [6]. Overall, it is becoming apparent that this pattern is influenced by two principal metabolic factors: (i) the 13C pattern extant in the starting compounds; (ii) isotope fractionation associated with the enzymes involved in the biosynthetic pathway. On the whole, the determination of intramolecular isotope patterns in biomolecules allows better insights into the conditions and pathways by which they are formed

  10. Employee Training Needs and Perceived Value of Training in the Pearl River Delta of China: A Human Capital Development Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Alan Kai Ming; Altman, Yochanan; Roussel, Josse

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore Hong Kong firms' training needs in the Pearl River Delta, a booming region in the fast growing People Republic of China economy, by resorting to a human capital approach. Also, to identify the training policies selected by those firms in order to cater for those needs. Design/methodology/approach: A survey based…

  11. {sup 13} C NMR study of labdanum diterpenes; Estudo de RMN de {sup 13} C de diterpenos labdanicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Jorge Mauricio [Bahia Univ. (UFBA), Salvador (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica; Souza, Georgia Luana Soares de Souza; David, Juceni Pereira [Bahia Univ. (UFBA), Salvador (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia

    1999-05-01

    This work aims to contribute to the setup of a updated spectral database for this class of substance. This objective will be accomplished by using the registration of the {sup 13} C NMR spectra and the unequivocal assignments of the chemical shifts of carbons from some diterpenes obtained from Moldenhawera nutans (Leguminosae) and the derivatives as well.

  12. Distribuciones simuladas de valores de d13c de colágeno humano: implicancias para los estudios paleodietarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrientos, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar los primeros resultados derivados de la aplicación de un programa de simulación de distribuciones de valores de δ13C de colágeno humano (DeltaCarb130.0, desarrollado por los autores. DeltaCarb130.0 es un programa simple que simula la composición isotópica (δ13C del colágeno de huesos humanos obtenida a través de una dieta de composición variable, constituida por tres ingestas diarias, durante un período de 1825 días (5 años. La composición de la dieta y los valores de δ13C de cada recurso dietario (vegetales C3 y C4, carne de herbívoros consumidores de C3 y C4, de mamíferos marinos, de peces y moluscos se obtienen, en cada etapa de la simulación, a través de un proceso aleatorio a partir de datos de abundancia relativa y rangos de valores de δ13C de cada tipo de recurso. Se analizarán estadísticamente las distribuciones de valores de δ13C obtenidas a partir de n corridas del programa para cada combinación dietaria, con la finalidad de obtener medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión asociadas a cada tipo de dieta y calcular la probabilidad de obtener valores "outliers", un rasgo frecuente en el estudio de casos arqueológicos.

  13. {sup 2}H NMR and {sup 13}C-IRMS analyses of acetic acid from vinegar, {sup 18}O-IRMS analysis of water in vinegar: International collaborative study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Freddy [Eurofins Scientific Analytics, BP42301, 44323 Nantes (France); Jamin, Eric, E-mail: ericjamin@eurofins.com [Eurofins Scientific Analytics, BP42301, 44323 Nantes (France)

    2009-09-01

    An international collaborative study of isotopic methods applied to control the authenticity of vinegar was organized in order to support the recognition of these procedures as official methods. The determination of the {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H ratio of the methyl site of acetic acid by SNIF-NMR (site-specific natural isotopic fractionation-nuclear magnetic resonance) and the determination of the {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratio, by IRMS (isotope ratio mass spectrometry) provide complementary information to characterize the botanical origin of acetic acid and to detect adulterations of vinegar using synthetic acetic acid. Both methods use the same initial steps to recover pure acetic acid from vinegar. In the case of wine vinegar, the determination of the {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O ratio of water by IRMS allows to differentiate wine vinegar from vinegars made from dried grapes. The same set of vinegar samples was used to validate these three determinations. The precision parameters of the method for measuring {delta}{sup 13}C (carbon isotopic deviation) were found to be similar to the values previously obtained for similar methods applied to wine ethanol or sugars extracted from fruit juices: the average repeatability (r) was 0.45 per mille , and the average reproducibility (R) was 0.91 per mille . As expected from previous in-house study of the uncertainties, the precision parameters of the method for measuring the {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H ratio of the methyl site were found to be slightly higher than the values previously obtained for similar methods applied to wine ethanol or fermentation ethanol in fruit juices: the average repeatability was 1.34 ppm, and the average reproducibility was 1.62 ppm. This precision is still significantly smaller than the differences between various acetic acid sources ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O) and allows a satisfactory discrimination of vinegar types. The precision parameters of the method for measuring {delta}{sup 18}O were found to be similar

  14. Clipperton Atoll Core 2B Stable Isotope (delta 13C, delta 18O) Data for 1893 to 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 101 year stable isotope record from P. lobata, core 4B, Clipperton Atoll, eastern Pacific. Sampling at annual and 12/year resolution, files clipperton.4B.iso.txt and...

  15. Amedee Lighthouse, New Caledonia Stable Isotope (delta 18O, delta 13C) Data for 1657 to 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry: coral collected live in ~3m of water in September of 1992. Coral species: Porites lutea. Variable names: The Excel File contains 4 worksheets labelled...

  16. The ^{12}C/^{13}C Ratio in the Galactic Center: Implications for Galactic Chemical Evolution and Isotope Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfen, DeWayne T.; Ziurys, Lucy M.

    2017-06-01

    Observations from a spectral-line survey of Sgr B2(N) of the ^{12}C and ^{13}C isotopologues of H_2CS, CH_3CCH, NH_2CHO, CH_2CHCN, and CH_3CH_2CN have been analyzed to more accurately establish the ^{12}C/^{13}C ratio in this cloud. The wide spectral coverage has enabled an accurate evaluation of the ^{12}C/^{13}C ratios in these low abundance molecules, based on numerous transitions. The lines typically exhibited two distinct velocity components at 64 and 73 km s^{-1}. The ^{12}C/^{13}C ratio was found to be in the range 18-24 for all 5 molecules, for optically thin transitions, with an average value of 20.5, and did not significantly vary between the two velocity components. The Galactic gradient has been revised to be ^{12}C/^{13}C = 6.08(0.48) D_{GC} + 15.7(2.9). Furthermore, the ^{12}C/^{13}C ratio did not change with substitution site on the molecule. Therefore, there appears to be very little chemical fractionation or isotope-selective photodissociation occurring in Sgr B2(N), and the ^{12}C/^{13}C ratios are a true reflection of the isotopic abundances generated by stellar nucleosynthesis.

  17. IsoDesign: a software for optimizing the design of 13C-metabolic flux analysis experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Pierre; Sokol, Serguei; Letisse, Fabien; Portais, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    The growing demand for (13) C-metabolic flux analysis ((13) C-MFA) in the field of metabolic engineering and systems biology is driving the need to rationalize expensive and time-consuming (13) C-labeling experiments. Experimental design is a key step in improving both the number of fluxes that can be calculated from a set of isotopic data and the precision of flux values. We present IsoDesign, a software that enables these parameters to be maximized by optimizing the isotopic composition of the label input. It can be applied to (13) C-MFA investigations using a broad panel of analytical tools (MS, MS/MS, (1) H NMR, (13) C NMR, etc.) individually or in combination. It includes a visualization module to intuitively select the optimal label input depending on the biological question to be addressed. Applications of IsoDesign are described, with an example of the entire (13) C-MFA workflow from the experimental design to the flux map including important practical considerations. IsoDesign makes the experimental design of (13) C-MFA experiments more accessible to a wider biological community. IsoDesign is distributed under an open source license at http://metasys.insa-toulouse.fr/software/isodes/ © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Spatio-temporal variability of Δ13C in tree-rings of Aleppo pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Castillo, Jorge; Ferrio, Juan Pedro; Voltas, Jordi

    2014-05-01

    Aim: To study the spatiotemporal variability of Δ13C using a tree-ring network of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) in the eastern part of the Iberian Peninsula. In this study, we tried to understand some of the environmental drivers behind changes in Δ13C as well as to decide the most optimal sites to infer paleoclimatic information using such variables. We also try to understand key physiological aspects of P. halepensis. Methods: In order to do that, we have collected biannual Δ13C time series (1950-1998) together with mean annual precipitation (MAP), tree-ring width (TRW) and remote sensing (NDVI) data, for 7 different locations along a precipitation gradient. We assessed how correlations between variables changed along that gradient. In addition to that, we have also looked at how that precipitation gradient changed along the years and thus its relationships with the Δ13C at the spatial level, giving us an idea whether changes in MAP at each site could affect the relationship between these two variables. Results: We found that a log model better explains the relationship between Δ13C and MAP and that it reaches a saturation point at values above 800 mm of MAP. Similarly, we found that, in the drier sites, correlations between Δ13C and precipitation were higher than in wetter ones. In addition, the coefficient of variation (CV) of Δ13C was a good indicator of the correlation between Δ13C and MAP. Similarly, the mean and the CV of TRW and summer NDVI were good indicators of the level of such correlation between Δ13C and MAP. On the other hand, the inter-site analysis of the data suggested that during dry years exists a stronger relationship between Δ13C and precipitation than in wet years. Discussion: Our results pointed out that the threshold for water limitation for Aleppo pine was around MAP=800 mm, an amount that might be sufficient for the tree to grow during most of the growing season without altering its water use efficiency (WUE) by closing

  19. Diffusion MR of hyperpolarized 13C molecules in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Bertram L; Keshari, Kayvan R; Peeters, Tom H; Larson, Peder E Z; Wilson, David M; Kurhanewicz, John

    2013-02-21

    We combined the high MR signal enhancement achieved using dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) with a pulsed gradient double spin echo diffusion MR sequence to rapidly and accurately measure the diffusion coefficients of various hyperpolarized (13)C molecules in solution. Furthermore, with a diffusion-weighted imaging sequence we generate diffusion coefficient maps of multiple hyperpolarized metabolites simultaneously. While hyperpolarized experiments can measure rapid, non-equilibrium processes by avoiding signal averaging, continuous signal loss due to longitudinal relaxation (T(1)) complicates quantitation. By correcting for this signal loss, we demonstrate the feasibility of using hyperpolarized (13)C diffusion-weighted MR to accurately measure real-time (seconds) molecular transport phenomena. Potential applications include rapidly measuring molecular binding, cellular membrane transport, in vivo metabolite distribution and establishing a magnetic field independent hyperpolarized parameter.

  20. Electronic structure and physical properties of 13C carbon composite

    OpenAIRE

    Zhmurikov, Evgenij

    2015-01-01

    This review is devoted to the application of graphite and graphite composites in science and technology. Structure and electrical properties, as so technological aspects of producing of high-strength artificial graphite and dynamics of its destruction are considered. These type of graphite are traditionally used in the nuclear industry. Author was focused on the properties of graphite composites based on carbon isotope 13C. Generally, the review relies on the original results and concentrates...

  1. Spectroscopic Confirmation of DES13C1feu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.; Okouma, P.; Bassett, B.; Kasai, E.; Crawford, S. M.; Romero-Colmenero, E.; Buckley, D.; Maartens, R.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Kessler, R.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Cane, R.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; D'Andrea, C.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Sullivan, M.; Barbary, K.; Bernstein, J. P.; Biswas, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Kim, A.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Thomas, R. C.; Foley, R.

    2013-10-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of a supernova (SN) candidate discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATel #4668). The spectrum (400-900 nm) of DES13C1feu was obtained using the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) on the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). A fit of the spectrum with SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) reveals this event to be a type Ic supernova at z=0.06 at peak brightness.

  2. HIGH FIELD 13C NMR SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    These shifts are assigned to the C-2 carbon atoms of Sat in the β and α glyceridic positions. The. 34.114 ppm and the 34.0846 ppm are assigned to C-2 of O and L in the α position. These assignments were based on established data [9-11]. Table 1. 13C NMR chemical shifts of Jatropha curcas oil. Chemical shift (ppm).

  3. Using delta 15N values in algal tissue to map locations and potential sources of anthropogenic nutrient inputs on the island of Maui, Hawai'i, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailer, Meghan L; Knox, Robin S; Smith, Jennifer E; Napier, Michael; Smith, Celia M

    2010-05-01

    Macroalgal blooms of Hypnea musciformis and Ulvafasciata in coastal waters of Maui only occur in areas of substantial anthropogenic nutrient input, sources of which include wastewater effluent via injection wells, leaking cesspools and agricultural fertilizers. Algal delta(15)N signatures were used to map anthropogenic nitrogen through coastal surveys (island-wide and fine-scale) and algal deployments along nearshore and offshore gradients. Algal delta(15)N values of 9.8 per thousand and 2.0-3.5 per thousand in Waiehu and across the north-central coast, respectively, suggest that cesspool and agricultural nitrogen reached the respective adjacent coastlines. Effluent was detected in areas proximal to the Wastewater Reclamation Facilities (WWRF) operating Class V injection wells in Lahaina, Kihei and Kahului through elevated algal delta(15)N values (17.8-50.1 per thousand). From 1997 to 2008, the three WWRFs injected an estimated total volume of 193 million cubic meters (51 billion gallons) of effluent with a nitrogen mass of 1.74 million kilograms (3.84 million pounds). (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigating tumor perfusion and metabolism using multiple hyperpolarized 13C compounds: HP001, pyruvate and urea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Morze, Cornelius; Larson, Peder E.Z.; Hu, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The metabolically inactive hyperpolarized agents HP001 (bis-1,1-(hydroxymethyl)-[1-13C]cyclopropane-d8) and urea enable a new type of perfusion magnetic resonance imaging based on a direct signal source that is background-free. The addition of perfusion information to metabolic information obtained...... by spectroscopic imaging of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate would be of great value in exploring the relationship between perfusion and metabolism in cancer. In preclinical normal murine and cancer model studies, we performed both dynamic multislice imaging of the specialized hyperpolarized perfusion compound HP001...... of separate dynamic HP001 imaging and copolarized pyruvate/urea imaging were compared. A strong and significant correlation (R=0.73, P=.02) detected between the urea and HP001 data confirmed the value of copolarizing urea with pyruvate for simultaneous assessment of perfusion and metabolism....

  5. [The diagnostic value of delta-R and delta-Q as positive criteria of the ergometry test in a group of patients with angina pectoris of effort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doria, G; Cangemi, F; Gulizia, M; Cuocina, N; Tosto, A; Circo, A

    1989-11-01

    ECG-exercise tests were performed in 29 patients affected by effort chest pain. All patients underwent coronary angiography and/or revealed positive results in the cycloergometer effort test. The aim of the study was to evaluate ultrasonic variations in the R and Q waves due to maximal effort, so as to increase the information provided by the effort ECG. In the coronary angiographic test, 21 out of 29 patients revealed significant hemodynamic coronary stenosis; 10 patients were affected by previous myocardial necrosis; 8 patients showed no hemodynamic coronary lesions (OV). In the OV patients a statistically significant increase was observed in the Q wave at maximal effort in comparison with average basal values; on the other hand, there was a decrease, although not significant, in voltage at peak effort in patients with coronary stenosis. R wave amplitude was smaller in comparison to basal values in OV patients, while a significant increase was observed in the 21 patients with coronary lesions.

  6. {sup 13}C DNP of biomolecules dissolved in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dollmann, Bjoern C.; Gruss, Konstantin; Jagschies, Lasse; Spiess, Hans W.; Hinderberger, Dariush; Muennemann, Kerstin [Max-Planck-Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz (Germany); Schreiber, Laura M. [Section of Medical Physics, Mainz University Medical Center, Mainz (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and related techniques have become indispensable tools with innumerable applications in physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. One of the main obstacles in NMR is its notorious lack of sensitivity, which is due to the low equilibrium polarization of nuclear spins at ambient temperature. This disadvantage becomes obvious if low {gamma} nuclei are employed for NMR spectroscopy and MR imaging or when small sample volumes should be investigated. However, this obstacle could be overcome by in vitro hyperpolarization of molecules via dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). One major issue of this approach is the limited lifetime of the hyperpolarized state, which restricts the application and detection of the hyperpolarized molecules to roughly three times T{sub 1}. Therefore a lot of effort is put into the hyperpolarization of biomolecules with long spin lattice relaxation times. In this work, we present direct Overhauser-type DNP enhancement of {sup 13}C in solution at ambient temperatures. For a 5 {mu} l sample of 10 M {sup 13}C-enriched urea with 40 mM TEMPOL dissolved in water we measured a {sup 13}C signal enhancement of -335 in a commercial X-band electromagnet.

  7. Effects of climate factors and vegetation on the CO2 fluxes and δ13C from re-established grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezyk Yaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C -CO2 of soil CO2 flux, vegetation cover and weather conditions was investigated in a short-term campaign at a temperate re-established grassland in Germany. During August-September 2016, we measured surface CO2 flux with a closed-chamber method at high and low soil moisture content (‘wet’, ‘dry’, with and without above ground vegetation (‘planted’, ‘clear-cut’ and estimated the effects of treatments on respective δ13C -CO2 values. The concentration and stable carbon isotope composition of CO2 were determined using the gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses. The δ13C -CO2 of the soil fluxes decreased over sampling time for the ‘dry-warm’ conditions and canopy manipulation. The ecosystem-derived δ13C -CO2 values (corrected for the atmospheric δ13C -CO2 which included predominately soil-and rhizosphere respiration were –26.2 ± 0.8‰ for the ‘dry-warm’ conditions and decreased down to –28.1 ± 1.4‰ over a period of 28 days from late August to the end of September. The decrease coincided with the lowering of CO2 flux and could be attributed to changes in plant physiological processes at the end of the vegetation season. Though the removal of shoots did not significantly affect the δ13C -CO2 values as compared with the control, the pattern of further δ13C -CO2 decrease (down to –28.8 ± 0.8‰ supported the role of living vegetation in a contribution of 13C-enriched CO2 to the ecosystem respiration.

  8. Effects of climate factors and vegetation on the CO2 fluxes and δ13C from re-established grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezyk, Yaroslav; Dorodnikov, Maxim; Sówka, Izabela

    2017-11-01

    The relationship between stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C -CO2) of soil CO2 flux, vegetation cover and weather conditions was investigated in a short-term campaign at a temperate re-established grassland in Germany. During August-September 2016, we measured surface CO2 flux with a closed-chamber method at high and low soil moisture content (`wet', `dry'), with and without above ground vegetation (`planted', `clear-cut') and estimated the effects of treatments on respective δ13C -CO2 values. The concentration and stable carbon isotope composition of CO2 were determined using the gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses. The δ13C -CO2 of the soil fluxes decreased over sampling time for the `dry-warm' conditions and canopy manipulation. The ecosystem-derived δ13C -CO2 values (corrected for the atmospheric δ13C -CO2) which included predominately soil-and rhizosphere respiration were -26.2 ± 0.8‰ for the `dry-warm' conditions and decreased down to -28.1 ± 1.4‰ over a period of 28 days from late August to the end of September. The decrease coincided with the lowering of CO2 flux and could be attributed to changes in plant physiological processes at the end of the vegetation season. Though the removal of shoots did not significantly affect the δ13C -CO2 values as compared with the control, the pattern of further δ13C -CO2 decrease (down to -28.8 ± 0.8‰) supported the role of living vegetation in a contribution of 13C-enriched CO2 to the ecosystem respiration.

  9. d13C Signatures of Flora, Macrofauna and Sediment of a Mangrove ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mangrove organic carbon (d13C±SD = - 27.97±0.25) was found to be an important component of the sediment organic matter except at the marine fringe zone (d13C±SD = - 17.26±0.83). The areal distribution of d13C values show that the marine fringe zone was rich in organic carbon of marine origin. The terrestrial fringe ...

  10. Calibration of the carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of benthic foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittner, Andreas; Bostock, Helen C.; Cartapanis, Olivier; Curry, William B.; Filipsson, Helena L.; Galbraith, Eric D.; Gottschalk, Julia; Herguera, Juan Carlos; Hoogakker, Babette; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Lisiecki, Lorraine E.; Lund, David C.; Martínez-Méndez, Gema; Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean; Mackensen, Andreas; Michel, Elisabeth; Mix, Alan C.; Oppo, Delia W.; Peterson, Carlye D.; Repschläger, Janne; Sikes, Elisabeth L.; Spero, Howard J.; Waelbroeck, Claire

    2017-06-01

    The carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of seawater provides valuable insight on ocean circulation, air-sea exchange, the biological pump, and the global carbon cycle and is reflected by the δ13C of foraminifera tests. Here more than 1700 δ13C observations of the benthic foraminifera genus Cibicides from late Holocene sediments (δ13CCibnat) are compiled and compared with newly updated estimates of the natural (preindustrial) water column δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDICnat) as part of the international Ocean Circulation and Carbon Cycling (OC3) project. Using selection criteria based on the spatial distance between samples, we find high correlation between δ13CCibnat and δ13CDICnat, confirming earlier work. Regression analyses indicate significant carbonate ion (-2.6 ± 0.4) × 10-3‰/(μmol kg-1) [CO32-] and pressure (-4.9 ± 1.7) × 10-5‰ m-1 (depth) effects, which we use to propose a new global calibration for predicting δ13CDICnat from δ13CCibnat. This calibration is shown to remove some systematic regional biases and decrease errors compared with the one-to-one relationship (δ13CDICnat = δ13CCibnat). However, these effects and the error reductions are relatively small, which suggests that most conclusions from previous studies using a one-to-one relationship remain robust. The remaining standard error of the regression is generally σ ≅ 0.25‰, with larger values found in the southeast Atlantic and Antarctic (σ ≅ 0.4‰) and for species other than Cibicides wuellerstorfi. Discussion of species effects and possible sources of the remaining errors may aid future attempts to improve the use of the benthic δ13C record.

  11. Cartilage quality in rheumatoid arthritis: comparison of T2* mapping, native T1 mapping, dGEMRIC, {delta}R1 and value of pre-contrast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchbender, Christian; Scherer, Axel; Kroepil, Patric; Quentin, Michael; Reichelt, Dorothea C.; Lanzman, Rotem S.; Mathys, Christian; Blondin, Dirk; Wittsack, Hans-Joerg; Antoch, Gerald; Miese, Falk [University Duesseldorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Koerbl, Birthe [Heinrich-Heine-University, Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Rheumatology, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Heinrich-Heine-University, Leibniz Centre for Diabetes Research, Institute of Biometrics and Epidemiology, German Diabetes Centre, Duesseldorf (Germany); Bittersohl, Bernd; Zilkens, Christoph [Heinrich-Heine-University, Department of Orthopaedics, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Hofer, Matthias [Heinrich-Heine-University, Medical Education Group, Medical School, Duesseldorf (Germany); Schneider, Matthias; Ostendorf, Benedikt [Heinrich-Heine-University, Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Rheumatology, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    To prospectively evaluate four non-invasive markers of cartilage quality - T2* mapping, native T1 mapping, dGEMRIC and {delta}R1 - in healthy volunteers and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Cartilage of metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints II were imaged in 28 consecutive subjects: 12 healthy volunteers [9 women, mean (SD) age 52.67 (9.75) years, range 30-66] and 16 RA patients with MCP II involvement [12 women, mean (SD) age 58.06 (12.88) years, range 35-76]. Sagittal T2* mapping was performed with a multi-echo gradient-echo on a 3 T MRI scanner. For T1 mapping the dual flip angle method was applied prior to native T1 mapping and 40 min after gadolinium application (delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage, dGEMRIC, T1{sub Gd}). The difference in the longitudinal relaxation rate induced by gadolinium ({delta}R1) was calculated. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AROC) was used to test for differentiation of RA patients from healthy volunteers. dGEMRIC (AUC 0.81) and {delta}R1 (AUC 0.75) significantly differentiated RA patients from controls. T2* mapping (AUC 0.66) and native T1 mapping (AUC 0.66) were not significantly different in RA patients compared to controls. The data support the use of dGEMRIC for the assessment of MCP joint cartilage quality in RA. T2* and native T1 mapping are of low diagnostic value. Pre-contrast T1 mapping for the calculation of {delta}R1 does not increase the diagnostic value of dGEMRIC. (orig.)

  12. Assessment of hepatic detoxification activity: proposal of an improved variant of the (13c-methacetin breath test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann-Georg Holzhütter

    Full Text Available Breath tests based on the administration of a (13C-labeled drug and subsequent monitoring of (13CO2 in the breath (quantified as DOB - delta over baseline liberated from the drug during hepatic CPY-dependent detoxification are important tools in liver function diagnostics. The capability of such breath tests to reliably indicate hepatic CYP performance is limited by the fact that (13CO2 is not exclusively exhaled but also exchanged with other compartments of the body. In order to assess this bias caused by variations of individual systemic CO2 kinetics we administered intravenously the test drug (13C-methacetin to 25 clinically liver-healthy individuals and monitored progress curves of DOB and the plasma concentration of (13C-methacetin. Applying compartment modelling we estimated for each individual a set of kinetic parameters characterizing the time-dependent exchange of the drug and of CO2 with the liver and non-hepatic body compartments. This analysis revealed that individual variations in the kinetics of CO2 may account for up to 30% deviation of DOB curve parameters from their mean at otherwise identical (13C-methacetin metabolization rates. In order to correct for this bias we introduced a novel detoxification score which ideally should be assessed from the DOB curve of a 2-step test ("2DOB" which is initialized with the injection of a standard dose of (13C-labeled bicarbonate (in order to provide information on the actual CO2 status of the individual followed by injection of the (13C-labeled test drug (the common procedure. Computer simulations suggest that the predictive power of the proposed 2DOB breath test to reliably quantity the CYP-specific hepatic detoxification activity should be significantly higher compared to the conventional breath test.

  13. Coupling Optimization Design and Experimental Study on Stable Isotope 13C Separation of the Double-stage Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIAN Ye-sheng;LI Hu-lin;JIANG Yong-yue;LONG Lei;JI Yong-zhe;ZHOU Jian-yue

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A coupling optimization design and experimental study method with uniform experimental and Aspen process simulation was established in this paper, which was used for stable isotope 13C separation of the double-stage cascade. Based on the above method, the optimization operating parameters were received. The coupling optimization simulation value showed good agreement with the experimental dates, and the average relative error was only 6.5%. On the other hand, compared with the initial test result, the 13C abundance of optimized experimental was 14.1%, and the actual growth rate of 13C abundance was more than 25%. More importantly, The optimization experimental did not increase energy consumption. The method confirmed by the experiment could provide a solid foundation for the cascade process of 13C industrialization, and it could also be applied to other traditional distillation industry.

  14. Origin of groundwater salinity and hydrogeochemical processes in a confined coastal aquifer: Case of the Rhone delta (Southern France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montety, Veronique de [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse - INRA, UMR 1114 EMMAH, F-84000 Avignon (France)], E-mail: veronique.de-montety@univ-avignon.fr; Radakovitch, Olivier; Vallet-Coulomb, Christine [CEREGE, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS-CDF-IRD, Europole Mediterraneen de L' Arbois, BP 80, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Blavoux, Bernard [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse - INRA, UMR 1114 EMMAH, F-84000 Avignon (France); Hermitte, Daniel [CEREGE, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS-CDF-IRD, Europole Mediterraneen de L' Arbois, BP 80, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Valles, Vincent [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse - INRA, UMR 1114 EMMAH, F-84000 Avignon (France)

    2008-08-15

    The Rhone delta, South of France (Camargue, 750 km{sup 2}) is a coastal saline wetland located along the Mediterranean Sea. The confined aquifer of this delta shows high values of electrical conductivity rising from the north (4 mS/cm) to the shoreline (58 mS/cm). This work aims to identify the origin of groundwater salinity and the geochemical processes occurring in this coastal confined aquifer according to the degree of salinity. A natural tracing approach is considered using monthly sampling in 8 piezometers for chemical and isotopic analyses ({sup 18}O, {sup 2}H, {sup 13}C{sub TDIC}). Ionic and isotopic ratios demonstrate that strong salinities are due to a simple mixing between Mediterranean seawater and freshwater; seawater contribution reaches up to 98% at 8 km from the shoreline. Seawater intrusion induces a particular groundwater chemistry which varies with the degree of seawater contribution: (1) In the less saline part of the aquifer (seawater contribution <20%), the intrusion induces an increase of Na{sup +} in groundwater leading to Ca{sup 2+}/Na{sup +} exchange processes. The {delta}{sup 13}C{sub TDIC} analyses show that matrix exchange processes most likely occur for the less saline samples. (2) In the saline part of the aquifer (seawater contribution >20%), the intrusion induces SO{sub 4} reduction which is confirmed by highly depleted {delta}{sup 13}C{sub TDIC} values (up to -19 per mille ). The {delta}{sup 13}C{sub TDIC} also reveals that methanogenesis processes may occur in the most reductive part of the aquifer. Due to SO{sub 4} reduction, the intrusion induces a shift in carbonate equilibrium leading to supersaturation with respect to dolomite and/or magnesian calcite. Thus carbonate precipitation may occur in the area strongly influenced by seawater.

  15. Compartmentation of glycogen metabolism revealed from 13C isotopologue distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin de Mas Igor

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stable isotope tracers are used to assess metabolic flux profiles in living cells. The existing methods of measurement average out the isotopic isomer distribution in metabolites throughout the cell, whereas the knowledge of compartmental organization of analyzed pathways is crucial for the evaluation of true fluxes. That is why we accepted a challenge to create a software tool that allows deciphering the compartmentation of metabolites based on the analysis of average isotopic isomer distribution. Results The software Isodyn, which simulates the dynamics of isotopic isomer distribution in central metabolic pathways, was supplemented by algorithms facilitating the transition between various analyzed metabolic schemes, and by the tools for model discrimination. It simulated 13C isotope distributions in glucose, lactate, glutamate and glycogen, measured by mass spectrometry after incubation of hepatocytes in the presence of only labeled glucose or glucose and lactate together (with label either in glucose or lactate. The simulations assumed either a single intracellular hexose phosphate pool, or also channeling of hexose phosphates resulting in a different isotopic composition of glycogen. Model discrimination test was applied to check the consistency of both models with experimental data. Metabolic flux profiles, evaluated with the accepted model that assumes channeling, revealed the range of changes in metabolic fluxes in liver cells. Conclusions The analysis of compartmentation of metabolic networks based on the measured 13C distribution was included in Isodyn as a routine procedure. The advantage of this implementation is that, being a part of evaluation of metabolic fluxes, it does not require additional experiments to study metabolic compartmentation. The analysis of experimental data revealed that the distribution of measured 13C-labeled glucose metabolites is inconsistent with the idea of perfect mixing of hexose

  16. Compartmentation of glycogen metabolism revealed from 13C isotopologue distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mas, Igor Marin; Selivanov, Vitaly A; Marin, Silvia; Roca, Josep; Orešič, Matej; Agius, Loranne; Cascante, Marta

    2011-10-28

    Stable isotope tracers are used to assess metabolic flux profiles in living cells. The existing methods of measurement average out the isotopic isomer distribution in metabolites throughout the cell, whereas the knowledge of compartmental organization of analyzed pathways is crucial for the evaluation of true fluxes. That is why we accepted a challenge to create a software tool that allows deciphering the compartmentation of metabolites based on the analysis of average isotopic isomer distribution. The software Isodyn, which simulates the dynamics of isotopic isomer distribution in central metabolic pathways, was supplemented by algorithms facilitating the transition between various analyzed metabolic schemes, and by the tools for model discrimination. It simulated 13C isotope distributions in glucose, lactate, glutamate and glycogen, measured by mass spectrometry after incubation of hepatocytes in the presence of only labeled glucose or glucose and lactate together (with label either in glucose or lactate). The simulations assumed either a single intracellular hexose phosphate pool, or also channeling of hexose phosphates resulting in a different isotopic composition of glycogen. Model discrimination test was applied to check the consistency of both models with experimental data. Metabolic flux profiles, evaluated with the accepted model that assumes channeling, revealed the range of changes in metabolic fluxes in liver cells. The analysis of compartmentation of metabolic networks based on the measured 13C distribution was included in Isodyn as a routine procedure. The advantage of this implementation is that, being a part of evaluation of metabolic fluxes, it does not require additional experiments to study metabolic compartmentation. The analysis of experimental data revealed that the distribution of measured 13C-labeled glucose metabolites is inconsistent with the idea of perfect mixing of hexose phosphates in cytosol. In contrast, the observed distribution

  17. Preparation of a 1 mg/cm{sup 2} {sup 13}C target.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, J. P.

    1998-11-18

    We give a description for the production of {sup 13}C foils and the preparation of an approximately 1 mg/cm{sup 2} thick target. A recent experiment to measure the mass of {sup 36}Ca via the {sup 40}Ca({sup 4}He,{sup 8}He){sup 36}Ca reaction at the S800 magnetic spectrometer at MSU, needed a precise determination of the beam energy and calibration of the focal plane of the magnetic spectrometer in order to achieve the most accurate value for the {sup 36}Ca mass. The 1 mg/cm{sup 2} {sup 13}C target was essential for these purposes. Target performance along with some preliminary results will also be discussed.

  18. Shifts in relative tissue delta15N values in snowy egret nestlings with dietary mercury exposure: a marker for increased protein degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw-Allen, Patricia L; Romanek, Christopher S; Bryan, A L; Brant, Heather; Jagoe, Charles H

    2005-06-01

    Shifts in tissue nitrogen isotope composition may be a more sensitive general indicator of stress than measurement of high-turnover defensive biomolecules such as metallothionein and glutathione. As a physical resource transmitted along the trophic web, perturbations in protein nitrogen metabolism may also help resolve issues concerning the effects of contaminants on organisms and their consequential hierarchical linkages in ecotoxicology. Snowy egret nestlings (Egretta thula) fed mercury-contaminated diets of constant nitrogen isotope composition exhibited increased relative delta15N values in whole liver (p = 0.0011) and the acid-soluble fraction (ASF) of the liver (p = 0.0005) when compared to nestlings fed a reference diet. When nitrogen isotope data were adjusted for the source term of the diet, liver mercury concentrations corresponded with both whole liver relative 15N enrichment (r2 = 0.79, slope 0.009, p < 0.0001) and relative 15N enrichment in the acid-soluble fraction of the liver (r2 = 0.85, slope 0.026, p < 0.0001). Meanwhile, significant differences were not observed in hepatic levels of the metal-binding peptides metallothionein and glutathione despite a nearly 3-fold difference in liver mercury content. Because increases in tissue delta15N values result from increased rates of protein breakdown relative to synthesis, we propose that the increased relative liver delta15N values reflect a shift in protein metabolism. The relationship between ASF and mercury was significantly stronger (p < 0.0001) than that for whole liver, suggesting that the relationship is driven by an increase in bodily derived amino acids in the acid-soluble, free amino acid pool.

  19. Variation of Oriental Oak (Quercus variabilis Leaf δ13C across Temperate and Subtropical China: Spatial Patterns and Sensitivity to Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoming Du

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of the carbon-13 isotope (leaf δ13C in leaves is negatively correlated with the mean annual precipitation (MAP atlarge geographical scales. In this paper, we explain the spatial pattern of leaf δ13C variation for deciduous oriental oak (Quercus variabilis Bl. across temperate and subtropical biomes and its sensitivity to climate factors such as MAP. There was a 6‰ variation in the leaf δ13C values of oak with a significant positive correlation with latitude and negative correlations with the mean annual temperature (MAT and MAP. There was no correlation between leaf δ13C and altitude or longitude. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that leaf δ13C decreased 0.3‰ per 100 mm increase in MAP. MAP alone could account for 68% of the observed variation in leaf δ13C. These results can be used to improve predictions for plant responses to climate change and particularly lower rainfall.

  20. Simultaneous PET/MRI with (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (hyperPET): phantom-based evaluation of PET quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Adam E; Andersen, Flemming L; Henriksen, Sarah T; Vignaud, Alexandre; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan H; Højgaard, Liselotte; Kjaer, Andreas; Klausen, Thomas L

    2016-12-01

    Integrated PET/MRI with hyperpolarized (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((13)C-MRSI) offers simultaneous, dual-modality metabolic imaging. A prerequisite for the use of simultaneous imaging is the absence of interference between the two modalities. This has been documented for a clinical whole-body system using simultaneous (1)H-MRI and PET but never for (13)C-MRSI and PET. Here, the feasibility of simultaneous PET and (13)C-MRSI as well as hyperpolarized (13)C-MRSI in an integrated whole-body PET/MRI hybrid scanner is evaluated using phantom experiments. Combined PET and (13)C-MRSI phantoms including a NEMA [(18)F]-FDG phantom, (13)C-acetate and (13)C-urea sources, and hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate were imaged repeatedly with PET and/or (13)C-MRSI. Measurements evaluated for interference effects included PET activity values in the largest sphere and a background region; total number of PET trues; and (13)C-MRSI signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for urea and acetate phantoms. Differences between measurement conditions were evaluated using t tests. PET and (13)C-MRSI data acquisition could be performed simultaneously without any discernible artifacts. The average difference in PET activity between acquisitions with and without simultaneous (13)C-MRSI was 0.83 (largest sphere) and -0.76 % (background). The average difference in net trues was -0.01 %. The average difference in (13)C-MRSI SNR between acquisitions with and without simultaneous PET ranged from -2.28 to 1.21 % for all phantoms and measurement conditions. No differences were significant. The system was capable of (13)C-MRSI of hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate. Simultaneous PET and (13)C-MRSI in an integrated whole-body PET/MRI hybrid scanner is feasible. Phantom experiments showed that possible interference effects introduced by acquiring data from the two modalities simultaneously are small and non-significant. Further experiments can now investigate the benefits of simultaneous PET and

  1. Short-term d13C changes in cultivated soils from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounejeva, E.; Etchevers, J.; Morales Puente, P.; Cienfuegos Alvarado, E.; Sedov, S.; Solleiro, E.; Hidalgo, C.

    2007-05-01

    The soils of the Mexican Volcanic Belt are part of ecosystems subjected to strong human impact during the last six centuries. One measurable characteristic of the soil is the stable carbon isotopic relation of the soil organic matter (SOM) or d13C. The d13C SOM parameter is a genetic characteristic of soil reflecting the relative proportion of C3 and C4 that comes from colonizing plants having different photosynthetic C pathway and is used as a high-spatial resolution tool to infer paleoenvironmental changes.The d13C mean signatures of C3 and C4 plants are -27 and -13 %o, respectively. This work focuses on short-term changes in d13C on soils subjected to controlled agricultural practices during 2002-2005 in two sites of Mexico with similar annual precipitation and temperature. The tepetate was broken up 20y ago and ameliorated with fertilizers and organic matter. In both sites three experimental treatments consisting of traditional soil management and two variations of this one were evaluated. Traditional treatment implies low fertilizer and any chemical input, sowing annual crops during the rainy season and, in general, using low energy input. The crops planted were: legumes C3, oat C3, and a mixture of maizeC4 and beanC3, and wheatC3. The Improved and Organic treatments, had higher input of N and P as chemical fertilizers, and of organic manure (manure or compost), respectively. Soil samples were collected from the plow layer in Tlaxcala and in Michoacán, before C4 maize was planted. An Andisol from a pine-oak (C3 species) forest close to the Atecuaro site was also sampled up to 40 cm. This soil was considered a reference site not recently influenced by human activity. To analyze the d13C ratios of the SOM carbonate free samples, a routine combustion method and mass spectrometry (Finnigan MAT250) were used. In both agricultural sites a general excess of C3 species over C4 was evidenced through a mass balance equation derived from experimental d13C values

  2. Aplicaciones de los marcadores biogeoquímicos δ13C y δ18O en Mazama temama Aplications of biogeochemical markers δ13C and δ18O in Mazama temama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Adrián Pérez-Crespo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los valores isotópicos de δ13C y δ18O obtenidos del esmalte dental de un temazate procedente de un sitio arqueológico. Dichos valores indican que este cérvido tenía una dieta ramoneadora y habitaba en una zona de vegetación cerrada.We present isotopic values of δ13C and δ18O obtained from dental enamel in a brocket deer individual found in an archeological site. Those values show that the individual had a browser in an area of closed vegetation.

  3. Aplicaciones de los marcadores biogeoquímicos δ13C y δ18O en Mazama temama Aplications of biogeochemical markers δ13C and δ18O in Mazama temama

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Adrián Pérez-Crespo; Ximena Ulloa-Montemayor; Guillermo Acosta-Ochoa; Joaquín Arroyo-Cabrales; Luis M. Alva-Valdivia; Pedro Morales-Puente; Edith Cienfuegos-Alvarado

    2012-01-01

    Se presentan los valores isotópicos de δ13C y δ18O obtenidos del esmalte dental de un temazate procedente de un sitio arqueológico. Dichos valores indican que este cérvido tenía una dieta ramoneadora y habitaba en una zona de vegetación cerrada.We present isotopic values of δ13C and δ18O obtained from dental enamel in a brocket deer individual found in an archeological site. Those values show that the individual had a browser in an area of closed vegetation.

  4. Calculation of the 13C NMR shieldings of the C0 2 complexes of aluminosilicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossell, J. A.

    1995-04-01

    13C NMR shieldings have been calculated using the random-phase-approximation, localized-orbital local-origins version of ab initio coupled Hartree-Fuck perturbation theory for CO 2 and and for several complexes formed by the reaction of CO 2 with molecular models for aluminosilicate glasses, H 3TOT'H3 3-n, T,T' = Si,Al. Two isomeric forms of the CO 2-aluminosilicate complexes have been considered: (1) "CO 2-like" complexes, in which the CO 2 group is bound through carbon to a bridging oxygen and (2) "CO 3-like" complexes, in which two oxygens of a central CO 3 group form bridging bonds to the two TH 3 groups. The CO 2-like isomer of CO 2-H 3SiOSiH 3 is quite weakly bonded and its 13C isotropic NMR shielding is almost identical to that in free CO 2. As Si is progressively replaced by Al in the - H terminated aluminosilicate model, the CO 2-like isomers show increasing distortion from the free CO 2 geometry and their 13C NMR shieldings decrease uniformly. The calculated 13C shielding value for H 3AlO(CO 2)AlH 3-2 is only about 6 ppm larger than that calculated for point charge stabilized CO 3-2. However, for a geometry of H 3SiO(CO 2) AlH 3-1, in which the bridging oxygen to C bond length has been artificially increased to that found in the - OH terminated cluster (OH) 3SiO(CO 2)Al(OH) 3-1, the calculated 13C shielding is almost identical to that for free CO 2. The CO 3-like isomers of the CO 2-aluminosili-cate complexes show carbonate like geometries and 13C NMR shieldings about 4-9 ppm larger than those of carbonate for all T,T' pairs. For the Si,Si tetrahedral atom pair the CO 2-like isomer is more stable energetically, while for the Si,Al and Al,Al cases the CO 3-like isomer is more stable. Addition of Na + ions to the CO 3-2 or H 3AlO(CO 2)AlH 3-2 complexes reduces the 13C NMR shieldings by about 10 ppm. Complexation with either Na + or CO 2 also reduces the 29Si NMR shieldings of the aluminosilicate models, while the changes in 27Al shielding with Na + or CO 2

  5. Variation in Foliar δ13C of Desert Plant Reaumuria soongorica (Pall.) Maxim. among Different Environments in Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J.; Pendall, E.; Chen, F.

    2008-12-01

    Reaumuria soongorica is a dominant desert shrub species in arid regions of northwest China, it playing an important role in the maintenance of the stability and continuity of desert ecosystem. The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution characteristics of foliar δ13C value in R. soongorica, establish the correlations between foliar characteristics and environmental factors, and identify the major factor controlling the variations of foliar δ13C among different environments. Leaves of R. soongorica were collected from 21 natural populations in its major distribution area in northwestern China, across a range of mean annual precipitation from 27 to 328 mm, at altitudes from 394 to 1987 m above sea level, at latitudes from 36°N to 45°N and at longitudes from 81°E to 107°E. We measured the leaf nitrogen (LN), phosphorus (LP), potassium content (LK), leaf water content (LWC) and foliar δ13C in leaves of 407 individuals, and the soil physicochemical properties including nitrogen (SN), phosphorus (SP), soil organic matter (SOM), soil water contents (SWC) and total dissolved solids (TDS). Mean annual precipitation (MAP), mean annual temperature (MAT), evaporation, mean relative humidity (MRH) and duration of sunshine (DS), were collected from the Cold and Arid Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences. We observed that the foliar δ13C values increased significantly with the decreasing of MAP (r = -0.623, P = 0.003) and MRH(r = -0.702, P = 0.002), and decreased with decreasing DS and evaporation. No significant correlation with MAT was detected in δ13C values of R. soongorica. The correlations between foliar δ13C value and the soil factors demonstrated that the foliar δ13C values in R. soongorica significantly increased with the decreasing SWC (r = - 0.470, P = 0.037) and increasing TDS (r = 0.507, P = 0.022) in soil. There were no significant correlations between the foliar δ13C values and soil pH, total

  6. Foliar δ13C Showed No Altitudinal Trend in an Arid Region and Atmospheric Pressure Exerted a Negative Effect on Plant δ13C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zixun Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested foliar δ13C generally increases with altitude. However, some observations reported no changes or even decreased trends in foliar δ13C. We noted that all the studies in which δ13C increased with elevation were conducted in the human regions, whereas those investigations in which δ13C did not vary or decreased were conducted in areas with water stress. Thus, we proposed that the pattern of increasing δ13C with elevation is not a general one, and that δ13C may remain unchanged or decrease in plants grown in arid environments. To test the hypothesis, we sampled plants along altitude gradients on the shady and sunny slopes of Mount Tianshan characterized by arid and semiarid climates. The measurements of foliar δ13C showed no altitudinal trends for the plants grown on either of the slopes. Therefore, this study supported our hypothesis. In addition, the present study addressed the effect of atmospheric pressure on plant δ13C by accounting for the effects of temperature and precipitation on δ13C. This study found that the residual foliar δ13C increased with increasing altitude, suggesting that atmospheric pressure played a negative role in foliar δ13C.

  7. Soil microarthropods and their bioindicator value regarding the bio-edaphic conditions in forest ecosystems of Danube Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călugăr A.,

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to compare soil mesofauna communities in natural and anthropogenic forests from Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve and establish a baseline data in monitoring the disturbed sites. The abundance and diversity of edaphic microarthropods were analyzed in five plots, three of them being natural forests and two plantations (Canada poplar, and respectively willow. The mites from Trombidiformes and Oribatida were closely investigated being identified at family level. Qualitative analysis of edaphic microarthropods evidences numerical dominance of mites, excepting only one stand (Canada poplar plantation. Among mites Oribatida owns the biggest weight (76.6 - 94.1% of the total mites, followed by Trombidiformes or Mesostigmata. Among insects the collembolans hold higher density in the poplar plantation, and the lowest one in the willow plantation. Structure of mites communities differs between the investigated ecosystems both in quantitative and qualitative aspects depending on particular conditions of each plot.

  8. In vivo detection of intermediate metabolic products of [1-(13) C]ethanol in the brain using (13) C MRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yun; Shen, Jun

    2011-11-01

    In this study, in vivo (13) C MRS was used to investigate the labeling of brain metabolites after intravenous administration of [1-(13) C]ethanol. After [1-(13) C]ethanol had been administered systemically to rats, (13) C labels were detected in glutamate, glutamine and aspartate in the carboxylic and amide carbon spectral region. (13) C-labeled bicarbonate HCO 3- (161.0 ppm) was also detected. Saturating acetaldehyde C1 at 207.0 ppm was found to have no effect on the ethanol C1 (57.7 ppm) signal intensity after extensive signal averaging, providing direct in vivo evidence that direct metabolism of alcohol by brain tissue is minimal. To compare the labeling of brain metabolites by ethanol with labeling by glucose, in vivo time course data were acquired during intravenous co-infusion of [1-(13) C]ethanol and [(13) C(6) ]-D-glucose. In contrast with labeling by [(13) C(6) ]-D-glucose, which produced doublets of carboxylic/amide carbons with a J coupling constant of 51 Hz, the simultaneously detected glutamate and glutamine singlets were labeled by [1-(13) C]ethanol. As (13) C labels originating from ethanol enter the brain after being converted into [1-(13) C]acetate in the liver, and the direct metabolism of ethanol by brain tissue is negligible, it is suggested that orally or intragastrically administered (13) C-labeled ethanol may be used to study brain metabolism and glutamatergic neurotransmission in investigations involving alcohol administration. In vivo (13) C MRS of rat brain following intragastric administration of (13) C-labeled ethanol is demonstrated. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Microbial alteration of normal alkane δ13C and δD in sedimentary archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittingham, A.; Hren, M. T.; Hartman, G.

    2016-12-01

    Long-carbon chain normal alkanes (e.g. C25-C33) are produced by a wide range of terrestrial plants and commonly preserved in ancient sediments. These serve as a potential paleoclimate proxy because their hydrogen (δD) and carbon (δ13C) isotope values reflect the combined effect of plant-specific species effects and responses to environmental conditions. While these are commonly believed to remain unaltered at low burial temperatures (e.g. climate, and allowed to sit in sealed bags at room temperature for three years. A second and identical set was collected in 2014 and frozen immediately. Stored samples showed high amounts of medium chain length n-alkanes (C19-C26), produced by microorganisms, which were absent from the samples that were collected in 2014 and frozen immediately after sampling. Along with the presence of medium chain length n-alkanes, the average chain length of n-alkanes from C25-C33 decreased significantly in all 2011 samples. Storage of the samples over three years resulted in altered δD and δ13C values of C29 and C31 n-alkanes. While δD values were heavier relative to the control by 4-25‰, δ13C values were mostly lighter (maximum change of -4.2‰ in C29 and -2.9‰ in C31). DNA analysis of the soil showed Rhodococcus and Aeromicrobium, genera that contain multiple coding regions for alkane degrading enzymes CYP153 and AlkB, increased by an order of magnitude during sample storage (from 0.7% to 7.5% of bacteria present). The proliferation of alkane degrading bacteria, combined with the large changes of long-chain n-alkane isotope values, suggest that bacteria may play a larger role than previously expected in altering the measured δD and δ13C values of long-chain n-alkanes during storage. This poses a potentially significant issue for all manner of samples that are not stored frozen, including a variety of sedimentary cores.

  10. Structure of /sup 13/C studied by pion scattering near the (3,3) resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seestrom-Morris, S.J.

    1981-09-01

    Good resolution (..pi../sup +/,..pi../sup +/') and (..pi../sup -/,..pi../sup -/') data were obtained for many states in /sup 13/C using the Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Differential cross sections were measured for angles between 20/sup 0/ and 105/sup 0/ at an incident pion energy of 162 MeV for the elastic scattering as well as for states at excitation energies of 3.09, 3.68, 3.85, 7.55, 8.86, 9.5, 11.82, 16.05, 17.92, 21.37, and 21.6 MeV. Excitation functions were measured at momentum transfers of q = 1.1 h fm /sup -1/ and q = 1.4 h fm/sup -1/, for energies between 100 and 300 MeV. A sigma(..pi../sup -/)/sigma(..pi../sup +/) ratio of 9:1 was observed for the first time, indicating a pure neutron particle-hole excitation of a high spin state (J/sup ..pi../ = 9/2/sup +/). Strikingly different energy dependences were found for ..delta..S = 0 and ..delta..S = 1 transitions. Data for all states were compared with the microscopic model calculations of Lee and Kurath. Very good agreement was found between experiment and theory for the strongly excited states and the 9/2/sup +/ state at 9.5 MeV, in sharp contrast to the disagreement for weak transitions. The excitation function data and comparisons with the microscopic model calculations were used to identify the states at 16.05, 17.92, 21.37, and 21.6 MeV as either 7/2/sup +/ or 9/2/sup +/ states. The elastic scattering data were analyzed with an optical modeland the results were found to be consistent with neutron and proton distributions having equal rms radii. The optical potentials generated were used in a collective model analysis of the 3/2/sup -/ (3.68 MeV) and 5/2/sup -/ (7.55 MeV) states. The reduced transition probabilities (B(E2)) derived from the proton parts of the transition strength are in agreement with those determined from electromagnetic measurements.

  11. 13C appearance in plasma glucose and breath CO2 during feeding with naturally 13C-enriched starchy food in normal humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, S; Pachiaudi, C; Khalfallah, Y; Guilluy, R; Mornex, R; Riou, J P

    1992-02-01

    We have used a recently developed technique (isotope-ratio mass spectrometer) to measure 13C appearance in plasma glucose and breath CO2 in eight normal subjects during feeding with naturally 13C-enriched starch. 13C in CO2 and plasma glucose, metabolites and insulin concentrations, carbohydrates, and lipid oxidation were measured after ingestion of 76 g glucose equivalent of crackers, pasta, or polenta. 13C in plasma glucose displays a very different pattern from plasma glucose concentration. It increases steadily for 90 min before reaching a plateau for approximately 2 h and slowly declines during the last 2 h of the study. No significant difference was observed with the three different starchy foods tested although plasma glucose tended to be higher during feeding with polenta. In summary measurement of 13C in plasma glucose during feeding with naturally 13C-labeled carbohydrates yields new insight in the study of carbohydrate bioavailability in humans.

  12. Quantitative importance of the pentose phosphate pathway determined by incorporation of 13C from [2-13C]- and [3-13C]glucose into TCA cycle intermediates and neurotransmitter amino acids in functionally intact neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brekke, Eva Marie; Walls, Anne Byriel; Schousboe, Arne

    2012-01-01

    is known about the PPP in neurons. The activity of the PPP was quantified in cultured cerebral cortical and cerebellar neurons after incubation in the presence of [2-(13)C]glucose or [3-(13)C]glucose. The activity of the PPP was several fold lower than glycolysis in both types of neurons. While metabolism...

  13. Chemical shift encoded imaging of hyperpolarized (13) C pyruvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Curtis N; Friesen-Waldner, Lanette J; Wade, Trevor P; Sinclair, Kevin J; McKenzie, Charles A

    2015-12-01

    To demonstrate a reconstruction technique for separating signal from different hyperpolarized carbon-13 metabolites. A reconstruction method is described for chemical shift encoded separation of the signal from pyruvate and its downstream metabolites. This method uses consistency of the data with the signal model rather than an additional free-induction decay (FID) acquisition to estimate the B0 offset. Compressed sensing was also integrated into the reconstruction allowing reconstruction of metabolite images from undersampled datasets. The performance of the reconstruction was assessed using thermal phantoms, digital phantoms, and in vivo hyperpolarized [1-(13) C] pyruvate experiments. Thermal and digital phantoms indicate that metabolite separation is feasible given Signal-to-noise ratio > 5 and an initial B0 offset estimate within -105 Hz to 90 Hz of the actual B0 offset. In vivo comparisons to an existing FID calibrated reconstruction show improved fidelity in regions with significant field map inhomogeneity provided that these field map variations are accounted for using an additional proton acquisition. Prospectively and retrospectively undersampled studies show acceleration factors of 2 are feasible using compressed sensing. A reconstruction framework for the separation of signal from pyruvate and its downstream metabolites is shown. This reconstruction eliminates the need to acquire additional calibration FID acquisition and allows acceleration through compressed sensing. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Inelastic pion scattering by /sup 13/C at low energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J.H.

    1987-03-01

    Angular distributions for inelastically scattered pions were obtained for several states in /sup 13/C at an incident energy of 65 MeV. The data include results from both ..pi../sup +/ and ..pi../sup -/ measurements. In addition, ..pi../sup -/ measurements were made at T/sub ..pi../ = 50 MeV at one angle to give a two point fixed-q excitation function. The data are compared to theory and the data of others. As might be expected, medium corrections are shown to be considerably more important at low energies than at resonance. This is true for inelastic transitions of multipolarity 0,2 and 3. Parameters derived from an analysis of elastic pion scattering and SCX data also provide an adequate description of the inelastic transitions. The charge asymmetry in the cross sections for the 9/2/sup +/ state that was seen at resonance persists at these energies. This result is consistent with an impulse approximation treatment of the spin-flip amplitude. This is true even though the incoming energy of the pions is far below the range where the validity of an impulse treatment is expected. 65 refs., 45 figs.

  15. Simultaneous imaging of hyperpolarized [1,4-(13) C2 ]fumarate, [1-(13) C]pyruvate and (18) F-FDG in a rat model of necrosis in a clinical PET/MR scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldirdiri, Abubakr; Clemmensen, Andreas; Bowen, Sean; Kjaer, Andreas; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan Henrik

    2017-12-01

    A co-polarization scheme for [1,4-(13) C2 ]fumarate and [1-(13) C]pyruvate is presented to simultaneously assess necrosis and metabolism in rats with hyperpolarized (13) C magnetic resonance (MR). The co-polarization was performed in a SPINlab polarizer. In addition, the feasibility of simultaneous positron emission tomography (PET) and MR of small animals with a clinical PET/MR scanner is demonstrated. The hyperpolarized metabolic MR and PET was demonstrated in a rat model of necrosis. The polarization and T1 of the co-polarized [1,4-(13) C2 ]fumarate and [1-(13) C]pyruvate substrates were measured in vitro and compared with those obtained when the substrates were polarized individually. A polarization of 36 ± 4% for fumarate and 37 ± 6% for pyruvate was obtained. We found no significant difference in the polarization and T1 values between the dual and single substrate polarization. Rats weighing about 400 g were injected intramuscularly in one of the hind legs with 200 μL of turpentine to induce necrosis. Two hours later, (13) C metabolic maps were obtained with a chemical shift imaging sequence (16 × 16) with a resolution of 3.1 × 5.0 × 25.0 mm(3) . The (13) C spectroscopic images were acquired in 12 s, followed by an 8-min (18) F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ((18) F-FDG) PET acquisition with a resolution of 3.5 mm. [1,4-(13) C2 ]Malate was observed from the tissue injected with turpentine indicating necrosis. Normal [1-(13) C]pyruvate metabolism and (18) F-FDG uptake were observed from the same tissue. The proposed co-polarization scheme provides a means to utilize multiple imaging agents simultaneously, and thus to probe various metabolic pathways in a single examination. Moreover, it demonstrates the feasibility of small animal research on a clinical PET/MR scanner for combined PET and hyperpolarized metabolic MR. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. What do carbonate δ13C variations tell us about the evolution of the marine environmental conditions vs. life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgwell, A.

    2016-12-01

    Each end of the Proterozoic Eon (2500-542 Ma) sees the occurrence of extended intervals in which unusually large (compared to the Dullville record of the Phanerozoic) fluctuations in the carbon isotopic (δ13C) values recorded in marine carbonates. These variations presumably must reflect fundamental changes occurring in the global carbon cycle (although some point to diagenesis as the elephant in the outcrop), yet the nature of these, and their relationship to e.g. extreme climatic fluctuations and occurrence of quasi global scale ice ages, is unknown. Here I outline a new interpretation that is in theory able to account for much of the observed Proterozoic δ13C variability and potentially linking it to transitions in the oxidation state of the surficial Earth via changes in ocean pH. I illustrate how this all works by considering the evolution of global carbon cycling in the immediate aftermath of Marinoan glaciation, in an Earth system model (`cGENIE'), elucidating the process that together account for the enigmatic cap carbonate δ13C (negative excursion) signature. If even partially correct, such an interpretation of Proterozoic carbonate δ13C variability suggests an even more unstable and variable evolution of redox state than previously thought and sheds a new light on the utility of carbonate δ13C as a proxy.

  17. Testing a new Method of Estimating the δ13C of Photosynthate in Trees: Stem CO2 Equilibration}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubierna Lopez, N.; Kavanagh, K.; Marshall, J. D.

    2006-12-01

    Modeling and prediction of forest responses to climate change often deal with the difficulty of estimating gas- exchange responses to rising CO2 concentrations and temperatures. This difficulty can be overcome with stable carbon isotopes, which provide a tool to study the coupling of the carbon and water cycles. Recently, considerable research has concentrated on trying to identify processes occurring after photosynthesis that modify the isotopic composition of a given plant tissue, which has led to questions about which plant tissue will best reflect environmental variations and photosynthetic discrimination. Here, we propose a new method that uses CO2 collected from inside the stem. A simple collection apparatus consisting of a stainless steel tube is inserted into the tree. The gas from the stem diffuses and equilibrates with the headspace. Gas samples are subsequently collected by replacing the gas inside the tubing with acidified water. This technique minimizes any change in pressure inside the system or any atmospheric contamination from outside the system. We compared the measured δ13C of stem CO2 to known leaf values in four conifer species at Mica Creek Experimental Watershed, in northern Idaho, USA. In addition, δ13C of soil respiration, δ13C leaf bulk material, δ13C phloem contents, and photosynthetic gas- exchange data were collected. We collected stem CO2 samples weekly through August 2006 during a long drought period. Mean monthly temperature was 16°C, cumulative precipitation in July and August was 33 mm, and mean maximum VPD was 4.1 kPa during this month. The most depleted species was Larix occidentalis, with δ13C = -26.97 ‰ (SE = 0.30), following by the shade-tolerant Abies grandis, with δ13C = -26.33 ‰ (SE = 0.23). In comparison, Pseudotsuga menziesii, with δ13C = -24.88 ‰ (SE =0.48) and Thuja plicata with δ13C = - 23.79 ‰ (SE = 0.30) were more enriched. These δ13C values are consistent with previous measurements of leaf bulk

  18. Diamond growth from subducted carbon implied by correlated δ18O-δ13C variations in diamonds and garnet inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickert, R. B.; Stachel, T.; Harris, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Much of our knowledge of the deep-Earth carbon cycle is derived from studies of diamond. The sources of carbon in the mantle and the mechanisms of transport and precipitation as diamond, however, are not entirely understood. Due to the chemical purity of diamond, scientific effort has focussed on syngenetic mineral inclusions and their relationship to their diamond hosts. For example, it is well known that, on a worldwide scale, diamonds with eclogitic inclusions have a distinct δ13C distribution when compared to more abundant peridotitic diamonds. Eclogitic diamonds have a distribution that extends from mantle-like δ13C values (ca. -5%), to very light carbon (mine (Orapa cluster, Botswana). The δ13C values of the host diamond were determined to have a wide range (-4.4% to -18%; Deines et al. 2009; Lithos v.112 p776). From 15 inclusions, the δ18O variations range from +4.8 to +8.8 %. The relative 18O abundances are negatively correlated with the δ13C of the host diamonds, suggesting a link between high δ18O host rocks and low δ13C diamonds. Although fractionation of δ13C values is possible at high temperature, δ18O values are susceptible only to very small high temperature fractionations. For example, Cartigny et al. (2001, EPSL v.185 p85) suggested that CO2 degassing from a carbonate-bearing melt prior to diamond precipitation may be responsible for a δ13C distribution of eclogitic diamonds worldwide that is skewed to 13C depleted compositions. Our data place new constraints on that model. Depending on the C/O ratio of the melt, CO2 degassing will either have a negligible effect on the δ18O of the residual melt, or (at high C/O) induce a positive correlation between δ18O and δ13C, contrary to the negative correlation documented here. We suggest instead that low δ13C diamonds at Damtshaa are associated with sources whose protoliths were exposed to low-temperature alteration (increasing their δ18O). We relate the connection between low δ13C and

  19. Dietary glutamine, glutamic acid and nucleotide supplementation accelerate carbon turnover (δ13C on stomach of weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D. Assoni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of stable isotope analysis as a tool for characterization of carbon turnover (δ13C in piglet's tissues by tracing its feeding system has drawn attention. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating the influence of dietary glutamine, glutamic acid and nucleotides supplementation on carbon turnover in fundic-stomach region of weaned piglets at an average age of 21 days. The diets consisted of additive-free diet – control (C; 1% glutamine (G; 1% glutamic acid (GA and 1% nucleotides (Nu. At weaning day (day 0: baseline, 3 piglets were slaughtered to quantify the δ13C of stomach. The remaining 120 piglets were blocked by weight and sex, randomly assigned to pens with 3 piglets slaughtered per treatment at days 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 13, 20, 27 and 49 after weaning in order to verify the fundic-stomach isotopic composition by treatments. Samples were analyzed in terms of 13C/12C ratio by mass spectrometry and converted to relative isotopic enrichment values13C ‰ used to plot the first order exponential curves over time using OriginPro 8.0 software. The inclusion of glutamine, glutamate and nucleotides in piglet's diets has accelerated the carbon turnover in stomach during the post-weaning period, demonstrating also that glutamate has guaranteed fastest 13C incorporation rate on fundic-stomach region and pH-lowering. Besides that, stable isotopes technique (δ13C has proved to be an important methodology to determine the time-scales at which piglets shift among diets with different isotopic values, characterizing the trophic effects of additives and the phenotypic flexibility of stomach.

  20. Gas chromatography and isotope ratio mass spectrometry of Pinot Noir wine volatile compounds (δ13C) and solid residues (δ13C, δ15N) for the reassessment of vineyard water-status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Jorge E; Vogiatzaki, Maria; Zufferey, Vivian

    2017-09-29

    This paper describes a novel approach to reassess the water status in vineyards based on compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of wine volatile organic compounds (δ 13 C VOC/VPDB ) and bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopes, and the C/N molar ratios of the wine solid residues (δ 13 C SR/VPDB , δ 15 N SR/Air-N2 ). These analyses link gas chromatography/combustion and elemental analysis to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS, EA/IRMS). Field-grown cultivars of Pinot Noir grapevines were exposed during six growing seasons (2009-2014) to controlled soil water availability, while maintaining identical the other environmental variables and agricultural techniques. Wines were produced from the grapes by the same oenological protocol. This permitted for the assessment of the effects in the biochemistry of wines solely induced by the changes in the plant-soil water status. This mimicked the more recurrent and prolonged periods of soil water deficiency due to climate changes. Water stress in grapevine was assessed by the measurement of the predawn leaf water potential (Ψ pd ) and the stable carbon isotope composition of the berry sugars during harvest (must sugars). For quantitation purposes and the normalization of the measured stable carbon isotope ratios of the VOCs, the wine samples were spiked with three standard compounds with known concentration and δ 13 C VPDB values. VOCs were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID), gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and GC/C/IRMS. δ 13 C values were obtained for eighteen VOCs. The solid residues were obtained by freeze-drying wine aliquots and were analyzed for their C and N content and isotope composition by EA/IRMS. All the isotopic ratios (δ 13 C SR , δ 15 N SR , δ 13 C VOC ) are highly correlated with the Ψ pd values, indicating that the proposed gas chromatography and isotope ratio mass spectrometry approach is a useful tool to

  1. Using regression models to evaluate the formation of trihalomethanes and haloacetonitriles via chlorination of source water with low SUVA values in the Yangtze River Delta region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Huachang; Song, Qianyun; Mazumder, Asit; Luo, Qian; Chen, Jianrong; Lin, Hongjun; Yu, Haiying; Shen, Liguo; Liang, Yan

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the multiple regression models to evaluate the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetonitriles (HANs) during chlorination of source water with low specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) in Yangtze River Delta, China. The results showed that the regression models of THMs exhibited good accuracy and precision, and 86-97 % of the calculated values fell within ±25 % of the measured values. While the HANs models showed relatively weak evaluation ability, as only 75-83 % of the calculated values were within ±25 % of the measured values. The organic matter [dissolved organic carbon (DOC) or UV absorbance at 254 nm] and bromide exerted the most important influence on the formation of HANs. While for THMs, besides the organic matter and bromide, reaction time was also a key factor. Comparing the models for total THMs (T-THMs) in this study with others revealed that the regression models from the low SUVA waters may have low DOC coefficients, but high bromide coefficients as compared with those from the high SUVA waters.

  2. Observations of atmospheric methane and its stable isotope ratio (δ13C) over the Arctic seas from ship cruises in the summer and autumn of 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorokhod, Andrey; Belikov, Igor; Pankratova, Natalia; Novigatsky, Alexander; Thompson, Rona

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric methane (CH4) is the second most important long-lived greenhouse gas. The Arctic has significant sources of CH4, such as from wetlands and possibly also from methane hydrates, which may act as a positive feedback on the climate system. Despite significant efforts in establishing a network of ground-based CH4 observations in the Arctic zone, there is still a lack of measurements over the Arctic Ocean and sub-polar seas. From 21 July to 9 October 2015, concentrations of CH4 and CO2, as well as of the 13C:12C isotopic ratio in CH4, i.e., δ13C, were measured in the marine boundary layer from aboard the Research Vessel "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh" by the Shirshov Institute of Oceanology. Measurements were made using a Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy instrument from Picarro™ (model G2132-i). The cruises covered a vast area including the North Atlantic up to 70°N, the Baltic, North, Norwegian, Greenland, Barents, White, Kara and Laptev Seas. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first measurements of their type made in these regions. Concentrations of CH4 typically had low variations (in the range of a few ppb) in the open sea but relatively large variations (of the order of 100 ppb) were recorded near and during stops in ports. High variability of atmospheric CH4 was also registered near the delta of the Lena River in the Laptev Sea, which has been suggested to be a large CH4 reservoir and where bubbles rising through the water column have been observed. The obtained set of δ13CCH4 is characterized by significant range of the measured values varying from open Atlantic to polluted regions near large sea ports. The Keeling plot analyses were implemented to study possible CH4 sources according to its isotopic signature. Footprint analyses are presented for the shipboard observations, as well as comparisons to simulated CH4 concentrations and δ13C using the Lagrangian transport model, FLEXPART. This work has been carried-out with the financial support of

  3. Structural properties of carbon nanotubes derived from 13C NMR

    KAUST Repository

    Abou-Hamad, E.

    2011-10-10

    We present a detailed experimental and theoretical study on how structural properties of carbon nanotubes can be derived from 13C NMR investigations. Magic angle spinning solid state NMR experiments have been performed on single- and multiwalled carbon nanotubes with diameters in the range from 0.7 to 100 nm and with number of walls from 1 to 90. We provide models on how diameter and the number of nanotube walls influence NMR linewidth and line position. Both models are supported by theoretical calculations. Increasing the diameter D, from the smallest investigated nanotube, which in our study corresponds to the inner nanotube of a double-walled tube to the largest studied diameter, corresponding to large multiwalled nanotubes, leads to a 23.5 ppm diamagnetic shift of the isotropic NMR line position δ. We show that the isotropic line follows the relation δ = 18.3/D + 102.5 ppm, where D is the diameter of the tube and NMR line position δ is relative to tetramethylsilane. The relation asymptotically tends to approach the line position expected in graphene. A characteristic broadening of the line shape is observed with the increasing number of walls. This feature can be rationalized by an isotropic shift distribution originating from different diamagnetic shielding of the encapsulated nanotubes together with a heterogeneity of the samples. Based on our results, NMR is shown to be a nondestructive spectroscopic method that can be used as a complementary method to, for example, transmission electron microscopy to obtain structural information for carbon nanotubes, especially bulk samples.

  4. The influence of fish cage culture on δ13C and δ15N of filter-feeding Bivalvia (Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito, E; Figueroa, L; Takeda, A M; Manetta, G I

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Oreochromis niloticus cage culture promoted variations in the δ13C and δ15N in Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca; Bivalvia) and in the sediment of an aquatic food web. Samples were taken before and after net cage installation in the Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, PR-SP). Samples of specimens of the bivalve filterer C. fluminea and samples of sediment were collected using a modified Petersen grab. All samples were dried in an oven (60 °C) for 72 hours, macerated to obtain homogenous fine powders and sent for carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopic value analysis in a mass spectrometer. There were significant differences in the δ13C and δ15N values of the invertebrate C. fluminea between the beginning and the end of the experiment. There were no differences between the δ13C and δ15N values of sediment. These results indicate that the installation of fish cage culture promoted impacts in the isotopic composition of the aquatic food web organisms, which could exert influence over the native species and the ecosystem.

  5. The influence of fish cage culture on δ13C and δ15N of filter-feeding Bivalvia (Mollusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Benedito

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Oreochromis niloticus cage culture promoted variations in the δ13C and δ15N in Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca; Bivalvia and in the sediment of an aquatic food web. Samples were taken before and after net cage installation in the Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, PR-SP. Samples of specimens of the bivalve filterer C. fluminea and samples of sediment were collected using a modified Petersen grab. All samples were dried in an oven (60 °C for 72 hours, macerated to obtain homogenous fine powders and sent for carbon (δ13C and nitrogen (δ15N isotopic value analysis in a mass spectrometer. There were significant differences in the δ13C and δ15N values of the invertebrate C. fluminea between the beginning and the end of the experiment. There were no differences between the δ13C and δ15N values of sediment. These results indicate that the installation of fish cage culture promoted impacts in the isotopic composition of the aquatic food web organisms, which could exert influence over the native species and the ecosystem.

  6. Thz Spectroscopy of 13C Isotopic Species of a "weed": Acetaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2011-06-01

    Our studies of the isotopic species of 13C and D isotopologues of methyl formate (HCOOCH_3), have allowed the detection of more than 600 lines in Orion. This confirms that many observed U-lines are coming from isotopic species of one of the most abundant molecules in space. Since its first detection in 1976 in SgrB2 and in Orion A, acetaldehyde (CH_3CHO) was detected in many other numerous objects. If its deuterated species (CD_3CHO and CH_3CDO) have been previously studied in the millimeterwave range, the data concerning the 13C species are limited to few lines measured in 1957 up to 40 GHz. In this context we decided to study the 13C species of acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde molecule displays a large amplitude motion: the hindered rotation of the methyl group with respect to the rest of the molecule. The analysis is performed with the Rho Axis Method. Recent versions of the codes include high orders term in order to reproduce the observed frequencies for large quantum numbers values as J-values as high as 70a,b,. Measurements and analysis of the rotational spectra of 13C isotopic species are in progress in Lille with a solid-state submillimetre-wave spectrometer (50-950 GHz), the first results will be presented. This work is supported by the contract ANR-08-BLAN-0054 and by the Programme National de Physico-Chimie du Milieu Interstellaire (PCMI-CNRS). Carvajal, M.; Margulès, L.; Tercero, B.; et al.A&A 500, (2009) 1109 Margulès, L.; Huet, T. R.; Demaison J.; et al.,ApJ 714, (2010) 1120. Ikeda, M.; Ohishi, M.; Nummelin, A.; et al., ApJ, 560, (2001) 792 Kleiner, I.; Lopez, J.-C.; Blanco, S.; et al.J. Mol. Spectrosc. 197, (1999) 275 Elkeurti M.; Coudert, L. H.; Medvedev, I. R.; et al.J. Mol. Spectrosc. 263, (2010) 145 Kilb, R.W.; Lin, C.C.; and Wilson, E.B.J. Chem. Phys. 26, (1957) 1695 Kleiner, I. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 260, (2010) 1 Ilyushin, V.V.; Kryvda, A; and Alekseev, E;J. Mol. Spectrosc. 255, (2009) 32

  7. An efficient procedure for studying pectin structure which combines limited depolymerization and {sup 13}C NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catoire, L.; Herve du Penhoat, C. [Dept. de Chimie, Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris (France); Goldberg, R.; Pierron, M. [Laboratoire d`enzymologie en Milieu Structure, Institut Jacques Monod, Paris (France); Morvan, C. [Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Rouen, Mont-Saint-Aignan (France)

    1998-04-01

    A protocol for partial thermally-induced depolymerization of differently methoxylated pectin samples is described. The resulting macromolecules have been fully characterized with various complementary techniques, such as size exclusion chromatography (SEC), potentiometry, viscometry and {sup 13}C NMR. Optimum conditions afford samples at 50-80% yield with weight-average molecular weights in the 4 to 20 kDa range. The major fraction of these polysaccharides adopts the random-coil conformation and such samples are suitable for {sup 13}C NMR structural studies at room temperature. The methoxyl distributions of two apple pectin samples with a degree of esterification (DE) between 54 and 74% and a citrus pectin (DE, 72%) were shown to be random in nature, whereas that of a lightly methoxylated apple pectin (DE 39%) was partially blockwise. The carbon relaxation parameters of the depolymerized pectins attain asymptotic values for M{sub W} > 4 kDa. The M{sub W} values estimated from intrinsic viscosity data with the Mark-Houwink relationship reported for native pectins are in good agreement with those obtained by either end-group analysis (NMR) or SEC. Thus, all the physicochemical data indicate that the secondary structure of the isolated chains of depolymerized pectin is closely related to that of the parent polymers. Finally, pectinmethylesterase activity towards the depolymerized pectins was similar to that of the untreated samples. (orig.) With 6 figs., 4 tabs., 27 refs.

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies on bacterial dihydrofolate reductase containing (methyl-/sup 13/C)methionine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakley, R.L.; Cocco, L.; London, R.E.; Walker, T.E.; Matwiyoff, N.A.

    1978-06-13

    (methyl-/sup 13/C)Methionine has been incorporated with high efficiency by Streptococcus faecium var. Durans strain A into dihydrofolate reductase isoenzyme 2. In the /sup 13/C NMR spectrum of the purified enzyme the resonances corresponding to the seven methionine residues are partially resolved into three composite peaks. Denaturation with urea collapses these into a single peak centered at 15.32 ppm, whereas the resonance of free methionine is at 15.04 ppm. Spectra of the free enzyme, its complex with methotrexate, and its complex with methotrexate and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) have been simulated, permitting more accurate estimates of line widths and nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) values. These, together with the T/sub 1/ values, cannot be explained solely by the effects of macromolecular tumbling and very rapid rotation of the methionine methyl group about its axis. A model assuming, in addition, the occurrence of free rotation about the methionine CH/sub 2/-S bond is also unsatisfactory, and it is concluded that internal rotation about the CH/sub 2/-S bond is highly restricted so that the methyl group oscillates through a relatively narrow angular range. Complex formation with NADPH produced rather small changes in the spectrum of the native enzyme, probably due to conformational transitions in the enzyme. However, NADP/sup +/ produced several changes,including movement of one resonance downfield by at least 1.7 ppM.

  9. The synthesis of [2-13C]2-nitropropane at room temperature and at atmospheric pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemijns M; Zomer G

    1990-01-01

    In this report the synthesis of [2-13C]2-nitropropane at room temperature is described. [2-13C]Acetone was converted into the oxime with hydroxy hydrochloridelamine and sodium carbonate. Treatment with hypobromic acid resulted in 2-13C]2-bromo-2-nitropropane. Hydrogenation with sodium borohydride gave [2-13C]2-nitropropane in 14,3% overall yield.

  10. C / N ratio, stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N), and n-alkane patterns of brown mosses along hydrological gradients of low-centred polygons of the Siberian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibulski, Romy; Wesener, Felix; Wilkes, Heinz; Plessen, Birgit; Pestryakova, Luidmila A.; Herzschuh, Ulrike

    2017-03-01

    Mosses are a major component of the arctic vegetation, particularly in wetlands. We present C / N atomic ratio, δ13C and δ15N data of 400 brown-moss samples belonging to 10 species that were collected along hydrological gradients within polygonal mires located on the southern Taymyr Peninsula and the Lena River delta in northern Siberia. Additionally, n-alkane patterns of six of these species (16 samples) were investigated. The aim of the study is to see whether the inter- and intraspecific differences in C / N, isotopic compositions and n-alkanes are indicative of habitat, particularly with respect to water level. Overall, we find high variability in all investigated parameters for two different moisture-related groups of moss species. The C / N ratios range between 11 and 53 (median: 32) and show large variations at the intraspecific level. However, species preferring a dry habitat (xero-mesophilic mosses) show higher C / N ratios than those preferring a wet habitat (meso-hygrophilic mosses). The δ13C values range between -37.0 and -22.5 ‰ (median = -27.8 ‰). The δ15N values range between -6.6 and +1.7 ‰ (median = -2.2 ‰). We find differences in δ13C and δ15N compositions between both habitat types. For some species of the meso-hygrophilic group, we suggest that a relationship between the individual habitat water level and isotopic composition can be inferred as a function of microbial symbiosis. The n-alkane distribution also shows differences primarily between xero-mesophilic and meso-hygrophilic mosses, i.e. having a dominance of n-alkanes with long (n-C29, n-C31) and intermediate (n-C25) chain lengths, respectively. Overall, our results reveal that C / N ratios, isotopic signals and n-alkanes of studied brown-moss taxa from polygonal wetlands are characteristic of their habitat.

  11. Stable isotope deltas: Tiny, yet robust signatures in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Willi A.; Coplen, Tyler B.

    2012-01-01

    Although most of them are relatively small, stable isotope deltas of naturally occurring substances are robust and enable workers in anthropology, atmospheric sciences, biology, chemistry, environmental sciences, food and drug authentication, forensic science, geochemistry, geology, oceanography, and paleoclimatology to study a variety of topics. Two fundamental processes explain the stable isotope deltas measured in most terrestrial systems: isotopic fractionation and isotope mixing. Isotopic fractionation is the result of equilibrium or kinetic physicochemical processes that fractionate isotopes because of small differences in physical or chemical properties of molecular species having different isotopes. It is shown that the mixing of radioactive and stable isotope end members can be modelled to provide information on many natural processes, including 14C abundances in the modern atmosphere and the stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of the oceans during glacial and interglacial times. The calculation of mixing fractions using isotope balance equations with isotope deltas can be substantially in error when substances with high concentrations of heavy isotopes (e.g. 13C, 2H, and 18O ) are mixed. In such cases, calculations using mole fractions are preferred as they produce accurate mixing fractions. Isotope deltas are dimensionless quantities. In the International System of Units (SI), these quantities have the unit 1 and the usual list of prefixes is not applicable. To overcome traditional limitations with expressing orders of magnitude differences in isotope deltas, we propose the term urey (symbol Ur), after Harold C. Urey, for the unit 1. In such a manner, an isotope delta value expressed traditionally as−25 per mil can be written as−25 mUr (or−2.5 cUr or−0.25 dUr; the use of any SI prefix is possible). Likewise, very small isotopic differences often expressed in per meg ‘units’ are easily included (e.g. either+0.015 ‰ or+15 per meg

  12. Stable isotope deltas: tiny, yet robust signatures in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Willi A; Coplen, Tyler B

    2012-09-01

    Although most of them are relatively small, stable isotope deltas of naturally occurring substances are robust and enable workers in anthropology, atmospheric sciences, biology, chemistry, environmental sciences, food and drug authentication, forensic science, geochemistry, geology, oceanography, and paleoclimatology to study a variety of topics. Two fundamental processes explain the stable isotope deltas measured in most terrestrial systems: isotopic fractionation and isotope mixing. Isotopic fractionation is the result of equilibrium or kinetic physicochemical processes that fractionate isotopes because of small differences in physical or chemical properties of molecular species having different isotopes. It is shown that the mixing of radioactive and stable isotope end members can be modelled to provide information on many natural processes, including (14)C abundances in the modern atmosphere and the stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of the oceans during glacial and interglacial times. The calculation of mixing fractions using isotope balance equations with isotope deltas can be substantially in error when substances with high concentrations of heavy isotopes (e.g. (13)C, (2)H, and (18)O ) are mixed. In such cases, calculations using mole fractions are preferred as they produce accurate mixing fractions. Isotope deltas are dimensionless quantities. In the International System of Units (SI), these quantities have the unit 1 and the usual list of prefixes is not applicable. To overcome traditional limitations with expressing orders of magnitude differences in isotope deltas, we propose the term urey (symbol Ur), after Harold C. Urey, for the unit 1. In such a manner, an isotope delta value expressed traditionally as-25 per mil can be written as-25 mUr (or-2.5 cUr or-0.25 dUr; the use of any SI prefix is possible). Likewise, very small isotopic differences often expressed in per meg 'units' are easily included (e.g. either+0.015 ‰ or+15 per meg

  13. Temporal δ13C records from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) reflect variation in foraging location and global carbon cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, S. L.; Barros, N. B.; Ostrom, P. H.; Gandhi, H.; Wells, R. S.

    2010-12-01

    With four decades of data on a population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) resident to Sarasota Bay (SB), The Sarasota Dolphin Research Program offers an unparalleled platform for ground-truthing stable isotope data and exploring bottlenose dolphin ecology in a natural setting. We explored carbon isotope value fidelity to habitat utilization by comparing δ13C data from whole teeth and muscle to the individual dolphin's proclivity towards foraging in seagrass beds based on observational data. We then examined variation in habitat use based on temporal isotope records. Whole tooth protein isotope values do not show a significant correlation with the observed percentage of foraging in seagrass habitat. In contrast, δ13C values from muscle showed a significant positive relationship with the observational data. Differences in the degree of tissue turn over may account for this distinction between tooth and muscle. Dolphin teeth consist of annually deposited layers that are inert once formed. Thus, the isotopic composition of protein in annuli reflect foraging at the time of deposition. In addition to incorporating variation associated with differences in foraging over the lifetime of the individual, whole tooth isotope values are confounded because a disproportionate amount of tooth protein derives from the first few years of life. Given the turnover time of muscle tissue, isotope values reflect diet over the past several months. From 1991 to 2008, muscle δ13C values showed a significant decline, -13.5‰ to -15.1‰.This time period encompasses a state wide net fishing ban (1995) however other factors such as a series of red tide harmful algal blooms, a decline in predators, increases in shallow water boat traffic and an increase in string ray abundance may also contribute to the temporal isotope trend. To examine changes in dolphin foraging habitat further back in time we analyzed the tip of crown of the tooth which records the isotopic signal from the

  14. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance data of lanosterol derivatives—Profiling the steric topology of the steroid skeleton via substituent effects on its 13C NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Jerry Ray; Gao, Hongwu

    2009-12-01

    The 13C NMR spectra of over 24 tetracyclic triterpenoid derivatives have been structurally analyzed. The 13C NMR chemical shifts allow one to probe the steric topology of the rigid steroid skeleton and inductive effects of its substituents. Use of deuterium labeling in chemical shift assignment and B-ring aromatic terpenoids are also featured.

  15. Detecting treatment response in a model of human breast adenocarcinoma using hyperpolarised [1-13C]pyruvate and [1,4-13C2]fumarate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witney, T H; Kettunen, M I; Hu, D-e; Gallagher, F A; Bohndiek, S E; Napolitano, R; Brindle, K M

    2010-01-01

    Background: The recent introduction of a dynamic nuclear polarisation technique has permitted noninvasive imaging of tumour cell metabolism in vivo following intravenous administration of 13C-labelled cell substrates. Methods: Changes in hyperpolarised [1-13C]pyruvate and [1,4-13C2]fumarate metabolism were evaluated in both MDA-MB-231 cells and in implanted MDA-MB-231 tumours following doxorubicin treatment. Results: Treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells resulted in the induction of apoptosis, which was accompanied by a decrease in hyperpolarised 13C label flux between [1-13C]pyruvate and lactate, which was correlated with a decrease in the cellular NAD(H) coenzyme pool. There was also an increase in the rate of fumarate conversion to malate, which accompanied the onset of cellular necrosis. In vivo, the decrease in 13C label exchange between pyruvate and lactate and the increased flux between fumarate and malate, following drug treatment, were shown to occur in the absence of any detectable change in tumour size. Conclusion: We show here that the early responses of a human breast adenocarcinoma tumour model to drug treatment can be followed by administration of both hyperpolarised [1-13C]pyruvate and [1,4-13C2]fumarate. These techniques could be used, therefore, in the clinic to detect the early responses of breast tumours to treatment. PMID:20924379

  16. The synthesis of [2-13C]2-nitropropane at room temperature and at atmospheric pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacquemijns M; Zomer G

    1990-01-01

    In this report the synthesis of [2-13C]2-nitropropane at room temperature is described. [2-13C]Acetone was converted into the oxime with hydroxy hydrochloridelamine and sodium carbonate. Treatment with hypobromic acid resulted in 2-13C]2-bromo-2-nitropropane. Hydrogenation with sodium borohydride

  17. Uptake and allocation of 13C by Enhalus acoroides at sites differing in light availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiswara, W.; Huiskes, A.H.L.; Herman, P.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon fixation and allocation were studied using 13C incubation and leaf marking techniques in mature monospecific stands of Enhalus acoroides L.f. Royle in August 1998 and January 1999 in Banten Bay, Indonesia. The highest rate of 13C uptake (>0.008 g 13C g C-1 d-1) was found in the middle to

  18. 40 CFR 721.6505 - Polymers of C13C15 oxoalcohol ethoxolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymers of C13C15 oxoalcohol... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6505 Polymers of C13C15 oxoalcohol ethoxolates. (a) Chemical substance... polymers of C13C15 oxoalcohol ethoxolates (PMNs P-96-950/951) are subject to reporting under this section...

  19. High-field dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization of [1-13C]pyruvic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshihara, Hikari A. I.; Can, Emine; Karlsson, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    [1-13C]pyruvate is the most widely used hyperpolarized metabolic magnetic resonance imaging agent. Using a custom-built 7.0 T polarizer operating at 1.0 K and trityl radical-doped [1-13C]pyruvic acid, unextrapolated solution-state 13C polarization greater than 60% was measured after dissolution a...

  20. 13C-18O bonding (Δ47) in deep-sea corals: a calibration study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, J. B.; Tripati, A.; Dunbar, R. B.; Eagle, R.

    2013-12-01

    Deep-sea corals are a potentially valuable archive of temperature in intermediate and deep waters, regions for which a paucity of temperature data exists. These archives could give valuable insight into the natural variability of areas of the ocean that play an active role in large-scale climate dynamics. Due to significant 'vital effects' (i.e., non-equilibrium mineral compositions) in δ18O, however, deep-sea coral have been challenging to develop as a paleotemperature proxy. Clumped-isotope paleothermometry is a new method that may circumvent some of the known complications with δ18O paleotemperature analysis in deep-sea coral. This geothermometer is based on the ordering of heavy 13C-18O ';clumps' in carbonate minerals. Initial calibration studies have shown that the method is independent from the solution chemistry of the precipitating fluids as well as 'vital effects' in deep-sea corals and other types of carbonates. Some kinetic effects have been observed in tropical corals and speleothems. Here we report new data in order to further develop clumped isotopes as a paleothermometer in deep-sea corals as well as to investigate taxon-specific effects. 13C-18O bond ordering was analyzed in live-collected scleractinian (Enallopsammia sp.) and gorgonian (Isididae and Coralliidae) deep-sea corals. We determined mass 47 anomalies in samples (Δ47), which refers to the parts per thousand excess of 13C-18O-16O in CO2 produced on acid digestion of a sample, relative to the amount predicted to be present if isotopes were randomly distributed amongst all CO2 isotopologues. Measured Δ47 values were compared to in situ temperatures and the relationship between Δ47 and temperature was determined for each group to investigate taxon-specific effects.

  1. Galactose oxidation using {sup 13}C in healthy and galactosemic children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resende-Campanholi, D.R. [Departamento de Puericultura e Pediatria, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Porta, G. [Unidade de Hepatologia Pediátrica, Instituto da Criança Prof. Pedro de Alcântara, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferrioli, E.; Pfrimer, K. [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Ciampo, L.A. Del; Junior, J.S. Camelo [Departamento de Puericultura e Pediatria, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-20

    Galactosemia is an inborn error of galactose metabolism that occurs mainly as the outcome of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) deficiency. The ability to assess galactose oxidation following administration of a galactose-labeled isotope (1-{sup 13}C-galactose) allows the determination of galactose metabolism in a practical manner. We aimed to assess the level of galactose oxidation in both healthy and galactosemic Brazilian children. Twenty-one healthy children and seven children with galactosemia ranging from 1 to 7 years of age were studied. A breath test was used to quantitate {sup 13}CO{sub 2} enrichment in exhaled air before and at 30, 60, and 120 min after the oral administration of 7 mg/kg of an aqueous solution of 1-{sup 13}C-galactose to all children. The molar ratios of {sup 13}CO{sub 2} and {sup 12}CO{sub 2} were quantified by the mass/charge ratio (m/z) of stable isotopes in each air sample by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. In sick children, the cumulative percentage of {sup 13}C from labeled galactose (CUMPCD) in the exhaled air ranged from 0.03% at 30 min to 1.67% at 120 min. In contrast, healthy subjects showed a much broader range in CUMPCD, with values from 0.4% at 30 min to 5.58% at 120 min. The study found a significant difference in galactose oxidation between children with and without galactosemia, demonstrating that the breath test is useful in discriminating children with GALT deficiencies.

  2. Atmospheric Oxygen Concentrations for the Past 350 Myr Modeled from the δ13C of C3 Land Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordt, L.; Breecker, D.

    2016-12-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the systematic collection of long-term d13C records from marine sediments, but no such isotopic compilation exists for C3 land plants. Consequently, we gathered a meta-data base of 8003 plant-derived δ13C values (ISOORG) from various carbon sources binned into 5 myr time steps. The results of this investigation were reported in a recent publication showing that most δ13C sources co-vary with ten CIEs during the last 400 myr. For this paper we culled ISOORG to produce ISOORG16-H that contains 7025 plant-derived δ13C values from paleo-moist environments to reflect secular controls on the δ13C of C3 plants. We then constructed atmospheric pO2 curves for the past 350 myr using prior experimental work showing a direct relationship between the ∆13C of C3 plants and pO2 concentration. Periods of hyperoxia (25-30% pO2) were identified from 300-250, 225-190, and 110-105 myr, and intervals of hypoxia (10-15% pO2) from 350-345, 245-230, and 185-115 myr. During the last 150 myr, pO2 stabilized at 17-24% except for a notable positive excursion from 110-105 myr. Hyperoxia, apparently from widespread carbon burial, supports the notion of insect gigantism during the Late Paleozoic. Hypoxia during the early Triassic correlates with the coal gap following the collapse of Paleozoic ecosystems. Rising pO2 in the late Triassic seems to reflect renewed carbon burial from reorganization of Mesozoic ecosystems. The middle Mesozoic is characterized by low pO2 during an intense greenhouse interval, with ambient conditions ensuing thereafter possibly linked to carbon burial from the radiation of angiosperms. pO2 concentrations >14% suggest wildfires persisted through the study interval except possibly at 160 and 140 myr. Intervals of low pO2 concentration were likely accompanied by lower atmospheric pressure and higher temperatures, particularly from 245-230 myr and 180-120 myr. Our O2 reconstructions conform with GEOCARBSULF, but not with proxy

  3. Methods for metabolic evaluation of prostate cancer cells using proton and (13)C HR-MAS spectroscopy and [3-(13)C] pyruvate as a metabolic substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Yakir S; Albers, Mark J; Butler, Thomas N; Spielman, Daniel; Peehl, Donna M; Kurhanewicz, John

    2009-11-01

    Prostate cancer has been shown to undergo unique metabolic changes associated with neoplastic transformation, with associated changes in citrate, alanine, and lactate concentrations. (13)C high resolution-magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) spectroscopy provides an opportunity to simultaneously investigate the metabolic pathways implicated in these changes by using (13)C-labeled substrates as metabolic probes. In this work, a method to reproducibly interrogate metabolism in prostate cancer cells in primary culture was developed using HR-MAS spectroscopy. Optimization of cell culture protocols, labeling parameters, harvesting, storage, and transfer was performed. Using [3-(13)C] pyruvate as a metabolic probe, (1)H and (13)C HR-MAS spectroscopy was used to quantify the net amount and fractional enrichment of several labeled metabolites that evolved in multiple cell samples from each of five different prostate cancers. Average enrichment across all cancers was 32.4 +/- 5.4% for [3-(13)C] alanine, 24.5 +/- 5.4% for [4-(13)C] glutamate, 9.1 +/- 2.5% for [3-(13)C] glutamate, 25.2 +/- 5.7% for [3-(13)C] aspartate, and 4.2 +/- 1.0% for [3-(13)C] lactate. Cell samples from the same parent population demonstrated reproducible fractional enrichments of alanine, glutamate, and aspartate to within 12%, 10%, and 10%, respectively. Furthermore, the cells produced a significant amount of [4-(13)C] glutamate, which supports the bioenergetic theory for prostate cancer. These methods will allow further characterization of metabolic properties of prostate cancer cells in the future. Magn Reson Med, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Construction and evaluation of a switch-tuned (13) C - (1) H birdcage radiofrequency coil for imaging the metabolism of hyperpolarized (13) C-enriched compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Heeseung; Thind, Kundan; Martinez-Santiesteban, Francisco M; Scholl, Timothy James

    2014-11-01

    To construct a switch-tuned (13) C - (1) H birdcage radiofrequency (RF) coil system capable of metabolic imaging of hyperpolarized (13) C-enriched metabolic probes for co-registration with MRI morphology using protons. The switch-tuned coil was constructed using PIN diodes for rapid switching of the resonant frequency of the coil. Identical, single-tuned, (1) H and (13) C birdcage RF coils have also been constructed for comparison of imaging performance. A (13) C receive-only surface RF coil has been integrated with the switch-tuned coil for transmit-only, receive-only operation (TORO) to increase local (13) C signal for improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The SNR achieved with the switch-tuned coil in transmit/receive mode was 87% that of the single-tuned (1) H coil. For (13) C imaging, the SNR for the switch-tuned coil was 55% that of the single-tuned (13) C coil. TORO operation of the switch-tuned coil with the surface coil increased SNR for by a factor of 4.2 over transmit/receive operation of the switch-tuned coil alone. A surface coil can be integrated with a switch-tuned (13) C - (1) H coil for (13) C TORO operation producing improved SNR. In vivo metabolic imaging of [1-(13) C]pyruvate in a rat model of glioma is demonstrated using TORO operation, which is co-registered with (1) H-imaged anatomy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effect of petroleum products on the decomposition of soil organic matter as assessed by 13C natural abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach, Wioleta; Szarlip, Paweł; Trembaczowski, Andrzej; Bieganowski, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    Petroleum products are common contaminants in soils due to human activities. They are toxic for microorganisms and threat their functions, including decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM). The direct estimation of altered SOM decomposition - based on the CO2 emission - is impossible after oil contamination, because oil decomposition also contributes to the CO2 release. We used the natural differences in the isotopic signature (δ13C) of SOM and of oil products to partition the total CO2 for both sources and to analyze the suppression of SOM decomposition. The dynamics of 13C fractionation during the mineralization of gasoline and diesel was measured during 42 days. The 13C fractionation varied between -8.8‰ and +3.6‰ within the first 10 days, and stabilized thereafter at about -5.3‰ for gasoline and +3.2‰ for diesel. These 13C fractionations and δ13C values of CO2 emitted from the soil were used for correct partitioning of the total CO2. Contamination with gasoline reduced the CO2 efflux from SOM decomposition by a factor of 25 (from 151 to 6 mg C-CO2 kg-1 soil during 42 days). The negative effect of diesel was much lower: the CO2 efflux from SOM was decreased by less than a factor of 2. The strong effect of gasoline versus diesel reflects the lower absorption of gasoline to mineral particles and the development of a thin film on water surfaces, leading to toxicity for microorganisms. We conclude that the small differences of 13C of SOM and of organic pollutants can be used to partition CO2 fluxes and analyze pollutant effects on SOM decomposition.

  6. A combustion setup to precisely reference δ13C and δ2H isotope ratios of pure CH4 to produce isotope reference gases of δ13C-CH4 in synthetic air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Schaefer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Isotope records of atmospheric CH4 can be used to infer changes in the biogeochemistry of CH4. One factor currently limiting the quantitative interpretation of such changes are uncertainties in the isotope measurements stemming from the lack of a unique isotope reference gas, certified for δ13C-CH4 or δ2H-CH4. We present a method to produce isotope reference gases for CH4 in synthetic air that are precisely anchored to the VPDB and VSMOW scales and have δ13C-CH4 values typical for the modern and glacial atmosphere. We quantitatively combusted two pure CH4 gases from fossil and biogenic sources and determined the δ13C and δ2H values of the produced CO2 and H2O relative to the VPDB and VSMOW scales within a very small analytical uncertainty of 0.04‰ and 0.7‰, respectively. We found isotope ratios of −39.56‰ and −56.37‰ for δ13C and −170.1‰ and −317.4‰ for δ2H in the fossil and biogenic CH4, respectively. We used both CH4 types as parental gases from which we mixed two filial CH4 gases. Their δ13C was determined to be −42.21‰ and −47.25‰ representing glacial and present atmospheric δ13C-CH4. The δ2H isotope ratios of the filial CH4 gases were found to be −193.1‰ and −237.1‰, respectively. Next, we mixed aliquots of the filial CH4 gases with ultrapure N2/O2 (CH4 ≤ 2 ppb producing two isotope reference gases of synthetic air with CH4 mixing ratios near atmospheric values. We show that our method is reproducible and does not introduce isotopic fractionation for δ13C within the uncertainties of our detection limit (we cannot conclude this for δ2H because our system is currently not prepared for δ2H-CH4 measurements in air samples. The general principle of our method can be applied to produce synthetic isotope reference gases targeting δ2H-CH4 or other gas species.

  7. Using 13C in cattle hair to trace back the maize level in the feeding regime-A field test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Hammes

    Full Text Available Sections from cattle hair serve as an isotopic archive-they contain information on the cattle diet from different time periods. We tested the reliability of 13C signatures (δ13C in cattle tail switch hair to retrospectively trace back the annual dietary proportion of maize of different production systems without having to sample and analyze the feed. Furthermore, we investigated if differences in dietary proportion of maize during summer and winter feeding can be detected in a single tail switch hair by sampling hair only once a year. We sampled hair and obtained information on management and annual composition of diets on 23 cattle farms in northern Germany. Farms differed in dietary proportions of maize, grass and concentrates as well as in grazing regime (year-round grazing, summer grazing, no grazing. We found that the annual mean δ13C values (δ13CY of two hair sections that contain the isotopic information of summer and winter feeding is a robust indicator for the annual proportion of maize in cattle diet on a farm. The grazing regimes could clearly be distinguished by analyzing seasonal mean δ13C values (δ13CS. We could also demonstrate short term changes in the diet changes by means of δ13CS. We conclude that the method can be used in different cattle production systems to check on dietary proportions of maize for a period of one year before sampling of hair.

  8. Using 13C in cattle hair to trace back the maize level in the feeding regime—A field test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüsse, Olaf; Isselstein, Johannes; Kayser, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Sections from cattle hair serve as an isotopic archive—they contain information on the cattle diet from different time periods. We tested the reliability of 13C signatures (δ13C) in cattle tail switch hair to retrospectively trace back the annual dietary proportion of maize of different production systems without having to sample and analyze the feed. Furthermore, we investigated if differences in dietary proportion of maize during summer and winter feeding can be detected in a single tail switch hair by sampling hair only once a year. We sampled hair and obtained information on management and annual composition of diets on 23 cattle farms in northern Germany. Farms differed in dietary proportions of maize, grass and concentrates as well as in grazing regime (year-round grazing, summer grazing, no grazing). We found that the annual mean δ13C values (δ13CY) of two hair sections that contain the isotopic information of summer and winter feeding is a robust indicator for the annual proportion of maize in cattle diet on a farm. The grazing regimes could clearly be distinguished by analyzing seasonal mean δ13C values (δ13CS). We could also demonstrate short term changes in the diet changes by means of δ13CS. We conclude that the method can be used in different cattle production systems to check on dietary proportions of maize for a period of one year before sampling of hair. PMID:29182681

  9. Using 13C in cattle hair to trace back the maize level in the feeding regime-A field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammes, Verena; Nüsse, Olaf; Isselstein, Johannes; Kayser, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Sections from cattle hair serve as an isotopic archive-they contain information on the cattle diet from different time periods. We tested the reliability of 13C signatures (δ13C) in cattle tail switch hair to retrospectively trace back the annual dietary proportion of maize of different production systems without having to sample and analyze the feed. Furthermore, we investigated if differences in dietary proportion of maize during summer and winter feeding can be detected in a single tail switch hair by sampling hair only once a year. We sampled hair and obtained information on management and annual composition of diets on 23 cattle farms in northern Germany. Farms differed in dietary proportions of maize, grass and concentrates as well as in grazing regime (year-round grazing, summer grazing, no grazing). We found that the annual mean δ13C values (δ13CY) of two hair sections that contain the isotopic information of summer and winter feeding is a robust indicator for the annual proportion of maize in cattle diet on a farm. The grazing regimes could clearly be distinguished by analyzing seasonal mean δ13C values (δ13CS). We could also demonstrate short term changes in the diet changes by means of δ13CS. We conclude that the method can be used in different cattle production systems to check on dietary proportions of maize for a period of one year before sampling of hair.

  10. Acetylenes bearing Aromatic Terminal Groups. : II 13C-NMR Spectra of Monosubstituted Diphenylacetylenes

    OpenAIRE

    野本, 健雄; Nomoto, Takeo

    1986-01-01

    Six monosubstituted diphenylacetylenes, p-X-C6H4-C≡C-C6H5 1 (Ⅹ=NMe2, NH2, OMe, Cl, and NO2), were synthesized, and 13C-NMR spectra of their acetylenic carbons were measured. Hammett plots of the chemical shifts of the acetylenic α-13C and β-13C (against substituent constants σ) respectively showed a linear relationship, eXCept for β-13C on NMe2 and NH2 groups. The effects of substituents on 13C-Chemical shifts of diphenylacetylenes and effeciency of the C≡C bonds in transmitting the substitue...

  11. Methanogenesis produces strong 13C enrichment in stromatolites of Lagoa Salgada, Brazil: a modern analogue for Palaeo-/Neoproterozoic stromatolites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgel, D; Meister, P; Lundberg, R; Horath, T D; Bontognali, T R R; Bahniuk, A M; de Rezende, C E; Vasconcelos, C; McKenzie, J A

    2015-05-01

    Holocene stromatolites characterized by unusually positive inorganic δ(13) CPDB values (i.e. up to +16‰) are present in Lagoa Salgada, a seasonally brackish to hypersaline lagoon near Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Such positive values cannot be explained by phototrophic fixation of CO2 alone, and they suggest that methanogenesis was a dominating process during the growth of the stromatolites. Indeed, up to 5 mm methane was measured in the porewater. The archaeal membrane lipid archaeol showing δ(13) C values between -15 and 0‰ suggests that archaea are present and producing methane in the modern lagoon sediment. Moreover, (13) C-depleted hopanoids diplopterol and 3β-methylated C32 17β(H),21β(H)-hopanoic acid (both -40‰) are preserved in lagoon sediments and are most likely derived from aerobic methanotrophic bacteria thriving in the methane-enriched water column. Loss of isotopically light methane through the water column would explain the residual (13) C-enriched pool of dissolved inorganic carbon from where the carbonate constituting the stromatolites precipitated. The predominance of methanogenic archaea in the lagoon is most likely a result of sulphate limitation, suppressing the activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria under brackish conditions in a seasonally humid tropical environment. Indeed, sulphate-reduction activity is very low in the modern sediments. In absence of an efficient carbonate-inducing metabolic process, we propose that stromatolite formation in Lagoa Salgada was abiotically induced, while the (13) C-enriched organic and inorganic carbon pools are due to methanogenesis. Unusually, (13) C-enriched stromatolitic deposits also appear in the geological record of prolonged periods in the Palaeo- and Neoproterozoic. Lagoa Salgada represents a possible modern analogue to conditions that may have been widespread in the Proterozoic, at times when low sulphate concentrations in sea water allowed methanogens to prevail over sulphate

  12. Neoproterozoic diamictite-cap carbonate succession and δ13C chemostratigraphy from eastern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsetti, Frank A.; Stewart, John H.; Hagadorn, James W.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the occurrence of Neoproterozoic strata throughout the southwestern U.S. and Sonora, Mexico, glacial units overlain by enigmatic cap carbonates have not been well-documented south of Death Valley, California. Here, we describe in detail the first glaciogenic diamictite and cap carbonate succession from Mexico, found in the Cerro Las Bolas Group. The diamictite is exposed near Sahuaripa, Sonora, and is overlain by a 5 m thick very finely-laminated dolostone with soft sediment folds. Carbon isotopic chemostratigraphy of the finely-laminated dolostone reveals a negative δ13C anomaly (down to − 3.2‰ PDB) characteristic of cap carbonates worldwide. Carbon isotopic values rise to + 10‰ across ∼ 400 m of section in overlying carbonates of the Mina el Mezquite and Monteso Formations. The pattern recorded here is mostly characteristic of post-Sturtian (ca. ≤ 700 Ma), but pre-Marinoan (ca. ≥ 635 Ma) time. However, the Cerro Las Bolas Group shares ambiguity common to most Neoproterozoic successions: it lacks useful radiometric age constraints and biostratigraphically useful fossils, and its δ13C signature is oscillatory and therefore somewhat equivocal.

  13. Conformational analysis of capsaicin using 13C, 15N MAS NMR, GIAO DFT and GA calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siudem, Paweł; Paradowska, Katarzyna; Bukowicki, Jarosław

    2017-10-01

    Capsaicin produced by plants from genus Capsicum exerts multiple pharmacological effects and has found applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. The alkaloid was studied by a combined approach: solid-state NMR, GA conformational search and GIAO DFT methods. The 13C CPMAS NMR spectra were recorded using variable contact time and dipolar dephasing experiments. The results of cross-polarization (CP) kinetics, such as TCP values and long T1ρH (100-200 ms), indicated that the capsaicin molecule is fairly mobile, especially at the end of the aliphatic chain. The15N MAS NMR spectrum showed one narrow signal at -255 ppm. Genetic algorithm (GA) search with multi modal optimization was used to find low-energy conformations of capsaicin. Theoretical GIAO DFT calculations were performed using different basis sets to characterize five selected conformations. 13C CPMAS NMR was used as a validation method and the experimental chemical shifts were compared with those calculated for selected stable conformers. Conformational analysis suggests that the side chain can be bent or extended. A comparison of the experimental and the calculated chemical shifts indicates that solid capsaicin does not have the same structure as those established by PWXRD.

  14. Bovine serum albumin-catalyzed deprotonation of [1-(13)C]glycolaldehyde: protein reactivity toward deprotonation of the alpha-hydroxy alpha-carbonyl carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Maybelle K; Malabanan, M Merced; Amyes, Tina L; Richard, John P

    2010-09-07

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) in D(2)O at 25 degrees C and pD 7.0 was found to catalyze the deuterium exchange reactions of [1-(13)C]glycolaldehyde ([1-(13)C]GA) to form [1-(13)C,2-(2)H]GA and [1-(13)C,2,2-di-(2)H]GA. The formation of [1-(13)C,2-(2)H]GA and [1-(13)C,2,2-di-(2)H]GA in a total yield of 51 +/- 3% was observed at early reaction times, and at later times, [1-(13)C,2-(2)H]GA was found to undergo BSA-catalyzed conversion to [1-(13)C,2,2-di-(2)H]GA. The overall second-order rate constant for these deuterium exchange reactions [(k(E))(P)] equals 0.25 M(-1) s(-1). By comparison, (k(E))(P) values of 0.04 M(-1) s(-1) [Go, M. K., Amyes, T. L., and Richard, J. P. (2009) Biochemistry 48, 5769-5778] and 0.06 M(-1) s(-1) [Go, M. K., Koudelka, A., Amyes, T. L., and Richard, J. P. (2010) Biochemistry 49, 5377-5389] have been determined for the wild-type- and K12G mutant TIM-catalyzed deuterium exchange reactions of [1-(13)C]GA, respectively, to form [1-(13)C,2,2-di-(2)H]GA. These data show that TIM and BSA exhibit a modest catalytic activity toward deprotonation of the alpha-hydroxy alpha-carbonyl carbon. We suggest that this activity is intrinsic to many globular proteins, and that it must be enhanced to demonstrate meaningful de novo design of protein catalysts of proton transfer at alpha-carbonyl carbon.

  15. (13)C MRS of human brain at 7 Tesla using [2-(13)C]glucose infusion and low power broadband stochastic proton decoupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shizhe; An, Li; Yu, Shao; Ferraris Araneta, Maria; Johnson, Christopher S; Wang, Shumin; Shen, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Carbon-13 ((13)C) MR spectroscopy (MRS) of the human brain at 7 Tesla (T) may pose patient safety issues due to high radiofrequency (RF) power deposition for proton decoupling. The purpose of present work is to study the feasibility of in vivo (13)C MRS of human brain at 7 T using broadband low RF power proton decoupling. Carboxylic/amide (13)C MRS of human brain by broadband stochastic proton decoupling was demonstrated on a 7 T scanner. RF safety was evaluated using the finite-difference time-domain method. (13)C signal enhancement by nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) and proton decoupling was evaluated in both phantoms and in vivo. At 7 T, the peak amplitude of carboxylic/amide (13)C signals was increased by a factor of greater than 4 due to the combined effects of NOE and proton decoupling. The 7 T (13)C MRS technique used decoupling power and average transmit power of less than 35 watts (W) and 3.6 W, respectively. In vivo (13)C MRS studies of human brain can be performed at 7 T, well below the RF safety threshold, by detecting carboxylic/amide carbons with broadband stochastic proton decoupling. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Silicate or Carbonate Weathering: Fingerprinting Sources of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Using δ13C in a Tropical River, Southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, H.; Ghosh, P.

    2015-12-01

    Rivers are an inherently vital resource for the development of any region and their importance is highlighted by the presence of many ancient human civilizations adjacent to river systems. δ13C - Si/HCO3 systematics has been applied to large south Indian rivers which drain the Deccan basaltic traps in order to quantify their relative contributions from silicate and carbonate weathering. This study investigates δ13C - Si/HCO3 systematics of the Cauvery River basin which flows through silicate lithology in the higher reaches and carbonate lithology with pedogenic and marine carbonates dominating the terrain in the lower reaches of the basin. The samples for the present study were collected at locations within the watershed during Pre-Monsoon and Monsoon Season 2014. The measurements of stable isotope ratios of δ13CDIC and were accomplished through a Thermo Scientific GasBench II interface connected to a MAT 253 IRMS. We captured a large spatial variation in δ13C and Si/HCO3 values during both seasons; Pre-Monsoon δ13C values ranges between -17.57‰ to -4.02‰ and during Monsoon it varies between -9.19‰ to +0.61‰. These results indicate a two end-member mixing component i.e. a silicate and a carbonate end member; governing the weathering interactions of the Cauvery River. Within the drainage basin, we identified silicate and carbonate dominating sources by using contributions of DIC and δ13C. Si/HCO3 values for Pre-Monsoon ranges between 0.028 - 0.67 and for Monsoon it varies between 0.073 - 0.80. Lighter δ13C composition was observed at sampling sites at higher altitude in contrast to sampling sites at flood plain which show relatively enriched δ13C which indicate mixing of soil derived CO2 with C4 plants. Result suggests dominance of carbonate weathering during the Monsoon Period, while silicate weathering is pronounced during Pre- Monsoon period.

  17. Tree-ring cellulose exhibits several distinct intramolecular 13C signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieloch, Thomas; Ehlers, Ina; Frank, David; Gessler, Arthur; Grabner, Michael; Yu, Jun; Schleucher, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Stable carbon isotopes are a key tool in biogeosciences. Present applications including compound-specific isotope analysis measure 13C/12C ratios (δ13C) of bulk material or of whole molecules. However, it is well known that primary metabolites also show large intramolecular 13C variation - also called isotopomer variation. This variation reflects 13C fractionation by enzyme reactions and therefore encodes metabolic information. Furthermore, δ13C must be considered an average of the intramolecular 13C distribution. Here we will present (1) methodology to analyse intramolecular 13C distributions of tree-ring cellulose by quantitative 13C NMR (Chaintreau et al., 2013, Anal Chim Acta, 788, 108-113); (2) intramolecular 13C distributions of an annually-resolved tree ring chronology (Pinus nigra, 1961-1995); (3) isotope parameters and terminology for analysis of intramolecular isotope time series; (4) a method for correcting for heterotrophic C redistribution. We will show that the intramolecular 13C distribution of tree-ring cellulose shows large variation, with differences between isotopomers exceeding 10‰Ṫhus, individual 13C isotopomers of cellulose constitute distinct 13C inputs into major global C pools such as wood and soil organic matter. When glucose units with the observed intramolecular 13C pattern are broken down along alternative catabolic pathways, it must be expected that respired CO2 with strongly differing δ13C will be released; indicating that intramolecular 13C variation affects isotope signals of atmosphere-biosphere C exchange fluxes. taking this variation into account will improve modelling of the global C cycle. Furthermore, cluster analysis shows that tree-ring glucose exhibits several independent intramolecular 13C signals, which constitute distinct ecophysiological information channels. Thus, whole-molecule 13C analysis likely misses a large part of the isotope information stored in tree rings. As we have shown for deuterium (Ehlers et al

  18. Site-specific {sup 13}C content by quantitative isotopic {sup 13}C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectrometry: A pilot inter-laboratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaintreau, Alain; Fieber, Wolfgang; Sommer, Horst [Firmenich SA, Corporate R and D Division, P.O. Box 239, 1211 Geneva 8 (Switzerland); Gilbert, Alexis; Yamada, Keita [Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Yoshida, Naohiro [Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Pagelot, Alain [Bruker Biospin SAS, 34 rue de l‘Industrie, 67166 Wissembourg Cedex (France); Moskau, Detlef; Moreno, Aitor [Bruker Biospin AG, Industriestrasse 26, 8117 Fällanden (Switzerland); Schleucher, Jürgen [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Umeå University, S-90187 Umeå (Sweden); Reniero, Fabiano; Holland, Margaret; Guillou, Claude [European Commission, Joint Research Centre – Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, via E. Fermi 2749, I-21027 Ispra (Italy); Silvestre, Virginie; Akoka, Serge [EBSI team, Interdisciplinary Chemistry: Synthesis, Analysis, Modelling (CEISAM), University of Nantes-CNRS UMR 6230, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, F-44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Remaud, Gérald S., E-mail: gerald.remaud@univ-nantes.fr [EBSI team, Interdisciplinary Chemistry: Synthesis, Analysis, Modelling (CEISAM), University of Nantes-CNRS UMR 6230, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, F-44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France)

    2013-07-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •First ring test on isotopic {sup 13}C NMR spectrometry. •Evaluation of the intra- and inter-variability of the NMR spectrometers used. •Definition of a protocol for qualification of the performance of the spectrometer. -- Abstract: Isotopic {sup 13}C NMR spectrometry, which is able to measure intra-molecular {sup 13}C composition, is of emerging demand because of the new information provided by the {sup 13}C site-specific content of a given molecule. A systematic evaluation of instrumental behaviour is of importance to envisage isotopic {sup 13}C NMR as a routine tool. This paper describes the first collaborative study of intra-molecular {sup 13}C composition by NMR. The main goals of the ring test were to establish intra- and inter-variability of the spectrometer response. Eight instruments with different configuration were retained for the exercise on the basis of a qualification test. Reproducibility at the natural abundance of isotopic {sup 13}C NMR was then assessed on vanillin from three different origins associated with specific δ{sup 13}C{sub i} profiles. The standard deviation was, on average, between 0.9 and 1.2‰ for intra-variability. The highest standard deviation for inter-variability was 2.1‰. This is significantly higher than the internal precision but could be considered good in respect of a first ring test on a new analytical method. The standard deviation of δ{sup 13}C{sub i} in vanillin was not homogeneous over the eight carbons, with no trend either for the carbon position or for the configuration of the spectrometer. However, since the repeatability for each instrument was satisfactory, correction factors for each carbon in vanillin could be calculated to harmonize the results.

  19. Preparative chromatography for specific δ13C isotopic analysis of individual carbohydrates in environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouara, Amel; Panagiotopoulos, Christos; Balesdent, Jérôme; Sempéré, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Carbohydrates are among the most abundant organic molecules on the Earth and are present in all geochemical systems. Despite their high abundance in the environment, very few studies assessed their origin using molecular carbohydrate isotopic analyses. In contrast with bulk stable isotope analysis (BSIA), which gives the isotopic signature of the entire sample without any specification about its chemical composition, compound specific 13C isotopic analysis of individual sugars (CSIA) offers valuable information about the origin of single molecules. Previous investigations used gas or liquid chromatography coupled with isotope ratio mass spectroscopy (GC-IRMS; HPLC-IRMS) for CSIA of sugars however the former requires δ13C corrections due to the carbon added to the sugar (derivatization) while the later does not provide always adequate separations among monosaccharides. Here we used cation preparative chromatography (Ca2+, Pb2+ and Na+) with refractive index detection in order to produce pure monosaccharide targets for subsequent EA-IRMS analyses. Milli-Q water was used as eluant at a flow rate 0.6 ml min-1. In general, three successive purifications (Ca2+, Pb2+, Ca2+) were sufficient to produce pure compounds. Pure monosaccharides were compared with authentic monosaccharide standards using 1H NMR and/or mass spectroscopy. The detection limit of our technique was about 1µM/sugar with a precision of 10% (n=6). Blanks run with Milli-Q water after three successive purifications resulted in carbon content of 0.13 to 2.77 µgC per collected sugar. These values are much lower than the minimum required amount (5 µgC) of the EA-IRSMS system with a precision of ± 0.35 ‰. Application of our method to environmental samples resulted in δ13C values of glucose, fructose, and levoglucosan in the range of -24 to -26 ‰ (PM10 atmospheric particles), and -15‰ to -22 ‰ for arabinose, glucose, and xylose (marine high molecular dissolved organic matter). These results fall in

  20. CO2 and 12C:13C Isotopic Ratios on Phoebe and Iapetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R. N.; Brown, R. H.; Cruikshank, D. P.

    2016-12-01

    Cassini VIMS has obtained spatially resolved 0.35 to 5.1 micron reflectance spectra of Saturn's satellites beginning with the Phoebe fly-by in 2004 and a close fly-by of Iapetus in 2007. Both surfaces contain relatively abundant CO2. The new (2016 RC19) calibration of VIMS has provided a significant increase in the data quality, such that isotopic absorption bands in CO2 are now well defined. CO2 on Saturn's icy satellites is trapped (Cruikshank et al., 2010, Icarus v206 p561; Pinilla-Alonso et al. 2011, Icarus v211, p75i), predominantly in the dark material (Clark et al. 2012, Icarus v218 p831). Clark et al. modeled the CO2 abundance as 2.8% on Iapetus and 3.7% on Phoebe. The main 12CO2 band in VIMS spectra on Iapetus occurs at 4.253 microns and Phoebe at 4.266 microns. The 13CO2 absorption is strong on Phoebe at 4.367 microns and weak on Iapetus at 4.387 microns. Converting the Phoebe, Iapetus, and a lab reflectance spectrum (of trace H2O-CO2 mixture on a diffuse substrate), we derive preliminary values for the ratio of the equivalent widths of the 12C and 13C absorptions as 19±2 on Phoebe, 82±8 on Iapetus, and 98±10 for the laboratory spectrum. These ratios are related to the 12C/13C ratio, but there may be effects due to intra-molecular and inter-molecular coupling that will contribute to systematic errors in the isotopic abundances derived using equivalent-width measurements that we've yet to quantify. We Believe the effects are small, and will be attempting to quantify them in the future. For comparison, the terrestrial value of the 12C/13C ratio is 90.17, and vibrational coupling may explain the slightly high lab mixture result. The local interstellar medium is 69±15 (Boogert et al., 2000, A&A). Because the CO2 bands on Phoebe and Iapetus dark material have different positions, and because the observed 13C absorption strengths are so different, the surface evolutions must be different. The large enrichment in 13C on Phoebe argues for significant

  1. Losses of soil carbon by converting tropical forest to plantations: erosion and decomposition estimated by δ(13) C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Thomas; Damris, Muhammad; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-09-01

    Indonesia lost more tropical forest than all of Brazil in 2012, mainly driven by the rubber, oil palm, and timber industries. Nonetheless, the effects of converting forest to oil palm and rubber plantations on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks remain unclear. We analyzed SOC losses after lowland rainforest conversion to oil palm, intensive rubber, and extensive rubber plantations in Jambi Province on Sumatra Island. The focus was on two processes: (1) erosion and (2) decomposition of soil organic matter. Carbon contents in the Ah horizon under oil palm and rubber plantations were strongly reduced up to 70% and 62%, respectively. The decrease was lower under extensive rubber plantations (41%). On average, converting forest to plantations led to a loss of 10 Mg C ha(-1) after about 15 years of conversion. The C content in the subsoil was similar under the forest and the plantations. We therefore assumed that a shift to higher δ(13) C values in plantation subsoil corresponds to the losses from the upper soil layer by erosion. Erosion was estimated by comparing the δ(13) C profiles in the soils under forest and under plantations. The estimated erosion was the strongest in oil palm (35 ± 8 cm) and rubber (33 ± 10 cm) plantations. The (13) C enrichment of SOC used as a proxy of its turnover indicates a decrease of SOC decomposition rate in the Ah horizon under oil palm plantations after forest conversion. Nonetheless, based on the lack of C input from litter, we expect further losses of SOC in oil palm plantations, which are a less sustainable land use compared to rubber plantations. We conclude that δ(13) C depth profiles may be a powerful tool to disentangle soil erosion and SOC mineralization after the conversion of natural ecosystems conversion to intensive plantations when soils show gradual increase of δ(13) C values with depth. © 2015 The Authors. Global Change Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Needle-Age Related Variability in Nitrogen, Mobile Carbohydrates, and δ13C within Pinus koraiensis Tree Crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Cai-Feng; Han, Shi-Jie; Zhou, Yu-Mei; Wang, Cun-Guo; Dai, Guan-Hua; Xiao, Wen-Fa; Li, Mai-He

    2012-01-01

    For both ecologists and physiologists, foliar physioecology as a function of spatially and temporally variable environmental factors such as sunlight exposure within a tree crown is important for understanding whole tree physiology and for predicting ecosystem carbon balance and productivity. Hence, we studied concentrations of nitrogen (N), non-structural carbohydrates (NSC = soluble sugars + starch), and δ13C in different-aged needles within Pinus koraiensis tree crowns, to understand the needle age- and crown position-related physiology, in order to test the hypothesis that concentrations of N, NSC, and δ13C are needle-age and crown position dependent (more light, more photosynthesis affecting N, NSC, and δ13C), and to develop an accurate sampling strategy. The present study indicated that the 1-yr-old needles had significantly higher concentration levels of mobile carbohydrates (both on a mass and an area basis) and Narea (on an area basis), as well as NSC-N ratios, but significantly lower levels of Nmass (on a mass basis) concentration and specific leaf area (SLA), compared to the current-year needles. Azimuthal (south-facing vs. north-facing crown side) effects were found to be significant on starch [both on a mass (STmass) and an area basis (STarea)], δ13C values, and Narea, with higher levels in needles on the S-facing crown side than the N-facing crown side. Needle Nmass concentrations significantly decreased but needle STmass, STarea, and δ13C values significantly increased with increasing vertical crown levels. Our results suggest that the sun-exposed crown position related to photosynthetic activity and water availability affects starch accumulation and carbon isotope discrimination. Needle age associated with physiological activity plays an important role in determining carbon and nitrogen physiology. The present study indicates that across-scale sampling needs to carefully select tissue samples with equal age from a comparable crown position

  3. Spatial Patterns of Plant δ13C and δ15N Along a Topoedaphic Gradient in a Subtropical Savanna Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, E.; Boutton, T. W.; Liu, F.; Wu, B.; Archer, S. R.

    2005-12-01

    δ13C and δ15N values of plants are powerful tools in physiological ecology, ecosystem science, and global biogeochemistry, yet we know relatively little about their variation and controls at the landscape scale. In this study, we investigated landscape-scale spatial variations in the foliar isotopic composition of 3 woody plant species across a 308 m topoedaphic gradient, along which soil texture and plant resources (water and nitrogen availability) varied from upland (86 m) to lowland (84 m) portions of the landscape. The study was conducted in a subtropical savanna at the La Copita Research Area, approximately 60 km west of Corpus Christi, TX. Foliar δ13C, δ15N, leaf nitrogen concentration ([N]), and specific leaf area (SLA) were measured on all individuals of Prosopis glandulosa, Condalia hookeri, and Zanthoxylum fagara present within a belt transect 308 m long x 12 m wide. Soil texture, available soil moisture, and total N were measured at 1 m intervals along the center-line of the belt transect. Clay content, available soil moisture, and soil total N were all negatively correlated with elevation along the transect. Leaf δ13C and δ15N values for all 3 species increased by 1-4 o/oo with decreasing elevation along the transect. Contrary to theory and previous studies, δ13C values were highest where soil water was most available, suggesting that some other variable could be overriding or interacting with water availability. Foliar [N] appeared to exert the strongest control over landscape-level variation, and was positively correlated with δ13C of all species (R 2 = 0.58, pCondalia were positively correlated with leaf [N] and soil water availability; however, these relationships were absent for Prosopis, an N-fixing tree legume. We speculate that the relationship between δ15N and leaf [N] and soil water may reflect the fact that plants with high δ15N values occurred on lower-lying portions of the landscape with relatively high N-transformation rates

  4. Modeling speleothem δ 13C variability in a central Sierra Nevada cave using 14C and 87Sr/ 86Sr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Jessica L.; Montañez, Isabel P.; Guilderson, Thomas P.; Sharp, Warren D.; Banner, Jay L.

    2010-09-01

    Carbon isotopes in speleothems can vary in response to a number of complex processes active in cave systems that are both directly and indirectly related to climate. Progressing downward from the soil zone overlying the cave, these processes include soil respiration, fluid-rock interaction in the host limestone, degassing of CO 2 and precipitation of calcite upflow from the speleothem drip site, and calcite precipitation at the drip site. Here we develop a new approach to independently constrain the roles of water-rock interaction and soil processes in controlling stalagmite δ 13C. This approach uses the dead carbon proportion (dcp) estimated from coupled 14C and 230Th/U measurements, in conjunction with Sr isotope analyses on stalagmite calcite from a central Sierra Nevada foothills cave in California, a region characterized by a highly seasonal Mediterranean-type climate, to determine the roles of water-rock interaction and soil processes in determining stalagmite δ 13C. Increases in stalagmite dcp between 16.5 and 8.8 ka are coincident with decreased δ 13C, indicating a varying yet substantial contribution from the soil organic matter (SOM) reservoir, likely due to significantly increased average age of SOM in the soil veneer above the cave during wet climatic intervals. We use geochemical and isotope mixing models to estimate the host-carbonate contribution throughout the δ 13C time series and determine the degree of degassing and calcite precipitation that occurred prior to precipitation of stalagmite calcite. The degree of degassing and prior calcite precipitation we calculate varies systematically with other climate indicators, with less degassing and prior calcite precipitation occurring during wetter climatic intervals and more during drier intervals. Modeled δ 13C values and degassing calculations suggest that some degree of prior calcite precipitation is necessary at all time intervals to explain measured stalagmite δ 13C values, even during

  5. The Diagnostic Validity of Citric Acid-Free, High Dose (13)C-Urea Breath Test After Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong Hwan; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Ju Yup; Choi, Yoon Jin; Yoon, Kichul; Hwang, Jae Jin; Lee, Hyun Joo; Lee, AeRa; Jeong, Yeon Sang; Oh, Sooyeon; Yoon, Hyuk; Shin, Cheol Min; Park, Young Soo; Lee, Dong Ho

    2015-06-01

    The (13)C-urea breath test ((13)C-UBT) is a noninvasive method for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. The aims of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic validity of the (13)C-UBT cutoff value and to identify influencing clinical factors responsible for aberrant results. (13)C-UBT (UBiTkit; Otsuka Pharmaceutical, cutoff value: 2.5‰) results in the range 2.0‰ to 10.0‰ after H. pylori eradication therapy were compared with the results of endoscopic biopsy results of the antrum and body. Factors considered to affect test results adversely were analyzed. Among patients with a positive (13)C-UBT result (2.5‰ to 10.0‰, n = 223) or a negative (13)C-UBT result (2.0‰ to pylori eradication, 73 patients (34.0%) were false positive, and one (1.5%) was false negative as determined by endoscopic biopsy. The sensitivity, specificity, false-positive rate, and false-negative rate for a cutoff value of 2.5‰ were 99.3%, 47.1%, 52.9%, and 0.7%, respectively, and positive and negative predictive values of the (13)C-UBT were 67.3% and 98.5%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that a history of two or more previous H. pylori eradication therapies (OR = 2.455, 95%CI = 1.299-4.641) and moderate to severe gastric intestinal metaplasia (OR = 3.359, 95%CI = 1.572-7.178) were associated with a false-positive (13)C-UBT result. The (13)C-UBT cutoff value currently used has poor specificity for confirming H. pylori status after eradication, and this lack of specificity is exacerbated in patients that have undergone multiple prior eradication therapies and in patients with moderate to severe gastric intestinal metaplasia. In addition, the citric-free (13)C-UBT would increase a false-positive (13)C-UBT result. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Delta Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Mette

    . The warming air temperature affects the soil temperature and permafrost thaws and destabilizes the material in the coastal zone. In Greenland, the warming temperature lowers the surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet and more material is transported to the coastal zone. The sea ice extent is thinning...... of a fjord and the second type is a wider fan-shaped open delta. Most deltas are directly coupled to the Greenland Ice Sheet or local icecaps and are highly influenced by the dynamics in the catchments. It is demonstrated how a modern changing climate directly affects delta dynamics, and that Greenlandic...

  7. Metabolic Characterization of Acutely Isolated Hippocampal and Cerebral Cortical Slices Using [U-13C]Glucose and [1,2-13C]Acetate as Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Laura F; Kornfelt, Rasmus; Walls, Anne B; Andersen, Jens V; Aldana, Blanca I; Nissen, Jakob D; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2017-03-01

    Brain slice preparations from rats, mice and guinea pigs have served as important tools for studies of neurotransmission and metabolism. While hippocampal slices routinely have been used for electrophysiology studies, metabolic processes have mostly been studied in cerebral cortical slices. Few comparative characterization studies exist for acute hippocampal and cerebral cortical slices, hence, the aim of the current study was to characterize and compare glucose and acetate metabolism in these slice preparations in a newly established incubation design. Cerebral cortical and hippocampal slices prepared from 16 to 18-week-old mice were incubated for 15-90 min with unlabeled glucose in combination with [U-13C]glucose or [1,2-13C]acetate. Our newly developed incubation apparatus allows accurate control of temperature and is designed to avoid evaporation of the incubation medium. Subsequent to incubation, slices were extracted and extracts analyzed for 13C-labeling (%) and total amino acid contents (µmol/mg protein) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Release of lactate from the slices was quantified by analysis of the incubation media. Based on the measured 13C-labeling (%), total amino acid contents and relative activity of metabolic enzymes/pathways, we conclude that the slice preparations in the current incubation apparatus exhibited a high degree of metabolic integrity. Comparison of 13C-labeling observed with [U-13C]glucose in slices from cerebral cortex and hippocampus revealed no significant regional differences regarding glycolytic or total TCA cycle activities. On the contrary, results from the incubations with [1,2-13C]acetate suggest a higher capacity of the astrocytic TCA cycle in hippocampus compared to cerebral cortex. Finally, we propose a new approach for assessing compartmentation of metabolite pools between astrocytes and neurons using 13C-labeling (%) data obtained from mass

  8. Use of 13C nuclear magnetic resonance to assess fossil fuel biodegradation: fate of [1-13C]acenaphthene in creosote polycyclic aromatic compound mixtures degraded by bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selifonov, S A; Chapman, P J; Akkerman, S B; Gurst, J E; Bortiatynski, J M; Nanny, M A; Hatcher, P G

    1998-04-01

    [1-13C]acenaphthene, a tracer compound with a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-active nucleus at the C-1 position, has been employed in conjunction with a standard broad-band-decoupled 13C-NMR spectroscopy technique to study the biodegradation of acenaphthene by various bacterial cultures degrading aromatic hydrocarbons of creosote. Site-specific labeling at the benzylic position of acenaphthene allows 13C-NMR detection of chemical changes due to initial oxidations catalyzed by bacterial enzymes of aromatic hydrocarbon catabolism. Biodegradation of [1-13C]acenaphthene in the presence of naphthalene or creosote polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) was examined with an undefined mixed bacterial culture (established by enrichment on creosote PACs) and with isolates of individual naphthalene- and phenanthrene-degrading strains from this culture. From 13C-NMR spectra of extractable materials obtained in time course biodegradation experiments under optimized conditions, a number of signals were assigned to accumulated products such as 1-acenaphthenol, 1-acenaphthenone, acenaphthene-1,2-diol and naphthalene 1,8-dicarboxylic acid, formed by benzylic oxidation of acenaphthene and subsequent reactions. Limited degradation of acenaphthene could be attributed to its oxidation by naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase or related dioxygenases, indicative of certain limitations of the undefined mixed culture with respect to acenaphthene catabolism. Coinoculation of the mixed culture with cells of acenaphthene-grown strain Pseudomonas sp. strain A2279 mitigated the accumulation of partial transformation products and resulted in more complete degradation of acenaphthene. This study demonstrates the value of the stable isotope labeling approach and its ability to reveal incomplete mineralization even when as little as 2 to 3% of the substrate is incompletely oxidized, yielding products of partial transformation. The approach outlined may prove useful in assessing bioremediation performance.

  9. Synthesis and quality control of {sup 13}C-enriched urea for Helicobacter pylori (HP) diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sant Ana Filho, Carlos R.; Tavares, Claudineia R.O.; Ferreira, Andre V.; Prestes, Cleber V.; Bendassolli, Jose A., E-mail: jab@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was to synthesize the urea ({sup 13}CO(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}), with 99% {sup 13}C atoms, and to perform a quality analysis for the diagnosis (breath test) of Helicobacter pylori. Furthermore, the process was submitted to economic analysis. The reaction was performed in a stainless steel reactor, lined with polytetrafluoroethylene, under low pressure and temperature. The synthesis method was shown to be appropriate (2.35 g; 81.9% yield), evidenced by physico-chemical and microbiological results, according to Brazilian legislation. The production and diagnosis costs were competitive compared with national and international market values, rendering this a valuable tool in clinical medicine. (author)

  10. Simulation of 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra for isodon terpenoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guochen; Tong, Jianbo; Liu, Shuling

    2008-11-01

    A quantitative structure spectroscopy relationship (QSSR) model of 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of 7000 carbon atoms in 350 isodon terpenoid compounds has been developed using atomic electronegativity distance vector (AEDV) and atomic hybridization state index (AHSI). The prediction correlation coefficient ( R) value of the QSSR model based on multiple linear regression analysis was 0.9542. The stability and prediction capacity of the QSSR model have been tested using the leave-one-out cross-validation and test sets methodology. The correlation coefficients R obtained were 0.9540 and 0.9556, respectively, which showed that the predictive potential of the proposed models has good modeling stability and prediction ability.

  11. Stable Carbon Isotope Ratio (δ13C Measurement of Graphite Using EA-IRMS System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Garbaras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available δ13C values in non-irradiated natural graphite were measured. The measurements were carried out using an elemental analyzer combined with stable isotope ratio mass spectrometer (EA-IRMS. The samples were prepared with ground and non-ground graphite, the part of which was mixed with Mg (ClO42. The best combustion of graphite in the oxidation furnace of the elemental analyzer was achieved when the amount of pulverized graphite ranged from 200 to 490 µg and the mass ratio C:Mg(ClO42 was approximately 1:10. The method for the graphite burning avoiding the isotope fractionation is proposed.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.2.6873

  12. DELTAS: A new Global Delta Sustainability Initiative (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2013-12-01

    Deltas are economic and environmental hotspots, food baskets for many nations, home to a large part of the world population, and hosts of exceptional biodiversity and rich ecosystems. Deltas, being at the land-water interface, are international, regional, and local transport hubs, thus providing the basis for intense economic activities. Yet, deltas are deteriorating at an alarming rate as 'victims' of human actions (e.g. water and sediment reduction due to upstream basin development), climatic impacts (e.g. sea level rise and flooding from rivers and intense tropical storms), and local exploration (e.g. sand or aggregates, groundwater and hydrocarbon extraction). Although many efforts exist on individual deltas around the world, a comprehensive global delta sustainability initiative that promotes awareness, science integration, data and knowledge sharing, and development of decision support tools for an effective dialogue between scientists, managers and policy makers is lacking. Recently, the international scientific community proposed to establish the International Year of Deltas (IYD) to serve as the beginning of such a Global Delta Sustainability Initiative. The IYD was proposed as a year to: (1) increase awareness and attention to the value and vulnerability of deltas worldwide; (2) promote and enhance international and regional cooperation at the scientific, policy, and stakeholder level; and (3) serve as a launching pad for a 10-year committed effort to understand deltas as complex socio-ecological systems and ensure preparedness in protecting and restoring them in a rapidly changing environment. In this talk, the vision for such an international coordinated effort on delta sustainability will be presented as developed by a large number of international experts and recently funded through the Belmont Forum International Opportunities Fund. Participating countries include: U.S., France, Germany, U.K., India, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Brazil, Bangladesh

  13. Biosynthesis of highly enriched 13C-lycopene for human metabolic studies using repeated batch tomato cell culturing with 13C-glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Nancy E.; Rogers, Randy B.; Lu, Chi-Hua; Conlon, Lauren E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Clinton, Steven K.; Erdman, John W.

    2013-01-01

    While putative disease-preventing lycopene metabolites are found in both tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) products and in their consumers, mammalian lycopene metabolism is poorly understood. Advances in tomato cell culturing techniques offer an economical tool for generation of highly-enriched 13C-lycopene for human bioavailability and metabolism studies. To enhance the 13C-enrichment and yields of labeled lycopene from the hp-1 tomato cell line, cultures were first grown in 13C-glucose media for three serial batches and produced increasing proportions of uniformly labeled lycopene (14.3 +/− 1.2 %, 39.6 +/− 0.5 %, and 48.9 +/− 1.5% with consistent yields (from 5.8 to 9 mg/L). An optimized 9-day-long 13C-loading and 18-day-long labeling strategy developed based on glucose utilization and lycopene yields, yielded 13C-lycopene with 93% 13C isotopic purity, and 55% of isotopomers were uniformly labeled. Furthermore, an optimized acetone and hexane extraction led to a four-fold increase in lycopene recovery from cultures compared to a standard extraction. PMID:23561155

  14. Regional, seasonal and interspecific variation in 15N and 13C in sympatric mouse lemurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotondranary, S. Jacques; Struck, Ulrich; Knoblauch, Christian; Ganzhorn, Jörg U.

    2011-11-01

    Madagascar provides some of the rare examples where two or more primate species of the same genus and with seemingly identical niche requirements occur in sympatry. If congeneric primate species co-occur in other parts of the world, they differ in size in a way that is consistent with Hutchinson's rule for coexisting species, or they occupy different ecological niches. In some areas of Madagascar, mouse lemurs do not follow these "rules" and thus seem to violate one of the principles of community ecology. In order to understand the mechanisms that allow coexistence of sympatric congeneric species without obvious niche differentiation, we studied food composition of two identical sized omnivorous mouse lemur species, Microcebus griseorufus and M. murinus with the help of stable isotope analyses ( δ 15N and δ 13C). The two species are closely related sister species. During the rich season, when food seems abundant, the two species do not differ in their nitrogen isotope composition, indicating that the two species occupy the same trophic level. But they differ in their δ 13C values, indicating that M. griseorufus feeds more on C4 and CAM (Crassulacean-acid-metabolism) plants than M. murinus. During the lean season, M. murinus has lower δ 15N values, indicating that the two species feed at different trophic levels during times of food shortage. Hybrids between the two species showed intermediate food composition. The results reflect subtle differences in foraging or metabolic adaptations that are difficult to quantify by traditional observations but that represent possibilities to allow coexistence of species.

  15. Natural-abundance 13C nuclear-magnetic-resonance study of toxin II from Anemonia sulcata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, R S; Zwick, J; Béress, L

    1980-12-01

    Natural-abundance 13C NMR spectra (at 15.04 MHz) of the polypeptide toxin II from the sea anemone Anemonia sulcata have been analysed and compared with corresponding spectra reported recently for a closely related polypeptide anthopleurin A. The spectra contain many resolved one-carbon and two-carbon resonances from carbonyl, aromatic and methyl carbons, many of which have been assigned to individual carbons in the molecule on the basis of their chemical shifts, including their pH dependence, and by comparison with the 13C NMR spectrum of anthopleurin A. Analysis of the effects of pH on the spectrum yields estimates for the pKa values of a number of functional groups in the molecule, as follows: side-chain carboxylates of the two aspartic acid residues 2 and 3.1; COOH-terminal carboxylic acid, 3.5; imidazolium moieties of the two histidine residues, 6.7 and 7.6 NH2-terminal ammonium, 8. The similarity between the pKa values of these functional groups in toxin II and those of corresponding groups in anthopleurin A, together with the close agreement between chemical shifts of conserved carbons, indicates that many local interactions are nearly identical in the two molecules, and thus supports the thesis that their overall conformations in solution are similar. However, the local interactions involving one of the aspartic acid residues are altered in toxin II. Together with other data, this leads to a proposal for the site in these two molecules which is responsible for their cardiac stimulatory activity.

  16. 1H and 13C NMR studies of melon and head blubber of the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scano, P; Marincola, F Cesare; Locci, E; Lai, A

    2006-11-01

    Intact portions of melon, the echolocation organ of the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), and the corresponding raw oils were analyzed by means of one- and two dimensional 1H and 13C NMR techniques. For comparative purposes the tissue and the raw oil of head blubber were also examined. Complete assignments of the spectra were obtained. Furthermore, dynamics of the lipid components was investigated by means of 13C NMR spin lattice relaxation time (T1). Analysis of the data revealed that lipid molecules in the tissue compartments experience a liquid-like microenvironment and that T1 values depend on the lipid composition and/or organization in the intact tissue framework. In particular, a dependence of the T1 values on the wax esters content in melon intact tissues was found. A possible correlation between dynamic parameters and sound propagation properties has been hypothesized.

  17. Tracing the intrusion of fossil carbon into coastal Louisiana macrofauna using natural 14C and 13C abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rachel M.; Cherrier, Jennifer; Sarkodee-Adoo, Judith; Bosman, Samantha; Mickle, Alejandra; Chanton, Jeffrey P.

    2016-07-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill released a large volume of 13C and radiocarbon depleted organic matter to the northern Gulf of Mexico. Evidence of petroleum-derived carbon entering the offshore planktonic foodweb, as well as widespread oiling of coastal areas documented in previous studies suggests that hydrocarbons could have entered the near shore foodweb. To test this hypothesis, we measured radiocarbon (Δ14C%) and stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) in an assortment of fish tissue, invertebrate tissue and shell samples collected within a year of the spill at seven sites from Louisiana to Florida USA across the northern Gulf of Mexico. We observed a west-east gradient with the most depleted radiocarbon values found in Terrebonne Bay, Louisana and increasingly enriched radiocarbon values in organisms collected at sites to the east. Depleted radiocarbon values as low as -10% in invertebrate soft tissue from Terrebonne suggest assimilation of fossil carbon (2.8±1.2%), consistent with the hypothesis that organic matter from petrochemical reservoirs released during the Deepwater Horizon spill entered the coastal food web to a limited extent. Further there was a significant correlation between radiocarbon and δ13C values in invertebrate tissue consistent with this hypothesis. Both oyster tissue and hard head catfish tissue collected in impacted areas of coastal Louisiana were significantly depleted in 14C and 13C relative to organisms collected in the unaffected Apalachicola Bay, Florida (porganisms ingest carbon derived from 14C depleted organic matter mobilized during the erosion of coastal marshes in southern Louisiana.

  18. Hyperpolarized 13C Urea Relaxation Mechanism Reveals Renal Changes in Diabetic Nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Stokholm Nørlinger, Thomas; Christoffer Hansen, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Our aim was to assess a novel 13C radial fast spin echo golden ratio single shot method for interrogating early renal changes in the diabetic kidney, using hyperpolarized (HP) [13C,15N2]urea as a T2 relaxation based contrast bio-probe. Methods: A novel HP 13C MR contrast experiment...... saturation level and the relaxation times were observed in the healthy controls. Conclusion: HP [13C,15N2]urea apparent T2 mapping may be a useful for interrogating local renal pO2 status and renal tissue alterations....

  19. "VALIDATION OF 13C-UREA BREATH TEST WITH NON DISPERSIVE ISOTOPE SELECTIVE INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION: A SURVEY IN IRANIAN POPULATION"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Davood Beiki

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The urea breath test (UBT which is carried out with 13C or 14C labeled urea is one of the most important non invasive methods for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection. Application of 13C-UBT is becoming increasingly popular because of its non radioactive nature which makes it suitable for diagnostic purposes in children and women of child bearing ages. While isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS is generally used to detect 13C in expired breath, this instrument is expensive and recently non dispersive isotope selective infrared (NDIR spectroscopy which is a lower cost technique has been employed as a reliable counterpart for IRMS in small clinics. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of NDIR spectroscopy technique in Iranian population in comparison with histological examination, rapid urease test and 14C-urea breath test as gold standard. Seventy six patients with dyspepsia were underwent 13CUBT for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Good agreements were found between the 13C-UBT and gold standard methods. The 13C-UBT showed 100% sensitivity, 97.3% specificity, 97.56% positive predictive value, 100% negative predictive value and 98.65% accuracy. On the basis of these results it could be concluded that 13C-UBT performed with NDIR spectroscopy is a reliable, accurate and non invasive diagnostic tool for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in the Iranian population.

  20. Coralline Algal Skeletal δ13C as a Multicentury Recorder of Carbon Dynamics in the Labrador Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng Xiao Hou, Alicia; Halfar, Jochen; Adey, Walter; Wortmann, Ulrich; Williams, Branwen; Chan, Phoebe

    2017-04-01

    preindustrial portion of the record (1819 to 1850), and the increasing atmospheric input of anthropogenically derived light carbon post 1850. The latter effect becomes increasingly important in the younger portion of the coralline algal record. In order to study changes in surface ocean productivity, we therefore mathematically removed the Suess effect from 1850 onwards using a previously established Suess Effect Correction Factor. The Suess corrected algal δ13C record now exhibits an overall increasing trend from 1850 to 2012. We interpret this as reflecting an ongoing increase in Labrador Sea primary productivity, which is supported by observed recent increases in ocean productivity associated with the decline in sea ice cover in the Arctic and Subarctic oceans. Considering the important economic value of enormous fisheries supported by the Arctic and sub-Arctic oceans and the role of this region as a significant CO2 sink, it is necessary to quantify changes in primary productivity as well as the rate of oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2, both of which are reflected in changes in the carbon isotope composition of oceanic DIC.

  1. Simultaneous Hyperpolarized 13C-Pyruvate MRI and 18F-FDG PET (HyperPET) in 10 Dogs with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutte, Henrik; Hansen, Adam E; Larsen, Majbrit M E; Rahbek, Sofie; Henriksen, Sarah T; Johannesen, Helle H; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Højgaard, Liselotte; Kjær, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    With the introduction of combined PET/MR spectroscopic (MRS) imaging, it is now possible to directly and indirectly image the Warburg effect with hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate and (18)F-FDG PET imaging, respectively, via a technique we have named hyperPET. The main purpose of this present study was to establish a practical workflow for performing (18)F-FDG PET and hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate MRS imaging simultaneously for tumor tissue characterization and on a larger scale test its feasibility. In addition, we evaluated the correlation between (18)F-FDG uptake and (13)C-lactate production. Ten dogs with biopsy-verified spontaneous malignant tumors were included for imaging. All dogs underwent a protocol of simultaneous (18)F-FDG PET, anatomic MR, and hyperpolarized dynamic nuclear polarization with (13)C-pyruvate imaging. The data were acquired using a combined clinical PET/MR imaging scanner. We found that combined (18)F-FDG PET and (13)C-pyruvate MRS imaging was possible in a single session of approximately 2 h. A continuous workflow was obtained with the injection of (18)F-FDG when the dogs was placed in the PET/MR scanner. (13)C-MRS dynamic acquisition demonstrated in an axial slab increased (13)C-lactate production in 9 of 10 dogs. For the 9 dogs, the (13)C-lactate was detected after a mean of 25 s (range, 17-33 s), with a mean to peak of (13)C-lactate at 49 s (range, 40-62 s). (13)C-pyruvate could be detected on average after 13 s (range, 5-26 s) and peaked on average after 25 s (range, 13-42 s). We noticed concordance of (18)F-FDG uptake and production of (13)C-lactate in most, but not all, axial slices. In this study, we have shown in a series of dogs with cancer that hyperPET can easily be performed within 2 h. We showed mostly correspondence between (13)C-lactate production and (18)F-FDG uptake and expect the combined modalities to reveal additional metabolic information to improve prognostic value and improve response monitoring. © 2015 by the Society

  2. Using Isotope Ratio Infrared Spectrometer to determine δ13C and δ18O of carbonate samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smajgl, Danijela; Stöbener, Nils; Mandic, Magda

    2017-04-01

    The isotopic composition of calcifying organisms is a key tool for reconstruction past seawater temperature and water chemistry. Therefore stable carbon and oxygen isotopes (δ13C and δ18O) in carbonates have been widely used for reconstruction of paleoenvironments. Precise and accurate determination of isotopic composition of carbon (13C) and oxygen (18O) from carbonate sample with proper referencing and data evaluation algorithm presents a challenge for scientists. Mass spectrometry was the only widely used technique for this kind of analysis, but recent advances make laser based spectroscopy a viable alternative. The Thermo Scientific Delta Ray Isotope Ratio Infrared Spectrometer (IRIS) analyzer with the Universal Reference Interface (URI) Connect is one of those alternatives and with TELEDYNE Cetac ASX-7100 autosampler extends the traditional offerings with a system of high precision and throughput of samples. To establish precision and accuracy of measurements and also to develop optimal sample preparation method for measurements with Delta Ray IRIS and URI Connect, IAEA reference materials were used. Preparation is similar to a Gas Bench II method. Carbonate material is added into the vials, flushed with CO2 free synthetic air and acidified with few droplets of 104% H3PO4. Sample amount used for analysis can be as low as 200 μg. Samples are measured after acidification and equilibration time of one hour at 70°C. The CO2 gas generated by reaction is flushed into the variable volume inside the URI Connect through the Nafion based built-in water trap. For this step, carrier gas (CO2 free air) is used to flush the gas from the vial into the variable volume with a maximum volume of 100 ml. A small amount of the sample is then used for automatic concentration determination present in the variable volume. The Thermo Scientific Qtegra Software automatically adjusts any additional dilution of the sample to achieve the desired concentration (usually 400 ppm) in the

  3. In situ Raman spectroelectrochemical study of 13C-labeled fullerene peapods and carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbác, Martin; Kavan, Ladislav; Zukalová, Markéta; Dunsch, Lothar

    2007-10-01

    C60 fullerene peapods and double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) containing highly 13C enriched C60 and inner tubes, respectively, are studied using Raman spectroscopy and in situ Raman spectroelectrochemistry in order to follow the influence of 13C enrichment on the vibrational pattern of these carbon nanostructures. The Raman response of 13C60 after encapsulation in fullerene peapods differs from that of isotope-natural species, (Nat)C60. The Raman A(g)(2) mode of encapsulated 13C60 is upshifted in frequency compared to that of the (Nat)C60 peapods with the same filling factor. The chemical doping of 13C60 peapods (peapod = C(60)@SWCNT) with K-vapor leads to the downshift of the A(g)(2) mode, similar to the case of (Nat)C60 peapods. The 13C60 peapods were successfully transformed into DWCNTs, which confirms high filling of single-walled (SW) CNTs with 13C60. The DWCNTs exhibited distinctly downshifted G and D Raman modes for inner tubes, which proves that only inner tubes were enriched by 13C. The in situ Raman spectroelectrochemistry of (Nat)C60 exhibits strong anodic enhancement, while for 13C60 peapods the enhancement is only weak. On the other hand, the electrochemical charging of the inner-tube-labeled DWCNTs (13C(i)-DWCNTs) followed the behavior of ordinary (Nat)C(i)-DWCNTs as indicated by in situ Raman spectroelectrochemistry. In addition, the spectroelectrochemical behavior of the G mode of inner tubes in 13C(i)-DWCNTs is followed from the start of the electrochemical doping, which was not feasible for (Nat)C(i)-DWCNTs.

  4. Identification of degradation routes of metamitron in soil microcosms using13C-isotope labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shizong; Miltner, Anja; Nowak, Karolina M

    2017-01-01

    Metamitron is one of the most commonly used herbicide in sugar beet and flower bulb cultures. Numerous laboratory and field studies on sorption and degradation of metamitron were performed. Detailed biodegradation studies in soil using 13 C-isotope labeling are still missing. Therefore, we aimed at providing a detailed turnover mass balance of 13 C 6 -metamitron in soil microcosms over 80 days. In the biotic system, metamitron mineralized rapidly, and 13 CO 2 finally constituted 60% of the initial 13 C 6 -metamitron equivalents. In abiotic control experiments CO 2 rose to only 7.4% of the initial 13 C 6 -metamitron equivalents. The 13 C label from 13 C 6 -metamitron was incorporated into microbial amino acids that were ultimately stabilized in the soil organic matter forming presumably harmless biogenic residues. Finally, 13 C label from 13 C 6 -metamitron was distributed between the 13 CO 2 and the 13 C-biogenic residues indicating nearly complete biodegradation. The parallel increase of 13 C-alanine, 13 C-glutamate and 13 CO 2 indicates that metamitron was initially biodegraded via the desamino-metamitron route suggesting its relevance in the growth metabolism. In later phases of biodegradation, the "Rhodococcus route" was indicated by the low 13 CO 2 evolution and the high relevance of the pyruvate pathway, which aims at biomolecule synthesis and seems to be related to starvation. This is a first report on the detailed degradation route of metamitron in soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Precision trace gas analysis by FT-IR spectroscopy. 2. The 13C/12C isotope ratio of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, M B; Griffith, D W; Wilson, S R; Steele, L P

    2000-01-01

    We report the development of a method of carbon stable isotope ratio analysis based on 1-cm-1 resolution Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, deployable in both laboratory and field applications. We demonstrate the determination of the 13C/12C ratio of CO2 (i.e., delta 13CO2) in air with an analytical precision of the order of +/- 0.1/1000 (i.e., +/- 0.01%). The FT-IR method relies on calibration using synthetically calculated absorbance spectra and a multivariate calibration algorithm. The method requires no sample preparation other than optional drying of the sample and may be applied directly to ambient air samples containing approximately 350 mumol mol-1 CO2 (molar mixing ratio). It may also be applied to samples more concentrated in CO2, such as human breath, approximately 5% CO2. We demonstrate the utility of the technique to the analysis of delta 13CO2 in air during an experimental field campaign and to the laboratory-based analysis of human breath. A similar method could also be used to determine the H/D ratio in atmospheric water vapor.

  6. Sensitivity-enhanced 13C MR spectroscopy of the human brain at 3 Tesla.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, D.W.J.; Renema, W.K.J.; Graaf, M. van der; Galan, B.E. de; Kentgens, A.P.M.; Heerschap, A.

    2006-01-01

    A new coil design for sensitivity-enhanced 13C MR spectroscopy (MRS) of the human brain is presented. The design includes a quadrature transmit/receive head coil optimized for 13C MR sensitivity. Loss-less blocking circuits inside the coil conductors allow this coil to be used inside a homogeneous

  7. Angular distributions and yield of the 13C(d,p)14C reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koudijs, B.; Valckx, F.P.G.; Endt, P.M.

    1953-01-01

    Angular distributions have been measured of long-range protons from the 13C(d,p)14C reaction at six deuteron energies between 0.30 MeV and 0.65 MeV. Protons were detected using nuclear emulsions. The target consisted of a thin layer of almost pure 13C on a thin aluminium backing. The experimental

  8. 13C-contents of bacterial lipids in a shallow sulfidic monomictic lake (Lake Ciso, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Hartgers, W.A.; Sliekers, O.; Grimalt, J.O.

    2000-01-01

    Stable carbon isotopic analysis was performed on sedimentary biomarkers of a shallow sulfide-rich monomictic lake, Lake Cisó (NE Spain). Specific biomarkers derived from phototrophic sulfur bacteria in Lake Cisó were considerably depleted in 13C, most likely due to the depleted 13C-content of the

  9. Absence of hyperfine effects in 13C-graphene spin-valve devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojtaszek, M.; Vera-Marun, I.J.; Whiteway, E.; Hilke, M.; Wees, B.J. van

    2014-01-01

    The carbon isotope 13C, in contrast to 12C, possesses a nuclear magnetic moment and can induce electron spin dephasing in graphene. This effect is usually neglected due to the low abundance of 13C in natural carbon allotropes (~1%). Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) allows for artificial synthesis of

  10. (13) C mannitol as a novel biomarker for measurement of intestinal permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, M; Camilleri, M; Hines, J; Burton, D; Ryks, M; Wadhwa, A; Sundt, W; Dyer, R; Singh, R J

    2016-07-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) and non-GI disorders are associated with altered intestinal permeability, which can be measured in vivo by urinary excretion after oral lactulose and mannitol ingestion. Inadvertent dietary consumption of (12) Carbon ((12) C, regular) mannitol in food or from other sources may interfere with the test's interpretation. (13) Carbon ((13) C) constitutes 1% of carbon in nature and (13) C mannitol is a stable isotope. Our aim was to determine the performance of (13) C mannitol for measurement of intestinal permeability. Ten healthy volunteers underwent intestinal permeability assay using coadministered (12) C mannitol, (13) C mannitol and lactulose, followed by timed urine collections. Urinary sugar concentrations were measured using tandem high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We found that (13) C mannitol can be distinguishable from (12) C mannitol on tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, (13) C mannitol had ~20-fold lower baseline contamination compared to (12) C mannitol. We describe here the (13) C mannitol assay method for the measurement of intestinal permeability. In conclusion, (13) C mannitol is superior to (12) C mannitol for measurement of intestinal permeability. It avoids issues with baseline contamination and erratic excretions during the testing period. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. 350 ka Organic 13 C record of the monsoon variability on the Oman ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... probably because of differences in the degree of preservation. Organic material deposited at site 725C has undergone more degradation relative to site 724C as reflected by a systematic downcore decrease in 13C resulting from a loss of 13C enriched organic compounds. Owing to lack of good chronology at site 725C, ...

  12. Retrospective characterization of ontogenetic shifts in killer whale diets via δ13C and δ15N analysis of teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Seth D.; Etnier, Michael A.; Monson, Daniel H.; Fogel, Marilyn L.

    2009-01-01

    Metabolically inert, accretionary structures such as the dentin growth layers in teeth provide a life history record of individual diet with near-annual resolution. We constructed ontogenetic δ13C and δ15N profiles by analyzing tooth dentin growth layers from 13 individual killer whales Orcinus orca collected in the eastern northeast Pacific Ocean between 1961 and 2003. The individuals sampled were 6 to 52 yr old, representing 2 ecotypes—resident and transient—collected across ~25° of latitude. The average isotopic values of transient individuals (n = 10) are consistent with a reliance on mammalian prey, while the average isotopic values of residents (n = 3) are consistent with piscivory. Regardless of ecotype, most individuals show a decrease in δ15N values of ~2.5‰ through the first 3 yr of life, roughly equivalent to a decrease of one trophic level. We interpret this as evidence of gradual weaning, after which, ontogenetic shifts in isotopic values are highly variable. A few individuals (n = 2) maintained relatively stable δ15N and δ13C values throughout the remainder of their lives, whereas δ15N values of most (n = 11) increased by ~1.5‰, suggestive of an ontogenetic increase in trophic level. Significant differences in mean δ13C and δ15N values among transients collected off California suggest that individuality in prey preferences may be prevalent within this ecotype. Our approach provides retrospective individual life history and dietary information that cannot be obtained through traditional field observations of free-ranging and elusive species such as killer whales, including unique historic ecological information that pre-dates modern studies. By providing insights into individual diet composition, stable isotope analysis of teeth and/or bones may be the only means of evaluating a number of hypothesized historical dietary shifts in killer whales of the northeast Pacific Ocean

  13. Metabolic Characterization of Acutely Isolated Hippocampal and Cerebral Cortical Slices Using [U-(13)C]Glucose and [1,2-(13)C]Acetate as Substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McNair, Laura F; Kornfelt, Rasmus; Walls, Anne B

    2017-01-01

    comparative characterization studies exist for acute hippocampal and cerebral cortical slices, hence, the aim of the current study was to characterize and compare glucose and acetate metabolism in these slice preparations in a newly established incubation design. Cerebral cortical and hippocampal slices...... prepared from 16 to 18-week-old mice were incubated for 15-90 min with unlabeled glucose in combination with [U-(13)C]glucose or [1,2-(13)C]acetate. Our newly developed incubation apparatus allows accurate control of temperature and is designed to avoid evaporation of the incubation medium. Subsequent...... to incubation, slices were extracted and extracts analyzed for (13)C-labeling (%) and total amino acid contents (µmol/mg protein) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Release of lactate from the slices was quantified by analysis of the incubation...

  14. 13C-NMR studies of acetate and methanol metabolism by methylotrophic Pseudomonas strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbad, A; Hewlins, M J; Callely, A G

    1989-06-01

    The metabolism of [2-13C]acetate by Pseudomonas M27(Icl-) and Pseudomonas MA(Icl+) was studied in vivo using 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The flux of 13C-label into bicarbonate, glutamate and citrate was observed in both organisms. In addition 13C-labelled alpha, alpha-trehalose was synthesized as a major metabolite by Pseudomonas M27 but not by Pseudomonas MA. The presence of this disaccharide in cell extracts of Pseudomonas AM1(Icl-) grown with [13C]methanol was also observed. The data from analysis of the trehalose multiplet signal observed in the spectra of Pseudomonas M27 cell extracts were consistent with the absence of the glyoxylate cycle in this methylotroph.

  15. Overexpression of a homogeneous oligosaccharide with {sup 13}C labeling by genetically engineered yeast strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Sayoko [National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okazaki Institute for Integrative Bioscience and Institute for Molecular Science (Japan); Chiba, Yasunori; Jigami, Yoshifumi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Research Center for Medical Glycoscience (Japan); Kato, Koichi, E-mail: kkatonmr@ims.ac.jp [National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okazaki Institute for Integrative Bioscience and Institute for Molecular Science (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    This report describes a novel method for overexpression of {sup 13}C-labeled oligosaccharides using genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, in which a homogeneous high-mannose-type oligosaccharide accumulates because of deletions of genes encoding three enzymes involved in the processing pathway of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides in the Golgi complex. Using uniformly {sup 13}C-labeled glucose as the sole carbon source in the culture medium of these engineered yeast cells, high yields of the isotopically labeled Man{sub 8}GlcNAc{sub 2} oligosaccharide could be successfully harvested from glycoprotein extracts of the cells. Furthermore, {sup 13}C labeling at selected positions of the sugar residues in the oligosaccharide could be achieved using a site-specific {sup 13}C-enriched glucose as the metabolic precursor, facilitating NMR spectral assignments. The {sup 13}C-labeling method presented provides the technical basis for NMR analyses of structures, dynamics, and interactions of larger, branched oligosaccharides.

  16. Analytical model for site-specific isotope fractionation in 13C during sorption: determination by isotopic 13C NMR spectrometry with vanillin as model compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhener, Patrick; Silvestre, Virginie; Lefrançois, Anaïs; Loquet, Denis; Botosoa, Eliot P; Robins, Richard J; Remaud, Gérald S

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to conceive a reactive transport model capable of providing quantitative site-specific enrichment factors for fractionation in (13)C isotopic content during sorption. As test compound the model treats vanillin, for which the (13)C isotopic content at natural abundance at each of the 8 carbon positions can be measured by quantitative (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. This technique determines the isotope ratios with a resolution better than ±1‰ (0.1%) at each carbon position. Site-specific isotope fractionations were recorded in chromatography column experiments with silica RP-18 as stationary phase. The one dimensional reactive transport model accounted for the sorption/desorption behavior of 8 individual (13)C-isotopomers and one (12)C-isotopomer of vanillin and reproduced satisfactorily the bulk (average over the whole compound) fractionation observed during elution. After model calibration, the enrichment factors were fitted for each carbon site where a significant fractionation was recorded. To show the interest of such a transport model for environmental studies, the model, extended to three dimensions, was exploited to simulate reactive transport in an aquifer. These results show that significant (13)C isotope fractionation is expected for 4 out of 8 (13)C-isotopomers in vanillin, and illustrate that bulk isotope ratios measured by conventional compound specific isotope analysis and mass spectrometry would hardly document significant isotope fractionations in vanillin. It is concluded that modeling of site-specific isotope ratios in molecules is a priori feasible and may help to quantify unknown processes in the environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Site-selective {sup 13}C labeling of proteins using erythrose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weininger, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.weininger@physik.uni-halle.de [Lund University, Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Center for Molecular Protein Science (Sweden)

    2017-03-15

    NMR-spectroscopy enables unique experimental studies on protein dynamics at atomic resolution. In order to obtain a full atom view on protein dynamics, and to study specific local processes like ring-flips, proton-transfer, or tautomerization, one has to perform studies on amino-acid side chains. A key requirement for these studies is site-selective labeling with {sup 13}C and/or {sup 1}H, which is achieved in the most general way by using site-selectively {sup 13}C-enriched glucose (1- and 2-{sup 13}C) as the carbon source in bacterial expression systems. Using this strategy, multiple sites in side chains, including aromatics, become site-selectively labeled and suitable for relaxation studies. Here we systematically investigate the use of site-selectively {sup 13}C-enriched erythrose (1-, 2-, 3- and 4-{sup 13}C) as a suitable precursor for {sup 13}C labeled aromatic side chains. We quantify {sup 13}C incorporation in nearly all sites in all 20 amino acids and compare the results to glucose based labeling. In general the erythrose approach results in more selective labeling. While there is only a minor gain for phenylalanine and tyrosine side-chains, the {sup 13}C incorporation level for tryptophan is at least doubled. Additionally, the Phe ζ and Trp η2 positions become labeled. In the aliphatic side chains, labeling using erythrose yields isolated {sup 13}C labels for certain positions, like Ile β and His β, making these sites suitable for dynamics studies. Using erythrose instead of glucose as a source for site-selective {sup 13}C labeling enables unique or superior labeling for certain positions and is thereby expanding the toolbox for customized isotope labeling of amino-acid side-chains.

  18. /sup 13/C-NMR studies of selectively carboxymethylated (methyl-/sup 13/C)methionine-labeled bacterial dihydrofolate reductase. [Streptococcus faecium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, R.E.; Wageman, W.E.; Blakley, R.L.

    1983-08-01

    The /sup 13/C-labeled Streptococcus faecium enzyme was prepared under relatively mild conditions for NMR studies by reaction of unlabeled iodoacetate with the enzyme containing biosynthetically incorporated (methyl-/sup 13/C)methionine. The compound produced by this unique strategy was used as a part of a continuing study of the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase. The NMR studies provided assignment of resonance data for two of the methionine residues. Additionally, the specificity of the carboxymethylation provides a useful basis for resonance assignment.

  19. Seasonally varying contributions to urban CO2 in the Chicago, Illinois, USA region: Insights from a high-resolution CO2 concentration and δ13C record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Moore

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Understanding urban carbon cycling is essential given that cities sustain 54% of the global population and contribute 70% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. When combined with CO2 concentration measurements ([CO2], stable carbon isotope analyses (δ13C can differentiate sources of CO2, including ecosystem respiration and combustion of fossil fuels, such as petroleum and natural gas. In this study, we used a wavelength scanned-cavity ringdown spectrometer to collect ∼2x106 paired measurements for [CO2] and δ13C values in Evanston, IL for August 2011 through February 2012. Evanston is located immediately north of Chicago, IL, the third largest city in the United States. The measurements represent one of the longest records of urban [CO2] and δ13C values thus far reported. We also compiled local meteorological information, as well as complementary [CO2] and δ13C data for background sites in Park Falls, WI and Mauna Loa, HI. We use the dataset to examine how ecosystem processes, fossil fuel usage, wind speed, and wind direction control local atmospheric [CO2] and δ13C in a midcontinent urban setting on a seasonal to daily basis. On average, [CO2] and δ13C values in Evanston were 16–23 ppm higher and 0.97–1.13‰ lower than the background sites. While seasonal [CO2] and δ13C values generally followed broader northern hemisphere trends, the difference between Evanston and the background sites was larger in winter versus summer. Mixing calculations suggest that ecosystem respiration and petroleum combustion equally contributed CO2 in excess of background during the summer and that natural gas combustion contributed 80%–94% of the excess CO2 in winter. Wind speed and direction strongly influenced [CO2] and δ13C values on an hourly time scale. The highest [CO2] and lowest δ13C values occurred at wind speeds <3 m s−1 and when winds blew from the northwest, west, and south over densely populated neighborhoods.

  20. [Variations of CO2 concentration and δ13C and influencing factors of Quercus variabilis plantation in low hilly area of North China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shou-jia; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jin-Song; Zheng, Ning; He, Chun-xia; Li, Yan-quan

    2015-02-01

    The off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy technique was used to measure air CO2 concentration and stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) above (11 m) and at the bottom (6 m) of canopy of a Quercus variabilis plantation in a low hilly area of North China. The variations of CO2 concentration and δ13C value in Q. variabilis plantation canopy and the influencing factors were analyzed at hourly timescale. The results showed that diurnal variation in the CO2 concentration had a trend, while there was no obvious similar tendency in the diurnal change of δ13C value. Daytime atmosphere stability frequency during the experiment time was 70.2%. With the combined effects of photosynthesis and turbulent in the canopy, CO2 concentration at the bottom of canopy was 1.70 μmol · mol(-1) higher than that above the canopy, while the δ13C value was 0.81 per thousand lower than that above the canopy. Atmosphere stability frequency was 76.2% at night. The CO2 from leaf was not easy to move because of weak turbulent. Thus, CO2 concentration at the bottom of canopy was 1.24 μmol · mol(-1) higher than that above canopy, while the δ13C value was 0.58 per thousand lower than that above canopy. The difference of CO2 concentration between above and at the bottom of the canopy was strongly correlated with their δ13C difference both in daytime and at nighttime. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that solar radiation and relative humidity in daytime were the main environmental factors causing CO2 concentration and δ13C difference between above and at the bottom of the canopy, whereas at nighttime temperature was a key environmental factor influencing δ13C value. The above environmental factors strongly influenced CO2 concentration and δ13C value in air above and at the bottom of Q. variabilis plantation canopy by increasing or decreasing photosynthesis and respiration.

  1. Effects of Ontogeny on δ13C of Plant- and Soil-Respired CO2 and on Respiratory Carbon Fractionation in C3 Herbaceous Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Salmon

    Full Text Available Knowledge gaps regarding potential ontogeny and plant species identity effects on carbon isotope fractionation might lead to misinterpretations of carbon isotope composition (δ13C of respired CO2, a widely-used integrator of environmental conditions. In monospecific mesocosms grown under controlled conditions, the δ13C of C pools and fluxes and leaf ecophysiological parameters of seven herbaceous species belonging to three functional groups (crops, forage grasses and legumes were investigated at three ontogenetic stages of their vegetative cycle (young foliage, maximum growth rate, early senescence. Ontogeny-related changes in δ13C of leaf- and soil-respired CO2 and 13C/12C fractionation in respiration (ΔR were species-dependent and up to 7‰, a magnitude similar to that commonly measured in response to environmental factors. At plant and soil levels, changes in δ13C of respired CO2 and ΔR with ontogeny were related to changes in plant physiological status, likely through ontogeny-driven changes in the C sink to source strength ratio in the aboveground plant compartment. Our data further showed that lower ΔR values (i.e. respired CO2 relatively less depleted in 13C were observed with decreasing net assimilation. Our findings highlight the importance of accounting for ontogenetic stage and plant community composition in ecological studies using stable carbon isotopes.

  2. Determinação da razão isotópica δ13C em bebidas comerciais a base de laranja Determination of isotope ratio (δ13C in commercial orange beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvio Cardoso Queiroz

    2009-08-01

    relation to soluble solids. The insoluble solids (pulp were used as internal isotopic standard for the orange juice employed in commercial beverage. The isotope analysis of commercial beverages showed four adulterations: one sample of whole orange juice, one of concentrate juice, and two of sweetened orange juice. For samples with the absence of pulp, we adopted the isotopic value of δ13C -26.19‰ as standard C3 source, by compiling a database of 31 samples of pure orange juice from 12 producing regions of the state of São Paulo. In these beverages (energetic beverage, mixed beverage and "citric fruit", the isotopic value of 13C was similar to sugar cane (δ13C -12.48‰ showing few fruit juice in its formulation.

  3. Coral skeletal carbon isotopes (δ13C and Δ14C) record the delivery of terrestrial carbon to the coastal waters of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R.P.; Grottoli, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Tropical small mountainous rivers deliver a poorly quantified, but potentially significant, amount of carbon to the world's oceans. However, few historical records of land-ocean carbon transfer exist for any region on Earth. Corals have the potential to provide such records, because they draw on dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) for calcification. In temperate systems, the stable- (δ13C) and radiocarbon (Δ14C) isotopes of coastal DIC are influenced by the δ13C and Δ14C of the DIC transported from adjacent rivers. A similar pattern should exist in tropical coastal DIC and hence coral skeletons. Here, δ13C and Δ14C measurements were made in a 56-year-old Montastraea faveolata coral growing ~1 km from the mouth of the Rio Fajardo in eastern Puerto Rico. Additionally, the δ13C and Δ14C values of the DIC of the Rio Fajardo and its adjacent coastal waters were measured during two wet and dry seasons. Three major findings were observed: (1) synchronous depletions of both δ13C and Δ14C in the coral skeleton are annually coherent with the timing of peak river discharge, (2) riverine DIC was always more depleted in δ13C and Δ14C than seawater DIC, and (3) the correlation of δ13C and Δ14C was the same in both coral skeleton and the DIC of the river and coastal waters. These results indicate that coral skeletal δ13C and Δ14C are recording the delivery of riverine DIC to the coastal ocean. Thus, coral records could be used to develop proxies of historical land-ocean carbon flux for many tropical regions. Such information could be invaluable for understanding the role of tropical land-ocean carbon flux in the context of land-use change and global climate change.

  4. C13C4.5/Spinster, an evolutionarily conserved protein that regulates fertility in C. elegans through a lysosome-mediated lipid metabolism process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mei; Chang, Hao; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Tao; Zhao, Yanhua; Zhang, Yongdeng; Liu, Pingsheng; Xu, Tao; Xu, Pingyong

    2013-05-01

    Lipid droplets, which are conserved across almost all species, are cytoplasmic organelles used to store neutral lipids. Identification of lipid droplet regulators will be conducive to resolving obesity and other fat-associated diseases. In this paper, we selected 11 candidates that might be associated with lipid metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using a BODIPY 493/503-based flow cytometry screen, 6 negative and 3 positive regulators of fat content were identified. We selected one negative regulator of lipid content, C13C4.5, for future study. C13C4.5 was mainly expressed in the worm intestine. We found that this gene was important for maintaining the metabolism of lipid droplets. Biochemical results revealed that 50% of triacylglycerol (TAG) was lost in C13C4.5 knockout worms. Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) signals in C13C4.5 mutants showed only 49.6% of the fat content in the proximal intestinal region and 86.3% in the distal intestinal region compared with wild type animals. The mean values of lipid droplet size and intensity in C13C4.5 knockout animals were found to be significantly decreased compared with those in wild type worms. The LMP-1-labeled membrane structures in worm intestines were also enlarged in C13C4.5 mutant animals. Finally, fertility defects were found in C13C4.5(ok2087) mutants. Taken together, these results indicate that C13C4.5 may regulate the fertility of C. elegans by changing the size and fat content of lipid droplets by interfering with lysosomal morphology and function.

  5. Delta-ALA urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be used to help diagnose a condition called porphyria . Normal Results Normal value range for adults is ... of urinary delta-ALA may indicate: Lead poisoning Porphyria (several types) A decreased level may occur with ...

  6. Delta robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herder, J.L.; Van der Wijk, V.

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a delta robot comprising a stationary base (2) and a movable platform (3) that is connected to the base with three chains of links (4,5,6), and comprising a balancing system incorporating at least one pantograph (7) for balancing the robot's center of mass, wherein the at

  7. Seasonal variation in nitrogen pools and 15N/13C natural abundances in different tissues of grassland plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Schjoerring

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal changes in nitrogen (N pools, carbon (C content and natural abundance of 13C and 15N in different tissues of ryegrass plants were investigated in two intensively managed grassland fields in order to address their ammonia (NH3 exchange potential. Green leaves generally had the largest total N concentration followed by stems and inflorescences. Senescent leaves had the lowest N concentration, indicating N re-allocation. The seasonal pattern of the Γ value, i.e. the ratio between NH4+ and H+ concentrations, was similar for the various tissues of the ryegrass plants but the magnitude of Γ differed considerably among the different tissues. Green leaves and stems generally had substantially lower Γ values than senescent leaves and litter. Substantial peaks in Γ were observed during spring and summer in response to fertilization and grazing. These peaks were associated with high NH4+ rather than with low H+ concentrations. Peaks in Γ also appeared during the winter, coinciding with increasing δ15N values, indicating absorption of N derived from mineralization of soil organic matter. At the same time, δ13C values were declining, suggesting reduced photosynthesis and capacity for N assimilation. δ15N and δ13C values were more influenced by mean monthly temperature than by the accumulated monthly precipitation. In conclusion, ryegrass plants showed a clear seasonal pattern in N pools. Green leaves and stems of ryegrass plants generally seem to constitute a sink for NH3, while senescent leaves have a large potential for NH3 emission. However, management events such as fertilisation and grazing may create a high NH3 emission potential even in green plant parts. The obtained results provide input for future modelling of plant-atmosphere NH3 exchange.

  8. A global estimate of the full oceanic 13C Suess effect since the preindustrial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Marie; Olsen, Are; Ninnemann, Ulysses S.; Eldevik, Tor

    2017-03-01

    We present the first estimate of the full global ocean 13C Suess effect since preindustrial times, based on observations. This has been derived by first using the method of Olsen and Ninnemann (2010) to calculate 13C Suess effect estimates on sections spanning the world ocean, which were next mapped on a global 1° × 1° grid. We find a strong 13C Suess effect in the upper 1000 m of all basins, with strongest decrease in the subtropical gyres of the Northern Hemisphere, where δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon has decreased by more than 0.8‰ since the industrial revolution. At greater depths, a significant 13C Suess effect can only be detected in the northern parts of the North Atlantic Ocean. The relationship between the 13C Suess effect and the concentration of anthropogenic carbon varies strongly between water masses, reflecting the degree to which source waters are equilibrated with the atmospheric 13C Suess effect before sinking. Finally, we estimate a global ocean inventory of anthropogenic CO2 of 92 ± 46 Gt C. This provides an estimate that is almost independent of and consistent, within the uncertainties, with previous estimates.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Doubly 13C-substituted ethyl cyanide (Margules+,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margules, L.; Belloche, A.; Muller, H. S. P.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Guillemin, J.-C.; Garrod, R. T.; Menten, K. M.

    2016-04-01

    We identified more than 5000 rotational transitions, pertaining to more than 3500 different transition frequencies, in the laboratory for each of the three doubly 13C-substituted isotopomers. The quantum numbers reach J~115 and Ka~35, resulting in accurate spectroscopic parameters and accurate rest frequency calculations beyond 1000 GHz for strong to moderately weak transitions of either isotopomer. All three species are unambiguously detected in our ALMA data. The 12C/13C column density ratio of the isotopomers with one 13C atom to those with two 13C atoms is about 25. Ethyl cyanide is the second molecule after methyl cyanide for which isotopologues containing two 13C atoms have been securely detected in the interstellar medium. The model of our ethyl cyanide data suggests that we should be able to detect vibrational satellites of the main species up to at least v19=1 at 1130K and up to v13+v21=2 at 600K for the isotopologues with one 13C atom in our present ALMA data. Such satellites may be too weak to be identified unambiguously for isotopologues with two 13C atoms. (3 data files).

  10. Enhancing the Accuracy of Carbonate δ18O and δ13C Measurements by SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orland, I. J.; Kozdon, R.; Linzmeier, B.; Wycech, J.; Sliwinski, M.; Kitajima, K.; Kita, N.; Valley, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The precision and accuracy of carbonate δ18O & δ13C analysis by multicollector SIMS is well established if standards match samples in structure and major/minor element chemistry. However, low-T- and bio-carbonates used to construct paleoclimate archives can include complex internal structures and some samples analyzed at WiscSIMS (and other SIMS labs) have a consistent, sample-dependent offset between average SIMS δ18O measurements and bulk δ18O analyses by phosphoric-acid digestion. The offset is typically <1‰, but recent work has discovered samples where the offset is greater — up to 1.8‰ (average SIMS δ18O values < corresponding conventional measurements). Notably, δ13C offsets have not been observed even in samples with a δ18O offset. We conducted tests to characterize the δ18O offset in different low-T carbonate materials. Multiple potential causes were examined: perhaps the measured offset is real and conventional analyses include material that SIMS excludes (and vice versa); analytical errors and inter-lab (mis)calibration; depth-profiling effects; porosity; and the effects of variable minor element composition. One explanation implicates water and/or organic matter within carbonate that is ionized during SIMS analysis, but sometimes removed for bulk analysis. Two diagnostic tools help monitor such contaminants during SIMS analysis: 1) simultaneous measurement of [16O1H], and 2) secondary ion yield. Offsets of 0.3 to 1.8‰ in δ18O correlate to [16O1H] for 7 studies of Nautilus, foraminifera, pteropods and speleothems. Offsets were not observed in all foraminifera. For Nautilus, foraminifera, otoliths, and speleothems we also tested pre-treatment techniques (e.g. vacuum roasting, hydrogen peroxide), for which there is no agreed procedure in conventional bulk analyses. For SIMS analyses, pre-treatments had varied influence on the δ18O value, [16O1H], the concentration of "organic markers" like 12C14N and 31P, and mineralogy (of aragonite

  11. A 13C-NMR study of the mechanism of bacterial metabolism of monomethyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, T P; Hewlins, M J; White, G F

    1996-03-01

    Two different mechanisms have been proposed previously for initiating the biodegradation of monomethyl sulfate (MeSO4) in bacteria. For a Hyphomicrobium species, a sulfatase enzyme has been proposed to hydrolyse MeSO4 to methanol and inorganic sulfate. For an Agrobacterium sp., an alternative proposal involves monooxygenation of MeSO4 (hydroxylation) to produce methanediol monosulfate, which decomposes spontaneously to formaldehyde and inorganic sulfate. In the present study, 13C-NMR was used to monitor metabolic intermediates of [13C]MeSO4 in real time in each species in order to resolve the issue of mechanism of biodegradation. Agrobacterium sp. M3C grew on MeSO4 but not on methanol. MeSO4-grown cells catabolised [13C]MeSO4 but not [13C]methanol, and [13C]methanol did not accumulate from MeSO4 in the presence of a known inhibitor of methanol dehydrogenase (cyclopropanol). Hyphomicrobium MS223 grew on MeSO4 and, in contrast with the Agrobacterium sp., also on methanol. The normally rapid metabolism of [13C]methanol by methanol-grown cells was arrested by cyclopropanol, but metabolism of [13C]MeSO4 by MeSO4-grown cells was unaffected. Moreover there was no accumulation of [13C]methanol from [13C]MeSO4 under conditions in which methanol dehydrogenase was shown to be inactive. The results provided strong evidence against the intermediacy of methanol in the biodegradation of MeSO4 in either species, and thereby render untenable mechanisms involving sulfatase-mediated hydrolysis of MeSO4. The data are consistent with the hydroxylation of MeSO4 via a monooxygenation mechanism and subsequent spontaneous hydrolysis of the methanediol monosulfate intermediate.

  12. Clinical NOE 13C MRS for neuropsychiatric disorders of the frontal lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailasuta, Napapon; Robertson, Larry W.; Harris, Kent C.; Gropman, Andrea L.; Allen, Peter S.; Ross, Brian D.

    2008-12-01

    In this communication, a scheme is described whereby in vivo 13C MRS can safely be performed in the frontal lobe, a human brain region hitherto precluded on grounds of SAR, but important in being the seat of impaired cognitive function in many neuropsychiatric and developmental disorders. By combining two well known features of 13C NMR—the use of low power NOE and the focus on 13C carbon atoms which are only minimally coupled to protons, we are able to overcome the obstacle of SAR and develop means of monitoring the 13C fluxes of critically important metabolic pathways in frontal brain structures of normal volunteers and patients. Using a combination of low-power WALTZ decoupling, variants of random noise for nuclear overhauser effect enhancement it was possible to reduce power deposition to 20% of the advised maximum specific absorption rate (SAR). In model solutions 13C signal enhancement achieved with this scheme were comparable to that obtained with WALTZ-4. In human brain, the low power procedure effectively determined glutamine, glutamate and bicarbonate in the posterior parietal brain after [1- 13C] glucose infusion. The same 13C enriched metabolites were defined in frontal brain of human volunteers after administration of [1- 13C] acetate, a recognized probe of glial metabolism. Time courses of incorporation of 13C into cerebral glutamate, glutamine and bicarbonate were constructed. The results suggest efficacy for measurement of in vivo cerebral metabolic rates of the glutamate-glutamine and tricarboxylic acid cycles in 20 min MR scans in previously inaccessible brain regions in humans at 1.5T. We predict these will be clinically useful biomarkers in many human neuropsychiatric and genetic conditions.

  13. Evidence for Transaldolase Activity in the Isolated Heart Supplied with [U-13C3]Glycerol*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Eunsook S.; Sherry, A. Dean; Malloy, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of glycerol metabolism in the heart have largely emphasized its role in triglyceride synthesis. However, glycerol may also be oxidized in the citric acid cycle, and glycogen synthesis from glycerol has been reported in the nonmammalian myocardium. The intent of this study was to test the hypothesis that glycerol may be metabolized to glycogen in mammalian heart. Isolated rat hearts were supplied with a mixture of substrates including glucose, lactate, pyruvate, octanoate, [U-13C3]glycerol, and 2H2O to probe various metabolic pathways including glycerol oxidation, glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and carbon sources of stored glycogen. NMR analysis confirmed that glycogen production from the level of the citric acid cycle did not occur and that the glycerol contribution to oxidation in the citric acid cycle was negligible in the presence of alternative substrates. Quite unexpectedly, 13C from [U-13C3]glycerol appeared in glycogen in carbon positions 4–6 of glucosyl units but none in positions 1–3. The extent of [4,5,6-13C3]glucosyl unit enrichment in glycogen was enhanced by insulin but decreased by H2O2. Given that triose phosphate isomerase is generally assumed to fully equilibrate carbon tracers in the triose pool, the marked 13C asymmetry in glycogen can only be attributed to conversion of [U-13C3]glycerol to [U-13C3]dihydroxyacetone phosphate and [U-13C3]glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate followed by rearrangements in the nonoxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway involving transaldolase that places this 13C-enriched 3-carbon unit only in the bottom half of hexose phosphate molecules contributing to glycogen. PMID:23235149

  14. Evidence for transaldolase activity in the isolated heart supplied with [U-13C3]glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Eunsook S; Sherry, A Dean; Malloy, Craig R

    2013-02-01

    Studies of glycerol metabolism in the heart have largely emphasized its role in triglyceride synthesis. However, glycerol may also be oxidized in the citric acid cycle, and glycogen synthesis from glycerol has been reported in the nonmammalian myocardium. The intent of this study was to test the hypothesis that glycerol may be metabolized to glycogen in mammalian heart. Isolated rat hearts were supplied with a mixture of substrates including glucose, lactate, pyruvate, octanoate, [U-(13)C(3)]glycerol, and (2)H(2)O to probe various metabolic pathways including glycerol oxidation, glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and carbon sources of stored glycogen. NMR analysis confirmed that glycogen production from the level of the citric acid cycle did not occur and that the glycerol contribution to oxidation in the citric acid cycle was negligible in the presence of alternative substrates. Quite unexpectedly, (13)C from [U-(13)C(3)]glycerol appeared in glycogen in carbon positions 4-6 of glucosyl units but none in positions 1-3. The extent of [4,5,6-(13)C(3)]glucosyl unit enrichment in glycogen was enhanced by insulin but decreased by H(2)O(2). Given that triose phosphate isomerase is generally assumed to fully equilibrate carbon tracers in the triose pool, the marked (13)C asymmetry in glycogen can only be attributed to conversion of [U-(13)C(3)]glycerol to [U-(13)C(3)]dihydroxyacetone phosphate and [U-(13)C(3)]glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate followed by rearrangements in the nonoxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway involving transaldolase that places this (13)C-enriched 3-carbon unit only in the bottom half of hexose phosphate molecules contributing to glycogen.

  15. Distribution of {delta}{sup 14}C in western North Pacific and tracing carbons of human origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramaki, Takafumi; Mizushima, Toshihiko; Togawa, Orihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mutsu, Aomori (Japan). Mutsu Establishment; Watanabe, Shuichi; Tsunogai, Shizuo [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan); Kuji, Tomoyuki [Japan marine Sience Fundation, Mutsu, Aomori (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    Seawater were collected at six points, 0deg to 48degN around 165degE. Dissolved inorganic carbonates was reduced into graphite. The ratio C-11/C-12 was measured by the accelerator mass analyzer. {sup 14}C concentration was calculated from {delta}{sup 13}C value calculated from the {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratio. {sup 14}C resulting from the nuclear weapon test was calculated by comparing estimated {sup 14}C and real {sup 14}C concentration. It was compared with that in 1970s. {sup 14}Cbomb has dissolved into North Pacific Intermediate Water in Arctic latitude, which has moved to Mid-latitude. (A. Yamamoto)

  16. Organic vs. Conventional Grassland Management: Do 15N and 13C Isotopic Signatures of Hay and Soil Samples Differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Valentin H.; Hölzel, Norbert; Prati, Daniel; Schmitt, Barbara; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Fischer, Markus; Kleinebecker, Till

    2013-01-01

    Distinguishing organic and conventional products is a major issue of food security and authenticity. Previous studies successfully used stable isotopes to separate organic and conventional products, but up to now, this approach was not tested for organic grassland hay and soil. Moreover, isotopic abundances could be a powerful tool to elucidate differences in ecosystem functioning and driving mechanisms of element cycling in organic and conventional management systems. Here, we studied the δ15N and δ13C isotopic composition of soil and hay samples of 21 organic and 34 conventional grasslands in two German regions. We also used Δδ15N (δ15N plant - δ15N soil) to characterize nitrogen dynamics. In order to detect temporal trends, isotopic abundances in organic grasslands were related to the time since certification. Furthermore, discriminant analysis was used to test whether the respective management type can be deduced from observed isotopic abundances. Isotopic analyses revealed no significant differences in δ13C in hay and δ15N in both soil and hay between management types, but showed that δ13C abundances were significantly lower in soil of organic compared to conventional grasslands. Δδ15N values implied that management types did not substantially differ in nitrogen cycling. Only δ13C in soil and hay showed significant negative relationships with the time since certification. Thus, our result suggest that organic grasslands suffered less from drought stress compared to conventional grasslands most likely due to a benefit of higher plant species richness, as previously shown by manipulative biodiversity experiments. Finally, it was possible to correctly classify about two third of the samples according to their management using isotopic abundances in soil and hay. However, as more than half of the organic samples were incorrectly classified, we infer that more research is needed to improve this approach before it can be efficiently used in practice

  17. Organic vs. conventional grassland management: do (15N and (13C isotopic signatures of hay and soil samples differ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin H Klaus

    Full Text Available Distinguishing organic and conventional products is a major issue of food security and authenticity. Previous studies successfully used stable isotopes to separate organic and conventional products, but up to now, this approach was not tested for organic grassland hay and soil. Moreover, isotopic abundances could be a powerful tool to elucidate differences in ecosystem functioning and driving mechanisms of element cycling in organic and conventional management systems. Here, we studied the δ(15N and δ(13C isotopic composition of soil and hay samples of 21 organic and 34 conventional grasslands in two German regions. We also used Δδ(15N (δ(15N plant - δ(15N soil to characterize nitrogen dynamics. In order to detect temporal trends, isotopic abundances in organic grasslands were related to the time since certification. Furthermore, discriminant analysis was used to test whether the respective management type can be deduced from observed isotopic abundances. Isotopic analyses revealed no significant differences in δ(13C in hay and δ(15N in both soil and hay between management types, but showed that δ(13C abundances were significantly lower in soil of organic compared to conventional grasslands. Δδ(15N values implied that management types did not substantially differ in nitrogen cycling. Only δ(13C in soil and hay showed significant negative relationships with the time since certification. Thus, our result suggest that organic grasslands suffered less from drought stress compared to conventional grasslands most likely due to a benefit of higher plant species richness, as previously shown by manipulative biodiversity experiments. Finally, it was possible to correctly classify about two third of the samples according to their management using isotopic abundances in soil and hay. However, as more than half of the organic samples were incorrectly classified, we infer that more research is needed to improve this approach before it can be

  18. Biosynthetic studies of the glycopeptide teicoplanin by 1H and 13C NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Arne; Petersen, Bent O.; Duus, Jens Øllgaard

    2000-01-01

    The biosynthesis of the glycopeptide antibiotic teicoplanin was studied by growing a teicoplanin producing strain of Actinoplanes teichomyceticus (ATCC 31121) on glucose containing either 34.0% [1-13C]glucose or 9.7% [U- 13C]glucose. The fractional enrichment pattern of teicoplanin produced...... quantum coherence spectra of teicoplanin produced in the medium containing [U-13C]glucose showed characteristic coupling patterns supporting these results. Fractional enrichment patterns and multiplet structures of the three sugars in teicoplanin showed that about 50% of the sugars have the same labeling...

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies on bacterial dihydrofolate reductase containing (guanidino-/sup 13/C)arginine. [Streptococcus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocco, L.; Blakley, R.L.; Walker, T.E.; London, R.E.; Matwiyoff, N.A.

    1978-10-03

    Dihydrofolate reductase labeled with (guanidino-/sup 13/C)arginine has been purified from Streptococcus faecium and /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the enzyme and its complexes with various ligands have been recorded. Resonances of the eight residues are resolved into 4 to 6 peaks with chemical shifts over a range of 1.2 ppM. There appear to be two classes of residues: those with chemical shifts very close to that of free (guanidino-/sup 13/C)arginine (class 1); and those with significantly different shifts (class 2). Spin-lattice relaxation times (T/sub 1/), measured in H/sub 2/O, for residues of class 1 are approximately 50% greater than the values for residues of the second class. In D/sub 2/O the T/sub 1/ values for both classes of residues are essentially the same and approximately twice the values obtained in H/sub 2/O for residues of class 1. The temperature-dependent behavior of T/sub 1/ for residues of class 2, together with the small nuclear Overhauser enhancement values, and the difference in line width in H/sub 2/O vs. D/sub 2/O are consistent with the assumption that the internal motion of these residues is slow relative to the overall rotational motion of the protein. An overall rotational correlation time for the protein of 20 ns has been estimated from the data for these immobilized residues. Class 1 residues appear to have a significant degree of internal motion and are probably accessible to solvent, whereas class 2 residues are probably inaccessible.

  20. 13C-Urea breath test threshold calculation and evaluation for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Michael

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 13C-urea breath test (UBT is performed in adults and children with epigastric pain for non-invasively diagnosing a suspected H. pylori infection. Criteria for UBT interpretation have not been generally agreed on and test reliability has not been established in children of different ages. This study aimed at identifying reliable UBT thresholds in children by using 251 UBTs in conjunction with reference histology and by analyzing 1232 UBTs. Methods At baseline and 30 and 60 minutes after the administration of 75 mg 13C-urea to children and adolescents (0.25 to 18 years of age, the differences (Δ of 13CO2/12CO2 ratio in exhaled air (δ were determined by mass spectrometry. UBT Δδ value thresholds were calculated in random subgroups and evaluated in complementary subgroups using logistic regressions on reference histology or bimodal distribution analyses of Δδ values from UBTs alone. Results Δδ values were higher (median, 15.4‰ in positive (133/251, 53 % than in negative histology (2.4‰. At 30 minutes, the calculated cut-off was 5.3‰ (mean regression determination R2 = 0.91, and sensitivity (0.95, specificity (0.97, positive (0.97 and negative predictive values (0.95 were higher than at 60 minutes (threshold 6.8‰, R2 = 0.85. Similar thresholds resulted from UBTs analysis (5.8‰ and 6.2‰ when sensitivity and specificity were maximized (concordance probabilities, 0.99 and 0.99. There was no systematic age effect. Conclusions In children, 13C UBT cut-offs were obtained and specially validated, entailing high accuracy of non-invasively testing for gastric H. pylori infection.

  1. Needle-age related variability in nitrogen, mobile carbohydrates, and δ13C within Pinus koraiensis tree crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Cai-Feng; Han, Shi-Jie; Zhou, Yu-Mei; Wang, Cun-Guo; Dai, Guan-Hua; Xiao, Wen-Fa; Li, Mai-He

    2012-01-01

    For both ecologists and physiologists, foliar physioecology as a function of spatially and temporally variable environmental factors such as sunlight exposure within a tree crown is important for understanding whole tree physiology and for predicting ecosystem carbon balance and productivity. Hence, we studied concentrations of nitrogen (N), non-structural carbohydrates (NSC = soluble sugars + starch), and δ(13)C in different-aged needles within Pinus koraiensis tree crowns, to understand the needle age- and crown position-related physiology, in order to test the hypothesis that concentrations of N, NSC, and δ(13)C are needle-age and crown position dependent (more light, more photosynthesis affecting N, NSC, and δ(13)C), and to develop an accurate sampling strategy. The present study indicated that the 1-yr-old needles had significantly higher concentration levels of mobile carbohydrates (both on a mass and an area basis) and N(area) (on an area basis), as well as NSC-N ratios, but significantly lower levels of N(mass) (on a mass basis) concentration and specific leaf area (SLA), compared to the current-year needles. Azimuthal (south-facing vs. north-facing crown side) effects were found to be significant on starch [both on a mass (ST(mass)) and an area basis (ST(area))], δ(13)C values, and N(area), with higher levels in needles on the S-facing crown side than the N-facing crown side. Needle N(mass) concentrations significantly decreased but needle ST(mass), ST(area), and δ(13)C values significantly increased with increasing vertical crown levels. Our results suggest that the sun-exposed crown position related to photosynthetic activity and water availability affects starch accumulation and carbon isotope discrimination. Needle age associated with physiological activity plays an important role in determining carbon and nitrogen physiology. The present study indicates that across-scale sampling needs to carefully select tissue samples with equal age from a

  2. 13C/Palynological evidence of differential residence times of organic carbon prior to its sedimentation in East African Rift Lakes and peat bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Aucour, Anne-Marie; Bonnefille, Raymonde; Riollet, Guy; Vincens, Annie; Williamson, David

    Most terrestrial plants producing large amounts of organic matter in the East African Rift follow the Calvin (C3) photosynthetic pathway. Their end products have δ13C values of ca. -27 ± 2‰ (vs. PDB). On the contrary, most Cyperaceae (notably Cyperus papyrus and C. latifolius) are characterized by higher 13C contents ° 13C = -10.5 ± 1‰ ) in relation to their Hatch and Slack (C4) photosynthetic cycle. In consequence, δ13C values in total organic matter (TOM) from peat bog or lake cores essentially responded to the proportion of detritus from C4-Cyperaceae. Immediate evidence of the development or disappearance of Cyperaceae around lake margins or in peat bogs can be found in pollen assemblages. Lag times between pollen signals and correlative ° 13C shifts in TOM from cores are therefore indicative of the residence time of organic matter prior to its sedimentation. Delayed sedimentation of TOM will result in 14C anomalies which depend on several parameters, most of them being site specific as shown by examples from a peat bog in Burundi and from southern Lake Tanganyika. An independent assessment of the chronology by high resolution paleomagnetic correlations indicates a ca. 1.5 ka apparent 14C age of TOM in Lake Tanganyika at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition.

  3. Real-time assessment of Krebs cycle metabolism using hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Marie A; Atherton, Helen J; Ball, Daniel R; Cole, Mark A; Heather, Lisa C; Griffin, Julian L; Clarke, Kieran; Radda, George K; Tyler, Damian J

    2009-08-01

    The Krebs cycle plays a fundamental role in cardiac energy production and is often implicated in the energetic imbalance characteristic of heart disease. In this study, we measured Krebs cycle flux in real time in perfused rat hearts using hyperpolarized magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). [2-(13)C]Pyruvate was hyperpolarized and infused into isolated perfused hearts in both healthy and postischemic metabolic states. We followed the enzymatic conversion of pyruvate to lactate, acetylcarnitine, citrate, and glutamate with 1 s temporal resolution. The appearance of (13)C-labeled glutamate was delayed compared with that of other metabolites, indicating that Krebs cycle flux can be measured directly. The production of (13)C-labeled citrate and glutamate was decreased postischemia, as opposed to lactate, which was significantly elevated. These results showed that the control and fluxes of the Krebs cycle in heart disease can be studied using hyperpolarized [2-(13)C]pyruvate.

  4. /sup 13/C cross-polarization magic-angle NMR studies of biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danyluk, S.S.; Schwartz, H.M.

    1979-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: use of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy for studies on naturally occurring biological molecules; cross-polarization magic-angle techniques; transfer of magnetic polarization from an abundant magnetic nucleus, /sup 1/H, to a less abundant nucleus, /sup 13/C, via the thermal reservoir; high-resolution /sup 13/C spectra for membrane constituents of bacterial cells; high-resolution /sup 13/C spectra for canine tendon, bovine tendon, and mouse tail, lipid mobilities in various tissue states; comparison of mobility of collagen in canine tendon with that of bovine tendon and rat skin; and measurement of /sup 13/C natural abundance spectra for several polycrystalline and amorphous biomolecular materials. (HLW)

  5. Insights into the metabolic response to traumatic brain injury as revealed by 13C NMR spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda eBartnik-Olson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present review highlights critical issues related to cerebral metabolism following traumatic brain injury (TBI and the use of 13C labeled substrates and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy to study these changes. First we address some pathophysiologic factors contributing to metabolic dysfunction following TBI. We then examine how 13C NMR spectroscopy strategies have been used to investigate energy metabolism, neurotransmission, the intracellular redox state, and neuroglial compartmentation following injury. 13C NMR spectroscopy studies of brain extracts from animal models of TBI have revealed enhanced glycolytic production of lactate, evidence of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP activation, and alterations in neuronal and astrocyte oxidative metabolism that are dependent on injury severity. Differential incorporation of label into glutamate and glutamine from 13C labeled glucose or acetate also suggest TBI-induced adaptations to the glutamate-glutamine cycle.

  6. 13C-detection in RNA bases: revealing structure-chemical shift relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farès, Christophe; Amata, Irene; Carlomagno, Teresa

    2007-12-26

    The chemical shifts of the unprotonated carbons in the proton-deficient nucleobases of RNA are rarely reported, despite the valuable information that they contain about base-pairing and base-stacking. We have developed 13C-detected 2D-experiments to identify the unprotonated 13C in the RNA bases and have assigned all the base nuclei of uniformly 13C,15N-labeled HIV-2 TAR-RNA. The 13C chemical shift distributions revealed perturbations correlated with the base-pairing and base-stacking properties of all four base-types. From this work, we conclude that the information contained in the chemical shift perturbations within the base rings can provide valuable restraint information for solving RNA structures, especially in conformational averaged regions, where NOE-based information is not available.

  7. Bicolumnar 90–90 plating of AO 13C type fractures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cemal Kural; Ersin Ercin; Mehmet Erkilinc; Evren Karaali; Mustafa Gokhan Bilgili; Suleyman Altun

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate functional results and complication rate of patients who underwent medial-dorsolateral plating for intra-articular distal humeral fracture (Müller AO type 13C). Methods...

  8. Pyrolysis compound specific isotopic analysis (δ13C and δD Py-CSIA) of soil organic matter size fractions under four vegetation covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Almendros, Gonzalo; De la Rosa, José M.; González-Pérez, José A.

    2015-04-01

    A chemical characterization of soil organic matter (SOM) under different ground cover from a Mediterranean climate (Doñana National Park, Andalusia, Spain) is approached using bulk δ15N, δ13C, δ18O and δD isotopic analysis (C/TC-IRMS) and δ13C and δD pyrolysis compound specific isotopic analysis (Py-CSIA: Py-GC-C/TC-IRMS). Soil samples were collected in sandy soils, Arenosols (WRB 2006) from the Doñana National Park (SW Spain) under different vegetation cover: cork oak (Quercus suber, QS), eagle fern (Pteridium aquilinum, PA), pine (Pinus pinea, PP) and rockrose (Halimium halimifolium, HH). Two size fractions; coarse (C: 1-2 mm) and fine (F: biological reworking with a higher microbiological activity fixing the lighter isotope in the soil fine organic fractions. It is known that lipid hydrogen is deuterium depleted relative to bulk organic hydrogen (Smith and Epstein, 1970). In line with this, in our study the lipid derived compounds had the largest deuterium depleted signature with a difference between bulk and lipid δD values was c. -35‰. This fractionation was highest in Pine (PP) and Rockrose (HH). The combination of traditional techniques for the study of SOM i.e. Py-GC/MS and IRMS, with new hyphenated analytical pyrolysis techniques i.e. Py-CSIA opens new possibilities and windows of information in SOM research. Our findings points to the occurrence of more or less complex processes that affects SOM chemical characteristics; whereas the coarse fraction resembles the chemical structure of the above vegetation, this SOM "memory" is less defined in the fine fractions, probably due to biologically mediated chemical conversions, additions and selective preservation of refractory chemical structures. SOM bulk IRMS and Py-CSIA are also informative about relevant plant physiological processes, OM sources and OM evolution status. Acknowledgments: N.T Jiménez-Morillo is funded by a FPI research grant (BES-2013-062573). Dr. J.M. de la Rosa is the recipient

  9. Delta Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Mette

    and diminishing and prolongs the open water period and thereby the period where waves can affect the coast. Only limited work has focused on coastal areas in Greenland and the current knowledge on these areas is sparse. Coastal morphology of Greenland is highly variable spanning from rocky coasts and archipelagos....... The warming air temperature affects the soil temperature and permafrost thaws and destabilizes the material in the coastal zone. In Greenland, the warming temperature lowers the surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet and more material is transported to the coastal zone. The sea ice extent is thinning...... deltas are prograding, contrary to the global trend showing eroding Arctic coasts. Moreover, it is revealed that the increasing proglacial freshwater runoff, caused by a lowering of the surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet is the main determining agent in delta progradation. The final part...

  10. Use of (13)C-labeled compounds to trace their reactivity in fossil fuel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Daniel E.

    The scope of this investigation was to analyze the fate of sp{13}C isotopically labeled hydrocarbons in complex fuel systems, such as jet fuel and reservoir oils, under pyrolysis conditions using sp{13}C NMR techniques and select ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major questions to be addressed during the thesis research were: (1) to utilize and develop analytical techniques accurate enough to follow the thermal degradation of specific sp{13}C-labeled hydrocarbons in complex fuel mixtures; (2) to assess the accuracy of model compound studies, and determine whether or not these compounds behave in similar fashion when thermally degraded in complex fossil fuel systems; (3) determine what influence, if any, the chemical composition of fossil fuels have on the thermal cracking of some representative saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. sp{13}C NMR in conjunction with sp{13}C-labeling proved to be a reliable technique for analyzing overall trends and changes which occurred to the sp{13}C-labeled hydrocarbon in question, but a more precise and sensitive analytical technique was needed to follow the reactions of sp{13}C-labeled n-Csb{25} added to two dissimilar crude oils. Select ion monitoring/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SIM/GC/MS) in conjunction with sp{13}C-labeling provided a more accurate assessment of the thermal degradation and product distributions of sp{13}C-labeled n-Csb{25}, mixed with reservoir oils in contrast to sp{13}C NMR. Results demonstrated that the n-Csb{25} was more thermally stable in the reservoir oils in comparison to kinetic parameters obtained for the neat thermal stressing of the n-Csb{25} and the n-alkane product distributions varied between the two oil systems, as well. Contrary to the oils ability to stabilize the n-Csb{25} the opposite trend was found when a sp{13}C-labeled alkylarene was added to the oils. The oils enhanced the rate of degradation of the added 9-methylphenanthrene by increasing the rate of

  11. Human metabolism and elimination of the anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-glucoside: a (13)C-tracer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czank, Charles; Cassidy, Aedín; Zhang, Qingzhi; Morrison, Douglas J; Preston, Tom; Kroon, Paul A; Botting, Nigel P; Kay, Colin D

    2013-05-01

    Evidence suggests that the consumption of anthocyanin-rich foods beneficially affects cardiovascular health; however, the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) of anthocyanin-rich foods are relatively unknown. We investigated the ADME of a (13)C5-labeled anthocyanin in humans. Eight male participants consumed 500 mg isotopically labeled cyanidin-3-glucoside (6,8,10,3',5'-(13)C5-C3G). Biological samples were collected over 48 h, and (13)C and (13)C-labeled metabolite concentrations were measured by using isotope-ratio mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The mean ± SE percentage of (13)C recovered in urine, breath, and feces was 43.9 ± 25.9% (range: 15.1-99.3% across participants). The relative bioavailability was 12.38 ± 1.38% (5.37 ± 0.67% excreted in urine and 6.91 ± 1.59% in breath). Maximum rates of (13)C elimination were achieved 30 min after ingestion (32.53 ± 14.24 μg(13)C/h), whereas (13)C-labeled metabolites peaked (maximum serum concentration: 5.97 ± 2.14 μmol/L) at 10.25 ± 4.14 h. The half-life for (13)C-labeled metabolites ranged between 12.44 ± 4.22 and 51.62 ± 22.55 h. (13)C elimination was greatest between 0 and 1 h for urine (90.30 ± 15.28 μg/h), at 6 h for breath (132.87 ± 32.23 μg/h), and between 6 and 24 h for feces (557.28 ± 247.88 μg/h), whereas the highest concentrations of (13)C-labeled metabolites were identified in urine (10.77 ± 4.52 μmol/L) and fecal samples (43.16 ± 18.00 μmol/L) collected between 6 and 24 h. Metabolites were identified as degradation products, phenolic, hippuric, phenylacetic, and phenylpropenoic acids. Anthocyanins are more bioavailable than previously perceived, and their metabolites are present in the circulation for ≤48 h after ingestion. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01106729.

  12. Spectroscopic study and astronomical detection of doubly 13C-substituted ethyl cyanide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulès, L.; Belloche, A.; Müller, H. S. P.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Guillemin, J.-C.; Garrod, R. T.; Menten, K. M.

    2016-05-01

    Context. We have performed a spectral line survey called Exploring Molecular Complexity with ALMA (EMoCA) toward Sagittarius B2(N) between 84.1 and 114.4 GHz with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in its Cycles 0 and 1. Line intensities of the main isotopic species of ethyl cyanide and its singly 13C-substituted isotopomers observed toward the hot molecular core Sagittarius B2(N2) suggest that the doubly 13C-substituted isotopomers should also be detectable. Aims: We want to determine the spectroscopic parameters of all three doubly 13C-substituted isotopologues of ethyl cyanide to search for them in our ALMA data. Methods: We investigated the laboratory rotational spectra of the three species between 150 GHz and 990 GHz. We searched for emission lines produced by these species in the ALMA spectrum of Sagittarius B2(N2). We modeled their emission and the emission of the 12C and singly 13C-substituted isotopologues assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium. Results: We identified more than 5000 rotational transitions, pertaining to more than 3500 different transition frequencies, in the laboratory for each of the three doubly 13C-substituted isotopomers. The quantum numbers reach J ≈ 115 and Ka ≈ 35, resulting in accurate spectroscopic parameters and accurate rest frequency calculations beyond 1000 GHz for strong to moderately weak transitions of either isotopomer. All three species are unambiguously detected in our ALMA data. The 12C/13C column density ratio of the isotopomers with one 13C atom to those with two 13C atoms is about 25. Conclusions: Ethyl cyanide is the second molecule after methyl cyanide for which isotopologues containing two 13C atoms have been securely detected in the interstellar medium. The model of our ethyl cyanide data suggests that we should be able to detect vibrational satellites of the main species up to at least ν19 = 1 at ~1130 K and up to ν13 + ν21 = 2 at ~600 K for the isotopologues with one 13C atom in

  13. Solution structure determination of oligoureas using methylene spin state selective NMR at 13C natural abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, Gilles; Violette, Aude; Chassaing, Gérard; Miclet, Emeric

    2008-10-01

    Ability of N,N'-linked oligoureas containing proteinogenic side chains to adopt a stable helix conformation in solution has been described recently. NMR as well as circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies were employed to gain insight into their specific fold. It is herein proposed to extend the structural information available on these peptidomimetics by an advantageous use of a methylene spin state selective NMR experiment. Homodecoupling provided by the pulse scheme made it possible to readily measure conformation-dependent (3)J(HH) constants that are difficult if not impossible to obtain with standard NMR experiments. Adding those couplings to the NMR restraints improved the quality of the structure calculations significantly, as judged by a ca 30% decrease of the root mean square deviation (RMSD) obtained over an ensemble of 20 structures. Moreover, accurate determination of individual (1)J(CH) couplings within each methylene group revealed uniform values throughout the oligourea sequence, with (1)J(CH) systematically slightly larger for the pro-S hydrogen than for the pro-R. As shown in this study, the methylene spin state selective NMR experiment displays a good intrinsic sensitivity and could therefore provide valuable structural information at (13)C natural abundance for peptidomimetic molecules and foldamers bearing diastereotopic methylene protons. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Delta Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Herder, J.L.; van der Wijk, V.

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a delta robot comprising a stationary base (2) and a movable platform (3) that is connected to the base with three chains of links (4,5,6), and comprising a balancing system incorporating at least one pantograph (7) for balancing the robot's center of mass, wherein the at least one pantograph has a first free extremity (10) at which it supports a countermass (13) which is arranged to balance the center of mass of the robot.

  15. Multi-year estimates of plant and ecosystem 13C discrimination at AmeriFlux sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, X.; Lai, C.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Bush, S.; Randerson, J. T.; Law, B. E.; Schauer, A. J.; Ehleringer, J.

    2011-12-01

    We estimated plant and ecosystem 13C discrimination continuously at 8 AmeriFlux sites (Howland Forest, Harvard Forest, Wind River Forest, Rannells Prairie, Freeman Ranch, Chestnut Ridge, Metolius, and Marys River fir) over 8 years (2002-2009). We used an observation-based approach from weekly measurements of eddy covariance CO2 fluxes and their 13C/12C ratios to estimate photosynthetic 13C discrimination (△A) and respiration (δ13CR) on seasonal and interannual time scales. The coordinated, systematic flask sampling across the AmeriFlux subnetwork were used for cross-site synthesis of monthly flux estimates [Dang et al. Combining tower mixing ratio and community model data to estimate regional-scale net ecosystem carbon exchange by boundary layer inversion over 4 flux towers in the U.S.A., Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, in press]. Here, we evaluated environmental factors that also influenced temporal variability in △A and δ13CR from daily to interannual time scales, comparing atmospheric 13C/12C measurements, leaf and needle organic matter, and tree ring cellulose. Across these major biomes that dominate the continent, we show differential ecophysiological responses to environmental stresses, among which water availability appeared to be a dominant factor. Our decadal measurement period provided robust estimates of atmospheric 13C discrimination by terrestrial ecosystems, but also suggest regions where enhanced monitoring efforts are required (e.g., 13C/12C emission from fire and urban metabolism; increased temporal resolution of 13C measurements in stress-sensitive ecosystems) to make atmospheric 13C/12C measurements an effective constraint for continental-scale assessments of the terrestrial carbon cycle.

  16. Measurement of site-specific 13C spin-lattice relaxation in a crystalline protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Józef R; Sein, Julien; Sass, Hans Jürgen; Grzesiek, Stephan; Blackledge, Martin; Emsley, Lyndon

    2010-06-23

    We demonstrate that it is possible to record site-specific spin-lattice relaxation rates for the majority of (13)C sites in uniformly (13)C and (15)N labeled solid proteins as a result of the slowing down of proton-driven spin diffusion at sample spinning frequencies > or = 60 kHz, thus providing a series of new experimental probes for characterizing molecular dynamics in solid proteins.

  17. Source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol in Sao Paulo using 13C and 14C measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Beatriz; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Holzinger, Rupert; Röckmann, Thomas; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Dusek, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo is affected by high aerosol concentrations, which contain a large fraction of organic material. Up to date, not much is known about the composition and origin of the organic aerosol in this city. We present the first source apportionment of the carbonaceous aerosol fraction in Sao Paulo, using stable (13C) and radioactive carbon isotopes (14C). 14C provides a clear-cut distinction between fossil sources, which contain no 14C, and contemporary sources such as biofuels, biomass burning, or biogenic sources, which contain a typical contemporary 14C/12C ratio. 13C can be used to distinguish C3 plants, such as maize and sugarcane, from C4 plants. This can help to identify a possible impact of sugarcane field burning in the rural areas of Sao Paulo State on the aerosol carbon in the city. In the first part of the study, we compare two tunnel studies: Tunnel 1 is frequented only by light duty vehicles, which run mainly on mixtures of gasoline with ethanol (gasohol, 25% ethanol and 85% gasoline) or hydrated ethanol (5% water and 95% ethanol). Tunnel 2 contains a significant fraction of heavy-duty diesel vehicles, and therefore the fraction of biofuels in the average fleet is lower. Comparison of 14C in organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) shows that in both tunnels there is no significant contribution of biofuels to EC. Combusting ethanol-gasoline fuels in a vehicle engine does apparently not result in significant EC formation from ethanol. Biofuels contribute around 45% to OC in Tunnel 1 an only 20% in Tunnel 2, reflecting a strong impact of diesel vehicles in Tunnel 2. In the second part of the study we conduct a source apportionment of ambient aerosol carbon collected in a field study during winter (July-August) 2012. Ambient EC has two main sources, vehicular emissions and biomass burning. We estimate a contribution of vehicular sources to EC of roughly 90% during weekdays and 80% during weekends, using the 14C values measured in

  18. Measuring (13) C-enriched CO2 in air with a cavity ring-down spectroscopy gas analyser: Evaluation and calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Dane; Bodé, Samuel; Boeckx, Pascal

    2017-11-30

    Cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) is becoming increasingly popular for δ(13) C-CO2 analysis of air. However, little is known about the effect of high (13) C abundances on the performance of CRDS. Overlap between (12) CO2 and (13) CO2 spectral lines may adversely affect isotopic-CO2 CRDS measurements of (13) C-enriched samples. Resolving this issue is important so that CRDS analysers can be used in CO2 flux studies involving (13) C-labelled tracers. We tested a Picarro G2131-i CRDS isotopic-CO2 gas analyser with specialty gravimetric standards of widely varying (13) C abundance (from natural to 20.1 atom%) and CO2 mole fraction (xCO2 : CO2 and (13) CO2 bands was assessed by analysing errors in measurements of the standards. A multi-component calibration strategy was adopted, incorporating isotope ratio and mole fraction data to ensure accuracy and consistency in corrected values of δ(13) C-CO2 , x(12) CO2 , and x(13) CO2 . CRDS measurements of x(13) CO2 were found to be accurate throughout the tested range (CO2 measurements of standards containing elevated levels of (13) CO2 led to inaccuracy in x(12) CO2 , total-xCO2 (x(12) CO2  + x(13) CO2 ), and δ(13) C-CO2 data. An empirical relationship for x(12) CO2 measurements that incorporated the (13) C/(12) C isotope ratio (i.e. (13) CO2 /(12) CO2 , RCO2) as a secondary (non-linear) variable was found to compensate for the perturbations, and enabled accurate instrument calibration for all CO2 compositions covered by our standard gases. (13) C-enrichement in CO2 leads to minor errors in CRDS measurements of x(12) CO2 . We propose an empirical correction for measurements of (13) C-enriched CO2 in air by CRDS instruments such as the Picarro G2131-i. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Exchange-linked dissolution agents in dissolution-DNP (13)C metabolic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Ralph E; Spielman, Daniel; Josan, Sonal; Yen, Yi-Fen; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Mayer, Dirk

    2013-10-01

    The use of unlabeled exchange-linked dissolution agents in hyperpolarized metabolic imaging was studied to examine pool size limits and saturation relative to the availability of NADH. Three-dimensional dynamic metabolic images were obtained, and compared following injection of a bolus of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate, prepared with and without unlabeled sodium lactate in the dissolution buffer. Comparisons were made on the basis of apparent rate constants and [1-(13)C]lactate signal-to-noise ratio. Range finding data were obtained for different bolus compositions. Isotope exchange was also probed in the reverse direction, following injection of a bolus of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]lactate, with and without unlabeled sodium pyruvate in the dissolution buffer. Liver, kidney, and vascular regions of interest all showed an increase in [1-(13)C]lactate signal with addition of unlabeled sodium lactate in the dissolution buffer. Injection of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]lactate with unlabeled sodium pyruvate in the dissolution buffer, provided exchange rate constants Klp for kidney and vascular regions of interest. These results are consistent with a high level of (13)C-exchange, and with labeling rates that are limited by steady-state pool sizes in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The paper trail of the 13C of atmospheric CO2 since the industrial revolution period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakir, Dan

    2011-07-01

    The 13C concentration in atmospheric CO2 has been declining over the past 150 years as large quantities of 13C-depleted CO2 from fossil fuel burning are added to the atmosphere. Deforestation and other land use changes have also contributed to the trend. Looking at the 13C variations in the atmosphere and in annual growth rings of trees allows us to estimate CO2 uptake by land plants and the ocean, and assess the response of plants to climate. Here I show that the effects of the declining 13C trend in atmospheric CO2 are recorded in the isotopic composition of paper used in the printing industry, which provides a well-organized archive and integrated material derived from trees' cellulose. 13C analyses of paper from two European and two American publications showed, on average, a - 1.65 ± 1.00‰ trend between 1880 and 2000, compared with - 1.45 and - 1.57‰ for air and tree-ring analyses, respectively. The greater decrease in plant-derived 13C in the paper we tested than in the air is consistent with predicted global-scale increases in plant intrinsic water-use efficiency over the 20th century. Distinct deviations from the atmospheric trend were observed in both European and American publications immediately following the World War II period.

  1. Development of a 13C-optimized 1.5-mm high temperature superconducting NMR probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Vijaykumar; Hooker, Jerris W.; Withers, Richard S.; Nast, Robert E.; Brey, William W.; Edison, Arthur S.

    2013-10-01

    We report a 1.5-mm NMR probe based on high temperature superconductors operating at 14.1 T optimized for 13C detection. The probe has a total sample volume of about 35 microliters (μL) with an active volume of 20 μL and provides exceptional mass sensitivity for 13C detection. The probe also has excellent 1H sensitivity and employs a 2H lock; 15N irradiation capability can be added in the future. The coils are cooled to about 20 K using a standard Agilent cryogenic refrigeration system, and the sample temperature is regulated near room temperature. The coil design considerations are discussed in detail. This probe is ideal for directly detected 13C NMR experiments for natural products chemistry and metabolomics applications, for which 35 μL is an optimal sample volume. The outstanding 13C sensitivity of this probe allowed us to directly determine the 13C connectivity on 1.1 mg of natural abundance histidine using an INADEQUATE experiment. We demonstrated the utility of this probe for 13C-based metabolomics using a synthetic mixture of common natural abundance metabolites whose concentrations ranged from 1 to 5 mM (40-200 nmol).

  2. Effect of Glutamine, Glutamic Acid and Nucleotides on the Turnover of Carbon (δ(13)C) in Organs of Weaned Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Alessandro Borges; Berto, Dirlei Antonio; Saleh, Mayra Anton Dib; Telles, Filipe Garcia; Denadai, Juliana Célia; Sartori, Maria Márcia Pereira; Luiggi, Fabiana Golin; Santos, Luan Sousa; Ducatti, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Morphological and physiological alterations occur in the digestive system of weanling piglets, compromising the performance in subsequent phases. This experiment aimed at verifying the influence of glutamine, glutamate and nucleotides on the carbon turnover in the pancreas and liver of piglets weaned at 21 days of age. Four diets were evaluated: glutamine, glutamic acid or nucleotides-free diet (CD); containing 1% glutamine (GD); containing 1% glutamic acid (GAD) and containing 1% nucleotides (ND). One hundred and twenty-three piglets were utilized with three pigs slaughtered at day zero (weaning day) and three at each one of the experimental days (1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 13, 20, 27, and 49 post-weaning), in order to collect organ samples, which were analyzed for the δ(13)C isotopic composition and compared by means of time. No differences were found (p>0.05) among treatments for the turnover of the (13)C in the pancreas (T50% = 13.91, 14.37, 11.07, and 9.34 days; T95% = 46.22, 47.73, 36.79, and 31.04 days for CD, GD, GAD, and ND, respectively). In the liver, the ND presented accelerated values of carbon turnover (T50% = 7.36 and T95% = 24.47 days) in relation to the values obtained for the GD (T50% = 10.15 and T95% = 33.74 days). However, the values obtained for the CD (T50% = 9.12 and T95% = 30.31 days) and GAD (T50% = 7.83 and T95% = 26.03 days) had no differences (p>0.05) among other diets. The technique of (13)C isotopic dilution demonstrated trophic action of nucleotides in the liver.

  3. Effect of Glutamine, Glutamic Acid and Nucleotides on the Turnover of Carbon (δ13C) in Organs of Weaned Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Alessandro Borges; Berto, Dirlei Antonio; Saleh, Mayra Anton Dib; Telles, Filipe Garcia; Denadai, Juliana Célia; Sartori, Maria Márcia Pereira; Luiggi, Fabiana Golin; Santos, Luan Sousa; Ducatti, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Morphological and physiological alterations occur in the digestive system of weanling piglets, compromising the performance in subsequent phases. This experiment aimed at verifying the influence of glutamine, glutamate and nucleotides on the carbon turnover in the pancreas and liver of piglets weaned at 21 days of age. Four diets were evaluated: glutamine, glutamic acid or nucleotides-free diet (CD); containing 1% glutamine (GD); containing 1% glutamic acid (GAD) and containing 1% nucleotides (ND). One hundred and twenty-three piglets were utilized with three pigs slaughtered at day zero (weaning day) and three at each one of the experimental days (1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 13, 20, 27, and 49 post-weaning), in order to collect organ samples, which were analyzed for the δ13C isotopic composition and compared by means of time. No differences were found (p>0.05) among treatments for the turnover of the 13C in the pancreas (T50% = 13.91, 14.37, 11.07, and 9.34 days; T95% = 46.22, 47.73, 36.79, and 31.04 days for CD, GD, GAD, and ND, respectively). In the liver, the ND presented accelerated values of carbon turnover (T50% = 7.36 and T95% = 24.47 days) in relation to the values obtained for the GD (T50% = 10.15 and T95% = 33.74 days). However, the values obtained for the CD (T50% = 9.12 and T95% = 30.31 days) and GAD (T50% = 7.83 and T95% = 26.03 days) had no differences (p>0.05) among other diets. The technique of 13C isotopic dilution demonstrated trophic action of nucleotides in the liver. PMID:26954179

  4. Calibration of δ13C and δ18O measurements in CO2 using Off-axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectrometer (ICOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jobin; Külls, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The δ13C and δ18O of CO2 has enormous potential as tracers to study and quantify the interaction between the water and carbon cycles. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) being the conventional method for stable isotopic measurements, has many limitations making it impossible for deploying them in remote areas for online or in-situ sampling. New laser based absorption spectroscopy approaches like Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) and Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (ICOS) have been developed for online measurements of stable isotopes at an expense of considerably less power requirement but with precision comparable to IRMS. In this research project, we introduce a new calibration system for an Off- Axis ICOS (Los Gatos Research CCIA-36d) for a wide range of varying concentrations of CO2 (800ppm - 25,000ppm), a typical CO2 flux range at the plant-soil continuum. The calibration compensates for the concentration dependency of δ13C and δ18O measurements, and was performed using various CO2 standards with known CO2 concentration and δC13 and δO18 values. A mathematical model was developed after the calibration procedure as a correction factor for the concentration dependency of δ13C and δ18O measurements. Temperature dependency of δ13C and δ18O measurements were investigated and no significant influence was found. Simultaneous calibration of δ13C and δ18O is achieved using this calibration system with an overall accuracy of (~ 0.75±0.24 ‰ for δ13C, ~ 0.81 ±0.26‰ for δ18O). This calibration procedure is found to be appropriate for making Off-Axis ICOS suitable for measuring CO2 concentration and δ13C and δ18O measurements at atmosphere-plant-soil continuum.

  5. Unusual very positive enrichment of 13C in carbonate sediments deposited in modern hypersaline environment, Lagoa Salgada, Brazil: Indicator of salinity controlled metabolic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, J. A.; Bovier, C.; Bahniuk, A.; Andersen, M. B.; Vasconcelos, C.

    2016-12-01

    In the geologic record, prolonged intervals of intense δ13C enrichment (>10‰) in carbonate deposits occurred, in particular during the mid-Palaeoproterozoic (2.3-1.9 Ga) and mid-Neoproterozoic (0.8-0.6 Ga) [1]. These anomalously high δ13C values have been interpreted as a global effect due to enhanced burial of organic matter with depleted δ13C values [2]. An alternate interpretation has been proposed whereby the metabolic activity of specific microbial communities, such as methanogens, may have been the source of the strong carbon isotope fractionation [3]. Although such restricted shallow-water environments where methanogens dominate are not widespread today, a unique hypersaline coastal lagoon system, Lagoa Salgada, Brazil provides ideal conditions to study the modern microbial community and its impact on observed extreme δ13C enrichment (up to 20‰) recorded in both in situ stromatolites and carbonate sediments. Here we present our findings and correlations of geochemical data with changing environmental conditions during the last 2600 cal yr BP. This lagoonal system contains highly evaporated water with highest salinities occurring during the dry season. The positive δ13C anomaly shows high and stable values (>14‰) from about 2100 to 1400 cal yr BP. Similar high δ13C values were recorded for the same time period in stromatolite structures growing around the margin of Lagoa Salgada. We propose that the high salinities inhibit photosynthesis, respiration and nitrogen fixation by osmotic stress and, thus, result in increased methanogenesis. We conclude that the combination of methanogenic metabolisms and extreme evaporative conditions is the key factor promoting the production of very high δ13C values observed throughout the lagoonal system, as recorded in both marginal stromatolites and carbonate sediments deposited in the more distal regions of the lagoon. Such unusual environments may have been more widely distributed during the Proterozoic

  6. Quantum mechanical calculations of conformationally relevant 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of calixarene systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, Giuseppe; Gomez-Paloma, Luigi; Riccio, Raffaele; Gaeta, Carmine; Troisi, Francesco; Neri, Placido

    2005-12-22

    [graphs: see text] QM GIAO calculations of 13C and 1H chemical shift values of the ArCH2Ar group have been performed, using the hybrid DFT functional MPW1PW91 and the 6-31G(d,p) basis set, on some representative calixarenes and on a series of simplified calixarene models allowing derivation of chemical shift surfaces versus phi and chi dihedral angles. A good reproduction of experimental data was obtained. The applicability of chemical shift surfaces in the study of calixarene conformational features is illustrated.

  7. Measurement of soil carbon oxidation state and oxidative ratio by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockaday, W.C.; Masiello, C.A.; Randerson, J.T.; Smernik, R.J.; Baldock, J.A.; Chadwick, O.A.; Harden, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The oxidative ratio (OR) of the net ecosystem carbon balance is the ratio of net O2 and CO2 fluxes resulting from photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition, and other lateral and vertical carbon flows. The OR of the terrestrial biosphere must be well characterized to accurately estimate the terrestrial CO2 sink using atmospheric measurements of changing O2 and CO2 levels. To estimate the OR of the terrestrial biosphere, measurements are needed of changes in the OR of aboveground and belowground carbon pools associated with decadal timescale disturbances (e.g., land use change and fire). The OR of aboveground pools can be measured using conventional approaches including elemental analysis. However, measuring the OR of soil carbon pools is technically challenging, and few soil OR data are available. In this paper we test three solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques for measuring soil OR, all based on measurements of the closely related parameter, organic carbon oxidation state (Cox). Two of the three techniques make use of a molecular mixing model which converts NMR spectra into concentrations of a standard suite of biological molecules of known C ox. The third technique assigns Cox values to each peak in the NMR spectrum. We assess error associated with each technique using pure chemical compounds and plant biomass standards whose Cox and OR values can be directly measured by elemental analyses. The most accurate technique, direct polarization solid-state 13C NMR with the molecular mixing model, agrees with elemental analyses to ??0.036 Cox units (??0.009 OR units). Using this technique, we show a large natural variability in soil Cox and OR values. Soil Cox values have a mean of -0.26 and a range from -0.45 to 0.30, corresponding to OR values of 1.08 ?? 0.06 and a range from 0.96 to 1.22. We also estimate the OR of the carbon flux from a boreal forest fire. Analysis of soils from nearby intact soil profiles imply that soil carbon losses associated

  8. Synthesis and EPR-spectroscopic characterization of the perchlorotriarylmethyl tricarboxylic acid radical (PTMTC) and its (13)C labelled analogue (13C-PTMTC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elewa, Marwa; Maltar-Strmečki, Nadica; Said, Mohamed M; El Shihawy, Hosam A; El-Sadek, Mohamed; Frank, Juliane; Drescher, Simon; Drescher, Malte; Mäder, Karsten; Hinderberger, Dariush; Imming, Peter

    2017-03-01

    A hydrophilic tris(tetrachlorotriaryl)methyl (tetrachloro-TAM) radical labelled 50% with (13)C at the central carbon atom was prepared. The mixture of isotopologue radicals was characterised by continuous wave and pulsed X-band electron paramagnetic spectroscopy (EPS). For the pharmaceutical and medical applications planned, the quantitative influence of oxygen, viscosity, temperature and pH on EPR line widths was studied in aqueous buffer, DMSO, water-methanol and water-glycerol mixtures. Under in vivo conditions, pH can be disregarded. There is a clear oxygen dependence of the width of the (12)C isotopologue single EPR line in aqueous solutions while changes in rotational motion (viscosity) are observable only in the doublet lines of the central carbon of the (13)C isotopologue. The tetrachloro-TAM proved to be very stable as a solid. Its thermal decay was determined quantitatively by thermal annealing. Towards ascorbic acid as a reducing agent and towards an oocyte cell extract it had a half-life of approx. 60 and 10 min. Thus for in vivo applications, 50% (13)C tetrachloro-TAMs are suitable for selective and simultaneous oxygen and macroviscosity measurements in a formulation, e.g. nanocapsules.

  9. {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N shifts in benthic invertebrates exposed to sewage from McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlan, Kathleen E. [Canadian Musem of Nature, P.O. Box 3443 Station D, Ottawa, Ont., K1P 6P4 (Canada)]. E-mail kconlan@mus-nature.ca; Rau, Greg H. [Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Kvitek, Rikk G. [Earth Systems Science and Policy, California State University Monterey Bay, 100 Campus Center, Seaside, CA 93955 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    In an effort to identify biomonitors for contamination of Antarctic marine benthos by sewage, this study determines whether the US Antarctic Program's McMurdo Station produces a benthic sewage footprint and whether resident megafauna are assimilating sewage-derived material. We identified strong C and N isotopic gradients in benthic sediment as a function of downstream distance from McMurdo Station's point-source sewage addition. Sediment C and N isotope ratios approached marine background levels at the sampling end-point 612 m downcurrent. Based on isotope abundances in their tissues, at least some sewage C and N were assimilated by the sedentary, suspension feeding soft coral Alcyonium antarcticum, ascidian Cnemidocarpa verrucosa and bivalve Laternula elliptica. However, as inferred by tissue-sediment differences in downstream isotope trends, such assimilation was not in proportion to sewage exposure and input, therefore implying non-generalist feeding behavior by these species. In contrast, the motile, generalist feeding sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri, sea star Odontaster validus and ribbon worm Parborlasia corrugatus showed isotopic evidence of sewage C and N assimilation roughly in proportion to sewage input. We recommend these generalist feeders for further use as biomonitors at this site now that sewage treatment has been implemented. As these species are circumpolar in distribution, they may also prove useful elsewhere in the Antarctic.

  10. Effects of foliar boron application on seed composition, cell wall boron, and seed delta 15N and delta 13C isotopes in soybean are influenced by water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the effect of foliar boron (B) application on yield and quality is well established for crops, limited information and controversial results still exist on the effects of foliar B application on soybean seed composition (seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars). The objective of this res...

  11. Measurement of sub threshold resonance contributions to fusion reactions: the case of the 13C(α, n16O astrophysical neutron source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Cognata M.

    2015-01-01

    of the 6.356 MeV level was deduced. For the first time, the Trojan Horse Method and the asymptotic normalization coefficient were used in synergy. Our indirect approach lead to (C̃17O(1/2+α13C2 = 7.7−1.5+1.6 fm−1, slightly larger than the values in the literature, determining a 13C(α, n16O reaction rate slightly larger than the one in the literature at temperatures lower than 108 K, with enhanced accuracy.

  12. Study of the diet effect on δ 13C of shell carbonate of the land snail Helix aspersa in experimental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metref, S.; Rousseau, D.-D.; Bentaleb, I.; Labonne, M.; Vianey-Liaud, M.

    2003-06-01

    This study aims to demonstrate the influence of the metabolic CO 2 derived from the diet and of the atmospheric CO 2 on the shell carbonate δ 13C of the pulmonate snail Helix aspersa maxima raised under controlled conditions. Adult snails were analyzed and compared with three hatching and 1-day old young snails stemming from the same breeding. One day after, the 2-day old individuals were raised during 1 month. Three groups of gastropods were fed with fresh lettuce (C 3 plant, δ 13C=-27.49‰), three groups with corn (C 4 plant, δ 13C=-11.7‰), and three groups ate alternately both (C 3+C 4). The difference between the average δ 13C values of the adult snails on the one hand and the hatched and 1-day old snails on the other hand indicates a depletion of 2.47‰. Therefore, the isotopic parents-offspring signal is not preserved. The depleted ingested albumen by the snail embryo in the egg during the building of the shell could explain this depletion. The C 3 diet experiment gave the expected isotopic composition difference between the diet (lettuce) and the shells (average Δ 13C shell-lettuce=13.75‰±0.52). This result shows a clear diet effect on the isotopic composition of the snail shells. For the C 4 experiment, the difference in carbon isotope composition between the corn and the shell (Δ 13C shell-corn) yielded an average value of 4.89‰±0.87. The main result is that Δ 13C is not constant and appears to depend on the type of ingested food. Several hypotheses can arise from this study to explain the different fractionations: (a) differences in the quality of the two diets, (b) differences in turnover rate for C 3 and C 4 feeders. The groups regularly fed with mixed diet yielded δ 13C values showing a preferential use of C 3 food for most values. The C 3-C 4 mixed dietary alternation probably led snails to use mainly the lettuce instead of the corn powder.

  13. Reassessment of the C-13/C-12 and C-14/C-12 isotopic fractionation ratio and its impact on high-precision radiocarbon dating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahrni, Simon M.; Southon, John R.; Santos, Guaciara M.; Palstra, Sanne W. L.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Xu, Xiaomei

    2017-01-01

    The vast majority of radiocarbon measurement results (C-14/C-12 isotopic ratios or sample activities) are corrected for isotopic fractionation processes (measured as C-13/C-12 isotopic ratios) that occur in nature, in sample preparation and measurement. In 1954 Harmon Craig suggested a value of 2.0

  14. Directly detected (55)Mn MRI: application to phantoms for human hyperpolarized (13)C MRI development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Morze, Cornelius; Carvajal, Lucas; Reed, Galen D; Swisher, Christine Leon; Tropp, James; Vigneron, Daniel B

    2014-12-01

    In this work we demonstrate for the first time directly detected manganese-55 ((55)Mn) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a clinical 3T MRI scanner designed for human hyperpolarized (13)C clinical studies with no additional hardware modifications. Due to the similar frequency of the (55)Mn and (13)C resonances, the use of aqueous permanganate for large, signal-dense, and cost-effective "(13)C" MRI phantoms was investigated, addressing the clear need for new phantoms for these studies. Due to 100% natural abundance, higher intrinsic sensitivity, and favorable relaxation properties, (55)Mn MRI of aqueous permanganate demonstrates dramatically increased sensitivity over typical (13)C phantom MRI, at greatly reduced cost as compared with large (13)C-enriched phantoms. A large sensitivity advantage (22-fold) was demonstrated. A cylindrical phantom (d=8 cm) containing concentrated aqueous sodium permanganate (2.7 M) was scanned rapidly by (55)Mn MRI in a human head coil tuned for (13)C, using a balanced steady state free precession acquisition. The requisite penetration of radiofrequency magnetic fields into concentrated permanganate was investigated by experiments and high frequency electromagnetic simulations, and found to be sufficient for (55)Mn MRI with reasonably sized phantoms. A sub-second slice-selective acquisition yielded mean image signal-to-noise ratio of ~60 at 0.5 cm(3) spatial resolution, distributed with minimum central signal ~40% of the maximum edge signal. We anticipate that permanganate phantoms will be very useful for testing HP (13)C coils and methods designed for human studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An overview of methods using 13C for improved compound identification in metabolomics and natural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clendinen, Chaevien S.; Stupp, Gregory S.; Ajredini, Ramadan; Lee-McMullen, Brittany; Beecher, Chris; Edison, Arthur S.

    2015-01-01

    Compound identification is a major bottleneck in metabolomics studies. In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) investigations, resonance overlap often hinders unambiguous database matching or de novo compound identification. In liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), discriminating between biological signals and background artifacts and reliable determination of molecular formulae are not always straightforward. We have designed and implemented several NMR and LC-MS approaches that utilize 13C, either enriched or at natural abundance, in metabolomics applications. For LC-MS applications, we describe a technique called isotopic ratio outlier analysis (IROA), which utilizes samples that are isotopically labeled with 5% (test) and 95% (control) 13C. This labeling strategy leads to characteristic isotopic patterns that allow the differentiation of biological signals from artifacts and yield the exact number of carbons, significantly reducing possible molecular formulae. The relative abundance between the test and control samples for every IROA feature can be determined simply by integrating the peaks that arise from the 5 and 95% channels. For NMR applications, we describe two 13C-based approaches. For samples at natural abundance, we have developed a workflow to obtain 13C–13C and 13C–1H statistical correlations using 1D 13C and 1H NMR spectra. For samples that can be isotopically labeled, we describe another NMR approach to obtain direct 13C–13C spectroscopic correlations. These methods both provide extensive information about the carbon framework of compounds in the mixture for either database matching or de novo compound identification. We also discuss strategies in which 13C NMR can be used to identify unknown compounds from IROA experiments. By combining technologies with the same samples, we can identify important biomarkers and corresponding metabolites of interest. PMID:26379677

  16. Carbon isotope compositions (δ(13) C) of leaf, wood and holocellulose differ among genotypes of poplar and between previous land uses in a short-rotation biomass plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, M S; Fichot, R; Broeckx, L S; Vanholme, B; Boerjan, W; Ceulemans, R

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of water use to produce biomass is a key trait in designing sustainable bioenergy-devoted systems. We characterized variations in the carbon isotope composition (δ(13) C) of leaves, current year wood and holocellulose (as proxies for water use efficiency, WUE) among six poplar genotypes in a short-rotation plantation. Values of δ(13) Cwood and δ(13) Cholocellulose were tightly and positively correlated, but the offset varied significantly among genotypes (0.79-1.01‰). Leaf phenology was strongly correlated with δ(13) C, and genotypes with a longer growing season showed a higher WUE. In contrast, traits related to growth and carbon uptake were poorly linked to δ(13) C. Trees growing on former pasture with higher N-availability displayed higher δ(13) C as compared with trees growing on former cropland. The positive relationships between δ(13) Cleaf and leaf N suggested that spatial variations in WUE over the plantation were mainly driven by an N-related effect on photosynthetic capacities. The very coherent genotype ranking obtained with δ(13) C in the different tree compartments has some practical outreach. Because WUE remains largely uncoupled from growth in poplar plantations, there is potential to identify genotypes with satisfactory growth and higher WUE. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Dynamic stereochemistry of erigeroside by measurement of 1H- 1H and 13C- 1H coupling constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafazzoli, Mohsen; Ghiasi, Mina; Moridi, Mahdi

    2008-07-01

    Erigeroside was extracted from Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad (Marzeh Khuzistani in Persian, family of lamiaceae), and 1H, 13C, 13C{ 1H}, 1H- 1H COSY, HMQC and J-HMBC were obtained to identify this compound and determine a complete set of J-coupling constants ( 1JC-H, 2JC-H, 3JC-H and 3JH-H) values within the exocyclic hydroxymethyl group (CH 2OH) and anomeric center. In parallel, density functional theory (DFT) using B3LYP functional and split-valance 6-311++G** basis set has been used to optimized the structures and conformers of erigeroside. In all calculations solvent effects were considered using a polarized continuum (overlapping spheres) model (PCM). The dependencies of 1J, 2J and 3J involving 1H and 13C on the C 5'-C 6' ( ω), C 6'-O 6' ( θ) and C 1'-O 1' ( φ) torsion angles in erigeroside were computed using DFT method. Complete hyper surfaces for 1JC1',H1', 2JC5',H6'R, 2JC5',H6'S, 2JC6',H5', 3JC4',H6'R, 3JC4',H6'S and 2JH6'R-H5'S as well as 3JH5',H6'R were obtained and used to derive Karplus equations to correlate these couplings to ω, θ and φ. These calculated J-couplings are in agreement with experimental values. These results confirm the reliability of DFT calculated coupling constants in aqueous solution.

  18. Fatty acid distribution in systems modeling the normal and diabetic human circulation. A 13C nuclear magnetic resonance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cistola, D P; Small, D M

    1991-01-01

    A nonperturbing 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method was used to monitor the equilibrium distribution of carboxyl 13C-enriched fatty acids (FA) between distinct binding sites on human serum albumin, native human lipoproteins, and/or phospholipid model membranes, under conditions that mimic the normal and diabetic human circulation. Two variables pertinent to the diabetic circulation were examined: FA/albumin mole ratio (as elevated in insulin deficiency and/or nephrosis) and pH (as decreased in acidosis). 13C NMR spectra for samples containing carboxyl 13C-enriched palmitate, human serum albumin, and phospholipid vesicles or native lipoproteins (all samples at pH 7.4, 37 degrees C) exhibited up to six carboxyl NMR resonances corresponding to FA bound to distinct binding sites on albumin and nonalbumin components. When the sample FA/albumin mole ratio was 1, three FA carboxyl resonances were observed (182.2, 181.8, and 181.6 ppm; designated peaks beta, gamma, and beta', respectively). These resonances corresponded to FA bound to three distinct high-affinity binding sites on human serum albumin. When the sample mole ratio value exceeded 1, additional carboxyl resonances corresponding to FA bound to phospholipid vesicles (179.0 ppm, peak phi), lipoproteins (180.7 ppm, peak sigma), and lower affinity sites on albumin (183.8 ppm, peak alpha; 181.9 ppm, peak gamma'), were observed. The intensity of peaks phi and sigma increased with increasing mole ratio or decreasing pH. Using Lorentzian lineshape analysis, the relative mole quantities of FA bound to albumin and nonalbumin binding sites were determined. Plots of the fraction of FA associated with nonalbumin components as a function of FA/albumin mole ratio were linear and extrapolated to the abscissa at a mole ratio value of 1. This pattern of FA distribution was observed regardless of the type of nonalbumin acceptor used (phospholipid vesicles, human high- or low-density lipoproteins) or the type of FA used

  19. 13C Mrs Studies of the Control of Hepatic Glycogen Metabolism at High Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Corin O.; Cao, Jin; Zhu, He; Chen, Li M.; Wilson, George; Kennan, Richard; Gore, John C.

    2017-06-01

    Introduction: Glycogen is the primary intracellular storage form of carbohydrates. In contrast to most tissues where stored glycogen can only supply the local tissue with energy, hepatic glycogen is mobilized and released into the blood to maintain appropriate circulating glucose levels, and is delivered to other tissues as glucose in response to energetic demands. Insulin and glucagon, two current targets of high interest in the pharmaceutical industry, are well known glucose-regulating hormones whose primary effect in liver is to modulate glycogen synthesis and breakdown. The purpose of these studies was to develop methods to measure glycogen metabolism in real time non-invasively both in isolated mouse livers, and in non-human primates (NHPs) using 13C MRS. Methods: Livers were harvested from C57/Bl6 mice and perfused with [1-13C] Glucose. To demonstrate the ability to measure acute changes in glycogen metabolism ex-vivo, fructose, glucagon, and insulin were administered to the liver ex-vivo. The C1 resonance of glycogen was measured in real time with 13C MRS using an 11.7T (500 MHz) NMR spectrometer. To demonstrate the translatability of this approach, NHPs (male rhesus monkeys) were studied in a 7 T Philips MRI using a partial volume 1H/13C imaging coil. NPHs were subjected to a variable IV infusion of [1-13C] glucose (to maintain blood glucose at 3-4x basal), along with a constant 1 mg/kg/min infusion of fructose. The C1 resonance of glycogen was again measured in real time with 13C MRS. To demonstrate the ability to measure changes in glycogen metabolism in vivo, animals received a glucagon infusion (1 μg/kg bolus followed by 40 ng/kg/min constant infusion) half way through the study on the second study session. Results: In both perfused mouse livers and in NHPs, hepatic 13C-glycogen synthesis (i.e. monotonic increases in the 13C-glycogen NMR signal) was readily detected. In both paradigms, addition of glucagon resulted in cessation of glycogen synthesis

  20. Multi-objective experimental design for (13)C-based metabolic flux analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvin, Jeroen; Cajot, Simon; D'Huys, Pieter-Jan; Ampofo-Asiama, Jerry; Anné, Jozef; Van Impe, Jan; Geeraerd, Annemie; Bernaerts, Kristel

    2015-10-01

    (13)C-based metabolic flux analysis is an excellent technique to resolve fluxes in the central carbon metabolism but costs can be significant when using specialized tracers. This work presents a framework for cost-effective design of (13)C-tracer experiments, illustrated on two different networks. Linear and non-linear optimal input mixtures are computed for networks for Streptomyces lividans and a carcinoma cell line. If only glucose tracers are considered as labeled substrate for a carcinoma cell line or S. lividans, the best parameter estimation accuracy is obtained by mixtures containing high amounts of 1,2-(13)C2 glucose combined with uniformly labeled glucose. Experimental designs are evaluated based on a linear (D-criterion) and non-linear approach (S-criterion). Both approaches generate almost the same input mixture, however, the linear approach is favored due to its low computational effort. The high amount of 1,2-(13)C2 glucose in the optimal designs coincides with a high experimental cost, which is further enhanced when labeling is introduced in glutamine and aspartate tracers. Multi-objective optimization gives the possibility to assess experimental quality and cost at the same time and can reveal excellent compromise experiments. For example, the combination of 100% 1,2-(13)C2 glucose with 100% position one labeled glutamine and the combination of 100% 1,2-(13)C2 glucose with 100% uniformly labeled glutamine perform equally well for the carcinoma cell line, but the first mixture offers a decrease in cost of $ 120 per ml-scale cell culture experiment. We demonstrated the validity of a multi-objective linear approach to perform optimal experimental designs for the non-linear problem of (13)C-metabolic flux analysis. Tools and a workflow are provided to perform multi-objective design. The effortless calculation of the D-criterion can be exploited to perform high-throughput screening of possible (13)C-tracers, while the illustrated benefit of multi

  1. 13C MRS Studies of the Control of Hepatic Glycogen Metabolism at High Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corin O. Miller

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glycogen is the primary intracellular storage form of carbohydrates. In contrast to most tissues where stored glycogen can only supply the local tissue with energy, hepatic glycogen is mobilized and released into the blood to maintain appropriate circulating glucose levels, and is delivered to other tissues as glucose in response to energetic demands. Insulin and glucagon, two current targets of high interest in the pharmaceutical industry, are well-known glucose-regulating hormones whose primary effect in liver is to modulate glycogen synthesis and breakdown. The purpose of these studies was to develop methods to measure glycogen metabolism in real time non-invasively both in isolated mouse livers, and in non-human primates (NHPs using 13C MRS.Methods: Livers were harvested from C57/Bl6 mice and perfused with [1-13C] Glucose. To demonstrate the ability to measure acute changes in glycogen metabolism ex-vivo, fructose, glucagon, and insulin were administered to the liver ex-vivo. The C1 resonance of glycogen was measured in real time with 13C MRS using an 11.7T (500 MHz NMR spectrometer. To demonstrate the translatability of this approach, NHPs (male rhesus monkeys were studied in a 7 T Philips MRI using a partial volume 1H/13C imaging coil. NPHs were subjected to a variable IV infusion of [1-13C] glucose (to maintain blood glucose at 3-4x basal, along with a constant 1 mg/kg/min infusion of fructose. The C1 resonance of glycogen was again measured in real time with 13C MRS. To demonstrate the ability to measure changes in glycogen metabolism in vivo, animals received a glucagon infusion (1 μg/kg bolus followed by 40 ng/kg/min constant infusion half way through the study on the second study session.Results: In both perfused mouse livers and in NHPs, hepatic 13C-glycogen synthesis (i.e., monotonic increases in the 13C-glycogen NMR signal was readily detected. In both paradigms, addition of glucagon resulted in cessation of glycogen

  2. Mechanism of Thin Layers Graphite Formation by 13C Implantation and Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaelle Gutierrez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of thin layers graphite (TLG synthesis on a polycrystalline nickel film deposited on SiO2 (300 nm thick/Si(100 has been investigated by 13C implantation of four equivalent graphene monolayers and annealing at moderate temperatures (450–600 °C. During this process, the implanted 13C segregates to the surface. Nuclear Reaction Analyses (NRA are used for the first time in the topic of graphene synthesis to separate the isotopes and to determine the 12C and 13C concentrations at each step. Indeed, a significant part of carbon in the TLG also comes from residual 12C carbon absorbed into the metallic matrix. Raman spectroscopy and imaging are used to determine the main location of each carbon isotope in the TLG. The Raman mappings especially emphasize the role of 12C previously present at the surface that first diffuses along grain boundaries. They play the role of nucleation precursors. Around them the implanted 13C or a mixture of bulk 12C–13C aggregate and further precipitate into graphene-like fragments. Graphenization is effective at around 600 °C. These results point out the importance of controlling carbon incorporation, as well as the importance of preparing a uniform nickel surface, in order to avoid heterogeneous nucleation.

  3. A Method to Constrain Genome-Scale Models with 13C Labeling Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor García Martín

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Current limitations in quantitatively predicting biological behavior hinder our efforts to engineer biological systems to produce biofuels and other desired chemicals. Here, we present a new method for calculating metabolic fluxes, key targets in metabolic engineering, that incorporates data from 13C labeling experiments and genome-scale models. The data from 13C labeling experiments provide strong flux constraints that eliminate the need to assume an evolutionary optimization principle such as the growth rate optimization assumption used in Flux Balance Analysis (FBA. This effective constraining is achieved by making the simple but biologically relevant assumption that flux flows from core to peripheral metabolism and does not flow back. The new method is significantly more robust than FBA with respect to errors in genome-scale model reconstruction. Furthermore, it can provide a comprehensive picture of metabolite balancing and predictions for unmeasured extracellular fluxes as constrained by 13C labeling data. A comparison shows that the results of this new method are similar to those found through 13C Metabolic Flux Analysis (13C MFA for central carbon metabolism but, additionally, it provides flux estimates for peripheral metabolism. The extra validation gained by matching 48 relative labeling measurements is used to identify where and why several existing COnstraint Based Reconstruction and Analysis (COBRA flux prediction algorithms fail. We demonstrate how to use this knowledge to refine these methods and improve their predictive capabilities. This method provides a reliable base upon which to improve the design of biological systems.

  4. Structural Monitoring of Oligosaccharides through 13C Enrichment and NMR Observation of Acetyl Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Prestegard, J. H.

    2006-01-01

    Structural characterization of biomolecules by NMR methods frequently requires the enrichment of magnetically active isotopes at particular molecular sites. Introduction is usually achieved biosynthetically through the use of bacterial cultures grown on isotopically enriched media, but for certain types of molecules—cell-surface carbohydrates of mammalian origin, for example—this is not practical. Here we explore a means of introducing 13C-enriched sites, postisolation in natural carbohydrate products, and illustrate an ability to acquire sufficient information to select appropriate conformational models from among energetically allowed sets. The application presented involves replacement of native N-acetyl groups with 13C-labeled acetyl groups in a simple disaccharide derivative, (GlcNAc)2-OBu, or O-butyl-chitobiose. The assignment of the two acetyl groups introduced is based on a novel combination of NMR and mass spectrometry data. Structural information is obtained from chemical shift anisotropy offsets of 13C carbonyl resonances and 13C-13C dipolar couplings between the labeled methyl and carbonyl carbons of the acetyl groups. Although the application is to a relatively simple system, it lays the groundwork for application to biologically important complex carbohydrate systems. PMID:16782783

  5. Bioaccumulation and Toxicity of (13)C-Skeleton Labeled Graphene Oxide in Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingyun; Wang, Chenglong; Li, Hongliang; Qu, Xiulong; Yang, Sheng-Tao; Chang, Xue-Ling

    2017-09-05

    Graphene nanomaterials have many diverse applications, but are considered to be emerging environmental pollutants. Thus, their potential environmental risks and biosafety are receiving increased attention. Bioaccumulation and toxicity evaluations in plants are essential for biosafety assessment. In this study, (13)C-stable isotope labeling of the carbon skeleton of graphene oxide (GO) was applied to investigate the bioaccumulation and toxicity of GO in wheat. Bioaccumulation of GO was accurately quantified according to the (13)C/(12)C ratio. Wheat seedlings were exposed to (13)C-labeled GO at 1.0 mg/mL in nutrient solution for 15 d. (13)C-GO accumulated predominantly in the root with a content of 112 μg/g at day 15, hindered the development and growth of wheat plants, disrupted root structure and cellular ultrastructure, and promoted oxidative stress. The GO that accumulated in the root showed extremely limited translocation to the stem and leaves. During the experimental period, GO was excreted slowly from the root. GO inhibited the germination of wheat seeds at high concentrations (≥0.4 mg/mL). The mechanism of GO toxicity to wheat may be associated with oxidative stress induced by GO bioaccumulation, reflected by the changes of malondialdehyde concentration, catalase activity, and peroxidase activity. The results demonstrate that (13)C labeling is a promising method to investigate environmental impacts and fates of carbon nanomaterials in biological systems.

  6. Structure and orientation of dynorphin bound to lipid bilayers by 13C solid-state NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uezono, Takiko; Toraya, Shuichi; Obata, Maki; Nishimura, Katsuyuki; Tuzi, Satoru; Saitô, Hazime; Naito, Akira

    2005-07-01

    Secondary structure and orientation of dynorphin bound to dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayer were investigated by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy. For this purpose, 13C NMR spectra of the site-specifically 13C-labeled dynorphin were measured in the membrane-bound state under static, magic angle spinning (MAS), and slow MAS conditions. In the static experiment, magnetically oriented vesicle system (MOVS) induced by dynorphin was successfully used to investigate the orientation of dynorphin bound to the lipid bilayers. It was found that dynorphin adopts an α-helical structure in the N-terminus from Gly 2 to Leu 5 by analyses of the isotropic chemical shifts obtained from the MAS experiments. In contrast, it adopts disordered conformations from the center to the C-terminus and is located on the membrane surface. The static 13C NMR spectra indicated that MOVS-bound dynorphin was oriented to the magnetic field and rotated rapidly about the bilayer normal. Subsequently, we analyzed the 13C chemical shift tensors of carbonyl carbons in the peptide backbone by considering the rotational motion of the N-terminal α-helix. It was revealed that the N-terminal α-helix is inserted into the membrane with the tilt angle of 21° to the bilayer normal. This structure suggests a possibility that dynorphin interacts with the extracellular loop II of the κ-receptor through a helix-helix interaction.

  7. 13C-Metabolic Flux Analysis: An Accurate Approach to Demystify Microbial Metabolism for Biochemical Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weihua; Sheng, Jiayuan; Feng, Xueyang

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic engineering of various industrial microorganisms to produce chemicals, fuels, and drugs has raised interest since it is environmentally friendly, sustainable, and independent of nonrenewable resources. However, microbial metabolism is so complex that only a few metabolic engineering efforts have been able to achieve a satisfactory yield, titer or productivity of the target chemicals for industrial commercialization. In order to overcome this challenge, 13C Metabolic Flux Analysis (13C-MFA) has been continuously developed and widely applied to rigorously investigate cell metabolism and quantify the carbon flux distribution in central metabolic pathways. In the past decade, many 13C-MFA studies have been performed in academic labs and biotechnology industries to pinpoint key issues related to microbe-based chemical production. Insightful information about the metabolic rewiring has been provided to guide the development of the appropriate metabolic engineering strategies for improving the biochemical production. In this review, we will introduce the basics of 13C-MFA and illustrate how 13C-MFA has been applied via integration with metabolic engineering to identify and tackle the rate-limiting steps in biochemical production for various host microorganisms PMID:28952565

  8. Monitoring electrochemical reactions in situ using steady-state free precession {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Luiza M.S. [Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Trabalhador São-Carlense 400, São Carlos, São Paulo 13560-070 (Brazil); Embrapa Instrumentação, Rua XV de Novembro 1452, São Carlos, São Paulo 13560-970 (Brazil); Moraes, Tiago B. [Embrapa Instrumentação, Rua XV de Novembro 1452, São Carlos, São Paulo 13560-970 (Brazil); Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Trabalhador São-Carlense 400, São Carlos, São Paulo 13566-590 (Brazil); Barbosa, Lucio L. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Avenida Fernando Ferrari 514, Vitória, Espírito Santo 29075-910 (Brazil); Mazo, Luiz H. [Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Trabalhador São-Carlense 400, São Carlos, São Paulo 13560-070 (Brazil); and others

    2014-11-19

    Highlights: • Analysis of electrochemical reaction in situ by 13C NMR spectroscopy was demonstrated. • {sup 13}C NMR signals are obtained in few minutes, using steady-state free precession (SSFP) pulse sequence. • The analysis is performed in standard NMR spectrometer. • KBDM can be an alternative to Fourier Transform to process SSFP signal. - Abstract: All attempts to use in situ{sup 13}C NMR in spectroelectrochemical studies, using static cells and unlabeled substrates, have failed due to the very long average time (several hours). In this paper, we demonstrated that steady-state free precession (SSFP) pulse sequence can enhance signal to noise ratio and reduces the average time of {sup 13}C NMR signals by more than one order of magnitude. The results showed that each {sup 13}C NMR spectrum during the electrochemical reduction of 9-chloroanthracene, in a static cell, can be acquired in eleven minutes. This short averaging time allowed the analysis of the reaction every 30 min during 3 h. The phase and truncation anomalies present in SSFP spectra were minimized using Traff apodization function and Krylov basis diagonalization method (KBDM)

  9. Deuterium isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts of 10-Hydroxybenzo[h]quinolines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Kamounah, Fadhil S.; Gryko, Daniel T.

    2013-01-01

    Deuterium isotope effects on 13C-NMR chemical shifts are investigated in a series of 10-hydroxybenzo[h]quinolines (HBQ’s) The OH proton is deuteriated. The isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts in these hydrogen bonded systems are rather unusual. The formal four-bond effects are found to be nega...... with calculated OH stretching frequencies. Isotope effects on chemical shifts are calculated for systems with OH exchanged by OD. Hydrogen bond potentials are discussed. New and more soluble nitro derivatives are synthesized.......Deuterium isotope effects on 13C-NMR chemical shifts are investigated in a series of 10-hydroxybenzo[h]quinolines (HBQ’s) The OH proton is deuteriated. The isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts in these hydrogen bonded systems are rather unusual. The formal four-bond effects are found...... to be negative, indicating transmission via the hydrogen bond. In addition unusual long-range effects are seen. Structures, NMR chemical shifts and changes in nuclear shieldings upon deuteriation are calculated using DFT methods. Two-bond deuterium isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts are correlated...

  10. Production and NMR signal optimization of hyperpolarized 13C-labeled amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Christopher; Niedbalski, Peter; Ferguson, Sarah; Kiswandhi, Andhika; Lumata, Lloyd

    Amino acids are targeted nutrients for consumption by cancers to sustain their rapid growth and proliferation. 13C-enriched amino acids are important metabolic tracers for cancer diagnostics using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Despite this diagnostic potential, 13C NMR of amino acids however is hampered by the inherently low NMR sensitivity of the 13C nuclei. In this work, we have employed a physics technique known as dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to enhance the NMR signals of 13C-enriched amino acids. DNP works by transferring the high polarization of electrons to the nuclear spins via microwave irradiation at low temperature and high magnetic field. Using a fast dissolution method in which the frozen polarized samples are dissolved rapidly with superheated water, injectable solutions of 13C-amino acids with highly enhanced NMR signals (by at least 5,000-fold) were produced at room temperature. Factors that affect the NMR signal enhancement levels such as the choice of free radical polarizing agents and sample preparation will be discussed along with the thermal mixing physics model of DNP. The authors would like to acknowledge the support by US Dept of Defense Award No. W81XWH-14-1-0048 and Robert A. Welch Foundation Grant No. AT-1877.

  11. To be certain about the uncertainty: Bayesian statistics for (13) C metabolic flux analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theorell, Axel; Leweke, Samuel; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Nöh, Katharina

    2017-11-01

    (13) C Metabolic Fluxes Analysis ((13) C MFA) remains to be the most powerful approach to determine intracellular metabolic reaction rates. Decisions on strain engineering and experimentation heavily rely upon the certainty with which these fluxes are estimated. For uncertainty quantification, the vast majority of (13) C MFA studies relies on confidence intervals from the paradigm of Frequentist statistics. However, it is well known that the confidence intervals for a given experimental outcome are not uniquely defined. As a result, confidence intervals produced by different methods can be different, but nevertheless equally valid. This is of high relevance to (13) C MFA, since practitioners regularly use three different approximate approaches for calculating confidence intervals. By means of a computational study with a realistic model of the central carbon metabolism of E. coli, we provide strong evidence that confidence intervals used in the field depend strongly on the technique with which they were calculated and, thus, their use leads to misinterpretation of the flux uncertainty. In order to provide a better alternative to confidence intervals in (13) C MFA, we demonstrate that credible intervals from the paradigm of Bayesian statistics give more reliable flux uncertainty quantifications which can be readily computed with high accuracy using Markov chain Monte Carlo. In addition, the widely applied chi-square test, as a means of testing whether the model reproduces the data, is examined closer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C Ratio in Sgr B2(N): Constraints for Galactic Chemical Evolution and Isotopic Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halfen, D. T.; Ziurys, L. M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arizona, 1305 E. 4th Street, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Woolf, N. J., E-mail: halfend@email.arizona.edu [Department of Astronomy, Arizona Radio Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    A study has been conducted of {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratios in five complex molecules in the Galactic center. H{sub 2}CS, CH{sub 3}CCH, NH{sub 2}CHO, CH{sub 2}CHCN, and CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CN and their {sup 13}C-substituted species have been observed in numerous transitions at 1, 2, and 3 mm, acquired in a spectral-line survey of Sgr B2(N), conducted with the telescopes of the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). Between 22 and 54 individual, unblended lines for the {sup 12}C species and 2–54 for {sup 13}C-substituted analogs were modeled in a global radiative transfer analysis. All five molecules were found to consistently exhibit two velocity components near V {sub LSR} ∼ 64 and 73 km s{sup −1}, with column densities ranging from N {sub tot} ∼ 3 × 10{sup 14} − 4 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −2} and ∼2 × 10{sup 13} − 1 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −2} for the {sup 12}C and {sup 13}C species, respectively. Based on 14 different isotopic combinations, ratios were obtained in the range {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C = 15 ± 5 to 33 ± 13, with an average value of 24 ± 7, based on comparison of column densities. These measurements better anchor the {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratio at the Galactic center, and suggest a slightly revised isotope gradient of {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C = 5.21(0.52) D {sub GC} + 22.6(3.3). As indicated by the column densities, no preferential {sup 13}C enrichment was found on the differing carbon sites of CH{sub 3}CCH, CH{sub 2}CHCN, and CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CN. Because of the elevated temperatures in Sgr B2(N), {sup 13}C isotopic substitution is effectively “scrambled,” diminishing chemical fractionation effects. The resulting ratios thus reflect stellar nucleosynthesis and Galactic chemical evolution, as is likely the case for most warm clouds.

  13. The paleoenvironmental significance of δ13C of Kulishu stalagmite, Beijing, China, during Younger Dryas intervals: inferred from the grey level profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    duan, W.; Tan, M.; Ma, Z.; Cheng, H.

    2012-12-01

    A previous research on the δ18O profile of a stalagmite from Kulishu cave, Beijing, China, has discussed the timing and structure of the Younger Dryas event (YD) (Ma et al., 2012). However, the stalagmite δ13C has not been utilized in interpreting paleoenvironment. To explore the significance of δ13C profile, here, we also present the grey level of the same stalagmite for comparisons. The vegetation above Kulishu cave is mainly dominated by C3 plants, secondary-growth deciduous broadleaf trees and shrubs (Ma et al., 2012), inferring that Kulishu speleothem δ13C may primarily reflect changes in the vegetative cover and biomass rather than vegetation C3/C4 ratio (Baldini et al., 2005; Cosford et al., 2009). During periods of less precipitation and lower temperature, plant cover and biological activity decrease, which lowers soil pCO2 and raise δ13C values of soil CO2 (Hou et al., 2003). In turn, worse vegetative cover results in higher stalagmite δ13C as less biogenic CO2 is dissolved in the seepage water, and vice verse. (Bar-Matthews et al., 2003; Drysdale et al., 2004; Cosford et al., 2009). Additionally, inorganic processes that respond to climatic conditions also contribute to the δ13C record of stalagmite. Under cooler and drier conditions, reduced drip rates result in higher stalagmite δ13C values owing to longer CO2 degassing time on both the stalagmite surface (Bar-Matthews et al., 1996; Mickler et al., 2004, 2006; Cosford et al., 2009) and the unsaturated zone of karstic aquifer (Baker et al., 1997). As the biological activities and inorganic processes drive stalagmite δ13C in the same "direction", lower δ13C value of stalagmite reflects relatively increased precipitation and higher temperature, and vice verse (Cosford et al., 2009). The grey level, to some extent, supports the idea that the δ13C time series of Kulishu stalagmite can be interpreted as the variation of precipitation and temperature. The two proxies representative of the YD and

  14. Carbon sequestration in soil beneath long-term Miscanthus plantations as determined by {sup 13}C abundance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E.M.; Christensen, B.T.; Kristensen, K. [Danish Inst. of Agricultural Sciences, Tjele (Denmark); Jensen, L.S. [Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Tjele (Denmark)

    2004-02-01

    Miscanthus is a perennial rhizomatous warm-season grass with C4-photosynthesis. It shows considerable production potentials (10-20 t dry matter ha{sup -1}) under NW European growth conditions and plantations of Miscanthus are established to provide biomass for energy. The plant senesces in the autumn in response to adverse climatic conditions, but harvest is normally postponed until spring when the biomass is more suitable for combustion. Total pre-harvest and harvest losses may account for as much as two-thirds of autumn standing biomass and these losses provide a significant carbon input to the soil. In this study, we examine soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and turnovers beneath 9 and 16 year old Miscanthus plantations established at Hornum, Denmark (56{sup o}50{sup '}N, 09{sup o}26{sup '}E). The soil is a loamy sand (Typic Haplumbrept, coarse loamy, mixed, mesic) with a C3 vegetation history. Soil was sampled at 0-20, 20-50 and 50-100 cm depth in the Miscanthus plantations and in two reference sites under C3-plants. The 0-20 cm samples were divided into fine soil (<2 mm), particulate organic matter (POM; 250-2000 {mu}m), rhizomes/stubbles and coarse roots. All samples were analysed for carbon content and {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratio. Rhizomes/stubbles accounted for 10.9-12.6 t DMha{sup -1} and coarse roots for 3.2-3.7 t DMha{sup -1} at 0-20 cm depth. No rhizomes and coarse roots were observed in the deeper soil layers. Concentrations of SOC were higher at all soil depths under the 16 year old Miscanthus whereas 9 years of Miscanthus and reference sites showed similar SOC concentrations. {delta} {sup 13}C in 0-20 cm reference soil averaged -27.6 per mille while soil beneath 9 and 16 year Miscanthus showed -25.6 per mille and -22.8 per mille, respectively. Difference in {delta}{sup 13}C between reference and Miscanthus soils was smaller at greater soil depths. SOC inventories at 0-100 cm ranged from 91-92 t Cha{sup -1} in reference and 9 year Miscanthus

  15. Climatic adaptability of populations of Diplotaxis erucoides D.C. (Brassicaceae) from Sicily, based on leaf morphology, leaf anatomy and δ13 C studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleser, G. H.; Bernhardt, K.-G.; Hurka, H.

    1989-06-01

    The morphological and anatomical variability of Diplotaxis erucoides populations from Sicily was investigated. Populations growing during the summer months exhibit distinct xeromorphic features. Leaf area is strongly reduced and leaf thickness is increased when compared with winter populations. Cell size, as well as cell arrangement and mesophyll cell surface area differ significantly between summer and winter populations. Leaf thickness is almost three times higher in summer populations and A (cell)/ A, i.e. the mesophyll cell surface area per unit leaf area changes from about 16 for winter populations to almost 52 for summer populations. These differences are partly due to differences in intercellular volume and partly due to alterations in mesophyll cell sizes. The organic materal of the summer populations exhibits δ13C values in the order of -27%. to -28%., while the corresponding values for the winter populations are in the order of -31%. to -33%.. Analysis of D. erucoides populations from the transition period revealed intermediate δ13C values. Anatomical variations such as reductions or increases of A (cells)/ A and changes of intercellular volume correlate with the corresponding δ13C data. The δ13C data are discussed in conjunction with the differences in leaf anatomy.

  16. Validation of 13C-acetic acid breath test by measuring effects of loperamide, morphine, mosapride, and itopride on gastric emptying in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Kimura, Hiroshi; Tashima, Kimihito; Uchida, Masayuki; Horie, Syunji

    2008-10-01

    Several methods are used to evaluate gastric motility in rodents, but they all have technical limitations. Recent technical developments enable a convenient method to evaluate gastric motility. The (13)C-acetic acid breath test in rodents is a non-invasive and repeatable method that can be used without physical restraints. The present study aimed to validate the (13)C-acetic acid breath test by measuring the effects of loperamide, morphine, mosapride, and itopride on gastric emptying in mice. Loperamide (1-10 mg/kg) and morphine (1.25-10 mg/kg) slowed gastric emptying and decreased the maximum concentration (C(max)) and area under the curve (AUC(90 min)) value in a dose-dependent manner. Mosapride (0.2-5 mg/kg) accelerated gastric emptying and increased C(max) value. Mosapride (20 mg/kg) did not accelerate gastric emptying on the (13)C-breath test. Itopride (30 mg/kg, per os) significantly accelerated gastric emptying compared with the vehicle group. In a comparison with the conventional phenol red test, there was a correlation between the C(max) value of breath test and gastric emptying (%) of phenol red tests in treatment with loperamide or mosapride. These results indicate that the (13)C-acetic acid breath test is an accurate, noninvasive, and simple method for monitoring gastric emptying in mice. This method is useful to assess the effect of drugs and gut function pharmacologically.

  17. The influence of fish cage culture on δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N of filter-feeding Bivalvia (Mollusca)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedito, E.; Takeda, A.M., E-mail: eva@nupelia.uem.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas em Limnologia, Ictiologia e Aquicultura; Figueroa, L. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquaticos Continentais; Manetta, GI. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Biologia Comparada

    2013-11-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Oreochromis niloticus cage culture promoted variations in the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N in Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca; Bivalvia) and in the sediment of an aquatic food web. Samples were taken before and after net cage installation in the Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, PR-SP). Samples of specimens of the bivalve filter C. fluminea and samples of sediment were collected using a modified Petersen grab. All samples were dried in an oven (60 °C) for 72 hours, macerated to obtain homogenous fine powders and sent for carbon (δ{sup 13}C) and nitrogen (δ{sup 15}N) isotopic value analysis in a mass spectrometer. There were significant differences in the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values of the invertebrate C. fluminea between the beginning and the end of the experiment. There were no differences between the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values of sediment. These results indicate that the installation of fish cage culture promoted impacts in the isotopic composition of the aquatic food web organisms, which could exert influence over the native species and the ecosystem. (author)

  18. An estimation of Central Iberian Peninsula atmospheric δ13C and water δD in the Upper Cretaceous using pyrolysis compound specific isotopic analysis (Py-CSIA) of a fossil conifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pérez, José A.; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; De la Rosa, José M.; Almendros, Gonzalo; González-Vila, Francisco J.

    2015-04-01

    Frenelopsis is a frequently found genus of the Cretaceous floras adapted to dry, saline and in general to environmental conditions marked by severe water stress [1]. Stable isotope analysis of fossil organic materials can be used to infer palaeoenvironmental variables helpful to reconstruct plant paleohabitats [2]. In this study stable isotope analysis of organic fossil remains (FR) and humic fractions (FA, HA and humin) of Frenelopsis oligiostomata are studied in bulk (C, H, O, N IRMS) and in specific compounds released by pyrolysis (C, H, Py-CSIA). Well preserved F. oligiostomata fossils were handpicked from a limestone included in compacted marls from Upper Cretaceous (Senonian c. 72 Mya) in Guadalix de la Sierra (Madrid, Spain) [3]. The fossils were decarbonated with 6M HCl. Humic substances were extracted from finely ground fossil remains (FR) by successive treatments with 0.1M Na4P2O7 + NaOH [4]. The extract was acidified resulting into insoluble HA and soluble FA fractions. The HA and FA were purified as in [5] and [6] respectively. Bulk stable isotopic analysis (δ13C, δD, δ18O, δ15N IRMS) was done in an elemental micro-analyser coupled to a continuous flow Delta V Advantage isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). Pyrolysis compound specific isotopic analysis Py-CSIA (δ13C, δD): was done by coupling a double-shot pyrolyzer to a chromatograph connected to an IRMS. Structural features of specific peaks were inferred by comparing/matching mass spectra from conventional Py-GC/MS (data not shown) with Py-GC/IRMS chromatograms obtained using the same chromatographic conditions. Bulk C isotopic signature found for FR (-20.5±0.02 ‰) was in accordance with previous studies [2, 7-9]. This heavy isotopic δ13C signature indicates a depleted stomatal conductance and paleoenvironmental growth conditions of water and salt stress. This is in line with the morphological and depositional characteristics [3] confirming that F. oligostomata was adapted to highly xeric

  19. Deuterium isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts of negatively charged NH.N systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Pietrzak, Mariusz; Grech, Eugeniusz

    2013-01-01

    ” and equilibrium cases. NMR assignments of the former have been revised. The NH proton is deuteriated. The isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts are rather unusual in these strongly hydrogen bonded systems between a NH and a negatively charged nitrogen atom. The formal four-bond effects are found to be negative......Deuterium isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts are investigated in anions of 1,8-bis(4-toluenesulphonamido)naphthalenes together with N,N-(naphthalene-1,8-diyl)bis(2,2,2-trifluoracetamide) all with bis(1,8-dimethylamino)napthaleneH+ as counter ion. These compounds represent both “static...... indicating transmission via the hydrogen bond. In addition, unusual long range effects are seen. Structures, 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts and changes in nuclear shieldings upon deuteriation are calculated using density functional theory methods...

  20. Dynamic nuclear polarization and optimal control spatial-selective 13C MRI and MRS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Mads Sloth; Laustsen, Christoffer; Maximov, Ivan I.

    2013-01-01

    Aimed at 13C metabolic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) applications, we demonstrate that dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) may be combined with optimal control 2D spatial selection to simultaneously obtain high sensitivity and well-defined spatial restriction. This is ach......Aimed at 13C metabolic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) applications, we demonstrate that dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) may be combined with optimal control 2D spatial selection to simultaneously obtain high sensitivity and well-defined spatial restriction....... This is achieved through the development of spatial-selective single-shot spiral-readout MRI and MRS experiments combined with dynamic nuclear polarization hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate on a 4.7T pre-clinical MR scanner. The method stands out from related techniques by facilitating anatomic shaped region....... The technique may be important for early detection of abnormal metabolism, monitoring disease progression, and drug research....

  1. Increasing 13C CP-MAS NMR resolution using single crystals: application to model octaethyl porphyrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugar, Sneha; Fu, Riqiang; Dalal, Naresh S

    2012-08-02

    Octaethyl porphyrin (OEP) and its Ni and Zn derivatives are considered as model compounds in biochemical, photophysical, and fossil fuel chemistry. They have thus been investigated by high-resolution solid-state (13)C NMR using powders, but peak assignment has been difficult because of large line widths. Arguing that a significant cause of broadening might be the anisotropic bulk magnetic susceptibility, we utilized single crystals in our (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) measurements and observed a nearly 2-fold line narrowing. This enhanced resolution enabled us to assign chemical shifts to each carbon for all the three compounds. The new assignments are now in agreement with X-ray structural data and allowed us to probe the motional dynamics of the methyl and methylene carbons of the OEP side chains. It is apparent that the use of single crystals in (13)C CP-MAS measurements has a significantly wider impact than previously thought.

  2. Comparison of CIELAB DeltaE(*) and CIEDE2000 color-differences after polymerization and thermocycling of resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Keun

    2005-07-01

    Though instrumental technologies have been widely used for quantifying color of esthetic dental materials, the sizes for the perceptible or acceptable color-difference varied. Instead of the CIELAB DeltaE(*)(DeltaE(ab)(*)) formula, the CIEDE2000 (DeltaE(00)) formula that included weighting and parametric functions was introduced. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between color-difference values of DeltaE(ab)(*) and DeltaE(00) after polymerization and thermocycling of dental resin composites. Color-differences were calculated between unpolymerized and polymerized, and between polymerized and thermocycled resin composites. Color was measured relative to the standard illuminant D65 over a white background with SCE geometry. Regression analyses were performed between the color difference values of DeltaE(ab)(*) and DeltaE(00). There were significant correlations between DeltaE(ab)(*) values and DeltaE(00) values after polymerization and thermocycling (plightness, chroma and hue, the DeltaE(00) formula could be considered for the color evaluation of esthetic dental materials after confirming with human observer responses.

  3. Process Model for Studying Regional 13C Stable Isotope Exchange between Vegetation and Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; Chen, B.; Huang, L.; Tans, P.; Worthy, D.; Ishizawa, M.; Chan, D.

    2007-12-01

    The variation of the stable isotope 13CO2 in the air in exchange with land ecosystems results from fractionation processes in both plants and soil during photosynthesis and respiration. Its diurnal and seasonal variations therefore contain information on the carbon cycle. We developed a model (BEPS-iso) to simulate its exchange between vegetation and the atmosphere. To be useful for regional carbon cycle studies, the model has the following characteristics: (i) it considers the turbulent mixing in the vertical profile from the soil surface to the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL); (ii) it scales individual leaf photosynthetic discrimination to the whole canopy through the separation of sunlit and shaded leaf groups; (iii) through simulating leaf-level photosynthetic processes, it has the capacity to mechanistically examine isotope discrimination resulting from meteorological forcings, such as radiation, precipitation and humidity; and (iv) through complete modeling of radiation, energy and water fluxes, it also simulates soil moisture and temperature needed for estimating ecosystem respiration and the 13C signal from the soil. After validation using flask data acquired at 20 m level on a tower near Fraserdale, Ontario, Canada, during intensive campaigns (1998-2000), the model has been used for several purposes: (i) to investigate the diurnal and seasonal variations in the disequilibrium in 13C fractionation between ecosystem respiration and photosynthesis, which is an important step in using 13C measurements to separate these carbon cycle components; (ii) to quantify the 13C rectification in the PBL, which differs significantly from CO2 rectification because of the diurnal and seasonal disequilibriums; and (iii) to model the 13C spatial and temporal variations over the global land surface for the purpose of CO2 inversion using 13C as an additional constraint.

  4. Analysis of docosahexaenoic acid biosynthesis in Crypthecodinium cohnii by 13C labelling and desaturase inhibitor experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Swaaf, Martin E; de Rijk, Theo C; van der Meer, Pieter; Eggink, Gerrit; Sijtsma, Lolke

    2003-06-12

    The lipids of the heterotrophic microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii contain the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6) to a level of over 30%. The pathway of 22:6 synthesis in C. cohnii is unknown. The ability of C. cohnii to use 13C-labelled externally supplied precursor molecules for 22:6 biosynthesis was tested by 13C NMR analysis. Furthermore, the presence of desaturases (typical for aerobic PUFA synthesis) was studied by the addition of specific desaturase inhibitors in the growth medium. The addition of 1-(13)C acetate or 1-(13)C butyrate in the growth medium resulted in 22:6 with only the odd carbon atoms enriched. Apparently, two-carbon units were used as building blocks for 22:6 synthesis and butyrate was first split into two-carbon units prior to incorporation in 22:6. When 1-(13)C oleic acid was added to the growth medium, 1-(13)C oleic acid was incorporated into the lipids of C. cohnii but was not used as a precursor for the synthesis of 22:6. Specific desaturase inhibitors (norflurazon and propyl gallate) inhibited lipid accumulation in C. cohnii. The fatty acid profile, however, was not altered. In contrast, in the arachidonic acid-producing fungus, Mortierella alpina, these inhibitors not only decreased the lipid content but also altered the fatty acid profile. Our results can be explained by the presence of three tightly regulated separate systems for the fatty acid production by C. cohnii, namely for (1). the biosynthesis of saturated fatty acids, (2). the conversion of saturated fatty acids to monounsaturated fatty acids and (3). the de novo synthesis of 22:6 with desaturases involved.

  5. Solid state 13C NMR of unlabeled phosphatidylcholine bilayers: spectral assignments and measurement of carbon-phosphorus dipolar couplings and 13C chemical shift anisotropies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, C R

    1993-01-01

    The direct measurement of 13C chemical shift anisotropies (CSA) and 31P-13C dipolar splitting in random dispersions of unlabeled L alpha-phase phosphatidylcholine (PC) has traditionally been difficult because of extreme spectral boradening due to anisotropy. In this study, mixtures of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) with three different detergents known to promote the magnetic orientation of DMPC were employed to eliminate the powder-pattern nature of signals without totally averaging out spectral anisotropy. The detergents utilized were CHAPSO, Triton X-100, and dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC). Using such mixtures, many of the individual 13C resonances from DMPC were resolved and a number of 13C-31P dipolar couplings were evident. In addition, differing line widths were observed for the components of some dipolar doublets, suggestive of dipolar/chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) relaxation interference effects. Oriented sample resonance assignments were made by varying the CHAPSO or DHPC to DMPC ratio to systematically scale overall bilayer order towards the isotropic limit. In this manner, peaks could be identified based upon extrapolation to their isotropic positions, for which assignments have previously been made (Lee, C.W.B., and R.G. Griffin. 1989. Biophys. J. 55:355-358; Forbes, J., J. Bowers, X. Shan, L. Moran, E. Oldfield, and M.A. Moscarello. 1988. J. Chem. Soc., Faraday, Trans. 1 84:3821-3849). It was observed that the plots of CSA or dipolar coupling versus overall bilayer order obtained from DHPC and CHAPSO titrations were linear. Estimates of the intrinsic dipolar couplings and chemical shift anisotropies for pure DMPC bilayers were made by extrapolating shifts and couplings from the detergent titrations to zero detergent. Both detergent titrations led to similar "intrinsic" CSAs and dipolar couplings. Results extracted from an oriented Triton-DMPC mixture also led to similar estimates for the detergent-free DMPC shifts and couplings. The

  6. Sinking deltas due to human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvitski, James P. M.; Kettner, Albert J.; Overeem, Irina; Hutton, Eric W. H.; Hannon, Mark T.; Brakenridge, G. Robert; Day, John; Vörösmarty, Charles; Saito, Yoshiki; Giosan, Liviu; Nicholls, Robert J.

    2009-10-01

    Many of the world's largest deltas are densely populated and heavily farmed. Yet many of their inhabitants are becoming increasingly vulnerable to flooding and conversions of their land to open ocean. The vulnerability is a result of sediment compaction from the removal of oil, gas and water from the delta's underlying sediments, the trapping of sediment in reservoirs upstream and floodplain engineering in combination with rising global sea level. Here we present an assessment of 33 deltas chosen to represent the world's deltas. We find that in the past decade, 85% of the deltas experienced severe flooding, resulting in the temporary submergence of 260,000 km2. We conservatively estimate that the delta surface area vulnerable to flooding could increase by 50% under the current projected values for sea-level rise in the twenty-first century. This figure could increase if the capture of sediment upstream persists and continues to prevent the growth and buffering of the deltas.

  7. Probing cardiac metabolism by hyperpolarized 13C MR using an exclusively endogenous substrate mixture and photo-induced nonpersistent radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastiaansen, Jessica A M; Yoshihara, Hikari A I; Capozzi, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    To probe the cardiac metabolism of carbohydrates and short chain fatty acids simultaneously in vivo following the injection of a hyperpolarized 13 C-labeled substrate mixture prepared using photo-induced nonpersistent radicals. Droplets of mixed [1-13 C]pyruvic and [1-13 C]butyric acids were frozen...

  8. Leaf Wax δ13C Varies with Elevation in the Peruvian Andes and Western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M. S.; Feakins, S. J.; Ponton, C.; Peters, T.; West, A. J.; Galy, V.; Bentley, L. P.; Salinas, N.; Shenkin, A.; Martin, R.; Asner, G. P.; Malhi, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Plant leaf wax carbon isotopic composition (δ13Cwax) reflects the net isotopic effects associated with diffusion into the leaf, fixation of carbon by Rubisco and biosynthesis of individual leaf wax biochemicals. As declining pCO2 with elevation affects the first two fractionations, we expect to find an isotopic gradient in δ13Cwax, if the fractionation of leaf wax biosynthesis is constant. To test this, we report δ13Cwax values from 500 samples of leaves collected by tree-climbers from the upper canopy from 9 forest-inventory plots spanning a 3.5km elevation transect in the Peruvian Andes and western Amazonia during the CHAMBASA field campaign. These samples provide a unique opportunity to study the relationship between δ13Cwax and pCO2 in diverse species across this remote tropical montane forest and lowland rainforest. The very wet climate throughout (2-5 m rainfall per year) minimizes fractionation effects due to stomatal restrictions (i.e. water use efficiency) that may be an important factor elsewhere. Preliminary results show δ13Cwax values on average increase with elevation by ~1.5‰/km, a trend consistent with bulk plant δ13C in previous studies. The mean epsilon between bulk and C29 n-alkane is -7.3±2.2‰. Inter-sample differences are large on the order of 10‰. Shaded leaves and understory leaves are found to be depleted relative to sunlit leaves, presumably due to a lower photosynthetic rate and use of respired CO2 in the understory. C29 n-alkanes are on average ~2.5‰ more depleted than C30 n-alkanoic acids, indicating fractionation during selective decarboxylation. We further compare results from plants with soil and river sediments to provide insights into how leaf wax signals are archived in soils and exported from the landscape. We find a ~1.4‰/km gradient in forest soils similar to plants. We observe a ~2‰ offset between C29 n-alkane in plant leaves and in soils across the elevation profile, which is likely a signal of degradation

  9. Minimally invasive (13)C-breath test to examine phenylalanine metabolism in children with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Abrar; Murthy, Gayathri; Ueda, Keiko; Cheng, Barbara; Giezen, Alette; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; Elango, Rajavel

    2015-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of hepatic phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) leading to increased levels of phenylalanine in the plasma. Phenylalanine levels and phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) activity monitoring are currently limited to conventional blood dot testing. 1-(13)C-phenylalanine, a stable isotope can be used to examine phenylalanine metabolism, as the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine occurs in vivo via PAH and subsequently releases the carboxyl labeled (13)C as (13)CO2 in breath. Our objective was to examine phenylalanine metabolism in children with PKU using a minimally-invasive 1-(13)C-phenylalanine breath test ((13)C-PBT). Nine children (7 M: 2 F, mean age 12.5 ± 2.87 y) with PKU participated in the study twice: once before and once after sapropterin supplementation. Children were provided 6 mg/kg oral dose of 1-(13)C-phenylalanine and breath samples were collected at 20 min intervals for a period of 2h. Rate of CO2 production was measured at 60 min post-oral dose using indirect calorimetry. The percentage of 1-(13)C-phenylalanine exhaled as (13)CO2 was measured over a 2h period. Prior to studying children with PKU, we tested the study protocol in healthy children (n = 6; 4M: 2F, mean age 10.2 ± 2.48 y) as proof of principle. Production of a peak enrichment (Cmax) of (13)CO2 (% of dose) in all healthy children occurred at 20 min ranging from 17-29% of dose, with a subsequent return to ~5% by the end of 2h. Production of (13)CO2 from 1-(13)C-phenylalanine in all children with PKU prior to sapropterin treatment remained low. Following sapropterin supplementation for a week, production of (13)CO2 significantly increased in five children with a subsequent decline in blood phenylalanine levels, suggesting improved PAH activity. Sapropterin treatment was not effective in three children whose (13)CO2 production remained unchanged, and did not show a reduction in blood phenylalanine levels and improvement

  10. Spin-state-selective methods in solution- and solid-state biomolecular 13C NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felli, Isabella C; Pierattelli, Roberta

    2015-02-01

    Spin-state-selective methods to achieve homonuclear decoupling in the direct acquisition dimension of (13)C detected NMR experiments have been one of the key contributors to converting (13)C detected NMR experiments into really useful tools for studying biomolecules. We discuss here in detail the various methods that have been proposed, summarize the large array of new experiments that have been developed and present applications to different kinds of proteins in different aggregation states. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Structure of Green River oil shale kerogen: determination using solid state /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trewhella, M.J.; Poplett, I.J.F.; Grint, A.

    1986-04-01

    A sample of kerogen isolated from a Green River oil shale has been examined using high resolution solid state /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy. The relative concentrations of carbon types have been determined using a novel peak-synthesis technique applied to the /sup 13/C spectra. This technique has been successfully applied in determining the amount and type of individual carbon atoms in a sample of Green River oil shale kerogen, with sufficient resolution to enable an average structure to be proposed. The kerogen is highly aliphatic and appears to contain substantial quantities of both saturated polycondensed ring structures, and long chain n-alkanes or n-alkyl substituents. 20 references.

  12. Analysis and theoretical modeling of 18O enriched carbon dioxide spectrum by CRDS near 1.35 μm: (II) 16O13C18O, 16O13C17O, 12C18O2, 17O12C18O, 12C17O2, 13C18O2 and 17O13C18O