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Sample records for delivery systems sedds

  1. Dissolution and powder flow characterization of solid self-emulsified drug delivery system (SEDDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vikas; Siddiqui, Akhtar; Ali, Hazem; Nazzal, Sami

    2009-01-21

    In this study, the dynamics of powder flow upon griseofulvin-self-emulsified drug delivery system (SEDDS) addition to silica and silicates and the effect of these adsorbents on drug release were investigated. SEDDS was adsorbed at SEDDS/adsorbent ratios from 0.25:1 to 3:1 on magnesium aluminum silicate [5 and 80 microm], calcium silicate [25 microm], and silicon dioxide [3.6, 20, and 300 microm]. Powder flow was evaluated using the powder rheometer and compared to angle of repose. Release of drug from a 1:1 SEDDS/adsorbent powder was determined by dissolution using USP Type 2 apparatus. Powder rheometer profiles indicated that effect of SEDDS on the flow behavior of the adsorbents could be correlated to stepwise or continuous growing behavior as observed in wet granulation process. However, due to their porous nature, adsorbents exhibited an initial lag phase during which no change in flow was observed. Dissolution of drug from adsorbed-SEDDS was found to be dependent on pore length and nucleation at the lipid/adsorbent interface. Increase in dissolution rate was observed with an increase in surface area and was independent of the chemical nature of the adsorbents. Therefore, in order to manufacture free flowing powder containing liquid SEDDS, special attention should be given to particle size, specific surface area, type and amount of adsorbent.

  2. Enhanced solubility and oral bioavailability of γ-tocotrienol using a self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Saeed; Alayoubi, Alaadin; Nazzal, Sami; Sylvester, Paul W; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo performance of γ-tocotrienol (γ-T3) incorporated in a self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) and to compare its enhanced performance to a commercially available product, namely Tocovid Suprabio™ (hereafter Tocovid), containing tocotrienols. The solubilization of γ-T3 was tested in a dynamic in vitro lipolysis model followed by in vitro cellular uptake study for the lipolysis products. In addition, in vitro uptake studies using Caco2 cells were conducted at different concentrations of γ-T3 prepared as SEDDS, Tocovid, or mixed micelles. γ-T3 incorporated in SEDDS or Tocovid was orally administered to rats at different doses and absolute oral bioavailability from both formulations were determined. The dynamic in vitro lipolysis experiment showed about two fold increase in the solubilization of γ-T3 prepared as SEDDS compared to Tocovid, which correlated with higher cellular uptake in the subsequent uptake studies. In vitro cellular uptake and in vivo oral bioavailability studies have shown a twofold increase in the cellular uptake and oral bioavailability of γ-T3 incorporated in SEDDS compared to Tocovid as a result of improvement in its solubility and passive uptake as confirmed by in vitro studies. In conclusion, incorporation of γ-T3 in SEDDS formulation enhanced γ-T3 solubilization and passive permeability, thus its cellular uptake and oral bioavailability when compared to Tocovid.

  3. Preliminary Studies on Two Vegetable Oil Based Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS) for the Delivery of Metronidazole, A Poorly Water Soluble Drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obitte, N. C.; Ezeiruaku, H.; Onyishi, V. I.

    A preliminary evaluation was carried out on metronidazole-loaded Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS) using two vegetable oils-Palm Kernel Oil (PKO) and Palm Oil (PO). Purification of oils, drug solubility in the oils, pre/post formulation isotropicity tests, emulsification times and release studies of metronidazole from the SEDDS were carried out. Results indicated solubility values of 4.441 and 4.654%w/w, respectively for metronidazole in PKO and PO. Preformulation isotropicity test revealed that out of the 24 batches evaluated 10 of the SEDDS formulations containing different oil: surfactant ratios and PKO:PO admixtures were found to be isotropic after 5 h. However when the SEDDS were loaded with metronidazole there was a reduction in the number (to 7) of formulations that maintained isotropicity and stability after 72 h. All the batches had emulsification times of less than two minutes except batch 4D with oil:surfactant concentration of 50:50. The release profile showed that most of the formulations released 50% of drug in less than 8 min and 85% of drug in less than 30 min. We therefore conclude that SEDDS containing the two vegetable oils are potential alternatives when immediate release and delivery of metronidazole is the primary motivation.

  4. Enhancement of oral bioavailability of atorvastatin calcium by self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadu, Pawan J; Kushare, Sachin S; Thacker, Dhaval D; Gattani, Surendra G

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to formulate a self-emulsifying drug delivery system of atorvastatin calcium and its characterization including in vitro and in vivo potential. The solubility of atorvastatin calcium was determined in various vehicles such as Captex 355, Captex 355 EP/NF, Ethyl oleate, Capmul MCM, Capmul PG-8, Gelucire 44/14, Tween 80, Tween 20, and PEG 400. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were plotted on the basis of solubility data of drug in various components to evaluate the microemulsification region. Formulation development and screening was carried out based on results obtained from phase diagrams and characteristics of resultant microemulsion. Prepared formulations were tested for microemulsifying properties and evaluated for clarity, precipitation, viscosity determination, drug content and in vitro dissolution. The optimized formulation further evaluated for particle size distribution, zeta potential, stability studies and in vivo potential. In vivo performance of the optimized formulation was evaluated using a Triton-induced hypercholesterolemia model in male Albino Wistar rats. The formulation significantly reduced serum lipid levels as compared with atorvastatin calcium. Thus studies illustrated the potential use for the delivery of hydrophobic drug such as atorvastatin calcium by oral route.

  5. Comparison between lipolysis and compendial dissolution as alternative techniques for the in vitro characterization of alpha-tocopherol self-emulsified drug delivery systems (SEDDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hazem; Nazzal, Mahmoud; Zaghloul, Abdel-Azim A; Nazzal, Sami

    2008-03-20

    In vitro characterization of alpha-tocopherol SEDDS formulations was performed by (1) lipolysis in bio-relevant media, and (2) physical assessment by dissolution, particle size, and turbidity analyses. Both methods were statistically correlated using a 25-run, five-factor multiple-level d-optimal mixture design. Independent variables were SEDDS composition [vitamin E (12.5-25%), Tween 80 (10-40%), labrasol (0-10%), alcohol (0-10%), and captex 355 (20-50%)]. Measured responses were percent lipolysis, percent vitamin E retained in the aqueous layer of the digestion medium, and percent vitamin E dissolved in the dissolution medium. Percent lipolysis ranged from 0% to 66.3%. Percent vitamin E retrieved in the aqueous layer of the digestion and dissolution media ranged from 3% to 29.3% and from 25.9% to 101.7%, respectively. Turbidity ranged from 28 to 403JTU and the average droplet size was >1.0 microm. All formulation ingredients had significant (p<0.05) effect on percent lipolysis. Only two factors, Tween and vitamin E had significant effect on vitamin retention in the aqueous layer post-lipolysis. Tween, labrasol, and captex 355 had significant effect on vitamin E dissolution. Poor correlation was observed between the responses. Formulation ingredients influenced each response differently; and therefore, each method can only reveal distinctive characteristics of the SEDDS formulation and may not be used interchangeably.

  6. Improving the high variable bioavailability of griseofulvin by SEDDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arida, Adi Issam; Al-Tabakha, Moawia Mohammed; Hamoury, Hantash Abdel Jalil

    2007-12-01

    To enhance the dissolution and oral absorption of poorly water-soluble griseofulvin (GF), self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) composed of oil, surfactant and cosurfactant for oral administration of griseofulvin was formulated, and its physicochemical properties and pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated. The solubility of griseofulvin was further improved by the addition of hydrochloric acid. Droplet size of griseofulvin emulsion was kept constant both in simulated gastric fluid without pepsin and simulated intestinal fluid throughout 12 weeks incubation period. Griseofulvin in the SEDDS rapidly dissolved in different dissolution media. This was not the case for the commercial GRIS-PEG tablets. In different fed diet groups, AUC 0-->24 h, Cp max, and T max of griseofulvin after oral administration of SEDDS in rats were comparable to those after oral dose of GRIS-PEG tablet. Although, in fed lipidic diet group, the mean AUC and Cp max after oral administration of GRIS-PEG in rats were 1.28 and 1.15 fold higher, respectively, compared with those of SEDDS, these have not shown to be significantly different. These results demonstrate that the SEDDS of griseofulvin composed of Capmul GMO-50, Poloxamer and Myvacet 9-45 greatly enhanced the dissolution of griseofulvin (without ultramicronisation). However, food intake effect on the bioavailability of griseofulvin has remained. Thus, this system may provide a useful dosage form for oral water-insoluble drugs which have problems in their dissolution.

  7. Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems: Design of a novel vaginal delivery system for curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köllner, S; Nardin, I; Markt, R; Griesser, J; Prüfert, F; Bernkop-Schnürch, A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a vaginal self-emulsifying delivery system for curcumin being capable of spreading, of permeating the mucus gel layer and of protecting the drug being incorporated in oily nanodroplets towards mucus interactions and immobilization. The emulsifying properties of curcumin loaded SEDDS containing 30% Cremophor RH40, 20% Capmul PG-8, 30% Captex 300, 10% DMSO and 10% tetraglycol (SEDD formulation A) as well as 25% PEG 200, 35% Cremophor RH40, 20% Captex 355, 10% Caprylic acid and 10% Tween 80 (SEDD formulation B) after diluting 1+2 with artificial vaginal fluid were characterized regarding droplet size and zeta potential. Collagen swelling test was used to examine the irritation potential of SEDDS. Additionally to mucus binding studies, permeation studies in the mucus were performed. Furthermore, spreading potential of the novel developed formulations was compared with a commercial available o/w cream (non-ionic hydrophilic cream) on vaginal mucosa. SEDDS displayed a mean droplet size between 38 and 141nm and a zeta potential of -0.3 to -1.6mV. The collagen swelling test indicated no significant irritation potential of both formulations over 24h. An immediate interaction of unformulated curcumin with the mucus was determined, whereas both SEDDS facilitated drug permeation through the mucus layer. Formulation B showed a 2.2-fold improved transport ratio of curcumin compared to SEDD formulation A. In comparison to the vaginal cream, SEDD formulation A and B were able to spread over the vaginal mucosa and cover the tissue to a 17.8- and 14.8-fold higher extent, respectively. According to these results, SEDDS seems to be a promising tool for vaginal application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Monoacyl phosphatidylcholine inhibits the formation of lipid multilamellar structures during in vitro lipolysis of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Thuy; Siqueira, Scheyla D V S; Amenitsch, Heinz

    2017-01-01

    The colloidal structures formed during lipolysis of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) might affect the solubilisation and possibly the absorption of drugs. The aim of the current study is to elucidate the structures formed during the in vitro lipolysis of four SEDDS containing medium...... lipolysis process, SEDDS both with and without MAPC generated uni-, bi-, and oligo-lamellar vesicles. The lipolysis kinetics in the first minutes of the four SEDDS correlated with an increased intensity of the SAXS curves and the rapid transformation from lipid droplets to vesicles observed by cryo...

  9. Preparation and Evaluation of Solid-Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System Containing Paclitaxel for Lymphatic Delivery

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    Hea-Young Cho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid-self-emulsifying drug delivery system (S-SEDDS of paclitaxel (Ptx was developed by the spray drying method with the purpose of improving the low bioavailability (BA of Ptx. 10% oil (ethyl oleate, 80% surfactant mixture (Tween 80 : Carbitol, 90 : 10, w/w, and 10% cosolvent (PEG 400 were chosen according to their solubilizing capacity. The mean droplet size, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency of the prepared S-SEDDS were 16.9 ± 1.53 nm, 12.5 ± 1.66 mV, and 56.2 ± 8.1%, respectively. In the S-SEDDS, Ptx presents in the form of molecular dispersion in the emulsions or is distributed in an amorphous state or crystalline with very small size. The prepared S-SEDDS formulation showed 70 and 75% dissolution in 60 and 30 min in dissolution medium pH 1.2 and 6.8, respectively. Significant increase (P≤0.05 in the peak concentration (Cmax, the area under the curve (AUC0–∞, and the lymphatic targeting efficiency of Ptx was observed after the oral administration of the Ptx-loaded S-SEDDS to rats (20 mg/kg as Ptx. Our research suggests the prepared Ptx-loaded S-SEDDS can be a good candidate for the enhancement of BA and targeting drug delivery to the lymphatic system of Ptx.

  10. Formulation optimization of Docetaxel loaded self-emulsifying drug delivery system to enhance bioavailability and anti-tumor activity.

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    Valicherla, Guru R; Dave, Kandarp M; Syed, Anees A; Riyazuddin, Mohammed; Gupta, Anand P; Singh, Akhilesh; Wahajuddin; Mitra, Kalyan; Datta, Dipak; Gayen, Jiaur R

    2016-05-31

    Poor bioavailability of Docetaxel (DCT) arising due to its low aqueous solubility and permeability limits its clinical utility. The aim of the present study was to develop DCT loaded self-emulsified drug delivery systems (D-SEDDS) and evaluate its potential ability to improve the oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of DCT. D-SEDDS were characterized for their in vitro antitumor activity, in situ single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP), bioavailability, chylomicron flow blocking study and bio-distribution profile. The D-SEDDS were prepared using Capryol 90, Vitamin E TPGS, Gelucire 44/14 and Transcutol HP with a ratio of 32.7/29.4/8.3/29.6 using D-Optimal Mixture Design. The solubility of DCT was improved upto 50 mg/mL. The oral bioavailability of the D-SEDDS in rats (21.84 ± 3.12%) was increased by 3.19 fold than orally administered Taxotere (6.85 ± 1.82%). The enhanced bioavailability was probably due to increase in solubility and permeability. In SPIP, effective permeability of D-SEDDS was significantly higher than Taxotere. D-SEDDS showed 25 fold more in vitro cytotoxic activity compared to free DCT. Chylomicron flow blocking study and tissue distribution demonstrated the intestinal lymphatic transport of D-SEDDS and higher retention in tumor than Taxotere. The data suggests that D-SEDDS showed desired stability, enhanced oral bioavailability and in vitro antitumor efficacy.

  11. Formulation, optimization, and evaluation of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems of nevirapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintalapudi, Ramprasad; Murthy, T E G K; Lakshmi, K Rajya; Manohar, G Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to formulate and optimize the self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) of nevirapine (NVP) by use of 2(2) factorial designs to enhance the oral absorption of NVP by improving its solubility, dissolution rate, and diffusion profile. SEDDS are the isotropic mixtures of oil, surfactant, co-surfactant and drug that form oil in water microemulsion when introduced into the aqueous phase under gentle agitation. Solubility of NVP in different oils, surfactants, and co-surfactants was determined for the screening of excipients. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed by the aqueous titration method, and formulations were developed based on the optimum excipient combinations with the help of data obtained through the maximum micro emulsion region containing combinations of oil, surfactant, and co-surfactant. The formulations of SEDDS were optimized by 2(2) factorial designs. The optimum formulation of SEDDS contains 32.5% oleic acid, 44.16% tween 20, and 11.9% polyethylene glycol 600 as oil, surfactant, and co-surfactant respectively. The SEDDS was evaluated for the following drug content, self-emulsification time, rheological properties, zeta potential, in vitro diffusion studies, thermodynamic stability studies, and in vitro dissolution studies. An increase in dissolution was achieved by SEDDS compared to pure form of NVP. Overall, this study suggests that the dissolution and oral bioavailability of NVP could be improved by SEDDS technology.

  12. Development and Evaluation of Liquid and Solid Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems for Atorvastatin

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    Anna Czajkowska-Kośnik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to design and characterize liquid and solid self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS for poorly soluble atorvastatin. To optimize the composition of liquid atorvastatin-SEDDS, solubility tests, pseudoternary phase diagrams, emulsification studies and other in vitro examinations (thermodynamic stability, droplet size and zeta potential analysis were performed. Due to the disadvantages of liquid SEDDS (few choices for dosage forms, low stability and portability during the manufacturing process, attempts were also made to obtain solid SEDDS. Solid SEDDS were successfully obtained using the spray drying technique from two optimized liquid formulations, CF3 and OF2. Despite liquid SEDDS formulation, CF3 was characterized by lower turbidity, higher percentage transmittance and better self-emulsifying properties, and based on the in vitro dissolution study it can be concluded that better solubilization properties were exhibited by solid formulation OF2. Overall, the studies demonstrated the possibility of formulating liquid and solid SEEDS as promising carriers of atorvastatin. SEDDS, with their unique solubilization properties, provide the opportunity to deliver lipophilic drugs to the gastrointestinal tract in a solubilized state, avoiding dissolution—a restricting factor in absorption rate of BCS Class 2 drugs, including atorvastatin.

  13. Self-emulsifying drug delivery system developed by the HLB-RSM approach: Characterization by transmission electron microscopy and pharmacokinetic study.

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    Bahloul, Badr; Lassoued, Mohamed Ali; Seguin, Johanne; Lai-Kuen, René; Dhotel, Hélène; Sfar, Souad; Mignet, Nathalie

    2015-06-20

    Recently, we developed a new approach to rationalize an optimized design for self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) by introducing the HLB and the response surface as determinant factors in SEDDS development. The aim of this current paper is to assess the suitability of this HLB-RSM approach to enhance the oral bioavailability of BCS class II compounds using fenofibrate as drug model. Eight SEDDS formulations (I→VIII) were pre-selected regarding their self-emulsification capacity and their effect on increasing in vitro drug release. They were firstly evaluated for their thermodynamic stability and zeta potential. Unstable SEDDS were discarded meanwhile the structural morphology of the stable ones (I, VI and VIII) was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A pharmacokinetic study was then undertaken on male BALB/cJRj mices. The in vivo results showed a significant increase of fenofibrate absorption for all the three stable SEDDS formulations compared to the commercialized form, (LIPANTHYL micronized(®) (p<0.05)). The highest enhancement was recorded for SEDDS I, where AUC and Cmax values respectively increased by 2 and 4.4 folds. This justifies the fact that HLB-RSM approach could be considered as a promising method for the development of efficient and highly stable SEDDS aiming to increase the poor bioavailability of BCS class II molecules. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Novel solid self-emulsifying drug delivery system of coenzyme Q₁₀ with improved photochemical and pharmacokinetic behaviors.

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    Onoue, Satomi; Uchida, Atushi; Kuriyama, Kazuki; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Seto, Yoshiki; Kato, Masashi; Hatanaka, Junya; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Shizuo

    2012-08-15

    The present study was undertaken to develop a solid self-emulsifying drug delivery system of coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)/s-SEDDS) with high photostability and oral bioavailability. The CoQ(10)/s-SEDDS was prepared by spray-drying an emulsion preconcentrate containing CoQ(10), medium-chain triglyceride, sucrose ester of fatty acid, and hydroxypropyl cellulose, and its physicochemical, photochemical, and pharmacokinetic properties were evaluated. The CoQ(10)/s-SEDDS powder with a diameter of ca. 15 μm was obtained by spray-drying, in which the CoQ(10) was mostly amorphized. The CoQ(10)/s-SEDDS exhibited immediate self-emulsification when introduced to aqueous media under gentle agitation, forming uniform fine droplets with a mean diameter of ca. 280 nm. There was marked generation of reactive oxygen species, in particular superoxide, from CoQ(10) exposed to simulated sunlight (250W/m(2)), suggesting potent photoreactivity. Nano-emulsified solution of CoQ(10) under light exposure underwent photodegradation with 22-fold higher degradation kinetics than crystalline CoQ(10), although the CoQ(10)/s-SEDDS was less photoreactive. After the oral administration of CoQ(10)/s-SEDDS (100 mg-CoQ(10)/kg) in rats, enhanced exposure of CoQ(10) was observed with increases in both C(max) and AUC of ca. 5-fold in comparison with those of orally administered crystalline CoQ(10). From the improved physicochemical and pharmacokinetic data, the s-SEDDS approach upon spray-drying might be a suitable dosage option for enhancing nutraceutical and pharmaceutical values of CoQ(10). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Recent patents survey on self emulsifying drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethara, Sahilhusen I; Patel, Alpesh D; Patel, Mukesh R

    2014-01-01

    Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System is a unique feasible approach to overcome low oral bioavailability problem which is associated with the hydrophobic drugs due to their unparalleled potential as a drug delivery with the broad range of application. The estimated 40% of active pharmaceuticals are poorly water soluble. Now recently, formulation containing oral SEDDS has received much interest as it solve problems related to oral bioavailability, intra and inter-subject variability and lack of dose proportionality of hydrophobic drugs. Now a days, it is the first way to investigate the development of any kind of innovative dosage forms. Many important in-vitro characteristics such as surfactant concentration, oil/surfactant ratio, emulsion polarity, droplet size and zeta potential play an important role in oral absorption of drug from SEEDS. It can be orally administered in the form of SGC or HGC and also enhances bioavailability of drugs to increase solubility and minimizes the gastric irritation. After administration the drug remains entrapped in the oily droplets (inside the droplet or in the surfactant`s film at the interface) of the emulsion that are formed in the GIT upon self-emulsification process. It is also a bit problematic to say that the drug is being released from SMEDDS, it would be more precise to say that it diffuses out of oily droplets into the GIT media resulting in the formation of an equilibrium between the drug dissolved in oily droplets and the outer dispersed media (e.g. GIT fluids). Many of the application and preparation methods of SEDDS are reported by research articles and patents in different countries. We present an exhaustive and updated account of numerous literature reports and more than 150 patents published on SEDDS in the recent period. This current patent review is useful in knowledge of SEDDS for its preparations and patents in different countries with emphasis on their formulation, characterization and systematic optimization

  16. Dissolution improvement of solid self-emulsifying drug delivery systems of fenofi brate using an inorganic high surface adsorption material

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    Shazly Gamal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Solidification of lipid formulations using adsorbents is a recent technique attracting great interest due to its favourable properties including flexibility in dose division, reduction of intra-subject and inter-subject variability, improvement in efficacy/safety profile and enhancement of physical/ chemical stability. The current study aims to convert liquid self-emulsifying/nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS/SNEDDS into solid SEDDS/SNEDDS and to assess how adsorption of the drug onto an inorganic high surface area material, NeusilinR grade US2 (NUS2, affects its in vitro dissolution performance. Lipid formulation classification systems (LFCS Type III formulations were designed for the model anti-cholesterol drug fenofibrate. NUS2 was used to solidify the SEDDS/SNEDDS. Particle size and SEM analyses of solid SEDDS/SNEDDS powder were carried out to investigate the adsorption efficiency. In vitro dissolution studies were conducted to compare the developed formulations with the marketed product. The results of characterization studies showed that the use of 50 % (m/m adsorbent resulted in superior flowability and kept the drug stable is amorphous state. Dissolution studies allow the conclusion that the formulation containing a surfactant of higher water solubility (particularly, Type IIIB SNEDDS has comparably faster and higher release profiles than Type IIIA (SEDDS and marketed product

  17. Ravuconazole self-emulsifying delivery system: in vitro activity against Trypanosoma cruzi amastigotes and in vivo toxicity

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    Spósito PA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pollyanna Álvaro Spósito,1 Ana Lia Mazzeti,1,2 Caroline de Oliveira Faria,1 Julio A Urbina,3 Gwenaelle Pound-Lana,1 Maria Terezinha Bahia,2 Vanessa Furtado Mosqueira1 1Laboratory of Pharmaceutics and Nanotechnology Research, Pharmacy Department, School of Pharmacy, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil; 2Parasite Diseases Research Laboratory, NUPEB, Medical School, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil; 3Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research, Apartado, Caracas, Venezuela Abstract: Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDSs are lipid-based anhydrous formulations composed of an isotropic mixture of oil, surfactant, and cosurfactants usually presented in gelatin capsules. Ravuconazole (Biopharmaceutics Classification System [BCS] Class II is a poorly water-soluble drug, and a SEDDS type IIIA was designed to deliver it in a predissolved state, improving dissolution in gastrointestinal fluids. After emulsification, the droplets had mean hydrodynamic diameters <250 nm, zeta potential values in the range of −45 mV to −57 mV, and showed no signs of ravuconazole precipitation. Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation with dynamic and multiangle laser light scattering was used to characterize these formulations in terms of size distribution and homogeneity. The fractograms obtained at 37°C showed a polydisperse profile for all blank and ravuconazole–SEDDS formulations but no large aggregates. SEDDS increased ravuconazole in vitro dissolution extent and rate (20% compared to free drug (3% in 6 h. The in vivo toxicity of blank SEDDS comprising Labrasol® surfactant in different concentrations and preliminary safety tests in repeated-dose oral administration (20 days showed a dose-dependent Labrasol toxicity in healthy mice. Ravuconazole–SEDDS at low surfactant content (10%, v/v in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected mice was safe during the 20-day treatment. The anti-T. cruzi activity of free ravuconazole

  18. Ravuconazole self-emulsifying delivery system: in vitro activity againstTrypanosoma cruziamastigotes and in vivo toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spósito, Pollyanna Álvaro; Mazzeti, Ana Lia; de Oliveira Faria, Caroline; Urbina, Julio A; Pound-Lana, Gwenaelle; Bahia, Maria Terezinha; Mosqueira, Vanessa Furtado

    2017-01-01

    Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDSs) are lipid-based anhydrous formulations composed of an isotropic mixture of oil, surfactant, and cosurfactants usually presented in gelatin capsules. Ravuconazole (Biopharmaceutics Classification System [BCS] Class II) is a poorly water-soluble drug, and a SEDDS type IIIA was designed to deliver it in a predissolved state, improving dissolution in gastrointestinal fluids. After emulsification, the droplets had mean hydrodynamic diameters Trypanosoma cruzi -infected mice was safe during the 20-day treatment. The anti- T. cruzi activity of free ravuconazole, ravuconazole-SEDDS and each excipient were evaluated in vitro at equivalent ravuconazole concentrations needed to inhibit 50% or 90% (IC 50 and IC 90 ), respectively of the intracellular amastigote form of the parasite in a cardiomyocyte cell line. The results showed a clear improvement of the ravuconazole anti- T. cruzi activity when associated with SEDDS. Based on our results, the repurposing of ravuconazole in SEDDS dosage form is a strategy that deserves further in vivo investigation in preclinical studies for the treatment of human T. cruzi infections.

  19. Mixed solvency concept in reducing surfactant concentration of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems of candesartan cilexetil using D-optimal mixture design

    OpenAIRE

    Chandna Chandan; R K Maheshwari

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this present study was to explore the utility of "mixed solvency" concept to enhance the solubility of poorly-water soluble drug, candesartan cilexetil (CC) in modified solubilizer system. The objective of this paper is to reduce the surfactant concentration traditionally involved in the formulation of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) by proposing an alternate system of solubilizer to provide novel surfactant/cosurfactant system, to aid traditionally involved co...

  20. Geographic information system-coupling sediment delivery distributed modeling based on observed data.

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    Lee, S E; Kang, S H

    2014-01-01

    Spatially distributed sediment delivery (SEDD) models are of great interest in estimating the expected effect of changes on soil erosion and sediment yield. However, they can only be applied if the model can be calibrated using observed data. This paper presents a geographic information system (GIS)-based method to calculate the sediment discharge from basins to coastal areas. For this, an SEDD model, with a sediment rating curve method based on observed data, is proposed and validated. The model proposed here has been developed using the combined application of the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) and a spatially distributed sediment delivery ratio, within Model Builder of ArcGIS's software. The model focuses on spatial variability and is useful for estimating the spatial patterns of soil loss and sediment discharge. The model consists of two modules, a soil erosion prediction component and a sediment delivery model. The integrated approach allows for relatively practical and cost-effective estimation of spatially distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery, for gauged or ungauged basins. This paper provides the first attempt at estimating sediment delivery ratio based on observed data in the monsoon region of Korea.

  1. In vitro and in vivo evaluations of the performance of an indirubin derivative, formulated in four different self-emulsifying drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heshmati, Nasim; Cheng, Xinlai; Dapat, Else

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Anticancer indirubins are poorly soluble in water. Here, digestion of four self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) containing E804 (indirubin-3'-oxime 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ether) was compared by dynamic lipolysis and bioavailability studies. Used lipids were either medium......-chain or long-chain glycerides. METHODS: SEDDS E804 were developed. In-vitro lipolysis was carried out at pH 6.5 (37°C) by adding pancreatic lipase (800 U/ml) and controlling by CaCl2 and NaOH addition. E804 content was quantified in the aqueous micellar phase and precipitate using HPLC. Oral bioavailability...... was determined in rats. Plasma drug content was determined by liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry. KEY FINDINGS: All formulations reserved E804 in the aqueous micellar phase up to 60 min. Precipitation proceeded towards the end of lipolysis up to 45%. Lowest level of precipitation (21%) occurred...

  2. HCUP State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD) - Restricted Access File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD) contain the universe of emergency department visits in participating States. Restricted access data files are...

  3. UAV Delivery Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Khin Thida

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available UAV-based delivery systems are increasingly being used in the logistics field, particularly to achieve faster last-mile delivery. This study develops a UAV delivery system that manages delivery order assignments, autonomous flight operation, real time control for UAV flights, and delivery status tracking. To manage the delivery item assignments, we apply the concurrent scheduler approach with a genetic algorithm. The present paper describes real time flight data based on a micro air vehicle communication protocol (MAVLink. It also presents the detailed hardware components used for the field tests. Finally, we provide UAV component analysis to choose the suitable components for delivery in terms of battery capacity, flight time, payload weight and motor thrust ratio.

  4. Project delivery system (PDS)

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    As business environments become increasingly competitive, companies seek more comprehensive solutions to the delivery of their projects. "Project Delivery System: Fourth Edition" describes the process-driven project delivery systems which incorporates the best practices from Total Quality and is aligned with the Project Management Institute and ISO Quality Standards is the means by which projects are consistently and efficiently planned, executed and completed to the satisfaction of clients and customers.

  5. Health care delivery systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, F.; Zee, J. van der

    2007-01-01

    A health care delivery system is the organized response of a society to the health problems of its inhabitants. Societies choose from alternative health care delivery models and, in doing so, they organize and set goals and priorities in such a way that the actions of different actors are effective,

  6. Exploring the performance of the SEDD model to predict sediment yield in eucalyptus plantations. Long-term results from an experimental catchment in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, P.; Cogliandro, V.; Callegari, G.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, long-term sediment yield data, collected in a small (1.38 ha) Calabrian catchment (W2), reafforested with eucalyptus trees (Eucalyptus occidentalis Engl.) are used to validate the performance of the SEdiment Delivery Distributed Model (SEDD) in areas with high erosion rates. At first step, the SEDD model was calibrated using field data collected in previous field campaigns undertaken during the period 1978-1994. This first phase allowed the model calibration parameter β to be calculated using direct measurements of rainfall, runoff, and sediment output. The model was then validated in its calibrated form for an independent period (2006-2016) for which new measurements of rainfall, runoff and sediment output are also available. The analysis, carried out at event and annual scale showed good agreement between measured and predicted values of sediment yield and suggested that the SEDD model can be seen as an appropriate means of evaluating erosion risk associated with manmade plantations in marginal areas. Further work is however required to test the performance of the SEDD model as a prediction tool in different geomorphic contexts.

  7. Cement composite delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convery, F R; Devine, S D; Hollis, J M; Woo, S L

    1986-09-01

    Several new and innovative techniques have recently been introduced that purport to increase the strength of polymethyl methacrylate bone cement. One of these concepts is the use of carbon and polymer fibers to form a cement composite. Bone cement composites usually 1% fiber, are very difficult to use clinically. The composite is very sticky and viscous, which precludes effective hand packing or the use of conventional delivery systems. A new delivery system for very viscous materials is presented and examples of in vitro application are shown.

  8. Supersaturating drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Riikka; Löbmann, Korbinian; Grohganz, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) are probably the most common and important supersaturating drug delivery systems for the formulation of poorly water-soluble compounds. These delivery systems are able to achieve and maintain a sustained drug supersaturation which enables improvement...... of the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs by increasing the driving force for drug absorption. However, ASDs often require a high weight percentage of carrier (usually a hydrophilic polymer) to ensure molecular mixing of the drug in the carrier and stabilization of the supersaturated state, often leading...... strategy for poorly-soluble drugs. While the current research on co-amorphous formulations is focused on preparation and characterization of these systems, more detailed research on their supersaturation and precipitation behavior and the effect of co-formers on nucleation and crystal growth inhibition...

  9. Exploring calibration strategies of the SEDD model in two olive orchard catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguet, María; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gómez, José Alfonso

    2017-08-01

    To optimize soil conservation strategies in catchments, it is required an accurate diagnosis of the areas contributing to soil erosion by using models such as SEDD (Sediment Delivery Distributed model). In this study, different calibration strategies of the SEDD model were explored to adapt its use in two olive catchments with different environmental features and managements. A data series of rainfall-runoff-sediment load, collected in the catchments for 6 years was used: i) to evaluate calibration strategies for different management and flow conditions through the analysis of the C and R factors, and ii) to describe the temporal patterns of sediment delivery ratio (SDR) at the event and annual scales. Different results and calibration approaches were derived from contrasting soil features and sediment dynamics in the catchments. A good model performance with simple calibration procedure was obtained for the catchment with clayey soil and a very active gully, whereas the model parameterisation was adapted to event features in the catchment with sandy soil where the importance of concentrated flow was minor. Mean annual values of SDR at the watershed scale (SDRw) were 110.1% for the catchment with clayey soil and 64.1% for that with sandy soils. SDRw values greater than 100% occurred in very humid years with precipitations 30% above the mean annual values. At the event scale, similar behaviours of SDR were observed. SDR > 100% were associated with the gully exporting sediments out from the clayey catchment, whereas this was done by rills and an ephemeral gully in the sandy catchment.

  10. Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahamatullah Shaikh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesion is commonly defined as the adhesion between two materials, at least one of which is a mucosal surface. Over the past few decades, mucosal drug delivery has received a great deal of attention. Mucoadhesive dosage forms may be designed to enable prolonged retention at the site of application, providing a controlled rate of drug release for improved therapeutic outcome. Application of dosage forms to mucosal surfaces may be of benefit to drug molecules not amenable to the oral route, such as those that undergo acid degradation or extensive first-pass metabolism. The mucoadhesive ability of a dosage form is dependent upon a variety of factors, including the nature of the mucosal tissue and the physicochemical properties of the polymeric formulation. This review article aims to provide an overview of the various aspects of mucoadhesion, mucoadhesive materials, factors affecting mucoadhesion, evaluating methods, and finally various mucoadhesive drug delivery systems (buccal, nasal, ocular, gastro, vaginal, and rectal.

  11. Secondary fuel delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David M.; Cai, Weidong; Garan, Daniel W.; Harris, Arthur J.

    2010-02-23

    A secondary fuel delivery system for delivering a secondary stream of fuel and/or diluent to a secondary combustion zone located in the transition piece of a combustion engine, downstream of the engine primary combustion region is disclosed. The system includes a manifold formed integral to, and surrounding a portion of, the transition piece, a manifold inlet port, and a collection of injection nozzles. A flowsleeve augments fuel/diluent flow velocity and improves the system cooling effectiveness. Passive cooling elements, including effusion cooling holes located within the transition boundary and thermal-stress-dissipating gaps that resist thermal stress accumulation, provide supplemental heat dissipation in key areas. The system delivers a secondary fuel/diluent mixture to a secondary combustion zone located along the length of the transition piece, while reducing the impact of elevated vibration levels found within the transition piece and avoiding the heat dissipation difficulties often associated with traditional vibration reduction methods.

  12. Characterization of semi-solid Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SEDDS) of atorvastatin calcium by Raman image spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkreitz, Márcia C; Sabin, Guilherme P; Polla, Griselda; Poppi, Ronei J

    2013-01-25

    A methodology based on Raman image spectroscopy and chemometrics for homogeneity evaluation of formulations containing atorvastatin calcium in Gelucire(®) 44/14 is presented. In the first part of the work, formulations with high amounts of Gelucire(®) 44/14 (80%) and solvents of different polarities (diethylene glycol monoethyl ether, propyleneglycol, propylene glycol monocaprylate and glyceryl mono/dicaprylate/caprate) were prepared for miscibility screening evaluation by classical least squares (CLS). It was observed that Gelucire(®) 44/14 presented higher affinity for the lipophilic solvents glyceryl mono/dicaprylate/caprate and propylene glycol monocaprylate, whose samples were observed to be homogeneous, and lower affinity for the hydrophilic solvents diethylene glycol monoethyl ether and propyleneglycol, whose samples were heterogeneous. In the second part of the work, the ratio of glyceryl mono/dicaprylate/caprate and Gelucire(®) 44/14 was determined based on studies in water and allowed the selection of the proportions of these two excipients in the preconcentrate that provided supersaturation of atorvastatin upon dilution. The preconcentrate was then evaluated for homogeneity by partial least squares (PLS) and an excellent miscibility was observed in this proportion as well. Therefore, it was possible to select a formulation that presented simultaneously homogeneous preconcentrate and solubility enhancement in water by Raman image spectroscopy and chemometrics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walley, Susan C; Jenssen, Brian P

    2015-11-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are rapidly growing in popularity among youth. ENDS are handheld devices that produce an aerosolized mixture from a solution typically containing concentrated nicotine, flavoring chemicals, and propylene glycol to be inhaled by the user. ENDS are marketed under a variety of names, most commonly electronic cigarettes and e-cigarettes. In 2014, more youth reported using ENDS than any other tobacco product. ENDS pose health risks to both users and nonusers. Nicotine, the major psychoactive ingredient in ENDS solutions, is both highly addictive and toxic. In addition to nicotine, other toxicants, carcinogens, and metal particles have been detected in solutions and aerosols of ENDS. Nonusers are involuntarily exposed to the emissions of these devices with secondhand and thirdhand aerosol. The concentrated and often flavored nicotine in ENDS solutions poses a poisoning risk for young children. Reports of acute nicotine toxicity from US poison control centers have been increasing, with at least 1 child death reported from unintentional exposure to a nicotine-containing ENDS solution. With flavors, design, and marketing that appeal to youth, ENDS threaten to renormalize and glamorize nicotine and tobacco product use. There is a critical need for ENDS regulation, legislative action, and counter promotion to protect youth. ENDS have the potential to addict a new generation of youth to nicotine and reverse more than 50 years of progress in tobacco control. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Exploring calibration strategies of SEDD model in two olive orchard watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguet Marimón, Maria; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gómez, José A.

    2016-04-01

    To optimize soil conservation strategies in catchments, an accurate diagnosis of areas contributing to soil erosion using models such as SEDD (Ferro and Minacapilly, 1995) is required. In this study, different calibration strategies of the SEDD model were explored in two commercial olive microcatchments in Spain, Setenil (6.7 ha) and Conchuela (8 ha) monitored for 6 years. The main objectives were to calibrate the model to the study watersheds with different environmental characteristics, soil management ways, and runoff conditions, and to evaluate the temporal variability of the sediment delivery ratio (SDR) at the event and annual scales. The calibration used five different erosivity scenarios with different weights of precipitation components and concentrated flow. To optimize the calibration, biweekly and annual C-RUSLE values and the weight of the travel times of the different watershed morphological units were evaluated. The SEDD model was calibrated successfully in the Conchuela watershed, whereas poor adjustments were found for the Setenil watershed. In Conchuela, the best calibration scenarios were associated with concentrated flow, while the erosivity of Setenil was only rain-dependent. Biweekly C-RUSLE values provided suitable, consistent results in Conchuela where soil moisture over the year. In contrast, there were no appreciable improvements between annual and biweekly C-RUSLE values in Setenil, probably due to the narrower variation interval. The analysis of the SDR function justified the grouping of the different β values according to their sign (positive or negative) as a calibration strategy in Setenil. The medians of these groups of events allowed them to be adjusted (E = 0.7; RMSE = 6.4). In the Conchuela watershed, this variation in the model calibration produced only minor improvements to an adjustment which was already good. The sediment delivery ratios (SDR) in both watersheds indicate very dynamic sediment transport. The mean annual SDR

  15. Synthetic sustained gene delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ankit; Mallapragada, Surya K

    2008-01-01

    Gene therapy today is hampered by the need of a safe and efficient gene delivery system that can provide a sustained therapeutic effect without cytotoxicity or unwanted immune responses. Bolus gene delivery in solution results in the loss of delivered factors via lymphatic system and may cause undesired effects by the escape of bioactive molecules to distant sites. Controlled gene delivery systems, acting as localized depot of genes, provide an extended sustained release of genes, giving prolonged maintenance of the therapeutic level of encoded proteins. They also limit the DNA degradation in the nuclease rich extra-cellular environment. While attempts have been made to adapt existing controlled drug delivery technologies, more novel approaches are being investigated for controlled gene delivery. DNA encapsulated in nano/micro spheres of polymers have been administered systemically/orally to be taken up by the targeted tissues and provide sustained release once internalized. Alternatively, DNA entrapped in hydrogels or scaffolds have been injected/implanted in tissues/cavities as platforms for gene delivery. The present review examines these different modalities for sustained delivery of viral and non-viral gene-delivery vectors. Design parameters and release mechanisms of different systems made with synthetic or natural polymers are presented along with their prospective applications and opportunities for continuous development.

  16. Delivery systems for antimicrobial peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Randi; Malmsten, Martin

    2017-01-01

    on the identification such peptides, as well as on their optimization to reach potent antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects at simultaneously low toxicity against human cells. In comparison, delivery systems for antimicrobial peptides have attracted considerably less interest. However, such delivery systems......, or through achieving co-localization with intracellular pathogens. Here, an overview is provided of the current understanding of delivery systems for antimicrobial peptides, with special focus on AMP-carrier interactions, as well as consequences of these interactions for antimicrobial and related biological...

  17. The role of lipid-based drug delivery systems for enhancing solubility of highly selective antiviral agent acyclovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Mohsin; Al-Amri, Khalid A; Alanazi, Fars K

    2017-05-01

    The study aimed to improve the aqueous solubility and dissolution rate of acyclovir (ACV) using self-emulsifying lipid formulations (SEDDS/SMEDDS). ACV was formulated in various SEDDS/SMEDDS using wide ranges of oils (mono-/di-/triglycerides), nonionic surfactants and water-soluble cosolvents with the aid of phase behavior studies. The drug solubility was determined in anhydrous, 10% and 99% diluted formulations. Drug precipitation and release profiles of the SEDDS/SMEDDS were also investigated. The ACV was highly soluble in the formulations containing high concentration of hydrophilic materials. The addition of propylene glycol (PG) significantly enhanced the drug solubility. In addition, with only 1% 0.1 M HCl, the drug solubility improved 10-fold higher without any precipitation. In the dissolution studies, the representative SEDDS/SMEDDS showed superior release profiles (>90% ACV released) than marketed Zovirax® suspension (soluble cosolvent (e.g. PG), were the most suitable systems for ACV due to the extensive drug solubilization and release profile.

  18. Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems for oral insulin delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ping; Tan, Angel; Prestidge, Clive A

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the combination of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) and enteric-coated capsules as a potential delivery strategy for oral delivery of insulin. The SNEDDS preconcentrates, loaded with insulin-phospholipid complex at different levels (0, 2.5 and 10% w...

  19. Software Build and Delivery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robey, Robert W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-10

    This presentation deals with the hierarchy of software build and delivery systems. One of the goals is to maximize the success rate of new users and developers when first trying your software. First impressions are important. Early successes are important. This also reduces critical documentation costs. This is a presentation focused on computer science and goes into detail about code documentation.

  20. Closed Loop Fluid Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-28

    loop fluid delivery system (CLFDS) will integrate a vital signs monitor ( VSM ) and high speed infusion pump (Pump) to respond quickly to drops in...Interface (GUI) shows VSM data, allows the user to select from several injury types (head, uncontrolled hemorrhage, controlled hemorrhage, and three total...the bedrock for future Closed Loop Fluid System Pre-Market Approval application(s) to FDA. 6. Major Issues Clinical study testing revealed a

  1. MINI-SLAR delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alstein, D.

    1996-01-01

    In the Spring of 1993, a need to complete Spacer Location and Repositioning (SLAR) on the Bruce 'A', Unit 1 Reactor was identified. An alternate SLAR delivery system was required due to conversion constraints that prevented the existing Bruce SLAR System from being used in Unit 1. A Portable SLAR Delivery System called MINI-SLAR Delivery System was developed, designed and fabricated in a 14 month period, then used to successfully SLAR 109 channels. The system is a portable remotely operated Nuclear Class 1 registered fitting that is independent of the Fuelling Machine, allowing the station to continue normal Fuelling and Maintenance activities. It is designed to a Level 'D' faulted condition of HPECI Pressure thus minimizing PHT Heat Sink configuration requirements and minimizing outage set-up times. The system is based on a modular design allowing for easy fabrication, assembly and repair. It consists of a Snout Assembly, a Closure Plug Assembly, Shield Plug Assembly, SLAR Ram assembly, Work Table Assembly and Control Panel. Controls are through a Programmable Logic Controller with software tested and certified to a Software Quality Assurance of Level Ill. (author). 2 refs., 2 figs

  2. Sterile Product Packaging and Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Both conventional and more advanced product container and delivery systems are the focus of this brief article. Six different product container systems will be discussed, plus advances in primary packaging for special delivery systems and needle technology.

  3. Application of mixture experimental design in formulation and characterization of solid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems containing carbamazepine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Marko Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems with orally used drugs is their poor solubility, which can be overcame by creating solid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS. Aim is choosing appropriate SNEDDS using mixture design and adsorption of SNEDDS on a solid carrier to improve the dissolution rate of carbamazepine. Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS consisting of oil phase (caprilic-capric triglycerides, a surfactant (Polisorbat 80 and Labrasol® (1:1 and cosurfactant (Transcutol® HP are formed by applying mixture design. 16 formulations were formulated, where proportion of lipids, surfactant and cosurfactant were varied (input parameters in the following ranges: 10-30%, 40-60%, 30-50%, respectively. After dilution of SEDDS with water (90% water, the droplet size and polydispersity index (PdI of the obtained emulsions (output parameters were measured using photon correlation spectroscopy. After processing data, appropriate mathematical models that describe the dependence of input and output parameters were selected. The optimized SNEDDS was adsorbed on the carbamazepine and solid carrier physical mixture, containing 20% carbamazepine. Neusilin® UFl2, Neusilin® FL2, Sylysia® 320, diatomite were used as the carriers. The ratio of SNEDDS:carrier varied (1:1, 2:1. Dissolution testing was carried out in the rotation paddles apparatus. Caracterization of solid SNEDDS was performed using the hot stage microscopy (HSM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, infrared spectrophotometry with Fourier transformation (FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (PXRD. Selected SNEDDS consisting of lipids (21.12%, surfactant (42.24% and cosurfactant (36.64% had a droplet size 157.02±34.09 nm and PDI 0.184±0.021. Drug release profiles showed that in all formulations dissolution rate increased (the fastest drug release was observed in formulations with Sylysia® 320. It can be concluded that in all

  4. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic which outlines key facts related to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including...

  5. Preparing and evaluating delivery systems for proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, L; Moeller, E H; van de Weert, M

    2006-01-01

    From a formulation perspective proteins are complex and therefore challenging molecules to develop drug delivery systems for. The success of a formulation depends on the ability of the protein to maintain the native structure and activity during preparation and delivery as well as during shipping...... and long-term storage of the formulation. Therefore, the development and evaluation of successful and promising drug delivery systems is essential. In the present review, some of the particulate drug delivery systems for parenteral delivery of protein are presented and discussed. The challenge...... for incorporation of protein in particulate delivery systems is exemplified by water-in-oil emulsions....

  6. Microfabricated injectable drug delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krulevitch, Peter A.; Wang, Amy W.

    2002-01-01

    A microfabricated, fully integrated drug delivery system capable of secreting controlled dosages of multiple drugs over long periods of time (up to a year). The device includes a long and narrow shaped implant with a sharp leading edge for implantation under the skin of a human in a manner analogous to a sliver. The implant includes: 1) one or more micromachined, integrated, zero power, high and constant pressure generating osmotic engine; 2) low power addressable one-shot shape memory polymer (SMP) valves for switching on the osmotic engine, and for opening drug outlet ports; 3) microfabricated polymer pistons for isolating the pressure source from drug-filled microchannels; 4) multiple drug/multiple dosage capacity, and 5) anisotropically-etched, atomically-sharp silicon leading edge for penetrating the skin during implantation. The device includes an externally mounted controller for controlling on-board electronics which activates the SMP microvalves, etc. of the implant.

  7. Collagen macromolecular drug delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine collagen for use as a macromolecular drug delivery system by determining the mechanism of release through a matrix. Collagen membranes varying in porosity, crosslinking density, structure and crosslinker were fabricated. Collagen characterized by infrared spectroscopy and solution viscosity was determined to be pure and native. The collagen membranes were determined to possess native vs. non-native quaternary structure and porous vs. dense aggregate membranes by electron microscopy. Collagen monolithic devices containing a model macromolecule (inulin) were fabricated. In vitro release rates were found to be linear with respect to t 1/2 and were affected by crosslinking density, crosslinker and structure. The biodegradation of the collagen matrix was also examined. In vivo biocompatibility, degradation and 14 C-inulin release rates were evaluated subcutaneously in rats

  8. A Systems Approach to Nitrogen Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goins, Bobby [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-10-23

    A systems based approach will be used to evaluate the nitrogen delivery process. This approach involves principles found in Lean, Reliability, Systems Thinking, and Requirements. This unique combination of principles and thought process yields a very in depth look into the system to which it is applied. By applying a systems based approach to the nitrogen delivery process there should be improvements in cycle time, efficiency, and a reduction in the required number of personnel needed to sustain the delivery process. This will in turn reduce the amount of demurrage charges that the site incurs. In addition there should be less frustration associated with the delivery process.

  9. A Systems Approach to Nitrogen Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goins, Bobby [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2017-10-17

    A systems based approach will be used to evaluate the nitrogen delivery process. This approach involves principles found in Lean, Reliability, Systems Thinking, and Requirements. This unique combination of principles and thought process yields a very in depth look into the system to which it is applied. By applying a systems based approach to the nitrogen delivery process there should be improvements in cycle time, efficiency, and a reduction in the required number of personnel needed to sustain the delivery process. This will in turn reduce the amount of demurrage charges that the site incurs. In addition there should be less frustration associated with the delivery process.

  10. Fiber coupled optical spark delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin, Azer; Willson, Bryan; Defoort, Morgan

    2008-08-12

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, the spark delivery system including a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. In addition, the laser delivery assembly includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. In accordance with embodiments of the present invention, the assembly may be used to create a spark in a combustion engine. In accordance with other embodiments of the present invention, a method of using the spark delivery system is provided. In addition, a method of choosing an appropriate fiber for creating a spark using a laser beam is also presented.

  11. Recent developments in leishmaniasis vaccine delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Sudipta; Ali, Nahid

    2008-07-01

    The observation that recovery from infection with Leishmania confers immunity to reinfection suggests that control of leishmaniasis by vaccination may be possible. New generation vaccines, particularly those based on recombinant proteins and DNA, are found to be less immunogenic. There is an urgent need for the development of new and improved vaccine adjuvants. Based on their principal mechanisms of action, adjuvants can be broadly separated into two classes: immunostimulatory adjuvants and vaccine delivery systems. Vaccine delivery systems can carry both antigen and adjuvant for effective delivery to the antigen-presenting cells (APCs). In this article, we review the adjuvants, the delivery systems and their combinations used in the search of an effective vaccine against leishmaniasis. Based on current knowledge, cationic liposomes appear to have better prospects as effective delivery systems for developing a vaccine for leishmaniasis.

  12. Limitations of dynamic beam delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, W.T.; Kuenning, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    The heavy charged-particle beams which have been extracted from the accelerator and channeled to the treatment rooms are usually small in diameter compared to the target volumes. Many different methods have been devised to spread out the beams in order to cover the entire target volume with a uniform dose. When using the double-scattering beam delivery method, the entire target volume is irradiated simultaneously; whereas, in the other beam delivery methods, such as the wobbler system or the raster scanning system, a relatively small beam spot is moved around to cover the entire target volume with a uniform dose and only a part of the target volume is irradiated at a time. The latter methods are therefore called dynamic beam delivery methods, and the double scattering method is called a passive beam delivery method. In this note, the dose uniformities achievable using the dynamic beam delivery systems are analyzed, and the requirements placed on the systems specifications are discussed

  13. Engineering the system of healthcare delivery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rouse, William B; Cortese, Denis A

    2010-01-01

    "As the United States continues to debate reform of its healthcare system, this book argues that providing health insurance for all without improving the delivery system will not improve the current...

  14. New Delivery Systems and Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Dolovich

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC propellants from industrial and household products has been agreed to by over 165 countires of which more than 135 are developing countries. The timetable for this process is outlined in the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer document and in several subsequent amendments. Pressured metered dose inhalers (pMDIs for medical use have been granted temporary exemptions until replacement formulations, providing the same medication via the same route, and with the same efficacy and safety profiles, are approved for human use. Hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs are the alternative propellants for CFCs-12 and -114. Their potential for damage to the ozone layer is nonexistent, and while they are greenhouse gases, their global warming potential is a fraction (one-tenth of that of CFCs. Replacement formulations for almost all inhalant respiratory medications have been or are being produced and tested; in Canada, it is anticipated that the transition to these HFA or CFC-free pMDIs will be complete by the year 2005. Initially, an HFA pMDI was to be equivalent to the CFC pMDI being replaced, in terms of aerosol properties and effective clinical dose. However, this will not necessarily be the situation, particularly for some corticosteroid products. Currently, only one CFC-free formulation is available in Canada – Airomir, a HFA salbutamol pMDI. This paper discusses the in vitro aerosol characteristics, in vivo deposition and clinical data for several HFA pMDIs for which there are data available in the literature. Alternative delivery systems to the pMDI, namely, dry powder inhalers and nebulizers, are briefly reviewed.

  15. In vivo evaluation of lipid-based formulations for oral delivery of apomorphine and its diester prodrugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkar, Nrupa Nitin; Holm, René; Yang, Mingshi

    2016-01-01

    administered (0.24mmol/kg) to rats as: DLA-o/w emulsion, DPA-o/w emulsion, apomorphine-o/w emulsion, apomorphine aqueous suspension, DLA-Maisine, DLA-soybean oil, DLA-self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS), and DLA-w/o emulsion. The o/w and w/o emulsion consisted of Maisine 35-1 emulsified with water...... apomorphine micellar solubilization in intestinal fluids. A combination of prodrug strategy and lipid-based formulations facilitated a higher and prolonged absorption of apomorphine from its diester prodrugs....

  16. Multi-channel gas-delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenzon, Yan; Trujillo, Robert T.; Beese, Steven C.

    2016-09-13

    One embodiment of the present invention provides a gas-delivery system for delivering reaction gas to a reactor chamber. The gas-delivery system includes a main gas-inlet port for receiving reaction gases and a gas-delivery plate that includes a plurality of gas channels. A gas channel includes a plurality of gas holes for allowing the reaction gases to enter the reactor chamber from the gas channel. The gas-delivery system further includes a plurality of sub-gas lines coupling together the main gas-inlet port and the gas-delivery plate, and a respective sub-gas line is configured to deliver a portion of the received reaction gases to a corresponding gas channel.

  17. Distance Synchronous Information Systems Course Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslak, Alan R.; Lewis, Griffith R.; Aebli, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Teaching computer information systems via distance education is a challenge for both student and faculty. Much research work has been performed on methods of teaching via distance education. Today we are faced with a variety of options for course delivery. Asynchronous delivery via online or lesson instruction still remains most common. But…

  18. Future of Automated Insulin Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Jessica R; DeVries, J Hans; Kovatchev, Boris

    2017-06-01

    Advances in continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) have brought on a paradigm shift in the management of type 1 diabetes. These advances have enabled the automation of insulin delivery, where an algorithm determines the insulin delivery rate in response to the CGM values. There are multiple automated insulin delivery (AID) systems in development. A system that automates basal insulin delivery has already received Food and Drug Administration approval, and more systems are likely to follow. As the field of AID matures, future systems may incorporate additional hormones and/or multiple inputs, such as activity level. All AID systems are impacted by CGM accuracy and future CGM devices must be shown to be sufficiently accurate to be safely incorporated into AID. In this article, we summarize recent achievements in AID development, with a special emphasis on CGM sensor performance, and discuss the future of AID systems from the point of view of their input-output characteristics, form factor, and adaptability.

  19. Kidney–targeted drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhou

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Kidney-targeted drug delivery systems represent a promising technology to improve drug efficacy and safety in the treatment of renal diseases. In this review, we summarize the strategies that have been employed to develop kidney-targeted drug delivery systems. We also describe how macromolecular carriers and prodrugs play crucial roles in targeting drugs to particular target cells in the kidney. New technologies render it possible to create renal targeting conjugates and other delivery systems including nanoparticles and liposomes present promising strategies to achieve the goal of targeting drugs to the kidney.

  20. Pulmonary delivery systems for polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Valentina; Scalia, Santo

    2017-07-01

    This review reports on the beneficial pharmacological properties of naturally occurring polyphenols for the treatment of inflammatory pulmonary diseases. In addition, it presents an overview of the different types of inhalable formulations which have been developed in order to achieve efficient delivery of polyphenols to the respiratory tract. The main biological activities of polyphenols (anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory) are covered, with particular emphasis on the studies describing their therapeutic effects on different factors and conditions characteristic of lung pathologies. Special focus is on the technological aspects which influence the pulmonary delivery of drugs. The various polyphenol-based inhalable formulations reported in the literature are examined with specific attention to the preparation methodologies, aerosol performance, lung deposition and in vitro and in vivo polyphenol uptake by the pulmonary epithelial cells.

  1. Macromolecular systems for vaccine delivery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mužíková, Gabriela; Laga, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, Suppl. 2 (2016), S203-S216 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : vaccine delivery * cellular and humoral immunity * polymer immunostimulants Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016 http://www.biomed.cas.cz/physiolres/pdf/65%20Suppl%202/65_S203.pdf

  2. Porous silicon for drug delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramova, E. N.; Khort, A. M.; Yakovenko, A. G.; Kornilova, D. S.; Slipchenko, E. A.; Prokhorov, D. I.; Shvets, V. I.

    2018-01-01

    The article deals with main principles of the formation of porous silicon (por-Si) to produce containers for drug delivery systems. Most important por-Si characteristics to produce nanocontainers with required parameters are determined.

  3. A Sample Delivery System for Planetary Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project will develop, test and characterize the performance of a prototype /sample delivery system (SDS) implemented as an end effector on a robotic arm capable...

  4. Microemulsion Drug Delivery Systems for Radiopharmacy Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Ozgenc

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Microemulsions have been used increasingly for last year’s because of ideal properties like favorable drug delivery, ease of preparation and physical stability. They have been improved the solubility and efficacy of the drug and reduce the side effects. Use of radiolabeled microemulsions plays an alternative role in drug delivery systems by investigating the formation, stability and application of microemulsions in radiopharmacy. Gama scintigraphic method is well recognized for developing and detecting the biodistribution of newly developed drugs or formulation. This review will focus on how radionuclides are able to play role with characterization studies of microemulsion drug delivery systems.

  5. A REVIEW ON OSMOTIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Harnish Patel; Upendra Patel; Hiren Kadikar; Bhavin Bhimani; Dhiren Daslaniya; Ghanshyam Patel

    2012-01-01

    Conventional oral drug delivery systems supply an instantaneous release of drug, which cannot control the release of the drug and effective concentration at the target site. This kind of dosing pattern may result in constantly changing, unpredictable plasma concentrations. Drugs can be delivered in a controlled pattern over a long period of time by the process of osmosis. Osmotic devices are the most promising strategy based systems for controlled drug delivery. They are the most reliable con...

  6. Smart Drug Delivery Systems in Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsoy, Gozde; Gunduz, Ufuk

    2018-02-08

    Smart nanocarriers have been designed for tissue-specific targeted drug delivery, sustained or triggered drug release and co-delivery of synergistic drug combinations to develop safer and more efficient therapeutics. Advances in drug delivery systems provide reduced side effects, longer circulation half-life and improved pharmacokinetics. Smart drug delivery systems have been achieved successfully in the case of cancer. These nanocarriers can serve as an intelligent system by considering the differences of tumor microenvironment from healthy tissue, such as low pH, low oxygen level, or high enzymatic activity of matrix metalloproteinases. The performance of anti-cancer agents used in cancer diagnosis and therapy is improved by enhanced cellular internalization of smart nanocarriers and controlled drug release. Here, we review targeting, cellular internalization; controlled drug release and toxicity of smart drug delivery systems. We are also emphasizing the stimulus responsive controlled drug release from smart nanocarriers. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Servir: an automated document delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, E.C.; Azevedo Coutinho, O.C. de

    1986-01-01

    SERVIR, an automated document delivery system developed by CIN/CNEN, is described. Parametric procedures for reading bibliographic data bases and requesting documents from libraries through computer are specified. Statistical procedures, accounting system and the on-line fulfillment of requests are presented. (Author) [pt

  8. loaded, colon-targeted drug delivery system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    controlled delivery of 5-flurouracil (5-FU) in cancer patients. Method: Nine different miCAP formulations were prepared ... osmotically-controlled devices, pro-drug systems,. pH-dependent devices, and systems in which the ..... are very useful tools in the investigation of the thermal properties of miCAPs, and they provide.

  9. Review of Innovative Sediment Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    dredging projects typically fall into two categories: (1) vehicular transport (e.g., dump trucks ), or (2) piped slurry transport systems . Truck hauling...this system is that, in theory, once sand is loaded into the dump trucks , it is contained until the final stockpile location at the end of the system ...ERDC/CHL CHETN-XIV-28 April 2013 Review of Innovative Sediment Delivery Systems by Thomas D. Smith PURPOSE. This Coastal and Hydraulic

  10. Renewable energy delivery systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Howard Andrew

    2013-12-10

    A system, method and/or apparatus for the delivery of energy at a site, at least a portion of the energy being delivered by at least one or more of a plurality of renewable energy technologies, the system and method including calculating the load required by the site for the period; calculating the amount of renewable energy for the period, including obtaining a capacity and a percentage of the period for the renewable energy to be delivered; comparing the total load to the renewable energy available; and, implementing one or both of additional and alternative renewable energy sources for delivery of energy to the site.

  11. Ion-Responsive Drug Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takayuki; Shakushiro, Kohsuke; Sako, Kazuhiro

    2018-02-08

    Some kinds of cations and anions are contained in body fluids such as blood, interstitial fluid, gastrointestinal juice, and tears at relatively high concentration. Ionresponsive drug delivery is available to design the unique dosage formulations which provide optimized drug therapy with effective, safe and convenient dosing of drugs. The objective of the present review was to collect, summarize, and categorize recent research findings on ion-responsive drug delivery systems. Ions in body fluid/formulations caused structural changes of polymers/molecules contained in the formulations, allow formulations exhibit functions. The polymers/molecules responding to ions were ion-exchange resins/fibers, anionic or cationic polymers, polymers exhibiting transition at lower critical solution temperature, self-assemble supramolecular systems, peptides, and metalorganic frameworks. The functions of ion-responsive drug delivery systems were categorized to controlled drug release, site-specific drug release, in situ gelation, prolonged retention at the target sites, and enhancement of drug permeation. Administration of the formulations via oral, ophthalmic, transdermal, and nasal routes has showed significant advantages in the recent literatures. Many kinds of drug delivery systems responding to ions have been reported recently for several administration routes. Improvement and advancement of these systems can maximize drugs potential and contribute to patients in the world. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Some Recent Advances in Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some Recent Advances in Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems. ... Advances in Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems. EC Ibezim, B Kabele-Toge, CO Anie, C Njoku. Abstract. Transdermal delivery systems are forms of drug delivery involving the dermis, as distinct from topical, oral or other forms of parenteral dosage forms.

  13. Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JULYK, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides a documented basis for the required design pressure rating and pump pressure capacity of the Hanford Site waste-transfer system in support of the waste feed delivery to the privatization contractor for vitrification. The scope of the analysis includes the 200 East Area double-shell tank waste transfer pipeline system and the associated transfer system pumps for a11 Phase 1B and Phase 2 waste transfers from AN, AP, AW, AY, and A2 Tank Farms

  14. Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JULYK, L.J.

    2000-05-05

    This document provides a documented basis for the required design pressure rating and pump pressure capacity of the Hanford Site waste-transfer system in support of the waste feed delivery to the privatization contractor for vitrification. The scope of the analysis includes the 200 East Area double-shell tank waste transfer pipeline system and the associated transfer system pumps for a11 Phase 1B and Phase 2 waste transfers from AN, AP, AW, AY, and A2 Tank Farms.

  15. Distance Learning Delivery Systems: Instructional Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Ray L.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the availability of satellite and cable programing to provide distance education opportunities in school districts. Various delivery systems are described, including telephones with speakers, personal computers, and satellite dishes; and a sidebar provides a directory of distance learning opportunities, including telecommunications…

  16. Auditing Information System : Delivery Product Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwoko Purwoko

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the research is to ensure the securities of information system asset and to ensure if informa-tion system support the operational and data collected was valid. Research method that used in this research were library studies and field studies. Field studies such an observation, questioner, and inter-view. the expected result are founding the weakness of security management control, operational man-agement control, input control, and output control of risk happened in the company. Conclusion of this research are the system on the company work good and there’s no potential risk happened and make an impact to the delivery process of information system.Index Terms - Auditing Information system, Delivery product process.

  17. Assessment of Advanced Logistics Delivery System (ALDS) Launch Systems Concepts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Gregory W; Borraccini, Joseph P; Fitzpatrick, Brian K; Lynch, William A; McGinnis, Patrick J

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Logistics Delivery System (ALDS) concept proposes the use of ship launched, unmanned gliders to re-supply shore based ground forces and requires a launch system capable of delivering unpowered UAVs to a range of 50 miles...

  18. Drug delivery systems for antihypertensive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott; Prisant

    1997-12-01

    During the late 1980s and early 1990s, much research effort in the pharmaceutical industry was focused on the development of novel systems for sustained delivery of effective, but intrinsically short-acting, antihypertensive agents. This advance was motivated by a desire both to improve trough/peak ratios (as suggested by the US Food and Drug Administration [FDA]) and also to protect the proprietary patient life for older agents that would otherwise be susceptible to generic substitution. Additional benefits of such sustained-release systems include: improved side-effect profiles, shorter time from development to regulatory approval (because of the already established safety record of the immediate-release compound), improved compliance with medication, and reduced administrative cost. The latter two are presumably related to the fact that patients generally have to use fewer doses of sustained-release than immediate-release preparations. Disadvantages include: generally higher per-dose cost (which includes a licensing fee for the patented delivery system), altered efficacy and potential problems in patients with abnormal absorptive surfaces (gut or skin), and altgered first-pass metabolism rates (compared with immediate-release preparations). Some of the novel drug delivery systems that have already received FDA approval include: alginate matrix, Geomatrix, several formulations of pellet-based systems, several transdermal systems, and the Gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS), which releases the pharmacologically active agent at a predictable rate. A novel variant of this last system has been developed, based on the idea that the peak serum concentration of antihypertensive medication will occur just before or at the time of the greatest change in blood pressure (ie, the few hours around awakening). Data are now being gathered to convince authorities that this theoretically advantageous delivery system will be as effective in reducing rates of cardiovascular

  19. Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Shrestha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle objective of formulation of lipid-based drugs is to enhance their bioavailability. The use of lipids in drug delivery is no more a new trend now but is still the promising concept. Lipid-based drug delivery systems (LBDDS are one of the emerging technologies designed to address challenges like the solubility and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Lipid-based formulations can be tailored to meet a wide range of product requirements dictated by disease indication, route of administration, cost consideration, product stability, toxicity, and efficacy. These formulations are also a commercially viable strategy to formulate pharmaceuticals, for topical, oral, pulmonary, or parenteral delivery. In addition, lipid-based formulations have been shown to reduce the toxicity of various drugs by changing the biodistribution of the drug away from sensitive organs. However, the number of applications for lipid-based formulations has expanded as the nature and type of active drugs under investigation have become more varied. This paper mainly focuses on novel lipid-based formulations, namely, emulsions, vesicular systems, and lipid particulate systems and their subcategories as well as on their prominent applications in pharmaceutical drug delivery.

  20. Chitosan microspheres in novel drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Analava; Dey, Baishakhi

    2011-07-01

    The main aim in the drug therapy of any disease is to attain the desired therapeutic concentration of the drug in plasma or at the site of action and maintain it for the entire duration of treatment. A drug on being used in conventional dosage forms leads to unavoidable fluctuations in the drug concentration leading to under medication or overmedication and increased frequency of dose administration as well as poor patient compliance. To minimize drug degradation and loss, to prevent harmful side effects and to increase drug bioavailability various drug delivery and drug targeting systems are currently under development. Handling the treatment of severe disease conditions has necessitated the development of innovative ideas to modify drug delivery techniques. Drug targeting means delivery of the drug-loaded system to the site of interest. Drug carrier systems include polymers, micelles, microcapsules, liposomes and lipoproteins to name some. Different polymer carriers exert different effects on drug delivery. Synthetic polymers are usually non-biocompatible, non-biodegradable and expensive. Natural polymers such as chitin and chitosan are devoid of such problems. Chitosan comes from the deacetylation of chitin, a natural biopolymer originating from crustacean shells. Chitosan is a biocompatible, biodegradable, and nontoxic natural polymer with excellent film-forming ability. Being of cationic character, chitosan is able to react with polyanions giving rise to polyelectrolyte complexes. Hence chitosan has become a promising natural polymer for the preparation of microspheres/nanospheres and microcapsules. The techniques employed to microencapsulate with chitosan include ionotropic gelation, spray drying, emulsion phase separation, simple and complex coacervation. This review focuses on the preparation, characterization of chitosan microspheres and their role in novel drug delivery systems.

  1. A wireless actuating drug delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Won-Jun; Baek, Seung-Ki; Park, Jung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    A wireless actuating drug delivery system was devised. The system is based on induction heating for drug delivery. In this study, thermally generated nitrogen gas produced by induction heating of azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) was utilized for pressure-driven release of the drug. The delivery device consists of an actuator chamber, a drug reservoir, and a microchannel. A semicircular copper disc (5 and 6 mm in diameter and 100 µm thick), and thermal conductive tape were integrated as the heating element in the actuator chamber. The final device was 2.7 mm thick. 28 µl of drug solution were placed in the reservoir and the device released the drug quickly at the rate of 6 µl s −1 by induction heating at 160 µT of magnetic intensity. The entire drug solution was released and dispersed after subcutaneous implantation under identical experimental condition. This study demonstrates that the device was simply prepared and drug delivery could be achieved by wireless actuation of a thin, pressure-driven actuator. (paper)

  2. Biomaterials for nanoparticle vaccine delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahdev, Preety; Ochyl, Lukasz J; Moon, James J

    2014-10-01

    Subunit vaccination benefits from improved safety over attenuated or inactivated vaccines, but their limited capability to elicit long-lasting, concerted cellular and humoral immune responses is a major challenge. Recent studies have demonstrated that antigen delivery via nanoparticle formulations can significantly improve immunogenicity of vaccines due to either intrinsic immunostimulatory properties of the materials or by co-entrapment of molecular adjuvants such as Toll-like receptor agonists. These studies have collectively shown that nanoparticles designed to mimic biophysical and biochemical cues of pathogens offer new exciting opportunities to enhance activation of innate immunity and elicit potent cellular and humoral immune responses with minimal cytotoxicity. In this review, we present key research advances that were made within the last 5 years in the field of nanoparticle vaccine delivery systems. In particular, we focus on the impact of biomaterials composition, size, and surface charge of nanoparticles on modulation of particle biodistribution, delivery of antigens and immunostimulatory molecules, trafficking and targeting of antigen presenting cells, and overall immune responses in systemic and mucosal tissues. This review describes recent progresses in the design of nanoparticle vaccine delivery carriers, including liposomes, lipid-based particles, micelles and nanostructures composed of natural or synthetic polymers, and lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles.

  3. Micelles As Delivery System for Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Dilek; Tezcaner, Aysen

    2017-01-01

    Micelles are nanoparticles formed by the self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers in certain solvents above concentrations called critical micelle concentration (CMC). Micelles are used in different fields like food, cosmetics, medicine, etc. These nanosized delivery systems are under spotlight in the recent years with new achievements in terms of their in vivo stability, ability to protect entrapped drug, release kinetics, ease of cellular penetration and thereby increased therapeutic efficacy. Drug loaded micelles can be prepared by dialysis, oil-in-water method, solid dispersion, freezing, spray drying, etc. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the research on micelles (in vitro, in vivo and clinical) as delivery system for cancer treatment. Passive targeting is one route for accumulation of nanosized micellar drug formulations. Many research groups from both academia and industry focus on developing new strategies for improving the therapeutic efficacy of micellar systems (active targeting to the tumor site, designing multidrug delivery systems for overcoming multidrug resistance or micelles formed by prodrug conjugates, etc). There is only one micellar drug formulation in South Korea that has reached clinical practice. However, there are many untargeted anticancer drug loaded micellar formulations in clinical trials, which have potential for use in clinics. Many more products are expected to be on the market in the near future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. [Nanoparticles as drug delivery systems in ophthalmology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löscher, M; Hurst, J; Strudel, L; Spitzer, M S; Schnichels, S

    2018-03-01

    Nanoparticles are perfectly suited as drug delivery systems due to their size and the diversity of materials used. They are able to penetrate biological barriers, can directly deliver drugs to the target site and provide a sustained release profile. Having long been established in oncology, in the last decade research has started to take a closer look at the potential of nanoparticles for ocular drug delivery. Obstacles, such as poor delivery of drugs via eye drops and the side effects of invasive methods, such as placing implants as drug depots could be overcome. Among the most relevant investigated structures are polymeric nanoparticles, micelles, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, dendrimers and cyclodextrins. Besides the composition of the nanoparticle itself, its efficacy and stability can be optimized through coatings; however, long-term stability, standardization of production and toxicity remain the major challenges. The preclinical and partly clinical results obtained so far will hopefully give impulse to the idea of applying nanoparticles for optimized ocular drug delivery in the near future.

  5. Drug delivery system and radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Tokushi

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the review of radiation therapy, neutron capture therapy (NCT) and drug delivery system for the latter. In cancer radiation therapy, there are problems of body movement like breathing, needless irradiation of normal tissues, difficulty to decide the correct irradiation position and tumor morphology. NCT has advantages to overcome these, and since boron has a big cross section for thermal neutron, NPT uses the reaction 10 B(n, α) 7 Li in the target cancer which previously incorporated the boron-containing drug. During the period 1966-1996, 246 patients were treated with this in Japan and the treatment has been continued thereafter. The tasks for NCT are developments of drug delivery system efficient to deliver the drug into the tumor and of convenient neutron source like the accelerator. (S.I.)

  6. Chitosan magnetic nanoparticles for drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assa, Farnaz; Jafarizadeh-Malmiri, Hoda; Ajamein, Hossein; Vaghari, Hamideh; Anarjan, Navideh; Ahmadi, Omid; Berenjian, Aydin

    2017-06-01

    The potential of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in drug delivery systems (DDSs) is mainly related to its magnetic core and surface coating. These coatings can eliminate or minimize their aggregation under physiological conditions. Also, they can provide functional groups for bioconjugation to anticancer drugs and/or targeted ligands. Chitosan, as a derivative of chitin, is an attractive natural biopolymer from renewable resources with the presence of reactive amino and hydroxyl functional groups in its structure. Chitosan nanoparticles (NPs), due to their huge surface to volume ratio as compared to the chitosan in its bulk form, have outstanding physico-chemical, antimicrobial and biological properties. These unique properties make chitosan NPs a promising biopolymer for the application of DDSs. In this review, the current state and challenges for the application magnetic chitosan NPs in drug delivery systems were investigated. The present review also revisits the limitations and commercial impediments to provide insight for future works.

  7. FAST DISSOLVING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM - A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Ritika; Rajput Meenu; Prakash Pawan; Sharma Saurabh

    2011-01-01

    Tablet is the most popular among all dosage forms existing today because of its convenience of self administration, compactness and easy manufacturing; however in many cases immediate onset of action is required than conventional therapy. To overcome these drawbacks, immediate release pharmaceutical dosage form has emerged as alternative oral dosage forms. There are novel types of dosage forms that act very quickly after administration. Drug delivery systems are becoming sophisticated day by ...

  8. Communications data delivery system analysis task 2 report : high-level options for secure communications data delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    This Communications Data Delivery System Analysis Task 2 report describes and analyzes options for Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) communications data delivery systems using various communication media (Dedicated Short Ra...

  9. Recent Trends of Polymer Mediated Liposomal Gene Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamal Kumar Kundu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advancement in the gene delivery system have resulted in clinical successes in gene therapy for patients with several genetic diseases, such as immunodeficiency diseases, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD blindness, thalassemia, and many more. Among various delivery systems, liposomal mediated gene delivery route is offering great promises for gene therapy. This review is an attempt to depict a portrait about the polymer based liposomal gene delivery systems and their future applications. Herein, we have discussed in detail the characteristics of liposome, importance of polymer for liposome formulation, gene delivery, and future direction of liposome based gene delivery as a whole.

  10. Advanced drug delivery systems: Nanotechnology of health design A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Safari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has finally and firmly entered the realm of drug delivery. Performances of intelligent drug delivery systems are continuously improved with the purpose to maximize therapeutic activity and to minimize undesirable side-effects. This review describes the advanced drug delivery systems based on micelles, polymeric nanoparticles, and dendrimers. Polymeric carbon nanotubes and many others demonstrate a broad variety of useful properties. This review emphasizes the main requirements for developing new nanotech-nology-based drug delivery systems.

  11. Silk Electrogel Based Gastroretentive Drug Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianrui

    Gastric cancer has become a global pandemic and there is imperative to develop efficient therapies. Oral dosing strategy is the preferred route to deliver drugs for treating the disease. Recent studies suggested silk electro hydrogel, which is pH sensitive and reversible, has potential as a vehicle to deliver the drug in the stomach environment. The aim of this study is to establish in vitro electrogelation e-gel based silk gel as a gastroretentive drug delivery system. We successfully extended the duration of silk e-gel in artificial gastric juice by mixing silk solution with glycerol at different ratios before the electrogelation. Structural analysis indicated the extended duration was due to the change of beta sheet content. The glycerol mixed silk e-gel had good doxorubicin loading capability and could release doxorubicin in a sustained-release profile. Doxorubicin loaded silk e-gels were applied to human gastric cancer cells. Significant cell viability decrease was observed. We believe that with further characterization as well as functional analysis, the silk e-gel system has the potential to become an effective vehicle for gastric drug delivery applications.

  12. Calcium Phosphates as Delivery Systems for Bisphosphonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bigi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates (BPs are the most utilized drugs for the treatment of osteoporosis, and are usefully employed also for other pathologies characterized by abnormally high bone resorption, including bone metastases. Due to the great affinity of these drugs for calcium ions, calcium phosphates are ideal delivery systems for local administration of BPs to bone, which is aimed to avoid/limit the undesirable side effects of their prolonged systemic use. Direct synthesis in aqueous medium and chemisorptions from solution are the two main routes proposed to synthesize BP functionalized calcium phosphates. The present review overviews the information acquired through the studies on the interaction between bisphosphonate molecules and calcium phosphates. Moreover, particular attention is addressed to some important recent achievements on the applications of BP functionalized calcium phosphates as biomaterials for bone substitution/repair.

  13. Nanoemulsion: A new concept of delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoemulsion has been identified as a promising delivery system for various drugs including biopharmaceuticals. Nanoemulsion is a heterogeneous system composed of one immiscible liquid dispersed as droplets within another liquid. The droplets size of nano emulsion is between 20 to 500 nm. Diameter and surface properties of droplets of nanoemulsion plays an important role in the biological behavior of the formulation. Small droplet sizes lead to transparent emulsions so that product appearance is not altered by the addition of an oil phase. In this paper various aspects of nanoemulsion have been discussed including advantages, disadvantages and methods of preparation. Furthermore new approaches of stability of formulation, effect of types and concentration of surfactant, process variables and method are also discussed to improve the stability of nanoemulsion formulation

  14. Fluid Delivery System For Capillary Electrophoretic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingbo; Liu, Changsheng; Kane, Thomas E.; Kernan, John R.; Sonnenschein, Bernard; Sharer, Michael V.

    2002-04-23

    An automated electrophoretic system is disclosed. The system employs a capillary cartridge having a plurality of capillary tubes. The cartridge has a first array of capillary ends projecting from one side of a plate. The first array of capillary ends are spaced apart in substantially the same manner as the wells of a microtitre tray of standard size. This allows one to simultaneously perform capillary electrophoresis on samples present in each of the wells of the tray. The system includes a stacked, dual carrousel arrangement to eliminate cross-contamination resulting from reuse of the same buffer tray on consecutive executions from electrophoresis. The system also has a gel delivery module containing a gel syringe/a stepper motor or a high pressure chamber with a pump to quickly and uniformly deliver gel through the capillary tubes. The system further includes a multi-wavelength beam generator to generate a laser beam which produces a beam with a wide range of wavelengths. An off-line capillary reconditioner thoroughly cleans a capillary cartridge to enable simultaneous execution of electrophoresis with another capillary cartridge. The streamlined nature of the off-line capillary reconditioner offers the advantage of increased system throughput with a minimal increase in system cost.

  15. Leisure Service Delivery Systems: Are They Adequate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rene Fukuhara Dahl

    1992-01-01

    This presentation explores a model of service delivery ranging from direct service provision to advocacy and reports findings on the delivery mode most prevalent in park and recreation departments that serve Asian groups in their community. The implications of the role of the professional, the range of service delivery, and the manner in which ethnic groups are...

  16. Nanoemulsion: an advanced mode of drug delivery system

    OpenAIRE

    Jaiswal, Manjit; Dudhe, Rupesh; Sharma, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    An advanced mode of drug delivery system has been developed to overcome the major drawbacks associated with conventional drug delivery systems. This review gives a detailed idea about a nanoemulsion system. Nanoemulsions are nano-sized emulsions, which are manufactured for improving the delivery of active pharmaceutical ingredients. These are the thermodynamically stable isotropic system in which two immiscible liquids are mixed to form a single phase by means of an emulsifying agent, i.e., s...

  17. Leadership Dynamics Promoting Systemic Reform for Inclusive Service Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a multicase study of two systems of schools striving to reform service delivery systems for students with special needs. Considering these systems as institutional actors, the study examines what promotes the understanding and implementation of special education service delivery within a system of schools in a manner that…

  18. Pulmonary drug delivery system: newer patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Shahid Sukhbir

    2017-09-01

    Inhalational route for drug delivery and desired effects has been known since centuries. This lung-targeted therapy has benefited asthmatics and those with chronic respiratory problems. The technique has evolved greatly from crude pots and pipes to modern sophisticated drug-dispensing devices. This mode is effective, rapid and safe. Its outcome, however, is majorly determined by drug formulation, device structure and patient's coordinating skill. In spite of great advances in this field, more efforts are required to meet the unmet needs. This noninvasive mode is being increasingly studied for transfer of drugs for systemic action with promising results. The present article is an attempt to capture the recent development and progress in this field and review relevant newer patents.

  19. Applications of polymeric nanocapsules in field of drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xinyu; Xie, Yinghua; Hao, Xiaomei; Chen, Tao; Wang, Yingming; Liu, Yuanyuan

    2011-09-01

    Drug-loaded polymeric nanocapsules have exhibited potential applications in the field of drug delivery systems in recent years. This article entails the biodegradable polymers generally used for preparing nanocapsules, which include both natural polymers and synthetic polymers. Furthermore, the article presents a general review of the different preparation methods: nanoprecipitation method, emulsion-diffusion method, double emulsification method, emulsion-coacervation method, layer-by-layer assembly method. In addition, the analysis methods of nanocapsule characteristics, such as mean size, morphology, surface characteristics, shell thickness, encapsulation efficiency, active substance release, dispersion stability, are mentioned. Also, the applications of nanocapsules as carriers for use in drug delivery systems are reviewed, which primarily involve targeting drug delivery, controlled/sustained release drug delivery systems, transdermal drug delivery systems and improving stability and bioavailability of drugs. Nanocapsules, prepared with different biodegradable polymers, have received more and more attention and have been regarded as one of the most promising drug delivery systems.

  20. Polymer hydrogels as optimized delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, Jorge G.S.; Varca, Gustavo H.C.; Ferraz, Caroline C.; Garrido, Gabriela P.; Diniz, Bruna M.; Carvalho, Vinicius S.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogels are formed by polymers capable of absorbing large quantities of water. They consist of one or more three-dimensionally structured polymer networks formed by macromolecular chains linked by covalent bonds-crosslinks - and physical interactions. The application of hydrogels, has been widely studied. Biodegradable synthetic or natural polymers such as chitosan, starch and poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid, have properties that allow the development of biodegradable systems for drug and nutraceutics delivery. This study aimed to develop polymeric hydrogels based on polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylamide and polyvinylpyrrolidone using ionizing radiation in order to develop hydrogels for improved loading and release of compounds. Polymer solutions were solubilized in water and poured into thermoformed packages. After sealing, the material was subjected to γ-irradiation at 25kGy. The samples were assayed by means of mechanical properties, gel fraction and swelling degree. Nanostructure characterization was performed using Flory's equation to determine crosslinking density. The systems developed showed swelling degree and adequate mechanical resistance. The nanostructure evaluation showed different results for each system demonstrating the need of choosing the polymer based on the specific properties of each material. (author)

  1. Polymer hydrogels as optimized delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Jorge G.S.; Varca, Gustavo H.C.; Ferraz, Caroline C.; Garrido, Gabriela P.; Diniz, Bruna M.; Carvalho, Vinicius S.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: jorgegabriel@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Hydrogels are formed by polymers capable of absorbing large quantities of water. They consist of one or more three-dimensionally structured polymer networks formed by macromolecular chains linked by covalent bonds-crosslinks - and physical interactions. The application of hydrogels, has been widely studied. Biodegradable synthetic or natural polymers such as chitosan, starch and poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid, have properties that allow the development of biodegradable systems for drug and nutraceutics delivery. This study aimed to develop polymeric hydrogels based on polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylamide and polyvinylpyrrolidone using ionizing radiation in order to develop hydrogels for improved loading and release of compounds. Polymer solutions were solubilized in water and poured into thermoformed packages. After sealing, the material was subjected to γ-irradiation at 25kGy. The samples were assayed by means of mechanical properties, gel fraction and swelling degree. Nanostructure characterization was performed using Flory's equation to determine crosslinking density. The systems developed showed swelling degree and adequate mechanical resistance. The nanostructure evaluation showed different results for each system demonstrating the need of choosing the polymer based on the specific properties of each material. (author)

  2. Future of Automated Insulin Delivery Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castle, Jessica R.; DeVries, J. Hans; Kovatchev, Boris

    2017-01-01

    Advances in continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) have brought on a paradigm shift in the management of type 1 diabetes. These advances have enabled the automation of insulin delivery, where an algorithm determines the insulin delivery rate in response to the CGM values. There are multiple automated

  3. Nanoemulsion: A new concept of delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G T Kulkarni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Nanoemulsion has been identified as a promising delivery system for various drugs including biopharmaceuticals. Nanoemulsion is a heterogeneous system composed of one immiscible liquid dispersed as droplets within another liquid. The droplets size of nano emulsion is between 20 to 500 nm. Diameter and surface properties of droplets of nanoemulsion plays an important role in the biological behavior of the formulation. Small droplet sizes lead to transparent emulsions so that product appearance is not altered by the addition of an oil phase.  In this paper various aspects of nanoemulsion have been discussed including advantages, disadvantages and methods of preparation. Furthermore new approaches of stability of formulation, effect of types and concentration of surfactant, process variables and method are also discussed to improve the stability of nanoemulsion formulation

  4. Current trends in microsponge drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadharappa, H V; Gupta, N Vishal; Prasad M, Sarat Chandra; Shivakumar, H G

    2013-08-01

    Microsponge is a microscopic sphere capable of absorbing skin secretions, therefore reducing the oiliness of the skin. Microsponge having particle size of 10-25 microns in diameter, have wide range of entrapment of various ingredients in a single microsponges system and release them at desired rates. Conventional topical preparations have various disadvantages due to irritancy, odour, greasiness and patient compliance. In many topical dosage forms fail to reach the systemic circulation in sufficient amounts in few cases. These problems overcome by the usage of formulation as microsponge in the areas of research. Drug release in microsponge is done by the external stimuli like pH, temperature and rubbing. It has several advantageous over the other topical preparations in being non-allergenic, non-toxic, non-irritant and non- mutagenic. These microsponges are used in the sun screens, creams, ointments, over-the-counter skin care preparations, recently nanosponge were reported in literature used in delivery of drug by the use of cyclodextrins to enhance the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs, which are meant for topical application.

  5. Responsive triggering systems for delivery in chronic wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Mangesh; Pandit, Abhay

    2018-03-02

    Non-communicable diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and neuropathy are chronic in nature. Treatment of these diseases with traditional delivery systems is limited due to lack of site-specificity, non-spatiotemporal release and insufficient doses. Numerous responsive delivery systems which respond to both physiological and external stimuli have been reported in the literature. However, effective strategies incorporating a multifactorial approach are required to control these complex wounds. This can be achieved by fabricating spatiotemporal release systems, multimodal systems or dual/multi-stimuli responsive delivery systems loaded with one or more bioactive components. Critically, these next generation stimuli responsive delivery systems that are at present not feasible are required to treat chronic wounds. This review provides a critical assessment of recent developments in the field of responsive delivery systems, highlighting their limitations and providing a perspective on how these challenges can be overcome. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biomedical materials, devices and drug delivery systems by radiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaetsu, Isao.

    1996-01-01

    The study of radiation polymerization in a super-cooled state started in 1966 and has been applied to the immobilization of biofunctional materials since 1973. In the last twenty years, application has been concentrated on the immobilization of drugs and hormones for the purpose of drug delivery systems. Very recently, the author has proposed a concept of environmental signal responsive chemical delivery system, as a new generation of controlled release and delivery systems. The study and development of materials, devices and systems is described. The signal responsive delivery system consists of a sensor part and a controlled delivery part. Therefore, the use of immobilization techniques for the biochip sensor and the hydrogel actuator has been investigated. As a future goal, systems for brain research are to be designed and studied. (author)

  7. How can innovative project delivery systems improve the overall efficiency of GDOT in transportation project delivery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The USDOT and Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) recommend the smart use of innovative project : delivery systems, such as design-build, to improve efficiency and effectiveness of developing transportation : projects. Although design-build provide...

  8. Marine Origin Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias J. Cardoso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Oceans are a vast source of natural substances. In them, we find various compounds with wide biotechnological and biomedical applicabilities. The exploitation of the sea as a renewable source of biocompounds can have a positive impact on the development of new systems and devices for biomedical applications. Marine polysaccharides are among the most abundant materials in the seas, which contributes to a decrease of the extraction costs, besides their solubility behavior in aqueous solvents and extraction media, and their interaction with other biocompounds. Polysaccharides such as alginate, carrageenan and fucoidan can be extracted from algae, whereas chitosan and hyaluronan can be obtained from animal sources. Most marine polysaccharides have important biological properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as adhesive and antimicrobial actions. Moreover, they can be modified in order to allow processing them into various shapes and sizes and may exhibit response dependence to external stimuli, such as pH and temperature. Due to these properties, these biomaterials have been studied as raw material for the construction of carrier devices for drugs, including particles, capsules and hydrogels. The devices are designed to achieve a controlled release of therapeutic agents in an attempt to fight against serious diseases, and to be used in advanced therapies, such as gene delivery or regenerative medicine.

  9. Albumin nanostructures as advanced drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mahdi; Bahrami, Sajad; Ravari, Soodeh Baghaee; Zangabad, Parham Sahandi; Mirshekari, Hamed; Bozorgomid, Mahnaz; Shahreza, Somayeh; Sori, Masume; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-11-01

    One of the biggest impacts that the nanotechnology has made on medicine and biology, has been in the area of drug delivery systems (DDSs). Many drugs suffer from serious problems concerning insolubility, instability in biological environments, poor uptake into cells and tissues, sub-optimal selectivity for targets and unwanted side effects. Nanocarriers can be designed as DDSs to overcome many of these drawbacks. One of the most versatile building blocks to prepare these nanocarriers is the ubiquitous, readily available and inexpensive protein, serum albumin. Areas covered: This review covers the use of different types of albumin (human, bovine, rat, and chicken egg) to prepare nanoparticle and microparticle-based structures to bind drugs. Various methods have been used to modify the albumin structure. A range of targeting ligands can be attached to the albumin that can be recognized by specific cell receptors that are expressed on target cells or tissues. Expert opinion: The particular advantages of albumin used in DDSs include ready availability, ease of chemical modification, good biocompatibility, and low immunogenicity. The regulatory approvals that have been received for several albumin-based therapeutic agents suggest that this approach will continue to be successfully explored.

  10. Optimising oral systems for the delivery of therapeutic proteins and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A suitable oral delivery system should retain the drug and maintain its integrity until it gets to the region of maximum absorption where the protein/peptide is released. It would be advantageous for such a delivery system to be capable of attaching itself to the absorptive cells in that region during the course of drug release by ...

  11. Ariadne: The Next Generation of Electronic Document Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roes, Hans; Dijkstra, Joost

    1994-01-01

    Describes an approach to electronic document delivery which has evolved at Tilburg University (Netherlands), leading to the development of a system called Ariadne. Highlights include various generations of electronic document delivery systems; standards, including the work of the Group on Electronic Document Interchange; and a description of the…

  12. Guidelines for Psychological Practice in Health Care Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Psychologists practice in an increasingly diverse range of health care delivery systems. The following guidelines are intended to assist psychologists, other health care providers, administrators in health care delivery systems, and the public to conceptualize the roles and responsibilities of psychologists in these diverse contexts. These…

  13. Multiparticulate Drug Delivery Systems for Controlled Release | Dey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmaceutical invention and research are increasingly focusing on delivery systems which enhance desirable therapeutic objectives while minimising side effects. Recent trends indicate that multiparticulate drug delivery systems are especially suitable for achieving controlled or delayed release oral formulations with low ...

  14. Buccal Transmucosal Delivery System of Enalapril for Improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare and characterize buccal transmucosal delivery system of enalapril maleate for overcoming its low bioavailability, and hence provide improved therapeutic efficacy and patient compliance. Methods: Transmucosal drug delivery systems of enalapril maleate were formulated as buccal films by solvent ...

  15. Insulin delivery systems combined with microneedle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xuan; Zhu, Dan Dan; Chen, Bo Zhi; Ashfaq, Mohammad; Guo, Xin Dong

    2018-03-29

    Diabetes, a metabolic disorder of glucose, is a serious chronic disease and an important public health problem. Insulin is one of the hormones for modulating blood glucose level and the products of which is indispensable for most diabetes patients. Introducing microneedles (MNs) to insulin delivery is promising to pave the way for modulating glucose level noninvasively of diabetes patients, as which born to be painless, easy to handle and no need of any power supply. In this work, we review the process of insulin delivery systems (IDSs) based on MN technology in terms of two categories: drug free MNs and drug loaded MNs. Drug free MNs include solid MNs ("poke and patch"), hollow MNs ("poke and flow") and reservoir-based swelling MNs ("poke and swell R-type"), and drug loaded MNs include coated MNs ("coat and poke"), dissolving MNs ("poke and release") and insulin incorporated swelling MNs ("poke and swell I-type"). Majority researches of MN-based IDSs have been conducted by using hollow MNs or dissolving MNs, and almost all clinical trials for MN-based IDSs have employed hollow MNs. "Poke and patch" approach dramatically increase skin permeability compared to traditional transdermal patch, but MNs fabricated from silicon or metal may leave sharp waste in the skin and cause a safety issue. "Poke and flow" approach, similar to transitional subcutaneous (SC) injection, is capable of producing faster insulin absorption and action than SC injection but may associate with blockage, leakage and low flow rate. Coated MNs are able of retaining the activity of drug, which loaded in a solid phase, for a long time, however have been relatively less studied for insulin application as the low drug dosing. "Poke and release" approach leaves no biohazardous sharp medical waste and is capable of rapid drug release. "Poke and swell R-type" can be seen as a combination of "poke and flow" and "poke and patch" approach, while "poke and swell I-type" is an approach between "coat and

  16. Pharmacokinetics of formulated tenoxicam transdermal delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taekyung; Kang, Eunyoung; Chun, Inkoo; Gwak, Hyesun

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of developing a new tenoxicam transdermal delivery system (TDS), the pharmacokinetics of tenoxicam from various formulated TDS were evaluated and compared with values following oral administration of tenoxicam and with application of a piroxicam plaster (Trast) marketed in Korea. Based on previous in-vitro study results, a mixture of diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DGME) and propylene glycol monolaurate (PGML) (40:60) was used as a vehicle, and caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, oleic acid or linoleic acid (each at 3%) was added as an enhancer. Triethanolamine (5%) was used as a solubilizer, and Duro-Tak 87-2510 as a pressure-sensitive adhesive. Among these fatty acids used for the formulation of tenoxicam TDS, caprylic acid showed the greatest enhancing effect; the area under the plasma concentration-time profile (AUC) decreased in the order of caprylic acid>linoleic acid>or=oleic acid>lauric acid>capric acid. Compared with oral administration, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) was significantly lower, and time to reach Cmax (Tmax) delayed with all formulated tenoxicam TDS. All formulated TDS resulted in a lower AUC than with the oral formulation, except for TDS containing caprylic acid, although the difference was statistically significant only with capric acid. The AUC for all the formulated tenoxicam TDS was significantly higher than that of the piroxicam plaster; TDS with caprylic acid increased AUC 8.53-fold compared with the piroxicam plaster. Even though the Tmax of tenoxicam TDS was not significantly different from that of the piroxicam plaster, Cmax was higher; formulations containing caprylic acid and linoleic acid increased Cmax by 7.39- and 8.76-fold, respectively. In conclusion, a formulation containing 1.5 mL DGME-PGML (40:60) with 3% caprylic acid and 5% triethanolamine mixed with 6 g Duro-Tak 87-2510 could be a good candidate for developing a new tenoxicam TDS to maintain a comparable extent of absorption

  17. Characterization of particulate drug delivery systems for oral delivery of Peptide and protein drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Philip Carsten; Fano, Mathias; Saaby, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Oral drug delivery is a preferred route because of good patient compliance. However, most peptide/ protein drugs are delivered via parenteral routes because of the absorption barriers in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract such as enzymatic degradation by proteases and low permeability acrossthe...... biological membranes. To overcome these barriers, different formulation strategies for oral delivery of biomacromolecules have been proposed, including lipid based formulations and polymer-based particulate drug delivery systems (DDS). The aim of this review is to summarize the existing knowledge about oral...... delivery of peptide/protein drugs and to provide an overview of formulationand characterization strategies. For a better understanding of the challenges in oral delivery of peptide/protein drugs, the composition of GI fluids and the digestion processes of different kinds of excipients in the GI tract...

  18. Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-Based Delivery Systems for Biotherapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Hyejung; Zhang, Miqin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION)-based carrier systems have many advantages over other nanoparticle-based systems. They are biocompatible, biodegradable, facilely tunable, and superparamagnetic and thus controllable by an external magnetic field. These attributes enable their broad biomedical applications. In particular, magnetically-driven carriers are drawing considerable interest as an emerging therapeutic delivery system because of their superior delivery efficiency. Area covered This article reviews the recent advances in use of SPION-based carrier systems to improve the delivery efficiency and target specificity of biotherapeutics. We examine various formulations of SPION-based delivery systems, including SPION micelles, clusters, hydrogels, liposomes, and micro/nanospheres, as well as their specific applications in delivery of biotherapeutics. Expert opinion Recently, biotherapeutics including therapeutic cells, proteins and genes have been studied as alternative treatments to various diseases. Despite the advantages of high target specificity and low adverse effects, clinical translation of biotherapeutics has been hindered by the poor stability and low delivery efficiency compared to chemical drugs. Accordingly, biotherapeutic delivery systems that can overcome these limitations are actively pursued. SPION-based materials can be ideal candidates for developing such delivery systems because of their excellent biocompatibility and superparamagnetism that enables long-term accumulation/retention at target sites by utilization of a suitable magnet. In addition, synthesis technologies for production of finely-tuned, homogeneous SPIONs have been well developed, which may promise their rapid clinical translation. PMID:23199200

  19. The LITA Drill and Sample Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, G.; Yoon, S.; Zacny, K.; Wettergreeng, D.; Cabrol, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Life in the Atacama (LITA) project has a goal of demonstrating autonomous roving, sample acquisition, delivery and analysis operations in Atacama, Chile. To enable the sample handling requirement, Honeybee Robotics developed a rover-deployed, rotary-percussive, autonomous drill, called the LITA Drill, capable of penetrating to ~80 cm in various formations, capturing and delivering subsurface samples to a 20 cup carousel. The carousel has a built-in capability to press the samples within each cup, and position target cups underneath instruments for analysis. The drill and sample delivery system had to have mass and power requirements consistent with a flight system. The drill weighs 12 kg and uses less than 100 watt of power to penetrate ~80 cm. The LITA Drill auger has been designed with two distinct stages. The lower part has deep and gently sloping flutes for retaining powdered sample, while the upper section has shallow and steep flutes for preventing borehole collapse and for efficient movement of cuttings and fall back material out of the hole. The drill uses the so called 'bite-sampling' approach that is samples are taken in short, 5-10 cm bites. To take the first bite, the drill is lowered onto the ground and upon drilling of the first bite it is then retracted into an auger tube. The auger with the auger tube are then lifted off the ground and positioned next to the carousel. To deposit the sample, the auger is rotated and retracted above the auger tube. The cuttings retained on the flutes are either gravity fed or are brushed off by a passive side brush into the cup. After the sample from the first bite has been deposited, the drill is lowered back into the same hole to take the next bite. This process is repeated until a target depth is reached. The bite sampling is analogous to peck drilling in the machining process where a bit is periodically retracted to clear chips. If there is some fall back into the hole once the auger has cleared the hole, this

  20. Regeneration of Three-Way Automobile Catalysts using Biodegradable Metal Chelating Agent – S, S-Ethylenediamine Disuccinic Acid (S, S-EDDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regeneration of the activity of three-way catalytic converters (TWCs) was tested for the first time using a biodegradable metal chelating agent (S, S. Ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (S, S-EDDS). The efficiency of this novel environmentally friendly solvent in removing various c...

  1. Controlled drug delivery systems towards new frontiers in patient care

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Filippo; Masi, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a state-of-the-art overview of controlled drug delivery systems, covering the most important innovative applications. The principles of controlled drug release and the mechanisms involved in controlled release are clearly explained. The various existing polymeric drug delivery systems are reviewed, and new frontiers in material design are examined in detail, covering a wide range of polymer modification techniques. The concluding chapter is a case study focusing on use of a drug-eluting stent. The book is designed to provide the reader with a complete understanding of the mechanisms and design of controlled drug delivery systems, and to this end includes numerous step-by-step tutorials. It illustrates how chemical engineers can advance medical care by designing polymeric delivery systems that achieve either temporal or spatial control of drug delivery and thus ensure more effective therapy that eliminates the potential for both under-and overdosing.

  2. Antigen delivery systems for veterinary vaccine development. Viral-vector based delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Alejandro; Albina, Emmanuel; Barret, Tom; Chapman, David A G; Czub, Markus; Dixon, Linda K; Keil, Günther M; Klonjkowski, Bernard; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique; Libeau, Geneviève; Ortego, Javier; Richardson, Jennifer; Takamatsu, Haru-H

    2008-12-02

    The recent advances in molecular genetics, pathogenesis and immunology have provided an optimal framework for developing novel approaches in the rational design of vaccines effective against viral epizootic diseases. This paper reviews most of the viral-vector based antigen delivery systems (ADSs) recently developed for vaccine testing in veterinary species, including attenuated virus and DNA and RNA viral vectors. Besides their usefulness in vaccinology, these ADSs constitute invaluable tools to researchers for understanding the nature of protective responses in different species, opening the possibility of modulating or potentiating relevant immune mechanisms involved in protection.

  3. A study on nanodiamond-based drug delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Zhang Xiaoyong; Zhu Ying; Li Wenxin; Huang Qing

    2010-01-01

    A multifunctional drug delivery system based on nanodiamonds (NDs) has been developed. FITC, HCPT and TF were absorbed on NDs successively to form the multifunctional complex. The NDs and ND complex samples were characterized by TEM, FR-IR and UV-V. The results indicated that this drug delivery system is a high loading system. Efficacy of the drug delivery system on Hela cell was evaluated with MTT assays and fluorescence microscopy. The results show that multifunction of the NDs complex include fluorescence, targeting and high efficacy. (authors)

  4. Methods and metrics challenges of delivery-system research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Jeffrey A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many delivery-system interventions are fundamentally about change in social systems (both planned and unplanned. This systems perspective raises a number of methodological challenges for studying the effects of delivery-system change--particularly for answering questions related to whether the change will work under different conditions and how the change is integrated (or not into the operating context of the delivery system. Methods The purpose of this paper is to describe the methodological and measurement challenges posed by five key issues in delivery-system research: (1 modeling intervention context; (2 measuring readiness for change; (3 assessing intervention fidelity and sustainability; (4 assessing complex, multicomponent interventions; and (5 incorporating time in delivery-system models to discuss recommendations for addressing these issues. For each issue, we provide recommendations for how research may be designed and implemented to overcome these challenges. Results and conclusions We suggest that a more refined understanding of the mechanisms underlying delivery-system interventions (treatment theory and the ways in which outcomes for different classes of individuals change over time are fundamental starting points for capturing the heterogeneity in samples of individuals exposed to delivery-system interventions. To support the research recommendations outlined in this paper and to advance understanding of the "why" and "how" questions of delivery-system change and their effects, funding agencies should consider supporting studies with larger organizational sample sizes; longer duration; and nontraditional, mixed-methods designs. A version of this paper was prepared under contract with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ, US Department of Health and Human Services for presentation and discussion at a meeting on "The Challenge and Promise of Delivery System Research," held in Sterling, VA, on

  5. Thiolated polymers as mucoadhesive drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Sarah; Cummins, Wayne; O' Donovan, Orla; Hughes, Helen; Owens, Eleanor

    2017-03-30

    Mucoadhesion is the process of binding a material to the mucosal layer of the body. Utilising both natural and synthetic polymers, mucoadhesive drug delivery is a method of controlled drug release which allows for intimate contact between the polymer and a target tissue. It has the potential to increase bioavailability, decrease potential side effects and offer protection to more sensitive drugs such as proteins and peptide based drugs. The thiolation of polymers has, in the last number of years, come to the fore of mucoadhesive drug delivery, markedly improving mucoadhesion due to the introduction of free thiol groups onto the polymer backbone while also offering a more cohesive polymeric matrix for the slower and more controlled release of drug. This review explores the concept of mucoadhesion and the recent advances in both the polymers and the methods of thiolation used in the synthesis of mucoadhesive drug delivery devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Reduction of treatment delivery variances with a computer-controlled treatment delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraass, B.A.; Lash, K.L.; Matrone, G.M.; Lichter, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze treatment delivery variances for 3-D conformal therapy performed at various levels of treatment delivery automation, ranging from manual field setup to virtually complete computer-controlled treatment delivery using a computer-controlled conformal radiotherapy system. Materials and Methods: All external beam treatments performed in our department during six months of 1996 were analyzed to study treatment delivery variances versus treatment complexity. Treatments for 505 patients (40,641 individual treatment ports) on four treatment machines were studied. All treatment variances noted by treatment therapists or quality assurance reviews (39 in all) were analyzed. Machines 'M1' (CLinac (6(100))) and 'M2' (CLinac 1800) were operated in a standard manual setup mode, with no record and verify system (R/V). Machines 'M3' (CLinac 2100CD/MLC) and ''M4'' (MM50 racetrack microtron system with MLC) treated patients under the control of a computer-controlled conformal radiotherapy system (CCRS) which 1) downloads the treatment delivery plan from the planning system, 2) performs some (or all) of the machine set-up and treatment delivery for each field, 3) monitors treatment delivery, 4) records all treatment parameters, and 5) notes exceptions to the electronically-prescribed plan. Complete external computer control is not available on M3, so it uses as many CCRS features as possible, while M4 operates completely under CCRS control and performs semi-automated and automated multi-segment intensity modulated treatments. Analysis of treatment complexity was based on numbers of fields, individual segments (ports), non-axial and non-coplanar plans, multi-segment intensity modulation, and pseudo-isocentric treatments (and other plans with computer-controlled table motions). Treatment delivery time was obtained from the computerized scheduling system (for manual treatments) or from CCRS system logs. Treatment therapists rotate among the machines, so this analysis

  7. Cost Analysis Of Broadband Service Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Donald A.; Johnson, M. Gens

    1990-01-01

    Costs for active double-star fiber networks for local exchange service are compared with the costs of copper twisted-pair single-star networks and copper coaxial-line tree networks with switching at the customer's premises. For both existing and new neighborhoods, it appears that delivery of broadband services through tree networks (possibly using fiber) and delivery of narrow band services through copper twisted-pair star networks will be the minimum cost approach for low market penetrations of the broadband service market. For near 100 percent market penetrations there is relatively little difference in the costs of the two approaches.

  8. Optimization of a Novel Oral Colon Delivery System of Indomethacin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of a Novel Oral Colon Delivery System of Indomethacin Using Full Factorial Design. SA Afifi, WM Mandour, KA Elkhodairy. Abstract. Purpose: To develop and optimize indomethacin (IDM) matrix tablets for specific colon drug delivery. Methods: Indomethacin matrix tablets containing hydrogenated castor oil ...

  9. Magnetic Responsive Hydrogel Material Delivery System II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-29

    agents, tissue repair, immunoassay, cell separation, biomagnetic separation of biomolecules, etc. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...hyperthermic treatment of tumors, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as contrasting agents, tissue repair, immunoassay, cell separation, biomagnetic ...potential step forward in the use of these core-shell MNPs in robust controlled drug delivery, tissue repair, immunoassay, cell separation, biomagnetic

  10. Drug delivery systems in domestic animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayden, David J; Oudot, Emilie J M; Baird, Alan W

    2010-01-01

    Delivery of biologically active agents to animals is often perceived to be the poor relation of human drug delivery. Yet this field has a long and successful history of species-specific device and formulation development, ranging from simple approaches and devices used in production animals to more sophisticated formulations and approaches for a wide range of species. While several technologies using biodegradable polymers have been successfully marketed in a range of veterinary and human products, the transfer of delivery technologies has not been similarly applied across species. This may be due to a combination of specific technical requirements for use of devices in different species, inter-species pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and physiological differences, and distinct market drivers for drug classes used in companion and food-producing animals. This chapter reviews selected commercialised and research-based parenteral and non-parenteral veterinary drug delivery technologies in selected domestic species. Emphasis is also placed on the impact of endogenous drug transporters on drug distribution characteristics in different species. In vitro models used to investigate carrier-dependent transport are reviewed. Species-specific expression of transporters in several tissues can account for inter-animal or inter-species pharmacokinetic variability, lack of predictability of drug efficacy, and potential drug-drug interactions.

  11. Establishment of Protein Delivery Systems Targeting Podocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiang, Wen Chih; Geel, Tessa M.; Altintas, Mehmet M.; Sever, Sanja; Ruiters, Marcel H. J.; Reiser, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    Background: Podocytes are uniquely structured cells that are critical to the kidney filtration barrier. Their anatomic location on the outer side of the glomerular capillaries expose podocytes to large quantities of both plasma and urinary components and thus are reachable for drug delivery. Recent

  12. Cellulose based polymeric systems in drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pharmaceutical industry requires the development of biodegradable, biocompatible, non toxic, site specific drug delivery polymers, which can be easily coupled with drugs to be delivered orally, topically, locally, or parenterally. The use of the most abundant biopolymer, cellulose along with its...

  13. Safety design integrated in the building delivery system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    . The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how safety and health can be integrated in the design phases integrated in the management delivery systems within construction, The method for the research was to go through the building delivery system step by step and create a normative description of what, when...... and how to fully integrate safety in each part of the process. The result is a concept and guideline including control forms for how to integrate safety design in the Building Delivery System plus what to do and when. The concept has been tested in an educational context. The practical value...

  14. Improvement of different vaccine delivery systems for cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaiyan Shima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer vaccines are the promising tools in the hands of the clinical oncologist. Many tumor-associated antigens are excellent targets for immune therapy and vaccine design. Optimally designed cancer vaccines should combine the best tumor antigens with the most effective immunotherapy agents and/or delivery strategies to achieve positive clinical results. Various vaccine delivery systems such as different routes of immunization and physical/chemical delivery methods have been used in cancer therapy with the goal to induce immunity against tumor-associated antigens. Two basic delivery approaches including physical delivery to achieve higher levels of antigen production and formulation with microparticles to target antigen-presenting cells (APCs have demonstrated to be effective in animal models. New developments in vaccine delivery systems will improve the efficiency of clinical trials in the near future. Among them, nanoparticles (NPs such as dendrimers, polymeric NPs, metallic NPs, magnetic NPs and quantum dots have emerged as effective vaccine adjuvants for infectious diseases and cancer therapy. Furthermore, cell-penetrating peptides (CPP have been known as attractive carrier having applications in drug delivery, gene transfer and DNA vaccination. This review will focus on the utilization of different vaccine delivery systems for prevention or treatment of cancer. We will discuss their clinical applications and the future prospects for cancer vaccine development.

  15. An empirical study for medication delivery improvement based on healthcare professionals' perceptions of medication delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Lukasz M; Chen, Shi-Jie

    2009-03-01

    Medication errors are major safety concerns in all hospital settings. The insufficient knowledge about managerial and process improvement strategies required to reduce medication errors can be considered as one of the most important factors holding back hospitals from achieving the desired goals for patient safety. However, strategies for medication error reduction cannot be successfully implemented without a clear understanding of factors affecting medication delivery errors. This paper presents a study in which healthcare professionals' perceptions on three factors, namely (1) technical complexity of tasks/connections; (2) resources problems; and (3) qualification of human resources, are analyzed within the medication delivery system at one community hospital. The outcomes of this research are a theoretical model for reducing medication delivery errors and a set ofworkflow design rules for healthcare professionals to continuously reduce medication delivery errors.

  16. Otic drug delivery systems: formulation principles and recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Li, Mingshuang; Smyth, Hugh; Zhang, Feng

    2018-04-25

    Disorders of the ear severely impact the quality of life of millions of people, but the treatment of these disorders is an ongoing, but often overlooked challenge particularly in terms of formulation design and product development. The prevalence of ear disorders has spurred significant efforts to develop new therapeutic agents, but perhaps less innovation has been applied to new drug delivery systems to improve the efficacy of ear disease treatments. This review provides a brief overview of physiology, major diseases, and current therapies used via the otic route of administration. The primary focuses are on the various administration routes and their formulation principles. The article also presents recent advances in otic drug deliveries as well as potential limitations. Otic drug delivery technology will likely evolve in the next decade and more efficient or specific treatments for ear disease will arise from the development of less invasive drug delivery methods, safe and highly controlled drug delivery systems, and biotechnology targeting therapies.

  17. Biomimetics in drug delivery systems: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhpour, Mojgan; Barani, Leila; Kasaeian, Alibakhsh

    2017-05-10

    Today, the advanced drug delivery systems have been focused on targeted drug delivery fields. The novel drug delivery is involved with the improvement of the capacity of drug loading in drug carriers, cellular uptake of drug carriers, and the sustained release of drugs within target cells. In this review, six groups of therapeutic drug carriers including biomimetic hydrogels, biomimetic micelles, biomimetic liposomes, biomimetic dendrimers, biomimetic polymeric carriers and biomimetic nanostructures, are studied. The subject takes advantage of the biomimetic methods of productions or the biomimetic techniques for the surface modifications, similar to what accrues in natural cells. Moreover, the effects of these biomimetic approaches for promoting the drug efficiency in targeted drug delivery are visible. The study demonstrates that the fabrication of biomimetic nanocomposite drug carriers could noticeably promote the efficiency of drugs in targeted drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nonviral Delivery Systems For Cancer Gene Therapy: Strategies And Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Gayong; Kim, Dongyoon; Le, Quoc-Viet; Park, Gyu Thae; Kwon, Taekhyun; Oh, Yu-Kyoung

    2018-01-19

    Gene therapy has been receiving widespread attention due to its unique advantage in regulating the expression of specific target genes. In the field of cancer gene therapy, modulation of gene expression has been shown to decrease oncogenic factors in cancer cells or increase immune responses against cancer. Due to the macromolecular size and highly negative physicochemical features of plasmid DNA, efficient delivery systems are an essential ingredient for successful gene therapy. To date, a variety of nanostructures and materials have been studied as nonviral gene delivery systems. In this review, we will cover nonviral delivery strategies for cancer gene therapy, with a focus on target cancer genes and delivery materials. Moreover, we will address current challenges and perspectives for nonviral delivery-based cancer gene therapeutics. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Nanotechnologies in delivery of mRNA therapeutics using nonviral vector-based delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, S; Rosenecker, J

    2017-03-01

    Because of its safe and effective protein expression profile, in vitro transcribed messenger RNA (IVT-mRNA) represents a promising candidate in the development of novel therapeutics for genetic diseases, vaccines or gene editing strategies, especially when its inherent shortcomings (for example, instability and immunogenicity) have been partially addressed via structural modifications. However, numerous unsolved technical difficulties in successful in vivo delivery of IVT-mRNA have greatly hindered the applications of IVT-mRNA in clinical development. Recent advances in nanotechnology and material science have yielded many promising nonviral delivery systems, some of which were able to efficiently facilitate targeted in vivo delivery of IVT-mRNA in safe and noninvasive manners. The diversity and flexibility of these delivery systems highlight the recent progress of IVT-mRNA-based therapy using nonviral vectors. In this review, we summarize recent advances of existing and emerging nonviral vector-based nanotechnologies for IVT-mRNA delivery and briefly summarize the interesting but rarely discussed applications on simultaneous delivery of IVT-mRNA with DNA.

  20. Designing and assessing a sustainable networked delivery (SND) system: hybrid business-to-consumer book delivery case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junbeum; Xu, Ming; Kahhat, Ramzy; Allenby, Braden; Williams, Eric

    2009-01-01

    We attempted to design and assess an example of a sustainable networked delivery (SND) system: a hybrid business-to-consumer book delivery system. This system is intended to reduce costs, achieve significant reductions in energy consumption, and reduce environmental emissions of critical local pollutants and greenhouse gases. The energy consumption and concomitant emissions of this delivery system compared with existing alternative delivery systems were estimated. We found that regarding energy consumption, an emerging hybrid delivery system which is a sustainable networked delivery system (SND) would consume 47 and 7 times less than the traditional networked delivery system (TND) and e-commerce networked delivery system (END). Regarding concomitant emissions, in the case of CO2, the SND system produced 32 and 7 times fewer emissions than the TND and END systems. Also the SND system offer meaningful economic benefit such as the costs of delivery and packaging, to the online retailer, grocery, and consumer. Our research results show that the SND system has a lot of possibilities to save local transportation energy consumption and delivery costs, and reduce environmental emissions in delivery system.

  1. Healthcare Delivery Systems at Higher Educational Institutions in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Chintaman Yeravdekar

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The collective responses obtained could provide the basis for a policy formulation. The policy formulation in turn could be the basis of a national consensus for health care delivery systems operational at higher educational institutions in India.

  2. Buccal Transmucosal Delivery System of Enalapril for Improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    compliance. Methods: Transmucosal drug delivery systems of enalapril maleate were formulated as buccal films by solvent casting technique using polyvinylpyrrolidone K90, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (high viscosity). The films were evaluated for film weight, thickness, folding endurance ...

  3. A mucoadhesive in situ gel delivery system for paclitaxel

    OpenAIRE

    Jauhari, Saurabh; Dash, Alekha K.

    2006-01-01

    MUC1 gene encodes a transmembrane mucin glycoprotein that is overexpressed in human breast cancer and colon cancer. The objective of this study was to develop an in situ gel delivery system containing paclitaxel (PTX) and mucoadhesives for sustained and targeted delivery of anticancer drugs. The delivery system consisted of chitosan and glyceryl monooleate (GMO) in 0.33M citric acid containing PTX. The in vitro release of PTX from the gel was performed in presence and absence of Tween 80 at d...

  4. siRNA delivery with lipid-based systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    in vivo, toxicity and non-specific stimulation of the immune system. To optimally design and tailor the lipidic systems for siRNA delivery, better insight is needed into the mechanisms of cell delivery. More specifically, further clarification is need regarding the nature of cell surface interactions......, routes of internalization, passage of intracellular membranes, and mechanisms of immune activation. This review provides an overview of the main constituents currently employed in lipid-based siRNA carriers, and recent research into improvements of cell delivery. In addition, pitfalls related to immune...

  5. Design and Biological Evaluation of Delivery Systems Containing Bisphosphonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing Aderibigbe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates have found application in the treatment of reoccurrence of bone diseases, breast cancer, etc. They have also been found to exhibit antimicrobial, anticancer and antimalarial activities. However, they suffer from pharmacological deficiencies such as toxicity, poor bioavailability and low intestinal adsorption. These shortcomings have resulted in several researchers developing delivery systems that can enhance their overall therapeutic effectiveness. This review provides a detailed overview of the published studies on delivery systems designed for the delivery of bisphosphonates and the corresponding in vitro/in vivo results.

  6. Microbial Colonization of Laparoscopic Gas Delivery Systems: A Qualitative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ott, Douglas E.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Laparoscopic procedures utilize a pneumoperitoneum to distend and separate the abdominal wall from the intra-abdominal structures. Carbon dioxide is commonly used for this purpose, although this study is inclusive of any gas used for abdominal distention. The gas is delivered from cylinders through a gas insufflation delivery system. The purpose of this study is to determine if laparoscopic gas delivery systems composed of gas cylinders and insufflators used for laparoscopy have mi...

  7. Pharmacokinetics of a 5-fluorouracil liposomal delivery system.

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, S T; Sherwood, M B; Nichols, D A; Penne, R B; Sery, T; Spaeth, G L

    1988-01-01

    A liposomal delivery system was developed in an attempt to prolong ocular levels of 5-fluorouracil for glaucoma filtering surgery. The pharmacokinetics of the 5-fluorouracil liposomal delivery system were studied in normal pigmented rabbits with 5-fluorouracil labelled with carbon-14 (C-14). 14C 5-fluorouracil was incorporated into the liposomes at a concentration of 10 g/l and injected subconjunctivally in doses of 5 and 10 mg. Concentrations of 5-fluorouracil were assayed at 10 time interva...

  8. Drug Delivery and Nanoformulations for the Cardiovascular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldenhuys, W J; Khayat, M T; Yun, J; Nayeem, M A

    2017-02-01

    Therapeutic delivery to the cardiovascular system may play an important role in the successful treatment of a variety of disease state, including atherosclerosis, ischemic-reperfusion injury and other types of microvascular diseases including hypertension. In this review we evaluate the different options available for the development of suitable delivery systems that include the delivery of small organic compounds [adenosin A 2A receptor agonist (CGS 21680), CYP-epoxygenases inhibitor (N-(methylsulfonyl)-2-(2-propynyloxy)-benzenehexanamide, trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-ylureido)cyclohexyloxy] benzoic acid), soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor (N-methylsulfonyl-12,12-dibromododec-11-enamide), PPARγ agonist (rosiglitazone) and PPARγ antagonist (T0070907)], nanoparticles, peptides, and siRNA to the cardiovascular system. Effective formulations of nanoproducts have significant potential to overcome physiological barriers and improve therapeutic outcomes in patients. As per the literature covering targeted delivery to the cardiovascular system, we found that this area is still at infancy stage, as compare to the more mature fields of tumor cancer or brain delivery (e.g. blood-brain barrier permeability) with fewer publications focused on the targeted drug delivery technologies. Additionally, we show how pharmacology needs to be well understood when considering the cardiovascular system. Therefore, we discussed in this review various receptors agonists, antagonists, activators and inhibitors which will have effects on cardiovascular system.

  9. Model for determining and optimizing delivery performance in industrial systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fechete Flavia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance means achieving organizational objectives regardless of their nature and variety, and even overcoming them. Improving performance is one of the major goals of any company. Achieving the global performance means not only obtaining the economic performance, it is a must to take into account other functions like: function of quality, delivery, costs and even the employees satisfaction. This paper aims to improve the delivery performance of an industrial system due to their very low results. The delivery performance took into account all categories of performance indicators, such as on time delivery, backlog efficiency or transport efficiency. The research was focused on optimizing the delivery performance of the industrial system, using linear programming. Modeling the delivery function using linear programming led to obtaining precise quantities to be produced and delivered each month by the industrial system in order to minimize their transport cost, satisfying their customers orders and to control their stock. The optimization led to a substantial improvement in all four performance indicators that concern deliveries.

  10. Facile electrospinning of an efficient drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lan; Wang, Yuelong; Tong, Aiping; Guo, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Electrospinning is a facile method for fabricating fibers with diameters in the order of several nanometers to a few micrometers. This technology has great potential for preparing drug delivery systems (DDSs) and has received a great deal of attention in recent years. When combined with certain nanocarriers, such as micelles, nanoparticles or vesicles, an electrospun fiber membrane becomes an efficient and helpful platform for the above-mentioned formulations to achieve sustained and targeted drug release. The developmental process of electrospinning technology is briefly summarized and the drugs and the materials electrospun into drug delivery systems are listed . The application of electrospinning technology in the biomedical field and its current progress are emphasized. A safe, efficient and multifunctional electrospinning drug delivery system is urgently needed, which requires further studies. Cross-disciplinary strategies that cover pharmaceutical science, material science and computer science may provide guidance in bringing electrospinning technology in drug delivery to fruition.

  11. Drug delivery from the oral cavity: a focus on mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkar, Dattatraya Manohar; Dhake, Avinash Sridhar; Setty, Chitral Mallikarjuna

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1980s the concept of mucoadhesion has gained considerable interest in pharmaceutical technology. The various advantages associated with these systems made buccal drug delivery as a novel route of drug administration. It prolongs the residence time of the dosage form at the site of application. These systems remain in close contact with the absorption tissue, the mucous membrane, and thus contribute to improved and/or better therapeutic performance of the drug and of both local and systemic effects. This review highlights the anatomy and structure of oral mucosa, mechanism and theories of mucoadhesion, factors affecting mucoadhesion, characteristics and properties of desired mucoadhesive polymers, various types of dosage forms, and general considerations in design of mucoadhesive buccal dosage forms, permeation enhancers, and evaluation methods. Over the past few decades the mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery system has received a great deal of attention to develop mucoadhesive dosage forms to enable the prolonged retention at the site of action, providing a controlled release of drug for improved therapeutic outcome. Mucoadhesive drug delivery gives facility to include a permeation enhancer/enzyme inhibitor or pHmodifier in the formulation and versatility in designing as multidirectional or unidirectional release systems for local and systemic action. Local delivery to tissues of the oral cavity has a number of applications, including treatment of local conditions such as periodontal disease, bacterial and fungal infections, and aphthous stomatitis and vesiculo bullous diseases. For the treatment of chronic diseases, the mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery system allows easily accessibility and is generally well-accepted for administeringdrugs by systemic action.

  12. DNA Nanotechnology-Enabled Drug Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qinqin; Li, Hua; Wang, Lihua; Gu, Hongzhou; Fan, Chunhai

    2018-02-21

    Over the past decade, we have seen rapid advances in applying nanotechnology in biomedical areas including bioimaging, biodetection, and drug delivery. As an emerging field, DNA nanotechnology offers simple yet powerful design techniques for self-assembly of nanostructures with unique advantages and high potential in enhancing drug targeting and reducing drug toxicity. Various sequence programming and optimization approaches have been developed to design DNA nanostructures with precisely engineered, controllable size, shape, surface chemistry, and function. Potent anticancer drug molecules, including Doxorubicin and CpG oligonucleotides, have been successfully loaded on DNA nanostructures to increase their cell uptake efficiency. These advances have implicated the bright future of DNA nanotechnology-enabled nanomedicine. In this review, we begin with the origin of DNA nanotechnology, followed by summarizing state-of-the-art strategies for the construction of DNA nanostructures and drug payloads delivered by DNA nanovehicles. Further, we discuss the cellular fates of DNA nanostructures as well as challenges and opportunities for DNA nanostructure-based drug delivery.

  13. Encapsulation systems for the delivery of hydrophilic nutraceuticals: Food application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditya, N P; Espinosa, Yadira Gonzalez; Norton, Ian T

    2017-07-01

    Increased health risk associated with the sedentary life style is forcing the food manufacturers to look for food products with specific or general health benefits e.g. beverages enriched with nutraceuticals like catechin, curcumin rutin. Compounds like polyphenols, flavonoids, vitamins are the good choice of bioactive compounds that can be used to fortify the food products to enhance their functionality. However due to low stability and bioavailability of these bioactives (both hydrophobic and hydrophilic) within the heterogeneous food microstructure and in the Gastro Intestinal Tract (GIT), it becomes extremely difficult to pass on the real health benefits to the consumers. Recent developments in the application of nano-delivery systems for food product development is proving to be a game changer which has raised the expectations of the researchers, food manufacturers and consumers regarding possibility of enhancing the functionality of bioactives within the fortified food products. In this direction, nano/micro delivery systems using lipids, surfactants and other materials (carbohydrates, polymers, complexes, protein) have been fabricated to stabilize and enhance the biological activity of the bioactive compounds. In the present review, current status of the various delivery systems that are used for the delivery of hydrophilic bioactives and future prospects for using other delivery systems that have been not completely explored for the delivery of hydrophilic bioactives e.g. niosomes; bilosomes, cubosomes are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Elastin-Like Recombinamers As Smart Drug Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, F Javier; Santos, Mercedes; Ibanez-Fonseca, Arturo; Pina, Maria Jesus; Serrano, Sofía

    2018-02-19

    Drug delivery systems that are able to control the release of bioactive molecules and designed to carry drugs to target sites are of particular interest for tissue therapy. Moreover, systems comprising materials that can respond to environmental stimuli and promote self-assembly and higher order supramolecular organization are especially useful in the biomedical field. Objetive: This review focuses on biomaterials suitable for this purpose and that include elastin-like recombinamers (ELRs), a class of proteinaceous polymers bioinspired by natural elastin, designed using recombinant technologies. The self-assembly and thermoresponsive behaviour of these systems, along with their biodegradability, biocompatibility and well-defined composition as a result of their tailormade design, make them particularly attractive for controlled drug delivery. ELR-based delivery systems that allow targeted delivery are reviewed, especially ELR-drug recombinant fusion constructs, ELR-drug systems chemically bioconjugated in their monomeric and soluble forms, and drug encapsulation by nanoparticle-forming ELRs. Subsequently, the review focuses on those drug carriers in which smart release is triggered by pH or temperature with a particular focus on cancer treatments. Systems for controlled drug release based on depots and hydrogels that act as both a support and reservoir in which drugs can be stored will be described, and their applications in drug delivery discussed. Finally, smart drug-delivery systems not based on ELRs, including those comprising proteins, synthetic polymers and non-polymeric systems, will also be briefly discussed. Several different constructions based on ELRs are potential candidates for controlled drug delivery to be applied in advanced biomedical treatments. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Drug delivery systems: Advanced technologies potentially applicable in personalized treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Jorge F; Ferreira, Paula C; Alves, Patricia; Cordeiro, Rosemeyre; Fonseca, Ana C; Góis, Joana R; Gil, Maria H

    2010-03-01

    Advanced drug delivery systems (DDS) present indubitable benefits for drug administration. Over the past three decades, new approaches have been suggested for the development of novel carriers for drug delivery. In this review, we describe general concepts and emerging research in this field based on multidisciplinary approaches aimed at creating personalized treatment for a broad range of highly prevalent diseases (e.g., cancer and diabetes). This review is composed of two parts. The first part provides an overview on currently available drug delivery technologies including a brief history on the development of these systems and some of the research strategies applied. The second part provides information about the most advanced drug delivery devices using stimuli-responsive polymers. Their synthesis using controlled-living radical polymerization strategy is described. In a near future it is predictable the appearance of new effective tailor-made DDS, resulting from knowledge of different interdisciplinary sciences, in a perspective of creating personalized medical solutions.

  16. Waste feed delivery program systems engineering implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Toole, S.M.; Hendel, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document defines the systems engineering processes and products planned by the Waste Feed Delivery Program to develop the necessary and sufficient systems to provide waste feed to the Privatization Contractor for Phase 1. It defines roles and responsibilities for the performance of the systems engineering processes and generation of products

  17. Hydrocolloid-based nutraceutical delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janaswamy, Srinivas; Youngren, Susanne R. (Purdue)

    2012-07-11

    Nutraceuticals are important due to their inherent health benefits. However, utilization and consumption are limited by their poor water solubility and instability at normal processing and storage conditions. Herein, we propose an elegant and novel approach for the delivery of nutraceuticals in their active form using hydrocolloid matrices that are inexpensive and non-toxic with generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status. Iota-carrageenan and curcumin have been chosen as models of hydrocolloid and nutraceutical compounds, respectively. The iota-carrageenan network maintains a stable organization after encapsulating curcumin molecules, protects them from melting and then releases them in a sustained manner. These findings lay a strong foundation for developing value-added functional and medicinal foods.

  18. Oral delivery of peptides and proteins using lipid-based drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ping; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Müllertz, Anette

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In order to successfully develop lipid-based drug delivery systems (DDS) for oral administration of peptides and proteins, it is important to gain an understanding of the colloid structures formed by these DDS, the mode of peptide and protein incorporation as well as the mechanism...... by which intestinal absorption of peptides and proteins is promoted. AREAS COVERED: The present paper reviews the literature on lipid-based DDS, employed for oral delivery of peptides and proteins and highlights the mechanisms by which the different lipid-based carriers are expected to overcome the two...... most important barriers (extensive enzymatic degradation and poor transmucosal permeability). This paper also gives a clear-cut idea about advantages and drawbacks of using different lipidic colloidal carriers ((micro)emulsions, solid lipid core particles and liposomes) for oral delivery of peptides...

  19. H2T liquid hydrogen delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.

    2002-01-01

    This Power Point presentation provides a preliminary evaluation of the cost of delivering liquid hydrogen produced in Quebec to hydrogen fuelled cars in Germany. The presentation describes the chain of events regarding liquid hydrogen delivery, beginning with the production of hydrogen from an initial source of hydro power. Water passes through an electrolyzer where hydrogen is liquefied and then placed into a container which is transported to market via truck, rail or tanker. Once transported, the hydrogen fuel is made available for consumers at refueling stations. The paper lists the costs related to transportation with reference to safety rules, pure transportation costs, leasing fees for the containers, and permission of customs duties for the import of hydrogen and export of empty containers between Quebec and Germany. A graph depicting a typical refueling station in Germany and the refueling events per hour was presented. For safety reasons, refueling is performed by a refueling robot. A blueprint of safety and protection distances at a refueling station was also presented. tabs., figs

  20. Engineering the system of healthcare delivery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rouse, William B; Cortese, Denis A

    2010-01-01

    ... them. But the system has evolved haphazardly over time and although it has not failed entirely, the authors argue that like any system where attention is paid to individual components at the expense...

  1. An epitope delivery system for use with recombinant mycobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hetzel, C.; Janssen, R.; Ely, S.J.; Kristensen, N.M.; Bunting, K.; Cooper, J.B.; Lamb, J.R.; Young, D.B.; Thole, J.E.R.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a novel epitope delivery system based on the insertion of peptides within a permissive loop of a bacterial superoxide dismutase molecule. This system allowed high-level expression of heterologous peptides in two mycobacterial vaccine strains, Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-

  2. Networking in the sport delivery system in South African Universities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The changing global and national sportscapes rely on entangled and overlapping sport delivery systems linked through processes of multi-layered networking and clustering of stakeholders. Higher education institutions form part of the relational interdependent sub-systems that have the potential of becoming a significant ...

  3. Engaging Faculty in Telecommunications-Based Instructional Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swalec, John J.

    In the design and development of telecommunications-based instructional delivery systems, attention to faculty involvement and training is often overlooked until the system is operational. The Waubonsee Telecommunications Instructional Consortium (TIC), in Illinois, is one network that benefited from early faculty input. Even before the first…

  4. Carrier-Based Drug Delivery System for Treatment of Acne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Amber; Kumar Sonker, Avinesh

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 95% of the population suffers at some point in their lifetime from acne vulgaris. Acne is a multifactorial disease of the pilosebaceous unit. This inflammatory skin disorder is most common in adolescents but also affects neonates, prepubescent children, and adults. Topical conventional systems are associated with various side effects. Novel drug delivery systems have been used to reduce the side effect of drugs commonly used in the topical treatment of acne. Topical treatment of acne with active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) makes direct contact with the target site before entering the systemic circulation which reduces the systemic side effect of the parenteral or oral administration of drug. The objective of the present review is to discuss the conventional delivery systems available for acne, their drawbacks, and limitations. The advantages, disadvantages, and outcome of using various carrier-based delivery systems like liposomes, niosomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and so forth, are explained. This paper emphasizes approaches to overcome the drawbacks and limitations associated with the conventional system and the advances and application that are poised to further enhance the efficacy of topical acne formulations, offering the possibility of simplified dosing regimen that may improve treatment outcomes using novel delivery system. PMID:24688376

  5. Pharmacokinetics of a 5-fluorouracil liposomal delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, S T; Sherwood, M B; Nichols, D A; Penne, R B; Sery, T; Spaeth, G L

    1988-01-01

    A liposomal delivery system was developed in an attempt to prolong ocular levels of 5-fluorouracil for glaucoma filtering surgery. The pharmacokinetics of the 5-fluorouracil liposomal delivery system were studied in normal pigmented rabbits with 5-fluorouracil labelled with carbon-14 (C-14). 14C 5-fluorouracil was incorporated into the liposomes at a concentration of 10 g/l and injected subconjunctivally in doses of 5 and 10 mg. Concentrations of 5-fluorouracil were assayed at 10 time intervals from 0.5 to 96 hours in cornea, sclera, and conjunctiva and at six time intervals from 0.5 to 12 hours in aqueous. Two peak concentrations were noted at approximately one and eight hours, with measurable levels present at 96 hours. This study demonstrates the ability of this liposomal delivery system to prolong levels of 5-fluorouracial in normal pigmented rabbits. PMID:3179257

  6. Safety design integrated in the Building Delivery System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    phases of the building delivery system by using the principle of the lean construction modelling. The method for the research was to go through the lean construction building delivery system step by step and create a normative description of what to do, when to do and how to do to fully integration...... and the consultants. The result is a concept and guideline including control schemes for how to integrate safety design in the lean construction building delivery system including what to do and when. The concept has been tested in an educational context and found useful by the designers. The practical value...... of safety in each process. The group of participants who created the description had a high experience in a combination of research, safety and health in general and especial in construction and knowledge of the lean construction processes both from the clients perspective as well as from the designers...

  7. A clinical perspective on mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilhotra, Ritu M; Ikram, Mohd; Srivastava, Sunny; Gilhotra, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesion can be defined as a state in which two components, of which one is of biological origin, are held together for extended periods of time by the help of interfacial forces. Among the various transmucosal routes, buccal mucosa has excellent accessibility and relatively immobile mucosa, hence suitable for administration of retentive dosage form. The objective of this paper is to review the works done so far in the field of mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems (MBDDS), with a clinical perspective. Starting with a brief introduction of the mucoadhesive drug delivery systems, oral mucosa, and the theories of mucoadhesion, this article then proceeds to cover the works done so far in the field of MBDDS, categorizing them on the basis of ailments they are meant to cure. Additionally, we focus on the various patents, recent advancements, and challenges as well as the future prospects for mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems. PMID:24683406

  8. Importance of dual delivery systems for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farokhi, Mehdi; Mottaghitalab, Fatemeh; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Ou, Keng-Liang; Mao, Chuanbin; Hosseinkhani, Hossein

    2016-03-10

    Bone formation is a complex process that requires concerted function of multiple growth factors. For this, it is essential to design a delivery system with the ability to load multiple growth factors in order to mimic the natural microenvironment for bone tissue formation. However, the short half-lives of growth factors, their relatively large size, slow tissue penetration, and high toxicity suggest that conventional routes of administration are unlikely to be effective. Therefore, it seems that using multiple bioactive factors in different delivery systems can develop new strategies for improving bone tissue regeneration. Combination of these factors along with biomaterials that permit tunable release profiles would help to achieve truly spatiotemporal regulation during delivery. This review summarizes the various dual-control release systems that are used for bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficiency performance of China's health care delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luyu; Cheng, Gang; Song, Suhang; Yuan, Beibei; Zhu, Weiming; He, Li; Ma, Xiaochen; Meng, Qingyue

    2017-07-01

    Improving efficiency performance of the health care delivery system has been on the agenda for the health system reform that China initiated in 2009. This study examines the changes in efficiency performance and determinants of efficiency after the reform to provide evidence to assess the progress of the reform from the perspective of efficiency. Descriptive analysis, Data Envelopment Analysis, the Malmquist Index, and multilevel regressions are used with data from multiple sources, including the World Bank, the China Health Statistical Yearbook, and routine reports. The results indicate that over the last decade, health outcomes compared with health investment were relatively higher in China than in most other countries worldwide, and the trend was stable. The overall efficiency and total factor productivity increased after the reform, indicating that the reform was likely to have had a positive impact on the efficiency performance of the health care delivery system. However, the health care delivery structure showed low system efficiency, mainly attributed to the weakened primary health care system. Strengthening the primary health care system is central to enhancing the future performance of China's health care delivery system. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Oral Drug Delivery Systems Comprising Altered Geometric Configurations for Controlled Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Bawa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent pharmaceutical research has focused on controlled drug delivery having an advantage over conventional methods. Adequate controlled plasma drug levels, reduced side effects as well as improved patient compliance are some of the benefits that these systems may offer. Controlled delivery systems that can provide zero-order drug delivery have the potential for maximizing efficacy while minimizing dose frequency and toxicity. Thus, zero-order drug release is ideal in a large area of drug delivery which has therefore led to the development of various technologies with such drug release patterns. Systems such as multilayered tablets and other geometrically altered devices have been created to perform this function. One of the principles of multilayered tablets involves creating a constant surface area for release. Polymeric materials play an important role in the functioning of these systems. Technologies developed to date include among others: Geomatrix® multilayered tablets, which utilizes specific polymers that may act as barriers to control drug release; Procise®, which has a core with an aperture that can be modified to achieve various types of drug release; core-in-cup tablets, where the core matrix is coated on one surface while the circumference forms a cup around it; donut-shaped devices, which possess a centrally-placed aperture hole and Dome Matrix® as well as “release modules assemblage”, which can offer alternating drug release patterns. This review discusses the novel altered geometric system technologies that have been developed to provide controlled drug release, also focusing on polymers that have been employed in such developments.

  11. Buccoadhesive drug delivery systems--extensive review on recent patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathan, Shadab A; Iqbal, Zeenat; Sahani, Jasjeet K; Talegaonkar, Sushma; Khar, Roop K; Ahmad, Farhan J

    2008-01-01

    Peroral administration of drugs, although most preferred by both clinicians and patients has several disadvantages such as hepatic first pass metabolism and enzymatic degradation within the GI tract, that prohibit oral administration of certain classes of drugs especially peptides and proteins. Consequently, other absorptive mucosae are considered as potential sites for administration of these drugs. Among the various transmucosal routes studied the buccal mucosa offers several advantages for controlled drug delivery for extended period of time. The mucosa is well supplied with both vascular and lymphatic drainage and first-pass metabolism in the liver and pre-systemic elimination in the gastrointestinal tract is avoided. The area is well suited for a retentive device and appears to be acceptable to the patient. With the right dosage form, design and formulation, the permeability and the local environment of the mucosa can be controlled and manipulated in order to accommodate drug permeation. Buccal drug delivery is thus a promising area for continued research with the aim of systemic and local delivery of orally inefficient drugs as well as feasible and attractive alternative for non-invasive delivery of potent protein and peptide drug molecules. Extensive review pertaining specifically to the patents relating to buccal drug delivery is currently available. However, many patents e.g. US patents 6, 585,997; US20030059376A1 etc. have been mentioned in few articles. It is the objective of this article to extensively review buccal drug delivery by discussing the recent patents available. Buccal dosage forms will also be reviewed with an emphasis on bioadhesive polymeric based delivery systems.

  12. NOVEL APROACHES ON BUCCAL MUCOADHESIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Dibyalochan Mohanty* , C. Gurulatha, Dr.Vasudha Bakshi, B. Mavya

    2018-01-01

    Among novel drug delivery system ,Buccal mucoadhesive systems have attracted great attention in recent years due to their ability to adhere and remain on the oral mucosa and to release their drug content gradually ,bioadhesion refers to any bond formed between two biological surface or a bond between a biological and a systemic surface. Buccal mucosa is preferred for both systemic and local drug action. The mucosa has a rich blood supply and it relatively permeable. Buccal mucoadhesive films ...

  13. Ophthalmic Drug Delivery Systems for Antibiotherapy—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Dubald

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The last fifty years, ophthalmic drug delivery research has made much progress, challenging scientists about the advantages and limitations of this drug delivery approach. Topical eye drops are the most commonly used formulation in ocular drug delivery. Despite the good tolerance for patients, this topical administration is only focus on the anterior ocular diseases and had a high precorneal loss of drugs due to the tears production and ocular barriers. Antibiotics are popularly used in solution or in ointment for the ophthalmic route. However, their local bioavailability needs to be improved in order to decrease the frequency of administrations and the side effects and to increase their therapeutic efficiency. For this purpose, sustained release forms for ophthalmic delivery of antibiotics were developed. This review briefly describes the ocular administration with the ocular barriers and the currently topical forms. It focuses on experimental results to bypass the limitations of ocular antibiotic delivery with new ocular technology as colloidal and in situ gelling systems or with the improvement of existing forms as implants and contact lenses. Nanotechnology is presently a promising drug delivery way to provide protection of antibiotics and improve pathway through ocular barriers and deliver drugs to specific target sites.

  14. Ultrafast fiber beam delivery: system technology and industrial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funck, Max C.; Eilzer, Sebastian; Wedel, Björn

    2017-02-01

    Flexible beam delivery of high power pico- and femtosecond pulses offers great advantages in industrial applications. Complex free space beam delivery as found in robot or gantry systems can be replaced, laser safety and uptime increased and system integration in production environment simplified. Only recently fiber beam delivery has become available for ultrafast lasers while it has been an established standard for cw and pulsed laser sources for many years. Using special kinds of fiber that guide the laser beam mostly inside a hollow core, nonlinear effects and catastrophic damage that would arise in conventional glass fibers can be avoided. Today, ultrafast pulses with several 100 μJ and hundreds of MW can be transmitted in quasi single mode fashion with micro-structured hollow core fibers. During the last years we have developed a modular beam delivery system that suits industrial ultrafast lasers and can be integrated into existing processing machines. Micro-structured hollow core fibers inside the sealed laser light cable efficiently guide high-power laser pulses over distances of several meters with excellent beam quality, while power, pulse duration and polarization are maintained. We report on the technology required for fiber beam delivery of ultrafast laser pulses and discuss requirements for successful integration into industrial production as well as achievable performance under realistic operation and show examples of micromachining applications.

  15. Nanocomposites chitosan/montmorillonite for drug delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Carla R. Costa; Barbosa, Rossemberg C.; Lima, Rosemary S. Cunha; Fook, Marcus V. Lia; Silva, Suedina M. Lima

    2009-01-01

    In drugs delivery system the incorporation of an inorganic nanophase in polymer matrix, i.e. production of an inorganic-organic nanocomposite is an attractive alternative to obtain a constant release rate for a prolonged time. This study was performed to obtain films of nanocomposites Chitosan/montmorillonite intercalation by the technique of solution in the proportions of 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1. The nanocomposites were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. The results indicated that the feasibility of obtaining films of nanocomposites exfoliate. Among the suggested applications for films developed in this study includes them use for drugs delivery system. (author)

  16. Process development work plan for waste feed delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, I.G.

    1998-01-01

    This work plan defines the process used to develop project definition for Waste Feed Delivery (WFD). Project definition provides the direction for development of definitive design media required for the ultimate implementation of operational processing hardware and software. Outlines for the major deliverables are attached as appendices. The implementation of hardware and software will accommodate requirements for safe retrieval and delivery of waste currently stored in Hanford's underground storage tanks. Operations and maintenance ensure the availability of systems, structures, and components for current and future planned operations within the boundary of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) authorization basis

  17. Mercury sorbent delivery system for flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klunder,; Edgar, B [Bethel Park, PA

    2009-02-24

    The invention presents a device for the removal of elemental mercury from flue gas streams utilizing a layer of activated carbon particles contained within the filter fabric of a filter bag for use in a flue gas scrubbing system.

  18. A real-time virtual delivery system for photon radiotherapy delivery monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Shi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Treatment delivery monitoring is important for radiotherapy, which enables catching dosimetric error at the earliest possible opportunity. This project develops a virtual delivery system to monitor the dose delivery process of photon radiotherapy in real-time using GPU-based Monte Carlo (MC method.Methods: The simulation process consists of 3 parallel CPU threads. A thread T1 is responsible for communication with a linac, which acquires a set of linac status parameters, e.g. gantry angles, MLC configurations, and beam MUs every 20 ms. Since linac vendors currently do not offer interface to acquire data in real time, we mimic this process by fetching information from a linac dynalog file at the set frequency. Instantaneous beam fluence map (FM is calculated based. A FM buffer is also created in T1 and the instantaneous FM is accumulated to it. This process continues, until a ready signal is received from thread T2 on which an in-house developed MC dose engine executes on GPU. At that moment, the accumulated FM is transferred to T2 for dose calculations, and the FM buffer in T1 is cleared. Once the dose calculation finishes, the resulting 3D dose distribution is directed to thread T3, which displays it in three orthogonal planes in color wash overlaid on the CT image. This process continues to monitor the 3D dose distribution in real-time.Results: An IMRT and a VMAT cases used in our patient-specific QA are studied. Maximum dose differences between our system and treatment planning system are 0.98% and 1.58% for the IMRT and VMAT cases, respectively. The update frequency is >10Hz and the relative uncertainty level is 2%.Conclusion: By embedding a GPU-based MC code in a novel data/work flow, it is possible to achieve real-time MC dose calculations to monitor delivery process.------------------------------Cite this article as: Shi F, Gu X, Graves YJ, Jiang S, Jia X. A real-time virtual delivery system for photon radiotherapy delivery

  19. Application of mathematical modeling in sustained release delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Mario; Grassi, Gabriele

    2014-08-01

    This review, presenting as starting point the concept of the mathematical modeling, is aimed at the physical and mathematical description of the most important mechanisms regulating drug delivery from matrix systems. The precise knowledge of the delivery mechanisms allows us to set up powerful mathematical models which, in turn, are essential for the design and optimization of appropriate drug delivery systems. The fundamental mechanisms for drug delivery from matrices are represented by drug diffusion, matrix swelling, matrix erosion, drug dissolution with possible recrystallization (e.g., as in the case of amorphous and nanocrystalline drugs), initial drug distribution inside the matrix, matrix geometry, matrix size distribution (in the case of spherical matrices of different diameter) and osmotic pressure. Depending on matrix characteristics, the above-reported variables may play a different role in drug delivery; thus the mathematical model needs to be built solely on the most relevant mechanisms of the particular matrix considered. Despite the somewhat diffident behavior of the industrial world, in the light of the most recent findings, we believe that mathematical modeling may have a tremendous potential impact in the pharmaceutical field. We do believe that mathematical modeling will be more and more important in the future especially in the light of the rapid advent of personalized medicine, a novel therapeutic approach intended to treat each single patient instead of the 'average' patient.

  20. Gastroretentive drug delivery systems: a patent perspective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patent, once seen as a technical matter for legal experts, has today become a central concern for governments, businesses, civil society, scientists and innovators. In a world where the economic growth of nations is driven increasingly by creativity and knowledge of their people, effective intellectual property (IP) systems, ...

  1. In vitro dissolution/release methods for mucosal delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Jug

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In vitro dissolution/release tests are an indispensable tool in the drug product development, its quality control and the regulatory approval process. Mucosal drug delivery systems are designed to provide both local and systemic drug action following ocular, nasal, oromucosal, vaginal or rectal administration. They exhibit significant differences in formulation design, physicochemical characteristics and drug release properties. Therefore it is not possible to devise a single method which would be suitable for release testing of such versatile and complex dosage forms. Different apparatuses and techniques for in vitro release testing for mucosal delivery systems considering the specific conditions at the administration site are described. In general, compendial apparatuses and methods should be used as a first approach in method development when applicable. However, to assure adequate simulation of conditions in vivo, novel biorelevant in vitro dissolution/release methods should be developed. Equipment set up, the selection of dissolution media and volume, membrane type, agitation speed, temperature, and assay analysis technique need to be carefully defined based on mucosal drug delivery system characteristics. All those parameters depend on the delivery system and physiological conditions at the site of application and may vary in a wide range, which will be discussed in details.

  2. Nanostructured lipid carriers system: recent advances in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Md Asif; Md, Shadab; Sahni, Jasjeet Kaur; Baboota, Sanjula; Dang, Shweta; Ali, Javed

    2012-12-01

    Nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) is second generation smarter drug carrier system having solid matrix at room temperature. This carrier system is made up of physiological, biodegradable and biocompatible lipid materials and surfactants and is accepted by regulatory authorities for application in different drug delivery systems. The availability of many products in the market in short span of time reveals the success story of this delivery system. Since the introduction of the first product, around 30 NLC preparations are commercially available. NLC exhibit superior advantages over other colloidal carriers viz., nanoemulsions, polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, SLN etc. and thus, have been explored to more extent in pharmaceutical technology. The whole set of unique advantages such as enhanced drug loading capacity, prevention of drug expulsion, leads to more flexibility for modulation of drug release and makes NLC versatile delivery system for various routes of administration. The present review gives insights on the definitions and characterization of NLC as colloidal carriers including the production techniques and suitable formulations. This review paper also highlights the importance of NLC in pharmaceutical applications for the various routes of drug delivery viz., topical, oral, pulmonary, ocular and parenteral administration and its future perspective as a pharmaceutical carrier.

  3. Transferosomes - A vesicular transdermal delivery system for enhanced drug permeation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmy Rajan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal administration of drugs is generally limited by the barrier function of the skin. Vesicular systems are one of the most controversial methods for transdermal delivery of active substances. The interest in designing transdermal delivery systems was relaunched after the discovery of elastic vesicles like transferosomes, ethosomes, cubosomes, phytosomes, etc. This paper presents the composition, mechanisms of penetration, manufacturing and characterization methods of transferosomes as transdermal delivery systems of active substances. For a drug to be absorbed and distributed into organs and tissues and eliminated from the body, it must pass through one or more biological membranes/barriers at various locations. Such a movement of drug across the membrane is called as drug transport. For the drugs to be delivered to the body, they should cross the membranous barrier. The concept of these delivery systems was designed in an attempt to concentrate the drug in the tissues of interest, while reducing the amount of drug in the remaining tissues. Hence, surrounding tissues are not affected by the drug. In addition, loss of drug does not happen due to localization of drug, leading to get maximum efficacy of the medication. Therefore, the phospholipid based carrier systems are of considerable interest in this era.

  4. Alternate delivery systems for contraceptive progestogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, K A; Moghissi, K S

    1988-05-01

    Research continues toward developing an universally acceptable, safe, and effective contraceptive to inhibit the female reproductive process. Progestational systems, either alone or in combination with small amounts of estrogen, approach such an ideal. The pregnane and 19-nortestosterone progestins were examined in this review with regard to contraceptive mechanisms of action and major side effects, such as menstrual abnormalities, metabolic changes, neoplasia, and teratogenicity. These steroids provide highly effective and long-acting contraception, and bypass the oral route of administration, resulting in fewer gastrointestinal and systemic side effects. Data regarding the lack of a deleterious effect of contraceptive progestogens on fetal malformation or cancer of the breast and genital tract reinforce their safety. Further study and refinement are needed, however, to lower the incidence of menstrual abnormalities, hypertension, and detrimental lipid alterations prior to approval for general use.

  5. REVIEW ON TRANSUNGUAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremiah M Christi*, Chintan Aundhia, Avinash Seth, Nirmal Shah, Dip Kondhia, Snehal Patel

    2017-01-01

    Topical therapy is highly desirable in treating nail disorders due to its localized effects, which results in minimal adverse systemic events and possibly improved adherence. The absorption of drugs into the nail unit, to the nail plate, is highly desirable to treat nail disorders; however, the effectiveness of topical therapies is limited by minimal drug permeability through the nail plate. Nail permeability is however quite low and limits topical therapy to early/mild disease states such as...

  6. Buccal Drug Delivery System: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Parth S. Patel; Ashish M. Parmar; Nilang S. Doshi; Hardik V. Patel; Raxit R. Patel; Chetan Nayee

    2013-01-01

    Bioadhesion can be defined as a phenomenon of interfacial molecular attractive forces in the midst of the surfaces of the biological substrate and the natural or synthetic polymers, which allows the polymer to adhere to the biological surface for an extended period of time. Bioadhesive polymeric systems have been used since extent in the development of products for various biomedical applications which include denture adhesives and surgical glue.Considerable attention has been focused in rece...

  7. Safe Active Scanning for Energy Delivery Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Salazar, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Scheibel, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Engels, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reiger, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The Department of Energy’s Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems Program has funded Safe(r) Active Scanning for Energy Delivery Systems, led by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, to investigate and analyze the impacts of active scanning in the operational environment of energy delivery systems. In collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Idaho National Laboratory, active scans across three testbeds including 38 devices were performed. This report gives a summary of the initial literature survey performed on the SASEDS project as well as industry partner interview summaries and main findings from Phase 1 of the project. Additionally, the report goes into the details of scanning techniques, methodologies for testing, testbed descriptions, and scanning results, with appendices to elaborate on the specific scans that were performed. As a result of testing, a single device out of 38 exhibited problems when actively scanned, and a reboot was required to fix it. This single failure indicates that active scanning is not likely to have a detrimental effect on the safety and resilience of energy delivery systems. We provide a path forward for future research that could enable wide adoption of active scanning and lead utilities to incorporate active scanning as part of their default network security plans to discover and rectify rogue devices, adversaries, and services that may be on the network. This increased network visibility will allow operational technology cybersecurity practitioners to improve their situational awareness of networks and their vulnerabilities.

  8. Bioactive electrospun fish sarcoplasmic proteins as a drug delivery system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephansen, Karen; Chronakis, Ioannis S.; Jessen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    fiberswere insoluble in water. However, when exposed to proteolytic enzymes, the fibers were degraded. Thedegradation products of the FSP fibers proved to be inhibitors of the diabetes-related enzyme DPP-IV. TheFSP fibers may have biomedical applications, among others as a delivery system. To demonstrate...

  9. Studies on Animal Health Delivery Systems in Pastoral Areas in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to identify animal health delivery systems to show how marginalized pastoral communities are accessing animal health services was conducted in Babati, Hanang and Mbulu Districts of Manyara Region. It was shown that livestock was the principal economic activity for pastoralists in Mbulu, Babati and Hanang and ...

  10. 7 CFR 246.12 - Food delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... percentage of anticipated food sales by type of payment, i.e., cash, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance... calculate average payments per food instrument type for groups of vendors that meet the above-50-percent... instruments and cash-value vouchers. (2) Design. The State agency must design all food delivery systems to be...

  11. Printing technologies in fabrication of drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolakovic, Ruzica; Viitala, Tapani; Ihalainen, Petri; Genina, Natalja; Peltonen, Jouko; Sandler, Niklas

    2013-12-01

    There has been increased activity in the field recently regarding the development and research on various printing techniques in fabrication of dosage forms and drug delivery systems. These technologies may offer benefits and flexibility in manufacturing, potentially paving the way for personalized dosing and tailor-made dosage forms. In this review, the most recent observations and advancements in fabrication of drug delivery systems by utilizing printing technologies are summarized. A general overview of 2D printing techniques is presented including a review of the most recent literature where printing techniques are used in fabrication of drug delivery systems. The future perspectives and possible impacts on formulation strategies, flexible dosing and personalized medication of using printing techniques for fabrication of drug delivery systems are discussed. It is evident that there is an urgent need to meet the challenges of rapidly growing trend of personalization of medicines through development of flexible drug-manufacturing approaches. In this context, various printing technologies, such as inkjet and flexography, can play an important role. Challenges on different levels exist and include: i) technological development of printers and production lines; ii) printable formulations and carrier substrates; iii) quality control and characterization; and iv) regulatory perspectives.

  12. Printing technologies in fabrication of drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolakovic, Ruzica; Viitala, Tapani; Ihalainen, Petri

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There has been increased activity in the field recently regarding the development and research on various printing techniques in fabrication of dosage forms and drug delivery systems. These technologies may offer benefits and flexibility in manufacturing, potentially paving the way...... for personalized dosing and tailor-made dosage forms.\

  13. Kairomone trapping system for delivery of Beauveria bassiana to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Kairomone trapping system for delivery of Beauveria bassiana to control the banana weevil. V. Tumuhaise, C.M. Nankinga, C.S. Gold, S. Kyamanywa1, P. Ragama, W.K. Tushemereirwe2. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, P.O. Box 7878 Kampala, Uganda. 1Department of Crop Science, Makerere University, P.O. ...

  14. Kairomone trapping system for delivery of Beauveria bassiana to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kairomone trapping system for delivery of Beauveria bassiana to control the banana weevil. V Tumuhaise, C M Nankinga, C S Gold, S Kyamanywa, P Ragama, W K Tushemereirwe. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  15. Assessment of value co-creatiotion and delivery systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of value co-creatiotion and delivery systems in Tanzania's higher education sector: the case of CBE, DSA/TIA & IFM. Elisante ole Gabriel. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal of Finance and Management Vol. 13(2) 2005: 60-79. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  16. Pigeon pea seed production and delivery system: Experience from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Non-availability of seed is one of the main constraints to adoption of improved crop varieties. The cause of this is mainly due to lack of efficient and sustainable seed delivery system and seed production skills in Uganda. The private seed companies are not interested in pigeon pea seed production due to low profit margins ...

  17. Student Attitudes toward Information Systems Graduate Program Design and Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouin, Mark F.; Hefley, William E.; Raghunathan, Srinivasan

    2018-01-01

    This study examines student preferences regarding graduate management information systems (MIS) education. One hundred and eighty four graduate students responded to a survey exploring student attitudes towards degree program content, delivery format, and peer group interaction. Study results indicate that students prefer a program with an even…

  18. Filamentous bacteriophage fd as an antigen delivery system in vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisco, Antonella; De Berardinis, Piergiuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Peptides displayed on the surface of filamentous bacteriophage fd are able to induce humoral as well as cell-mediated immune responses, which makes phage particles an attractive antigen delivery system to design new vaccines. The immune response induced by phage-displayed peptides can be enhanced by targeting phage particles to the professional antigen presenting cells, utilizing a single-chain antibody fragment that binds dendritic cell receptor DEC-205. Here, we review recent advances in the use of filamentous phage fd as a platform for peptide vaccines, with a special focus on the use of phage fd as an antigen delivery platform for peptide vaccines in Alzheimer's Disease and cancer.

  19. New perspectives on lipid and surfactant based drug delivery systems for oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müllertz, Anette; Ogbonna, Anayo; Ren, Shan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review is to highlight relevant considerations when implementing a rational strategy for the development of lipid and surfactant based drug delivery system and to discuss shortcomings and challenges to the current classification of these delivery systems. We also aim to offer sugg...

  20. Polymers for Pharmaceutical Packaging and Delivery Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Charlotte Juel

    -ATRP) from commercially available polymers. Initially, poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) films were applied as a model system to demonstrate that hydrophilization of a substrate could be obtained by SI-ATRP. PEEK has ketone groups which can be reduced to hydroxyl groups and used for anchoring of 2......-bromoisobutyrate initiating sites. Each modification step of PEEK as well as grafting of poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) was followed and confirmed by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, water contact angle (WCA) measurements, and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis....... X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy also confirmed the presence of the poly(PEGMA) grafts on the PEEK surface by comparing the C/O ratio and the chemical composition after each modification step. The surface topography was evaluated by Atomic Force Microscopy. Polypropylene (PP) is one of the polymeric...

  1. Drug Delivery Systems, CNS Protection, and the Blood Brain Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Present review highlights various drug delivery systems used for delivery of pharmaceutical agents mainly antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, neuropeptides, and other therapeutic substances through the endothelial capillaries (BBB for CNS therapeutics. In addition, the use of ultrasound in delivery of therapeutic agents/biomolecules such as proline rich peptides, prodrugs, radiopharmaceuticals, proteins, immunoglobulins, and chimeric peptides to the target sites in deep tissue locations inside tumor sites of brain has been explained. In addition, therapeutic applications of various types of nanoparticles such as chitosan based nanomers, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, niosomes, beta cyclodextrin carriers, cholesterol mediated cationic solid lipid nanoparticles, colloidal drug carriers, liposomes, and micelles have been discussed with their recent advancements. Emphasis has been given on the need of physiological and therapeutic optimization of existing drug delivery methods and their carriers to deliver therapeutic amount of drug into the brain for treatment of various neurological diseases and disorders. Further, strong recommendations are being made to develop nanosized drug carriers/vehicles and noninvasive therapeutic alternatives of conventional methods for better therapeutics of CNS related diseases. Hence, there is an urgent need to design nontoxic biocompatible drugs and develop noninvasive delivery methods to check posttreatment clinical fatalities in neuropatients which occur due to existing highly toxic invasive drugs and treatment methods.

  2. Application of nanohydrogels in drug delivery systems: recent patents review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalwadi, Chintan; Patel, Gayatri

    2015-01-01

    Nanohydrogel combines the advantages of hydrogel and nano particulate systems. Similar to the hydrogel and macrogel, nanohydrogel can protect the drug and control drug release by stimuli responsive conformation or biodegradable bond into the polymer networks. Nanohydrogel has drawn huge interest due to their potential applications, such as carrier in target-specific controlled drug delivery, absorbents, chemical/biological sensors, and bio-mimetic materials. Similar to the nanoparticles, stimuli responsive nanohydrogel can easily be delivered in the liquid form for parenteral drug delivery application. This review highlights the methods to prepare nanohydrogel based on natural and synthetic polymers for diverse applications in drug delivery. It also encompasses the drug loading and drug release mechanism of the nanohydrogel formulation and patents related to the composition and chemical methods for preparation of nanohydrogel formulation with current status in clinical trials.

  3. Significant role of cationic polymers in drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshbaf, Masoud; Davaran, Soodabeh; Zarebkohan, Amir; Annabi, Nasim; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Salehi, Roya

    2017-11-06

    Cationic polymers are characterized as the macromolecules that possess positive charges, which can be either inherently in the polymer side chains and/or its backbone. Based on their origins, cationic polymers are divided in two category including natural and synthetic, in which the possessed positive charges are as result of primary, secondary or tertiary amine functional groups that could be protonated in particular situations. Cationic polymers have been employed commonly as drug delivery agents due to their superior encapsulation efficacy, enhanced bioavailability, low toxicity and improved release profile. In this paper, we focus on the most prominent examples of cationic polymers which have been revealed to be applicable in drug delivery systems and we also discuss their general synthesis and surface modification methods as well as their controlled release profile in drug delivery.

  4. Evaluation of Roadmap to Achieve Energy Delivery Systems Cybersecurity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Adrian R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    The Department of Energy/Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE/OE) Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (CEDS) program is currently evaluating the Roadmap to Achieve Energy Delivery Systems Cybersecurity document that sets a vision and outlines a set of milestones. The milestones are divided into five strategic focus areas that include: 1. Build a Culture of Security; 2. Assess and Monitor Risk; 3. Develop and Implement New Protective Measures to Reduce Risk; 4. Manage Incidents; and 5. Sustain Security Improvements. The most current version of the roadmap was last updated in September of 2016. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been tasked with revisiting the roadmap to update the current state of energy delivery systems cybersecurity protections. SNL is currently working with previous and current partners to provide feedback on which of the roadmap milestones have been met and to identify any preexisting or new gaps that are not addressed by the roadmap. The specific focus areas SNL was asked to evaluate are: 1. Develop and Implement New Protective Measures to Reduce Risk and 2. Sustain Security Improvements. SNL has formed an Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to assist in answering these questions. The IAB consists of previous partners on past CEDS funded efforts as well as new collaborators that have unique insights into the current state of cybersecurity within energy delivery systems. The IAB includes asset owners, utilities and vendors of control systems. SNL will continue to maintain regular communications with the IAB to provide various perspectives on potential future updates to further improve the breadth of cybersecurity coverage of the roadmap.

  5. Integrated delivery systems: mergers and acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, S

    1999-01-01

    Mergers and acquisitions are usually the way an IDS is built. The CNO and/or CNOs/DONs have an integral role in the resolution of the M/A process. During this time of significant change, during which there may even be chaos, the CNOs work to maintain stability so there is as little impact as possible on patient outcomes, a core responsibility of the CNOs. The CNOs should focus on identifying and working with the highly skilled individuals in the organization to get to the recovery stage of the M/A process, at which time a high-performing organization is achieved. To build this new organization or IDS, the old organizations of the M/A must be changed (Moss Kanter, 1994). The successful CNOs will manage the trade-offs and will become experts in collaboration. The CNO's goals are to maximize the quality of patient care, the professional satisfaction of the nurse, and the goals of achieving cost effectiveness for the system (Clifford, 1998), and keeping this focus through the M/A process will yield success.

  6. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems: promising approaches against infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranghar, Shweta; Sirohi, Parul [Department of Applied Mechanics, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad (India); Verma, Pritam; Agarwal, Vishnu, E-mail: vishnu_agarwal02@rediffmail.com [Department of Biotechnology, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad (India)

    2014-03-15

    Despite the fact that many new drugs and technologies have been developed to combat the infectious diseases, these have continued to be global health challenges. The use of conventional antimicrobial agents against these infections is always associated with problems such as the development of multiple drug resistance and adverse side effects. In addition, the inefficient traditional drug delivery system results in inadequate therapeutic index, low bioavailability of drugs and many other limitations. In this regard, antimicrobial nanoparticles and nanosized drug delivery carriers have emerged as potent effective agents against the infections. Nanoparticles have unique properties owing to their ultra small and controllable size such as high surface area, enhanced reactivity, and functionalizable structure. This review focused on different classes of antimicrobial nanoparticles, including metal, metal oxide and others along with their mechanism of action and their potential use against the infections. The review also focused on the development of nanoparticle systems for antimicrobial drug delivery and use of these systems for delivery of various antimicrobial agents, giving an overview about modern nanoparticle based therapeutic strategies against the infections. (author)

  7. Enhancing intestinal drug solubilisation using lipid-based delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Christopher J H; Pouton, Colin W; Cuine, Jean F; Charman, William N

    2008-03-17

    Lipid-based delivery systems are finding increasing application in the oral delivery of poorly water-soluble, lipophilic drugs. Whilst lipidic dose forms may improve oral bioavailability via several mechanisms, enhancement of gastrointestinal solubilisation remains argueably the most important method of absorption enhancement. This review firstly describes the mechanistic rationale which underpins the use of lipid-based delivery systems to enhance drug solubilisation and briefly reviews the available literature describing increases in oral bioavailability after the administration of lipid solution, suspension and self-emulsifying formulations. The use of in vitro methods including dispersion tests and more complex models of in vitro lipolysis as indicators of potential in vivo performance are subsequently described, with particular focus on recent data which suggests that the digestion of surfactants present in lipid-based formulations may impact on formulation performance. Finally, a series of seven guiding principles for formulation design of lipid-based delivery systems are suggested based on an analysis of recent data generated in our laboratories and elsewhere.

  8. Chitosan nanoparticle based delivery systems for sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Prem Lal; Xiang, Xu; Heiden, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Development of technologies that improve food productivity without any adverse impact on the ecosystem is the need of hour. In this context, development of controlled delivery systems for slow and sustained release of agrochemicals or genetic materials is crucial. Chitosan has emerged as a valuable carrier for controlled delivery of agrochemicals and genetic materials because of its proven biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity, and adsorption abilities. The major advantages of encapsulating agrochemicals and genetic material in a chitosan matrix include its ability to function as a protective reservoir for the active ingredients, protecting the ingredients from the surrounding environment while they are in the chitosan domain, and then controlling their release, allowing them to serve as efficient gene delivery systems for plant transformation or controlled release of pesticides. Despite the great progress in the use of chitosan in the area of medical and pharmaceutical sciences, there is still a wide knowledge gap regarding the potential application of chitosan for encapsulation of active ingredients in agriculture. Hence, the present article describes the current status of chitosan nanoparticle-based delivery systems in agriculture, and to highlight challenges that need to be overcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems: promising approaches against infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranghar, Shweta; Sirohi, Parul; Verma, Pritam; Agarwal, Vishnu

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that many new drugs and technologies have been developed to combat the infectious diseases, these have continued to be global health challenges. The use of conventional antimicrobial agents against these infections is always associated with problems such as the development of multiple drug resistance and adverse side effects. In addition, the inefficient traditional drug delivery system results in inadequate therapeutic index, low bioavailability of drugs and many other limitations. In this regard, antimicrobial nanoparticles and nanosized drug delivery carriers have emerged as potent effective agents against the infections. Nanoparticles have unique properties owing to their ultra small and controllable size such as high surface area, enhanced reactivity, and functionalizable structure. This review focused on different classes of antimicrobial nanoparticles, including metal, metal oxide and others along with their mechanism of action and their potential use against the infections. The review also focused on the development of nanoparticle systems for antimicrobial drug delivery and use of these systems for delivery of various antimicrobial agents, giving an overview about modern nanoparticle based therapeutic strategies against the infections. (author)

  10. Applications of polymers in intraocular drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammed Alhalafi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We are entering a new era of ophthalmic pharmacology where new drugs are rapidly being developed for the treatment of anterior and posterior segment of the eye disease. The pharmacokinetics of drug delivery to the eye remains a very active area of ophthalmic research. Intraocular drug delivery systems allow the release of the drug, bypassing the blood–ocular barrier. The main advantage of these preparations is that they can release the drug over a long time with one single administration. These pharmaceutical systems are of great important in the treatment of the posterior segment diseases, and they can be prepared from biodegradable or nonbiodegradable polymers. Biodegradable polymers have the advantage of disappearing from the site of action after releasing the drug. The majority of intraocular devices are prepared from nonbiodegradable polymers, and they can release controlled amounts of drugs for months. Nonbiodegradable polymers include silicone, polyvinyl alcohol, and ethylene-vinyl acetate. The polymers usually employed to prepare nanoparticles for the topical ophthalmic route are poly (acrylic acid derivatives (polyalquilcyanocrylates, albumin, poly-μ-caprolactone, and chitosan. Dendrimers are a recent class of polymeric materials with unique nanostructure which has been studied to discover their role in the delivery of therapeutics and imaging agents. Hydrogels are polymers that can swell in aqueous solvent system, and they hold the solvents in a swollen cross-linked gel for delivery. This review exhibits the current literature regarding applications of polymers in ophthalmic drug delivery systems including pharmacokinetics, advantages, disadvantages, and indications aimed to obtain successful eye therapy. Method of Literature Search: A systematic literature review was performed using PubMed databases into two steps. The first step was oriented to classification of intraocular polymers implants focusing on their advantages and

  11. Dose error analysis for a scanned proton beam delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutrakon, G; Wang, N; Miller, D W; Yang, Y

    2010-01-01

    All particle beam scanning systems are subject to dose delivery errors due to errors in position, energy and intensity of the delivered beam. In addition, finite scan speeds, beam spill non-uniformities, and delays in detector, detector electronics and magnet responses will all contribute errors in delivery. In this paper, we present dose errors for an 8 x 10 x 8 cm 3 target of uniform water equivalent density with 8 cm spread out Bragg peak and a prescribed dose of 2 Gy. Lower doses are also analyzed and presented later in the paper. Beam energy errors and errors due to limitations of scanning system hardware have been included in the analysis. By using Gaussian shaped pencil beams derived from measurements in the research room of the James M Slater Proton Treatment and Research Center at Loma Linda, CA and executing treatment simulations multiple times, statistical dose errors have been calculated in each 2.5 mm cubic voxel in the target. These errors were calculated by delivering multiple treatments to the same volume and calculating the rms variation in delivered dose at each voxel in the target. The variations in dose were the result of random beam delivery errors such as proton energy, spot position and intensity fluctuations. The results show that with reasonable assumptions of random beam delivery errors, the spot scanning technique yielded an rms dose error in each voxel less than 2% or 3% of the 2 Gy prescribed dose. These calculated errors are within acceptable clinical limits for radiation therapy.

  12. Using DNA nanotechnology to produce a drug delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La, Thi Huyen; Nguyen, Thi Thu Thuy; Pham, Van Phuc; Nguyen, Thi Minh Huyen; Le, Quang Huan

    2013-01-01

    Drug delivery to cancer cells in chemotherapy is one of the most advanced research topics. The effectiveness of the current cancer treatment drugs is limited because they are not capable of distinguishing between cancer cells and normal cells so that they kill not only cancer cells but also normal ones. To overcome this disadvantage by profiting from the differences in physical and chemical properties between cancer and normal cells, nanoparticles (NPs) delivering a drug are designed in a specific manner such that they can distinguish the cancer cells from the normal ones and are targeted only to the cancer cells. Currently, there are various drug delivery systems with many advantages, but sharing some common disadvantages such as difficulty with controlling the size, low encapsulation capacity and low stability. With the development and success of DNA nanotechnology, DNA strands are used to create effective drug delivery NPs with precisely controlled size and structure, safety and high stability. This article presents our study on drug encapsulation in DNA nanostructure which loaded docetaxel and curcumin in a desire to create a new and effective drug delivery system with high biological compatibility. (paper)

  13. Use of radiopharmaceuticals in the development of drug delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frier, M.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. Nuclear medicine imaging techniques have great potential in the study of the behaviour of drug formulations and drug delivery systems in human subjects. No other technique can locate so precisely the site of disintegration of a tablet in the Gl tract, the depth of penetration of a nebulized solution into the lung, or the residence time of a drug on the cornea. By using the gamma camera to image the in vivo distribution of pharmaceutical formulations radio labelled with a suitable gamma emitting radionuclide, images may be used to quantify the biodistribution, release and kinetics of drug formulations and delivery from novel carrier systems and devices. Radionuclide tracer techniques allow correlation between the observed pharmacological effects and the precise site of delivery. The strength of the technique lies in the quantitative nature of radionuclide images. Example will be shown of studies which examine the rate of transit of orally-administered formulations through the GI tract, as well as describing the development of devices for specific targeting of drugs to the colon. Data will also demonstrate the effectiveness of devices such as spacers in pulmonary drug delivery, in both normal volunteers, and in asthmatic subjects. Such studies not only provide data on the nature and characteristics of a product, such as reliability and reproducibility but, may also be used in submission to Regulatory Authorities in product registration dossiers

  14. Using DNA nanotechnology to produce a drug delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyen La, Thi; Thu Thuy Nguyen, Thi; Phuc Pham, Van; Huyen Nguyen, Thi Minh; Huan Le, Quang

    2013-03-01

    Drug delivery to cancer cells in chemotherapy is one of the most advanced research topics. The effectiveness of the current cancer treatment drugs is limited because they are not capable of distinguishing between cancer cells and normal cells so that they kill not only cancer cells but also normal ones. To overcome this disadvantage by profiting from the differences in physical and chemical properties between cancer and normal cells, nanoparticles (NPs) delivering a drug are designed in a specific manner such that they can distinguish the cancer cells from the normal ones and are targeted only to the cancer cells. Currently, there are various drug delivery systems with many advantages, but sharing some common disadvantages such as difficulty with controlling the size, low encapsulation capacity and low stability. With the development and success of DNA nanotechnology, DNA strands are used to create effective drug delivery NPs with precisely controlled size and structure, safety and high stability. This article presents our study on drug encapsulation in DNA nanostructure which loaded docetaxel and curcumin in a desire to create a new and effective drug delivery system with high biological compatibility. Invited talk at the 6th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology, 30 October-2 November, 2012, Ha Long, Vietnam.

  15. Targeted multidrug delivery system to overcome chemoresistance in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Y

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Yuan Tang,1 Fariborz Soroush,1 Zhaohui Tong,2 Mohammad F Kiani,1 Bin Wang1,3 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 2Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Widener University, Chester, PA, USA Abstract: Chemotherapy has been widely used in breast cancer patients to reduce tumor size. However, most anticancer agents cannot differentiate between cancerous and normal cells, resulting in severe systemic toxicity. In addition, acquired drug resistance during the chemotherapy treatment further decreases treatment efficacy. With the proper treatment strategy, nanodrug carriers, such as liposomes/immunoliposomes, may be able to reduce undesired side effects of chemotherapy, to overcome the acquired multidrug resistance, and to further improve the treatment efficacy. In this study, a novel combinational targeted drug delivery system was developed by encapsulating antiangiogenesis drug bevacizumab into liposomes and encapsulating chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX into immunoliposomes where the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 antibody was used as a targeting ligand. This novel combinational system was tested in vitro using a HER2 positive and multidrug resistant breast cancer cell line (BT-474/MDR, and in vivo using a xenograft mouse tumor model. In vitro cell culture experiments show that immunoliposome delivery led to a high cell nucleus accumulation of DOX, whereas free DOX was observed mostly near the cell membrane and in cytoplasm due to the action of P-gp. Combining liposomal bevacizumab with immunoliposomal DOX achieved the best tumor growth inhibition and the lowest toxicity. Tumor size decreased steadily within a 60-day observation period indicating a potential synergistic effect between DOX and bevacizumab through the targeted delivery. Our findings clearly indicate that tumor growth was significantly

  16. Monolithic Controlled Delivery Systems: Part I. Basic Characteristics and Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumiana Blagoeva

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The article considers contemporary systems for controlled delivery of active agents, such as drugs, agricultural chemicals, pollutants and additives in the environment. A useful classification of the available controlled release systems (CRS is proposed according to the type of control (passive, active or self-preprogrammed and according to the main controlling mechanism (diffusion, swelling, dissolution or erosion. Special attention is given to some of the most used CRS - polymer monoliths. The structural and physical-chemical characteristics of CRS as well as the basic approaches to their production are examined. The basic mechanisms of controlled agent release are reviewed in detail and factors influencing the release kinetics are classified according to their importance. The present study can be helpful for understanding and applying the available mathematical models and for developing more comprehensive ones intended for design of new controlled delivery systems.

  17. Chitosan-based delivery systems for diclofenac delivery: preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreve, Simina; Kacso, Irina; Bratu, Ioan; Indrea, Emil, E-mail: simina.dreve@itim-cj.r [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    The preparation and characterization of novel materials for drug delivery has rapidly gained importance in development of innovative medicine. The paper concerns the uses of chitosan as an excipient in oral formulations and as a drug delivery vehicle for burnt painful injuries. The use of chitosan (CTS) as base in polyelectrolyte complex systems, to prepare liquid release systems as hydrogels and solid release systems as sponges is presented. In this paper the preparation of CTS hydrogels and sponges carrying diclofenac (DCF), as anti-inflammatory drug is reported. The immobilization of DCF in CTS is done by mixing the CTS hydrogel with the anti-inflammatory drug solutions. The concentration of anti-inflammatory drug in the CTS hydrogel generating the sponges was of 57 mg/l, 72 mg/l and 114 mg/l. The CTS sponges with anti-inflammatory drugs were prepared by freeze-drying at -610{sup 0}C and 0,09 atm. The characterization of the hydrogels and sponges was done by infrared spectra (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS). The results indicated the formation of CTS-DCF intermediates. The DCF molecules are forming temporary chelates in CTS hydrogels and sponges and they are compatible with skin or some of biological fluids with satisfactory results.

  18. Chitosan-based delivery systems for diclofenac delivery: preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreve, Simina; Kacso, Irina; Bratu, Ioan; Indrea, Emil

    2009-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of novel materials for drug delivery has rapidly gained importance in development of innovative medicine. The paper concerns the uses of chitosan as an excipient in oral formulations and as a drug delivery vehicle for burnt painful injuries. The use of chitosan (CTS) as base in polyelectrolyte complex systems, to prepare liquid release systems as hydrogels and solid release systems as sponges is presented. In this paper the preparation of CTS hydrogels and sponges carrying diclofenac (DCF), as anti-inflammatory drug is reported. The immobilization of DCF in CTS is done by mixing the CTS hydrogel with the anti-inflammatory drug solutions. The concentration of anti-inflammatory drug in the CTS hydrogel generating the sponges was of 57 mg/l, 72 mg/l and 114 mg/l. The CTS sponges with anti-inflammatory drugs were prepared by freeze-drying at -610 0 C and 0,09 atm. The characterization of the hydrogels and sponges was done by infrared spectra (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS). The results indicated the formation of CTS-DCF intermediates. The DCF molecules are forming temporary chelates in CTS hydrogels and sponges and they are compatible with skin or some of biological fluids with satisfactory results.

  19. Gamma- scintigraphy in the evaluation of drug delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahhosseini, S.; Beiki, D.; Eftekhari, M.

    2003-01-01

    Gamma-scintigraphy is applied extensively in the development and evaluation of pharmaceutical delivery systems, particularly for monitoring formulations in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. The radiolabelling is generally achieved by the incorporation of an appropriate radionuclide such as technetium-99m or indium-111 into the formulation or by addition of a non- radioactive isotope such as samarium-152 followed by neutron activation of the final product. Drug delivery systems can be tested in vitro using various techniques like dissolution rate. Since in vitro testing methods are not predictive of in vivo results, such systems should be evaluated in vivo using animal models, especially oral dosage forms. Altered gastrointestinal transit due to individual variation, physiologic factors, or the presence of food may influence bioavailability. Distribution or drug release may be premature or delayed in vivo. Similarly, altered deposition or clearance from other routes of administration such as nasal, ocular, or inhalation may explain drug absorption anomalies. Therefore, there is a growing tendency for new drug delivery systems to be tested, whenever possible, in human subjects in a so called phase 1 clinical evaluation. Gamma- scintigraphy combined with knowledge of physiological and dosage from design can help to identify some of these variables. the resulting insight can be used to accelerate the formulation development process and to ensure success in early clinical trials

  20. Nanoengineered drug delivery systems for enhancing antibiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhapure, Rahul S; Suleman, Nadia; Mocktar, Chunderika; Seedat, Nasreen; Govender, Thirumala

    2015-03-01

    Formulation scientists are recognizing nanoengineered drug delivery systems as an effective strategy to overcome limitations associated with antibiotic drug therapy. Antibiotics encapsulated into nanodelivery systems will contribute to improved management of patients with various infectious diseases and to overcoming the serious global burden of antibiotic resistance. An extensive review of several antibiotic-loaded nanocarriers that have been formulated to target drugs to infectious sites, achieve controlled drug release profiles, and address formulation challenges, such as low-drug entrapment efficiencies, poor solubility and stability is presented in this paper. The physicochemical properties and the in vitro/in vivo performances of various antibiotic-loaded delivery systems, such as polymeric nanoparticles, micelles, dendrimers, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles, nanohybirds, nanofibers/scaffolds, nanosheets, nanoplexes, and nanotubes/horn/rods and nanoemulsions, are highlighted and evaluated. Future studies that will be essential to optimize formulation and commercialization of these antibiotic-loaded nanosystems are also identified. The review presented emphasizes the significant formulation progress achieved and potential that novel nanoengineered antibiotic drug delivery systems have for enhancing the treatment of patients with a range of infections. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  1. Quantitative dosimetric verification of an IMRT planning and delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, D.A.; Mutic, S.; Dempsey, J.F.; Gerber, R.L.; Bosch, W.R.; Perez, C.A.; Purdy, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Background and purpose: The accuracy of dose calculation and delivery of a commercial serial tomotherapy treatment planning and delivery system (Peacock, NOMOS Corporation) was experimentally determined. Materials and methods: External beam fluence distributions were optimized and delivered to test treatment plan target volumes, including three with cylindrical targets with diameters ranging from 2.0 to 6.2 cm and lengths of 0.9 through 4.8 cm, one using three cylindrical targets and two using C-shaped targets surrounding a critical structure, each with different dose distribution optimization criteria. Computer overlays of film-measured and calculated planar dose distributions were used to assess the dose calculation and delivery spatial accuracy. A 0.125 cm 3 ionization chamber was used to conduct absolute point dosimetry verification. Thermoluminescent dosimetry chips, a small-volume ionization chamber and radiochromic film were used as independent checks of the ion chamber measurements. Results: Spatial localization accuracy was found to be better than ±2.0 mm in the transverse axes (with one exception of 3.0 mm) and ±1.5 mm in the longitudinal axis. Dosimetric verification using single slice delivery versions of the plans showed that the relative dose distribution was accurate to ±2% within and outside the target volumes (in high dose and low dose gradient regions) with a mean and standard deviation for all points of -0.05% and 1.1%, respectively. The absolute dose per monitor unit was found to vary by ±3.5% of the mean value due to the lack of consideration for leakage radiation and the limited scattered radiation integration in the dose calculation algorithm. To deliver the prescribed dose, adjustment of the monitor units by the measured ratio would be required. Conclusions: The treatment planning and delivery system offered suitably accurate spatial registration and dose delivery of serial tomotherapy generated dose distributions. The quantitative dose

  2. Intelligent system design for bionanorobots in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Mark; Biglarbegian, Mohammad; Neethirajan, Suresh

    A nanorobot is defined as any smart structure which is capable of actuation, sensing, manipulation, intelligence, and swarm behavior at the nanoscale. In this study, we designed an intelligent system using fuzzy logic for diagnosis and treatment of tumors inside the human body using bionanorobots. We utilize fuzzy logic and a combination of thermal, magnetic, optical, and chemical nanosensors to interpret the uncertainty associated with the sensory information. Two different fuzzy logic structures, for diagnosis (Mamdani structure) and for cure (Takagi-Sugeno structure), were developed to efficiently identify the tumors and treat them through delivery of effective dosages of a drug. Validation of the designed system with simulated conditions proved that the drug delivery of bionanorobots was robust to reasonable noise that may occur in the bionanorobot sensors during navigation, diagnosis, and curing of the cancer cells. Bionanorobots represent a great hope for successful cancer therapy in the near future.

  3. Magnetic nanoparticle drug delivery systems for targeting tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Vicky V.; Cox, Arthur; Shah, Samit; Singh, Ajay; Bevins, Wesley; Parihar, Harish

    2014-04-01

    Tumor hypoxia, or low oxygen concentration, is a result of disordered vasculature that lead to distinctive hypoxic microenvironments not found in normal tissues. Many traditional anti-cancer agents are not able to penetrate into these hypoxic zones, whereas, conventional cancer therapies that work by blocking cell division are not effective to treat tumors within hypoxic zones. Under these circumstances the use of magnetic nanoparticles as a drug delivering agent system under the influence of external magnetic field has received much attention, based on their simplicity, ease of preparation, and ability to tailor their properties for specific biological applications. Hence in this review article we have reviewed current magnetic drug delivery systems, along with their application and clinical status in the field of magnetic drug delivery.

  4. Biological studies of matrix metalloproteinase sensitive drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Pia Thermann

    for delivery of drugs to specific tissues or cells utilizing biological knowledge of cancer tissue is getting increased attention. In this thesis a novel matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) sensitive poly-ethylene glycol (PEG) coated liposomal drug delivery system for treatment of cancer was developed....... The system exploits the increased MMP-2 activity present in tumor tissue as a site-specific trigger of liposomal activation and controlled drug release after accumulation due to the enhanced permeability and retention effect. Enzymatic activity of MMP-2 results in shedding of a novel PEG coating, consisting...... of a negatively charged lipopeptide-PEG conjugates containing a MMP-2 cleavable peptide, which leads to cationic liposomes with enhanced ability to interact with negatively charged cell membranes. Activation of the liposomal formulation developed here resulted in enhanced association of liposomes with cancer...

  5. Microsponges: A novel strategy for drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Kaity

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsponges are polymeric delivery systems composed of porous microspheres. They are tiny sponge-like spherical particles with a large porous surface. Moreover, they may enhance stability, reduce side effects and modify drug release favorably. Microsponge technology has many favorable characteristics, which make it a versatile drug delivery vehicle. Microsponge Systems are based on microscopic, polymer-based microspheres that can suspend or entrap a wide variety of substances, and can then be incorporated into a formulated product such as a gel, cream, liquid or powder. The outer surface is typically porous, allowing a sustained flow of substances out of the sphere. Microsponges are porous, polymeric microspheres that are used mostly for topical use and have recently been used for oral administration. Microsponges are designed to deliver a pharmaceutical active ingredient efficiently at the minimum dose and also to enhance stability, reduce side effects, and modify drug release.

  6. Design of Drug Delivery Systems Containing Artemisinin and Its Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing Atim Aderibigbe

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin and its derivatives have been reported to be experimentally effective for the treatment of highly aggressive cancers without developing drug resistance, they are useful for the treatment of malaria, other protozoal infections and they exhibit antiviral activity. However, they are limited pharmacologically by their poor bioavailability, short half-life in vivo, poor water solubility and long term usage results in toxicity. They are also expensive for the treatment of malaria when compared to other antimalarials. In order to enhance their therapeutic efficacy, they are incorporated onto different drug delivery systems, thus yielding improved biological outcomes. This review article is focused on the currently synthesized derivatives of artemisinin and different delivery systems used for the incorporation of artemisinin and its derivatives.

  7. Silver Ion Biocide Delivery System for Water Disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slote, Benjamin M.; Salley, Edward; Carr, Daniel; Kimble, Michael C.; Adam, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    U.S. space exploration missions have long considered returning to the Moon and exploration of Mars that challenge life support systems. For these long duration missions, there is interest in replacing the iodine water treatment system with ionic silver, a proven biocide. For long duration exploration missions, it is imperative that an effective biocide be used that prevents microbial growth, biofilm formation, and microbially induced corrosion in the water storage and distribution systems while minimizing logistical supply requirements associated with the biocide delivery system. Two biocide delivery systems have been developed that electrochemically produce silver ions for disinfecting water throughout the water storage and distribution system. One system uses a newly developed hybrid micro-filtration and ion-exchange membrane to produce an abundance of silver ions at the 1000 ppb level upstream in the water distribution system to prevent biofilm growth. This is followed by a downstream collection module that electrochemically removes these silver ions before the water is discharged. Another approach uses a membraneless reactor to produce a 1000 ppb silver ion concentration level that also has a mechanically driven electrode cleaning mechanism that removes oxide films ensuring long life operation. By maintaining a sufficiently high level of silver ions throughout the water storage and distribution system, biofilm formation is suppressed. This approach overcomes present concerns where spurious silver deposition occurs on the container and flow line surfaces thus lowering the silver ion concentration to unsatisfactory disinfection levels.

  8. Food Delivery System with the Utilization of Vehicle Using Geographical Information System (GIS) and A Star Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, B.; Gunawan, D.; Andayani, U.; Sari Lubis, Elita; Fahmi, F.

    2017-01-01

    Food delivery system is one kind of geographical information systems (GIS) that can be applied through digitation process. The main case in food delivery system is the way to determine the shortest path and food delivery vehicle movement tracking. Therefore, to make sure that the digitation process of food delivery system can be applied efficiently, it is needed to add shortest path determination facility and food delivery vehicle tracking. This research uses A Star (A*) algorithm for determining shortest path and location-based system (LBS) programming for moving food delivery vehicle object tracking. According to this research, it is generated the integrated system that can be used by food delivery driver, customer, and administrator in terms of simplifying the food delivery system. Through the application of shortest path and the tracking of moving vehicle, thus the application of food delivery system in the scope of geographical information system (GIS) can be executed.

  9. Feasibility Study: Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems with Fan Coil Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; Backman, C.

    2012-07-01

    The primary objectives of this study are to estimate potential energy savings relative to conventional ducted air distribution, and to identify equipment requirements, costs, and barriers with a focus on ductless hydronic delivery systems that utilize water-to-air terminal units in each zone. Results indicate that annual heating and cooling energy use can be reduced by up to 27% assuming replacement of the conventional 13 SEER heat pump and coil with a similarly rated air-to-water heat pump.

  10. ROS-responsive drug delivery systems for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wenhui Tao; Zhonggui He

    2018-01-01

    In the field of biomedicine, stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems (DDSs) have become increasingly popular due to their site-specific release ability in response to a certain physiological stimulus, which may result in both enhanced treatment outcome and reduced side effects. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the unavoidable consequence of cell oxidative metabolism. ROS play a crucial part in regulating biological and physiological processes, whereas excessive intracellular ROS usually lea...

  11. PREFORMULATION STUDIES OF SIMVASTATIN FOR TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Sameer Singh; Narendra Mandoria; Anis shaikh

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work to study the preformulation parameters for Transdermal drug delivery system. The objective of Preformulation study is to generic information useful to the formulater in developing stable and bioavailable dosage form. The use of Preformulation parameter maximizes the chances in formulation an acceptable, safe, efficacious and stable product and at the same time provide the basis for optimization of the drug product quality. Administration of conventional tablets ...

  12. A Healthcare-Delivery System for the Next Generation

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    On May 2-3, 2006, Purdue University, BlueCross BlueShield Association, and WellPoint, Inc. hosted 24 CEO-level healthcare executives representing a diverse cross section of the healthcare supply chain to design the U.S. healthcare-delivery system for the next generation. Participants were challenged to envision the ideal system for the future, without regard to the constraints of today’s technologies, infrastructure, or financial systems. The Regenstrief Center for Healthcare Engineering at P...

  13. Leishmaniasis: focus on the design of nanoparticulate vaccine delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroud, Delaram; Rafati, Sima

    2012-01-01

    Although mass vaccination of the entire population of an endemic area would be the most cost-effective tool to diminish Leishmania burden, an effective vaccine is not yet commercially available. Practically, vaccines have failed to achieve the required level of protection, possibly owing to the lack of an appropriate adjuvant and/or delivery system. Therefore, there is still an imperative demand for an improved, safe and efficient delivery system to enhance the immunogenicity of available vaccine candidates. Nanoparticles are proficient in boosting the quality and magnitude of immune responses in a predictable fashion. Herein, we discuss how nanoparticulate vaccine delivery systems can be used to induce appropriate immune responses against leishmaniasis by controlling physicochemical properties of the vaccine. Stability, production reproducibility, low cost per dose and low risk-benefit ratios are desirable characteristics of an ideal vaccine formulation and solid lipid nanoparticles may serve as one of the most promising practical strategies to help to achieve such a leishmanial vaccine, at least in canine species in the developing world.

  14. Preterm deliveries in women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christine A; Spitzer, Karen A; Nadler, Jamie N; Laskin, Carl A

    2003-10-01

    To compare the clinical, laboratory, and demographic variables of women in our clinic with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who have had a pregnancy resulting in a live birth and identify any correlations with either term or preterm delivery. Pregnancies in women with SLE from 1999 to 2001 were retrospectively reviewed. We recorded demographic data, disease activity (SLE Disease Activity Index, SLEDAI), obstetric history, prednisone dosage, other medications taken during pregnancy, history of renal disease, and autoantibody status [including antinuclear antibody, anti-DNA, anticardiolipin IgG (aCL), and lupus anticoagulant (LAC)]. Preterm delivery was defined as gestational age at delivery pregnancy, and outcome. Of the 72 pregnancies, 28 (38.9%) resulted in preterm deliveries. There were no significant differences in any demographic or disease variables measured comparing term versus preterm delivery groups. More women in the preterm group were taking > or = 10 mg/day prednisone during their pregnancy (50.0% vs 22.2%; p = 0.028), and the mean dose was significantly higher than the term group taking > or = 10 mg/day (24.8 vs 16.7 mg/day; p = 0.047). There was a higher prevalence of women with aCL IgG in the preterm group (p = 0.023). The mean weeks gestation was shorter for women positive for aCL IgG compared to the group negative for aCL (34.9 +/- 4.4 vs 37.5 +/- 3.2 weeks, respectively; p = 0.032). There was no difference in second trimester disease activity between the term and preterm groups (33.3% and 36.4% of each group had a SLEDAI of 0). However, significantly more women in the term group received no medication during their pregnancies compared to women in the preterm group (20.0% vs 0.0%; p = 0.031). The rates of preterm deliveries, premature rupture of membranes, intrauterine growth restriction, and aPL in SLE pregnancies vary considerably in published reports, most of which are retrospective analyses. Our rates closely approximate the median values for

  15. The Delivery System of Environmental Education at the Tertiary Level in the Asia-Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masahisa; Bhandari, Bishnu; Abe, Osamu

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes the delivery system of environmental education at the tertiary level in relation to higher education attendance rate. Describes the characteristics of the delivery system in countries such as China, India, Australia, Japan, South Korea, and Indonesia. (Author/MM)

  16. A mucoadhesive in situ gel delivery system for paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhari, Saurabh; Dash, Alekha K

    2006-06-02

    MUC1 gene encodes a transmembrane mucin glycoprotein that is overexpressed in human breast cancer and colon cancer. The objective of this study was to develop an in situ gel delivery system containing paclitaxel (PTX) and mucoadhesives for sustained and targeted delivery of anticancer drugs. The delivery system consisted of chitosan and glyceryl monooleate (GMO) in 0.33M citric acid containing PTX. The in vitro release of PTX from the gel was performed in presence and absence of Tween 80 at drug loads of 0.18%, 0.30%, and 0.54% (wt/wt), in Sorensen's phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C. Different mucin-producing cell lines (Calu-3>Caco-2) were selected for PTX transport studies. Transport of PTX from solution and gel delivery system was performed in side by side diffusion chambers from apical to basal (A-B) and basal to apical (B-A) directions. In vitro release studies revealed that within 4 hours, only 7.61% +/- 0.19%, 12.0% +/- 0.98%, 31.7% +/- 0.40% of PTX were released from 0.18%, 0.30%, and 0.54% drug-loaded gel formulation, respectively, in absence of Tween 80. However, in presence of surfactant (0.05% wt/vol) in the dissolution medium, percentages of PTX released were 28.1% +/- 4.35%, 44.2% +/- 6.35%, and 97.1% +/- 1.22%, respectively. Paclitaxel has shown a polarized transport in all the cell monolayers with B-A transport 2 to 4 times higher than in the A-B direction. The highest mucin-producing cell line (Calu-3) has shown the lowest percentage of PTX transport from gels as compared with Caco-2 cells. Transport of PTX from mucoadhesive gels was shown to be influenced by the mucin-producing capability of cell.

  17. Liposomal drug delivery system from laboratory to clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshirsagar N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of drug delivery systems is to deliver a drug effectively, specifically to the site of action and to achieve greater efficacy and minimise the toxic effects compared to conventional drugs. Amongst various carrier systems, liposomes have generated a great interest because of their versatility. Liposomes are vesicular concentric bilayered structures, which are biocompatible, biodegradable and nonimmumnogenic. They can control the delivery of drugs by targeting the drug to the site of action or by site avoidance drug delivery or by prolonged circulation of drugs. Amphotericin B (Amp B remains the drug of choice in most systemic mycoses and also as a second line treatment for Kala azar. However, its toxic effects often limit its use. Although the liposome delivery system has been tried for several drugs, only a few have been used in patients due to the slow development of necessary large-scale pharmaceutical procedures. This paper reviews the development of the technique for liposomal Amphotericin B (L-Amp-LRC-1, FungisomeTM drug delivery system in our laboratory in collaboration with the department of Biochemistry, Delhi University in India and proving the safety and efficacy of this preparation in clinical practice. It also attempts to compare the efficacy and benefits of our product for Indian patients with those of similar products and it includes facts from the publications that flowed from our work. As compared to conventional Amp B, Fungisome is infused over a much shorter period requiring a smaller volume and no premedication. It was found to be safe in patients who had developed serious unacceptable toxicity with conventional Amp B. In renal transplant patients, Fungisome did not produce any nephrotoxicity. Fungisome is effective in fungal infections resistant to fluconazole, conventional Amp B and in virgin and resistant cases of visceral leishmaniasis. The cost of any drug is of great significance, especially in India

  18. Towards an Innovative Web-Based Lab Delivery System for a Management Information Systems Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breimer, Eric; Cotler, Jami; Yoder, Robert

    2011-01-01

    While online systems are an essential component of distance learning, they can also play a critical role in improving the delivery of activities in a traditional laboratory setting. The quality and effectiveness of online course delivery is often compared to equivalent face-to-face alternatives. In our approach, we have harnessed what we feel to…

  19. Ex vivo investigation of magnetically targeted drug delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Fukui, S.; Fujimoto, S.; Mishima, F.; Takeda, S.; Izumi, Y.; Ohtani, S.; Fujitani, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2007-01-01

    In conventional systemic drug delivery the drug is administered by intravenous injection; it then travels to the heart from where it is pumped to all regions of the body. When the drug is aimed at a small target region, this method is extremely inefficient and leads to require much larger doses than those being necessary. In order to overcome this problem a number of targeted drug delivery methods are developed. One of these, magnetically targeted drug delivery system (MT-DDS) will be a promising way, which involves binding a drug to small biocompatible magnetic particles, injecting these into the blood stream and using a high gradient magnetic field to pull them out of suspension in the target region. In the present paper, we describe an ex vivo experimental work. It is also reported that navigation and accumulation test of the magnetic particles in the Y-shaped glass tube was performed in order to examine the threshold of the magnetic force for accumulation. It is found that accumulation of the magnetic particles was succeeded in the blood vessel when a permanent magnet was placed at the vicinity of the blood vessel. This result indicates the feasibility of the magnetically drug targeting in the blood vessel

  20. An implantable thermoresponsive drug delivery system based on Peltier device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongbing; Gorelov, Alexander V; Aldabbagh, Fawaz; Carroll, William M; Rochev, Yury

    2013-04-15

    Locally dropping the temperature in vivo is the main obstacle to the clinical use of a thermoresponsive drug delivery system. In this paper, a Peltier electronic element is incorporated with a thermoresponsive thin film based drug delivery system to form a new drug delivery device which can regulate the release of rhodamine B in a water environment at 37 °C. Various current signals are used to control the temperature of the cold side of the Peltier device and the volume of water on top of the Peltier device affects the change in temperature. The pulsatile on-demand release profile of the model drug is obtained by turning the current signal on and off. The work has shown that the 2600 mAh power source is enough to power this device for 1.3 h. Furthermore, the excessive heat will not cause thermal damage in the body as it will be dissipated by the thermoregulation of the human body. Therefore, this simple novel device can be implanted and should work well in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS): What Nurses Need to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essenmacher, Carol; Naegle, Madeline; Baird, Carolyn; Vest, Bridgette; Spielmann, Rene; Smith-East, Marie; Powers, Leigh

    Efforts to decrease adverse effects of tobacco use are affected by emergence of new nicotine delivery products. Advertising, product promotion, and social media promote use of these products, yet a lack of evidence regarding safety leaves nurses unprepared to counsel patients. To critically evaluate current research, reviews of literature, expert opinion, and stakeholder policy proposals on use and safety of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). A targeted examination of literature generated by key stakeholders and subject matter experts was conducted using key words, modified by risk factors, and limited to the past 8 years. Current knowledge gaps in research literature and practice implications of the literature are discussed. The safety of ENDS is questionable and unclear. There are clear health risks of nicotine exposure to developing brains. Potential health risks of ENDS secondhand emissions exposure exist. Using ENDS to facilitate total tobacco cessation is not proven.

  2. Sustained Delivery of Chondroitinase ABC from Hydrogel System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Rossi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the injured spinal cord, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs are the principal responsible of axon growth inhibition and they contribute to regenerative failure, promoting glial scar formation. Chondroitinase ABC (chABC is known for being able to digest proteoglycans, thus degrading glial scar and favoring axonal regrowth. However, its classic administration is invasive, infection-prone and clinically problematic. An agarose-carbomer (AC1 hydrogel, already used in SCI repair strategies, was here investigated as a delivery system capable of an effective chABC administration: the material ability to include chABC within its pores and the possibility to be injected into the target tissue were firstly proved. Subsequently, release kinetic and the maintenance of enzymatic activity were positively assessed: AC1 hydrogel was thus confirmed to be a feasible tool for chABC delivery and a promising device for spinal cord injury topic repair strategies.

  3. Pancreatic Cancer Gene Therapy: From Molecular Targets to Delivery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillat, Cristina, E-mail: cristina.fillat@crg.es; Jose, Anabel; Ros, Xavier Bofill-De; Mato-Berciano, Ana; Maliandi, Maria Victoria; Sobrevals, Luciano [Programa Gens i Malaltia, Centre de Regulació Genòmica-CRG, UPF, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona-PRBB and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER), Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-01-18

    The continuous identification of molecular changes deregulating critical pathways in pancreatic tumor cells provides us with a large number of novel candidates to engineer gene-targeted approaches for pancreatic cancer treatment. Targets—both protein coding and non-coding—are being exploited in gene therapy to influence the deregulated pathways to facilitate cytotoxicity, enhance the immune response or sensitize to current treatments. Delivery vehicles based on viral or non-viral systems as well as cellular vectors with tumor homing characteristics are a critical part of the design of gene therapy strategies. The different behavior of tumoral versus non-tumoral cells inspires vector engineering with the generation of tumor selective products that can prevent potential toxic-associated effects. In the current review, a detailed analysis of the different targets, the delivery vectors, the preclinical approaches and a descriptive update on the conducted clinical trials are presented. Moreover, future possibilities in pancreatic cancer treatment by gene therapy strategies are discussed.

  4. [Recent technical advances in portable oxygen delivery systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, K; Kawabe, Y; Mori, M; Haga, T

    1992-08-01

    According to a Japanese national survey (June 30, 1990), the number of patients receiving home oxygen therapy (HOT) has been greater than 18,000 since March 1985, when HOT was first covered by health insurance. The oxygen concentrator, especially the molecular sieve type, is the most common method of delivery (more than 90%). In April 1988, the portable oxygen cylinder was acknowledged by health insurance, and the liquid oxygen supply system in April 1990. Three types of portable oxygen delivery systems are available; oxygen cyclinder, liquid oxygen system, and oxygen concentrator (membrane type), of which the oxygen cylinder is most commonly used. In our hospital, portable oxygen supply systems were used in 80% of 168 HOT cases in 1990, and the use of 400 L aluminum oxygen cylinders at a flow rate of 1-2 L/min has been most popular. There is an strong desire from patients for lighter portable oxygen supply system of longer duration. In 19 patients with chronic respiratory failure, we evaluated a newly designed demand oxygen delivery system (DODS), which weighs 2.4 kg including the DOD device (TER-20 Teijin), 1.1 L oxygen cylinder made of ultressor, nasal cannula, and carrier. Arterial blood gases at rest (room air) were PaO2 61.9 +/- 6.3 torr, PaCO2 63.8 +/- 9.4 torr and pH 7.40 +/- 0.04. A crossover trial was performed under three conditions; breathing room air with no weight, and pulse oxygen flow and continuous oxygen flow each carrying 2.4 kg of weight. Both 6 minute walking (E1) and walking on a slow speed treadmill (E2) were studied.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. A clinician-driven home care delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, D A; Faubion, W C; Ryan, M L; Haggerty, R H; Wesley, J R

    1993-12-01

    The financial, entrepreneurial, administrative, and legal forces acting within the home care arena make it difficult for clinicians to develop and operate home care initiatives within an academic setting. HomeMed is a clinician-initiated and -directed home care delivery system wholly owned by the University of Michigan. The advantages of a clinician-directed system include: Assurance that clinical and patient-based factors are the primary determinants of strategic and procedural decisions; Responsiveness of the system to clinician needs; Maintenance of an important role for the referring physician in home care; Economical clinical research by facilitation of protocol therapy in ambulatory and home settings; Reduction of lengths of hospital stays through clinician initiatives; Incorporation of outcome analysis and other research programs into the mission of the system; Clinician commitment to success of the system; and Clinician input on revenue use. Potential disadvantages of a clinician-based system include: Entrepreneurial, financial, and legal naivete; Disconnection from institutional administrative and data management resources; and Inadequate clinician interest and commitment. The University of Michigan HomeMed experience demonstrates a model of clinician-initiated and -directed home care delivery that has been innovative, profitable, and clinically excellent, has engendered broad physician, nurse, pharmacist, and social worker enthusiasm, and has supported individual investigator clinical protocols as well as broad outcomes research initiatives. It is concluded that a clinician-initiated and -directed home care program is feasible and effective, and in some settings may be optimal.

  6. Bacterial ghosts (BGs)--advanced antigen and drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudela, Pavol; Koller, Verena Juliana; Lubitz, Werner

    2010-08-16

    Bacterial ghosts (BGs) are empty bacterial envelopes of Gram-negative bacteria produced by controlled expression of cloned gene E, forming a lysis tunnel structure within the envelope of the living bacteria. BGs are devoid of cytoplasmic content and possess all bacterial bio-adhesive surface properties in their original state while not posing any infectious threat. BGs are ideally suited as an advanced drug delivery system (ADDS) for toxic substances in tumor therapy. The inner space of BGs can be loaded with either single components or combinations of peptides, drugs or DNA which provides an opportunity to design new types of (polyvalent) drug delivery vehicles. Uptake of BGs loaded with Doxorubicin (Dox) by CaCo2 cells led to effective Dox release from endo-lysosomal compartments and accumulation in the nucleus. Viability and proliferative capacity of the cells were significantly decreased (2-3 orders of magnitude) after internalization of Dox loaded BGs as compared to cells incubated with free Dox. The same effect was observed with leukemia cells. Melanoma cells also revealed a high capability to internalize BGs. These results indicate that BGs are able to target a range of types of cancer. BGs have also been investigated as DNA delivery vectors. Studies show DNA loaded BGs are efficiently phagocytosed and internalized by both professional APCs and tumor cells with up to 82% of cells expressing the plasmid-encoded reporter gene. Our studies with BGs as an ADDS system contribute (i) to optimize drug delivery for the treatment of cancer; (ii) define specific conditions for selection and preparation of BG formulations; (iii) and provide a background for the clinical application of BGs in cancer therapy.

  7. 41 CFR 60-300.84 - Responsibilities of appropriate employment service delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... appropriate employment service delivery system. 60-300.84 Section 60-300.84 Public Contracts and Property... of appropriate employment service delivery system. By statute, appropriate employment service... referrals. The employment service delivery systems shall provide OFCCP, upon request, information pertinent...

  8. A remotely operated drug delivery system with dose control

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Ying

    2017-05-08

    “On demand” implantable drug delivery systems can provide optimized treatments, due to their ability to provide targeted, flexible and precise dose release. However, two important issues that need to be carefully considered in a mature device include an effective actuation stimulus and a controllable dose release mechanism. This work focuses on remotely powering an implantable drug delivery system and providing a high degree of control over the released dose. This is accomplished by integration of a resonance-based wireless power transfer system, a constant voltage control circuit and an electrolytic pump. Upon the activation of the wireless power transfer system, the electrolytic actuator is remotely powered by a constant voltage regardless of movements of the device within an effective range of translation and rotation. This in turn contributes to a predictable dose release rate and greater flexibility in the positioning of external powering source. We have conducted proof-of-concept drug delivery studies using the liquid drug in reservoir approach and the solid drug in reservoir approach, respectively. Our experimental results demonstrate that the range of flow rate is mainly determined by the voltage controlled with a Zener diode and the resistance of the implantable device. The latter can be adjusted by connecting different resistors, providing control over the flow rate to meet different clinical needs. The flow rate can be maintained at a constant level within the effective movement range. When using a solid drug substitute with a low solubility, solvent blue 38, the dose release can be kept at 2.36μg/cycle within the effective movement range by using an input voltage of 10Vpp and a load of 1.5 kΩ, which indicates the feasibility and controllability of our system without any complicated closed-loop sensor.

  9. Automated Insulin Delivery Systems: Hopes and Expectations of Family Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Kimberly P; Jedraszko, Aneta; Weil, Lindsey E G; Naranjo, Diana; Barnard, Katharine D; Laffel, Lori M B; Hood, Korey K; Weissberg-Benchell, Jill

    2018-03-01

    This study examines the hopes and expectations that children, adolescents, and adults with type 1 diabetes and their families have for new automated insulin delivery systems. The study also aims to examine how the automated insulin delivery system may impact family functioning and individual members' psychosocial adjustment. Forty-eight semistructured focus groups (n = 195) and 89 individual interviews were conducted with children, adolescents, and adults with type 1 diabetes and parents and partners. Coders reviewed results in key themes most likely to contain references to the family system. Clusters were analyzed using thematic analysis to identify participants' salient hopes and expectations of how new technology may impact family relationships and individual psychosocial functioning. Three main themes emerged for participants' hopes and expectations for implementation of the automated insulin delivery system. First, there is an expectation that this diabetes technology will alleviate diabetes-specific worry and burden for the people with diabetes and other family members. Second, there is also hope that this system may reduce day-to-day stress and, third, improve family relationships. The unique perspective of a broad age group provides insight into how individuals and families creatively address the multiple tasks required in daily diabetes management. Study findings elucidate the very high hopes and expectations held by those managing type 1 diabetes and the impact this new technology may have on family relationships. Awareness of these hopes and expectations is important for developers and clinicians in addressing potential challenges to uptake and to ensure that expectations are set appropriately.

  10. New Delivery Systems for Local Anaesthetics—Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipton, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    Part 2 of this paper deals with the techniques for drug delivery of topical and injectable local anaesthetics. The various routes of local anaesthetic delivery (epidural, peripheral, wound catheters, intra-nasal, intra-vesical, intra-articular, intra-osseous) are explored. To enhance transdermal local anaesthetic permeation, additional methods to the use of an eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics and the use of controlled heat can be used. These methods include iontophoresis, electroporation, sonophoresis, and magnetophoresis. The potential clinical uses of topical local anaesthetics are elucidated. Iontophoresis, the active transportation of a drug into the skin using a constant low-voltage direct current is discussed. It is desirable to prolong local anaesthetic blockade by extending its sensory component only. The optimal release and safety of the encapsulated local anaesthetic agents still need to be determined. The use of different delivery systems should provide the clinician with both an extended range and choice in the degree of prolongation of action of each agent. PMID:22190921

  11. New Delivery Systems for Local Anaesthetics—Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward A. Shipton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Part 2 of this paper deals with the techniques for drug delivery of topical and injectable local anaesthetics. The various routes of local anaesthetic delivery (epidural, peripheral, wound catheters, intra-nasal, intra-vesical, intra-articular, intra-osseous are explored. To enhance transdermal local anaesthetic permeation, additional methods to the use of an eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics and the use of controlled heat can be used. These methods include iontophoresis, electroporation, sonophoresis, and magnetophoresis. The potential clinical uses of topical local anaesthetics are elucidated. Iontophoresis, the active transportation of a drug into the skin using a constant low-voltage direct current is discussed. It is desirable to prolong local anaesthetic blockade by extending its sensory component only. The optimal release and safety of the encapsulated local anaesthetic agents still need to be determined. The use of different delivery systems should provide the clinician with both an extended range and choice in the degree of prolongation of action of each agent.

  12. Packaged Au-PPy valves for drug delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Han-Kuan A.; Ma, Kuo-Sheng; Zoval, Jim; Kulinsky, Lawrence; Madou, Marc

    2006-03-01

    The most common methods for the drug delivery are swallowing pills or receiving injections. However, formulations that control the rate and period of medicine (i.e., time-release medications) are still problematic. The proposed implantable devices which include batteries, sensors, telemetry, valves, and drug storage reservoirs provide an alternative method for the responsive drug delivery system [1]. Using this device, drug concentration can be precisely controlled which enhances drug efficiency and decreases the side effects. In order to achieve responsive drug delivery, a reliable release valve has to be developed. Biocompatibility, low energy consumption, and minimized leakage are the main requirements for such release method. A bilayer structure composed of Au/PPy film is fabricated as a flap to control the release valve. Optimized potentiostatic control to synthesize polypyrrole (PPy) is presented. The release of miniaturize valve is tested and showed in this paper. A novel idea to simultaneously fabricate the device reservoirs as well as protective packaging is proposed in this paper. The solution of PDMS permeability problem is also mentioned in this article.

  13. A framework for the organization and delivery of systemic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, T; Coakley, N; Nayler, J; Degrasse, C; Green, E; Mackay, J A; McLennan, C; Smith, A; Wilcock, L; Trudeau, M E

    2009-01-01

    Increasing systemic treatment and shortages of oncology professionals in Canada require innovative approaches to the safe and effective delivery of intravenous (IV) cancer treatment. We conducted a systematic review of the clinical and scientific literature, and an environmental scan of models in Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand. We then developed a framework for the organization and delivery of IV systemic treatment. The systematic review covered the medline, embase, cinahl, and HealthStar databases. The environmental scan retrieved published and unpublished sources, coupled with a free key word search using the Google search engine. The Systemic Treatment Working Group reviewed the evidence and developed a draft framework using evidence-based analysis, existing recommendations from various jurisdictions, and expert opinion based on experience and consensus. The draft was assessed by Ontario stakeholders and reviewed and approved by Cancer Care Ontario. The poor quantity and quality of the evidence necessitated a consensus-derived model. That model comprises four levels of care determined by a regional systemic treatment program and three integrated structures (integrated cancer programs, affiliate institutions, and satellite institutions), each with a defined scope of practice and a specific organizational framework. New models of care are urgently required beyond large centres, particularly in geographically remote or rural areas. Despite limited applicable evidence, the development and successful implementation of this framework is intended to create sustainable, accessible, quality care and to measurably improve patient outcomes.

  14. Targeted electrohydrodynamic printing for micro-reservoir drug delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Tae Heon; Kim, Jin Bum; Yang, Da Som; Ryu, WonHyoung; Park, Yong-il

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidic drug delivery systems consisting of a drug reservoir and microfluidic channels have shown the possibility of simple and robust modulation of drug release rate. However, the difficulty of loading a small quantity of drug into drug reservoirs at a micro-scale limited further development of such systems. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing was employed to fill micro-reservoirs with controlled amount of drugs in the range of a few hundreds of picograms to tens of micrograms with spatial resolution of as small as 20 µm. Unlike most EHD systems, this system was configured in combination with an inverted microscope that allows in situ targeting of drug loading at micrometer scale accuracy. Methylene blue and rhodamine B were used as model drugs in distilled water, isopropanol and a polymer solution of a biodegradable polymer and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Also tetracycline-HCl/DI water was used as actual drug ink. The optimal parameters of EHD printing to load an extremely small quantity of drug into microscale drug reservoirs were investigated by changing pumping rates, the strength of an electric field and drug concentration. This targeted EHD technique was used to load drugs into the microreservoirs of PDMS microfluidic drug delivery devices and their drug release performance was demonstrated in vitro. (paper)

  15. Reliability review of the remote tool delivery system locomotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesser, J.B.

    1999-04-01

    The locomotor being built by RedZone Robotics is designed to serve as a remote tool delivery (RID) system for waste retrieval, tank cleaning, viewing, and inspection inside the high-level waste tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2 at West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS). The RTD systm is to be deployed through a tank riser. The locomotor portion of the RTD system is designed to be inserted into the tank and is to be capable of moving around the tank by supporting itself and moving on the tank internal structural columns. The locomotor will serve as a mounting platform for a dexterous manipulator arm. The complete RTD system consists of the locomotor, dexterous manipulator arm, cameras, lights, cables, hoses, cable/hose management system, power supply, and operator control station.

  16. Nanoparticulated magnetic drug delivery systems: Preparation and magnetic characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, P C

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes how magnetic resonance can be successfully used as a tool to help customize and quantify nanosized magnetic particles while labeling cells and administered in animals for targeting different biological sites. Customization of magnetic nanoparticles is addressed here in terms of production of complex magnetic drug delivery systems whereas quantification of magnetic nanoparticle in different biological compartments emerges as a key experimental information to assess time-dependent magnetic nanoparticle biodistribution profiles. Examples of using magnetic resonance in unfolding information regarding the pharmacokinetics of intravenously-injected surface-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles in animals are included in the paper.

  17. Efficient gene delivery using chitosan-polyethylenimine hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Hu-Lin; Kim, Tae-Hee; Kim, You-Kyoung; Park, In-Young; Cho, Chong-Su; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2008-01-01

    Chitosan and chitosan derivatives have been investigated as non-viral vectors because they have several advantages, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, low cytotoxicity and low immunogenicity. However, low transfection efficiency and low cell specificity must be solved for their use in clinical trials. In this paper, chitosan-polyethylenimine (PEI) hybrid systems such as chitosan/PEI blend and chitosan-graft-PEI are described for efficient gene delivery because the PEI has high transfection efficiency owing to a proton sponge effect and chitosan has biocompatibility. Also, hepatocyte specificity of the galactosylated chitosan is explained after combination with PEI

  18. Bioinspired silica as drug delivery systems and their biocompatibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steven, Christopher R.; Busby, Grahame A.; Mather, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Silica nanoparticles have been shown to have great potential as drug delivery systems (DDS), however, their fabrication often involves harsh chemicals and energy intensive laborious methods. This work details the employment of a bioinspired "green" method for the controlled synthesis of silica, use...... to identify the key synthetic parameters and quantify their effects on silica formation, drug loading and drug release. The observation that these new DDS are considerably less cytotoxic than their current counterparts, and exhibit additional benefits such as green synthesis and ease of functionalization...

  19. Tuning of the Compact Linear Collider Beam Delivery System

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, H; Inntjore Levinsen, Y; Latina, A; Tomas, R; Snuverink, J

    2014-01-01

    Tuning the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) BeamDelivery System (BDS), and in particular the Final Focus (FF), is a challenging task. In simulations without misalignments, the goal is to reach 120%o f the nominal luminosity target, in order to allow for 10% loss due to static imperfections, and another 10% loss from dynamic imperfections. Various approaches have been considered to correct the magnet misalignments, including 1-1 correction, Dispersion Free Steering (DFS), and several minimization methods utilizing multipole movers. In this paper we report on the recent advancements towards a feasible tuning approach that reaches the required luminosity target.

  20. Delivery of Probiotics in the Space Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, S. L.; Ott, C. M.; Douglas, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of probiotic bacteria to the space food system is expected to confer immunostimulatory benefits on crewmembers during spaceflight, counteracting the immune dysregulation that has been documented in spaceflight. Specifically, the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus has been shown to promote health benefits including antagonism towards and inhibition of virulence related gene expression in pathogens, mucosal stimulation of immune cells, and a reduction in the occurrence and duration of cold and flu-like symptoms. The optimum delivery system for probiotics has not been determined for spaceflight, where the food system is shelf stable and the lack of refrigeration prevents the use of traditional dairy delivery methods. This work proposes to determine whether L. acidophilus is more viable, and therefore more likely to confer immune benefit, when delivered in a capsule form or when delivered in nonfat dry milk powder with a resuscitation opportunity upon rehydration, following 0, 4, and 8 months of storage at -80degC, 4degC, and 22degC, and both prior to and after challenge with simulated gastric and intestinal juices. We hypothesize that the low moisture neutral dairy matrix provided by the nonfat dry milk, and the rehydration step prior to consumption, will extend probiotic viability and stress tolerance compared to a capsule during potential storage conditions in spaceflight and in simulated digestion conditions.

  1. Food emulsions as delivery systems for flavor compounds: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Like; Roos, Yrjö H; Biliaderis, Costas G; Miao, Song

    2017-10-13

    Food flavor is an important attribute of quality food, and it largely determines consumer food preference. Many food products exist as emulsions or experience emulsification during processing, and therefore, a good understanding of flavor release from emulsions is essential to design food with desirable flavor characteristics. Emulsions are biphasic systems, where flavor compounds are partitioning into different phases, and the releases can be modulated through different ways. Emulsion ingredients, such as oils, emulsifiers, thickening agents, can interact with flavor compounds, thus modifying the thermodynamic behavior of flavor compounds. Emulsion structures, including droplet size and size distribution, viscosity, interface thickness, etc., can influence flavor component partition and their diffusion in the emulsions, resulting in different release kinetics. When emulsions are consumed in the mouth, both emulsion ingredients and structures undergo significant changes, resulting in different flavor perception. Special design of emulsion structures in the water phase, oil phase, and interface provides emulsions with great potential as delivery systems to control flavor release in wider applications. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of flavor release from emulsions, and how emulsions can behave as delivery systems for flavor compounds to better design novel food products with enhanced sensorial and nutritional attributes.

  2. Nanostructured delivery systems with improved leishmanicidal activity: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Natascia; Stella, Barbara; Giraudo, Leonardo; Della Pepa, Carlo; Gastaldi, Daniela; Dosio, Franco

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonotic disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania , which are responsible for numerous clinical manifestations, such as cutaneous, visceral, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, depending on the site of infection for particular species. These complexities threaten 350 million people in 98 countries worldwide. Amastigotes living within macrophage phagolysosomes are the principal target of antileishmanial treatment, but these are not an easy target as drugs must overcome major structural barriers. Furthermore, limitations on current therapy are related to efficacy, toxicity, and cost, as well as the length of treatment, which can increase parasitic resistance. Nanotechnology has emerged as an attractive alternative as conventional drugs delivered by nanosized carriers have improved bioavailability and reduced toxicity, together with other characteristics that help to relieve the burden of this disease. The significance of using colloidal carriers loaded with active agents derives from the physiological uptake route of intravenous administered nanosystems (the phagocyte system). Nanosystems are thus able to promote a high drug concentration in intracellular mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS)-infected cells. Moreover, the versatility of nanometric drug delivery systems for the deliberate transport of a range of molecules plays a pivotal role in the design of therapeutic strategies against leishmaniasis. This review discusses studies on nanocarriers that have greatly contributed to improving the efficacy of antileishmaniasis drugs, presenting a critical review and some suggestions for improving drug delivery.

  3. Liposomal Conjugates for Drug Delivery to the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Helm

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Treatments of central nervous system (CNS diseases often fail due to the blood–brain barrier. Circumvention of this obstacle is crucial for any systemic treatment of such diseases to be effective. One approach to transfer drugs into the brain is the use of colloidal carrier systems—amongst others, liposomes. A prerequisite for successful drug delivery by colloidal carriers to the brain is the modification of their surface, making them invisible to the reticuloendothelial system (RES and to target them to specific surface epitopes at the blood–brain barrier. This study characterizes liposomes conjugated with cationized bovine serum albumin (cBSA as transport vectors in vitro in porcine brain capillary endothelial cells (PBCEC and in vivo in rats using fluorescently labelled liposomes. Experiments with PBCEC showed that sterically stabilized (PEGylated liposomes without protein as well as liposomes conjugated to native bovine serum albumin (BSA were not taken up. In contrast, cBSA-liposomes were taken up and appeared to be concentrated in intracellular vesicles. Uptake occurred in a concentration and time dependent manner. Free BSA and free cBSA inhibited uptake. After intravenous application of cBSA-liposomes, confocal fluorescence microscopy of brain cryosections from male Wistar rats showed fluorescence associated with liposomes in brain capillary surrounding tissue after 3, 6 and 24 h, for liposomes with a diameter between 120 and 150 nm, suggesting successful brain delivery of cationized-albumin coupled liposomes.

  4. Polymer based drug delivery systems for mycobacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rajesh; Khuller, G K

    2004-07-01

    In the last decade, polymer based technologies have found wide biomedical applications. Polymers, whether synthetic (e.g. polylactide-co-glycolide or PLG) or natural (e.g. alginate, chitosan etc.), have the property of encapsulating a diverse range of molecules of biological interest and bear distinct therapeutic advantages such as controlled release of drugs, protection against the premature degradation of drugs and reduction in drug toxicity. These are important considerations in the long-duration treatment of chronic infectious diseases such as tuberculosis in which patient non-compliance is the major obstacle to successful chemotherapy. Antitubercular drugs, singly or in combination, have been encapsulated in polymers to provide controlled drug release and the system also offers the flexibility of selecting various routes of administration such as oral, subcutaneous and aerosol. The present review highlights the approaches towards the preparation of polymeric antitubercular drug delivery systems, emphasizing how the route of administration may influence drug bioavailability as well as the chemotherapeutic efficacy. In addition, the pros and cons of the various delivery systems are also discussed.

  5. [Johan Engström. Revals Befästningsdhistoria sedd utifrån en maquett från 1682. Statens försvarshistoriska museer 2011. Skrift nr 17. ] / Ragnar Nurk, Robert Treufeld

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nurk, Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Johan Engström. Revals Befästningsdhistoria sedd utifrån en maquett från 1682. Statens försvarshistoriska museer 2011. Skrift nr 17. 2011. Rootsi-aegsestest kindlustustest. Hilisema perioodi kindlustustest

  6. Transdermal Lipid Nanocarriers: A Potential Delivery System for Lornoxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Sandipan; Ray, Subhabrata; Dey, Sanjay; Pal, Paulami; Mazumder, Bhaskar

    2017-01-01

    Lornoxicam, is a NSAID of the oxicam class. Its short duration of action owing to rapid elimination and gastrointestinal side effects limits its usefulness when administered orally. The primary objective of the proposed work is to develop suitable lipid nanocarriers for transdermal delivery of Lornoxicam with increased drug residence time at local site of inflamation and in systemic circulation, overcoming undesired gastrointestinal side effects. Lornoxicam loaded lipid nanocarriers like solid lipid nanocarriers (SLN), nano-structured lipid carriers (NLC) & nanoemulsions (NE) were prepared by high-speed homogenization technique. The particle size, zeta potential, and polydispersity index as obtained, were in the range of 140- 193 nm, -22 to -32 mV, and 0.354-0.301 for SLN formulations and 146-201 nm, -23 to -30 mV, and 0.355-0.354 for NLC formulations respectively. Characterization of stable NE revealed that globule size, zeta potential and polydispersity index were within the range of 138 to 195 nm, -26.1±0.123 mV and 0.195 ± 1.231 respectively. It was also observed that entrapment efficacy and drug loading improved as the lipid concentration was increased. The results obtained from the in vitro permeation study and in vivo anti-inflammatory study showed controlled drug permeation, increased bioavailability, longer retention and better therapeutic potential of Lornoxicam after transdermal application of lipid nanoparticles as compared to conventional gel. It can be concluded that the developed lipid nanoparticle loaded gel was found to be a suitable drug delivery carrier for transdermal delivery of Lornoxicam to increase the residence time of drug in systemic circulation and to combat the gastrointestinal side effects. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. The coiled coil motif in polymer drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechar, Michal; Pola, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The coiled coil is a superhelical structural protein motif that has been thoroughly investigated in recent years. Because of the relatively well-understood principles that determine the properties of coiled coil peptides and proteins, macromolecular systems containing the coiled coil motif have been suggested for various applications. This short review focuses on hybrid polymer coiled coil systems designed for drug delivery purposes. After a short introduction, the most important features of the coiled coils (stability, association number, oligomerization selectivity and orientation of helices) are described, and the factors influencing these characteristics are discussed. Several examples of the most interesting biomedical applications of the polymer-coiled coil systems (according to the authors' opinion) are presented. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Formulation aspects and ex-vivo examination of buccal drug delivery systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Barnabás; Hetényi, Gergely; Majoros, Klaudia; Miszori, Veronika; Kállai, Nikolett; Zelkó, Romána

    2011-01-01

    Application of buccal dosage forms has several advantages. Buccal route can be used for systemic delivery because the mucosa has a rich blood supply and it is relatively permeable. This route of drug delivery is of special advantages, including the bypass of first pass effect and the avoidance of presystemic elimination within the GIT. Buccal delivery systems enable the systemic delivery of peptides and proteins. In our previous study the physiological background of this application and the excipients of the possible formulations were reviewed. In the present work the formulation and ex vivo examination aspects of buccal drug delivery systems are summarized.

  9. Optical fiber-based photomechanical molecular delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Koki; Sato, Shunichi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Ashida, Hiroshi; Nishidate, Izumi

    2014-02-01

    Molecular delivery based on nanosecond pulsed laser-induced photomechanical waves (PMWs) enables endoscopic application by using an optical fiber for laser transmission. In our previous fiber system, a laser target, which was a black natural rubber film as a laser absorbing material covered with an optically transparent polyethylene terephthalate disk to confine the laser-induced plasma, was attached to the output end of a 1 mm core diameter quartz fiber. There were two problems in that system: 1) the outer diameter was large (~2.7 mm) and 2) available peak pressure rapidly decreased with increasing pulse number. In this study, we developed a new fiber delivery system to overcome these problems. As a laser absorbing material, we used a cap-type silicone rubber containing carbon black, into which the fiber output end can simply be inserted. The fiber end surface works to confine the laser-induced plasma. The outer diameter of the fiber system was reduced to ~1.4 mm. At an output laser fluence of 1.2 J/cm2, peak pressure of the first PMW pulse exceeded ~40 MPa. With successive 10 laser pulses, decreasing rate of the peak pressure was 22%, which was considerably lower than that with the previous fiber system (82%), enabling generation of at least successive 30 pulses of PMW with the same cap-type target. With this fiber system, we attempted transfer of plasmid DNA encoding EGFP (enhanced green fluorescence protein) to the rat skin as a test tissue in vivo, showing site-selective efficient gene expression.

  10. Self-Assembling Multifunctional Peptide Dimers for Gene Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitae Ryu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembling multifunctional peptide was designed for gene delivery systems. The multifunctional peptide (MP consists of cellular penetrating peptide moiety (R8, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 specific sequence (GPLGV, pH-responsive moiety (H5, and hydrophobic moiety (palmitic acid (CR8GPLGVH5-Pal. MP was oxidized to form multifunctional peptide dimer (MPD by DMSO oxidation of thiols in terminal cysteine residues. MPD could condense pDNA successfully at a weight ratio of 5. MPD itself could self-assemble into submicron micelle particles via hydrophobic interaction, of which critical micelle concentration is about 0.01 mM. MPD showed concentration-dependent but low cytotoxicity in comparison with PEI25k. MPD polyplexes showed low transfection efficiency in HEK293 cells expressing low level of MMP-2 but high transfection efficiency in A549 and C2C12 cells expressing high level of MMP-2, meaning the enhanced transfection efficiency probably due to MMP-induced structural change of polyplexes. Bafilomycin A1-treated transfection results suggest that the transfection of MPD is mediated via endosomal escape by endosome buffering ability. These results show the potential of MPD for MMP-2 targeted gene delivery systems due to its multifunctionality.

  11. Development of antimigraine transdermal delivery systems of pizotifen malate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna-Jiménez, C E; del Rio-Sancho, S; Calatayud-Pascual, M A; Balaguer-Fernández, C; Femenía-Font, A; López-Castellano, A; Merino, V

    2015-08-15

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a transdermal delivery system of pizotifen malate. Pizotifen is frequently used in the preventive treatment of migraine, but is also indicated in eating disorders. In the course of the project, the effects of chemical enhancers such as ethanol, 1,8-cineole, limonene, azone and different fatty acids (decanoic, decenoic, dodecanoic, linoleic and oleic acids) were determined, first using a pizotifen solution. Steady state flux, diffusion and partition parameters were estimated by fitting the Scheuplein equation to the data obtained. Among the chemical enhancers studied, decenoic acid showed the highest enhancement activity, which seemed to be due to the length of its alkyl chain and unsaturation at the 9th carbon. The influence of iontophoresis and the involvement of electrotransport in said process was determined. The absorption profile obtained with iontophoresis was similar to that obtained with fatty acids and terpenes, though skin deposition of the drug was lower with the former. Transdermal delivery systems (TDS) of pizotifen were manufactured by including chemical enhancers, decenoic acid or oleic acid, and were subsequently characterized. When the results obtained with solutions were compared with those obtained with the TDS, a positive enhancement effect was observed with the latter with respect to the partitioning and diffusion of the drug across the skin. Our findings endorse the suitability of our TDS for delivering therapeutic amounts of pizotifen malate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Nanoemulsifying drug delivery system to improve the bioavailability of piroxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motawea, Amira; Borg, Thanaa; Tarshoby, Manal; Abd El-Gawad, Abd El-Gawad H

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and characterize self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) of piroxicam in liquid and solid forms to improve its dissolution, absorption and therapeutic efficacy. The generation of liquid SNEDDS (L-SNEDDS) was composed of soybean or coconut oil/Tween 80/Transcutol HP (12/80/8%w/w) and it was selected as the optimized formulation based on the solubility study and pseudo-ternary phase diagram. Optimized L-SNEDDS and liquid supersaturatable SNEDDS (L-sSNEDDS) preparations were then adsorbed onto adsorbents and formulated as directly compressed tablets. The improved drug dissolution rate in the solid supersaturatable preparation (S-sSNEDDS) may be due to the formation of a nanoemulsion and the presence of drug in an amorphous state with hydrogen bond interaction between the drug and SNEDDS components. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies on eight healthy human volunteers showed a significant improvement in the oral bioavailability of piroxicam from S-sSNEDDS (F12) compared with both the pure drug (PP) and its commercial product (Feldene ® ) (commercial dosage form (CD)). The relative bioavailability of S-sSNEDDS (F12) relative to PP or CD was about 151.01 and 98.96%, respectively. The obtained results ratify that S-sSNEDDS is a promising drug delivery system to enhance the oral bioavailability of piroxicam.

  13. Cubic and hexagonal liquid crystals as drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yulin; Ma, Ping; Gui, Shuangying

    2014-01-01

    Lipids have been widely used as main constituents in various drug delivery systems, such as liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, and lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystals. Among them, lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystals have highly ordered, thermodynamically stable internal nanostructure, thereby offering the potential as a sustained drug release matrix. The intricate nanostructures of the cubic phase and hexagonal phase have been shown to provide diffusion controlled release of active pharmaceutical ingredients with a wide range of molecular weights and polarities. In addition, the biodegradable and biocompatible nature of lipids demonstrates the minimum toxicity and thus they are used for various routes of administration. Therefore, the research on lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystalline phases has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. This review will provide an overview of the lipids used to prepare cubic phase and hexagonal phase at physiological temperature, as well as the influencing factors on the phase transition of liquid crystals. In particular, the most current research progresses on cubic and hexagonal phases as drug delivery systems will be discussed.

  14. Cubic and Hexagonal Liquid Crystals as Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipids have been widely used as main constituents in various drug delivery systems, such as liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, and lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystals. Among them, lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystals have highly ordered, thermodynamically stable internal nanostructure, thereby offering the potential as a sustained drug release matrix. The intricate nanostructures of the cubic phase and hexagonal phase have been shown to provide diffusion controlled release of active pharmaceutical ingredients with a wide range of molecular weights and polarities. In addition, the biodegradable and biocompatible nature of lipids demonstrates the minimum toxicity and thus they are used for various routes of administration. Therefore, the research on lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystalline phases has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. This review will provide an overview of the lipids used to prepare cubic phase and hexagonal phase at physiological temperature, as well as the influencing factors on the phase transition of liquid crystals. In particular, the most current research progresses on cubic and hexagonal phases as drug delivery systems will be discussed.

  15. The Smart Drug Delivery System and Its Clinical Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Yang, Fang; Xiong, Fei; Gu, Ning

    2016-01-01

    With the unprecedented progresses of biomedical nanotechnology during the past few decades, conventional drug delivery systems (DDSs) have been involved into smart DDSs with stimuli-responsive characteristics. Benefiting from the response to specific internal or external triggers, those well-defined nanoplatforms can increase the drug targeting efficacy, in the meantime, reduce side effects/toxicities of payloads, which are key factors for improving patient compliance. In academic field, variety of smart DDSs have been abundantly demonstrated for various intriguing systems, such as stimuli-responsive polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, metals/metal oxides, and exosomes. However, these nanoplatforms are lack of standardized manufacturing method, toxicity assessment experience, and clear relevance between the pre-clinical and clinical studies, resulting in the huge difficulties to obtain regulatory and ethics approval. Therefore, such relatively complex stimulus-sensitive nano-DDSs are not currently approved for clinical use. In this review, we highlight the recent advances of smart nanoplatforms for targeting drug delivery. Furthermore, the clinical translation obstacles faced by these smart nanoplatforms have been reviewed and discussed. We also present the future directions and perspectives of stimuli-sensitive DDS in clinical applications. PMID:27375781

  16. Communication Between Devices in the Viola Document Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor Tolstoy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Viola is a newly developed document delivery system that handles incoming and outgoing requests for printed books, articles, sharing electronic resources, and other document delivery services on the local level in a library organisation. An important part of Viola is the stack fetching Android application that enables librarians to collect books in the open and closed stacks in an efficient manner using a smartphone and a Bluetooth connected portable printer. The aim of this article is to show how information is transferred between systems and devices in Viola. The article presents code examples from Viola that use current .NET technologies. The examples span from the creation of high-level REST-based JSON APIs to byte array communication with a Bluetooth connected printer and the reading of RFID tags. Please note that code examples in this article are for illustration purposes only. Null checking and other exception handling has been removed for clarity. Code that is separated in Viola for testability and other reasons has been brought together to make it more readable.

  17. Niosomes as Nano-Delivery Systems in the Pharmaceutical Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira-Coutinho, Cristal; Dos Santos, Elisabete P; Mansur, Claudia Regina E

    2016-01-01

    Nanosystems used in the pharmaceutical field aim to guarantee a controlled release and efficacy boost with dose reduction of the drug. The same active ingredient could be vehiculated in different concentrations in distinct nanosystems. Among these nanostructures, the vesicular ones present a versatile delivery system that could be applied to encapsulate lipophilic, amphiphilic, and hydrophilic compounds. Liposomes are the most well-known vesicular nanosystems; however, there are others, such as niosomes, that are composed of nonionic surfactants that are polymeric or conventional. Niosomes could be prepared using the thin film hydration method, in which the active ingredient is solubilized in organic solvent with the surfactant or in aqueous solution depending on its polarity. In addition, co-surfactants could be used to improve stabilization and vesicle integrity because they occupy regions in the interface where the mainly surfactant could not reach. Vesicular nanosystems could be characterized by different techniques, such as microscopy, dynamic light scattering, nuclear magnetic resonance, and others. These nanostructures could be applied to drugs (administered by different routes) or to gene and cosmetic delivery systems.

  18. Gastroretentive drug delivery systems for therapeutic management of peptic ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Tarun; Kumar, Animesh; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit K

    2014-01-01

    A peptic ulcer, stomach ulcer, or gastric ulcer, also known as peptic ulcer disease (PUD), is a very common chronic disorder of the stomach which is mainly caused by damage or impairment of the stomach lining. Various factors such as pepsin, gastric acid, H. pylori, NSAIDs, prostaglandins, mucus, bicarbonate, and blood flow to mucosa play an important role in causing peptic ulcers. In this review article, our main focus is on some important gastroretentive drug delivery systems (GRDDS) (floating, bioadhesive, high density, swellable, raft forming, superporous hydrogel, and magnetic systems) which will be helpful in gastroretention of different dosage forms for treatment of peptic ulcer. GRDDS provides a mean for controlled release of compounds that are absorbed by active transport in the upper intestine. It also enables controlled delivery for paracellularly absorbed drugs without a decrease in bioavailability. The above approaches are specific for targeting and leading to a marked improvement in the quality of life for a large number of patients. In the future, it is expected that they will become of growing significance, finally leading to improved efficiencies of various types of pharmacotherapies.

  19. Metal organic frameworks as a drug delivery system for flurbiprofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL Haydar M

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Muder AL Haydar,1,2 Hussein Rasool Abid,3,4 Bruce Sunderland,2 Shaobin Wang5,6 1Pharmaceutics Department, College of the Pharmacy, University of Kerbala, Kerbala, Iraq; 2Pharmaceutics Department, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 3Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 4College of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Kerbala, Kerbala, Iraq; 5School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 6Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia Background: Metal organic frameworks (MOFs have attracted more attention in the last decade because of a suitable pore size, large surface area, and high pore volume. Developing biocompatible MOFs such as the MIL family as a drug delivery system is possible. Purpose: Flurbiprofen (FBP, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, is practically insoluble in aqueous solution, and, therefore, needs suitable drug delivery systems. Different biocompatible MOFs such as Ca-MOF and Fe-MILs (53, 100, and 101 were synthesized and employed for FBP delivery. Patients and methods: A sample of 50 mg of each MOF was mixed and stirred for 24 h with 10 mL of 5 mg FBP in acetonitrile (40% in a sealed container. The supernatant of the mixture after centrifuging was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography to determine the loaded quantity of FBP on the MOF. The overnight-dried solid material after centrifuging the mixture was analyzed for loading percent using X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and FBP release profile. Results: The loading values of FBP were achieved at 10.0%±1%, 20%±0.8%, 37%±2.3%, and 46%±3.1% on Ca-MOF, Fe-MIL-53, Fe-MIL-101, and Fe-MIL-100, respectively. The FBP release

  20. Spatial service delivery system for smart licensing & enforcement management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahap, N. A.; Ismail, N. M.; Nor, N. M.; Ahmad, N.; Omar, M. F.; Termizi, A. A. A.; Zainal, D.; Noordin, N. M.; Mansor, S.

    2016-06-01

    Spatial information has introduced a new sense of urgency for a better understanding of the public needs in term of what, when and where they need services and through which devices, platform or physical locations they need them. The objective of this project is to value- add existing license management process for business premises which comes under the responsibility of Local Authority (PBT). Manipulation of geospatial and tracing technology via mobile platform allows enforcement officers to work in real-time, use a standardized system, improve service delivery, and optimize operation management. This paper will augment the scope and capabilities of proposed concept namely, Smart Licensing/Enforcement Management (SLEm). It will review the current licensing and enforcement practice of selected PBT in comparison to the enhanced method. As a result, the new enhanced system is expected to offer a total solution for licensing/enforcement management whilst increasing efficiency and transparency for smart city management and governance.

  1. Technical Evaluation Report 5: Classification of DE Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Belyk

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available For their optimal use in distance education (DE, online educational applications need to be integrated within a comprehensive course management system (CMS. Such systems are server-based software that supports the development, delivery, administration, and evaluation of online learning environments. The selection of an appropriate CMS should be considered from the multiple perspectives of the student, the course developer, the course instructor/ tutor, the technical support staff, and the DE institution’s administration. The current evaluation of CMS packages was conducted by a team of individuals with experience and contacts in relation to each of these DE user types. The report compares a series of CMS packages in terms of their range of features, and in relation to their satisfaction of international online education standards.

  2. Managerial competence at senior levels of integrated delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longest, B B

    1998-01-01

    The advent of integrated delivery systems (IDSs) in the healthcare industry has changed much about the work involved in running many healthcare organizations. As a result of these changes, senior healthcare managers in IDSs need different skills and knowledge (competencies) than managers of other healthcare systems. The work of managers is changed by the shift to more organizational integration in the healthcare industry because they become responsible for coordinated continuation of services, accountable for the overall health status of the populations they serve, and involved in more complex organizational structures. The article identifies six distinct managerial competencies--conceptual, technical managerial/clinical, interpersonal/collaborative, political, commercial, and governance--and describes how they relate to an IDS senior manager's successful work performance. The implications of these competencies are considered for practicing senior managers in IDSs, as well as those who aspire to such positions, and those who help educate them.

  3. Polymer-Based Novel Lung Targeted Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmowafy, Enas; Osman, Rihab; Ishak, Rania A H

    2017-01-01

    Due to its unique features, the respiratory tract had received great attention as a promising non-invasive route for drug administration to achieve both local and systemic effects. Efforts spent to tailor systems able to overcome the lung defence mechanisms and biological barriers are followed in this review. Aerodynamic diameter, morphology, lung deposition and drug release profiles are the main criteria describing the selected new smart lung targeted delivery systems. Novel systems such as nanoparticles, nano-embedded-in microparticles (NEM), small microparticles (MP), large porous particles (LPP), PulmospheresTM and polymeric micelles are used to passively target different areas in the respiratory tract. The most common preparation methods are outlined in the article. Special emphasis was given to the characteristics of the polymers used to fabricate the developed systems. Efforts made to prepare systems using chitosan (CS), alginate (alg), hyaluronic acid (HA), gelatin and albumin as examples of natural polymers and poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and poly(Ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) as synthetic polymers were compiled. The continuous development and work in the area of lung targeting resulted in the development of engineered smart platforms with the capability to carry small drug molecules, proteins and genes to treat a variety of local and systemic diseases. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Assessment of Advanced Logistics Delivery System (ALDS) Launch Systems Concepts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Gregory W; Borraccini, Joseph P; Fitzpatrick, Brian K; Lynch, William A; McGinnis, Patrick J

    2004-01-01

    .... A study to analyze the machinery technologies capable of meeting this requirement identified a near term solution based on electric linear motor technology derived from the Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System (EMALS...

  5. Ternary particles for effective vaccine delivery to the pulmonary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Treniece La'shay

    Progress in the fields of molecular biology and genomics has provided great insight into the pathogenesis of disease and the defense mechanisms of the immune system. This knowledge has lead to the classification of an array of abnormal genes, for which, treatment relies on cellular expression of proteins. The utility of DNA-based vaccines hold great promise for the treatment of genetically based and infectious diseases, which ranges from hemophilia, cystic fibrosis, and HIV. Synthetic delivery systems consisting of cationic polymers, such as polyethylenimine (PEI), are capable of condensing DNA into compact structures, maximizing cellular uptake of DNA and yielding high levels of protein expression. To date, short term expression is a major obstacle in the development of gene therapies and has halted their expansion in clinical applications. This study intends to develop a sustained release vaccine delivery system using PLA-PEG block copolymers encapsulating PEI:DNA polyplexes. To enhance the effectiveness of such DNA-based vaccines, resident antigen presenting cells, macrophages and dendritic cells, will be targeted within the alveoli regions of the lungs. Porous microspheres will be engineered with aerodynamic properties capable of achieving deep lung deposition. A fabrication technique using concentric nozzles will be developed to produce porous microspheres. It was observed that modifications in the dispersed to continuous phase ratios have the largest influence on particle size distributions, release rates and encapsulation efficiency which ranged form 80--95% with fourteen days of release. Amphiphilic block copolymers were also used to fabricate porous microspheres. The confirmation of PEG within the biodegradable polymer backbone was found to have a tremendous impact on the microsphere morphology and encapsulation efficiency which varied from 50--90%. Porous microspheres were capable of providing sustained gene expression when tested in vitro using the

  6. A delivery system for field application of paratransgenic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Arinder K; Forshaw, Adam; Miller, Thomas A; Durvasula, Ravi

    2015-06-23

    As an alternative to chemical pesticides, paratransgenesis relies on transformation of symbiotic bacteria of an arthropod vector to deliver molecules that disrupt pathogen transmission. For over a decade paratransgenesis has remained a laboratory-based endeavor owing to regulatory concerns regarding introduction of transformed microorganisms into the environment. To facilitate field application of paratransgenic strategies, risk mitigation approaches that address environmental contamination and gene spread must be developed. Using biopolymer manipulation, we introduce a novel microencapsulation platform for containment and targeted delivery of engineered bacteria to the gut of a disease-transmitting arthropod. We demonstrate the first proof of principle of targeted delivery of EPA-approved Pantoea agglomerans E325 in a paratransgenic system to control spread of Pierce's Disease by glassy-winged sharpshooters, (Homalodisca vitripennis) under simulated field conditions. Engineered microcapsules may address regulatory concerns regarding containment of recombinant bacteria and environmental spread of foreign genetic material and may represent an important step in translating paratransgenic science beyond the lab and into the field. We present, for the first time, a microencapsulation strategy to deliver recombinant bacteria to an insect and demonstrate targeted release of bacteria into the physiologically relevant region of the insect gut. This is a first step toward addressing concerns related to field application of recombinant bacteria. Engineered microparticles may decrease environmental contamination, horizontal gene transfer and competition with native species by acting as a barrier between recombinant bacteria and the environment.

  7. Strategic workforce planning for a multihospital, integrated delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datz, David; Hallberg, Colleen; Harris, Kathy; Harrison, Lisa; Samples, Patience

    2012-01-01

    Banner Health has long recognized the need to anticipate, beyond the immediate operational realities or even the annual budgeting projection exercises, the necessary workforce needs of the future. Thus, in 2011, Banner implemented a workforce planning model that included structures, processes, and tools for predicting workforce needs, with particular focus on identified critical systemwide practice areas. The model represents the incorporation of labor management tools and processes with more strategic, broad-view, long-term assessment and planning mechanisms. The sequential tying of the workforce planning lifecycle with the organization's strategy and financial planning process supports alignment of goals, objectives, and resource allocation. Collaboration among strategy, finance, human resources, and operations has provided us with the ability to identify critical position groups based on 3-year strategic priorities. By engaging leaders from across the organization, focusing on activities at facility, regional, and system levels, and building in mechanisms for accountability, we are now engaged in continuous evaluations of our delivery models, the competencies and preparations necessary for the staff to effectively function within those delivery models, and developing and implementing action plans designed to ensure adequate numbers of the staff whose competencies will be suited to the work expected of them.

  8. Pancreatic Cancer Gene Therapy: From Molecular Targets to Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Victoria Maliandi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous identification of molecular changes deregulating critical pathways in pancreatic tumor cells provides us with a large number of novel candidates to engineer gene-targeted approaches for pancreatic cancer treatment. Targets—both protein coding and non-coding—are being exploited in gene therapy to influence the deregulated pathways to facilitate cytotoxicity, enhance the immune response or sensitize to current treatments. Delivery vehicles based on viral or non-viral systems as well as cellular vectors with tumor homing characteristics are a critical part of the design of gene therapy strategies. The different behavior of tumoral versus non-tumoral cells inspires vector engineering with the generation of tumor selective products that can prevent potential toxic-associated effects. In the current review, a detailed analysis of the different targets, the delivery vectors, the preclinical approaches and a descriptive update on the conducted clinical trials are presented. Moreover, future possibilities in pancreatic cancer treatment by gene therapy strategies are discussed.

  9. Potential and problems in ultrasound-responsive drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao YZ

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ying-Zheng Zhao,1,3 Li-Na Du,2 Cui-Tao Lu,1 Yi-Guang Jin,2 Shu-Ping Ge3 1Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou City, Zhejiang Province, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3St Christopher’s Hospital for Children/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Ultrasound is an important local stimulus for triggering drug release at the target tissue. Ultrasound-responsive drug delivery systems (URDDS have become an important research focus in targeted therapy. URDDS include many different formulations, such as microbubbles, nanobubbles, nanodroplets, liposomes, emulsions, and micelles. Drugs that can be loaded into URDDS include small molecules, biomacromolecules, and inorganic substances. Fields of clinical application include anticancer therapy, treatment of ischemic myocardium, induction of an immune response, cartilage tissue engineering, transdermal drug delivery, treatment of Huntington’s disease, thrombolysis, and disruption of the blood–brain barrier. This review focuses on recent advances in URDDS, and discusses their formulations, clinical application, and problems, as well as a perspective on their potential use in the future. Keywords: ultrasound, targeted therapy, clinical application

  10. Delivery Systems for In Vivo use of Nucleic Acid Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resende R.R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The notorious biotechnological advance of the last few decades has allowed the development of experimental methods for understanding molecular mechanisms of genes and new therapeutic approaches. Gene therapy is maturing into a viable, practical method with the potential to cure a variety of human illnesses. Some nucleic-acid-based drugs are now available for controlling the progression of genetic diseases by inhibiting gene expression or the activity of their gene products. New therapeutic strategies employ a wide range of molecular tools such as bacterial plasmids containing transgenic inserts, RNA interference aptamers. A nucleic-acid based constitution confers a lower immunogenic potential and as result of the high stringency selection of large molecular variety, these drugs have high affi nity and selectivity for their targets. However, nucleic acids have poor biostability thus requiring chemical modifications and delivery systems to maintain their activity and ease their cellular internalization. This review discusses some of the mechanisms of action and the application of therapies based on nucleic acids such as aptamers and RNA interference as well as platforms for cellular uptake and intracellular delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides and their trade-offs.

  11. The origins and evolution of "controlled" drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Allan S

    2008-12-18

    This paper describes the earliest days when the "controlled drug delivery" (CDD) field began, the pioneers who launched this exciting and important field, and the key people who came after them. It traces the evolution of the field from its origins in the 1960s to (a) the 1970s and 1980s, when numerous macroscopic "controlled" drug delivery (DD) devices and implants were designed for delivery as mucosal inserts (e.g., in the eye or vagina), as implants (e.g., sub-cutaneous or intra-muscular), as ingestible capsules (e.g., in the G-I tract), as topical patches (e.g., on the skin), and were approved for clinical use, to (b) the 1980s and 1990s when microscopic degradable polymer depot DD systems (DDS) were commercialized, and to (c) the currently very active and exciting nanoscopic era of targeted nano-carriers, in a sense bringing to life Ehrlich's imagined concept of the "Magic Bullet". The nanoscopic era began with systems proposed in the 1970s, that were first used in the clinic in the 1980s, and which came of age in the 1990s, and which are presently evolving into many exciting and clinically successful products in the 2000s. Most of these have succeeded because of the emergence of three key technologies: (1) PEGylation, (2) active targeting to specific cells by ligands conjugated to the DDS, or passive targeting to solid tumors via the EPR effect. The author has been personally involved in the origins and evolution of this field for the past 38 years (see below), and this review includes information that was provided to him by many researchers in this field about the history of various developments. Thus, this paper is based on his own personal involvements in the CDD field, along with many historical anecdotes provided by the key pioneers and researchers in the field. Because of the huge literature of scientific papers on CDD systems, this article attempts to limit examples to those that have been approved for clinical use, or are currently in clinical trials

  12. Chronotherapeutic drug delivery systems: an approach to circadian rhythms diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, S A; Srikanth, M V; Rao, N Sreenivasa; Uhumwangho, M U; Latha, K; Murthy, K V Ramana

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of writing this review on chronotherapeutic drug delivery systems (ChrDDs) is to review the literatures with special focus on ChrDDs and the various dosage forms, techniques that are used to target the circadian rhythms (CR) of various diseases. Many functions of the human body vary considerably in a day. ChrDDs refers to a treatment method in which in vivo drug availability is timed to match circadian rhythms of disease in order to optimize therapeutic outcomes and minimize side effects. Several techniques have been developed but not many dosage forms for all the diseases are available in the market. ChrDDs are gaining importance in the field of pharmaceutical technology as these systems reduce dosing frequency, toxicity and deliver the drug that matches the CR of that particular disease when the symptoms are maximum to worse. Finally, the ultimate benefit goes to the patient due the compliance and convenience of the dosage form. Some diseases that follow circadian rhythms include cardiovascular diseases, asthma, arthritis, ulcers, diabetes etc. ChrDDs in the market were also discussed and the current technologies used to formulate were also stated. These technologies include Contin® , Chronotopic®, Pulsincaps®, Ceform®, Timerx®, Oros®, Codas®, Diffucaps®, Egalet®, Tablet in capsule device, Core-in-cup tablet technology. A coated drug-core tablet matrix, A bi-layered tablet, Multiparticulate-based chronotherapeutic drug delivery systems, Chronoset and Controlled release microchips.

  13. Oral controlled release drug delivery system and Characterization of oral tablets; A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zaman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral route of drug administration is considered as the safest and easiest route of drug administration. Control release drug delivery system is the emerging trend in the pharmaceuticals and the oral route is most suitable for such kind of drug delivery system. Oral route is more convenient for It all age group including both pediatric and geriatrics. There are various systems which are adopted to deliver drug in a controlled manner to different target sites through oral route. It includes diffusion controlled drug delivery systems; dissolution controlled drug delivery systems, osmotically controlled drug delivery systems, ion-exchange controlled drug delivery systems, hydrodynamically balanced systems, multi-Particulate drug delivery systems and microencapsulated drug delivery system. The systems are formulated using different natural, semi-synthetic and synthetic polymers. The purpose of the review is to provide information about the orally controlled drug delivery system, polymers which are used to formulate these systems and characterizations of one of the most convenient dosage form which is the tablets. 

  14. Project Delivery System Mode Decision Based on Uncertain AHP and Fuzzy Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaishan, Liu; Huimin, Li

    2017-12-01

    The project delivery system mode determines the contract pricing type, project management mode and the risk allocation among all participants. Different project delivery system modes have different characteristics and applicable scope. For the owners, the selection of the delivery mode is the key point to decide whether the project can achieve the expected benefits, it relates to the success or failure of project construction. Under the precondition of comprehensively considering the influence factors of the delivery mode, the model of project delivery system mode decision was set up on the basis of uncertain AHP and fuzzy sets, which can well consider the uncertainty and fuzziness when conducting the index evaluation and weight confirmation, so as to rapidly and effectively identify the most suitable delivery mode according to project characteristics. The effectiveness of the model has been verified via the actual case analysis in order to provide reference for the construction project delivery system mode.

  15. Systemic gene delivery to the central nervous system using Adeno-associated virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu eBOURDENX

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated virus (AAV-mediated gene delivery has emerged as an effective and safe tool for both preclinical and clinical studies of neurological disorders. The recent discovery that several serotypes are able to cross the blood-brain-barrier when administered systemically has been a real breakthrough in the field of neurodegenerative diseases. Widespread transgene expression after systemic injection could spark interest as a therapeutic approach. Such strategy will avoid invasive brain surgery and allow non-focal gene therapy promising for CNS diseases affecting large portion of the brain. Here, we will review the recent results achieved through different systemic routes of injection generated in the last decade using systemic AAV-mediated delivery and propose a brief assessment of their values. In particular, we emphasize how the methods used for virus engineering could improve brain transduction after peripheral delivery.

  16. Development of magnetic drug delivery system using HTS bulk magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, T.; Fukui, S.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Izumi, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic drug delivery system (MDDS) is the method which the magnetic seeded drug is injected into a blood vessel and then controlled and accumulated by a magnet located outside of the human body. A high accumulation efficiency of the drug to a local diseased part and reduction in side-effects to normal organs are expected by using MDDS. The most important element in MDDS is a magnetic field generator. The high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnet which can generate high magnetic field and magnetic field gradient extending to a point distant from the magnet in several ten millimeters is necessary to achieve the MDDS. In this study, the computer simulation and model experiment were conducted in order to confirm the applicability of MDDS to ovary of the cow body

  17. Thermosensitive Self-Assembling Block Copolymers as Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Filippo Palmieri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembling block copolymers (poloxamers, PEG/PLA and PEG/PLGA diblock and triblock copolymers, PEG/polycaprolactone, polyether modified poly(Acrylic Acid with large solubility difference between hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties have the property of forming temperature dependent micellar aggregates and, after a further temperature increase, of gellifying due to micelle aggregation or packing. This property enables drugs to be mixed in the sol state at room temperature then the solution can be injected into a target tissue, forming a gel depot in-situ at body temperature with the goal of providing drug release control. The presence of micellar structures that give rise to thermoreversible gels, characterized by low toxicity and mucomimetic properties, makes this delivery system capable of solubilizing water-insoluble or poorly soluble drugs and of protecting labile molecules such as proteins and peptide drugs.

  18. Rapid cycling medical synchrotron and beam delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peggs, Stephen G [Port Jefferson, NY; Brennan, J Michael [East Northport, NY; Tuozzolo, Joseph E [Sayville, NY; Zaltsman, Alexander [Commack, NY

    2008-10-07

    A medical synchrotron which cycles rapidly in order to accelerate particles for delivery in a beam therapy system. The synchrotron generally includes a radiofrequency (RF) cavity for accelerating the particles as a beam and a plurality of combined function magnets arranged in a ring. Each of the combined function magnets performs two functions. The first function of the combined function magnet is to bend the particle beam along an orbital path around the ring. The second function of the combined function magnet is to focus or defocus the particle beam as it travels around the path. The radiofrequency (RF) cavity is a ferrite loaded cavity adapted for high speed frequency swings for rapid cycling acceleration of the particles.

  19. Fundamental study for development magnetic drug delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Y.; Akiyama, Y.; Izumi, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2009-01-01

    Side-effects and lowering effects by diffusion of drugs such as anticancer agents is one of the serious issues in medication. To solve this problem, it is necessary to control the drugs quantitatively, spatially and temporally within the human body. Magnetic drug delivery system (MDDS) is one of the technologies to make it possible, in which the ferromagnetic drug injected into the blood vessel is conducted to diseased part by external magnetic force. As a fundamental experiment, the accumulation experiment using ferromagnetic particles were performed with simulated capillary vessels composed of glass beads channels in this work. Additionally, accumulation calculation of ferromagnetic particles was conducted to check the validity of accumulation experiment. From these result, the 2D distribution of particle accumulation in the experiment corresponded with that of particle accumulation in the calculation. It was suggested that the proper position of magnet should be changed according to the depth of diseased part.

  20. Bacterial derived proteoliposome as ideal delivery system and cellular adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Tamara; Pérez, Oliver a; Ugrinovic, Sanja; Bracho, Gustavo; Mastroeni, Pietro

    2006-04-12

    We explored the potential of a proteoliposome (PL) from the outer membrane of N. meningitidis B, as an immunopotentiator and as a vector for antigen delivery to dendritic cells (DC). DC were incubated with PL resulting in up-regulation of MHC-II, CD40, CD80, and CD86 expression and production of TNFalpha and IL12(p70). Ovoalbumin (OVA) was incorporated within PL (PL-OVA). PL-OVA presented OVA-specific peptides to CD4+ and CD8+ OVA-specific T-cell hybridomas. PL exerts an immunomodulatory effect on DC and is a general system to deliver antigens for presentation to CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells possibly implicated in the induction CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) responses.

  1. In vitro digestion testing of lipid-based delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devraj, Ravi; Williams, Hywel D; Warren, Dallas B

    2012-01-01

    In vitro digestion testing is of practical importance to predict the fate of drugs administered in lipid-based delivery systems. Calcium ions are often added to digestion media to increase the extent of digestion of long-chain triglycerides (LCTs), but the effects they have on phase behaviour...... of the products of digestion, and consequent drug solubilization, are not well understood. This study investigates the effect of calcium and bile salt concentrations on the rate and extent of in vitro digestion of soybean oil, as well as the solubilizing capacity of the digestion products for two poorly water......-soluble drugs, fenofibrate and danazol. In the presence of higher concentrations of calcium ions, the solubilization capacities of the digests were reduced for both drugs. This effect is attributed to the formation of insoluble calcium soaps, visible as precipitates during the digestions. This reduces...

  2. Enzymatically triggered multifunctional delivery system based on hyaluronic acid micelles

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Tumor targetability and stimuli responsivity of drug delivery systems (DDS) are key factors in cancer therapy. Implementation of multifunctional DDS can afford targetability and responsivity at the same time. Herein, cholesterol molecules (Ch) were coupled to hyaluronic acid (HA) backbones to afford amphiphilic conjugates that can self-assemble into stable micelles. Doxorubicin (DOX), an anticancer drug, and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles (NPs), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, were encapsulated by Ch-HA micelles and were selectively released in the presence of hyaluronidase (Hyals) enzyme. Cytotoxicity and cell uptake studies were done using three cancer cell lines (HeLa, HepG2 and MCF7) and one normal cell line (WI38). Higher Ch-HA micelles uptake was seen in cancer cells versus normal cells. Consequently, DOX release was elevated in cancer cells causing higher cytotoxicity and enhanced cell death. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Processing of Polymer Nanofibers Through Electrospinning as Drug Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenawy, E.; Abdel-Hay, F. I.; El-Newehy, M. H.; Wnek, G. E.

    The use of electrospun fibers as drug carriers could be promising in the future for biomedical applications, especially postoperative local chemotherapy. In this research, electrospun fibers were developed as a new system for the delivery of ketoprofen as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The fibers were made either from polycaprolactone (PCL) as a biodegradable polymer or polyurethane (PU) as a non-biodegradable polymer, or from the blends of the two. The release of the ketoprofen was followed by UV—VIS spectroscopy in phosphate buffer of pH 7.4 at 37°C and 20°C. The results showed that the release rates from the polycaprolactone, polyurethane and their blend were similar. However, the blend of the polycaprolactone with polyurethane improved its visual mechanical properties. Release profiles from the electrospun mats were compared to cast films of the various formulations.

  4. Recent developments in retinal lasers and delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Kumar Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocoagulation is the standard of care for several ocular disorders and in particular retinal conditions. Technology has offered us newer lasing mediums, wavelengths and delivery systems. Pattern scan laser in proliferative diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema allows laser treatment that is less time consuming and less painful. Now, it is possible to deliver a subthreshold micropulse laser that is above the threshold of biochemical effect but below the threshold of a visible, destructive lesion thereby preventing collateral damage. The advent of solid-state diode yellow laser allows us to treat closer to the fovea, is more effective for vascular structures and offers a more uniform effect in patients with light or irregular fundus pigmentation. Newer retinal photocoagulation options along with their advantages is discussed in this review.

  5. Optimized formulation of solid self-microemulsifying sirolimus delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho W

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Wonkyung Cho,1,2 Min-Soo Kim,3 Jeong-Soo Kim,2 Junsung Park,1,2 Hee Jun Park,1,2 Kwang-Ho Cha,1,2 Jeong-Sook Park,2 Sung-Joo Hwang1,4 1Yonsei Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Yonsei University, Incheon, Republic of Korea; 2College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae, Republic of Korea; 4College of Pharmacy, Yonsei University, Incheon, Republic of Korea Background: The aim of this study was to develop an optimized solid self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS formulation for sirolimus to enhance its solubility, stability, and bioavailability. Methods: Excipients used for enhancing the solubility and stability of sirolimus were screened. A phase-separation test, visual observation for emulsifying efficiency, and droplet size analysis were performed. Ternary phase diagrams were constructed to optimize the liquid SMEDDS formulation. The selected liquid SMEDDS formulations were prepared into solid form. The dissolution profiles and pharmacokinetic profiles in rats were analyzed. Results: In the results of the oil and cosolvent screening studies, Capryol™ Propylene glycol monocaprylate (PGMC and glycofurol exhibited the highest solubility of all oils and cosolvents, respectively. In the surfactant screening test, D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (vitamin E TPGS was determined to be the most effective stabilizer of sirolimus in pH 1.2 simulated gastric fluids. The optimal formulation determined by the construction of ternary phase diagrams was the T32 (Capryol™ PGMC:glycofurol:vitamin E TPGS = 30:30:40 weight ratio formulation with a mean droplet size of 108.2 ± 11.4 nm. The solid SMEDDS formulations were prepared with Sucroester 15 and mannitol. The droplet size of the reconstituted solid SMEDDS showed no significant difference compared with the liquid SMEDDS. In the dissolution study, the release amounts of

  6. Formulation and evaluation of ubidecarenone transdermal delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sun Young; Kang, Eun Young; Choi, Yoon Jung; Chun, In Koo; Lee, Byung Koo; Gwak, Hye Sun

    2009-09-01

    This study is aimed to examine the feasibility of developing ubidecarenone (coenzyme Q(10), CoQ(10)) transdermal delivery systems (TDS). In vitro permeation study using solution formulation and pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) TDS and in vivo pharmacokinetic study were conducted. When using solution formulations, isopropyl alcohol (103.39 +/- 1.61), ethyl alcohol (81.55 +/- 7.27), and the mixture of diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DGME)/propylene glycol monolaurate (PGML) at the ratio of 60:40 (91.08 +/- 26.07) showed high flux (microg/cm(2)/hour). The addition of fatty acids to DGME-PGML failed to show profound enhancing effects; only unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid and oleic acid at 3% and caprylic acid at 3% and 10% slightly increased permeation flux. CoQ(10) from the acrylic PSA TDS showed biphasic permeation profile that was permeated very rapidly up to the first 12 hours, and after that, permeation rate became slower. Overall, 6% fatty acids showed high permeation rates and the highest maximum flux of 9.3 microg/cm(2)/hour was obtained with a formulation containing 6% lauric acid in DGME-PGML (60:40). The in vivo pharmacokinetic study using TDS with 6% fatty acids in DGME-PGML (60:40) showed that the absorption of CoQ(10) decreased in the following order: TDS containing linoleic acid > oral dosage form > TDS with oleic acid > TDS with lauric acid > TDS with caprylic acid > TDS with capric acid. TDS containing oleic acid showed preferable pharmacokinetic profile with respect to lower C(max), comparable AUC, and prolonged t(1/2) and T(max) compared to oral administration of drug. For effective transdermal delivery system of CoQ(10), 6% linoleic acid or oleic acid in DGME-PGML (60:40) could be employed.

  7. Drug accumulation by means of noninvasive magnetic drug delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuzawa, M.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2011-01-01

    The medication is one of the most general treatment methods, but drugs diffuse in the normal tissues other than the target part by the blood circulation. Therefore, side effect in the medication, particularly for a drug with strong effect such as anti-cancer drug, are a serious issue. Drug Delivery System (DDS) which accumulates the drug locally in the human body is one of the techniques to solve the side-effects. Magnetic Drug Delivery System (MDDS) is one of the active DDSs, which uses the magnetic force. The objective of this study is to accumulate the ferromagnetic drugs noninvasively in the deep part of the body by using MDDS. It is necessary to generate high magnetic field and magnetic gradient at the target part to reduce the side-effects to the tissues with no diseases. The biomimetic model was composed, which consists of multiple model organs connected with diverged blood vessel model. The arrangement of magnetic field was examined to accumulate ferromagnetic drug particles in the target model organ by using a superconducting bulk magnet which can generate high magnetic fields. The arrangement of magnet was designed to generate high and stable magnetic field at the target model organ. The accumulation experiment of ferromagnetic particles has been conducted. In this study, rotating HTS bulk magnet around the axis of blood vessels by centering on the target part was suggested, and the model experiment for magnet rotation was conducted. As a result, the accumulation of the ferromagnetic particles to the target model organ in the deep part was confirmed.

  8. In Situ Gelling Liquid Crystalline System as Local siRNA Delivery System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgheti-Cardoso, Livia N.; Kooijmans, Sander A.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413754170; Fens, Marcel H.A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831360; Van der Meel, Roy|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/337020221; De Carvalho Vicentini, Fabiana Testa Moura; Fantini, Marcia C.A.; Bentley, Maria Vitória Lopes Badra; Schiffelers, Raymond M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/212909509

    2017-01-01

    An effective short interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery system protects the siRNA from degradation, facilitates its cellular uptake, and promotes its release into the cytoplasm. Local administration of siRNA presents advantages over systemic administration, such as the possibility to use lower doses and

  9. Particle size distribution of selected electronic nicotine delivery system products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Michael J; Zhang, Jingjie; Rusyniak, Mark J; Kane, David B; Gardner, William P

    2018-03-01

    Dosimetry models can be used to predict the dose of inhaled material, but they require several parameters including particle size distribution. The reported particle size distributions for aerosols from electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) products vary widely and don't always identify a specific product. A low-flow cascade impactor was used to determine the particle size distribution [mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD); geometric standard deviation (GSD)] from 20 different cartridge based ENDS products. To assess losses and vapor phase amount, collection efficiency of the system was measured by comparing the collected mass in the impactor to the difference in ENDS product mass. The levels of nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, water, and menthol in the formulations of each product were also measured. Regardless of the ENDS product formulation, the MMAD of all tested products was similar and ranged from 0.9 to 1.2 μm with a GSD ranging from 1.7 to 2.2. There was no consistent pattern of change in the MMAD and GSD as a function of number of puffs (cartridge life). The collection efficiency indicated that 9%-26% of the generated mass was deposited in the collection system or was in the vapor phase. The particle size distribution data are suitable for use in aerosol dosimetry programs. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Perinatal systemic gene delivery using adeno-associated viral vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajvinder eKarda

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative monogenic diseases can also affect a broad range of tissues and organs throughout the body. An effective treatment would require a systemic approach. The intravenous administration of novel therapies is ideal but is hampered by the inability of such drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier and precludes efficacy in the central nervous system. A number of these early lethal intractable diseases also present devastating irreversible pathology at birth or soon after. Therefore, any therapy would ideally be administered during the perinatal period to prevent, stop or ameliorate disease progression. The concept of perinatal gene therapy has moved a step further towards being a feasible approach to treating such disorders. This has primarily been driven by the recent discoveries that particular serotypes of adeno-associated virus (AAV gene delivery vectors have the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier following intravenous administration. Furthermore, this has been safely demonstrated in perinatal mice and non-human primates. This review focuses on the progress made in using AAV to achieve systemic transduction and what this means for developing perinatal gene therapy for early lethal neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Forensic analysis of online marketing for electronic nicotine delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Nathan K; Brookover, Jody; Cobb, Caroline O

    2015-03-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are growing in awareness and use in the USA. They are currently unregulated as the Food and Drug Administration has yet to assert jurisdiction under its tobacco authority over these products, and a US Court of Appeals held they cannot be regulated as drugs/delivery devices if they are not marketed for a therapeutic purpose. Observation of the current online marketplace suggests ENDS, like some nutraceutical products, are being promoted using affiliate marketing techniques using claims concerning purported health benefits. This study performed a forensic analysis to characterise the relationships between online ENDS affiliate advertisements and ENDS sellers, and evaluated descriptive content on advertisements and websites to inform future policy and regulatory efforts. A purposive sampling strategy was used to identify three forms of ENDS advertising. Web proxy software recorded identifiable objects and their ties to each other. Network analysis of these ties followed, as well as analysis of descriptive content on advertisements and websites identified. The forensic analysis included four ENDS advertisements, two linked affiliate websites, and two linked seller websites, and demonstrated a multilevel relationship between advertisements and sellers with multiple layers of redirection. Descriptive analysis indicated that advertisements and affiliates, but not linked sellers, included smoking cessation claims. Results suggest that ENDS sellers may be trying to distance marketing efforts containing unsubstantiated claims from sales. A separate descriptive analysis of 20 ENDS seller web pages indicated that the use of affiliate marketing by sellers may be widespread. These findings support increased monitoring and regulation of ENDS marketing to prevent deceptive marketing tactics and ensure consumer safety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please

  12. A Review of Analytical Methods for the Identification and Characterization of Nano Delivery Systems in Food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luykx, D.M.A.M.; Peters, R.J.B.; Ruth, van S.M.; Bouwmeester, H.

    2008-01-01

    Detection and characterization of nano delivery systems is an essential part of understanding the benefits as well as the potential toxicity of these systems in food. This review gives a detailed description of food nano delivery systems based on lipids, proteins, and/or polysaccharides and

  13. Improving governance to improve oral health: addressing care delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Paul

    2012-09-01

    The evolving role of the state in the provision of health care has seen the adoption of new management philosophies to ensure that goals set for the system are reached. In particular, the term New Public Management (NPM) has tended to dominate reforms to help address perceived shortcomings in public sector services. NPM is based on the use of freemarket type arrangements as a mechanism to solve problems, the control of which provides new challenges. One particular challenge that has arisen from the combination of NPM with the large number of agencies involved in care provision is that of addressing the issues arising from the improved understanding of the determinants of health. This has led to the evolution of differing care arrangements across differing sectors at all levels. If resources are to be used as intended, the control of delivery systems to oversee their use must exist. The overarching term for such activity is â governance. This paper provides an overview of the issues that arise for addressing governance of oral health care and the subsequent challenges that face those responsible for ensuring compliance.

  14. Healthcare delivery systems at higher educational institutions in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeravdekar, Rajiv Chintaman; Yeravdekar, Vidya Rajiv

    2014-09-01

    The interrelation between health and academic performance is well established. Academic institutions have a larger mandate, beyond academic instruction alone. The objective is to contribute holistically to student development through various paradigms, ultimately culminating in student success. To meet the global challenges of a changing educational system, educational institutions today are therefore vying to be Centers of Excellence, aiming to develop the overall personality of the student. Fundamental to this ideology and with student success as the common denominator, student Wellness assumes critical significance. Higher education institutions, especially universities offer varying levels of healthcare services. Health Promoting University (HPU) projects have therefore been implemented in the West. Unlike in the West, the concept of a Health Promoting University is nascent in India. A total of 1071 responses to a structured questionnaire administered to the students were studied. In general, there appears to be a lack of awareness regarding the importance of addressing student healthcare issues. Consequently, the spectrum of healthcare services provided is varied and scattered. This encompasses infrastructure, manpower, resource allocation etc. The collective responses obtained could provide the basis for a policy formulation. The policy formulation in turn could be the basis of a national consensus for health care delivery systems operational at higher educational institutions in India.

  15. Key Considerations in Designing Oral Drug Delivery Systems for Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yunmei; Peressin, Karl; Wong, Pooi Yin; Page, Stephen W; Garg, Sanjay

    2016-05-01

    The present review discusses the pharmaceutical impact of the anatomy and physiology of the canine gastrointestinal tract to provide a comprehensive guide to the theories and challenges associated with the development of oral drug delivery systems for dogs. Novel pharmaceutical technologies applied to veterinary drugs are discussed indicating the advantages and benefits for animals. There are currently immense research and development efforts being funneled into novel canine health products. Such products are being used to overcome limitations of drugs that display site-dependent absorption or possess poor biopharmaceutical properties. Techniques that are employed to increase bioavailability of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System class II drugs are discussed in this article. Furthermore, an overview of palatable oral formulations for dog care is provided as an approach to easy administration. In vitro and in vivo evaluation and correlation of oral drug formulations in dogs are also addressed. This article assesses the outlook of canine oral drug development recognizing substantial growth forecasts of the dog care market. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An experimental platform for systemic drug delivery to the retina.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Campbell, Matthew

    2009-10-20

    Degenerative retinopathies, including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and hereditary retinal disorders--major causes of world blindness--are potentially treatable by using low-molecular weight neuroprotective, antiapoptotic, or antineovascular drugs. These agents are, however, not in current systemic use owing to, among other factors, their inability to passively diffuse across the microvasculature of the retina because of the presence of the inner blood-retina barrier (iBRB). Moreover, preclinical assessment of the efficacies of new formulations in the treatment of such conditions is similarly compromised. We describe here an experimental process for RNAi-mediated, size-selective, transient, and reversible modulation of the iBRB in mice to molecules up to 800 Da by suppression of transcripts encoding claudin-5, a protein component of the tight junctions of the inner retinal vasculature. MRI produced no evidence indicative of brain or retinal edema, and the process resulted in minimal disturbance of global transcriptional patterns analyzed in neuronal tissue. We show that visual function can be improved in IMPDH1(-\\/-) mice, a model of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa, and that the rate of photoreceptor cell death can be reduced in a model of light-induced retinal degeneration by systemic drug delivery after reversible barrier opening. These findings provide a platform for high-throughput drug screening in models of retinal degeneration, and they ultimately could result in the development of a novel "humanized" approach to therapy for conditions with little or no current forms of treatment.

  17. Approaches and Challenges of Engineering Implantable Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS Drug Delivery Systems for in Vitro and in Vivo Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-Tye Yong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the advancements made in drug delivery systems over the years, many challenges remain in drug delivery systems for treating chronic diseases at the personalized medicine level. The current urgent need is to develop novel strategies for targeted therapy of chronic diseases. Due to their unique properties, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS technology has been recently engineered as implantable drug delivery systems for disease therapy. This review examines the challenges faced in implementing implantable MEMS drug delivery systems in vivo and the solutions available to overcome these challenges.

  18. Buccal mucosa as a route for systemic drug delivery: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, A H

    1998-01-01

    Within the oral mucosal cavity, the buccal region offers an attractive route of administration for systemic drug delivery. The mucosa has a rich blood supply and it is relatively permeable. It is the objective of this article to review buccal drug delivery by discussing the structure and environment of the oral mucosa and the experimental methods used in assessing buccal drug permeation/absorption. Buccal dosage forms will also be reviewed with an emphasis on bioadhesive polymeric based delivery systems

  19. Erythrocytes-based synthetic delivery systems: transition from conventional to novel engineering strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhateria, Manisha; Rachumallu, Ramakrishna; Singh, Rajbir; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar

    2014-08-01

    Erythrocytes (red blood cells [RBCs]) and artificial or synthetic delivery systems such as liposomes, nanoparticles (NPs) are the most investigated carrier systems. Herein, progress made from conventional approach of using RBC as delivery systems to novel approach of using synthetic delivery systems based on RBC properties will be reviewed. We aim to highlight both conventional and novel approaches of using RBCs as potential carrier system. Conventional approaches which include two main strategies are: i) directly loading therapeutic moieties in RBCs; and ii) coupling them with RBCs whereas novel approaches exploit structural, mechanical and biological properties of RBCs to design synthetic delivery systems through various engineering strategies. Initial attempts included coupling of antibodies to liposomes to specifically target RBCs. Knowledge obtained from several studies led to the development of RBC membrane derived liposomes (nanoerythrosomes), inspiring future application of RBC or its structural features in other attractive delivery systems (hydrogels, filomicelles, microcapsules, micro- and NPs) for even greater potential. In conclusion, this review dwells upon comparative analysis of various conventional and novel engineering strategies in developing RBC based drug delivery systems, diversifying their applications in arena of drug delivery. Regardless of the challenges in front of us, RBC based delivery systems offer an exciting approach of exploiting biological entities in a multitude of medical applications.

  20. Topical Delivery of Aceclofenac: Challenges and Promises of Novel Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisar Raza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA, a common musculoskeletal disorder, is projected to affect about 60 million people of total world population by 2020. The associated pain and disability impair the quality of life and also pose economic burden to the patient. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are widely prescribed in OA, while diclofenac is the most prescribed one. Oral NSAIDs are not very patient friendly, as they cause various gastrointestinal adverse effects like bleeding, ulceration, and perforation. To enhance the tolerability of diclofenac and decrease the common side effects, aceclofenac (ACE was developed by its chemical modification. As expected, ACE is more well-tolerated than diclofenac and possesses superior efficacy but is not completely devoid of the NSAID-tagged side effects. A series of chemical modifications of already planned drug is unjustified as it consumes quanta of time, efforts, and money, and this approach will also pose stringent regulatory challenges. Therefore, it is justified to deliver ACE employing tools of drug delivery and nanotechnology to refine its safety profile. The present review highlights the constraints related to the topical delivery of ACE and the various attempts made so far for the safe and effective topical delivery employing the novel materials and methods.

  1. Development of a system for managing document delivery schedule(DDS) for NSSS system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, S. H.; Baek, J. M.; Sohn, Y. S.; Shon, G. H.

    1999-01-01

    The construction of nuclear power plant is a long-term project from initial design to commercial operation. To accomplish NSSS (Nuclear Steam Supply System) system design successfully, the systematic and effective method for managing the system design product and interface correspondence with other organizations is required. To meet this requirement, a system has been developed to control the document delivery schedule, approval process and interface correspondence transmittal, and to report the documentation status periodically from the beginning of the YGN 5 and 6 project. This system is expected to contribute as the beginning step to development of integrated project management system. (author)

  2. Recombinant virus like particles as drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgens, Christiane; Weyermann, Jörg; Zimmer, Andreas

    2005-02-01

    The drug delivery system described here is based on a virus like particle consisting of the recombinant expressed major capsid protein of Polyomavirus, VP1. Polyoma, a murine virus belonging to the Papovaviridae, forms a non-enveloped icosahedral capsid. These capsids are organized as a double shell composed of three different proteins: VP1,VP2 and VP3. The outer shell of the vision is composed of 360 VP1 molecules arranged as 72 pentamers. These capsids have a diameter of about 50 nm. The VP1 protein acts as a major ligand for certain membrane receptors during virus infection. Furthermore, the N-terminus of the VP1 protein contains a DNA-binding domain and a nuclear localization sequence. The recombinant production of the VP1 protein offers a save way to obtain a highly purified, non pathogenic pharmaceutical excipient. Combining these aspects, VP1 proteins provide a targeting as well as a drug binding site when used as a save drug carrier for gene therapy. Current applications are also including oligonucleotides as well as small molecules as well as vaccines.

  3. Delivery of asteroids and meteorites to the inner solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, R.; Nolan, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses how critical observational constraints on the delivery of asteroids (including the very small ones, called meteorites, that land on the Earth) include orbital distributions, exposure ages and mineralogy. Orbital maturity in the inner solar system is indicated by the AM/PM distribution of meteorite falls and fireballs: orbits with perihelia at 1 AU are less mature and arrive preferentially in the PM. Ordinary chondrites have short exposure ages, but their AM/PM fall statistics indicate significant orbital maturity. Hence, many may be collisional offspring of slightly larger parents that emigrated from the main belt. The required size distribution, extrapolated up to multi-km-size bodies, would also yield numbers of planet-crossing asteroids comparable to those astronomically observed. However, such a distribution requires launch on Earth-bound trajectories by catastrophic disruption events, which probably cannot launch sufficient material at high enough velocities Cratering events offer higher ejecta velocities, and if dominant would explain the abundance of basaltic meteorites relative to olivine, which should constitute the bulk of a differentiated parent body's volume

  4. Polysaccharides-based polyelectrolyte nanoparticles as protein drugs delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu Shujun; Sun Lei; Zhang Xinge, E-mail: zhangxinge@nankai.edu.cn [Nankai University, Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials Ministry of Education, Institute of Polymer Chemistry (China); Wu Zhongming [Tianjin Medical University, Metabolic Diseases Hospital (China); Wang Zhen; Li Chaoxing, E-mail: lcx@nankai.edu.cn [Nankai University, Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials Ministry of Education, Institute of Polymer Chemistry (China)

    2011-09-15

    Polysaccharides-based nanoparticles were prepared by synthesized quaternized chitosan and dextran sulfate through simple ionic-gelation self-assembled method. Introduction of quaternized groups was intended to increase water solubility of chitosan and make the nanoparticles have broader pH sensitive range which can remain more stable in physiological pH and decrease the loss of protein drugs caused by the gastric cavity. The load of BSA was affected by molecular parameter, i.e., degree of substitution, and average molecular weight of quaternized chitosan, as well as concentration of BSA. Fast release occurred in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) while the release was slow in hydrochloric acid (pH 1.4). The drug release mechanism is Fickian diffusion through release kinetics analysis. Cell uptake demonstrated nanoparicles can internalize into Caco-2 cells, which suggested that nanoparticles had good biocompatibility. No significant conformation change was noted for the released BSA in comparison with native BSA using circular dichroism spectroscopy. This kind of novel composite nanoparticles may be a promising delivery system for oral protein and peptide drugs.

  5. Liposome-Based Delivery Systems in Plant Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiwan Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant polysaccharides consist of many monosaccharide by α- or β-glycosidic bond which can be extracted by the water, alcohol, lipophile liquid from a variety of plants including Cordyceps sinensis, astragalus, and mushrooms. Recently, many evidences illustrate that natural plant polysaccharides possess various biological activities including strengthening immunity, lowering blood sugar, regulating lipid metabolism, antioxidation, antiaging, and antitumour. Plant polysaccharides have been widely used in the medical field due to their special features and low toxicity. As an important drug delivery system, liposomes can not only encapsulate small-molecule compound but also big-molecule drug; therefore, they present great promise for the application of plant polysaccharides with unique physical and chemical properties and make remarkable successes. This paper summarized the current progress in plant polysaccharides liposomes, gave an overview on their experiment design method, preparation, and formulation, characterization and quality control, as well as in vivo and in vitro studies. Moreover, the potential application of plant polysaccharides liposomes was prospected as well.

  6. Polysaccharides-based polyelectrolyte nanoparticles as protein drugs delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu Shujun; Sun Lei; Zhang Xinge; Wu Zhongming; Wang Zhen; Li Chaoxing

    2011-01-01

    Polysaccharides-based nanoparticles were prepared by synthesized quaternized chitosan and dextran sulfate through simple ionic-gelation self-assembled method. Introduction of quaternized groups was intended to increase water solubility of chitosan and make the nanoparticles have broader pH sensitive range which can remain more stable in physiological pH and decrease the loss of protein drugs caused by the gastric cavity. The load of BSA was affected by molecular parameter, i.e., degree of substitution, and average molecular weight of quaternized chitosan, as well as concentration of BSA. Fast release occurred in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) while the release was slow in hydrochloric acid (pH 1.4). The drug release mechanism is Fickian diffusion through release kinetics analysis. Cell uptake demonstrated nanoparicles can internalize into Caco-2 cells, which suggested that nanoparticles had good biocompatibility. No significant conformation change was noted for the released BSA in comparison with native BSA using circular dichroism spectroscopy. This kind of novel composite nanoparticles may be a promising delivery system for oral protein and peptide drugs.

  7. Gelatin as a carrier system for delivery of polyphenols compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the influence of different encapsulation techniques (lyophilization and spray drying on gelatin, as a carrier system for delivery of polyphenols compounds, on wild thyme extracts and on encapsulated extracts was investigated. FTIR analyses has shown the presence of carbohydrates, polysaccharides, polyphenols, flavonoids, monoterpenes and carboxylates in the dried extracts, while FTIR spectrum of the encapsulated extracts has shown almost exclusively gelatin-based stripes, indicating the efficient encapsulation of the active ingredients of the extracts and therefore their protection. Scanning electron microscopy has shown that the lyophilization process produced irregularly shaped particles, while spray drying formed spherical and pseudo-spherical particles with rough surface. Using the method of diffraction of laser light, it has been found that spray dried encapsulate possessed significantly lower particle size and significantly better uniformity in comparison to the lyophilized sample. According to the results obtained in differential scanning calorimetry, endothermic peak of lyophilized gelatin encapsulate appeared at higher temperature, thus it can be concluded that lyophilized sample was more thermostable than spray dried parallel. Additionally, the values of enthalpy of gelatin encapsulates were significantly higher compared to pure extracts, which confirmed the presence of stabilizing interactions between the encapsulated components and a carrier.

  8. Postruminal Delivery System for Amino Acids and Proteins in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sýkora

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this experiment was to develop an effective postruminal transport system (PTS with a high content of suitable vegetable proteins and amino acids. PTS serves for nutrient delivery to the abomasum and small intestine of dairy cows in order to increase the milk yield. Direct addition of proteins and amino acids to the diet is not useful as the ruminal microbes will utilize active substances before they reach absorption sites in the small intestine. PTS has several advantages, e.g. a possibility of the direct application in a food, low cost, and nutritional and therapeutical improvement. PTS consists of a core (pellets, small tablets and a coating, which protects the core against the environment of rumen and enables to release the core content in the environment of abomasum and small intestine. Lenticular tablets - cores of PTS were prepared by wet granulation method and compression. Qualitative indicators of tablets (average weight, weight uniformity, hardness, friability, disintegration time were determined according to valid Czech and European Pharmacopoeias. Cores were subsequently coated with several types of coating - ethylcellulose, stearic acid and pH sensitive polymer poly-(2-vinylpyridine-co-styren, alone or in combination of various rates. Nine samples of coated protein tablets exhibiting appropriate characteristics in vitro were prepared. The presence of the pH sensitive polymer at least in 10% concentration of the coating and the coating amount of 9.0 to 12.6% per tablet were necessary to ensure the requested PTS properties.

  9. 21 CFR 876.5600 - Sorbent regenerated dialysate delivery system for hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sorbent regenerated dialysate delivery system for hemodialysis. 876.5600 Section 876.5600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND....5600 Sorbent regenerated dialysate delivery system for hemodialysis. (a) Identification. A sorbent...

  10. Drug Delivery Systems: A New Frontier in Nano-technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamindri Witharana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nano-technology is a recent advancement in science, defined as “Science, engineering, and technology conducted at the Nano scale” (National nanotechnology initiatives in USA. Applications of Nano-technology cover a vast range from basic material science, personal care applications, agriculture, and medicine. Nano-technology is used in field of medicine for treatment, diagnostic, monitoring, genetic engineering, and drug delivery. There are two main types of Nano Particles (NPs used in drug delivery; organic NPs and inorganic NPs. In drug delivery, the drug-Nano- Particle (NP conjugate should be able to deliver drugs to the target site without degradation in gastrointestinal track and without reducing drug activity. Further, it should attack to target cells without causing any adverse effects. The ultimate goal of NP drug delivery is to improve proper treatment, effectiveness, less side effects with safety and patient adherence as well as reduction in the cost.

  11. siRNA delivery with lipid-based systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    A key hurdle for the further development of RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutics like small interfering RNA (siRNA) is their safe and effective delivery. Lipids are promising and versatile carriers because they are based on Nature's own building blocks and can be provided with properties which...... allow for protection of the siRNA, steric stabilization, targeting, membrane fusion and triggered drug release. At present a variety of lipid-based transfectants for siRNA delivery have been used for in vitro and in vivo purposes. The majority bears a cationic charge to electrostatically complex the siRNA...... into more hydrophobic lipoplexes, which promote passage of the siRNA across cellular membrane barriers, especially when lipids are added that facilitate membrane fusion. Despite these attractive features, siRNA delivery vehicles are facing a number of challenges such as the limited delivery efficiency...

  12. Dual delivery systems based on polyamine analog BENSpm as prodrug and gene delivery vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu

    Combination drug and gene therapy shows promise in cancer treatment. However, the success of such strategy requires careful selection of the therapeutic agents, as well as development of efficient delivery vectors. BENSpm (N 1, N11-bisethylnorspermine), a polyamine analogue targeting the intracellular polyamine pathway, draws our special attention because of the following reasons: (1) polyamine pathway is frequently dysregulated in cancer; (2) BENSpm exhibits multiple functions to interfere with the polyamine pathway, such as to up-regulate polyamine metabolism enzymes and down-regulate polyamine biosynthesis enzymes. Therefore BENSpm depletes all natural polyamines and leads to apoptosis and cell growth inhibition in a wide range of cancers; (3) preclinical studies proved that BENSpm can act synergistically with various chemotherapy agents, making it a promising candidate in combination therapy; (4) multiple positive charges in BENSpm enable it as a suitable building block for cationic polymers, which can be further applied to gene delivery. In this dissertation, our goal was to design dual-function delivery vector based on BENSpm that can function as a gene delivery vector and, after intracellular degradation, as an active anticancer agent targeting dysregulated polyamine metabolism. We first demonstrated strong synergism between BENSpm and a potential therapeutic gene product TRAIL. Strong synergism was obtained in both estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells and triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Significant dose reduction of TRAIL in combination with BENSpm in MDA-MB-231 cells, together with the fact that BENSpm rendered MCF-7 cells more sensitive to TRAIL treatment verified our rationale of designing BENSpm-based delivery platform. This was expected to be beneficial for overcoming drug resistance in chemotherapy, as well as boosting the therapeutic effect of therapeutic genes. We first designed a lipid-based BENSpm dual vector (Lipo

  13. Fabrication, Characterization, and Biological Activity of Avermectin Nano-delivery Systems with Different Particle Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anqi; Wang, Yan; Sun, Changjiao; Wang, Chunxin; Cui, Bo; Zhao, Xiang; Zeng, Zhanghua; Yao, Junwei; Yang, Dongsheng; Liu, Guoqiang; Cui, Haixin

    2018-01-01

    Nano-delivery systems for the active ingredients of pesticides can improve the utilization rates of pesticides and prolong their control effects. This is due to the nanocarrier envelope and controlled release function. However, particles containing active ingredients in controlled release pesticide formulations are generally large and have wide size distributions. There have been limited studies about the effect of particle size on the controlled release properties and biological activities of pesticide delivery systems. In the current study, avermectin (Av) nano-delivery systems were constructed with different particle sizes and their performances were evaluated. The Av release rate in the nano-delivery system could be effectively controlled by changing the particle size. The biological activity increased with decreasing particle size. These results suggest that Av nano-delivery systems can significantly improve the controllable release, photostability, and biological activity, which will improve efficiency and reduce pesticide residues.

  14. Simulated respiratory system for in vitro evaluation of two inhalation delivery systems using selected steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, J J; Cutie, A

    1978-10-01

    A simulated respiratory system was developed for the in vitro evaluation of two differently designed oral inhalation delivery systems. The deposition properties of a newly designed delivery system used for triamcinolone acetonide were compared to the more conventional, commercially available adapter utilized for an aerosol containing beclomethasone dipropionate. The simulated respiratory system was constructed so that the delivered dose of active ingredient could be classified into two fractions: the fraction that would be deposited in the oral cavity and throat and the fraction that would reach the desired site of activity in the respiratory tract. Based on this method, the newly designed system delivered more than 95% of the labeled dose to the desired site. The beclomethasone dipropionate aerosol system, which was observed to discharge the active ingredient with a greater intensity, delivered approximately 40% of the labeled dose. The particle-size distribution of the dose dispensed from the newly designed delivery system attached to the triamcinolone acetonide aerosol was determined using an impactor technique. No effort was made to correlate these results with an in vivo response.

  15. Evaluation of an Ultrasonic Insulin Delivery System in Hyperglycemic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Sazgarnia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sonophoresis has been assessed as a novel approach to create skin permeability and drug delivery using low frequencies of ultrasound waves in the range of 20 kHz to 3 MHz. In this study, a system including seven 40 kHz piezoelectric transducers and an insulin chamber designed by the Medical Physics Research Center has been evaluated on hyperglycemic rabbits. Materials and Methods: Thirty five rabbits became hyperglycemic through Alloxan monohydrate injection and were divided into five groups. The rabbits were treated in two main groups (with insulin and ultrasound radiation in two radiation periods, one main control group and two further control groups (one group with ultrasound radiation with longer radiation period in absence of insulin and presence of normal saline; and the other group without ultrasound radiation in presence of insulin. By filling the system chamber with insulin and placing it on the skin of the abdomen and activating the piezoelectric transducers, blood samples were drawn from the animals before ultrasound irradiation and after it in specified intervals. The glucose level was measured using a glucometer and the serum insulin level was determined using a radioimmunoassay method. Results: Maximum decrease in glucose level was recorded for a 20 minute irradiation in a 180 minute period, and the highest increase in insulin level was recorded for the10 minute radiation group in a 60 minute period. Discussion and Conclusion: Because rapid uptake and reaching a peak in a short time and its swift decrease make a good scheme for controlling glucose level after meals, the 10 minute radiation seems to be more suitable. Also, it is predicted that irradiation time in the interval between food consumption and use of the instrument is critical.

  16. Structured emulsion-based delivery systems: controlling the digestion and release of lipophilic food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClements, David Julian; Li, Yan

    2010-09-15

    There is a need for edible delivery systems to encapsulate, protect and release bioactive and functional lipophilic constituents within the food and pharmaceutical industries. These delivery systems could be used for a number of purposes: controlling lipid bioavailability; targeting the delivery of bioactive components within the gastrointestinal tract; and designing food matrices that delay lipid digestion and induce satiety. Emulsion technology is particularly suited for the design and fabrication of delivery systems for lipids. In this article we provide an overview of a number of emulsion-based technologies that can be used as edible delivery systems by the food and other industries, including conventional emulsions, nanoemulsions, multilayer emulsions, solid lipid particles, and filled hydrogel particles. Each of these delivery systems can be produced from food-grade (GRAS) ingredients (e.g., lipids, proteins, polysaccharides, surfactants, and minerals) using relatively simple processing operations (e.g., mixing, homogenizing, and thermal processing). The structure, preparation, and utilization of each type of delivery system for controlling lipid digestion are discussed. This knowledge can be used to select the most appropriate emulsion-based delivery system for specific applications, such as encapsulation, controlled digestion, and targeted release. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Human Growth Hormone Delivery with a Microneedle Transdermal System: Preclinical Formulation, Stability, Delivery and PK of Therapeutically Relevant Doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ameri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the feasibility of coating formulated recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH on a titanium microneedle transdermal delivery system, Zosano Pharma (ZP-hGH, and assessed preclinical patch delivery performance. Formulation rheology and surface activity were assessed by viscometry and contact angle measurement. rhGH liquid formulation was coated onto titanium microneedles by dip-coating and drying. The stability of coated rhGH was determined by size exclusion chromatography-high performance liquid chromatography (SEC-HPLC. Preclinical delivery and pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in female hairless guinea pigs (HGP using rhGH coated microneedle patches at 0.5 and 1 mg doses and compared to Norditropin® a commercially approved rhGH subcutaneous injection. Studies demonstrated successful rhGH formulation development and coating on microneedle arrays. The ZP-hGH patches remained stable at 40 °C for six months with no significant change in % aggregates. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that the rhGH-coated microneedle patches, delivered with high efficiency and the doses delivered indicated linearity with average Tmax of 30 min. The absolute bioavailability of the microneedle rhGH patches was similar to subcutaneous Norditropin® injections. These results suggest that ZP-transdermal microneedle patch delivery of rhGH is feasible and may offer an effective and patient-friendly alternative to currently marketed rhGH injectables.

  18. Human Growth Hormone Delivery with a Microneedle Transdermal System: Preclinical Formulation, Stability, Delivery and PK of Therapeutically Relevant Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Mahmoud; Kadkhodayan, Miryam; Nguyen, Joe; Bravo, Joseph A; Su, Rebeca; Chan, Kenneth; Samiee, Ahmad; Daddona, Peter E

    2014-05-15

    This study evaluated the feasibility of coating formulated recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on a titanium microneedle transdermal delivery system, Zosano Pharma (ZP)-hGH, and assessed preclinical patch delivery performance. Formulation rheology and surface activity were assessed by viscometry and contact angle measurement. rhGH liquid formulation was coated onto titanium microneedles by dip-coating and drying. The stability of coated rhGH was determined by size exclusion chromatography-high performance liquid chromatography (SEC-HPLC). Preclinical delivery and pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in female hairless guinea pigs (HGP) using rhGH coated microneedle patches at 0.5 and 1 mg doses and compared to Norditropin® a commercially approved rhGH subcutaneous injection. Studies demonstrated successful rhGH formulation development and coating on microneedle arrays. The ZP-hGH patches remained stable at 40 °C for six months with no significant change in % aggregates. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that the rhGH-coated microneedle patches, delivered with high efficiency and the doses delivered indicated linearity with average Tmax of 30 min. The absolute bioavailability of the microneedle rhGH patches was similar to subcutaneous Norditropin® injections. These results suggest that ZP-transdermal microneedle patch delivery of rhGH is feasible and may offer an effective and patient-friendly alternative to currently marketed rhGH injectables.

  19. Organizational context, systems change, and adopting treatment delivery systems in the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxman, Faye S; Henderson, Craig E; Belenko, Steven

    2009-08-01

    The correctional system does not include service provision as a primary goal, even though individuals in prison, jail, and on probation/parole have large unmet substance abuse treatment needs. In response to mandates in the U.S. Constitution for basic health care, services are provided for incarcerated offenders, but generally do not include substance abuse treatment. The system does little to extend any type of health care service to individuals in community settings. This leaves the majority of offenders (6 million under community supervision in the U.S.) basically unattended, even with substance abuse disorders that are four times greater than the general public. The challenge of adapting the correctional system to be part of an integrated service provision system - working in conjunction with the public and private community-based service delivery sector - has intrigued researchers and policy makers over the last two decades. A series of articles using data from the National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices survey have examined factors that influence the adoption of a myriad of substance abuse treatment services for offender populations in various settings. These articles explore the factors that affect adoption and implementation, and provide guidance on issues relevant to organizational change and a dual mission of correctional agencies to advance public safety and public health. This special issue of Drug and Alcohol Dependence is devoted to understanding organizational constructs and factors to improve health outcomes for offenders.

  20. Analysis and Design Information System Logistics Delivery Service in Pt Repex Wahana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Surja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and Design of Logistic Delivery System in PT Repex Wahana aims to analyze company’s need in existing business process of logistic delivery service. This will then be used in the development of an integrated system that can address the problems in the running process of sending and tracking the whereaboutsor status of the delivered goods which are the core business processes in the enterprise. The result then will be used as basis in the development of integrated information system in pursuit of corporate solution for process business automation, delivery process, inventory, and logistic delivery tracking, which is the core of the company business process, and it will be documented using Unified Modeling Language. The information system is meant to simplify the delivery and tracking process in the company, besides will minimize lost and error of data which is often happened because of the manual and unorganized transaction data processing.

  1. Miniature Sample Collection and Delivery System using Gas-Entrained Powder Transport Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a miniature system for acquisition and delivery of solid samples to landed planetary instruments. This system would entrain powder produced by...

  2. Overview of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Allison M; Collins, Lauren; Pearson, Jennifer L; Abudayyeh, Haneen; Niaura, Raymond S; Abrams, David B; Villanti, Andrea C

    2017-02-01

    Rapid developments in e-cigarettes, or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), and the evolution of the overall tobacco product marketplace warrant frequent evaluation of the published literature. The purpose of this article is to report updated findings from a comprehensive review of the published scientific literature on ENDS. The authors conducted a systematic review of published empirical research literature on ENDS through May 31, 2016, using a detailed search strategy in the PubMed electronic database, expert review, and additional targeted searches. Included studies presented empirical findings and were coded to at least one of nine topics: (1) Product Features; (2) Health Effects; (3) Consumer Perceptions; (4) Patterns of Use; (5) Potential to Induce Dependence; (6) Smoking Cessation; (7) Marketing and Communication; (8) Sales; and (9) Policies; reviews and commentaries were excluded. Data from included studies were extracted by multiple coders (October 2015 to August 2016) into a standardized form and synthesized qualitatively by topic. There were 687 articles included in this systematic review. The majority of studies assessed patterns of ENDS use and consumer perceptions of ENDS, followed by studies examining health effects of vaping and product features. Studies indicate that ENDS are increasing in use, particularly among current smokers, pose substantially less harm to smokers than cigarettes, are being used to reduce/quit smoking, and are widely available. More longitudinal studies and controlled trials are needed to evaluate the impact of ENDS on population-level tobacco use and determine the health effects of longer-term vaping. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Overview of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Allison M.; Katz, Lauren; Pearson, Jennifer L.; Abudayyeh, Haneen; Niaura, Raymond S.; Abrams, David B.; Villanti, Andrea C.

    2016-01-01

    Context Rapid developments in e-cigarettes, or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), and the evolution of the overall tobacco product marketplace warrant frequent evaluation of the published literature. The purpose of this article is to report updated findings from a comprehensive review of the published scientific literature on ENDS. Evidence acquisition The authors conducted a systematic review of published empirical research literature on ENDS through May 31, 2016, using a detailed search strategy in the PubMed electronic database, expert review, and additional targeted searches. Included studies presented empirical findings and were coded to at least one of nine topics: (1) Product Features; (2) Health Effects; (3) Consumer Perceptions; (4) Patterns of Use; (5) Potential to Induce Dependence; (6) Smoking Cessation; (7) Marketing and Communication; (8) Sales; and (9) Policies; reviews and commentaries were excluded. Data from included studies were extracted by multiple coders (October 2015 to August 2016) into a standardized form and synthesized qualitatively by topic. Evidence synthesis There were 686 articles included in this systematic review. The majority of studies assessed patterns of ENDS use and consumer perceptions of ENDS, followed by studies examining health effects of vaping and product features. Conclusions Studies indicate that ENDS are increasing in use, particularly among current smokers, pose substantially less harm to smokers than cigarettes, are being used to reduce/quit smoking, and are widely available. More longitudinal studies and controlled trials are needed to evaluate the impact of ENDS on population-level tobacco use and determine the health effects of longer-term vaping. PMID:27914771

  4. Silver nanoparticles delivery system based on natural rubber latex membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidelli, Eder Jose, E-mail: ederguidelli@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo/FFCLRP-DF (Brazil); Kinoshita, Angela [Universidade do Sagrado Coracao (Brazil); Ramos, Ana Paula [Universidade de Sao Paulo/FFCLRP-DQ (Brazil); Baffa, Oswaldo [Universidade de Sao Paulo/FFCLRP-DF (Brazil)

    2013-04-15

    The search for new materials for biomedical applications is extremely important. Here, we present results on the performance of a silver nanoparticles delivery system using natural rubber latex (NRL) as the polymeric matrix. Our aim was to obtain an optimized wound dressing by combining materials with potential healing action. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their characterization by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential, dynamic light scattering, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are depicted. The NRL membranes are good matrix for silver nanoparticles and allow for their gradual release. The release of 30 nm silver nanoparticles by the NRL membranes depends on their mass percentage in NRL membranes. The total concentration of AgNP released by the NRL membranes was calculated. The AgNP attached to the cis-isoprene molecules in the NRL matrix remain attached to the membrane ({approx}0.1 % w/w). So, only the AgNP bound to the non-rubber molecules are released. FTIR spectra suggest that non-rubber molecules, like aminoacids and proteins, associated with the serum fraction of the NRL may be attached to the surfaces of the released nanoparticles, thereby increasing the release of such molecules. The released silver nanoparticles are sterically stabilized, more stable and well dispersed. Because the serum fraction of the NRL is responsible for the angiogenic properties of the matrix, the silver nanoparticles could increment the angiogenic properties of NRL. This biomaterial has desirable properties for the fabrication of a wound dressing with potential healing action, since it combines the angiogenic and antibacterial properties of the silver nanoparticles with the increased angiogenic properties of the NRL.Graphical AbstractThe AgNP attached to the cis-isoprene molecules remain in the NRL matrix and only the AgNP bound to the non-rubber molecules (NRL serum fraction) are released. The released AgNP are

  5. Silver nanoparticles delivery system based on natural rubber latex membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidelli, Éder José; Kinoshita, Angela; Ramos, Ana Paula; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2013-04-01

    The search for new materials for biomedical applications is extremely important. Here, we present results on the performance of a silver nanoparticles delivery system using natural rubber latex (NRL) as the polymeric matrix. Our aim was to obtain an optimized wound dressing by combining materials with potential healing action. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their characterization by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential, dynamic light scattering, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are depicted. The NRL membranes are good matrix for silver nanoparticles and allow for their gradual release. The release of 30 nm silver nanoparticles by the NRL membranes depends on their mass percentage in NRL membranes. The total concentration of AgNP released by the NRL membranes was calculated. The AgNP attached to the cis-isoprene molecules in the NRL matrix remain attached to the membrane ( 0.1 % w/w). So, only the AgNP bound to the non-rubber molecules are released. FTIR spectra suggest that non-rubber molecules, like aminoacids and proteins, associated with the serum fraction of the NRL may be attached to the surfaces of the released nanoparticles, thereby increasing the release of such molecules. The released silver nanoparticles are sterically stabilized, more stable and well dispersed. Because the serum fraction of the NRL is responsible for the angiogenic properties of the matrix, the silver nanoparticles could increment the angiogenic properties of NRL. This biomaterial has desirable properties for the fabrication of a wound dressing with potential healing action, since it combines the angiogenic and antibacterial properties of the silver nanoparticles with the increased angiogenic properties of the NRL.

  6. Computational and experimental model of transdermal iontophorethic drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipovic, Nenad; Saveljic, Igor; Rac, Vladislav; Graells, Beatriz Olalde; Bijelic, Goran

    2017-11-30

    The concept of iontophoresis is often applied to increase the transdermal transport of drugs and other bioactive agents into the skin or other tissues. It is a non-invasive drug delivery method which involves electromigration and electroosmosis in addition to diffusion and is shown to be a viable alternative to conventional administration routs such as oral, hypodermic and intravenous injection. In this study we investigated, experimentally and numerically, in vitro drug delivery of dexamethasone sodium phosphate to porcine skin. Different current densities, delivery durations and drug loads were investigated experimentally and introduced as boundary conditions for numerical simulations. Nernst-Planck equation was used for calculation of active substance flux through equivalent model of homogeneous hydrogel and skin layers. The obtained numerical results were in good agreement with experimental observations. A comprehensive in-silico platform, which includes appropriate numerical tools for fitting, could contribute to iontophoretic drug-delivery devices design and correct dosage and drug clearance profiles as well as to perform much faster in-silico experiments to better determine parameters and performance criteria of iontophoretic drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Biomaterial-based drug delivery systems for the controlled release of neurotrophic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohtaram, Nima Khadem; Montgomery, Amy; Willerth, Stephanie M

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights recent work on the use of biomaterial-based drug delivery systems to control the release of neurotrophic factors as a potential strategy for the treatment of neurological disorders. Examples of neurotrophic factors include the nerve growth factor, the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3. In particular, this review focuses on two methods of drug delivery: affinity-based and reservoir-based systems. We review the advantages and challenges associated with both types of drug delivery system and how these systems can be applied to neurological diseases and disorders. While a limited number of affinity-based delivery systems have been developed for the delivery of neurotrophic factors, we also examine the broad spectrum of reservoir-based delivery systems, including microspheres, electrospun nanofibers, hydrogels and combinations of these systems. Finally, conclusions are drawn about the current state of such drug delivery systems as applied to neural tissue engineering along with some thoughts on the future direction of the field. (topical review)

  8. NMR characterisation and transdermal drug delivery potential of microemulsion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreilgaard, Mads; Pedersen, E J; Jaroszewski, J W

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of structure and composition of microemulsions (Labrasol/Plurol Isostearique/isostearylic isostearate/water) on their transdermal delivery potential of a lipophilic (lidocaine) and a hydrophilic model drug (prilocaine hydrochloride......), and to compare the drug delivery potential of microemulsions to conventional vehicles. Self-diffusion coefficients determined by pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR spectroscopy and T(1) relaxation times were used to characterise the microemulsions. Transdermal flux of lidocaine and prilocaine hydrochloride through...... and transdermal flux was indicated. The increased transdermal drug delivery from microemulsion formulations was found to be due mainly to the increased solubility of drugs and appeared to be dependent on the drug mobility in the individual vehicle. The microemulsions did not perturb the skin barrier, indicating...

  9. Exploring information systems outsourcing in U.S. hospital-based health care delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Mark L

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the factors associated with outsourcing of information systems (IS) in hospital-based health care delivery systems, and to determine if there is a difference in IS outsourcing activity based on the strategic value of the outsourced functions. IS sourcing behavior is conceptualized as a case of vertical integration. A synthesis of strategic management theory (SMT) and transaction cost economics (TCE) serves as the theoretical framework. The sample consists of 1,365 hospital-based health care delivery systems that own 3,452 hospitals operating in 2004. The findings indicate that neither TCE nor SMT predicted outsourcing better than the other did. The findings also suggest that health care delivery system managers may not be considering significant factors when making sourcing decisions, including the relative strategic value of the functions they are outsourcing. It is consistent with previous literature to suggest that the high cost of IS may be the main factor driving the outsourcing decision.

  10. Nano-scale gene delivery systems; current technology, obstacles, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Guerra, Antonio; Dunwell, Thomas L; Trigueros, Sonia

    2018-01-07

    Within the different applications of nanomedicine currently being developed, nano-gene delivery is appearing as an exciting new technique with the possibility to overcome recognised hurdles and fulfill several biological and medical needs. The central component of all delivery systems is the requirement for the delivery of genetic material into cells, and for them to eventually reside in the nucleus where their desired function will be exposed. However, genetic material does not passively enter cells; thus, a delivery system is necessary. The emerging field of nano-gene delivery exploits the use of new materials and the properties that arise at the nanometre-scale to produce delivery vectors that can effectively deliver genetic material into a variety of different types of cells. The novel physicochemical properties of the new delivery vectors can be used to address the current challenges existing in nucleic acid delivery in vitro and in vivo. While there is a growing interest in nanostructure-based gene delivery, the field is still in its infancy, and there is yet much to discover about nanostructures and their physicochemical properties in a biological context. We carry out an organized and focused search of bibliographic databases. Our results suggest that despite new breakthroughs in nanostructure synthesis and advanced characterization techniques, we still face many barriers in producing highly efficient and non-toxic delivery systems. In this review, we overview the types of systems currently used for clinical and biomedical research applications along with their advantages and disadvantages, as well as discussing barriers that arise from nano-scale interactions with biological material. In conclusion, we hope that by bringing the far reaching multidisciplinary nature of nano-gene delivery to light, new targeted nanotechnology-bases strategies are developed to overcome the major challenges covered in this review. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For

  11. A computer-controlled conformal radiotherapy system. III: graphical simulation and monitoring of treatment delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, Marc L.; McShan, Daniel L.; Fraass, Benedick A.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Safe and efficient delivery of radiotherapy using computer-controlled machines requires new procedures to design and verify the actual delivery of these treatments. Graphical simulation and monitoring techniques for treatment delivery have been developed for this purpose. Methods and Materials: A graphics-based simulator of the treatment machine and a set of procedures for creating and manipulating treatment delivery scripts are used to simulate machine motions, detect collisions, and monitor machine positions during treatment. The treatment delivery simulator is composed of four components: a three-dimensional dynamic model of the treatment machine; a motion simulation and collision detection algorithm, user-interface widgets that mimic the treatment machine's control and readout devices; and an icon-based interface for creating and manipulating treatment delivery scripts. These components are used in a stand-alone fashion for interactive treatment delivery planning and integrated with a machine control system for treatment implementation and monitoring. Results: A graphics-based treatment delivery simulator and a set of procedures for planning and monitoring computer-controlled treatment delivery have been developed and implemented as part of a comprehensive computer-controlled conformal radiotherapy system. To date, these techniques have been used to design and help monitor computer-controlled treatments on a radiotherapy machine for more than 200 patients. Examples using these techniques for treatment delivery planning and on-line monitoring of machine motions during therapy are described. Conclusion: A system that provides interactive graphics-based tools for defining the sequence of machine motions, simulating treatment delivery including collision detection, and presenting the therapists with continual visual feedback from the treatment machine has been successfully implemented for routine clinical use as part of an overall system for computer

  12. Nano-microdelivery systems for oral delivery of an active ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A composition for oral delivery of one or more active ingredients in the form of a lipid nano-micro-delivery system comprising a lipid nano-micro-structure comprising at least one lipid and at least one active ingredient, said at least one active ingredient being immobilized in said lipid nano...

  13. Superficial fascial system repair: an abdominoplasty technique to reduce local complications after caesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Benna, Sammy; Al-Ajam, Yazan; Tzakas, Elias

    2009-05-01

    Abdominal incision complications are a major source of morbidity after caesarean delivery. Repair of the superficial fascial system may avert local complications after caesarean delivery by minimising tension to the skin and increasing the initial biomechanical strength of wound which has the potential to decrease early wound dehiscence and as a by-product correct suprapubic bulging.

  14. Community feedback on the JustMilk Nipple Shield Delivery System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Infant medication administration is a major public-health challenge, especially in rural or low-resource areas. The JustMilk Nipple Shield Delivery System (NSDS) is a novel method of infant medication delivery designed to address some of these challenges. Objective. To explore the acceptability of the JustMilk ...

  15. Rural Family Development: A Delivery System for Social Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, Raymond T.; And Others

    The Family Assessment and Goal Establishment Model (FAGEM) draws its major impetus and structure from recent writings and trends in education, social planning, and family counseling. Built on a series of related premises addressing rural low income family needs, FAGEM can be reduced to four operational program delivery phases which include the…

  16. Vaginal drug delivery systems: A Review of Current Status | Dobaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the various routes of drug delivery, the vaginal route offers many advantages due to its large permeation area, rich vascularization, avoidance of first pass metabolism and relatively low enzymatic activity. Several studies have shown that the vaginal cavity is an effective route for drug administration intended mainly ...

  17. Wet Process Induced Phase Transited Drug Delivery System as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nx 6110

    The drug release was found to be independent of the pH but dependent on the osmotic pressure of the dissolution medium. The results of in vivo toxicity studies may support the use of phase transited asymmetric membrane capsules as a means for delivery of gastro-intestinal irritant drugs in a controlled manner through ...

  18. Proniosomes as a carrier system for transdermal delivery of tenoxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, H O; Ghorab, M; El-Nahhas, S A; Higazy, I M

    2011-02-28

    Tenoxicam is a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) widely used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases and characterized by its good efficacy and less side effects compared to other NSAIDs. Its oral administration is associated with severe side effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Transdermal drug delivery has been recognized as an alternative route to oral delivery. Proniosomes offer a versatile vesicle delivery concept with the potential for drug delivery via the transdermal route. In this study, different proniosomal gel bases were prepared, characterized by light microscopy, revealing vesicular structures, and assessed for their drug entrapment efficiency, stability, their effect on in vitro drug release and ex vivo drug permeation. The lecithin-free proniosomes prepared from Tween 20:cholesterol (9:1) proved to be stable with high entrapment and release efficiencies. The in vivo behaviour of this formula was studied on male rats and compared to that of the oral market product. The investigated tenoxicam loaded proniosomal formula proved to be non-irritant, with significantly higher anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects compared to that of the oral market tenoxicam tablets. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimization of a Novel Oral Colon Delivery System of Indomethacin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and optimize indomethacin (IDM) matrix tablets for specific colon drug delivery. Methods: Indomethacin matrix tablets containing hydrogenated castor oil (HCO), and pectin (PEC) were prepared by hot fusion method. A 32 full factorial design was used to investigate the combined effect of two ...

  20. Understanding the organization of public health delivery systems: an empirical typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Glen P; Scutchfield, F Douglas; Bhandari, Michelyn W; Smith, Sharla A

    2010-03-01

    Policy discussions about improving the U.S. health care system increasingly recognize the need to strengthen its capacities for delivering public health services. A better understanding of how public health delivery systems are organized across the United States is critical to improvement. To facilitate the development of such evidence, this article presents an empirical method of classifying and comparing public health delivery systems based on key elements of their organizational structure. This analysis uses data collected through a national longitudinal survey of local public health agencies serving communities with at least 100,000 residents. The survey measured the availability of twenty core public health activities in local communities and the types of organizations contributing to each activity. Cluster analysis differentiated local delivery systems based on the scope of activities delivered, the range of organizations contributing, and the distribution of effort within the system. Public health delivery systems varied widely in organizational structure, but the observed patterns of variation suggested that systems adhere to one of seven distinct configurations. Systems frequently migrated from one configuration to another over time, with an overall trend toward offering a broader scope of services and engaging a wider range of organizations. Public health delivery systems exhibit important structural differences that may influence their operations and outcomes. The typology developed through this analysis can facilitate comparative studies to identify which delivery system configurations perform best in which contexts.

  1. Delivery systems and local administration routes for therapeutic siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicentini, Fabiana Testa Moura de Carvalho; Borgheti-Cardoso, Lívia Neves; Depieri, Lívia Vieira; de Macedo Mano, Danielle; Abelha, Thais Fedatto; Petrilli, Raquel; Bentley, Maria Vitória Lopes Badra

    2013-04-01

    With the increasing number of studies proposing new and optimal delivery strategies for the efficacious silencing of gene-related diseases by the local administration of siRNAs, the present review aims to provide a broad overview of the most important and latest developments of non-viral siRNA delivery systems for local administration. Moreover, the main disease targets for the local delivery of siRNA to specific tissues or organs, including the skin, the lung, the eye, the nervous system, the digestive system and the vagina, were explored.

  2. Understanding the Organization of Public Health Delivery Systems: An Empirical Typology

    OpenAIRE

    Mays, Glen P; Scutchfield, F Douglas; Bhandari, Michelyn W; Smith, Sharla A

    2010-01-01

    Context: Policy discussions about improving the U.S. health care system increasingly recognize the need to strengthen its capacities for delivering public health services. A better understanding of how public health delivery systems are organized across the United States is critical to improvement. To facilitate the development of such evidence, this article presents an empirical method of classifying and comparing public health delivery systems based on key elements of their organizational s...

  3. Post delivery test report for light duty utility arm optical alignment system (OAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardini, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the post delivery testing of the Optical Alignment System (OAS) LDUA system, designed for use by the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) project. The post delivery test shows by demonstration that the optical alignment system is fully operational to perform the task of aligning the LDUA arm and mast with the entry riser during deployment operations within a Hanford Site waste tank

  4. Oral controlled release drug delivery system and Characterization of oral tablets; A review

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Zaman; Junaid Qureshi; Hira Ejaz; Rai Muhammad Sarfraz; Hafeez ullah Khan; Fazal Rehman Sajid; Muhammad Shafiq ur Rehman

    2016-01-01

    Oral route of drug administration is considered as the safest and easiest route of drug administration. Control release drug delivery system is the emerging trend in the pharmaceuticals and the oral route is most suitable for such kind of drug delivery system. Oral route is more convenient for It all age group including both pediatric and geriatrics. There are various systems which are adopted to deliver drug in a controlled manner to different target sites through oral route. It includes dif...

  5. Progress and Challenges in Developing Aptamer-Functionalized Targeted Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers, which can be screened via systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX, are superior ligands for molecular recognition due to their high selectivity and affinity. The interest in the use of aptamers as ligands for targeted drug delivery has been increasing due to their unique advantages. Based on their different compositions and preparation methods, aptamer-functionalized targeted drug delivery systems can be divided into two main categories: aptamer-small molecule conjugated systems and aptamer-nanomaterial conjugated systems. In this review, we not only summarize recent progress in aptamer selection and the application of aptamers in these targeted drug delivery systems but also discuss the advantages, challenges and new perspectives associated with these delivery systems.

  6. 47 CFR 63.02 - Exemptions for extensions of lines and for systems for the delivery of video programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... systems for the delivery of video programming. 63.02 Section 63.02 Telecommunication FEDERAL... systems for the delivery of video programming. (a) Any common carrier is exempt from the requirements of... with respect to the establishment or operation of a system for the delivery of video programming. [64...

  7. 20 CFR 652.202 - May local Employment Service Offices exist outside of the One-Stop service delivery system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... outside of the One-Stop service delivery system? 652.202 Section 652.202 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT... SERVICES Wagner-Peyser Act Services in a One-Stop Delivery System Environment § 652.202 May local Employment Service Offices exist outside of the One-Stop service delivery system? (a) No, local Employment...

  8. NMR characterisation and transdermal drug delivery potential of microemulsion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreilgaard, Mads; Pedersen, E J; Jaroszewski, J W

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of structure and composition of microemulsions (Labrasol/Plurol Isostearique/isostearylic isostearate/water) on their transdermal delivery potential of a lipophilic (lidocaine) and a hydrophilic model drug (prilocaine hydrochloride......), and to compare the drug delivery potential of microemulsions to conventional vehicles. Self-diffusion coefficients determined by pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR spectroscopy and T(1) relaxation times were used to characterise the microemulsions. Transdermal flux of lidocaine and prilocaine hydrochloride through...... lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds. The microemulsions increased transdermal flux of lidocaine up to four times compared to a conventional oil-in-water emulsion, and that of prilocaine hydrochloride almost 10 times compared to a hydrogel. A correlation between self-diffusion of the drugs in the vehicles...

  9. Experimentation in family planning delivery systems: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, R; Pierce, C S

    1977-12-01

    Experiments in the delivery of family planning services are an important means of testing new approaches on a relatively small scale. Over the past 20 years, extensive experimental efforts have explored such key aspects of service delivery as personnel, the use of mass media, integration of family planning with other services, intensive efforts and camps, incentive payments to acceptors, and inudation or community-based distribution. Approaches that proved successful have often been incorporated into regular programs. An examination of the methodology and findings of family planning experiments, based on a survey of 96 projects testing various approaches, highlights successes, failures, and continuing problems. The discussion of past experience halps point to criteria that might be followed in formulating future experimental projects.

  10. Thermoresponsive polymeric radionuclide delivery system - an injectable brachytherapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubý, Martin; Poučková, P.; Zadinová, M.; Kučka, Jan; Lebeda, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 5 (2011), s. 484-488 ISSN 0928-0987 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP207/10/P054; GA AV ČR IAAX00500803; GA MŠk 1M0505; GA MŠk 2B06165 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : thermoresponsive polymer * brachytherapa * drug delivery Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.212, year: 2011

  11. Broadly Applicable Nanowafer Drug Delivery System for Treating Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Address correspondence to gacharya@bcm.edu, stevenp@bcm.edu. Received for review November 19, 2014 and accepted January 13, 2015. Published online ...3 July 2015 Available online 13 July 2015 Keywords: Nanowafer Drug delivery Dry eye Cornea Dexamethasone InflammationDry eye disease is a major public...146 (2008) 350–356. [8] The epidemiology of dry eye disease. Report of the epidemiology subcommittee of the international dry eye work shop , Ocul

  12. A REVIEW ARTICLE ON MUCOADHESIVE BUCCAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Jasvir Singh* and Pawan Deep

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: As an alternative to injection pharmaceutical researcher and scientist are trying to explore transdermal and transmucosal route over the last few years. To overcome the deficiency associated with the other route of administration buccal region of oral cavity is an alternative target for the administration of choice of drug. The disadvantages relative with the oral drug delivery is the extensive presystemic metabolism, instability in acidic medium as a result inadequate absorption of...

  13. Nanocapsules: the weapons for novel drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothamasu, Pavankumar; Kanumur, Hemanth; Ravur, Niranjan; Maddu, Chiranjeevi; Parasuramrajam, Radhika; Thangavel, Sivakumar

    2012-01-01

    Nanocapsules, existing in miniscule size, range from 10 nm to 1000 nm. They consist of a liquid/solid core in which the drug is placed into a cavity, which is surrounded by a distinctive polymer membrane made up of natural or synthetic polymers. They have attracted great interest, because of the protective coating, which are usually pyrophoric and easily oxidized and delay the release of active ingredients. Various technical approaches are utilized for obtaining the nanocapsules; however, the methods of interfacial polymerization for monomer and the nano-deposition for preformed polymer are chiefly preferred. Most important characteristics in their preparation is particle size and size distribution which can be evaluated by using various techniques like X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolu¬tion transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, superconducting quantum interference device, multi angle laser light scattering and other spectroscopic techniques. Nanocapsules possessing extremely high reproducibility have a broad range of life science applications. They may be applied in agrochemicals, genetic engineering, cosmetics, cleansing products, wastewater treatments, adhesive component applications, strategic delivery of the drug in tumors, nanocapsule bandages to fight infec¬tion, in radiotherapy and as liposomal nanocapsules in food science and agriculture. In addition, they can act as self-healing materials. The enhanced delivery of bio¬active molecules through the targeted delivery by means of a nanocapsule opens numerous challenges and opportunities for the research and future development of novel improved therapies.

  14. Nanotechnology: from In Vivo Imaging System to Controlled Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Maria; Ishtiaq, Saba; Rabia, Samreen; Khatoon, Maryam; Zeb, Ahmad; Khan, Gul Majid; Ur Rehman, Asim; Ud Din, Fakhar

    2017-08-17

    Science and technology have always been the vitals of human's struggle, utilized exclusively for the development of novel tools and products, ranging from micro- to nanosize. Nanotechnology has gained significant attention due to its extensive applications in biomedicine, particularly related to bio imaging and drug delivery. Various nanodevices and nanomaterials have been developed for the diagnosis and treatment of different diseases. Herein, we have described two primary aspects of the nanomedicine, i.e., in vivo imaging and drug delivery, highlighting the recent advancements and future explorations. Tremendous advancements in the nanotechnology tools for the imaging, particularly of the cancer cells, have recently been observed. Nanoparticles offer a suitable medium to carryout molecular level modifications including the site-specific imaging and targeting. Invention of radionuclides, quantum dots, magnetic nanoparticles, and carbon nanotubes and use of gold nanoparticles in biosensors have revolutionized the field of imaging, resulting in easy understanding of the pathophysiology of disease, improved ability to diagnose and enhanced therapeutic delivery. This high specificity and selectivity of the nanomedicine is important, and thus, the recent advancements in this field need to be understood for a better today and a more prosperous future.

  15. Nanocapsules: The Weapons for Novel Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Parasuramrajam

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nanocapsules, existing in miniscule size, range from 10 nm to 1000 nm. They consist of a liquid/solid core in which the drug is placed into a cavity, which is surrounded by a distinctive polymer membrane made up of natural or synthetic polymers. They have attracted great interest, because of the protective coating, which are usually pyrophoric and easily oxidized and delay the release of active ingredients. Methods: Various technical approaches are utilized for obtaining the nanocapsules; however, the methods of interfacial polymerization for monomer and the nano-deposition for preformed polymer are chiefly preferred. Most important characteristics in their preparation is particle size and size distribution which can be evaluated by using various techniques like X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, superconducting quantum interference device, multi angle laser light scattering and other spectroscopic techniques. Results: Nanocapsules possessing extremely high reproducibility have a broad range of life science applications. They may be applied in agrochemicals, genetic engineering, cosmetics, cleansing products, wastewater treatments, adhesive component applications, strategic delivery of the drug in tumors, nanocapsule bandages to fight infection, in radiotherapy and as liposomal nanocapsules in food science and agriculture. In addition, they can act as self-healing materials. Conclusion: The enhanced delivery of bioactive molecules through the targeted delivery by means of a nanocapsule opens numerous challenges and opportunities for the research and future development of novel improved therapies.

  16. Nanotechnology: from In Vivo Imaging System to Controlled Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Maria; Ishtiaq, Saba; Rabia, Samreen; Khatoon, Maryam; Zeb, Ahmad; Khan, Gul Majid; ur Rehman, Asim; ud Din, Fakhar

    2017-08-01

    Science and technology have always been the vitals of human's struggle, utilized exclusively for the development of novel tools and products, ranging from micro- to nanosize. Nanotechnology has gained significant attention due to its extensive applications in biomedicine, particularly related to bio imaging and drug delivery. Various nanodevices and nanomaterials have been developed for the diagnosis and treatment of different diseases. Herein, we have described two primary aspects of the nanomedicine, i.e., in vivo imaging and drug delivery, highlighting the recent advancements and future explorations. Tremendous advancements in the nanotechnology tools for the imaging, particularly of the cancer cells, have recently been observed. Nanoparticles offer a suitable medium to carryout molecular level modifications including the site-specific imaging and targeting. Invention of radionuclides, quantum dots, magnetic nanoparticles, and carbon nanotubes and use of gold nanoparticles in biosensors have revolutionized the field of imaging, resulting in easy understanding of the pathophysiology of disease, improved ability to diagnose and enhanced therapeutic delivery. This high specificity and selectivity of the nanomedicine is important, and thus, the recent advancements in this field need to be understood for a better today and a more prosperous future.

  17. Communications data delivery system analysis : public workshop read-ahead document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    This document presents an overview of work conducted to date around development and analysis of communications data delivery systems for : supporting transactions in the connected vehicle environment. It presents the results of technical analysis of ...

  18. The use of liquid self-emulsifying drug delivery systems based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emulsifying drug delivery systems (LSEDDS) containing griseofulvin. The LSEDDS were evaluated using the following parameters: phase separation, globule size, viscosity, solubility of griseofulvin and partition coefficient. The release profile of ...

  19. On-The-Move Nutrient Delivery System - Description and Initial Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mountain, Scott

    2004-01-01

    .... A novel nutrient delivery system has been developed to provide Warfighters on-demand access to flavored electrolyte- and carbohydrate-enhanced drinks, to provide hydration, and energy to sustain work...

  20. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission waste feed delivery plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    This document is a plan presenting the objectives, organization, and management and technical approaches for the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) Program. This WFD Plan focuses on the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project's Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission

  1. Bulk Fuel Storage and Delivery Systems Infrastructure Military Construction Requirements for Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Padgett, Gary

    2000-01-01

    This report is one in a series that addresses the accuracy and reliability of maintenance, repair, and environmental and construction requirements for bulk fuel storage and delivery systems infrastructure...

  2. MDOT implementation plan for global positioning systems (GPS) technology in planning, design, and construction delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    Global Positioning System (GPS) technology offers advantages to transportation agencies in the planning, design and construction stages of project delivery. This research study will develop a guide for Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) ...

  3. SRD Exhibits ONR Funded Chemical Detector Technology & Supporting Gas Delivery Systems (GDS) AT PITTCON 2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harmon, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    SRD attended PITTCON 2005 in Orlando, Florida with an exhibitor booth to showcase their chemical detector technology being developed for The Office of Naval Research as well as gas delivery systems (GDS...

  4. Dose-homogeneity Driven Beam Delivery System Performance Requirements for MedAustron

    CERN Document Server

    Palm, M; Moser, F; Benedikt, M

    2011-01-01

    MedAustron [1], the Austrian hadron therapy center is currently under construction. Irradiation will be performed using active scanning with proton and carbon ion pencil beams. Major beam delivery system contributors to dose heterogeneities are evaluated: beam position, beam size and spot weight errors. Their individual and combined effect on the dose distribution is quantified, using semianalytical models of lateral beam spread in the nozzle and target and depth-dose curves for protons and carbon ions. Deduced requirements on critical parts of the beam delivery system are presented. Preventive and active methods to suppress the impact of beam delivery inaccuracies are proposed.

  5. Level-2 Milestone 6007: Sierra Early Delivery System Deployed to Secret Restricted Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsch, A. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-06

    This report documents the delivery and installation of Shark, a CORAL Sierra early delivery system deployed on the LLNL SRD network. Early ASC program users have run codes on the machine in support of application porting for the final Sierra system which will be deployed at LLNL in CY2018. In addition to the SRD resource, Shark, unclassified resources, Rzmanta and Ray, have been deployed on the LLNL Restricted Zone and Collaboration Zone networks in support of application readiness for the Sierra platform.

  6. In vitro characterization of microcontainers as an oral drug delivery system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line Hagner; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Jacobsen, J.

    We here present in vitro studies showing the promise of microcontainers (fabricated in either SU-8 or Poly(lactic acid) (PLLA)) as an oral drug delivery system for the poorly watersoluble drug, furosemide.......We here present in vitro studies showing the promise of microcontainers (fabricated in either SU-8 or Poly(lactic acid) (PLLA)) as an oral drug delivery system for the poorly watersoluble drug, furosemide....

  7. Sustained systemic delivery of monoclonal antibodies by genetically modified skin fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noël, D; Pelegrin, M; Brockly, F

    2000-01-01

    In vivo production and systemic delivery of therapeutic antibodies by engineered cells might advantageously replace injection of purified antibodies for treating a variety of life-threatening diseases, including cancer, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and autoimmune diseases. We report here...... that skin fibroblasts retrovirally transduced to express immunoglobulin genes can be used for sustained long-term systemic delivery of cloned antibodies in immunocompetent mice. Importantly, no anti- idiotypic response against the ectopically expressed model antibody used in this study was observed...

  8. Development of A 2,000-10,000-Lb Improved Container Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    10,000- LB IMPROVED CONTAINER DELIVERY SYSTEM by Michael Henry Kristen Lafond Gregory Noetscher Sanjay Patel* and Glen Pinnell...REPORT TYPE Technical Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4-7 May 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DEVELOPMENT OF A 2,000-10,000- LB IMPROVED CONTAINER...of Improved Container Delivery Systems (ICDS) capable of airdropping 2,000-10,000- lb payloads, the intricacies of developing a parachute model of the

  9. Skin Delivery of Kojic Acid-Loaded Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery Systems for the Treatment of Skin Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Gonçalez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aging process causes a number of changes in the skin, including oxidative stress and dyschromia. The kojic acid (KA is iron chelator employed in treatment of skin aging, and inhibits tyrosinase, promotes depigmentation. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems, such as liquid crystalline systems (LCSs, can modulate drug permeation through the skin and improve the drug activity. This study is aimed at structurally developing and characterizing a kojic acid-loaded LCS, consists of water (W, cetostearyl isononanoate (oil—O and PPG-5-CETETH-20 (surfactant-S and evaluating its in vitro skin permeation and retention. Three regions of the diagram were selected for characterization: A (35% O, 50% S, 15% W, B (30% O, 50% S, 20% W and C (20% O, 50% S, 30% W, to which 2% KA was added. The formulations were subjected to polarized light microscopy, which indicated the presence of a hexagonal mesophase. Texture and bioadhesion assay showed that formulation B is suitable for topical application. According to the results from the in vitro permeation and retention of KA, the formulations developed can modulate the permeation of KA in the skin. The in vitro cytotoxic assays showed that KA-unloaded LCS and KA-loaded LCS didn't present cytotoxicity. PPG-5-CETETH-20-based systems may be a promising platform for KA skin delivery.

  10. Texosome-based drug delivery system for cancer therapy: from past to present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini, Hamideh; Halabian, Raheleh; Amin, Mohsen; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali

    2015-01-01

    Rising worldwide cancer incidence and resistance to current anti-cancer drugs necessitate the need for new pharmaceutical compounds and drug delivery system. Malfunction of the immune system, particularly in the tumor microenvironment, causes tumor growth and enhances tumor progression. Thus, cancer immunotherapy can be an appropriate approach to provoke the systemic immune system to combat tumor expansion. Texosomes, which are endogenous nanovesicles released by all tumor cells, contribute to cell-cell communication and modify the phenotypic features of recipient cells due to the texosomes’ ability to transport biological components. For this reason, texosome-based delivery system can be a valuable strategy for therapeutic purposes. To improve the pharmaceutical behavior of this system and to facilitate its use in medical applications, biotechnology approaches and mimetic techniques have been utilized. In this review, we present the development history of texosome-based delivery systems and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each system

  11. Nanoscale Nutrient Delivery Systems for Food Applications: Improving Bioactive Dispersibility, Stability, and Bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClements, David Julian

    2015-07-01

    There has been a surge of interest in the development of nanoscale systems for the encapsulation, protection, and delivery of lipophilic nutrients, vitamins, and nutraceuticals. This review article highlights the challenges associated with incorporating these lipophilic bioactive components into foods, and then discusses potential nanoscale delivery systems that can be used to overcome these challenges. In particular, the desirable characteristics required for any nanoscale delivery system are presented, as well as methods of fabricating them and of characterizing them. An overview of different delivery systems is given, such as microemulsions, nanoemulsions, emulsions, microgels, and biopolymer nanoparticles, and their potential applications are discussed. Nanoscale delivery systems have considerable potential within the food industry, but they must be carefully formulated to ensure that they are safe, economically viable, and effective. Nanoscale delivery systems have numerous potential applications in the food industry for encapsulating, protecting, and releasing bioactive agents, such as nutraceuticals and vitamins. This review article highlights methods for designing, fabricating, characterizing, and utilizing edible nanoparticles from a variety of different food-grade ingredients. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. In vivo absorption of steroidal hormones from smart polymer based delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sibao; Pederson, Daniel; Oak, Mayura; Singh, Jagdish

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop smart polymer based controlled delivery systems to deliver steroidal hormones after single subcutaneous (s.c.) injection at predetermined rates over extended period of time. In vivo absorption and pharmacokinetics of levonorgestrel (LNG) and testosterone (TSN) were investigated from the thermosensitive and phase sensitive polymeric controlled delivery systems. A selective, reliable, and rapid method for determination of serum LNG concentration was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandom mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface (HPLC-MS-MS with APCI), while TSN in serum samples was detected and quantified by a competitive immunoassay. The delivery systems controlled the absorption of LNG in rabbits up to 6 weeks from thermosensitive and approximately 4 weeks from phase sensitive polymeric delivery systems. In vivo study of TSN delivery systems in castrated rabbits controlled the release of TSN for at least 2 months from both thermosensitive and phase sensitive polymers. Thermosensitive and phase sensitive polymer formulations significantly (p < 0.05) increased relative bioavailability of steroidal hormones compared to control. In conclusion, thermosensitive and phase sensitive polymer based delivery systems controlled the release in vivo in rabbits for longer duration after single s.c. injection. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  13. Efficacy of systemic bisphosphonate delivery on osseointegration of implants under osteoporotic conditions: lessons from animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Fahim; Al-Rifaiy, Mohammad Qasim; Almas, Khalid; Javed, Fawad

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to systematically review the role of systemic bisphosphonate (BP) delivery on osseointegration of implants under osteoporotic conditions. The addressed focused question was "Does systemic BP delivery enhance osseointegration of implants under osteoporotic conditions?" PubMed/MEDLINE and Google-Scholar databases were searched from 1994 up to and including December 2013 using different combinations of the following keywords: "bone to implant contact", "implant", "bisphosphonate", "osseointegration" and "osteoporosis". Review articles, case-reports, commentaries, letters to the Editor, unpublished articles and articles published in languages other than English were excluded. Fifteen animal studies fulfilled our eligibility criteria. Osteoporotic conditions were induced via bilateral ovariectomy (OVX). BPs used in the studies were ibandronate, zoledronic acid and alendronate. Results from 12 studies showed that systemic BP delivery significantly increased bone volume and bone-to-implant contact under osteoporotic conditions. Two studies reported no significant difference in osseointegration among OVX animals with and without systemic BP delivery. In one study, systemic BP delivery negatively influenced implant osseointegration. Rough-surfaced and polished implants were used in 11 and one study respectively. In 3 studies implant surface characteristics remained unclear. Within the limits of the present study, it is concluded that systemic BP delivery enhances implant osseointegration in animals with induced osteoporotic conditions. However, in a clinical scenario, the potential risk of BP related ONJ in osteoporotic patients undergoing dental implant therapy cannot be disregarded. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nanocapsules: The Weapons for Novel Drug Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothamasu, Pavankumar; Kanumur, Hemanth; Ravur, Niranjan; Maddu, Chiranjeevi; Parasuramrajam, Radhika; Thangavel, Sivakumar

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Nanocapsules, existing in miniscule size, range from 10 nm to 1000 nm. They consist of a liquid/solid core in which the drug is placed into a cavity, which is surrounded by a distinctive polymer membrane made up of natural or synthetic polymers. They have attracted great interest, because of the protective coating, which are usually pyrophoric and easily oxidized and delay the release of active ingredients. Methods Various technical approaches are utilized for obtaining the nanocapsules; however, the methods of interfacial polymerization for monomer and the nano-deposition for preformed polymer are chiefly preferred. Most important characteristics in their preparation is particle size and size distribution which can be evaluated by using various techniques like X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolu¬tion transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, superconducting quantum interference device, multi angle laser light scattering and other spectroscopic techniques. Results Nanocapsules possessing extremely high reproducibility have a broad range of life science applications. They may be applied in agrochemicals, genetic engineering, cosmetics, cleansing products, wastewater treatments, adhesive component applications, strategic delivery of the drug in tumors, nanocapsule bandages to fight infec¬tion, in radiotherapy and as liposomal nanocapsules in food science and agriculture. In addition, they can act as self-healing materials. Conclusion The enhanced delivery of bio¬active molecules through the targeted delivery by means of a nanocapsule opens numerous challenges and opportunities for the research and future development of novel improved therapies. PMID:23678444

  15. Thermosensitive liposomal drug delivery systems: state of the art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kneidl B

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Barbara Kneidl,1,2 Michael Peller,3 Gerhard Winter,2 Lars H Lindner,1 Martin Hossann11Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Munich, 2Department of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, 3Institute for Clinical Radiology, University Hospital Munich, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, GermanyAbstract: Thermosensitive liposomes are a promising tool for external targeting of drugs to solid tumors when used in combination with local hyperthermia or high intensity focused ultrasound. In vivo results have demonstrated strong evidence that external targeting is superior over passive targeting achieved by highly stable long-circulating drug formulations like PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin. Up to March 2014, the Web of Science listed 371 original papers in this field, with 45 in 2013 alone. Several formulations have been developed since 1978, with lysolipid-containing, low temperature-sensitive liposomes currently under clinical investigation. This review summarizes the historical development and effects of particular phospholipids and surfactants on the biophysical properties and in vivo efficacy of thermosensitive liposome formulations. Further, treatment strategies for solid tumors are discussed. Here we focus on temperature-triggered intravascular and interstitial drug release. Drug delivery guided by magnetic resonance imaging further adds the possibility of performing online monitoring of a heating focus to calculate locally released drug concentrations and to externally control drug release by steering the heating volume and power. The combination of external targeting with thermosensitive liposomes and magnetic resonance-guided drug delivery will be the unique characteristic of this nanotechnology approach in medicine.Keywords: thermosensitive liposomes, phosphatidyloligoglycerol, hyperthermia, high intensity focused ultrasound, drug delivery, drug targeting

  16. Functionalized nanofibers as drug-delivery systems for osteochondral regeneration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Amler, Evžen; Filová, Eva; Buzgo, Matej; Prosecká, Eva; Rampichová, Michala; Nečas, A.; Nooeaid, P.; Boccaccini, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 7 (2014), s. 1083-1094 ISSN 1743-5889 Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) NT12156; CEITEC CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0068; GA UK(CZ) 626012; GA UK(CZ) 384311; GA UK(CZ) 545313; GA UK(CZ) 424213; GA UK(CZ) 270513; GA MŠk(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0092 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : bone * cartilage * drug delivery Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.413, year: 2014

  17. Nanoparticle-Based Delivery System for Biomedical Applications of RNAi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Chuanxu

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a post-transcriptional gene silencing process triggered by double-strand RNA, including synthetic short interfering RNA (siRNA) and endogenous microRNA (miRNA). RNAi has attracted great attention for developing a new class of therapeutics, due to its capability to speci......RNA/miRNA and transport them to the action site in the target cells. This thesis describes the development of various nanocarriers for siRNA/miRNA delivery and investigate their potential biomedical applications including: anti-inflammation, tissue engineering and cancer...

  18. Novel self-emulsifying formulation of quercetin for improved in vivo antioxidant potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Sanyog; Jain, Amit K; Pohekar, Milind

    2013-01-01

    Quercetin (QT) was formulated into a novel self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) to improve its oral bioavailability and antioxidant potential compared to free drug. Capmul MCM was selected as the oily phase on the basis of optimum solubility of QT in oil. Tween 20 and ethanol were selected.......8. The ratio of 40:40:20 w/w, Capmul MCM:QT (19:1)/Tween 20/ethanol was optimized based on its ability to form a spontaneous submicrometer emulsion in simulated gastrointestinal fluids. DPPH scavenging assay showed comparable antioxidant activity of QT-SEDDS to free QT. QT-SEDDS was robust in terms...... uptake and in vivo pharmacokinetics of QT-SEDDS showed a correlation coefficient of ~0.9961, as evident from a Levy plot. Finally, QT-SEDDS showed a significantly higher in vivo antioxidant potential compared to free QT when evaluated as a function of ability to combat doxorubicin- and cyclosporin A...

  19. Systems for the delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs, new approaches and perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halahakoon Mudiyanselage Amila Jeewantha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Great perspectives in the field of drug therapy are currently associated with the targeted delivery of drugs to the organ, tissue or cells. Drug delivery systems (DDS play a key role in enhancing the quality of chemotherapy in cancer disease. The intense interest in the topic of chemotherapy is the development of novel methods of drug delivery. The success of anti-tumor chemotherapy significantly dependends on the ability of therapeutic substances to achieve its target as well as minimal accumulation in non-specific sites (healthy organs and tissues. According to that, splendid perspectives in the field of chemotherapy are currently associated with the targeted delivery of drugs to the organs, tissues or cells. The essence of targeted delivery is that the drug itself, but more often a means of delivery systems (the vector, containers, and others. modified by molecules, which can be identified by a unique receptor on cells or target sites. Then they are called “targeted drug delivery systems”. At the same time, the engineering of multifunctional nanocarriers with several useful properties in one carrier (nanoparticles, liposomes, micelles, dendrimers, and others. can significantly enhance the efficacy of many therapeutic and diagnostic protocols. In this article, summarize the accumulated information about potential possibilities of DDS, and the practical applications in cancer chemotherapy.

  20. New technique of mechanical pulse jet coolant delivery system for minimal quantity lubricant (MQL) operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazli, Nik; Badrul, Hamdi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) machining is one of the promising solutions to decrease the cutting fluid consumption requirements. This paper describes MQL machining in a range of lubricant consumption of 2.0ml/h, which is 10-100 times smaller than the normal consumption adopted in industries. MQL machining in this range is called pulse jet coolant delivery system in this paper. A specially designed system was used for concentrating small amounts of lubricant onto the cutting interface. The performance of concentrated spraying of lubricant in pulse jet coolant delivery system design was actual simulated and compared with others systems. The concentrated spraying of lubricant with a specially designed of system was quite effective in increasing tool life in the pulse jet coolant delivery system range.

  1. Overview on zein protein: a promising pharmaceutical excipient in drug delivery systems and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Gihan

    2018-01-01

    Natural pharmaceutical excipients have been applied extensively in the past decades owing to their safety and biocompatibility. Zein, a natural protein of plant origin offers great benefit over other synthetic polymers used in controlled drug and biomedical delivery systems. It was used in a variety of medical fields including pharmaceutical and biomedical drug targeting, vaccine, tissue engineering, and gene delivery. Being biodegradable and biocompatible, the current review focuses on the history and the medical application of zein as an attractive still promising biopolymer. Areas covered: The current review gives a broadscope on zein as a still promising protein excipient in different fields. Zein- based drug and biomedical delivery systems are discussed with special focus on current and potential application in controlled drug delivery systems, and tissue engineering. Expert opinion: Zein as a protein of natural origin can still be considered a promising polymer in the field of drug delivery systems as well as in tissue engineering. Although different researchers spotted light on zein application in different industrial fields extensively, the feasibility of its use in the field of drug delivery replenished by investigators in recent years has not yet been fully approached.

  2. Bicontinuous cubic liquid crystals as sustained delivery systems for peptides and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Shakila B; Boyd, Ben J; Rades, Thomas; Hook, Sarah

    2010-10-01

    Self-assembling lipid-based liquid crystalline systems are a broad and active area of research. Of these mesophases, the cubic phase with its highly twisted bilayer and two non-intersecting water channels has been investigated extensively for drug delivery. The cubic phase has been shown to accommodate and control the release of drugs with varying physicochemical properties. Also, the lipids used to prepare these delivery systems are generally cheap, safe and biodegradable, making these systems highly attractive. Early research investigating the potential of cubic phases as delivery systems showed that several peptides or proteins entrapped within these gel-based systems showed retarded release. Furthermore, entrapment within the cubic phase protected the selected peptide or protein from chemical and physical degradation with its native confirmation and bioactivity retained. In this review, the literature pertaining to the delivery of various bioactives from cubic liquid crystalline phases is examined, with a particular focus on peptides and proteins. The scope and limitations of the cubic phases in this respect and the future of cubic liquid crystalline systems as sustained delivery systems are highlighted. The reader will be able to gain an understanding of the properties of the bicontinuous cubic phase and how its structural attributes make these systems desirable for sustained delivery of bioactives, in particular peptides and proteins, but also how these same structural properties have hindered progress towards clinical applications. Current strategies to overcome these issues will also be discussed. The bicontinuous cubic phase offers great potential in the field of peptide and protein delivery, but limited research in this area precludes definite conclusions to its future in this respect.

  3. Delivery of therapeutic radioisotopes using nanoparticle platforms: potential benefit in systemic radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Longjiang; Chen, Hongwei; Wang, Liya; Liu, Tian; Yeh, Julie; Lu, Guangming; Yang, Lily; Mao, Hui

    2010-12-03

    Radiation therapy is an effective cancer treatment option in conjunction with chemotherapy and surgery. Emerging individualized internal and systemic radiation treatment promises significant improvement in efficacy and reduction of normal tissue damage; however, it requires cancer cell targeting platforms for efficient delivery of radiation sources. With recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology, there is great interest in developing nanomaterials as multifunctional carriers to deliver therapeutic radioisotopes for tumor targeted radiation therapy, to monitor their delivery and tumor response to the treatment. This paper provides an overview on developing nanoparticles for carrying and delivering therapeutic radioisotopes for systemic radiation treatment. Topics discussed in the review include: selecting nanoparticles and radiotherapy isotopes, strategies for targeting nanoparticles to cancers, together with challenges and potential solutions for the in vivo delivery of nanoparticles. Some examples of using nanoparticle platforms for the delivery of therapeutic radioisotopes in preclinical studies of cancer treatment are also presented.

  4. Delivery of therapeutic radioisotopes using nanoparticle platforms: potential benefit in systemic radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Longjiang; Chen, Hongwei; Wang, Liya; Liu, Tian; Yeh, Julie; Lu, Guangming; Yang, Lily; Mao, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective cancer treatment option in conjunction with chemotherapy and surgery. Emerging individualized internal and systemic radiation treatment promises significant improvement in efficacy and reduction of normal tissue damage; however, it requires cancer cell targeting platforms for efficient delivery of radiation sources. With recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology, there is great interest in developing nanomaterials as multifunctional carriers to deliver therapeutic radioisotopes for tumor targeted radiation therapy, to monitor their delivery and tumor response to the treatment. This paper provides an overview on developing nanoparticles for carrying and delivering therapeutic radioisotopes for systemic radiation treatment. Topics discussed in the review include: selecting nanoparticles and radiotherapy isotopes, strategies for targeting nanoparticles to cancers, together with challenges and potential solutions for the in vivo delivery of nanoparticles. Some examples of using nanoparticle platforms for the delivery of therapeutic radioisotopes in preclinical studies of cancer treatment are also presented. PMID:24198480

  5. Polymer-based delivery systems for support and delivery of bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alyssa Marie

    One of the most urgent problems in the fields of medicine and agriculture is the decreasing effectiveness of antibiotics. Once a miracle drug, antibiotics have recently become associated with the creation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The main limitations of these treatments include lack of both adaptability and specificity. To overcome these shortcomings of current antibiotic treatments, there has been a renewed interest in bacteriophage research. Bacteriophages are naturally-occurring viruses that lyse bacteria. They are highly specific, with each bacteriophage type lysing a narrow range of bacteria strains. Bacteriophages are also ubiquitous biological entities, populating environments where bacterial growth is supported. Just as humans are exposed to bacteria in their daily lives, we are exposed to bacteriophages as well. To use bacteriophages in practical applications, they must be delivered to the site of an infection in a controlled-release system. Two systems were studied to observe their support of bacteriophage lytic activity, as well as investigate the possibility of controlling bacteriophage release rates. First, hydrogels were studied, using crosslinking and blending techniques to achieve a range of release profiles. Second, polyanhydride microparticles were studied, evaluating release rates as a function of monomer chemistries.

  6. The network data delivery service: A real-time data connectivity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Castellote, Gerardo; Schneider, Stan

    1994-01-01

    A network data-sharing system, the Network Data Delivery Service (NDDS), is discussed. The NDDS system relies on a bipartite model consisting of the following: information producers (sources) and information consumers (sinks). The example provided by a dual-arm robotic system is examined.

  7. Lipid based drug delivery systems: Kinetics by SANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhríková, D.; Teixeira, J.; Hubčík, L.; Búcsi, A.; Kondela, T.; Murugova, T.; Ivankov, O. I.

    2017-05-01

    N,N-dimethyldodecylamine-N-oxide (C12NO) is a surfactant that may exist either in a neutral or protonated form depending on the pH of aqueous solutions. Using small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD) we demonstrate structural responsivity of C12NO/dioleoylphospha-tidylethanolamine (DOPE)/DNA complexes designed as pH sensitive gene delivery vectors. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) was employed to follow kinetics of C12NO protonization and DNA binding into C12NO/DOPE/DNA complexes in solution of 150 mM NaCl at acidic condition. SANS data analyzed using paracrystal lamellar model show the formation of complexes with stacking up to ∼32 bilayers, spacing ∼ 62 Å, and lipid bilayer thickness ∼37 Å in 3 minutes after changing pH from 7 to 4. Subsequent structural reorganization of the complexes was observed along 90 minutes of SANS mesurements.

  8. Optimization of conditions for gene delivery system based on PEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Cheraghi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: PEI based nanoparticle (NP due to dual capabilities of proton sponge and DNA binding is known as powerful tool for nucleic acid delivery to cells. However, serious cytotoxicity and complicated conditions, which govern NPs properties and its interactions with cells practically, hindered achievement to high transfection efficiency. Here, we have tried to optimize the properties of PEI/ firefly luciferase plasmid complexes and cellular condition to improve transfection efficiency. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, firefly luciferase, as a robust gene reporter, was complexed with PEI to prepare NPs with different size and charge. The physicochemical properties of nanoparticles were evaluated using agarose gel retardation and dynamic light scattering.  MCF7 and BT474 cells at different confluency were also transfected with prepared nanoparticles at various concentrations for short and long times. Results: The branched PEI can instantaneously bind to DNA and form cationic NPs. The results demonstrated the production of nanoparticles with size about 100-500 nm dependent on N/P ratio. Moreover, increase of nanoparticles concentration on the cell surface drastically improved the transfection rate, so at a concentration of 30 ng/ìl, the highest transfection efficiency was achieved. On the other side, at confluency between 40-60%, the maximum efficiency was obtained. The result demonstrated that N/P ratio of 12 could establish an optimized ratio between transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity of PEI/plasmid nanoparticles. The increase of NPs N/P ratio led to significant cytotoxicity. Conclusion: Obtained results verified the optimum conditions for PEI based gene delivery in different cell lines.

  9. Theoretical Assessment of Fluorinated Phospholipids in the Design of Liposomal Drug-Delivery Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jesper J.united st; Fristrup, Peter; Peters, Günther H.J.

    2016-01-01

    ,alpha-difluoro (F-2-ProAEL) conjugates of (R)-1-O-hexadecyl-2-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phoshocholineglycerol (ProAEL). Our results provide a theoretical assessment of the potential usefulness of these fluorinated lipids in the rational design of liposomal drug-delivery systems. The a-fluorine-substituted phospholipid...... properties and that are still subjects for important and pharmaceutically proven drug-delivery mechanisms....

  10. Buccal Mucosa as A Route for Systemic Drug Delivery: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaval A. Pate; M. R. Pate; K. R. Pate; N. M. Pate

    2012-01-01

    Within the oral mucosal cavity, the buccal region offers an attractive route of administration for systemic drug delivery. The mucosa has a rich blood supply and it is relatively permeable. It is the objective of this article to review buccal drug delivery by discussing the structure and environment of the oral mucosa and the experimental methods used in assessing buccal drug permeation/absorption. Buccal dosage forms will also be reviewed with an emphasis on bioadhesive polymeric based deliv...

  11. Nanomaterials for delivery of nucleic acid to the central nervous system (CNS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Danyang; Wu, Lin-Ping

    2017-01-01

    -related disease, such as neurodegeneration and disorders, suitable, safe and effective drug delivery nanocarriers have to been developed to overcome the blood brain barrier (BBB), which is the most inflexible barrier in human body. Here, we highlight the structure and function of barriers in the central nervous...... system (CNS) and summary several types of nanomaterials which can be potentially used in the brain delivery nucleic acid....

  12. SU-D-201-03: During-Treatment Delivery Monitoring System for TomoTherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Q; Read, P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Multiple error pathways can lead to delivery errors during the treatment course that cannot be caught with pre-treatment QA. While in vivo solutions are being developed for linacs, no such solution exists for tomotherapy. The purpose of this study is to develop a near real-time system for tomotherapy that can monitor the delivery and dose accumulation process during the treatment-delivery, which enable the user to assess the impact of delivery variations and/or errors and to interrupt the treatment if necessary. Methods: A program running on a tomotherapy planning station fetches the raw DAS data during treatment. Exit detector data is extracted as well as output, gantry angle, and other machine parameters. For each sample, the MLC open-close state is determined. The delivered plan is compared with the original plan via a Monte Carlo dose engine which transports fluence deviations from a pre-treatment Monte Carlo run. A report containing the difference in fluence, dose and DVH statistics is created in html format. This process is repeated until the treatment is completed. Results: Since we only need to compute the dose for the difference in fluence for a few projections each time, dose with 2% statistical uncertainty can be computed in less than 1 second on a 4-core cpu. However, the current bottleneck in this near real-time system is the repeated fetching and processing the growing DAS data file throughout the delivery. The frame rate drops from 10Hz at the beginning of treatment to 5Hz after 3 minutes and to 2Hz after 10 minutes. Conclusion: A during-treatment delivery monitor system has been built to monitor tomotherapy treatments. The system improves patient safety by allowing operators to assess the delivery variations and errors during treatment delivery and adopt appropriate actions.

  13. Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) / Automated Construction of Expeditionary Structures (ACES) Materials Delivery System (MDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R. P.; Townsend, I. I.; Tamasy, G. J.; Evers, C. J.; Sibille, L. J.; Edmunson, J. E.; Fiske, M. R.; Fikes, J. C.; Case, M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the Automated Construction of Expeditionary Structures, Phase 3 (ACES 3) project is to incorporate the Liquid Goods Delivery System (LGDS) into the Dry Goods Delivery System (DGDS) structure to create an integrated and automated Materials Delivery System (MDS) for 3D printing structures with ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete. ACES 3 is a prototype for 3-D printing barracks for soldiers in forward bases, here on Earth. The LGDS supports ACES 3 by storing liquid materials, mixing recipe batches of liquid materials, and working with the Dry Goods Feed System (DGFS) previously developed for ACES 2, combining the materials that are eventually extruded out of the print nozzle. Automated Construction of Expeditionary Structures, Phase 3 (ACES 3) is a project led by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and supported by NASA. The equivalent 3D printing system for construction in space is designated Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) by NASA.

  14. Resource consumption of a diffusion model for prevention programs: the PROSPER delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Daniel M; Jones, Damon E; Greenberg, Mark T; Feinberg, Mark E; Spoth, Richard L

    2012-03-01

    To prepare public systems to implement evidence-based prevention programs for adolescents, it is necessary to have accurate estimates of programs' resource consumption. When evidence-based programs are implemented through a specialized prevention delivery system, additional costs may be incurred during cultivation of the delivery infrastructure. Currently, there is limited research on the resource consumption of such delivery systems and programs. In this article, we describe the resource consumption of implementing the PROSPER (PROmoting School-Community-University Partnerships to Enhance Resilience) delivery system for a period of 5 years in one state, and how the financial and economic costs of its implementation affect local communities as well as the Cooperative Extension and University systems. We used a six-step framework for conducting cost analysis, using a Cost-Procedure-Process-Outcome Analysis model (Yates, Analyzing costs, procedures, processes, and outcomes in human services: An introduction, 1996; Yates, 2009). This method entails defining the delivery System; bounding cost parameters; identifying, quantifying, and valuing systemic resource Consumption, and conducting sensitivity analysis of the cost estimates. Our analyses estimated both the financial and economic costs of the PROSPER delivery system. Evaluation of PROSPER illustrated how costs vary over time depending on the primacy of certain activities (e.g., team development, facilitator training, program implementation). Additionally, this work describes how the PROSPER model cultivates a complex resource infrastructure and provides preliminary evidence of systemic efficiencies. This work highlights the need to study the costs of diffusion across time and broadens definitions of what is essential for successful implementation. In particular, cost analyses offer innovative methodologies for analyzing the resource needs of prevention systems. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and

  15. Systemic gene delivery transduces the enteric nervous system of guinea pigs and cynomolgus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombash, S E; Cowley, C J; Fitzgerald, J A; Lepak, C A; Neides, M G; Hook, K; Todd, L J; Wang, G-D; Mueller, C; Kaspar, B K; Bielefeld, E C; Fischer, A J; Wood, J D; Foust, K D

    2017-10-01

    Characterization of adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) mediated gene delivery to the enteric nervous system (ENS) was recently described in mice and rats. In these proof-of-concept experiments, we show that intravenous injections of clinically relevant AAVs can transduce the ENS in guinea pigs and non-human primates. Neonatal guinea pigs were given intravenous injections of either AAV8 or AAV9 vectors that contained a green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression cassette or phosphate-buffered saline. Piglets were euthanized three weeks post injection and tissues were harvested for immunofluorescent analysis. GFP expression was detected in myenteric and submucosal neurons along the length of the gastrointestinal tract in AAV8 injected guinea pigs. GFP-positive neurons were found in dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and dorsal root ganglia. Less transduction occurred in AAV9-treated tissues. Gastrointestinal tissues were analyzed from young cynomolgus macaques that received systemic injection of AAV9 GFP. GFP expression was detected in myenteric neurons of the stomach, small and large intestine. These data demonstrate that ENS gene delivery translates to larger species. This work develops tools for the field of neurogastroenterology to explore gut physiology and anatomy using emerging technologies such as optogenetics and gene editing. It also provides a basis to develop novel therapies for chronic gut disorders.

  16. A review on mucoadhesive polymer used in nasal drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Chaturvedi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This update review is on mucoadhesive polymers used in nasal dosage forms. The nasal mucosa provides a potentially good route for systemic drug delivery. One of the most important features of the nasal route is that it avoids first-pass hepatic metabolism, thereby reducing metabolism. The application of mucoadhesive polymers in nasal drug delivery systems has gained to promote dosage form residence time in the nasal cavity as well as improving intimacy of contact with absorptive membranes of the biological system. The various new technology uses in development of nasal drug delivery dosage forms are discussed. The various dosage forms are vesicular carriers (liposome, noisome, nanostructured particles, prodrugs, in situ gelling system with special attention to in vivo studies.

  17. The lung as a route for systemic delivery of therapeutic proteins and peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchenna Agu, Remigius; Ikechukwu Ugwoke, Michael; Armand, Michoel; Kinget, Renaat; Verbeke, Norbert

    2001-01-01

    The large surface area, good vascularization, immense capacity for solute exchange and ultra-thinness of the alveolar epithelium are unique features of the lung that can facilitate systemic delivery via pulmonary administration of peptides and proteins. Physical and biochemical barriers, lack of optimal dosage forms and delivery devices limit the systemic delivery of biotherapeutic agents by inhalation. Current efforts to overcome these difficulties in order to deliver metabolic hormones (insulin, calcitonin, thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH] and growth hormones) systemically, to induce systemic responses (immunoglobulins, cyclosporin A [CsA], recombinant-methionyl human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [r-huG-CSF], pancreatic islet autoantigen) and to modulate other biological processes via the lung are reviewed. Safety aspects of pulmonary peptide and protein administration are also discussed. PMID:11686885

  18. The lung as a route for systemic delivery of therapeutic proteins and peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinget Renaat

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The large surface area, good vascularization, immense capacity for solute exchange and ultra-thinness of the alveolar epithelium are unique features of the lung that can facilitate systemic delivery via pulmonary administration of peptides and proteins. Physical and biochemical barriers, lack of optimal dosage forms and delivery devices limit the systemic delivery of biotherapeutic agents by inhalation. Current efforts to overcome these difficulties in order to deliver metabolic hormones (insulin, calcitonin, thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH] and growth hormones systemically, to induce systemic responses (immunoglobulins, cyclosporin A [CsA], recombinant-methionyl human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [r-huG-CSF], pancreatic islet autoantigen and to modulate other biological processes via the lung are reviewed. Safety aspects of pulmonary peptide and protein administration are also discussed.

  19. Magnetic and fluorescent multifunctional chitosan nanoparticles as a smart drug delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Linlin; Chen Dong; Zhang Yanqi; Deng Zhengtao; Ren Xiangling; Meng Xianwei; Tang Fangqiong; Ren Jun; Zhang Lin

    2007-01-01

    An innovative drug delivery system based on magnetic and fluorescent multifunctional chitosan nanoparticles was developed, which combined magnetic targeting, fluorescent imaging and stimulus-responsive drug release properties into one drug delivery system. Water-soluble superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles, CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and pharmaceutical drugs were simultaneously incorporated into chitosan nanoparticles; cross-linking the composite particles with glutaraldehyde tailored their size, morphology, surface properties and drug release behaviors. The system showed superparamagnetic and strong fluorescent properties, and was used as a controlled drug release vehicle, which showed pH-sensitive drug release over a long time. The composite magnetic and fluorescent chitosan nanoparticles are potential candidates as a smart drug delivery system

  20. A colon targeted drug delivery system based on alginate modificated graphene oxide for colorectal liver metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Yan, Yayuan; Shen, Qiujuan; Ma, Dong; Huang, Langhuan; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao

    2017-10-01

    A major problem associated with colon cancer is liver metastasis. A colon-targeted drug delivery system is one way to address this problem after the resection of colorectal cancer. However, traditional drug delivery systems face many challenges, such as an inability to control the release rate, inaccurate targeting, susceptibility to the microenvironment and poor stability. Here, we report the development of a graphene oxide (GO)-based, sodium alginate (ALG) functionalized colon-targeting drug delivery system, that is loaded with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as the anti-cancer drug (denoted as GO-ALG/5-FU). Our results demonstrate that the as-prepared drug delivery system possesses a much lower toxicity and better colon-targeting controlled-release behaviours. We show that GO-ALG/5-FU significantly inhibited tumour growth and liver metastasis and prolonged the survival time of mice. We anticipate that our assay will help improve basic research of colon-targeted drug delivery systems and provide a new way to treat colon cancer liver metastasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Non-viral Nucleic Acid Delivery Strategies to the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James-Kevin Tan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With an increased prevalence and understanding of central nervous system injuries and neurological disorders, nucleic acid therapies are gaining promise as a way to regenerate lost neurons or halt disease progression. While more viral vectors have been used clinically as tools for gene delivery, non-viral vectors are gaining interest due to lower safety concerns and the ability to deliver all types of nucleic acids. Nevertheless, there are still a number of barriers to nucleic acid delivery. In this focused review, we explore the in vivo challenges hindering non-viral nucleic acid delivery to the central nervous system and the strategies and vehicles used to overcome them. Advantages and disadvantages of different routes of administration including: systemic injection, cerebrospinal fluid injection, intraparenchymal injection, and peripheral administration are discussed. Non-viral vehicles and treatment strategies that have overcome delivery barriers and demonstrated in vivo gene transfer to the central nervous system are presented. These approaches can be used as guidelines in developing synthetic gene delivery vectors for central nervous system applications and will ultimately bring non-viral vectors closer to clinical application.

  2. Using grey literature to prepare pharmacy students for an evolving healthcare delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happe, Laura E; Walker, Desiree'

    2013-05-13

    To assess the impact of using "grey literature" (information internally produced in print or electronic format by agencies such as hospitals, government, businesses, etc) rather than a textbook in a course on healthcare delivery systems on students' perception of the relevance of healthcare delivery system topics and their ability to identify credible sources of this information. A reading from the grey literature was identified and assigned to the students for each topic in the course. Pre- and post-course survey instruments were used for the assessment. Students reported healthcare delivery systems topics to be moderately relevant to the profession of pharmacy on both the pre- and post-course survey instruments. Students' knowledge of current and credible sources of information on healthcare delivery system topics significantly improved based on self-reports and scores on objective assessments (pgrey literature in a course on healthcare delivery systems can be used to ensure that information in the pharmacy school curriculum is the most current and credible information available.

  3. In vitro and in vivo performance of monoacyl phospholipid-based self-emulsifying drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Thuy; Siqueira, Scheyla D V S; Amenitsch, Heinz

    2017-01-01

    to investigate the impact of LPC on the emulsion droplet size, extent of digestion, colloidal structure evolution and drug precipitation during in vitro lipolysis simulating human conditions and drug bioavailability in a rat model. The four investigated SEDDS containing long-chain glycerides, polyoxyl 35 castor...... oil or polyoxyl 8 caprylocaproyl glycerides with or without LPC. In situ synchrotron small/wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) was used to simultaneously real-time monitor the kinetics of lamellar phase structure development and FF crystalline precipitation. Adding LPC increased the particle size...

  4. Performance requirements of the MedAustron beam delivery system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2073034

    The Austrian hadron therapy center MedAustron is currently under construction with patient treatment planned to commence in 2015. Tumors will be irradiated using proton and carbon ions, for which the steeply rising Bragg curve and finite range offer a better conformity of the dose to the geometrical shape of the tumor compared to conventional photon irradiation. The current trend is to move from passive scattering toward active scanning using a narrow pencil beam in order to reach an even better dose conformation and limit the need of patient specific hardware. The quality of the deposited dose will ultimately depend on the performance of the beam delivery chain: beam profile and extraction stability of the extracted beam, accuracy and ramp rate of the scanning magnet power supplies, and precision of the beam monitors used for verifying the delivered dose. With a sharp lateral penumbra, the transverse dose fall-off can be minimized. This is of particular importance in situations where the lesion is adjace...

  5. Fast disintegrating tablets: Opportunity in drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ved Parkash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs have received ever-increasing demand during the last decade, and the field has become a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. Oral drug delivery remains the preferred route for administration of various drugs. Recent developments in the technology have prompted scientists to develop FDTs with improved patient compliance and convenience. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth in the absence of additional water for easy administration of active pharmaceutical ingredients. The popularity and usefulness of the formulation resulted in development of several FDT technologies. FDTs are solid unit dosage forms, which disintegrate or dissolve rapidly in the mouth without chewing and water. FDTs or orally disintegrating tablets provide an advantage particularly for pediatric and geriatric populations who have difficulty in swallowing conventional tablets and capsules. This review describes various formulations and technologies developed to achieve fast dissolution/dispersion of tablets in the oral cavity. In particular, this review describes in detail FDT technologies based on lyophilization, molding, sublimation, and compaction, as well as approaches to enhancing the FDT properties, such as spray drying and use of disintegrants. In addition, taste-masking technologies, experimental measurements of disintegration times, and dissolution are also discussed.

  6. Alternating current electrospinning for preparation of fibrous drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Attila; Cselkó, Richárd; Démuth, Balázs; Verreck, Geert; Mensch, Jürgen; Marosi, György; Nagy, Zsombor Kristóf

    2015-11-10

    Alternating current electrospinning (ACES) was compared to direct current electrospinning (DCES) for the preparation of drug-loaded nanofibrous mats. It is generally considered that DCES is the solely technique to produce nanofibers using the electrostatic force from polymer solutions, however, less studied and also capable ACES provides further advantages such as increased specific productivities. A poorly water-soluble drug (carvedilol) was incorporated into the fibers based on three different polymeric matrices (an acid-soluble terpolymer (Eudragit(®) E), a base-soluble copolymer (Eudragit(®) L 100-55) and a nonionic homopolymer (polyvinylpyrrolidone K90)) to improve the dissolution of the weak base drug under different pH conditions. Morphology and fiber diameter evaluation showed similar electrospun fibers regardless the type of the high voltage and the major differences in feeding rates. The amorphous ACES and DCES fibers provided fast and total drug dissolutions in all cases. The presented results show that ACES can be a more feasible novel alternative to formulate fibers for drug delivery purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rate-programming of nano-particulate delivery systems for smart bioactive scaffolds in tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadifar, Mohammad; Haddadi, Azita; Chen, Xiongbiao; Kelly, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Development of smart bioactive scaffolds is of importance in tissue engineering, where cell proliferation, differentiation and migration within scaffolds can be regulated by the interactions between cells and scaffold through the use of growth factors (GFs) and extra cellular matrix peptides. One challenge in this area is to spatiotemporally control the dose, sequence and profile of release of GFs so as to regulate cellular fates during tissue regeneration. This challenge would be addressed by rate-programming of nano-particulate delivery systems, where the release of GFs via polymeric nanoparticles is controlled by means of the methods of, such as externally-controlled and physicochemically/architecturally-modulated so as to mimic the profile of physiological GFs. Identifying and understanding such factors as the desired release profiles, mechanisms of release, physicochemical characteristics of polymeric nanoparticles, and externally-triggering stimuli are essential for designing and optimizing such delivery systems. This review surveys the recent studies on the desired release profiles of GFs in various tissue engineering applications, elucidates the major release mechanisms and critical factors affecting release profiles, and overviews the role played by the mathematical models for optimizing nano-particulate delivery systems. Potentials of stimuli responsive nanoparticles for spatiotemporal control of GF release are also presented, along with the recent advances in strategies for spatiotemporal control of GF delivery within tissue engineered scaffolds. The recommendation for the future studies to overcome challenges for developing sophisticated particulate delivery systems in tissue engineering is discussed prior to the presentation of conclusions drawn from this paper.

  8. Rate-programming of nano-particulate delivery systems for smart bioactive scaffolds in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadifar, Mohammad; Haddadi, Azita; Chen, Xiongbiao; Kelly, Michael E

    2015-01-09

    Development of smart bioactive scaffolds is of importance in tissue engineering, where cell proliferation, differentiation and migration within scaffolds can be regulated by the interactions between cells and scaffold through the use of growth factors (GFs) and extra cellular matrix peptides. One challenge in this area is to spatiotemporally control the dose, sequence and profile of release of GFs so as to regulate cellular fates during tissue regeneration. This challenge would be addressed by rate-programming of nano-particulate delivery systems, where the release of GFs via polymeric nanoparticles is controlled by means of the methods of, such as externally-controlled and physicochemically/architecturally-modulated so as to mimic the profile of physiological GFs. Identifying and understanding such factors as the desired release profiles, mechanisms of release, physicochemical characteristics of polymeric nanoparticles, and externally-triggering stimuli are essential for designing and optimizing such delivery systems. This review surveys the recent studies on the desired release profiles of GFs in various tissue engineering applications, elucidates the major release mechanisms and critical factors affecting release profiles, and overviews the role played by the mathematical models for optimizing nano-particulate delivery systems. Potentials of stimuli responsive nanoparticles for spatiotemporal control of GF release are also presented, along with the recent advances in strategies for spatiotemporal control of GF delivery within tissue engineered scaffolds. The recommendation for the future studies to overcome challenges for developing sophisticated particulate delivery systems in tissue engineering is discussed prior to the presentation of conclusions drawn from this paper.

  9. Simulation of a Schema Theory-Based Knowledge Delivery System for Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, W. S., Jr.; Mavor, Anne S.

    A future, automated, interactive, knowledge delivery system for use by researchers was tested using a manual cognitive model. Conceptualized from schema/frame/script theories in cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence, this hypothetical system was simulated by two psychologists who interacted with four researchers in microbiology to…

  10. A proton beam delivery system for conformal therapy and intensity modulated therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qingchang

    2001-01-01

    A scattering proton beam delivery system for conformal therapy and intensity modulated therapy is described. The beam is laterally spread out by a dual-ring double scattering system and collimated by a program-controlled multileaf collimator and patient specific fixed collimators. The proton range is adjusted and modulated by a program controlled binary filter and ridge filters

  11. Soy matrix drug delivery systems obtained by melt-processing techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz, C.M.; Doeveren, van P.F.N.M.; Reis, R.L.; Cunha, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop new soy protein drug delivery matrix systems by melt-processing techniques, namely, extrusion and injection moulding. The soy matrix systems with an encapsulated drug (theophylline, TH) were previously compounded by extrusion performed at two different pH values,

  12. A Review of Thermo- and Ultrasound-Responsive Polymeric Systems for Delivery of Chemotherapeutic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Az-Zamakhshariy Zardad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been an exponential increase in research into the development of thermal- and ultrasound-activated delivery systems for cancer therapy. The majority of researchers employ polymer technology that responds to environmental stimuli some of which are physiologically induced such as temperature, pH, as well as electrical impulses, which are considered as internal stimuli. External stimuli include ultrasound, light, laser, and magnetic induction. Biodegradable polymers may possess thermoresponsive and/or ultrasound-responsive properties that can complement cancer therapy through sonoporation and hyperthermia by means of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU. Thermoresponsive and other stimuli-responsive polymers employed in drug delivery systems can be activated via ultrasound stimulation. Polyethylene oxide/polypropylene oxide co-block or triblock polymers and polymethacrylates are thermal- and pH-responsive polymer groups, respectively but both have proven to have successful activity and contribution in chemotherapy when exposed to ultrasound stimulation. This review focused on collating thermal- and ultrasound-responsive delivery systems, and combined thermo-ultrasonic responsive systems; and elaborating on the advantages, as well as shortcomings, of these systems in cancer chemotherapy. The mechanisms of these systems are explicated through their physical alteration when exposed to the corresponding stimuli. The properties they possess and the modifications that enhance the mechanism of chemotherapeutic drug delivery from systems are discussed, and the concept of pseudo-ultrasound responsive systems is introduced.

  13. Operationalizing the learning health care system in an integrated delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psek, Wayne A; Stametz, Rebecca A; Bailey-Davis, Lisa D; Davis, Daniel; Darer, Jonathan; Faucett, William A; Henninger, Debra L; Sellers, Dorothy C; Gerrity, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    The Learning Health Care System (LHCS) model seeks to utilize sophisticated technologies and competencies to integrate clinical operations, research and patient participation in order to continuously generate knowledge, improve care, and deliver value. Transitioning from concept to practical application of an LHCS presents many challenges but can yield opportunities for continuous improvement. There is limited literature and practical experience available in operationalizing the LHCS in the context of an integrated health system. At Geisinger Health System (GHS) a multi-stakeholder group is undertaking to enhance organizational learning and develop a plan for operationalizing the LHCS system-wide. We present a framework for operationalizing continuous learning across an integrated delivery system and lessons learned through the ongoing planning process. The framework focuses attention on nine key LHCS operational components: Data and Analytics; People and Partnerships; Patient and Family Engagement; Ethics and Oversight; Evaluation and Methodology; Funding; Organization; Prioritization; and Deliverables. Definitions, key elements and examples for each are presented. The framework is purposefully broad for application across different organizational contexts. A realistic assessment of the culture, resources and capabilities of the organization related to learning is critical to defining the scope of operationalization. Engaging patients in clinical care and discovery, including quality improvement and comparative effectiveness research, requires a defensible ethical framework that undergirds a system of strong but flexible oversight. Leadership support is imperative for advancement of the LHCS model. Findings from our ongoing work within the proposed framework may inform other organizations considering a transition to an LHCS.

  14. Gore excluder device with the C3 delivery system for management of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morasch MD

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cheong J Lee, Mark L Keldahl, Mark D MoraschDivision of Vascular Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: The GORE Excluder stent-graft is one of the currently available devices approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in endovascular aortic repair. Recently, a new delivery system modification has been applied to the Excluder device which allows repositioning of the stent-graft to adjust for accurate proximal landing and facilitate gate cannulation. In this review, we examine the Excluder device with the new C3 delivery system and its potential benefit in the management of abdominal aortic aneurysms.Keywords: gore excluder, abdominal aortic aneurysm, repair, C3 delivery system

  15. Novel pH-sensitive biodegradable polymeric drug delivery systems based on ketal polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daquan; Wang, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the recent developments on novel pH-sensitive ketal-based biodegradable polymeric drug delivery systems. Due to the degradation of ketal derivatives, neutral alcohols and ketones, ketal derivatives can be used to fabricate pH-degradable polymer with pH-degradable ketal linkages in new drug delivery systems by avoiding inflammatory problems. Due to the novelty of ketal polymers, there were few reports about ketal polymers. The review starts with a brief introduction to the pH-sensitive drug delivery system, followed by the structure, preparation and characterization techniques of ketal polymers. Thereafter, the promising applications in various diseases in relation to micro/nano drug carriers based on ketal polymers are summarized and discussed.

  16. Controlled release of simvastatin from biomimetic β-TCP drug delivery system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Chou

    Full Text Available Simvastatin have been shown to induce bone formation and there is currently a urgent need to develop an appropriate delivery system to sustain the release of the drug to increase therapeutic efficacy whilst reducing side effects. In this study, a novel drug delivery system for simvastatin by means of hydrothermally converting marine exoskeletons to biocompatible beta-tricalcium phosphate was investigated. Furthermore, the release of simvastatin was controlled by the addition of an outer apatite coating layer. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction analysis, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and mass spectroscopy confirming the conversion process. The in-vitro dissolution of key chemical compositional elements and the release of simvastatin were measured in simulated body fluid solution showing controlled release with reduction of approximately 25% compared with un-coated samples. This study shows the potential applications of marine structures as a drug delivery system for simvastatin.

  17. The urban transition and the evolution of the medical care delivery system in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, P L; Bohland, J; Shumsky, N L

    1983-01-01

    This essay traces the evolution of the American urban medical care delivery system and examines the implications in terms of social and spatial variations in accessibility to medical care. It is suggested that the foundations of the present medical care delivery system were laid during the urban transformation which took place in the latter part of the nineteenth century, when changes in the division of labor, specialization, the role of the family, urban transportation technology and attitudes to social protectionism interacted with changes in science, medical technology and professional organization to produce radical changes in both the settings used to provide medical care and their relative accessibility to different sub-groups of the population. The medical care delivery system is thus interpreted largely as a product of the overall dynamic of urbanization rather than of scientific discovery, medical technology and the influence of key medical practitioners and professional organizations.

  18. Liposomally encapsulated diclofenac for sonophoresis induced systemic delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, S P; Singh, R; Asati, R K

    1995-01-01

    Liposomes containing diclofenac, an anti-inflammatory agent were incorporated into an ointment base for topical application. The drug loaded liposomes were characterized for various physico-chemical attributes and drug efflux profile in in vitro. The systemic availability of drug from liposomes following topical application was evaluated in rats. The effect of sonophoresis on the drug release profile in vitro and systemic availability in vivo was established. The application of liposomal diclofenac resulted in localization of the drug at the site of application with slow systemic availability; however, with the application of ultrasound pulsed drug systemic levels could be achieved.

  19. Is Student Performance on the Information Systems Analyst Certification Exam Affected by Form of Delivery of Information Systems Coursework?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Wayne; Moreno, Abel; Segall, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we compare the performance of Computer Information Systems (CIS) majors on the Information Systems Analyst (ISA) Certification Exam. The impact that the form of delivery of information systems coursework may have on the exam score is studied. Using a sample that spans three years, we test for significant differences between scores…

  20. RNase non-sensitive and endocytosis independent siRNA delivery system: delivery of siRNA into tumor cells and high efficiency induction of apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinglu; Wang, Guobao; Liu, Ru; Wang, Yaling; Wang, Yongkui; Qiu, Xiaozhong; Gao, Xueyun

    2013-07-01

    To date, RNase degradation and endosome/lysosome trapping are still serious problems for siRNA-based molecular therapy, although different kinds of delivery formulations have been tried. In this report, a cell penetrating peptide (CPP, including a positively charged segment, a linear segment, and a hydrophobic segment) and a single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) are applied together by a simple method to act as a siRNA delivery system. The siRNAs first form a complex with the positively charged segment of CPP via electrostatic forces, and the siRNA-CPP further coats the surface of the SWCNT via hydrophobic interactions. This siRNA delivery system is non-sensitive to RNase and can avoid endosome/lysosome trapping in vitro. When this siRNA delivery system is studied in Hela cells, siRNA uptake was observed in 98% Hela cells, and over 70% mRNA of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is knocked down, triggering cell apoptosis on a significant scale. Our siRNA delivery system is easy to handle and benign to cultured cells, providing a very efficient approach for the delivery of siRNA into the cell cytosol and cleaving the target mRNA therein.

  1. Integrating SAP to Information Systems Curriculum: Design and Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Information Systems (IS) education is being transformed from the segmented applications toward the integrated enterprise-wide system software Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). ERP is a platform that integrates all business functions with its centralized data repository shared by all the business operations in the enterprise. This tremendous…

  2. Monolithic natural gas storage delivery system based on sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornbostel, Marc; Krishnan, Gopala N.; Sanjurjo, Angel

    2016-09-27

    The invention provides methods for producing a strong, light, sorbent-based storage/dispenser system for gases and fuels. The system comprises a porous monolithic material with an adherent strong impervious skin that is capable of storing a gas under pressure in a safe and usable manner.

  3. What End Users and Stakeholders Want From Automated Insulin Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Diana; Suttiratana, Sakinah C; Iturralde, Esti; Barnard, Katharine D; Weissberg-Benchell, Jill; Laffel, Lori; Hood, Korey K

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to rigorously explore psychosocial factors associated with automated insulin delivery systems among people living with type 1 diabetes. Across four sites in the U.S. and U.K., 284 participants completed structured interviews or focus groups on expectations, desired features, potential benefits, and perceived burdens of automated insulin delivery systems. Recorded audio files were transcribed and analyzed using NVivo. Three themes were identified as critical for uptake of automated insulin delivery: considerations of trust and control, system features, and concerns and barriers to adoption. Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes primarily identified needs specific to their life stage and social contexts (e.g., school). Adults with type 1 diabetes, parents of youth with type 1 diabetes, and partners of adults with type 1 diabetes were most concerned about the accuracy, adaptability, and algorithm quality alongside expectations that systems stabilize glucose levels and reduce risk for long-term complications. Incorporating stakeholder perspectives on use of automated insulin delivery systems will improve the adoption of devices, quality of life, and likelihood of optimal health. Efforts to build trust in systems, optimize user-system interactions, and provide clear guidance about device capabilities and limitations may help potential users achieve optimal glycemic outcomes. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  4. The impact of a preloaded intraocular lens delivery system on operating room efficiency in routine cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jason J; Chu, Jeffrey; Graham, Jacob; Zaluski, Serge; Rocha, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the operational impact of using preloaded intraocular lens (IOL) delivery systems compared with manually loaded IOL delivery processes during routine cataract surgeries. Time and motion data, staff and surgery schedules, and cost accounting reports were collected across three sites located in the US, France, and Canada. Time and motion data were collected for manually loaded IOL processes and preloaded IOL delivery systems over four surgery days. Staff and surgery schedules and cost accounting reports were collected during the 2 months prior and after introduction of the preloaded IOL delivery system. The study included a total of 154 routine cataract surgeries across all three sites. Of these, 77 surgeries were performed using a preloaded IOL delivery system, and the remaining 77 surgeries were performed using a manual IOL delivery process. Across all three sites, use of the preloaded IOL delivery system significantly decreased mean total case time by 6.2%-12.0% (Psystem also decreased surgeon lens time, surgeon delays, and eliminated lens touches during IOL preparation. Compared to a manual IOL delivery process, use of a preloaded IOL delivery system for cataract surgery reduced total case time, total surgeon lens time, surgeon delays, and eliminated IOL touches. The time savings provided by the preloaded IOL delivery system provide an opportunity for sites to improve routine cataract surgery throughput without impacting surgeon or staff capacity.

  5. Microfabricated Engineered Particle Systems for Respiratory Drug Delivery and Other Pharmaceutical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle Replication in Non-Wetting Templates (PRINT® is a platform particle drug delivery technology that coopts the precision and nanoscale spatial resolution inherently afforded by lithographic techniques derived from the microelectronics industry to produce precisely engineered particles. We describe the utility of PRINT technology as a strategy for formulation and delivery of small molecule and biologic therapeutics, highlighting previous studies where particle size, shape, and chemistry have been used to enhance systemic particle distribution properties. In addition, we introduce the application of PRINT technology towards respiratory drug delivery, a particular interest due to the pharmaceutical need for increased control over dry powder characteristics to improve drug delivery and therapeutic indices. To this end, we have produced dry powder particles with micro- and nanoscale geometric features and composed of small molecule and protein therapeutics. Aerosols generated from these particles show attractive properties for efficient pulmonary delivery and differential respiratory deposition characteristics based on particle geometry. This work highlights the advantages of adopting proven microfabrication techniques in achieving unprecedented control over particle geometric design for drug delivery.

  6. Problems of logistic systems sustainable development in delivery chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Realization of supply chains management paradigm, covering significantly more volumes of logistic space, logically leads to complication of logistic systems, which, in its turn, arises significant number of problems of both theoretical and practical character. In our opinion, not all the aspects of logistic systems design and their sustainable functioning have received by the present time corresponding coverage in scientific literature. More detailed consideration requires specific problems of logistic systems interaction with their environment. We can talk about formation of new scientific direction (which we suggest to name logistic environics, being applied addition to classical approach to design of logistic systems. Methods: the formalized description of interaction process for logistic systems with the environment was presented and discussed  from ecological, social, economical, organizational and technological, technical, natural scientific positions. Results and conclusions: There is an interaction between logistics systems and the environment, but formalized description of logistic systems interaction process with the environment requires performance of complex interdisciplinary research from many different positions.

  7. Nano-enabled drug delivery systems for brain cancer and Alzheimer's disease: research patterns and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Porter, Alan L; Aminabhavi, Tejraj M; Zhu, Donghua

    2015-10-01

    "Tech mining" applies bibliometric and text analytic methods to scientific literature of a target field. In this study, we compare the evolution of nano-enabled drug delivery (NEDD) systems for two different applications - viz., brain cancer (BC) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) - using this approach. In this process, we derive research intelligence from papers indexed in MEDLINE. Review by domain specialists helps understand the macro-level disease problems and pathologies to identify commonalities and differences between BC and AD. Results provide a fresh perspective on the developmental pathways for NEDD approaches that have been used in the treatment of BC and AD. Results also point toward finding future solutions to drug delivery issues that are critical to medical practitioners and pharmaceutical scientists addressing the brain. Drug delivery to brain cells has been very challenging due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Suitable and effective nano-enabled drug delivery (NEDD) system is urgently needed. In this study, the authors utilized "tech-mining" tools to describe and compare various choices of delivery system available for the diagnosis, as well as treatment, of brain cancer and Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Design, fabrication and characterization of drug delivery systems based on lab-on-a-chip technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Shaegh, Seyed Ali Mousavi; Kashaninejad, Navid; Phan, Dinh-Tuan

    2013-11-01

    Lab-on-a-chip technology is an emerging field evolving from the recent advances of micro- and nanotechnologies. The technology allows the integration of various components into a single microdevice. Microfluidics, the science and engineering of fluid flow in microscale, is the enabling underlying concept for lab-on-a-chip technology. The present paper reviews the design, fabrication and characterization of drug delivery systems based on this amazing technology. The systems are categorized and discussed according to the scales at which the drug is administered. Starting with the fundamentals on scaling laws of mass transfer and basic fabrication techniques, the paper reviews and discusses drug delivery devices for cellular, tissue and organism levels. At the cellular level, a concentration gradient generator integrated with a cell culture platform is the main drug delivery scheme of interest. At the tissue level, the synthesis of smart particles as drug carriers using lab-on-a-chip technology is the main focus of recent developments. At the organism level, microneedles and implantable devices with fluid-handling components are the main drug delivery systems. For drug delivery to a small organism that can fit into a microchip, devices similar to those of cellular level can be used. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Tools and Methods for Hardening Communication Security of Energy Delivery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, Shrirang [Applied Communication Sciences, Basking Ridge, NJ (United States); Lin, Yow-Jian [Applied Communication Sciences, Basking Ridge, NJ (United States); Ghosh, Abhrajit [Applied Communication Sciences, Basking Ridge, NJ (United States); Samtani, Sunil [Applied Communication Sciences, Basking Ridge, NJ (United States); Kang, Jaewon [Applied Communication Sciences, Basking Ridge, NJ (United States); Siegell, Bruce [Applied Communication Sciences, Basking Ridge, NJ (United States); Kaul, Vikram [Applied Communication Sciences, Basking Ridge, NJ (United States); Unger, John [Applied Communication Sciences, Basking Ridge, NJ (United States); De Bruet, Andre [DTE Energy, Detroit, MI (United States); Martinez, Catherine [DTE Energy, Detroit, MI (United States); Vermeulen, Gerald [DTE Energy, Detroit, MI (United States); Rasche, Galen [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Sternfeld, Scott [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Berthier, Robin [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Bobba, Rakesh [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Campbell, Roy [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Sanders, Williams [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2014-09-28

    This document summarizes the research and development work the TT Government Solutions (TTGS), d.b.a. Applied Communication Sciences (ACS), team performed for the Department of Energy Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (CEDS) program. It addresses the challenges in protecting critical grid control and data communication, including the identification of vulnerabilities and deficiencies of communication protocols commonly used in energy delivery systems (e.g., ICCP, DNP3, C37.118, C12.22), as well as the development of effective means to detect and prevent the exploitation of such vulnerabilities and deficiencies.

  10. Current and future editing reagent delivery systems for plant genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Yidong; Liang, Zhen; Gao, Caixia

    2017-05-01

    Many genome editing tools have been developed and new ones are anticipated; some have been extensively applied in plant genetics, biotechnology and breeding, especially the CRISPR/Cas9 system. These technologies have opened up a new era for crop improvement due to their precise editing of user-specified sequences related to agronomic traits. In this review, we will focus on an update of recent developments in the methodologies of editing reagent delivery, and consider the pros and cons of current delivery systems. Finally, we will reflect on possible future directions.

  11. Nanocarrier-Integrated Microspheres: Nanogel Tectonic Engineering for Advanced Drug-Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Yoshiro; Mukai, Sada-Atsu; Sawada, Shin-Ichi; Sasaki, Yoshihiro; Akiyoshi, Kazunari

    2015-09-09

    A nanocarrier-integrated bottom-up method is a promising strategy for advanced drug-release systems. Self-assembled nanogels, which are one of the most beneficial nanocarriers for drug-delivery systems, are tectonically integrated to prepare nanogel-crosslinked (NanoClik) microspheres. NanoClik microspheres consisting of nanogel-derived structures (observed by STED microscopy) release "drug-loaded nanogels" after hydrolysis, resulting in successful sustained drug delivery in vivo. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A Cassette Based System for Hydrogen Storage and Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton Wayne E.

    2006-11-29

    A hydrogen storage system is described and evaluated. This is based upon a cassette, that is a container for managing hydrogen storage materials. The container is designed to be safe, modular, adaptable to different chemistries, inexpensive, and transportable. A second module receives the cassette and provides the necessary infrastructure to deliver hydrogen from the cassette according to enduser requirements. The modular concept has a number of advantages over approaches that are all in one stand alone systems. The advantages of a cassette based system are discussed, along with results from model and laboratory testing.

  13. The influences of patient's satisfaction with medical service delivery, assessment of medical service, and trust in health delivery system on patient's life satisfaction in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liyang

    2012-09-14

    Patient's satisfaction with medical service delivery/assessment of medical service/trust in health delivery system may have significant influence on patient's life satisfaction in China's health delivery system/in various kinds of hospitals.The aim of this study was to test whether and to what extent patient's satisfaction with medical service delivery/patient's assessments of various major aspects of medical service/various major aspects of patient's trust in health delivery system influenced patient's life satisfaction in China's health delivery system/in various kinds of hospitals. This study collaborated with National Bureau of Statistics of China to carry out a 2008 national urban resident household survey in 17 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the central government (N = 3,386), and specified ordered probit models were established to analyze dataset from this household survey. The key considerations in generating patient's life satisfaction involved patient's overall satisfaction with medical service delivery, assessment of doctor-patient communication, assessment of medical cost, assessment of medical treatment process, assessment of medical facility and hospital environment, assessment of waiting time for medical service, trust in prescription, trust in doctor, and trust in recommended medical examination. But the major considerations in generating patient's life satisfaction were different among low level public hospital, high level public hospital, and private hospital. The promotion of patient's overall satisfaction with medical service delivery, the improvement of doctor-patient communication, the reduction of medical cost, the improvement of medical treatment process, the promotion of medical facility and hospital environment, the reduction of waiting time for medical service, the promotion of patient's trust in prescription, the promotion of patient's trust in doctor, and the promotion of patient's trust in

  14. High Temperature Venus Drill and Sample Delivery System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We proposed to design, build and test a high temperature Pneumatic Drill and Trencher system for Venus subsurface exploration. The Venus Drill and Trencher will be...

  15. Silver Ion Biocide Delivery System for Water Disinfection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — U.S. space exploration missions have long considered returning to the Moon and exploration of Mars that challenge life support systems. For these long duration...

  16. Silver Ion Biocide Delivery System for Water Disinfection, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — U.S. space exploration missions have long considered returning to the Moon and exploration of Mars that challenge life support systems. For these long duration...

  17. Potential for treating tuberculosis with nano drug delivery system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swai, H

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available and systems of which the structures and components exhibit novel and significantly improved physical, chemical and biological properties, phenomena and processes, due to their nanoscale size. Nanotechnology is the application of nanoscience in technology...

  18. Silver Ion Biocide Delivery System for Water Disinfection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — U.S. space exploration missions have long considered returning to the Moon and exploration of Mars that challenge life support systems. For these long duration...

  19. Innovative system for delivery of low temperature district heating

    OpenAIRE

    Ianakiev, A; Cui, JM; Garbett, S; Filer, A

    2017-01-01

    An innovative low temperature district heating (LTDH) local network is developed in Nottingham, supported by the REMOURBAN project, part of the H2020 Smart City and Community Lighthouse scheme. It was proposed that a branch emanating from the return pipe of the existing district heating system in Nottingham would be created to use low temperature heating for the first time on such scale in the UK. The development is aimed to extract unused heat from existing district heating system and to mak...

  20. Alveolar targeting of aerosol pentamidine. Toward a rational delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonds, A.K.; Newman, S.P.; Johnson, M.A.; Talaee, N.; Lee, C.A.; Clarke, S.W. (Royal Free Hospital, London (England))

    1990-04-01

    Nebulizer systems that deposit a high proportion of aerosolized pentamidine on large airways are likely to be associated with marked adverse side effects, which may lead to premature cessation of treatment. We have measured alveolar deposition and large airway-related side effects (e.g., cough, breathlessness, and effect on pulmonary function) after aerosolization of 150 mg pentamidine isethionate labeled with {sup 99m}Tc-Sn-colloid. Nine patients with AIDS were studied using three nebulizer systems producing different droplet size profiles: the Acorn System 22, Respirgard II, and Respirgard II with the inspiratory baffle removed. Alveolar deposition was greatest and side effects least with the nebulizer producing the smallest droplet size profile (Respirgard II), whereas large airway-related side effects were prominent and alveolar deposition lowest with the nebulizer producing the largest droplet size (Acorn System 22). Values for alveolar deposition and adverse airway effects were intermediate using the Respirgard with inspiratory baffle removed, thus indicating the importance of the baffle valve in determining droplet size. Addition of a similar baffle valve to the Acorn System 22 produced a marked improvement in droplet size profile. Selection of a nebulizer that produces an optimal droplet size range offers the advantage of enhancing alveolar targeting of aerosolized pentamidine while reducing large airway-related side effects.

  1. A portable pulmonary delivery system for nano engineered DNA vaccines driven by surface acoustic wave devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajapaksa, A.E.; Qi, Aisha; Yeo, L.; Friend, J.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The increase in the need for effective delivery of potelll vaccines against infectious diseases, require robust yet straightforward pro duction of encapsulated DNA-laden aerosols. Aerosol delivery of drugs represents the next generation of vaccine delivery where the drug is deposited into the lung, which provides an ideal, non-invasive route. Moreover, several features of D A vaccines make them more attractive than conventional vaccines; thus, DNA vaccines have gained global interest for a variety of applications. However, several limitations such as ineffective cellular uptake and intracellular delivery, and degradation of DNA need to be overcome before clin ical applications. In this study, a novel and scalable engineered technique has been developed to create a biodegradable polymer system, which enables controlled delivery of a well designed DNA vaccine for immuno-therapeutics. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) atomisation has been found as useful mechanism for atomising fluid samples for medical and industrial devices. It is a straightforward method for synthesising un-agglomerated biodegradable nanoparti cles (<250 nm) in the absence of organic solvents which would represent a major breakthrough for biopharmaceutical encapsulation and delivery. Nano-scale polymer particles for DNA vaccines deliv ery were obtained through an evaporative process of the initial aerosol created by surface acoustic waves at 8-150 MHz, the final size of which could be controlled by modifying the initial polymer concen tration and solid contents. Thus, SAW atomiser represents a promising alternative for the development of a low power device for producing nano-engineered vaccines with a controlled and narrow size distribution as delivery system for genetic immuno-therapeutics.

  2. A review of drug delivery systems based on nanotechnology and green chemistry: green nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangirian, Hossein; Lemraski, Ensieh Ghasemian; Webster, Thomas J; Rafiee-Moghaddam, Roshanak; Abdollahi, Yadollah

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses the impact of green and environmentally safe chemistry on the field of nanotechnology-driven drug delivery in a new field termed "green nanomedicine". Studies have shown that among many examples of green nanotechnology-driven drug delivery systems, those receiving the greatest amount of attention include nanometal particles, polymers, and biological materials. Furthermore, green nanodrug delivery systems based on environmentally safe chemical reactions or using natural biomaterials (such as plant extracts and microorganisms) are now producing innovative materials revolutionizing the field. In this review, the use of green chemistry design, synthesis, and application principles and eco-friendly synthesis techniques with low side effects are discussed. The review ends with a description of key future efforts that must ensue for this field to continue to grow.

  3. Role of pressure-sensitive adhesives in transdermal drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Shabbir; Sachdeva, Sameer; Goswami, Tarun

    2016-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) are employed for the delivery of drugs across skin into the systemic circulation. Pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) is one of the most critical components used in a TDDS. The primary function of PSA is to help in adhesion of patch to skin, but more importantly it acts as a matrix for the drug and other excipients. Hence, apart from adhesion of the patch, PSA also affects other critical quality attributes of the TDDS such as drug delivery, flux through skin and physical and chemical stability of the finished product. This review article provides a summary of the adhesives used in various types of TDDS. In particular, this review will cover the design types of TDDS, categories of PSAs and their evaluation and regulatory aspects.

  4. Nanoparticle-Enabled Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems for Enhanced Dose Control and Tissue Targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Palmer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal drug delivery systems have been around for decades, and current technologies (e.g., patches, ointments, and creams enhance the skin permeation of low molecular weight, lipophilic drugs that are efficacious at low doses. The objective of current transdermal drug delivery research is to discover ways to enhance skin penetration of larger, hydrophilic drugs and macromolecules for disease treatment and vaccination. Nanocarriers made of lipids, metals, or polymers have been successfully used to increase penetration of drugs or vaccines, control drug release, and target drugs to specific areas of skin in vivo. While more research is needed to identify the safety of nanocarriers, this technology has the potential to expand the use of transdermal routes of administration to a wide array of therapeutics. Here, we review the current state of nanoparticle skin delivery systems with special emphasis on targeting skin diseases.

  5. Drug delivery system design and development for boron neutron capture therapy on cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherlock Huang, Lin-Chiang; Hsieh, Wen-Yuan; Chen, Jiun-Yu; Huang, Su-Chin; Chen, Jen-Kun; Hsu, Ming-Hua

    2014-01-01

    We have already synthesized a boron-containing polymeric micellar drug delivery system for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The synthesized diblock copolymer, boron-terminated copolymers (Bpin-PLA-PEOz), consisted of biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA) block and water-soluble polyelectrolyte poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEOz) block, and a cap of pinacol boronate ester (Bpin). In this study, we have demonstrated that synthesized Bpin-PLA-PEOz micelle has great potential to be boron drug delivery system with preliminary evaluation of biocompatibility and boron content. - Highlights: • Herein, we have synthesized boron-modified diblock copolymer. • Bpin-PLA-PEOz, which will be served as new boron containing vehicle for transporting the boron drug. • This boron containing Bpin-PLA-PEOz micelle was low toxicity can be applied to drug delivery

  6. Critical Components in Microfluidic Systems for Drug Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bitsch, Lennart

    2006-01-01

    Formålet med denne afhandling har været at evaluere mulighederne for at anvende mikrofluide systemer til medicinsk behandling. Vi har især fokuseret på sikkerhed i reciprokerende pumper, med henblik på en kontinuer insulin behandling, og har identificeret mikroventiler som værende kritiske......-mikroventil. Sammenlignet med systemer der benytter passive ventiler opnår vi et markant højere sikkerhedsniveau med en drejeventil. Teknologien bygger på konstruktion med bløde inkompressible gummimaterialer, og hårde overflader. Grundlæggende studier af dynamisk friktion mellem gummi og en hård overflade viser...... dreje-mikroventiler med gode pakninsgsegenskaber. De overvejende fordele ved nedskalering af mekaniske systemer er mere kompakte, lavenergi-apparater. Vi har vist muligheden for at lave dreje-mikroventiler med lavt energiforbrug og gode pakningsegenskaber ved konstruktion og test af en demonstrator med...

  7. Information resources assessment of a healthcare integrated delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadd, C S; Friedman, C P; Douglas, G; Miller, D J

    1999-01-01

    While clinical healthcare systems may have lagged behind computer applications in other fields in the shift from mainframes to client-server architectures, the rapid deployment of newer applications is closing that gap. Organizations considering the transition to client-server must identify and position themselves to provide the resources necessary to implement and support the infrastructure requirements of client-server architectures and to manage the accelerated complexity at the desktop, including hardware and software deployment, training, and maintenance needs. This paper describes an information resources assessment of the recently aligned Pennsylvania regional Veterans Administration Stars and Stripes Health Network (VISN4), in anticipation of the shift from a predominantly mainframe to a client-server information systems architecture in its well-established VistA clinical information system. The multimethod assessment study is described here to demonstrate this approach and its value to regional healthcare networks undergoing organizational integration and/or significant information technology transformations.

  8. Innovative system for delivery of low temperature district heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Ivanov Ianakiev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An innovative Low Temperature District Heating (LTDH local network is developed in Nottingham, supported by REMOURBAN project, part of the H2020 Smart City and Community Lighthouse scheme. It was proposed that a branch emanating from the return pipe of the of the existing district heating system in Nottingham would be created to use low temperature heating for the first time in UK. The development is aimed to extract wasted (unused heat from existing district heating system and make it more efficient and profitable. Four maisonette blocks of 94 low-raised flats, at Nottingham demo site of the REMOURBAN project will be connected to this new LTDH system. The scheme will provide a primary supply of heat and hot water at approximately 50oC to 60oC. Innovated solutions have been put forward to overcome certain barriers, such as legionella related risks and peak loads during extreme heating seasons and occasional maintenance.

  9. A New Concept of a Drug Delivery System with Improved Precision and Patient Safety Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Thoma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel dosing concept for drug delivery based on a peristaltic piezo-electrically actuated micro membrane pump. The design of the silicon micropump itself is straight-forward, using two piezoelectrically actuated membrane valves as inlet and outlet, and a pump chamber with a piezoelectrically actuated pump membrane in-between. To achieve a precise dosing, this micropump is used to fill a metering unit placed at its outlet. In the final design this metering unit will be made from a piezoelectrically actuated inlet valve, a storage chamber with an elastic cover membrane and a piezoelectrically actuated outlet valve, which are connected in series. During a dosing cycle the metering unit is used to adjust the drug volume to be dispensed before delivery and to control the actually dispensed volume. To simulate the new drug delivery concept, a lumped parameter model has been developed to find the decisive design parameters. With the knowledge taken from the model a drug delivery system is designed that includes a silicon micro pump and, in a first step, a silicon chip with the storage chamber and two commercial microvalves as a metering unit. The lumped parameter model is capable to simulate the maximum flow, the frequency response created by the micropump, and also the delivered volume of the drug delivery system.

  10. IMIS: Integrated Maintenance Information System. A maintenance information delivery concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonholle, Joseph C.

    1987-01-01

    The Integrated Maintenance Information System (IMIS) will optimize the use of available manpower, enhance technical performance, improve training, and reduce the support equipment and documentation needed for deployment. It will serve as the technician's single, integrated source of all the technical information required to perform modern aircraft maintenance.

  11. Colloidal formulations for probiotics delivery and Pickering systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yücel Falco, Cigdem

    of the advancing food research areas, though the number of food-grade solid particles investigated is still insufficient. Edible probiotic strains can potentially be valorised as particles similar to micron-sized fat particles in Pickering systems such as ice cream due to their low calories and their availability...

  12. Delivery Reliability Optimalization in Distribution Systems with Backup Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin IVAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic two requirements for distribution systems include the maximum economic efficiency and reliability. Higher reliability can be achieved by considering such criterion when optimising. While a number of approaches [1], [2] or [3] have been published in terms of economic efficiency of distribution systems, the literature does not include much about modelling their structure. In our article, higher reliability will be achieved through the so-called backup coverage of the customer. The purpose of this article is to familiarise the readers with the optimisation approach to handle this issue based on a mathematical model. The article includes a mathematical model and sample example verifying its functionality. The mathematical model solution has been performed using the Xpress-IVE optimisation software. Structure optimalization of distribution system with backup coverage can be applied in a wide range of supplies. This article aims to familiarize readers with the theoretical part, where it will be given a mathematical model. Following the example of a solution procedure using an optimalization system Xpress – IVE.

  13. Evolutionary Capability Delivery of Coast Guard Manpower System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    4029. html . Blanchard, Benjamin S., and Fabrycky, W. Wolter J. 2010. Systems Engineering and Analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Block...developers, designers, & SEO Specialists. 83 Accessed February 26, 2014. http://www.hurricanesoftwares.com/understanding- the-pros-and-cons-of-the

  14. Dry Process Induced Phase Transited Drug Delivery System: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An in-situ formed phase transited, nondisintegrating, controlled release, asymmetric membrane capsular system for the poorly water soluble model drug ketoprofen was developed and evaluated in vitro to assess for osmotic and controlled release and in vivo to assess the ability of the fabricated dosage form to control GI ...

  15. A sustainable and affordable support system for rural healthcare delivery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barjis, J

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available . The proposed system is decision support driven in that it supports medical staff (nurses, doctors) to decide on the course of intervention or further treatment based on the vital signs of the patients that are tele-monitored on a regular basis. This patient...

  16. Wet Process Induced Phase Transited Drug Delivery System as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A non-disintegrating, asymmetric membrane capsular system for a poorly water soluble drug, flurbiprofen, was developed and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Asymmetric membrane capsules were made by phase inversion. The effect of varying osmotic pressure of the dissolution medium on drug release was studied.

  17. Sericin/Dextran Injectable Hydrogel as an Optically Trackable Drug Delivery System for Malignant Melanoma Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Qi, Chao; Tao, Kaixiong; Zhang, Jinxiang; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Luming; Jiang, Xulin; Zhang, Yunti; Huang, Lei; Li, Qilin; Xie, Hongjian; Gao, Jinbo; Shuai, Xiaoming; Wang, Guobin; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Lin

    2016-03-01

    Severe side effects of cancer chemotherapy prompt developing better drug delivery systems. Injectable hydrogels are an effective site-target system. For most of injectable hydrogels, once delivered in vivo, some properties including drug release and degradation, which are critical to chemotherapeutic effects and safety, are challenging to monitor. Developing a drug delivery system for effective cancer therapy with in vivo real-time noninvasive trackability is highly desired. Although fluorescence dyes are used for imaging hydrogels, the cytotoxicity limits their applications. By using sericin, a natural photoluminescent protein from silk, we successfully synthesized a hydrazone cross-linked sericin/dextran injectable hydrogel. This hydrogel is biodegradable and biocompatible. It achieves efficient drug loading and controlled release of both macromolecular and small molecular drugs. Notably, sericin's photoluminescence from this hydrogel is directly and stably correlated with its degradation, enabling long-term in vivo imaging and real-time monitoring of the remaining drug. The hydrogel loaded with Doxorubicin significantly suppresses tumor growth. Together, the work demonstrates the efficacy of this drug delivery system, and the in vivo effectiveness of this sericin-based optical monitoring strategy, providing a potential approach for improving hydrogel design toward optimal efficiency and safety of chemotherapies, which may be widely applicable to other drug delivery systems.

  18. Colon-targeted oral drug delivery systems: design trends and approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Seth; Brown, Jack E; Dave, Vivek S

    2015-08-01

    Colon-specific drug delivery systems (CDDS) are desirable for the treatment of a range of local diseases such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic pancreatitis, and colonic cancer. In addition, the colon can be a potential site for the systemic absorption of several drugs to treat non-colonic conditions. Drugs such as proteins and peptides that are known to degrade in the extreme gastric pH, if delivered to the colon intact, can be systemically absorbed by colonic mucosa. In order to achieve effective therapeutic outcomes, it is imperative that the designed delivery system specifically targets the drugs into the colon. Several formulation approaches have been explored in the development colon-targeted drug delivery systems. These approaches involve the use of formulation components that interact with one or more aspects of gastrointestinal (GI) physiology, such as the difference in the pH along the GI tract, the presence of colonic microflora, and enzymes, to achieve colon targeting. This article highlights the factors influencing colon-specific drug delivery and colonic bioavailability, and the limitations associated with CDDS. Further, the review provides a systematic discussion of various conventional, as well as relatively newer formulation approaches/technologies currently being utilized for the development of CDDS.

  19. Accuracy of a novel system for oxygen delivery to small children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghill, Matthew; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Chatburn, Robert L; Hibberd, Patricia L; Wright, Linda L; Carlo, Waldemar A

    2011-08-01

    Oxygen therapy for infants and small children in developing countries is often not available. Entrainment devices may provide an accurate and precise concentration of oxygen when used at the flow rates appropriate for infants and small children. A continuously adjustable entrainment device was tested to determine the concentrations and flows of oxygen delivered by using low inlet flow rates suitable for therapy for infants and small children and 3 distinct oxygen delivery systems that varied in their resistive load. The use of long and large bore, low resistance tubing (similar to a mask) resulted in the delivery of oxygen concentrations that tracked closely (accurate and precise) to values indicated by the entrainment device. The directly connected system with lower resistance (similar to a hood) produced a similar profile of concentrations and flow rates to the large bore tubing but with even greater accuracy. The use of a long and narrow tubing with higher resistance (similar to a cannula) did not deliver accurate oxygen concentrations. In fact, this high-resistance system failed to work as intended, and instead of entraining air, a large proportion (sometimes >50%) of the oxygen delivered to the entrainment device was ejected through its vents. Entrainment devices can deliver accurate oxygen concentrations at low flow rates if used with low resistance delivery systems; however, entrainment devices are not suitable for use with high resistance delivery systems such as a standard nasal cannula.

  20. Binary mixing of micelles using Pluronics for a nano-sized drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Seong; Oh, Young Taik; Youn, Yu Seok; Nam, Myounghwa; Park, Byungtae; Yun, Jungmin; Kim, Ji Hoon; Song, Ho-Taek; Oh, Kyung Taek

    2011-01-01

    Pluronics with different structural compositions and properties are used for several applications, including drug delivery systems. We developed a binary mixing system with two Pluronics, L121/P123, as a nano-sized drug delivery carrier. The lamellar-forming Pluronic L121 (0.1 wt%) was incorporated with Pluronic P123 to produce nano-sized dispersions (in case of 0.1 and 0.5 wt% P123) with high stability due to Pluronic P123 and high solubilization capacity due to Pluronic L121. The binary systems were spherical and less than 200-nm diameter, with high thermodynamic stability (at least 2 weeks) in aqueous solution. The CMC of the binary system was located in the middle of the CMC of each polymer. In particular, the solubilization capacity of the binary system (0.1/0.1 wt%) was higher than mono-systems of P123. The main advantage of binary systems is overcoming limitations of mono systems to allow tailored mixing of block copolymers with different physicochemical characteristics. These nano-sized systems may have potential as anticancer drug delivery systems with simple preparation method, high stability, and high loading capacity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Implementation of a chronic unilateral intraparenchymal drug delivery system in a swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inyong; Paek, Seungleal; Nelson, Brian D; Knight, Emily J; Marsh, Michael P; Bieber, Allan J; Bennet, Kevin E; Lee, Kendall H

    2014-04-30

    Systemic delivery of pharmacologic agents has led to many significant advances in the treatment of neurologic and psychiatric conditions. However, this approach has several limitations, including difficulty penetrating the blood-brain barrier and enzymatic degradation prior to reaching its intended target. Here, we describe the testing of a system allowing intraparenchymal (IPa) infusion of therapeutic agents directly to the appropriate anatomical targets, in a swine model. Five male pigs underwent 3.0T magnetic resonance (MR) guided placement of an IPa catheter into the dorso-medial putamen, using a combined system of the Leksell stereotactic arc, a Mayo-developed MRI-compatible pig head frame, and a custom-designed Fred Haer Company (FHC) delivery system. Our results show hemi-lateral coverage of the pig putamen is achievable from a single infusion point and that the volume of the bolus detected in each animal is uniform (1544±420mm(3)). The IPa infusion system is designed to isolate the intracranial catheter from bodily-induced forces while delivering drugs and molecules into the brain tissue by convection-enhanced delivery, with minimal-to-no catheter track backflow. This study presents an innovative IPa drug delivery system, which includes a sophisticated catheter and implantable pump designed to deliver drugs and various molecules in a precise and controlled manner with limited backflow. It also demonstrates the efficacy of the delivery system, which has the potential to radically impact the treatment of a wide range of neurologic conditions. Lastly, the swine model used here has certain advantages for translation into clinical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Design, Microfabrication and Characterization of a Power Delivery System for new Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARUSO Massimo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, microfabrication and characterization of a wireless power delivery system capable of driving a surface acoustic wave sensor (SAW for biomedical applications. The system consists of two planar, spiral-square microcoils, which have been geometrically optimized in order to maximize the quality factor Q. The integration of the SAW - microcoil system into artificial implant sites will allow a real-time biofilm growth monitoring and treatment, providing countless advantages to the related medical applications.

  3. Management of Leaks in Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawls, G

    2006-04-27

    A systematic approach to manage hydrogen leakage from components is presented. Methods to evaluate the quantity of hydrogen leakage and permeation from a system are provided by calculation and testing sensitivities. The following technology components of a leak management program are described: (1) Methods to evaluate hydrogen gas loss through leaks; (2) Methods to calculate opening areas of crack like defects; (3) Permeation of hydrogen through metallic piping; (4) Code requirements for acceptable flammability limits; (5) Methods to detect flammable gas; (6) Requirements for adequate ventilation in the vicinity of the hydrogen system; (7) Methods to calculate dilution air requirements for flammable gas mixtures; and (8) Concepts for reduced leakage component selection and permeation barriers.

  4. Space-based solar power conversion and delivery systems study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Even at reduced rates of growth, the demand for electric power is expected to more than triple between now and 1995, and to triple again over the period 1995-2020. Without the development of new power sources and advanced transmission technologies, it may not be possible to supply electric energy at prices that are conductive to generalized economic welfare. Solar power is renewable and its conversion and transmission from space may be advantageous. The goal of this study is to assess the economic merit of space-based photovoltaic systems for power generation and a power relay satellite for power transmission. In this study, satellite solar power generation and transmission systems, as represented by current configurations of the Satellite Solar Station (SSPS) and the Power Relay Satellite (PRS), are compared with current and future terrestrial power generation and transmission systems to determine their technical and economic suitability for meeting power demands in the period of 1990 and beyond while meeting ever-increasing environmental and social constraints.

  5. Semiconductor cleaning liquid delivery system and its filter; Handotaiyo seijo yakueki kyokyu system to filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T. [Kanto Chemical Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Hayama, H.; Sakka, T. [Nitto Denko Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1994-11-30

    Most of chemicals used for producing semiconductors are supplied automatically by a chemical delivery system to production devices. This paper explains the current status and the trends of the system. This system supplies the chemicals in the order of a tank lorry, a storage tank, a supply tank, a filter and a production device, and the transfer is performed receiving a supply signal from the supply tank and the production device. The transfer may be done through a dilution equipment. Filters currently used have membrane pore sizes of 0.2 to 0.1 microns as prefilters, and 0.1 to 0.05 microns as final filters. Chemicals used are diverse and can be divided into acid-, alkaline-, and solvent-based groups. Fluorine resin filters are used for acid- and alkaline-resistant applications, and SUS/fluorine resin filters for solvent-resistant applications. Use of large-sized filters of element construction with a membrane area of 1 m{sup 2} class is increasing recently in addition to selection from a performance viewpoint, including particle removing performance. 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Application of drug delivery system to boron neutron capture therapy for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagië, Hironobu; Ogata, Aya; Sugiyama, Hirotaka; Eriguchi, Masazumi; Takamoto, Shinichi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2008-04-01

    Tumor cell destruction in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between (10)B and thermal neutrons ((10)B + (1)n --> (7)Li + (4)He (alpha) + 2.31 MeV (93.7 %)/2.79 MeV (6.3 %)). The resulting lithium ions and alphaparticles are high linear energy transfer (LET) particles which give a high biological effect. Their short range in tissue (5 - 9 mum) restricts radiation damage to those cells in which boron atoms are located at the time of neutron irradiation. BNCT has been applied clinically for the treatment of malignant brain tumors, malignant melanoma, head and neck cancer and hepatoma. Sodium mercaptoundecahydro-dodecaborate (Na(2)(10)B(12)H(11)SH: BSH) and borono-phenylalanine ((10)BPA) are currently being used in clinical treatments. These low molecule compounds are easily cleared from cancer cells and blood, so high accumulation and selective delivery of boron compounds into tumor tissues and cancer cells are most important to achieve effective BNCT and to avoid damage to adjacent healthy cells. In order to achieve the selective delivery of boron atoms to cancer cells, a drug delivery system (DDS) is an attractive intelligent technology for targeting and controlled release of drugs. We performed literature searches related to boron delivery systems in vitro and in vivo. We describe several DDS technologies for boron delivery to cancer tissues and cancer cells from the past to current status. We are convinced that it will be possible to use liposomes, monoclonal antibodies and WOW emulsions as boron delivery systems for BNCT clinically in accordance with the preparation of good commercial product (GCP) grade materials.

  7. A Novel Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System Based on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dissolution of hydrophobic drugs, of which indomethacin is an example, in body fluids is a limiting step in its bioavailability. The objective of this study, therefore, was to improve the aqueous solubility of indomethacin through the development of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) based on blends of ...

  8. 76 FR 51038 - Guidance for Industry on Residual Drug in Transdermal and Related Drug Delivery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-D-0246] Guidance for Industry on Residual Drug in Transdermal and Related Drug Delivery Systems; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA...

  9. Nano-microdelivery systems for oromucosal delivery of an active ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A composition for oromucosal delivery of at least one active ingredient, more particularly a lipid nano-microdelivery system comprising a nicotine component and/or a flavour component, wherein the nicotine component may be delivered to the oral cavity via absorption through the mucosal membranes...

  10. SMART drug delivery systems: Back to the future vs. clinical reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, Twan Gerardus Gertudis Maria

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in nanotechnology and material science have re-ignited interest in drug delivery research. Arguably, however, hardly any of the systems developed and strategies proposed are really relevant for shaping the future (clinical) face of the nanomedicine field. Consequently, as outlined in

  11. Integration and transformation of rural service delivery: The role of management information and decision support systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashiri, M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with two main themes: 1) the integration and transformation of rural service delivery; and 2) role of management information and decision support systems in this process. Referring specifically to the types of rural areas, conditions...

  12. Formulation and Evaluation of Two-Pulse Drug Delivery System of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a pH-controlled two-pulse drug delivery system of amoxicillin in order to overcome the snag of biological ... Conclusion: The developed formulation demonstrates the feasibility of a two-phase release of amoxicillin separated by a ... comprised of a calorimeter (DSC 60), flow controller (FCL 60), thermal ...

  13. An oral delivery system for indomethicin engineered from cationic lipid emulsions and silica nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovic, Spomenka; Hui, He; Song, Yunmei

    2010-01-01

    We report on a porous silica-lipid hybrid microcapsule (SLH) oral delivery system for indomethacin fabricated from Pickering emulsion templates, where the drug forms an electrostatic complex with cationic lipid present in the oil phase. Dry SLH microcapsules prepared either by spray drying...

  14. Optimization of an efficient transcuticular delivery system for control of citrus huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    We experimentally develop and optimize a transcuticular nano-delivery system for enhancing permeation of effective compound against HLB disease through citrus cuticle into the phloem by foliar spray or bark application. The results showed that two kinds of nanoemulsions (W/O and O/W) with the smalle...

  15. A steerable/distance enhanced penetrometer delivery system: Phase II. Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, A.; Shenhar, J.; Lum, K.D.

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the phase II work on the Position Location Device (POLO) for penetrometers. Phase II was carried out to generate an integrated design of a full-scale steerable/distance enhanced penetrometer delivery system. Steering provides for the controlled and directional use of the penetrometer, while vibratory thrusting can provide greater penetration ability

  16. The impact of nanobiotechnology on the development of new drug delivery systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayser, Oliver; Lemke, A.; Hernandez-Trejo, N.

    2005-01-01

    Nanotechnology, or systems/devices manufactured at the molecular level, is a multidisciplinary scientific field undergoing explosive development. A part of this field is the development of nanoscaled drug delivery devices. Nanoparticles have been developed as an important strategy to deliver

  17. Catanionic systems in nanotherapeutics - Biophysical aspects and novel trends in drug delivery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Vivek V; Nagarsenker, Mangal S

    2017-11-28

    Mixtures of surfactants can result in formation of various structures like micelles, vesicles and inverted micelles. Catanionic vesicular systems are preferred on account of their ease of formation and thermodynamic stability. Furthermore, their charge and surfactant properties render them as useful vehicles for DNA delivery and cytotoxic compounds. They suffer from disadvantages of being leaky and yielding low encapsulation efficiencies which are averse to drug delivery purposes. Extensive efforts are being undertaken to overcome these barriers and render these vesicles amenable to spatial placement and temporal delivery of drugs. This manuscript addresses diverse aspects of catanionic vesicles including their formation, fabrication and stability. The manuscript focuses further on applications of catanionic vesicles in nanodrug delivery. Novel trends in the field of catanionics with respect to bio-compatibility and novel technologies developed using these systems have also been reviewed. An attempt has been made to compile catanionic systems reported in literature detailing surfactants and therapeutic agents employed to aid understanding and yield information of various facets that drive fabrication and potential utility of these systems in therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of Waste Leak and Toxic Chemical Release Accidents from Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) Diluent System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIAMS, J.C.

    2000-09-15

    Radiological and toxicological consequences are calculated for 4 postulated accidents involving the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) diluent addition systems. Consequences for the onsite and offsite receptor are calculated. This analysis contains technical information used to determine the accident consequences for the River Protection Project (RPP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).

  19. Analysis of Waste Leak and Toxic Chemical Release Accidents from Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) Diluent System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WILLIAMS, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Radiological and toxicological consequences are calculated for 4 postulated accidents involving the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) diluent addition systems. Consequences for the onsite and offsite receptor are calculated. This analysis contains technical information used to determine the accident consequences for the River Protection Project (RPP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR)

  20. Self-regulating insulin delivery systems I. Synthesis and characterization of glycosylated insulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeong, Seo Young; Kim, Sung Wan; Eenink, Martinus J.D.; Feijen, Jan

    1984-01-01

    A design for a self-regulating insulin delivery system based on the competitive binding of glucose and glycosylated insulin to the lectin Concanavalin A is proposed. A differnt approach to diabetes therapy is the attempt to effect a permanent cure of the disease by supplementing the patient's