Floating-point geometry: toward guaranteed geometric computations with approximate arithmetics
Bajard, Jean-Claude; Langlois, Philippe; Michelucci, Dominique; Morin, Géraldine; Revol, Nathalie
2008-08-01
Geometric computations can fail because of inconsistencies due to floating-point inaccuracy. For instance, the computed intersection point between two curves does not lie on the curves: it is unavoidable when the intersection point coordinates are non rational, and thus not representable using floating-point arithmetic. A popular heuristic approach tests equalities and nullities up to a tolerance ɛ. But transitivity of equality is lost: we can have A approx B and B approx C, but A not approx C (where A approx B means ||A - B|| < ɛ for A,B two floating-point values). Interval arithmetic is another, self-validated, alternative; the difficulty is to limit the swell of the width of intervals with computations. Unfortunately interval arithmetic cannot decide equality nor nullity, even in cases where it is decidable by other means. A new approach, developed in this paper, consists in modifying the geometric problems and algorithms, to account for the undecidability of the equality test and unavoidable inaccuracy. In particular, all curves come with a non-zero thickness, so two curves (generically) cut in a region with non-zero area, an inner and outer representation of which is computable. This last approach no more assumes that an equality or nullity test is available. The question which arises is: which geometric problems can still be solved with this last approach, and which cannot? This paper begins with the description of some cases where every known arithmetic fails in practice. Then, for each arithmetic, some properties of the problems they can solve are given. We end this work by proposing the bases of a new approach which aims to fulfill the geometric computations requirements.
Oral Drug Delivery Systems Comprising Altered Geometric Configurations for Controlled Drug Delivery
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Priya Bawa
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Recent pharmaceutical research has focused on controlled drug delivery having an advantage over conventional methods. Adequate controlled plasma drug levels, reduced side effects as well as improved patient compliance are some of the benefits that these systems may offer. Controlled delivery systems that can provide zero-order drug delivery have the potential for maximizing efficacy while minimizing dose frequency and toxicity. Thus, zero-order drug release is ideal in a large area of drug delivery which has therefore led to the development of various technologies with such drug release patterns. Systems such as multilayered tablets and other geometrically altered devices have been created to perform this function. One of the principles of multilayered tablets involves creating a constant surface area for release. Polymeric materials play an important role in the functioning of these systems. Technologies developed to date include among others: Geomatrix® multilayered tablets, which utilizes specific polymers that may act as barriers to control drug release; Procise®, which has a core with an aperture that can be modified to achieve various types of drug release; core-in-cup tablets, where the core matrix is coated on one surface while the circumference forms a cup around it; donut-shaped devices, which possess a centrally-placed aperture hole and Dome Matrix® as well as “release modules assemblage”, which can offer alternating drug release patterns. This review discusses the novel altered geometric system technologies that have been developed to provide controlled drug release, also focusing on polymers that have been employed in such developments.
The hands-on project office guaranteeing ROI and on-time delivery
Kesner, Richard M
2003-01-01
THE THREE PILLARS OF IT DELIVERY - PROBLEM RESOLUTION, SERVICE REQUESTS, AND PROJECTSIntroduction The Business Context The Internal Economy for Investing in IT Services and ProjectsThe Three Pillars of IT Delivery Managing Service DeliveryManaging Project Commitments IT Metrics and Reporting Tools THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT OFFICE BUSINESS MODELIntroduction: Revisiting the IT Organization IT Service and Project Delivery RolesThe Role of the Project Management Office: Measuring its ROI The PMO Value Proposition: An Initial ROI Estimate ALIGNMENT AND PLANNING - DOING THE RIGHT THINGS Introduction Ge
Park, Ji-Eun; Kim, Myoung-Hee
2016-07-01
Many restaurants in Korea maintain quick-delivery service programs to satisfy customers. This service allows delivery workers limited time to deliver, which frequently put them in danger. Most of the workers are young, work part-time, and are rarely organized into trade unions. In this article, through a case study of the social movement to abolish the 30-minute delivery guarantee program of pizza companies in Korea, we argue that social movements involving social movement organizations (SMOs) and individual citizens could serve as a means to rectify this problem. We show how the SMOs developed and expanded the movement using a framing perspective and how the general public became involved through social media. Data was collected via online searching. Interview scripts from key players of SMOs and unofficial documents they provided were also reviewed. Three SMOs primarily led the movement, successfully forming a frame that emphasized social responsibility. SMOs also utilized social media to link their standing frame with unmobilized citizens and to expand the movement. We identified contributing factors and limitations of the movement and drew lessons that could be applied to other sectors where workers are in vulnerable positions. © The Author(s) 2016.
Vasile NEME
2012-01-01
The present study propose the analyse of the irrevocable commitment of a bank entity towards a determined person, through which guarantees a certain legal conduct of its client, and, in case of breach, assumes the payment obligation of a determined amount of money. This kind of legal technique it is called bank guarantee and in the usual business language it is called “Letter of Bank Guarantee”. The determined reason to choose this scientific initiative it is the frequency of this kind of fin...
Tracy, Paige V; DeLancey, John O; Ashton-Miller, James A
2016-02-01
Because levator ani (LA) muscle injuries occur in approximately 13% of all vaginal births, insights are needed to better prevent them. In Part I of this paper, we conducted an analysis of the bony and soft tissue factors contributing to the geometric "capacity" of the maternal pelvis and pelvic floor to deliver a fetal head without incurring stretch injury of the maternal soft tissue. In Part II, we quantified the range in demand, represented by the variation in fetal head size and shape, placed on the maternal pelvic floor. In Part III, we analyzed the capacity-to-demand geometric ratio, g, in order to determine whether a mother can deliver a head of given size without stretch injury. The results of a Part I sensitivity analysis showed that initial soft tissue loop length (SL) had the greatest effect on maternal capacity, followed by the length of the soft tissue loop above the inferior pubic rami at ultimate crowning, then subpubic arch angle (SPAA) and head size, and finally the levator origin separation distance. We found the more caudal origin of the puborectal portion of the levator muscle helps to protect it from the stretch injuries commonly observed in the pubovisceral portion. Part II fetal head molding index (MI) and fetal head size revealed fetal head circumference values ranging from 253 to 351 mm, which would increase up to 11 mm upon face presentation. The Part III capacity-demand analysis of g revealed that, based on geometry alone, the 10th percentile maternal capacity predicted injury for all head sizes, the 25th percentile maternal capacity could deliver half of all head sizes, while the 50th percentile maternal capacity could deliver a head of any size without injury. If ultrasound imaging could be operationalized to make measurements of ratio g, it might be used to usefully inform women on their level of risk for levator injury during vaginal birth.
Gupta, R. K.; Balamanikavelu, P. M.; Vijayan, D.; Prasad, T. S.
Everybody uses a bulb to illustrate an idea but nobody shows where the current comes from. Majority of remote sensing user community comes from natural and social sciences domain while remote sensing technology evolves from physical and engineering sciences. To ensure inculcation and internalization of remote sensing technology by application/resource scientists, trainer needs to transfer physical and engineering concepts in geometric manner. Here, the steering for the transfer of knowledge (facts, procedures, concepts and principles) and skills (thinking, acting, reacting and interacting) needs to take the trainees from Known to Unknown, Concrete to Abstract, Observation to Theory and Simple to Complex. In the initial stage of training/education, experiential learning by instructor led exploring of thematic details in false colour composite (FCC) as well as in individual black and white spectral band(s) imagery by trainees not only creates interest, confidence build-up and orientation towards purposeful learning but also helps them to overcome their inhibitions towards the physical and engineering basal. The methodology to be adopted has to inculcate productive learning, emphasizing more on thinking and trial and error aspects as opposed to reproductive learning based dominantly on being told and imitation. The delivery by trainer needs to ensure dynamic, stimulating and effective discussions through deluging questions pertaining to analysis, synthesis and evaluation nature. This would ensure proactive participation from trainees. Hands-on module leads to creative concretization of concepts. To keep the trainees inspired to learn in an auto mode during post-training period, they need to consciously swim in the current and emerging knowledge pool during training programme. This is achieved through assignment of seminar delivery task to the trainees. During the delivery of seminar, peers and co-trainees drive the trainee to communicate the seminar content not only
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, Ui Cheol
1988-08-01
This book tells of introduction of quality guaranteed theory like definition of quality and quality management, quality guaranteed, requirement of quality guaranteed, contrast of QA and QC, quality of guaranteed object, activity of quality guaranteed, set-up of quality that is naturally supposed such as quality guaranteed in plan and design, check of quality guaranteed, order of claim processing and cases of claim management.
Marketing service guarantees for health care.
Levy, J S
1999-01-01
The author introduces the concept of service guarantees for application in health care and differentiates between explicit, implicit, and conditional vs. unconditional types of guarantees. An example of an unconditional guarantee of satisfaction is provided by the hospitality industry. Firms conveying an implicit guarantee are those with outstanding reputations for products such as luxury automobiles, or ultimate customer service, like Nordstrom. Federal Express and Domino's Pizza offer explicit guarantees of on-time delivery. Taking this concept into efforts to improve health care delivery involves a number of caveats. Customers invited to use exceptional service cards may use these to record either satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The cards need to provide enough specific information about issues so that "immediate action could be taken to improve processes." Front-line employees should be empowered to respond to complaints in a meaningful way to resolve the problem before the client leaves the premises.
Understanding consumer response to service guarantees
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taylor, E.L.; Cole, J.M.
1999-10-01
Whether the goal is customer loyalty to a competitive energy service provider or customer satisfaction with monopoly distribution services, service guarantees must be seen as one way a company can communicate with its customers about the relationship it has (or wants) with them. In short, service guarantees must be evaluated as part of a company's overall brand management strategy. To do this, a conceptual framework within which to develop and link models of service delivery and brand management is needed. This means seeing both as examples of inference management. In this article the authors first interpret findings from their research on utility service guarantees in light of the model of service delivery proposed by Smith, Bolton, and Wagner. The authors then situate this model within their own model of utility brand management. The resulting approach can be used by a utility to evaluate whether and how to adopt service guarantees as part of its overall branding strategy.
Understanding consumer response to service guarantees
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylor, E.L.; Cole, J.M.
1999-01-01
Whether the goal is customer loyalty to a competitive energy service provider or customer satisfaction with monopoly distribution services, service guarantees must be seen as one way a company can communicate with its customers about the relationship it has (or wants) with them. In short, service guarantees must be evaluated as part of a company's overall brand management strategy. To do this, a conceptual framework within which to develop and link models of service delivery and brand management is needed. This means seeing both as examples of inference management. In this article the authors first interpret findings from their research on utility service guarantees in light of the model of service delivery proposed by Smith, Bolton, and Wagner. The authors then situate this model within their own model of utility brand management. The resulting approach can be used by a utility to evaluate whether and how to adopt service guarantees as part of its overall branding strategy
Lee, Yu Bin; Kim, Se-Jeong; Kim, Eum Mi; Byun, Hayeon; Chang, Hyung-Kwan; Park, Jungyul; Choi, Yu Suk; Shin, Heungsoo
2017-10-01
Scaffold-free harvest of microtissue with a defined structure has received a great deal of interest in cell-based assay and regenerative medicine. In this study, we developed thermally expandable hydrogels with spatially controlled cell adhesive patterns for rapid harvest of geometrically controlled microtissue. We patterned polydopamine (PD) on to the hydrogel via microcontact printing (μCP), in linear shapes with widths of 50, 100 and 200μm. The hydrogels facilitated formation of spatially controlled strip-like microtissue of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFBs). It was possible to harvest and translocate microtissues with controlled widths of 61.4±14.7, 104.3±15.6, and 186.6±22.3μm from the hydrogel to glass substrates by conformal contact upon expansion of the hydrogel in response to a temperature change from 37 to 4°C, preserving high viability, extracellular matrix, and junction proteins. Microtissues were readily translocated in vivo to the subcutaneous tissue of mouse. The microtissues were further utilized as a simple assay model for monitoring of contraction in response to ROCK1 inhibitor. Collectively, micro-sized patterning of PD on the thermally expandable hydrogels via μCP holds promise for the development of microtissue harvesting systems that can be employed to ex vivo tissue assay and cell-based therapy. Harvest of artificial tissue with controlled cellular arrangement independently from external materials has been widely studied in cell-based assay and regenerative medicine. In this study, we developed scaffold-free harvest system of microtissues with anisotropic arrangement and controlled width by exploiting thermally expandable hydrogels with cell-adhesive patterns of polydopamine formed by simple microcontact printing. Cultured strips of human dermal fibroblasts on the hydrogels were rapidly delivered to various targets ranging from flat coverglass to mice subcutaneous tissue by thermal expansion of the hydrogel at 4°C for 10min. These
African Journals Online (AJOL)
stooppn
purposes of the National Credit Act; what the definition of a credit guarantee set out ...... Scholtz et al National Credit Act in para 8.2.4; Scott et al Law of Commerce ..... Eitelberg E "Autonomy of Documentary Credit Undertakings in South African.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ebata, T [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Coll. of General Education
1976-06-01
The geometrical distribution inferred from the inelastic cross section is assumed to be proportional to the partial waves. The precocious scaling and the Q/sup 2/-dependence of various quantities are treated from the geometrical point of view. It is shown that the approximate conservation of the orbital angular momentum may be a very practical rule to understand the helicity structure of various hadronic and electromagnetic reactions. The rule can be applied to inclusive reactions as well. The model is also applied to large angle processes. Through the discussion, it is suggested that many peculiar properties of the quark-parton can be ascribed to the geometrical effects.
Bray, Hubert L; Mazzeo, Rafe; Sesum, Natasa
2015-01-01
This volume includes expanded versions of the lectures delivered in the Graduate Minicourse portion of the 2013 Park City Mathematics Institute session on Geometric Analysis. The papers give excellent high-level introductions, suitable for graduate students wishing to enter the field and experienced researchers alike, to a range of the most important areas of geometric analysis. These include: the general issue of geometric evolution, with more detailed lectures on Ricci flow and Kähler-Ricci flow, new progress on the analytic aspects of the Willmore equation as well as an introduction to the recent proof of the Willmore conjecture and new directions in min-max theory for geometric variational problems, the current state of the art regarding minimal surfaces in R^3, the role of critical metrics in Riemannian geometry, and the modern perspective on the study of eigenfunctions and eigenvalues for Laplace-Beltrami operators.
Do Job Security Guarantees Work?
Alex Bryson; Lorenzo Cappellari; Claudio Lucifora
2004-01-01
We investigate the effect of employer job security guarantees on employee perceptions of job security. Using linked employer-employee data from the 1998 British Workplace Employee Relations Survey, we find job security guarantees reduce employee perceptions of job insecurity. This finding is robust to endogenous selection of job security guarantees by employers engaging in organisational change and workforce reductions. Furthermore, there is no evidence that increased job security through job...
Niethammer, Marc; Hart, Gabriel L; Pace, Danielle F; Vespa, Paul M; Irimia, Andrei; Van Horn, John D; Aylward, Stephen R
2011-01-01
Standard image registration methods do not account for changes in image appearance. Hence, metamorphosis approaches have been developed which jointly estimate a space deformation and a change in image appearance to construct a spatio-temporal trajectory smoothly transforming a source to a target image. For standard metamorphosis, geometric changes are not explicitly modeled. We propose a geometric metamorphosis formulation, which explains changes in image appearance by a global deformation, a deformation of a geometric model, and an image composition model. This work is motivated by the clinical challenge of predicting the long-term effects of traumatic brain injuries based on time-series images. This work is also applicable to the quantification of tumor progression (e.g., estimating its infiltrating and displacing components) and predicting chronic blood perfusion changes after stroke. We demonstrate the utility of the method using simulated data as well as scans from a clinical traumatic brain injury patient.
7 CFR 1720.9 - Guarantee Agreement.
2010-01-01
... bonds. (b) The guaranteed bonds shall refer to the guarantee agreement as controlling the terms of the... the holder of the guaranteed bonds; (11) Claim procedures; (12) What constitutes a failure by the...
27 CFR 6.61 - Guaranteeing loans.
2010-04-01
... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Guaranteeing Loans § 6.61 Guaranteeing loans. The act by an industry member of guaranteeing any loan or the repayment of any financial...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Borot, Gaëtan; Orantin, Nicolas
We propose a general theory whose main component are functorial assignments ∑→Ω∑ ∈ E (∑), for a large class of functors E from a certain category of bordered surfaces (∑'s) to a suitable a target category of topological vector spaces. The construction is done by summing appropriate compositions...... as Poisson structures on the moduli space of flat connections. The theory has a wider scope than that and one expects that many functorial objects in low-dimensional geometry and topology should have a GR construction. The geometric recursion has various projections to topological recursion (TR) and we...... in particular show it retrieves all previous variants and applications of TR. We also show that, for any initial data for topological recursion, one can construct initial data for GR with values in Frobenius algebra-valued continuous functions on Teichmueller space, such that the ωg,n of TR are obtained...
The observable defects and the proper functioning guarantee in trading
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jorge Oviedo Albán
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses two legal mechanisms for buyer´s protection contained in the Colombian Commercial Code, parallel to building regulations, because of hidden defects in the sale, which are: guarantee by observable defects at delivery and guarantee for proper functioning. The author analyzes the poor way such actions are enshrined in the Code as a consequence of a fragmented and dispersed regime for defective compliance actions in the laws of Private Law. This paper proposes a reinterpretation of such actions from the perspective of the lack of conformity that is based on a unified system of remedies for breach, concepts embodied in modern instruments of contract law.
Waiting time guarantee - an update
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Socha, Karolina; Bech, Mickael
2008-01-01
The rule of extended free choice of hospital, in force since 2002, provides patients with an option to choose a private hospital if the public system is unable to provide a treatment within the guaranteed waiting time of one month. In June 2008 the Government declared in their yearly budget agree...
7 CFR 1720.14 - Nature of guarantee; acceleration of guaranteed bonds.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nature of guarantee; acceleration of guaranteed bonds. 1720.14 Section 1720.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL... TELEPHONE PURPOSES § 1720.14 Nature of guarantee; acceleration of guaranteed bonds. (a) Any guarantee...
The Banking Counter-Guarantee. Juridical Regime
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Postolache Rada
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Not so much studied by the specialised literature, the banking counter-guarantee may beconfounded with the other types of guarantee which frequently go with the guaranteed obligation –simple guarantee, collateral guarantee, the confirmation of the guarantee. The counter-guarantee may bean independent or accessory obligation, as the case may be, exclusively governed by its text, accordingto the parties’ will. At the same time, it is a complex juridical act, a contract whose contents cannot beset apart from the contracts connected form an “economic” point of view. The counter-guarantee is theresult of the banking practice and is generated by the need to make amends for the flaws generated bythe direct guarantee. The present research is focused on the analysis of the banking practice, normativeacts, jurisprudence and banking juridical literature.
Financial Management: Emergency Steel Loan Guarantee Program
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
2001-01-01
In a February 1, 2001 letter, you expressed concerns about repayments of federally guaranteed loans by borrowers under the Emergency Steel Loan Guarantee Program and the effect of the program on the U.S. steel industry...
20 CFR 404.230 - Guaranteed alternative.
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guaranteed alternative. 404.230 Section 404... INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Guaranteed Alternative for People Reaching Age 62 After 1978 But Before 1984 § 404.230 Guaranteed alternative. (a) General. If you reach age 62 after 1978...
29 CFR 4022.3 - Guaranteed benefits.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guaranteed benefits. 4022.3 Section 4022.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION COVERAGE AND BENEFITS BENEFITS PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS General Provisions; Guaranteed Benefits § 4022.3 Guaranteed...
On bivariate geometric distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Jayakumar
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Characterizations of bivariate geometric distribution using univariate and bivariate geometric compounding are obtained. Autoregressive models with marginals as bivariate geometric distribution are developed. Various bivariate geometric distributions analogous to important bivariate exponential distributions like, Marshall-Olkin’s bivariate exponential, Downton’s bivariate exponential and Hawkes’ bivariate exponential are presented.
Visualizing the Geometric Series.
Bennett, Albert B., Jr.
1989-01-01
Mathematical proofs often leave students unconvinced or without understanding of what has been proved, because they provide no visual-geometric representation. Presented are geometric models for the finite geometric series when r is a whole number, and the infinite geometric series when r is the reciprocal of a whole number. (MNS)
Government guarantees and public debt in Croatia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anto Bajo
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Government fi nancial and performance guarantees have been issued in Croatia since 1996, to support funding and ensure favourable borrowing conditions in the fi nancial market for companies in majority state ownership. However, government guarantees have rarely been part of defi ned strategies and goals of public debt and risk management. Despite their steady growth, the structure of active guarantees and their infl uence on Croatian public debt are still unknown. This paper analyses the amount and structure of state guarantees, their maturities and the authority and accountability for their management, and it compares the structure of guarantees in terms of economic sectors. The main objective of the paper is to determine the infl uence of government guarantees on the public debt growth.
Guarantees come to professional service firms.
Hart, C W; Schlesinger, L A; Maher, D
1992-01-01
Can lawyers, doctors, investment bankers, accountants, and consultants guarantee their work? Your money back if not absolutely delighted? Some professional service firms are doing exactly that, and they believe they are gaining not only satisfied customers but higher market share and improved service quality. The authors discuss the benefits and risks of unconditional and more limited guarantees. Firms that address this issue proactively now, they argue, will be less likely to rush into poorly considered guarantees later.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Geometric Design Laboratory (GDL) is to support the Office of Safety Research and Development in research related to the geometric design...
Ovadia, I.; Ha, Y.; Corporaal, H.
2005-01-01
Networks-on-Chips (NoCs) provide communication platforms to Systems-on-Chips (SoCs). In NoCs, channels are generally shared between traffic flows, resulting in contention. However, certain flows require delivery guarantees. Differentiated quality-of-service (QoS) is achieved by providing guaranteed
What Guarantees Should Society Offer Its Youth?
Brooks, Chris
2014-01-01
Criticising the concept of a "youth guarantee" as it was understood by the OECD in the 1990s and recently again by the European Community, the author argues that just more schooling and training will not help, let alone guarantee a future for disadvantaged, unemployed young people. Rather any policy that wants to help youth to become…
22 CFR 231.03 - The Guarantee.
2010-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The Guarantee. 231.03 Section 231.03 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS...
22 CFR 231.04 - Guarantee eligibility.
2010-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guarantee eligibility. 231.04 Section 231.04 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND...
19 CFR 351.506 - Loan guarantees.
2010-04-01
... Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.506 Loan guarantees. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of a loan guarantee, a benefit exists to the extent that the total amount a firm pays for...
The pricing of bank debt guarantees
Arping, S.
2009-01-01
We analyze the optimal pricing of government-sponsored bank debt guarantees within the context of an asset substitution framework. We show that the desirability of fair pricing of guarantees depends on the degree of transparency of the banking sector: in relatively opaque banking systems, fair
77 FR 38015 - Community Programs Guaranteed Loans
2012-06-26
... section. This is based upon the Agency's experience to date in financing this type of project and the... sections, in order to clarify the types of projects that are eligible for a Community Facilities Guaranteed... Program by limiting the risk to the guaranteed loan portfolio. RHS is seeking to prohibit the financing of...
REGIONAL RECIPROCAL GUARANTEE SOCIETIES IN VENEZUELA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Orlando J. Canelones
2014-11-01
Full Text Available This research aims to describe the operation of services offered by the Regional Mutual Guarantee Societies (SGRs in Venezuela, and to present synthetically, the rudiments for constitution, as well as the legal basis that must rule them, through conducting an executive summary of the Law of the National System of Reciprocal Guarantees for Small and Medium Business and the Promotion, Constitution and Functioning Rules of National Mutual Funds and Guarantees and SGRs. The methodology used in this research is documentary, through a literature review and exploration that allowed inferences about the importance of Regional SGRs in Venezuela, as financing alternative
The pricing of bank debt guarantees
Arping, S.
2010-01-01
We analyze the desirability of fair pricing of government guarantees for bank liabilities. Fair pricing is desirable only if the banking sector is sufficiently transparent. In opaque banking systems, fair pricing may exacerbate banks' incentive to take excessive risks.
CREDIT SYSTEM AND CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS
Turgay GECER
2012-01-01
Credit system is an integrated architecture consisted of financial information, credit rating, credit risk management, receivables and credit insurance systems, credit derivative markets and credit guarantee programs. The main purpose of the credit system is to provide the functioning of all credit channels and to make it easy to access of credit sources demanded by all of real and legal persons in any economic system. Credit guarantee program, the one of prominent elements of the credit syst...
Security Guarantees and Nuclear Non-Proliferation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruno Tertrais
2011-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the value of 'security guarantees', that is, positive security assurances that include a formal or informal defense commitment, in preventing nuclear proliferation. It demonstrates that such guarantees have proven to be a very effective instrument in preventing States from going nuclear. It would thus seem logical to reinforce or extend them. However, this path is fraught with obstacles and dilemmas
Security Guarantees and Nuclear Non-Proliferation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bruno Tertrais
2011-07-01
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the value of 'security guarantees', that is, positive security assurances that include a formal or informal defense commitment, in preventing nuclear proliferation. It demonstrates that such guarantees have proven to be a very effective instrument in preventing States from going nuclear. It would thus seem logical to reinforce or extend them. However, this path is fraught with obstacles and dilemmas
Druţu, Cornelia
2018-01-01
The key idea in geometric group theory is to study infinite groups by endowing them with a metric and treating them as geometric spaces. This applies to many groups naturally appearing in topology, geometry, and algebra, such as fundamental groups of manifolds, groups of matrices with integer coefficients, etc. The primary focus of this book is to cover the foundations of geometric group theory, including coarse topology, ultralimits and asymptotic cones, hyperbolic groups, isoperimetric inequalities, growth of groups, amenability, Kazhdan's Property (T) and the Haagerup property, as well as their characterizations in terms of group actions on median spaces and spaces with walls. The book contains proofs of several fundamental results of geometric group theory, such as Gromov's theorem on groups of polynomial growth, Tits's alternative, Stallings's theorem on ends of groups, Dunwoody's accessibility theorem, the Mostow Rigidity Theorem, and quasiisometric rigidity theorems of Tukia and Schwartz. This is the f...
Geometric and engineering drawing
Morling, K
2010-01-01
The new edition of this successful text describes all the geometric instructions and engineering drawing information that are likely to be needed by anyone preparing or interpreting drawings or designs with plenty of exercises to practice these principles.
Differential geometric structures
Poor, Walter A
2007-01-01
This introductory text defines geometric structure by specifying parallel transport in an appropriate fiber bundle and focusing on simplest cases of linear parallel transport in a vector bundle. 1981 edition.
Geometric ghosts and unitarity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ne'eman, Y.
1980-09-01
A review is given of the geometrical identification of the renormalization ghosts and the resulting derivation of Unitarity equations (BRST) for various gauges: Yang-Mills, Kalb-Ramond, and Soft-Group-Manifold
Asymptotic and geometrical quantization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karasev, M.V.; Maslov, V.P.
1984-01-01
The main ideas of geometric-, deformation- and asymptotic quantizations are compared. It is shown that, on the one hand, the asymptotic approach is a direct generalization of exact geometric quantization, on the other hand, it generates deformation in multiplication of symbols and Poisson brackets. Besides investigating the general quantization diagram, its applications to the calculation of asymptotics of a series of eigenvalues of operators possessing symmetry groups are considered
2010-01-29
... permanent financing phase of a project. In addition to the proposed form of guarantee, the Agency will... financing phase of the project. This third form of guarantee is being proposed in response to input from... requests. * * * * * Lease-up period. The period of time that begins when the first unit in the project...
Probabilistic double guarantee kidnapping detection in SLAM.
Tian, Yang; Ma, Shugen
2016-01-01
For determining whether kidnapping has happened and which type of kidnapping it is while a robot performs autonomous tasks in an unknown environment, a double guarantee kidnapping detection (DGKD) method has been proposed. The good performance of DGKD in a relative small environment is shown. However, a limitation of DGKD is found in a large-scale environment by our recent work. In order to increase the adaptability of DGKD in a large-scale environment, an improved method called probabilistic double guarantee kidnapping detection is proposed in this paper to combine probability of features' positions and the robot's posture. Simulation results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.
Stand alone photovoltaic systems: guarantee of results
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1996-12-31
This study aims to provide a guarantee of results for system performance for users of stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems, which have no back-up generator. The appropriate main performance criterion for PV systems is that a specified load is supplied with power either continuously or intermittently whenever the load requires power. A methodology to evaluate the power availability of stand-alone PV systems has been developed as part of the project, which encompasses power losses due to weather variations. The guarantee of results produced allows users to compare system designs from different manufacturers. (UK)
The Risk Management of Minimum Return Guarantees
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antje Mahayni
2008-05-01
Full Text Available Contracts paying a guaranteed minimum rate of return and a fraction of a positive excess rate, which is specified relative to a benchmark portfolio, are closely related to unit-linked life-insurance products and can be considered as alternatives to direct investment in the underlying benchmark. They contain an embedded power option, and the key issue is the tractable and realistic hedging of this option, in order to rigorously justify valuation by arbitrage arguments and prevent the guarantees from becoming uncontrollable liabilities to the issuer. We show how to determine the contract parameters conservatively and implement robust risk-management strategies.
On geometrized gravitation theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logunov, A.A.; Folomeshkin, V.N.
1977-01-01
General properties of the geometrized gravitation theories have been considered. Geometrization of the theory is realized only to the extent that by necessity follows from an experiment (geometrization of the density of the matter Lagrangian only). Aor a general case the gravitation field equations and the equations of motion for matter are formulated in the different Riemann spaces. A covariant formulation of the energy-momentum conservation laws is given in an arbitrary geometrized theory. The noncovariant notion of ''pseudotensor'' is not required in formulating the conservation laws. It is shown that in the general case (i.e., when there is an explicit dependence of the matter Lagrangian density on the covariant derivatives) a symmetric energy-momentum tensor of the matter is explicitly dependent on the curvature tensor. There are enlisted different geometrized theories that describe a known set of the experimental facts. The properties of one of the versions of the quasilinear geometrized theory that describes the experimental facts are considered. In such a theory the fundamental static spherically symmetrical solution has a singularity only in the coordinate origin. The theory permits to create a satisfactory model of the homogeneous nonstationary Universe
78 FR 46528 - Surety Bond Guarantee Program
2013-08-01
... 2013, Public Law 112-239, 126 Stat. 1632: (1) Increasing the contract amount for which SBA is... remedies under contract law, the Act, and the regulations in this part, SBA is relieved of liability in...), including the provisions that increase the contract amounts for which SBA is authorized to guarantee bonds...
78 FR 63158 - Information Collection; Guaranteed Farm Loan Program
2013-10-23
... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection; Guaranteed Farm Loan Program... collection associated with the Guaranteed Farm Loan Program. The amended estimate adds the merger of the information collection for the Land Contract Guarantee Program (0560-0279) into the Guaranteed Farm Loan...
Geometric approximation algorithms
Har-Peled, Sariel
2011-01-01
Exact algorithms for dealing with geometric objects are complicated, hard to implement in practice, and slow. Over the last 20 years a theory of geometric approximation algorithms has emerged. These algorithms tend to be simple, fast, and more robust than their exact counterparts. This book is the first to cover geometric approximation algorithms in detail. In addition, more traditional computational geometry techniques that are widely used in developing such algorithms, like sampling, linear programming, etc., are also surveyed. Other topics covered include approximate nearest-neighbor search, shape approximation, coresets, dimension reduction, and embeddings. The topics covered are relatively independent and are supplemented by exercises. Close to 200 color figures are included in the text to illustrate proofs and ideas.
Geometrical optical illusionists.
Wade, Nicholas J
2014-01-01
Geometrical optical illusions were given this title by Oppel in 1855. Variants on such small distortions of visual space were illustrated thereafter, many of which bear the names of those who first described them. Some original forms of the geometrical optical illusions are shown together with 'perceptual portraits' of those who described them. These include: Roget, Chevreul, Fick, Zöllner, Poggendorff, Hering, Kundt, Delboeuf Mach, Helmholtz, Hermann, von Bezold, Müller-Lyer, Lipps, Thiéry, Wundt, Münsterberg, Ebbinghaus, Titchener, Ponzo, Luckiesh, Sander, Ehrenstein, Gregory, Heard, White, Shepard, and. Lingelbach. The illusions are grouped under the headings of orientation, size, the combination of size and orientation, and contrast. Early theories of illusions, before geometrical optical illusions were so named, are mentioned briefly.
Toward sensitive document release with privacy guarantees
David Sánchez; Montserrat Batet
2017-01-01
Toward sensitive document release with privacy guarantees DOI: 10.1016/j.engappai.2016.12.013 URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0952197616302408 Filiació URV: SI Inclòs a la memòria: SI Privacy has become a serious concern for modern Information Societies. The sensitive nature of much of the data that are daily exchanged or released to untrusted parties requires that responsible organizations undertake appropriate privacy protection measures. Nowadays, much...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
La, H.
1992-01-01
A new geometric formulation of Liouville gravity based on the area preserving diffeo-morphism is given and a possible alternative to reinterpret Liouville gravity is suggested, namely, a scalar field coupled to two-dimensional gravity with a curvature constraint
A Geometric Dissection Problem
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 7. A Geometric Dissection Problem. M N Deshpande. Think It Over Volume 7 Issue 7 July 2002 pp 91-91. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/07/0091-0091. Author Affiliations.
Geometric statistical inference
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Periwal, Vipul
1999-01-01
A reparametrization-covariant formulation of the inverse problem of probability is explicitly solved for finite sample sizes. The inferred distribution is explicitly continuous for finite sample size. A geometric solution of the statistical inference problem in higher dimensions is outlined
Geometric Series via Probability
Tesman, Barry
2012-01-01
Infinite series is a challenging topic in the undergraduate mathematics curriculum for many students. In fact, there is a vast literature in mathematics education research on convergence issues. One of the most important types of infinite series is the geometric series. Their beauty lies in the fact that they can be evaluated explicitly and that…
Pragmatic geometric model evaluation
Pamer, Robert
2015-04-01
Quantification of subsurface model reliability is mathematically and technically demanding as there are many different sources of uncertainty and some of the factors can be assessed merely in a subjective way. For many practical applications in industry or risk assessment (e. g. geothermal drilling) a quantitative estimation of possible geometric variations in depth unit is preferred over relative numbers because of cost calculations for different scenarios. The talk gives an overview of several factors that affect the geometry of structural subsurface models that are based upon typical geological survey organization (GSO) data like geological maps, borehole data and conceptually driven construction of subsurface elements (e. g. fault network). Within the context of the trans-European project "GeoMol" uncertainty analysis has to be very pragmatic also because of different data rights, data policies and modelling software between the project partners. In a case study a two-step evaluation methodology for geometric subsurface model uncertainty is being developed. In a first step several models of the same volume of interest have been calculated by omitting successively more and more input data types (seismic constraints, fault network, outcrop data). The positions of the various horizon surfaces are then compared. The procedure is equivalent to comparing data of various levels of detail and therefore structural complexity. This gives a measure of the structural significance of each data set in space and as a consequence areas of geometric complexity are identified. These areas are usually very data sensitive hence geometric variability in between individual data points in these areas is higher than in areas of low structural complexity. Instead of calculating a multitude of different models by varying some input data or parameters as it is done by Monte-Carlo-simulations, the aim of the second step of the evaluation procedure (which is part of the ongoing work) is to
Monitoring Assumptions in Assume-Guarantee Contracts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oleg Sokolsky
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Pre-deployment verification of software components with respect to behavioral specifications in the assume-guarantee form does not, in general, guarantee absence of errors at run time. This is because assumptions about the environment cannot be discharged until the environment is fixed. An intuitive approach is to complement pre-deployment verification of guarantees, up to the assumptions, with post-deployment monitoring of environment behavior to check that the assumptions are satisfied at run time. Such a monitor is typically implemented by instrumenting the application code of the component. An additional challenge for the monitoring step is that environment behaviors are typically obtained through an I/O library, which may alter the component's view of the input format. This transformation requires us to introduce a second pre-deployment verification step to ensure that alarms raised by the monitor would indeed correspond to violations of the environment assumptions. In this paper, we describe an approach for constructing monitors and verifying them against the component assumption. We also discuss limitations of instrumentation-based monitoring and potential ways to overcome it.
Dynamics in geometrical confinement
Kremer, Friedrich
2014-01-01
This book describes the dynamics of low molecular weight and polymeric molecules when they are constrained under conditions of geometrical confinement. It covers geometrical confinement in different dimensionalities: (i) in nanometer thin layers or self supporting films (1-dimensional confinement) (ii) in pores or tubes with nanometric diameters (2-dimensional confinement) (iii) as micelles embedded in matrices (3-dimensional) or as nanodroplets.The dynamics under such conditions have been a much discussed and central topic in the focus of intense worldwide research activities within the last two decades. The present book discusses how the resulting molecular mobility is influenced by the subtle counterbalance between surface effects (typically slowing down molecular dynamics through attractive guest/host interactions) and confinement effects (typically increasing the mobility). It also explains how these influences can be modified and tuned, e.g. through appropriate surface coatings, film thicknesses or pore...
Bestvina, Mladen; Vogtmann, Karen
2014-01-01
Geometric group theory refers to the study of discrete groups using tools from topology, geometry, dynamics and analysis. The field is evolving very rapidly and the present volume provides an introduction to and overview of various topics which have played critical roles in this evolution. The book contains lecture notes from courses given at the Park City Math Institute on Geometric Group Theory. The institute consists of a set of intensive short courses offered by leaders in the field, designed to introduce students to exciting, current research in mathematics. These lectures do not duplicate standard courses available elsewhere. The courses begin at an introductory level suitable for graduate students and lead up to currently active topics of research. The articles in this volume include introductions to CAT(0) cube complexes and groups, to modern small cancellation theory, to isometry groups of general CAT(0) spaces, and a discussion of nilpotent genus in the context of mapping class groups and CAT(0) gro...
Lectures in geometric combinatorics
Thomas, Rekha R
2006-01-01
This book presents a course in the geometry of convex polytopes in arbitrary dimension, suitable for an advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate student. The book starts with the basics of polytope theory. Schlegel and Gale diagrams are introduced as geometric tools to visualize polytopes in high dimension and to unearth bizarre phenomena in polytopes. The heart of the book is a treatment of the secondary polytope of a point configuration and its connections to the state polytope of the toric ideal defined by the configuration. These polytopes are relatively recent constructs with numerous connections to discrete geometry, classical algebraic geometry, symplectic geometry, and combinatorics. The connections rely on Gr�bner bases of toric ideals and other methods from commutative algebra. The book is self-contained and does not require any background beyond basic linear algebra. With numerous figures and exercises, it can be used as a textbook for courses on geometric, combinatorial, and computational as...
Geometric information provider platform
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meisam Yousefzadeh
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Renovation of existing buildings is known as an essential stage in reduction of the energy loss. Considerable part of renovation process depends on geometric reconstruction of building based on semantic parameters. Following many research projects which were focused on parameterizing the energy usage, various energy modelling methods were developed during the last decade. On the other hand, by developing accurate measuring tools such as laser scanners, the interests of having accurate 3D building models are rapidly growing. But the automation of 3D building generation from laser point cloud or detection of specific objects in that is still a challenge. The goal is designing a platform through which required geometric information can be efficiently produced to support energy simulation software. Developing a reliable procedure which extracts required information from measured data and delivers them to a standard energy modelling system is the main purpose of the project.
Frè, Pietro Giuseppe
2013-01-01
‘Gravity, a Geometrical Course’ presents general relativity (GR) in a systematic and exhaustive way, covering three aspects that are homogenized into a single texture: i) the mathematical, geometrical foundations, exposed in a self consistent contemporary formalism, ii) the main physical, astrophysical and cosmological applications, updated to the issues of contemporary research and observations, with glimpses on supergravity and superstring theory, iii) the historical development of scientific ideas underlying both the birth of general relativity and its subsequent evolution. The book is divided in two volumes. Volume One is dedicated to the development of the theory and basic physical applications. It guides the reader from the foundation of special relativity to Einstein field equations, illustrating some basic applications in astrophysics. A detailed account of the historical and conceptual development of the theory is combined with the presentation of its mathematical foundations. Differe...
Ruffino, Fabio Ferrari
2013-01-01
Given a cohomology theory, there is a well-known abstract way to define the dual homology theory using the theory of spectra. In [4] the author provides a more geometric construction of the homology theory, using a generalization of the bordism groups. Such a generalization involves in its definition the vector bundle modification, which is a particular case of the Gysin map. In this paper we provide a more natural variant of that construction, which replaces the vector bundle modification wi...
Waerden, B
1996-01-01
From the reviews: "... Federer's timely and beautiful book indeed fills the need for a comprehensive treatise on geometric measure theory, and his detailed exposition leads from the foundations of the theory to the most recent discoveries. ... The author writes with a distinctive style which is both natural and powerfully economical in treating a complicated subject. This book is a major treatise in mathematics and is essential in the working library of the modern analyst." Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society.
Developing geometrical reasoning
Brown, Margaret; Jones, Keith; Taylor, Ron; Hirst, Ann
2004-01-01
This paper summarises a report (Brown, Jones & Taylor, 2003) to the UK Qualifications and Curriculum Authority of the work of one geometry group. The group was charged with developing and reporting on teaching ideas that focus on the development of geometrical reasoning at the secondary school level. The group was encouraged to explore what is possible both within and beyond the current requirements of the UK National Curriculum and the Key Stage 3 strategy, and to consider the whole atta...
Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification
Bonito, A.
2010-01-01
A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
Geometric theory of information
2014-01-01
This book brings together geometric tools and their applications for Information analysis. It collects current and many uses of in the interdisciplinary fields of Information Geometry Manifolds in Advanced Signal, Image & Video Processing, Complex Data Modeling and Analysis, Information Ranking and Retrieval, Coding, Cognitive Systems, Optimal Control, Statistics on Manifolds, Machine Learning, Speech/sound recognition, and natural language treatment which are also substantially relevant for the industry.
Geometric modeling in the problem of ball bearing accuracy
Glukhov, V. I.; Pushkarev, V. V.; Khomchenko, V. G.
2017-06-01
The manufacturing quality of ball bearings is an urgent problem for machine-building industry. The aim of the research is to improve the geometric specifications accuracy of bearings based on evidence-based systematic approach and the method of adequate size, location and form deviations modeling of the rings and assembled ball bearings. The present work addressed the problem of bearing geometric specifications identification and the study of these specifications. The deviation from symmetric planar of rings and bearings assembly and mounting width are among these specifications. A systematic approach to geometric specifications values and ball bearings tolerances normalization in coordinate systems will improve the quality of bearings by optimizing and minimizing the number of specifications. The introduction of systematic approach to the international standards on rolling bearings is a guarantee of a significant increase in accuracy of bearings and the quality of products where they are applied.
Legal Status of Credit Bank Guarantee in Indonesia’s Legal Guarantee
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erma Defiana Putriyanti
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze about the legal status of the letter hiring as collateral for bank loans in the Indonesian security law. The method of this research is a normative juridical. The results of this research indicate that the decree hiring is not included in the objects that can be bound by pledge, fiduciary, and mortgage then hiring decree hiring is not included in the personal guarantee and corporate guarantee. Although the hiring decree is issued by a legitimate institution, the institution is not bound by an agreement between the debtor debts with the bank but when the decree was used as security for the bank. Hiring letter is not also included in the general collateral. Decree hiring is not an object and does not qualify as material that can be used as general collateral. The conclusion of this research is that the position of the decree hiring as collateral for bank loans is a new form of guarantee which is not included in the general guarantees and the specific ones. This shows that the system of legal guarantees in Indonesia is not pure anymore embrace a closed system, but has started shifting into an open system.
Geometric leaf placement strategies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fenwick, J D; Temple, S W P; Clements, R W; Lawrence, G P; Mayles, H M O; Mayles, W P M
2004-01-01
Geometric leaf placement strategies for multileaf collimators (MLCs) typically involve the expansion of the beam's-eye-view contour of a target by a uniform MLC margin, followed by movement of the leaves until some point on each leaf end touches the expanded contour. Film-based dose-distribution measurements have been made to determine appropriate MLC margins-characterized through an index d 90 -for multileaves set using one particular strategy to straight lines lying at various angles to the direction of leaf travel. Simple trigonometric relationships exist between different geometric leaf placement strategies and are used to generalize the results of the film work into d 90 values for several different strategies. Measured d 90 values vary both with angle and leaf placement strategy. A model has been derived that explains and describes quite well the observed variations of d 90 with angle. The d 90 angular variations of the strategies studied differ substantially, and geometric and dosimetric reasoning suggests that the best strategy is the one with the least angular variation. Using this criterion, the best straightforwardly implementable strategy studied is a 'touch circle' approach for which semicircles are imagined to be inscribed within leaf ends, the leaves being moved until the semicircles just touch the expanded target outline
Studies in geometric quantization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tuynman, G.M.
1988-01-01
This thesis contains five chapters, of which the first, entitled 'What is prequantization, and what is geometric quantization?', is meant as an introduction to geometric quantization for the non-specialist. The second chapter, entitled 'Central extensions and physics' deals with the notion of central extensions of manifolds and elaborates and proves the statements made in the first chapter. Central extensions of manifolds occur in physics as the freedom of a phase factor in the quantum mechanical state vector, as the phase factor in the prequantization process of classical mechanics and it appears in mathematics when studying central extension of Lie groups. In this chapter the connection between these central extensions is investigated and a remarkable similarity between classical and quantum mechanics is shown. In chapter three a classical model is given for the hydrogen atom including spin-orbit and spin-spin interaction. The method of geometric quantization is applied to this model and the results are discussed. In the final chapters (4 and 5) an explicit method to calculate the operators corresponding to classical observables is given when the phase space is a Kaehler manifold. The obtained formula are then used to quantise symplectic manifolds which are irreducible hermitian symmetric spaces and the results are compared with other quantization procedures applied to these manifolds (in particular to Berezin's quantization). 91 refs.; 3 tabs
Guaranteed convergence of the Hough transform
Soffer, Menashe; Kiryati, Nahum
1995-01-01
The straight-line Hough Transform using normal parameterization with a continuous voting kernel is considered. It transforms the colinearity detection problem to a problem of finding the global maximum of a two dimensional function above a domain in the parameter space. The principle is similar to robust regression using fixed scale M-estimation. Unlike standard M-estimation procedures the Hough Transform does not rely on a good initial estimate of the line parameters: The global optimization problem is approached by exhaustive search on a grid that is usually as fine as computationally feasible. The global maximum of a general function above a bounded domain cannot be found by a finite number of function evaluations. Only if sufficient a-priori knowledge about the smoothness of the objective function is available, convergence to the global maximum can be guaranteed. The extraction of a-priori information and its efficient use are the main challenges in real global optimization problems. The global optimization problem in the Hough Transform is essentially how fine should the parameter space quantization be in order not to miss the true maximum. More than thirty years after Hough patented the basic algorithm, the problem is still essentially open. In this paper an attempt is made to identify a-priori information on the smoothness of the objective (Hough) function and to introduce sufficient conditions for the convergence of the Hough Transform to the global maximum. An image model with several application dependent parameters is defined. Edge point location errors as well as background noise are accounted for. Minimal parameter space quantization intervals that guarantee convergence are obtained. Focusing policies for multi-resolution Hough algorithms are developed. Theoretical support for bottom- up processing is provided. Due to the randomness of errors and noise, convergence guarantees are probabilistic.
12 CFR 370.12 - Payment on the guarantee.
2010-01-01
... TEMPORARY LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.12 Payment on the guarantee. (a) Claims for Deposits in... depositors for funds in a noninterest-bearing transaction account in an insured depository institution that...
Doubts raised on the validity of construction and payment guarantees
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A construction company had been liquidated and the employer had called up the guarantee .... Due to the small size of the target populations in both the quantitative and qualitative ..... contingent liability that remains in terms of the guarantee.
Geometrical model of multiple production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chikovani, Z.E.; Jenkovszky, L.L.; Kvaratshelia, T.M.; Struminskij, B.V.
1988-01-01
The relation between geometrical and KNO-scaling and their violation is studied in a geometrical model of multiple production of hadrons. Predictions concerning the behaviour of correlation coefficients at future accelerators are given
Geometric Computing for Freeform Architecture
Wallner, J.; Pottmann, Helmut
2011-01-01
Geometric computing has recently found a new field of applications, namely the various geometric problems which lie at the heart of rationalization and construction-aware design processes of freeform architecture. We report on our work in this area
The traceability of renewable energies: the guarantees of origin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2017-03-01
The guarantee of origin has been initially designed by the European Union as a mechanism of support for renewable energies. It is an electronic document which allows an electric power provider to guarantee to its client the origin of the energy it sells him. This document presents the legal background of this guarantee, briefly describes the life cycle of this guarantee, proposes a brief discussion of recent legal evolutions, and briefly discusses its future
77 FR 58991 - State-Level Guarantee Fee Pricing
2012-09-25
... FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY [No. 2012-N-13] State-Level Guarantee Fee Pricing AGENCY: Federal... guarantee fee pricing by state. FHFA's proposal described here would adjust the upfront fees that the... final state-level guarantee fee pricing method, FHFA expects to direct the Enterprises to implement the...
42 CFR 417.937 - Loan and loan guarantee provisions.
2010-10-01
... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loan and loan guarantee provisions. 417.937 Section... HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Administration of Outstanding Loans and Loan Guarantees § 417.937 Loan and loan guarantee provisions. (a) Disbursement of loan proceeds. The principal amount of any loan made or...
78 FR 48135 - Information Collection; Guaranteed Farm Loan Program
2013-08-07
... Information Collection; Guaranteed Farm Loan Program AGENCY: Farm Service Agency, USDA. ACTION: Notice... revision of a currently approved information collection associated with the Guaranteed Farm Loan Program. This information collection is used to make and service loans guaranteed by FSA to eligible farmers and...
13 CFR 107.1720 - Characteristics of SBA's guarantee.
2010-01-01
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Characteristics of SBA's guarantee. 107.1720 Section 107.1720 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS... Characteristics of SBA's guarantee. If SBA agrees to guarantee a Licensee's Debentures or Participating Securities...
The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's financial guarantee requirements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferch, R.
2006-01-01
The Nuclear Safety and Control Act gives the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) the legal authority to require licensees to provide financial guarantees in order to meet the purposes of the Act. CNSC policy and guidance with regard to financial guarantees is outlined, and the current status of financial guarantee requirements as applied to various CNSC licensees is described. (author)
Minimum Price Guarantees In a Consumer Search Model
M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); A. Parakhonyak (Alexei)
2009-01-01
textabstractThis paper is the first to examine the effect of minimum price guarantees in a sequential search model. Minimum price guarantees are not advertised and only known to consumers when they come to the shop. We show that in such an environment, minimum price guarantees increase the value of
Geometric Constructions with the Computer.
Chuan, Jen-chung
The computer can be used as a tool to represent and communicate geometric knowledge. With the appropriate software, a geometric diagram can be manipulated through a series of animation that offers more than one particular snapshot as shown in a traditional mathematical text. Geometric constructions with the computer enable the learner to see and…
Corrochano, Eduardo Bayro
2010-01-01
This book presents contributions from a global selection of experts in the field. This useful text offers new insights and solutions for the development of theorems, algorithms and advanced methods for real-time applications across a range of disciplines. Written in an accessible style, the discussion of all applications is enhanced by the inclusion of numerous examples, figures and experimental analysis. Features: provides a thorough discussion of several tasks for image processing, pattern recognition, computer vision, robotics and computer graphics using the geometric algebra framework; int
Geometric multipartite entanglement measures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paz-Silva, Gerardo A.; Reina, John H.
2007-01-01
Within the framework of constructions for quantifying entanglement, we build a natural scenario for the assembly of multipartite entanglement measures based on Hopf bundle-like mappings obtained through Clifford algebra representations. Then, given the non-factorizability of an arbitrary two-qubit density matrix, we give an alternate quantity that allows the construction of two types of entanglement measures based on their arithmetical and geometrical averages over all pairs of qubits in a register of size N, and thus fully characterize its degree and type of entanglement. We find that such an arithmetical average is both additive and strongly super additive
Geometric correlations and multifractals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amritkar, R.E.
1991-07-01
There are many situations where the usual statistical methods are not adequate to characterize correlations in the system. To characterize such situations we introduce mutual correlation dimensions which describe geometric correlations in the system. These dimensions allow us to distinguish between variables which are perfectly correlated with or without a phase lag, variables which are uncorrelated and variables which are partially correlated. We demonstrate the utility of our formalism by considering two examples from dynamical systems. The first example is about the loss of memory in chaotic signals and describes auto-correlations while the second example is about synchronization of chaotic signals and describes cross-correlations. (author). 19 refs, 6 figs
78 FR 79253 - CCC Export Credit Guarantee (GSM-102) Program and Facility Guarantee Program (FGP)
2013-12-27
... been worked out in advance of the exporter's application for the payment guarantee. Foreign Financial... country of domicile must provide financial statements in accordance with prevailing accounting standards... smaller U.S. exporters. Changes are also intended to improve CCC's financial management of the program...
Guaranteeing CERN’s excellence: consolidate experience
Staff Association
2014-01-01
For its missions CERN requires staff with solid experience in all its domains of activity The Organization has several missions: fundamental research, technical developments and innovation, training the several hundreds of associates, fellows and students, while at the same time taking care of more than 10000 users. In order to guarantee excellence in all of these areas, CERN has to put in place an efficient personnel policy. Such a policy must allow the Organization to recruit collaborators with the highest competence from all Member States, and to keep and motivate them during their entire professional career. But, more importantly, the Organization has to be able to count on a stable workforce. It needs staff with experience gained over a long period in the fields of accelerators, detectors, and operating procedures, if it is to fulfil successfully its important mission of training and knowledge transfer, which is very much appreciated by our Member states, since it highlights a visible return on invest...
[Packaging: the guarantee of medicinal quality].
Chaumeil, J-C
2003-01-01
Primary packaging guarantees the pharmaceutical quality of the medicinal preparation received by the patient. Glass bottles containing parenteral solutions for example ensure that sterility, quality and optimal stability are preserved until administration. Recent innovations in materials research has lead to improvements in parenteral infusions. Multicompartmental bags, allowing extemporaneous mixtures without opening the container, constitute an extremely beneficial advance for the patient, allowing administration of mixtures with solutions and emulsions which would be unstable if stored. Metered dose pressurized inhalers are an excellent example of drug administration devices designed specifically to ensure quality and bioavailability. These examples illustrate the important role of primary packaging and demonstrate the usefulness of research and development in this area.
Galilean generalized Robertson-Walker spacetimes: A new family of Galilean geometrical models
de la Fuente, Daniel; Rubio, Rafael M.
2018-02-01
We introduce a new family of Galilean spacetimes, the Galilean generalized Robertson-Walker spacetimes. This new family is relevant in the context of a generalized Newton-Cartan theory. We study its geometrical structure and analyse the completeness of its inextensible free falling observers. This sort of spacetimes constitutes the local geometric model of a much wider family of spacetimes admitting certain conformal symmetry. Moreover, we find some sufficient geometric conditions which guarantee a global splitting of a Galilean spacetime as a Galilean generalized Robertson-Walker spacetime.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noga, M.T.
1984-01-01
This thesis addresses a number of important problems that fall within the framework of the new discipline of Computational Geometry. The list of topics covered includes sorting and selection, convex hull algorithms, the L 1 hull, determination of the minimum encasing rectangle of a set of points, the Euclidean and L 1 diameter of a set of points, the metric traveling salesman problem, and finding the superrange of star-shaped and monotype polygons. The main theme of all the work was to develop a set of very fast state-of-the-art algorithms that supersede any rivals in terms of speed and ease of implementation. In some cases existing algorithms were refined; for others new techniques were developed that add to the present database of fast adaptive geometric algorithms. What emerges is a collection of techniques that is successful at merging modern tools developed in analysis of algorithms with those of classical geometry
Geometrization of quantum physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ol'khov, O.A.
2009-01-01
It is shown that the Dirac equation for a free particle can be considered as a description of specific distortion of the space Euclidean geometry (space topological defect). This approach is based on the possibility of interpretation of the wave function as vector realizing representation of the fundamental group of the closed topological space-time 4-manifold. Mass and spin appear to be topological invariants. Such a concept explains all so-called 'strange' properties of quantum formalism: probabilities, wave-particle duality, nonlocal instantaneous correlation between noninteracting particles (EPR-paradox) and so on. Acceptance of the suggested geometrical concept means rejection of atomistic concept where all matter is considered as consisting of more and more small elementary particles. There are no any particles a priory, before measurement: the notions of particles appear as a result of classical interpretation of the contact of the region of the curved space with a device
Geometrization of quantum physics
Ol'Khov, O. A.
2009-12-01
It is shown that the Dirac equation for free particle can be considered as a description of specific distortion of the space euclidean geometry (space topological defect). This approach is based on possibility of interpretation of the wave function as vector realizing representation of the fundamental group of the closed topological space-time 4-manifold. Mass and spin appear to be topological invariants. Such concept explains all so called “strange” properties of quantum formalism: probabilities, wave-particle duality, nonlocal instantaneous correlation between noninteracting particles (EPR-paradox) and so on. Acceptance of suggested geometrical concept means rejection of atomistic concept where all matter is considered as consisting of more and more small elementary particles. There is no any particles a priori, before measurement: the notions of particles appear as a result of classical interpretation of the contact of the region of the curved space with a device.
Havelka, Jan
2008-01-01
Tato diplomová práce se zabývá akcelerací geometrických transformací obrazu s využitím GPU a architektury NVIDIA (R) CUDA TM. Časově kritické části kódu jsou přesunuty na GPU a vykonány paralelně. Jedním z výsledků je demonstrační aplikace pro porovnání výkonnosti obou architektur: CPU, a GPU v kombinaci s CPU. Pro referenční implementaci jsou použity vysoce optimalizované algoritmy z knihovny OpenCV, od firmy Intel. This master's thesis deals with acceleration of geometrical image transfo...
"Financial Innovation and Risk Management: The Cross-Guarantee Solution"
Bert Ely
1995-01-01
The cross-guarantee concept, which is summarized below, will eliminate the regulatory moral hazard that electronic technology has greatly exacerbated in recent years. The paper concludes by outlining the many benefits cross-guarantees will bring to the financial system as well as the structural and international implications of using cross-guarantees to bring market-driven regulation to the financial services sector of the American economy.
Switching Fuzzy Guaranteed Cost Control for Nonlinear Networked Control Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Linqin Cai
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of guaranteed cost control for a class of nonlinear networked control systems (NCSs with time-varying delay. A guaranteed cost controller design method is proposed to achieve the desired control performance based on the switched T-S fuzzy model. The switching mechanism is introduced to handle the uncertainties of NCSs. Based on Lyapunov functional approach, some sufficient conditions for the existence of state feedback robust guaranteed cost controller are presented. Simulation results show that the proposed method is effective to guarantee system’s global asymptotic stability and quality of service (QoS.
42 CFR 57.1507 - Limitations applicable to loan guarantee.
2010-10-01
... FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest Subsidies to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for Health Profession...
Pregnancy - delivery presentation; Labor - delivery presentation; Occiput posterior; Occiput anterior; Brow presentation ... The mother can walk, rock, and try different delivery positions during labor to help encourage the baby ...
Harmonic and geometric analysis
Citti, Giovanna; Pérez, Carlos; Sarti, Alessandro; Zhong, Xiao
2015-01-01
This book presents an expanded version of four series of lectures delivered by the authors at the CRM. Harmonic analysis, understood in a broad sense, has a very wide interplay with partial differential equations and in particular with the theory of quasiconformal mappings and its applications. Some areas in which real analysis has been extremely influential are PDE's and geometric analysis. Their foundations and subsequent developments made extensive use of the Calderón–Zygmund theory, especially the Lp inequalities for Calderón–Zygmund operators (Beurling transform and Riesz transform, among others) and the theory of Muckenhoupt weights. The first chapter is an application of harmonic analysis and the Heisenberg group to understanding human vision, while the second and third chapters cover some of the main topics on linear and multilinear harmonic analysis. The last serves as a comprehensive introduction to a deep result from De Giorgi, Moser and Nash on the regularity of elliptic partial differen...
Regular Polygons and Geometric Series.
Jarrett, Joscelyn A.
1982-01-01
Examples of some geometric illustrations of limits are presented. It is believed the limit concept is among the most important topics in mathematics, yet many students do not have good intuitive feelings for the concept, since it is often taught very abstractly. Geometric examples are suggested as meaningful tools. (MP)
Geometric Invariants and Object Recognition.
1992-08-01
University of Chicago Press. Maybank , S.J. [1992], "The Projection of Two Non-coplanar Conics", in Geometric Invariance in Machine Vision, eds. J.L...J.L. Mundy and A. Zisserman, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. Mundy, J.L., Kapur, .. , Maybank , S.J., and Quan, L. [1992a] "Geometric Inter- pretation of
Transmuted Complementary Weibull Geometric Distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed Z. A fify
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This paper provides a new generalization of the complementary Weibull geometric distribution that introduced by Tojeiro et al. (2014, using the quadratic rank transmutation map studied by Shaw and Buckley (2007. The new distribution is referred to as transmuted complementary Weibull geometric distribution (TCWGD. The TCWG distribution includes as special cases the complementary Weibull geometric distribution (CWGD, complementary exponential geometric distribution(CEGD,Weibull distribution (WD and exponential distribution (ED. Various structural properties of the new distribution including moments, quantiles, moment generating function and RØnyi entropy of the subject distribution are derived. We proposed the method of maximum likelihood for estimating the model parameters and obtain the observed information matrix. A real data set are used to compare the exibility of the transmuted version versus the complementary Weibull geometric distribution.
10 CFR 609.10 - Loan Guarantee Agreement.
2010-01-01
... accepted accounting principles and practices. The non-guaranteed portion (if any) of any Guaranteed... examination, to any pertinent books, documents, papers, and records of the Borrower, Eligible Lender or other... transferring Eligible Lender was performing these functions and transfer such functions to the new Eligible...
7 CFR 1493.430 - Application for a payment guarantee.
2010-01-01
... (includes upward loading tolerance, if any); (12) Guaranteed value; (13) Guarantee fee; (14) The term length... (including packaging, if any); (8) Mean quantity, contract loading tolerance and, if the exporter chooses, a request for CCC to reserve coverage up to the maximum quantity permitted by the contract loading tolerance...
Investment Guarantees in the South African Life Insurance Industry ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper explores the risks faced by South African life insurance companies arising from the provision of investment guarantees in products sold. The current thinking and practice of the larger South African life insurance companies regarding investment guarantees is set out following their responses to a survey.
13 CFR 120.613 - Secondary Participation Guarantee Agreement.
2010-01-01
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secondary Participation Guarantee Agreement. 120.613 Section 120.613 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Secondary Market Certificates § 120.613 Secondary Participation Guarantee Agreement. When a Lender...
Corporate Bond Guarantees and The Value of Financial Flexibility
Altieri, M.; Massa, M; Manconi, A
2016-01-01
We examine the effects of the decision of parent companies to guarantee bonds issued by their subsidiaries. The market value of the parent firm’s outstanding bonds drops five times more when it issues a guarantee for subsidiary debt than when it issues a new bond in its own name. This effect is
12 CFR 370.4 - Transaction Account Guarantee Program.
2010-01-01
... GENERAL POLICY TEMPORARY LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.4 Transaction Account Guarantee Program. (a) In addition to the coverage afforded to depositors under 12 CFR Part 330, a depositor's funds in a noninterest... determining whether funds are in a noninterest-bearing transaction account for purposes of this section, the...
76 FR 31217 - Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program
2011-05-31
... Farm Service Agency 7 CFR Part 1980 RIN 0575-AC83 Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program... the Rural Housing Service (RHS) Section 502 Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program (SFHGLP) by eliminating the lender's published Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) rate for first mortgage loans with no...
48 CFR 52.247-60 - Guaranteed Shipping Characteristics.
2010-10-01
... Characteristics. 52.247-60 Section 52.247-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....247-60 Guaranteed Shipping Characteristics. As prescribed in 47.305-16(b)(1), insert the following clause: Guaranteed Shipping Characteristics (DEC 1989) (a) The offeror is requested to complete...
13 CFR 120.400 - Loan Guarantee Agreements.
2010-01-01
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan Guarantee Agreements. 120.400 Section 120.400 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Lenders § 120... specific proposed loan that a Lender may submit. The existence of a Loan Guarantee Agreement does not limit...
7 CFR 4279.149 - Personal and corporate guarantee.
2010-01-01
... guarantees are part of the collateral for the loan, but are not considered in determining whether a loan is... documents to the Agency's satisfaction that collateral, equity, cashflow, and profitability indicate an... guarantee form. When warranted by an Agency assessment of potential financial risk, Agency approved...
7 CFR 2201.28 - Participation in guaranteed Loans.
2010-01-01
... Participation in guaranteed Loans. (a) Subject to paragraphs (b), (c) and (d) of this section, a Lender may distribute the risk of a portion of a Loan guaranteed under the Program by sale of participations therein if... in part as a result of the sale of such participations; (2) The Lender remains solely responsible for...
14 CFR 1300.23 - Participation in guaranteed loans.
2010-01-01
... lender may distribute the risk of a portion of a loan guaranteed under the program by sale of... transferred in whole or in part; (2) The lender remains solely responsible for the administration of the loan... loans guaranteed under the program: (1) Eligible lenders; (2) Private investment funds and insurance...
Geometrical method of decoupling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Baumgarten
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The computation of tunes and matched beam distributions are essential steps in the analysis of circular accelerators. If certain symmetries—like midplane symmetry—are present, then it is possible to treat the betatron motion in the horizontal, the vertical plane, and (under certain circumstances the longitudinal motion separately using the well-known Courant-Snyder theory, or to apply transformations that have been described previously as, for instance, the method of Teng and Edwards. In a preceding paper, it has been shown that this method requires a modification for the treatment of isochronous cyclotrons with non-negligible space charge forces. Unfortunately, the modification was numerically not as stable as desired and it was still unclear, if the extension would work for all conceivable cases. Hence, a systematic derivation of a more general treatment seemed advisable. In a second paper, the author suggested the use of real Dirac matrices as basic tools for coupled linear optics and gave a straightforward recipe to decouple positive definite Hamiltonians with imaginary eigenvalues. In this article this method is generalized and simplified in order to formulate a straightforward method to decouple Hamiltonian matrices with eigenvalues on the real and the imaginary axis. The decoupling of symplectic matrices which are exponentials of such Hamiltonian matrices can be deduced from this in a few steps. It is shown that this algebraic decoupling is closely related to a geometric “decoupling” by the orthogonalization of the vectors E[over →], B[over →], and P[over →], which were introduced with the so-called “electromechanical equivalence.” A mathematical analysis of the problem can be traced down to the task of finding a structure-preserving block diagonalization of symplectic or Hamiltonian matrices. Structure preservation means in this context that the (sequence of transformations must be symplectic and hence canonical. When
Geometric inequalities for black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dain, Sergio
2013-01-01
Full text: A geometric inequality in General Relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities, which are valid in the dynamical and strong field regime, play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this talk I will review recent results in this subject. (author)
Geometric Computing for Freeform Architecture
Wallner, J.
2011-06-03
Geometric computing has recently found a new field of applications, namely the various geometric problems which lie at the heart of rationalization and construction-aware design processes of freeform architecture. We report on our work in this area, dealing with meshes with planar faces and meshes which allow multilayer constructions (which is related to discrete surfaces and their curvatures), triangles meshes with circle-packing properties (which is related to conformal uniformization), and with the paneling problem. We emphasize the combination of numerical optimization and geometric knowledge.
Optical traps with geometric aberrations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roichman, Yael; Waldron, Alex; Gardel, Emily; Grier, David G.
2006-01-01
We assess the influence of geometric aberrations on the in-plane performance of optical traps by studying the dynamics of trapped colloidal spheres in deliberately distorted holographic optical tweezers. The lateral stiffness of the traps turns out to be insensitive to moderate amounts of coma, astigmatism, and spherical aberration. Moreover holographic aberration correction enables us to compensate inherent shortcomings in the optical train, thereby adaptively improving its performance. We also demonstrate the effects of geometric aberrations on the intensity profiles of optical vortices, whose readily measured deformations suggest a method for rapidly estimating and correcting geometric aberrations in holographic trapping systems
Geometric inequalities for black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dain, Sergio [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina)
2013-07-01
Full text: A geometric inequality in General Relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities, which are valid in the dynamical and strong field regime, play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this talk I will review recent results in this subject. (author)
Murugan, Karmani; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness
2017-09-01
This study aimed to highlight a statistic design to precisely engineer homogenous geometric copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) for enhanced intracellular drug delivery as a function of geometrical structure. CuNPs with a dual functionality comprising geometric attributes for enhanced cell uptake and exerting cytotoxic activity on proliferating cells were synthesized as a novel drug delivery system. This paper investigated the defined concentrations of two key surfactants used in the reaction to mutually control and manipulate nano-shape and optimisation of the geometric nanosystems. A statistical experimental design comprising a full factorial model served as a refining factor to achieve homogenous geometric nanoparticles using a one-pot method for the systematic optimisation of the geometric CuNPs. Shapes of the nanoparticles were investigated to determine the result of the surfactant variation as the aim of the study and zeta potential was studied to ensure the stability of the system and establish a nanosystem of low aggregation potential. After optimisation of the nano-shapes, extensive cellular internalisation studies were conducted to elucidate the effect of geometric CuNPs on uptake rates, in addition to the vital toxicity assays to further understand the cellular effect of geometric CuNPs as a drug delivery system. In addition to geometry; volume, surface area, orientation to the cell membrane and colloidal stability is also addressed. The outcomes of the study demonstrated the success of homogenous geometric NP formation, in addition to a stable surface charge. The findings of the study can be utilized for the development of a drug delivery system for promoted cellular internalisation and effective drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Discrete geometric structures for architecture
Pottmann, Helmut
2010-01-01
. The talk will provide an overview of recent progress in this field, with a particular focus on discrete geometric structures. Most of these result from practical requirements on segmenting a freeform shape into planar panels and on the physical realization
Geometric Rationalization for Freeform Architecture
Jiang, Caigui
2016-01-01
The emergence of freeform architecture provides interesting geometric challenges with regards to the design and manufacturing of large-scale structures. To design these architectural structures, we have to consider two types of constraints. First
Geometrical optics in general relativity
Loinger, A.
2006-01-01
General relativity includes geometrical optics. This basic fact has relevant consequences that concern the physical meaning of the discontinuity surfaces propagated in the gravitational field - as it was first emphasized by Levi-Civita.
Mobile Watermarking against Geometrical Distortions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jing Zhang
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Mobile watermarking robust to geometrical distortions is still a great challenge. In mobile watermarking, efficient computation is necessary because mobile devices have very limited resources due to power consumption. In this paper, we propose a low-complexity geometrically resilient watermarking approach based on the optimal tradeoff circular harmonic function (OTCHF correlation filter and the minimum average correlation energy Mellin radial harmonic (MACE-MRH correlation filter. By the rotation, translation and scale tolerance properties of the two kinds of filter, the proposed watermark detector can be robust to geometrical attacks. The embedded watermark is weighted by a perceptual mask which matches very well with the properties of the human visual system. Before correlation, a whitening process is utilized to improve watermark detection reliability. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed watermarking approach is computationally efficient and robust to geometrical distortions.
Geometric inequalities methods of proving
Sedrakyan, Hayk
2017-01-01
This unique collection of new and classical problems provides full coverage of geometric inequalities. Many of the 1,000 exercises are presented with detailed author-prepared-solutions, developing creativity and an arsenal of new approaches for solving mathematical problems. This book can serve teachers, high-school students, and mathematical competitors. It may also be used as supplemental reading, providing readers with new and classical methods for proving geometric inequalities. .
Pricing unit-linked insurance with guaranteed benefit
Iqbal, M.; Novkaniza, F.; Novita, M.
2017-07-01
Unit-linked insurance is an investment-linked insurance, that is, the given benefit is the premium investment out-come. Recently, the most widely marketed insurance in the industry is unit-linked insurance with guaranteed benefit. With guaranteed benefit applied, the insurance benefits form is similar to the payoff form of European call option. Thereby, pricing European call option is involved in pricing unit-linked insurance with guaranteed benefit. The dynamics of investment outcome is assumed to follow stochastic interest rate. Hence, change of measure methods is used in pricing unit-linked insurance. The discount factor with stochastic interest rate needs to be modified as well to be zero coupon bond price. Eventually, the insurance premium is calculated by equivalence principle with guaranteed benefit and insurance period explicitly given.
7 CFR 1720.8 - Issuance of the guarantee.
2010-01-01
... accounting firm or federal banking regulator, annual consolidated financial statements audited by an... financial covenants, and events of default and remedies; (3) Prior to the issuance of the guarantee, the...
Geometric Mixing, Peristalsis, and the Geometric Phase of the Stomach.
Arrieta, Jorge; Cartwright, Julyan H E; Gouillart, Emmanuelle; Piro, Nicolas; Piro, Oreste; Tuval, Idan
2015-01-01
Mixing fluid in a container at low Reynolds number--in an inertialess environment--is not a trivial task. Reciprocating motions merely lead to cycles of mixing and unmixing, so continuous rotation, as used in many technological applications, would appear to be necessary. However, there is another solution: movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion to introduce a geometric phase. We show using journal-bearing flow as a model that such geometric mixing is a general tool for using deformable boundaries that return to the same position to mix fluid at low Reynolds number. We then simulate a biological example: we show that mixing in the stomach functions because of the "belly phase," peristaltic movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion introduces a geometric phase that avoids unmixing.
Geometric Mixing, Peristalsis, and the Geometric Phase of the Stomach.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jorge Arrieta
Full Text Available Mixing fluid in a container at low Reynolds number--in an inertialess environment--is not a trivial task. Reciprocating motions merely lead to cycles of mixing and unmixing, so continuous rotation, as used in many technological applications, would appear to be necessary. However, there is another solution: movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion to introduce a geometric phase. We show using journal-bearing flow as a model that such geometric mixing is a general tool for using deformable boundaries that return to the same position to mix fluid at low Reynolds number. We then simulate a biological example: we show that mixing in the stomach functions because of the "belly phase," peristaltic movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion introduces a geometric phase that avoids unmixing.
Financial guarantees and public debt in South Africa
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ogutu Miruka
2015-09-01
Full Text Available A few years since the worst of the Euro sovereign debt crisis, many nations, from Cyprus to Ireland, including South Africa are re-visiting their public debt management to avert or lessen the impact of similar such happenings in the future. There are a number of studies on risk assessments of fiscal sustainability; however, few focus on contingent liabilities and even fewer on financial guarantees. In South Africa, financial guarantees have consistently comprised just above or below 50% of all contingent liabilities since the early days of majoritarian rule. In lieu of this, the paper analyses the risks posed by financial guarantees to fiscal sustainability in South Africa. We estimate the effect of financial guarantees on public debt in South Africa via the Engle Granger and causality model with quarterly time series data obtained from the South African Reserve Bank (SARB as well as the National Treasury. The data covers the April 1997 to December 2011 period. All econometric methods were executed using the statistical software package E-Views 7. We found that no long run relationship exists between national net loan debt and financial guarantees in South Africa. The pass rate of financial guarantees significantly affects its present value. The pass rate of financial guarantees has a predicting ability in determining the present value of national net loan debt. These findings may be contrary to what would be expected in the case of South Africa considering that the country is managing the issuance of financial guarantees prudently and that at present levels, there is no need for a radical policy shift. The study therefore offers a lesson to similar merging economies on the good governance of contingent liabilities.
Guaranteed cost control of time-delay chaotic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Ju H.; Kwon, O.M.
2006-01-01
This article studies a guaranteed cost control problem for a class of time-delay chaotic systems. Attention is focused on the design of memory state feedback controllers such that the resulting closed-loop system is asymptotically stable and an adequate level of performance is also guaranteed. Using the Lyapunov method and LMI (linear matrix inequality) framework, two criteria for the existence of the controller are derived in terms of LMIs. A numerical example is given to illustrate the proposed method
Several Guaranteed Descent Conjugate Gradient Methods for Unconstrained Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
San-Yang Liu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates a general form of guaranteed descent conjugate gradient methods which satisfies the descent condition gkTdk≤-1-1/4θkgk2 θk>1/4 and which is strongly convergent whenever the weak Wolfe line search is fulfilled. Moreover, we present several specific guaranteed descent conjugate gradient methods and give their numerical results for large-scale unconstrained optimization.
Implementation of a financial guarantee policy at the CNSC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barker, R.
2011-01-01
The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) was established in 2000 under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA) to replace the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). Prior to the coming in force of the NSCA, financial guarantees associated with licensed activities were not prescribed in the Atomic Energy Control Act or its regulations. Under the NSCA, the Commission Tribunal 'the Commission' was given authority to impose conditions in licences requiring financial guarantees from licensees. Other provisions of the NSCA provided information on the application of financial guarantees and for refunds when decommissioning obligations had been met. Since 2000, the application of financial guarantees has been primarily focussed on licences issued pursuant to the Class I Nuclear Facilities Regulations and the Uranium Mines and Mills Regulations. This was to assure that the requirements for financial guarantees were initially directed at the high risk, complex facilities licensed by the CNSC. However, all licensees have not yet been required to provide a financial guarantee for all licensed facilities, activities or licence types. Additionally, CNSC expectations in relation to when financial guarantees, associated decommissioning plans and cost estimates need to be reviewed, updated and submitted, and what they should entail have been evolving, indicating a need for a clear CNSC policy on the subject. Consequently, the CNSC is proceeding with the development of a financial guarantee policy and implementation plan to assure that generators of nuclear waste will have the financial resources available to decommission nuclear facilities, operations and devices and that this activity will not fall to government as a future liability. This program will require approval by the Commission, planned for 2012. This paper will further describe this policy and its possible outcomes. (author)
A new geometrical gravitational theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Obata, T.; Chiba, J.; Oshima, H.
1981-01-01
A geometrical gravitational theory is developed. The field equations are uniquely determined apart from one unknown dimensionless parameter ω 2 . It is based on an extension of the Weyl geometry, and by the extension the gravitational coupling constant and the gravitational mass are made to be dynamical and geometrical. The fundamental geometrical objects in the theory are a metric gsub(μν) and two gauge scalars phi and psi. The theory satisfies the weak equivalence principle, but breaks the strong one generally. u(phi, psi) = phi is found out on the assumption that the strong one keeps holding good at least for bosons of low spins. Thus there is the simple correspondence between the geometrical objects and the gravitational objects. Since the theory satisfies the weak one, the inertial mass is also dynamical and geometrical in the same way as is the gravitational mass. Moreover, the cosmological term in the theory is a coscalar of power -4 algebraically made of psi and u(phi, psi), so it is dynamical, too. Finally spherically symmetric exact solutions are given. The permissible range of the unknown parameter ω 2 is experimentally determined by applying the solutions to the solar system. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yarmand, Hamed; Winey, Brian; Craft, David
2013-01-01
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is characterized by delivering a high amount of dose in a short period of time. In SBRT the dose is delivered using open fields (e.g., beam’s-eye-view) known as ‘apertures’. Mathematical methods can be used for optimizing treatment planning for delivery of sufficient dose to the cancerous cells while keeping the dose to surrounding organs at risk (OARs) minimal. Two important elements of a treatment plan are quality and delivery time. Quality of a plan is measured based on the target coverage and dose to OARs. Delivery time heavily depends on the number of beams used in the plan as the setup times for different beam directions constitute a large portion of the delivery time. Therefore the ideal plan, in which all potential beams can be used, will be associated with a long impractical delivery time. We use the dose to OARs in the ideal plan to find the plan with the minimum number of beams which is guaranteed to be epsilon-optimal (i.e., a predetermined maximum deviation from the ideal plan is guaranteed). Since the treatment plan optimization is inherently a multi-criteria-optimization problem, the planner can navigate the ideal dose distribution Pareto surface and select a plan of desired target coverage versus OARs sparing, and then use the proposed technique to reduce the number of beams while guaranteeing epsilon-optimality. We use mixed integer programming (MIP) for optimization. To reduce the computation time for the resultant MIP, we use two heuristics: a beam elimination scheme and a family of heuristic cuts, known as ‘neighbor cuts’, based on the concept of ‘adjacent beams’. We show the effectiveness of the proposed technique on two clinical cases, a liver and a lung case. Based on our technique we propose an algorithm for fast generation of epsilon-optimal plans. (paper)
Geometric group theory an introduction
Löh, Clara
2017-01-01
Inspired by classical geometry, geometric group theory has in turn provided a variety of applications to geometry, topology, group theory, number theory and graph theory. This carefully written textbook provides a rigorous introduction to this rapidly evolving field whose methods have proven to be powerful tools in neighbouring fields such as geometric topology. Geometric group theory is the study of finitely generated groups via the geometry of their associated Cayley graphs. It turns out that the essence of the geometry of such groups is captured in the key notion of quasi-isometry, a large-scale version of isometry whose invariants include growth types, curvature conditions, boundary constructions, and amenability. This book covers the foundations of quasi-geometry of groups at an advanced undergraduate level. The subject is illustrated by many elementary examples, outlooks on applications, as well as an extensive collection of exercises.
Geometric procedures for civil engineers
Tonias, Elias C
2016-01-01
This book provides a multitude of geometric constructions usually encountered in civil engineering and surveying practice. A detailed geometric solution is provided to each construction as well as a step-by-step set of programming instructions for incorporation into a computing system. The volume is comprised of 12 chapters and appendices that may be grouped in three major parts: the first is intended for those who love geometry for its own sake and its evolution through the ages, in general, and, more specifically, with the introduction of the computer. The second section addresses geometric features used in the book and provides support procedures used by the constructions presented. The remaining chapters and the appendices contain the various constructions. The volume is ideal for engineering practitioners in civil and construction engineering and allied areas.
Van Vaerenbergh, Yves; De Keyser, Arne; Larivière, Bart
2014-01-01
Purpose – Many service providers feel confident about their service quality and thus offer service guarantees to their customers. Yet service failures are inevitable. As guarantees can only be invoked when customers report service failures, firms are given the opportunity to redress the original failure potentially influencing customer outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to provide the first empirical investigation of whether excellence in service recovery affects customers’ intentions to ...
An introduction to geometrical physics
Aldrovandi, R
1995-01-01
This book stresses the unifying power of the geometrical framework in bringing together concepts from the different areas of physics. Common underpinnings of optics, elasticity, gravitation, relativistic fields, particle mechanics and other subjects are underlined. It attempts to extricate the notion of space currently in the physical literature from the metric connotation.The book's goal is to present mathematical ideas associated with geometrical physics in a rather introductory language. Included are many examples from elementary physics and also, for those wishing to reach a higher level o
Geometric scaling as traveling waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munier, S.; Peschanski, R.
2003-01-01
We show the relevance of the nonlinear Fisher and Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov (KPP) equation to the problem of high energy evolution of the QCD amplitudes. We explain how the traveling wave solutions of this equation are related to geometric scaling, a phenomenon observed in deep-inelastic scattering experiments. Geometric scaling is for the first time shown to result from an exact solution of nonlinear QCD evolution equations. Using general results on the KPP equation, we compute the velocity of the wave front, which gives the full high energy dependence of the saturation scale
Asymptotic geometric analysis, part I
Artstein-Avidan, Shiri
2015-01-01
The authors present the theory of asymptotic geometric analysis, a field which lies on the border between geometry and functional analysis. In this field, isometric problems that are typical for geometry in low dimensions are substituted by an "isomorphic" point of view, and an asymptotic approach (as dimension tends to infinity) is introduced. Geometry and analysis meet here in a non-trivial way. Basic examples of geometric inequalities in isomorphic form which are encountered in the book are the "isomorphic isoperimetric inequalities" which led to the discovery of the "concentration phenomen
Geometric integration for particle accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forest, Etienne
2006-01-01
This paper is a very personal view of the field of geometric integration in accelerator physics-a field where often work of the highest quality is buried in lost technical notes or even not published; one has only to think of Simon van der Meer Nobel prize work on stochastic cooling-unpublished in any refereed journal. So I reconstructed the relevant history of geometrical integration in accelerator physics as much as I could by talking to collaborators and using my own understanding of the field. The reader should not be too surprised if this account is somewhere between history, science and perhaps even fiction
Geometrical spin symmetry and spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pestov, I. B.
2011-01-01
Unification of General Theory of Relativity and Quantum Mechanics leads to General Quantum Mechanics which includes into itself spindynamics as a theory of spin phenomena. The key concepts of spindynamics are geometrical spin symmetry and the spin field (space of defining representation of spin symmetry). The essence of spin is the bipolar structure of geometrical spin symmetry induced by the gravitational potential. The bipolar structure provides a natural derivation of the equations of spindynamics. Spindynamics involves all phenomena connected with spin and provides new understanding of the strong interaction.
Geometric integration for particle accelerators
Forest, Étienne
2006-05-01
This paper is a very personal view of the field of geometric integration in accelerator physics—a field where often work of the highest quality is buried in lost technical notes or even not published; one has only to think of Simon van der Meer Nobel prize work on stochastic cooling—unpublished in any refereed journal. So I reconstructed the relevant history of geometrical integration in accelerator physics as much as I could by talking to collaborators and using my own understanding of the field. The reader should not be too surprised if this account is somewhere between history, science and perhaps even fiction.
Lattice degeneracies of geometric fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raszillier, H.
1983-05-01
We give the minimal numbers of degrees of freedom carried by geometric fermions on all lattices of maximal symmetries in d = 2, 3, and 4 dimensions. These numbers are lattice dependent, but in the (free) continuum limit, part of the degrees of freedom have to escape to infinity by a Wilson mechanism built in, and 2sup(d) survive for any lattice. On self-reciprocal lattices we compare the minimal numbers of degrees of freedom of geometric fermions with the minimal numbers of naive fermions on these lattices and argue that these numbers are equal. (orig.)
Approximate joint diagonalization and geometric mean of symmetric positive definite matrices.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Congedo
Full Text Available We explore the connection between two problems that have arisen independently in the signal processing and related fields: the estimation of the geometric mean of a set of symmetric positive definite (SPD matrices and their approximate joint diagonalization (AJD. Today there is a considerable interest in estimating the geometric mean of a SPD matrix set in the manifold of SPD matrices endowed with the Fisher information metric. The resulting mean has several important invariance properties and has proven very useful in diverse engineering applications such as biomedical and image data processing. While for two SPD matrices the mean has an algebraic closed form solution, for a set of more than two SPD matrices it can only be estimated by iterative algorithms. However, none of the existing iterative algorithms feature at the same time fast convergence, low computational complexity per iteration and guarantee of convergence. For this reason, recently other definitions of geometric mean based on symmetric divergence measures, such as the Bhattacharyya divergence, have been considered. The resulting means, although possibly useful in practice, do not satisfy all desirable invariance properties. In this paper we consider geometric means of covariance matrices estimated on high-dimensional time-series, assuming that the data is generated according to an instantaneous mixing model, which is very common in signal processing. We show that in these circumstances we can approximate the Fisher information geometric mean by employing an efficient AJD algorithm. Our approximation is in general much closer to the Fisher information geometric mean as compared to its competitors and verifies many invariance properties. Furthermore, convergence is guaranteed, the computational complexity is low and the convergence rate is quadratic. The accuracy of this new geometric mean approximation is demonstrated by means of simulations.
Approximate joint diagonalization and geometric mean of symmetric positive definite matrices.
Congedo, Marco; Afsari, Bijan; Barachant, Alexandre; Moakher, Maher
2014-01-01
We explore the connection between two problems that have arisen independently in the signal processing and related fields: the estimation of the geometric mean of a set of symmetric positive definite (SPD) matrices and their approximate joint diagonalization (AJD). Today there is a considerable interest in estimating the geometric mean of a SPD matrix set in the manifold of SPD matrices endowed with the Fisher information metric. The resulting mean has several important invariance properties and has proven very useful in diverse engineering applications such as biomedical and image data processing. While for two SPD matrices the mean has an algebraic closed form solution, for a set of more than two SPD matrices it can only be estimated by iterative algorithms. However, none of the existing iterative algorithms feature at the same time fast convergence, low computational complexity per iteration and guarantee of convergence. For this reason, recently other definitions of geometric mean based on symmetric divergence measures, such as the Bhattacharyya divergence, have been considered. The resulting means, although possibly useful in practice, do not satisfy all desirable invariance properties. In this paper we consider geometric means of covariance matrices estimated on high-dimensional time-series, assuming that the data is generated according to an instantaneous mixing model, which is very common in signal processing. We show that in these circumstances we can approximate the Fisher information geometric mean by employing an efficient AJD algorithm. Our approximation is in general much closer to the Fisher information geometric mean as compared to its competitors and verifies many invariance properties. Furthermore, convergence is guaranteed, the computational complexity is low and the convergence rate is quadratic. The accuracy of this new geometric mean approximation is demonstrated by means of simulations.
Height and Tilt Geometric Texture
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Vedrana; Desbrun, Mathieu; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas
2009-01-01
compromise between functionality and simplicity: it can efficiently handle and process geometric texture too complex to be represented as a height field, without having recourse to full blown mesh editing algorithms. The height-and-tilt representation proposed here is fully intrinsic to the mesh, making...
In Defence of Geometrical Algebra
Blasjo, V.N.E.
The geometrical algebra hypothesis was once the received interpretation of Greek mathematics. In recent decades, however, it has become anathema to many. I give a critical review of all arguments against it and offer a consistent rebuttal case against the modern consensus. Consequently, I find that
Geometrical interpretation of extended supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Townsend, P.K.; Nieuwenhuizen, P.van
1977-01-01
SO 2 extended supergravity is shown to be a geometrical theory, whose underlying gauge group is OSp(4,2). The couplings which gauge the SO 2 symmetry as well as the accompanying cosmological and masslike terms are directly obtained, and the usual SO 2 model is obtained after a Wigner-Inoenue group contraction. (Auth.)
Geometric scaling in exclusive processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munier, S.; Wallon, S.
2003-01-01
We show that according to the present understanding of the energy evolution of the observables measured in deep-inelastic scattering, the photon-proton scattering amplitude has to exhibit geometric scaling at each impact parameter. We suggest a way to test this experimentally at HERA. A qualitative analysis based on published data is presented and discussed. (orig.)
Geometric quantization and general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souriau, J.-M.
1977-01-01
The purpose of geometric quantization is to give a rigorous mathematical content to the 'correspondence principle' between classical and quantum mechanics. The main tools are borrowed on one hand from differential geometry and topology (differential manifolds, differential forms, fiber bundles, homology and cohomology, homotopy), on the other hand from analysis (functions of positive type, infinite dimensional group representations, pseudo-differential operators). Some satisfactory results have been obtained in the study of dynamical systems, but some fundamental questions are still waiting for an answer. The 'geometric quantization of fields', where some further well known difficulties arise, is still in a preliminary stage. In particular, the geometric quantization on the gravitational field is still a mere project. The situation is even more uncertain due to the fact that there is no experimental evidence of any quantum gravitational effect which could give us a hint towards what we are supposed to look for. The first level of both Quantum Theory, and General Relativity describes passive matter: influence by the field without being a source of it (first quantization and equivalence principle respectively). In both cases this is only an approximation (matter is always a source). But this approximation turns out to be the least uncertain part of the description, because on one hand the first quantization avoids the problems of renormalization and on the other hand the equivalence principle does not imply any choice of field equations (it is known that one can modify Einstein equations at short distances without changing their geometrical properties). (Auth.)
Geometric origin of central charges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lukierski, J.; Rytel, L.
1981-05-01
The complete set of N(N-1) central charge generators for D=4 N-extended super Poincare algebra is obtained by suitable contraction of OSp (2N; 4) superalgebra. The superspace realizations of the spinorial generators with central charges are derived. The conjugate set of N(N-1) additional bosonic superspace coordinates is introduced in an unique and geometric way. (author)
Vergence, Vision, and Geometric Optics
Keating, Michael P.
1975-01-01
Provides a definition of vergence in terms of the curvature of the wave fronts, and gives examples to illustrate the advantages of this approach. The vergence treatment of geometrical optics provides both conceptual and algebraic advantages, particularly for the life science student, over the traditional object distance-image distance-focal length…
Geometric phases and quantum computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vedral, V.
2005-01-01
Full text: In my lectures I will talk about the notion of the geometric phase and explain its relevance for both fundamental quantum mechanics as well as quantum computation. The phase will be at first introduced via the idea of Pancharatnam which involves interference of three or more light beams. This notion will then be generalized to the evolving quantum systems. I will discuss both pure and mixed states as well as unitary and non-unitary evolutions. I will also show how the concept of the vacuum induced geometric phase arises in quantum optics. A simple measurement scheme involving a Mach Zehnder interferometer will be presented and will be used to illustrate all the concepts in the lecture. Finally, I will expose a simple generalization of the geometric phase to evolving degenerate states. This will be seen to lead to the possibility of universal quantum computation using geometric effects only. Moreover, this contains a promise of intrinsically fault tolerant quantum information processing, whose prospects will be outlined at the end of the lecture. (author)
Cartan's geometrical structure of supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baaklini, N.S.
1977-06-01
The geometrical partnership of the vierbein and the spin-3/2 field in the structure of the supergravity Lagrangian is emphasized. Both fields are introduced as component of the same matrix differential form. The only local symmetry of the theory is SL(2,C)
Geometric Transformations in Engineering Geometry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. F. Borovikov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Recently, for business purposes, in view of current trends and world experience in training engineers, research and faculty staff there has been a need to transform traditional courses of descriptive geometry into the course of engineering geometry in which the geometrical transformations have to become its main section. On the basis of critical analysis the paper gives suggestions to improve a presentation technique of this section both in the classroom and in academic literature, extend an application scope of geometrical transformations to solve the position and metric tasks and simulation of surfaces, as well as to design complex engineering configurations, which meet a number of pre-specified conditions.The article offers to make a number of considerable amendments to the terms and definitions used in the existing courses of descriptive geometry. It draws some conclusions and makes the appropriate proposals on feasibility of coordination in teaching the movement transformation in the courses of analytical and descriptive geometry. This will provide interdisciplinary team teaching and allow students to be convinced that a combination of analytical and graphic ways to solve geometric tasks is useful and reasonable.The traditional sections of learning courses need to be added with a theory of projective and bi-rational transformations. In terms of application simplicity and convenience it is enough to consider the central transformations when solving the applied tasks. These transformations contain a beam of sub-invariant (low-invariant straight lines on which the invariant curve induces non-involution and involution projectivities. The expediency of nonlinear transformations application is shown in the article by a specific example of geometric modeling of the interfacing surface "spar-blade".Implementation of these suggestions will contribute to a real transformation of a traditional course of descriptive geometry to the engineering geometry
Assume-Guarantee Abstraction Refinement Meets Hybrid Systems
Bogomolov, Sergiy; Frehse, Goran; Greitschus, Marius; Grosu, Radu; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Podelski, Andreas; Strump, Thomas
2014-01-01
Compositional verification techniques in the assume- guarantee style have been successfully applied to transition systems to efficiently reduce the search space by leveraging the compositional nature of the systems under consideration. We adapt these techniques to the domain of hybrid systems with affine dynamics. To build assumptions we introduce an abstraction based on location merging. We integrate the assume-guarantee style analysis with automatic abstraction refinement. We have implemented our approach in the symbolic hybrid model checker SpaceEx. The evaluation shows its practical potential. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work combining assume-guarantee reasoning with automatic abstraction-refinement in the context of hybrid automata.
Bank guarantee in Serbian and European legal systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pajtić Bojan L.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper analyses a bank guarantee as an institute derived from a surety contract. By issuing a bank guarantee the bank commits to the creditor that it will fulfill valid and due liabilities of a debtor, in the event of default by the debtor. This collateral demonstrates significant advantages as compared to other personal assets, particularly with regards to a higher level of protection to creditors in contractual relations. Due to the aforementioned benefit the institute has been increasingly applied in legal dealings, both in our and other legal systems. In the paper, I will point out normative solutions in terms of regulation of a bank guarantee as a specific legal activity in which there is no accessoriness, which is not the case with security. This research particularly focuses on the comparative legal analysis of this collateral.
Robust guaranteed cost tracking control of quadrotor UAV with uncertainties.
Xu, Zhiwei; Nian, Xiaohong; Wang, Haibo; Chen, Yinsheng
2017-07-01
In this paper, a robust guaranteed cost controller (RGCC) is proposed for quadrotor UAV system with uncertainties to address set-point tracking problem. A sufficient condition of the existence for RGCC is derived by Lyapunov stability theorem. The designed RGCC not only guarantees the whole closed-loop system asymptotically stable but also makes the quadratic performance level built for the closed-loop system have an upper bound irrespective to all admissible parameter uncertainties. Then, an optimal robust guaranteed cost controller is developed to minimize the upper bound of performance level. Simulation results verify the presented control algorithms possess small overshoot and short setting time, with which the quadrotor has ability to perform set-point tracking task well. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Deterministic Greedy Routing with Guaranteed Delivery in 3D Wireless Sensor Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Su Xia
2014-05-01
Full Text Available With both computational complexity and storage space bounded by a small constant, greedy routing is recognized as an appealing approach to support scalable routing in wireless sensor networks. However, significant challenges have been encountered in extending greedy routing from 2D to 3D space. In this research, we develop decentralized solutions to achieve greedy routing in 3D sensor networks. Our proposed approach is based on a unit tetrahedron cell (UTC mesh structure. We propose a distributed algorithm to realize volumetric harmonic mapping (VHM of the UTC mesh under spherical boundary condition. It is a one-to-one map that yields virtual coordinates for each node in the network without or with one internal hole. Since a boundary has been mapped to a sphere, node-based greedy routing is always successful thereon. At the same time, we exploit the UTC mesh to develop a face-based greedy routing algorithm and prove its success at internal nodes. To deliver a data packet to its destination, face-based and node-based greedy routing algorithms are employed alternately at internal and boundary UTCs, respectively. For networks with multiple internal holes, a segmentation and tunnel-based routing strategy is proposed on top of VHM to support global end-to-end routing. As far as we know, this is the first work that realizes truly deterministic routing with constant-bounded storage and computation in general 3D wireless sensor networks.
Robust levitation control for maglev systems with guaranteed bounded airgap.
Xu, Jinquan; Chen, Ye-Hwa; Guo, Hong
2015-11-01
The robust control design problem for the levitation control of a nonlinear uncertain maglev system is considered. The uncertainty is (possibly) fast time-varying. The system has magnitude limitation on the airgap between the suspended chassis and the guideway in order to prevent undesirable contact. Furthermore, the (global) matching condition is not satisfied. After a three-step state transformation, a robust control scheme for the maglev vehicle is proposed, which is able to guarantee the uniform boundedness and uniform ultimate boundedness of the system, regardless of the uncertainty. The magnitude limitation of the airgap is guaranteed, regardless of the uncertainty. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Evaluating the geometric shape of a flying paraglider
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Hanke
2014-06-01
Full Text Available This paper describes the photogrammetric approach to find the geometric shape of a paraglider. As its geometry is only available during the flight this had to be done under special conditions. The layout of the camera positions was limited by the strict safety of the pilot as well as a wind and flying situation that guarantees a stable geometry of the object for several minutes. The data acquisition was finally carried out in the area of Lake Garda and the pilot had the challenging task to handle the calibrated camera using a telescope arm in predefined positions during his flight. The evaluation of the 3D position of selected discrete points representing the paraglider's shape was done by employing a bundle adjustment software and led to very satisfying results which were also proof of the stability of the paraglider during data acquisition as well as of the symmetry of the resulting shape.
On chromatic and geometrical calibration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Folm-Hansen, Jørgen
1999-01-01
The main subject of the present thesis is different methods for the geometrical and chromatic calibration of cameras in various environments. For the monochromatic issues of the calibration we present the acquisition of monochrome images, the classic monochrome aberrations and the various sources...... the correct interpolation method is described. For the chromatic issues of calibration we present the acquisition of colour and multi-spectral images, the chromatic aberrations and the various lens/camera based non-uniformities of the illumination of the image plane. It is described how the monochromatic...... to design calibration targets for both geometrical and chromatic calibration are described. We present some possible systematical errors on the detection of the objects in the calibration targets, if viewed in a non orthogonal angle, if the intensities are uneven or if the image blurring is uneven. Finally...
Geometrical approach to tumor growth.
Escudero, Carlos
2006-08-01
Tumor growth has a number of features in common with a physical process known as molecular beam epitaxy. Both growth processes are characterized by the constraint of growth development to the body border, and surface diffusion of cells and particles at the growing edge. However, tumor growth implies an approximate spherical symmetry that makes necessary a geometrical treatment of the growth equations. The basic model was introduced in a former paper [C. Escudero, Phys. Rev. E 73, 020902(R) (2006)], and in the present work we extend our analysis and try to shed light on the possible geometrical principles that drive tumor growth. We present two-dimensional models that reproduce the experimental observations, and analyze the unexplored three-dimensional case, for which interesting conclusions on tumor growth are derived.
Geometrical interpretation of optical absorption
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Monzon, J. J.; Barriuso, A. G.; Sanchez-Soto, L. L. [Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Montesinos-Amilibia, J. M. [Departamento de Geometria y Topologia, Facultad de Matematicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)
2011-08-15
We reinterpret the transfer matrix for an absorbing system in very simple geometrical terms. In appropriate variables, the system appears as performing a Lorentz transformation in a (1 + 3)-dimensional space. Using homogeneous coordinates, we map that action on the unit sphere, which is at the realm of the Klein model of hyperbolic geometry. The effects of absorption appear then as a loxodromic transformation, that is, a rhumb line crossing all the meridians at the same angle.
Parametric FEM for geometric biomembranes
Bonito, Andrea; Nochetto, Ricardo H.; Sebastian Pauletti, M.
2010-05-01
We consider geometric biomembranes governed by an L2-gradient flow for bending energy subject to area and volume constraints (Helfrich model). We give a concise derivation of a novel vector formulation, based on shape differential calculus, and corresponding discretization via parametric FEM using quadratic isoparametric elements and a semi-implicit Euler method. We document the performance of the new parametric FEM with a number of simulations leading to dumbbell, red blood cell and toroidal equilibrium shapes while exhibiting large deformations.
Geometrical methods in learning theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burdet, G.; Combe, Ph.; Nencka, H.
2001-01-01
The methods of information theory provide natural approaches to learning algorithms in the case of stochastic formal neural networks. Most of the classical techniques are based on some extremization principle. A geometrical interpretation of the associated algorithms provides a powerful tool for understanding the learning process and its stability and offers a framework for discussing possible new learning rules. An illustration is given using sequential and parallel learning in the Boltzmann machine
Geometrical approach to tumor growth
Escudero, Carlos
2006-01-01
Tumor growth has a number of features in common with a physical process known as molecular beam epitaxy. Both growth processes are characterized by the constraint of growth development to the body border, and surface diffusion of cells/particles at the growing edge. However, tumor growth implies an approximate spherical symmetry that makes necessary a geometrical treatment of the growth equations. The basic model was introduced in a former article [C. Escudero, Phys. Rev. E 73, 020902(R) (200...
Structure-preserving geometric algorithms for plasma physics and beam physics
Qin, Hong
2017-10-01
Standard algorithms in the plasma physics and beam physics do not possess the long-term accuracy and fidelity required in the study of multi-scale dynamics, because they do not preserve the geometric structures of the physical systems, such as the local energy-momentum conservation, symplectic structure and gauge symmetry. As a result, numerical errors accumulate coherently with time and long-term simulation results are not reliable. To overcome this difficulty, since 2008 structure-preserving geometric algorithms have been developed. This new generation of algorithms utilizes advanced techniques, such as interpolating differential forms, canonical and non-canonical symplectic integrators, and finite element exterior calculus to guarantee gauge symmetry and charge conservation, and the conservation of energy-momentum and symplectic structure. It is our vision that future numerical capabilities in plasma physics and beam physics will be based on the structure-preserving geometric algorithms.
Riemannian geometry and geometric analysis
Jost, Jürgen
2017-01-01
This established reference work continues to provide its readers with a gateway to some of the most interesting developments in contemporary geometry. It offers insight into a wide range of topics, including fundamental concepts of Riemannian geometry, such as geodesics, connections and curvature; the basic models and tools of geometric analysis, such as harmonic functions, forms, mappings, eigenvalues, the Dirac operator and the heat flow method; as well as the most important variational principles of theoretical physics, such as Yang-Mills, Ginzburg-Landau or the nonlinear sigma model of quantum field theory. The present volume connects all these topics in a systematic geometric framework. At the same time, it equips the reader with the working tools of the field and enables her or him to delve into geometric research. The 7th edition has been systematically reorganized and updated. Almost no page has been left unchanged. It also includes new material, for instance on symplectic geometry, as well as the B...
Geometric mean for subspace selection.
Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong; Wu, Xindong; Maybank, Stephen J
2009-02-01
Subspace selection approaches are powerful tools in pattern classification and data visualization. One of the most important subspace approaches is the linear dimensionality reduction step in the Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (FLDA), which has been successfully employed in many fields such as biometrics, bioinformatics, and multimedia information management. However, the linear dimensionality reduction step in FLDA has a critical drawback: for a classification task with c classes, if the dimension of the projected subspace is strictly lower than c - 1, the projection to a subspace tends to merge those classes, which are close together in the original feature space. If separate classes are sampled from Gaussian distributions, all with identical covariance matrices, then the linear dimensionality reduction step in FLDA maximizes the mean value of the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergences between different classes. Based on this viewpoint, the geometric mean for subspace selection is studied in this paper. Three criteria are analyzed: 1) maximization of the geometric mean of the KL divergences, 2) maximization of the geometric mean of the normalized KL divergences, and 3) the combination of 1 and 2. Preliminary experimental results based on synthetic data, UCI Machine Learning Repository, and handwriting digits show that the third criterion is a potential discriminative subspace selection method, which significantly reduces the class separation problem in comparing with the linear dimensionality reduction step in FLDA and its several representative extensions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jing Li
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Motivated by the need for loosely coupled and asynchronous dissemination of information, message queues are widely used in large-scale application areas. With the advent of virtualization technology, cloud-based message queueing services (CMQSs with distributed computing and storage are widely adopted to improve availability, scalability, and reliability; however, a critical issue is its performance and the quality of service (QoS. While numerous approaches evaluating system performance are available, there is no modeling approach for estimating and analyzing the performance of CMQSs. In this paper, we employ both the analytical and simulation modeling to address the performance of CMQSs with reliability guarantee. We present a visibility-based modeling approach (VMA for simulation model using colored Petri nets (CPN. Our model incorporates the important features of message queueing services in the cloud such as replication, message consistency, resource virtualization, and especially the mechanism named visibility timeout which is adopted in the services to guarantee system reliability. Finally, we evaluate our model through different experiments under varied scenarios to obtain important performance metrics such as total message delivery time, waiting number, and components utilization. Our results reveal considerable insights into resource scheduling and system configuration for service providers to estimate and gain performance optimization.
Interior point algorithms: guaranteed optimality for fluence map optimization in IMRT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aleman, Dionne M [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, ON M5S 3G8 (Canada); Glaser, Daniel [Division of Optimization and Systems Theory, Department of Mathematics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Romeijn, H Edwin [Department of Industrial and Operations Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2117 (United States); Dempsey, James F, E-mail: aleman@mie.utoronto.c, E-mail: romeijn@umich.ed, E-mail: jfdempsey@viewray.co [ViewRay, Inc. 2 Thermo Fisher Way, Village of Oakwood, OH 44146 (United States)
2010-09-21
One of the most widely studied problems of the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning problem is the fluence map optimization (FMO) problem, the problem of determining the amount of radiation intensity, or fluence, of each beamlet in each beam. For a given set of beams, the fluences of the beamlets can drastically affect the quality of the treatment plan, and thus it is critical to obtain good fluence maps for radiation delivery. Although several approaches have been shown to yield good solutions to the FMO problem, these solutions are not guaranteed to be optimal. This shortcoming can be attributed to either optimization model complexity or properties of the algorithms used to solve the optimization model. We present a convex FMO formulation and an interior point algorithm that yields an optimal treatment plan in seconds, making it a viable option for clinical applications.
Interior point algorithms: guaranteed optimality for fluence map optimization in IMRT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aleman, Dionne M; Glaser, Daniel; Romeijn, H Edwin; Dempsey, James F
2010-01-01
One of the most widely studied problems of the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning problem is the fluence map optimization (FMO) problem, the problem of determining the amount of radiation intensity, or fluence, of each beamlet in each beam. For a given set of beams, the fluences of the beamlets can drastically affect the quality of the treatment plan, and thus it is critical to obtain good fluence maps for radiation delivery. Although several approaches have been shown to yield good solutions to the FMO problem, these solutions are not guaranteed to be optimal. This shortcoming can be attributed to either optimization model complexity or properties of the algorithms used to solve the optimization model. We present a convex FMO formulation and an interior point algorithm that yields an optimal treatment plan in seconds, making it a viable option for clinical applications.
Further improvements in competitive guarantees for QoS buffering
Bansal, N.; Fleischer, L.K.; Kimbrel, T.; Mahdian, M.; Schieber, B.; Sviridenko, M.; Diaz, J.; Karhumäki, J.; Lepistö, A.; Sannella, D.
2004-01-01
We study the behavior of algorithms for buffering packets weighted by different levels of Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees in a single queue. Buffer space is limited, and packet loss occurs when the buffer overflows. We describe a modification of the previously proposed ``preemptive greedy{''}
32 CFR 151.7 - Fair trial guarantees.
2010-07-01
... MILITARY JUSTICE STATUS OF FORCES POLICIES AND INFORMATION § 151.7 Fair trial guarantees. The following is... competent interpreter when the accused does not understand the language in which the trial is conducted and does not have counsel proficient in the language both of the court and of the accused. (p) Accused is...
7 CFR 1493.40 - Application for payment guarantee.
2010-01-01
... and allowances, if any. (11) Port value (includes upward loading tolerance, if any). (12) Guaranteed..., contract loading tolerance and, if necessary, a request for CCC to reserve coverage up to the maximum quantity permitted by the contract loading tolerance. (9) Unit sales price of the commodity, or a mechanism...
Interface Input/Output Automata: Splitting Assumptions from Guarantees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Nyman, Ulrik; Wasowski, Andrzej
2006-01-01
's \\IOAs [11], relying on a context dependent notion of refinement based on relativized language inclusion. There are two main contributions of the work. First, we explicitly separate assumptions from guarantees, increasing the modeling power of the specification language and demonstrating an interesting...
7 CFR 1980.488 - Guaranteed industrial development bond issues.
2010-01-01
... industrial plants for lease to private businesses engaged in industrial manufacturing and does not provide... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Guaranteed industrial development bond issues. 1980..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan...
12 CFR 370.3 - Debt Guarantee Program.
2010-01-01
... convertible debt to be issued, (C) The mandatory conversion date, (D) The conversion rate (i.e., the total... exchange rate in effect on the date that the debt is funded. (c) Calculation and reporting responsibility... guarantee expires on the earliest of the mandatory conversion date for mandatory convertible debt, the...
Pricing and Hedging Guaranteed Returns on Mix Funds
Vellekoop, M.H.; van de Kamp, A.A.; Post, B.A.
2006-01-01
Abstract In this paper we propose a valuation and hedging strategy for a guaranteed minimal rate of return on a mix fund, which participates in both bonds and stocks. For the case where a fixed amount of money is invested, we show that a European put option on the mix fund replicates the cash flows
48 CFR 52.228-1 - Bid Guarantee.
2010-10-01
... as accepted. (c) The amount of the bid guarantee shall be ____ percent of the bid price or $____, whichever is less. (d) If the successful bidder, upon acceptance of its bid by the Government within the period specified for acceptance, fails to execute all contractual documents or furnish executed bond(s...
29 CFR 541.604 - Minimum guarantee plus extras.
2010-07-01
... DEFINING AND DELIMITING THE EXEMPTIONS FOR EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, PROFESSIONAL, COMPUTER AND OUTSIDE SALES EMPLOYEES Salary Requirements § 541.604 Minimum guarantee plus extras. (a) An employer may provide... commission on sales. An exempt employee also may receive a percentage of the sales or profits of the employer...
Improvements Needed in Administration of the Guaranteed Student Loan Program.
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.
This report identifies improvements needed in administration of the guaranteed student loan program. Improvements needed are based on the fact that that lenders are not informed when student borrowers drop out of school. Alternatives for providing lenders with timely information on enrollment terminations are indicated. Additional administrative…
Coverage and Rate of Downlink Sequence Transmissions with Reliability Guarantees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Park, Jihong; Popovski, Petar
2017-01-01
Real-time distributed control is a promising application of 5G in which communication links should satisfy certain reliability guarantees. In this letter, we derive closed-form maximum average rate when a device (e.g. industrial machine) downloads a sequence of n operational commands through cell...
78 FR 13999 - Maximum Interest Rates on Guaranteed Farm Loans
2013-03-04
..., cost-plus, flat-rate, or market based) to price guaranteed loans, provided the rates do not exceed the... (LIBOR) or the 5-year Treasury note rate, unless the lender uses a formal written risk-based pricing... cost in the form of a lower interest rate than the borrower would otherwise receive. Therefore, the FSA...
Stabilization with guaranteed safety using Control Lyapunov–Barrier Function
Romdlony, Muhammad Zakiyullah; Jayawardhana, Bayu
2016-01-01
We propose a novel nonlinear control method for solving the problem of stabilization with guaranteed safety for nonlinear systems. The design is based on the merging of the well-known Control Lyapunov Function (CLF) and the recent concept of Control Barrier Function (CBF). The proposed control
13 CFR 400.214 - Participations in guaranteed loans.
2010-01-01
...) Subject to paragraphs (b), (c) and (d) of this section, a Lender may distribute the risk of a portion of a... the Guarantee is assigned, conveyed, sold, or transferred in whole or in part; (2) The Lender remains... Lenders; (2) Private investment funds and insurance companies that do not usually invest in commercial...
2013-10-28
... procedures and standard terms and conditions applicable to loan guarantees to be issued for the benefit of... Definitions. 233.03 The Guarantee. 233.04 Guarantee eligibility. 233.05 Non-impairment of the Guarantee. 233... Default; Application for Compensation; payment. 233.09 No acceleration of Eligible Notes. [[Page 64176...
13 CFR 115.18 - Refusal to issue further guarantees; suspension and termination of PSB status.
2010-01-01
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to issue further guarantees; suspension and termination of PSB status. 115.18 Section 115.18 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SURETY BOND GUARANTEE Provisions for All Surety Bond Guarantees § 115.18 Refusal to issue further guarantees; suspension...
Geometrically based optimization for extracranial radiosurgery
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Ruiguo; Wagner, Thomas H; Buatti, John M; Modrick, Joseph; Dill, John; Meeks, Sanford L
2004-01-01
For static beam conformal intracranial radiosurgery, geometry of the beam arrangement dominates overall dose distribution. Maximizing beam separation in three dimensions decreases beam overlap, thus maximizing dose conformality and gradient outside of the target volume. Webb proposed arrangements of isotropically convergent beams that could be used as the starting point for a radiotherapy optimization process. We have developed an extracranial radiosurgery optimization method by extending Webb's isotropic beam arrangements to deliverable beam arrangements. This method uses an arrangement of N maximally separated converging vectors within the space available for beam delivery. Each bouquet of isotropic beam vectors is generated by a random sampling process that iteratively maximizes beam separation. Next, beam arrangement is optimized for critical structure avoidance while maintaining minimal overlap between beam entrance and exit pathways. This geometrically optimized beam set can then be used as a template for either conformal beam or intensity modulated extracranial radiosurgery. Preliminary results suggest that using this technique with conformal beam planning provides high plan conformality, a steep dose gradient outside of the tumour volume and acceptable critical structure avoidance in the majority of clinical cases
Exact Solutions for Einstein's Hyperbolic Geometric Flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Chunlei
2008-01-01
In this paper we investigate the Einstein's hyperbolic geometric flow and obtain some interesting exact solutions for this kind of flow. Many interesting properties of these exact solutions have also been analyzed and we believe that these properties of Einstein's hyperbolic geometric flow are very helpful to understanding the Einstein equations and the hyperbolic geometric flow
Geometrically Induced Interactions and Bifurcations
Binder, Bernd
2010-01-01
In order to evaluate the proper boundary conditions in spin dynamics eventually leading to the emergence of natural and artificial solitons providing for strong interactions and potentials with monopole charges, the paper outlines a new concept referring to a curvature-invariant formalism, where superintegrability is given by a special isometric condition. Instead of referring to the spin operators and Casimir/Euler invariants as the generator of rotations, a curvature-invariant description is introduced utilizing a double Gudermann mapping function (generator of sine Gordon solitons and Mercator projection) cross-relating two angular variables, where geometric phases and rotations arise between surfaces of different curvature. Applying this stereographic projection to a superintegrable Hamiltonian can directly map linear oscillators to Kepler/Coulomb potentials and/or monopoles with Pöschl-Teller potentials and vice versa. In this sense a large scale Kepler/Coulomb (gravitational, electro-magnetic) wave dynamics with a hyperbolic metric could be mapped as a geodesic vertex flow to a local oscillator singularity (Dirac monopole) with spherical metrics and vice versa. Attracting fixed points and dynamic constraints are given by special isometries with magic precession angles. The nonlinear angular encoding directly provides for a Shannon mutual information entropy measure of the geodesic phase space flow. The emerging monopole patterns show relations to spiral Fresnel holography and Berry/Aharonov-Bohm geometric phases subject to bifurcation instabilities and singularities from phase ambiguities due to a local (entropy) overload. Neutral solitons and virtual patterns emerging and mediating in the overlap region between charged or twisted holographic patterns are visualized and directly assigned to the Berry geometric phase revealing the role of photons, neutrons, and neutrinos binding repulsive charges in Coulomb, strong and weak interaction.
Unconstrained Finite Element for Geometrical Nonlinear Dynamics of Shells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Humberto Breves Coda
2009-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a positional FEM formulation to deal with geometrical nonlinear dynamics of shells. The main objective is to develop a new FEM methodology based on the minimum potential energy theorem written regarding nodal positions and generalized unconstrained vectors not displacements and rotations. These characteristics are the novelty of the present work and avoid the use of large rotation approximations. A nondimensional auxiliary coordinate system is created, and the change of configuration function is written following two independent mappings from which the strain energy function is derived. This methodology is called positional and, as far as the authors' knowledge goes, is a new procedure to approximated geometrical nonlinear structures. In this paper a proof for the linear and angular momentum conservation property of the Newmark algorithm is provided for total Lagrangian description. The proposed shell element is locking free for elastic stress-strain relations due to the presence of linear strain variation along the shell thickness. The curved, high-order element together with an implicit procedure to solve nonlinear equations guarantees precision in calculations. The momentum conserving, the locking free behavior, and the frame invariance of the adopted mapping are numerically confirmed by examples.
Triangular Geometrized Sampling Heuristics for Fast Optimal Motion Planning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed Hussain Qureshi
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Rapidly-exploring Random Tree (RRT-based algorithms have become increasingly popular due to their lower computational complexity as compared with other path planning algorithms. The recently presented RRT* motion planning algorithm improves upon the original RRT algorithm by providing optimal path solutions. While RRT determines an initial collision-free path fairly quickly, RRT* guarantees almost certain convergence to an optimal, obstacle-free path from the start to the goal points for any given geometrical environment. However, the main limitations of RRT* include its slow processing rate and high memory consumption, due to the large number of iterations required for calculating the optimal path. In order to overcome these limitations, we present another improvement, i.e, the Triangular Geometerized-RRT* (TG-RRT* algorithm, which utilizes triangular geometrical methods to improve the performance of the RRT* algorithm in terms of the processing time and a decreased number of iterations required for an optimal path solution. Simulations comparing the performance results of the improved TG-RRT* with RRT* are presented to demonstrate the overall improvement in performance and optimal path detection.
... Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor ... A Listen En Español After Delivery After your baby arrives, your body begins to recover from the ...
Moving walls and geometric phases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Facchi, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.facchi@ba.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Università di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Garnero, Giancarlo, E-mail: giancarlo.garnero@uniba.it [Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Università di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Marmo, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche and MECENAS, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Samuel, Joseph [Raman Research Institute, 560080 Bangalore (India)
2016-09-15
We unveil the existence of a non-trivial Berry phase associated to the dynamics of a quantum particle in a one dimensional box with moving walls. It is shown that a suitable choice of boundary conditions has to be made in order to preserve unitarity. For these boundary conditions we compute explicitly the geometric phase two-form on the parameter space. The unboundedness of the Hamiltonian describing the system leads to a natural prescription of renormalization for divergent contributions arising from the boundary.
Geometric Topology and Shape Theory
Segal, Jack
1987-01-01
The aim of this international conference the third of its type was to survey recent developments in Geometric Topology and Shape Theory with an emphasis on their interaction. The volume contains original research papers and carefully selected survey of currently active areas. The main topics and themes represented by the papers of this volume include decomposition theory, cell-like mappings and CE-equivalent compacta, covering dimension versus cohomological dimension, ANR's and LCn-compacta, homology manifolds, embeddings of continua into manifolds, complement theorems in shape theory, approximate fibrations and shape fibrations, fibered shape, exact homologies and strong shape theory.
Geometric approach to soliton equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sasaki, R.
1979-09-01
A class of nonlinear equations that can be solved in terms of nxn scattering problem is investigated. A systematic geometric method of exploiting conservation laws and related equations, the so-called prolongation structure, is worked out. The nxn problem is reduced to nsub(n-1)x(n-1) problems and finally to 2x2 problems, which have been comprehensively investigated recently by the author. A general method of deriving the infinite numbers of polynomial conservation laws for an nxn problem is presented. The cases of 3x3 and 2x2 problems are discussed explicitly. (Auth.)
Geometric Rationalization for Freeform Architecture
Jiang, Caigui
2016-06-20
The emergence of freeform architecture provides interesting geometric challenges with regards to the design and manufacturing of large-scale structures. To design these architectural structures, we have to consider two types of constraints. First, aesthetic constraints are important because the buildings have to be visually impressive. Sec- ond, functional constraints are important for the performance of a building and its e cient construction. This thesis contributes to the area of architectural geometry. Specifically, we are interested in the geometric rationalization of freeform architec- ture with the goal of combining aesthetic and functional constraints and construction requirements. Aesthetic requirements typically come from designers and architects. To obtain visually pleasing structures, they favor smoothness of the building shape, but also smoothness of the visible patterns on the surface. Functional requirements typically come from the engineers involved in the construction process. For exam- ple, covering freeform structures using planar panels is much cheaper than using non-planar ones. Further, constructed buildings have to be stable and should not collapse. In this thesis, we explore the geometric rationalization of freeform archi- tecture using four specific example problems inspired by real life applications. We achieve our results by developing optimization algorithms and a theoretical study of the underlying geometrical structure of the problems. The four example problems are the following: (1) The design of shading and lighting systems which are torsion-free structures with planar beams based on quad meshes. They satisfy the functionality requirements of preventing light from going inside a building as shad- ing systems or reflecting light into a building as lighting systems. (2) The Design of freeform honeycomb structures that are constructed based on hex-dominant meshes with a planar beam mounted along each edge. The beams intersect without
Field guide to geometrical optics
Greivenkamp, John E
2004-01-01
This Field Guide derives from the treatment of geometrical optics that has evolved from both the undergraduate and graduate programs at the Optical Sciences Center at the University of Arizona. The development is both rigorous and complete, and it features a consistent notation and sign convention. This volume covers Gaussian imagery, paraxial optics, first-order optical system design, system examples, illumination, chromatic effects, and an introduction to aberrations. The appendices provide supplemental material on radiometry and photometry, the human eye, and several other topics.
Geometric phase from dielectric matrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banerjee, D.
2005-10-01
The dielectric property of the anisotropic optical medium is found by considering the polarized photon as two component spinor of spherical harmonics. The Geometric Phase of a polarized photon has been evaluated in two ways: the phase two-form of the dielectric matrix through a twist and the Pancharatnam phase (GP) by changing the angular momentum of the incident polarized photon over a closed triangular path on the extended Poincare sphere. The helicity in connection with the spin angular momentum of the chiral photon plays the key role in developing these phase holonomies. (author)
A history of geometrical methods
Coolidge, Julian Lowell
2013-01-01
Full and authoritative, this history of the techniques for dealing with geometric questions begins with synthetic geometry and its origins in Babylonian and Egyptian mathematics; reviews the contributions of China, Japan, India, and Greece; and discusses the non-Euclidean geometries. Subsequent sections cover algebraic geometry, starting with the precursors and advancing to the great awakening with Descartes; and differential geometry, from the early work of Huygens and Newton to projective and absolute differential geometry. The author's emphasis on proofs and notations, his comparisons betwe
Geometrical optics and optimal transport.
Rubinstein, Jacob; Wolansky, Gershon
2017-10-01
The Fermat principle is generalized to a system of rays. It is shown that all the ray mappings that are compatible with two given intensities of a monochromatic wave, measured at two planes, are stationary points of a canonical functional, which is the weighted average of the actions of all the rays. It is further shown that there exist at least two stationary points for this functional, implying that in the geometrical optics regime the phase from intensity problem has inherently more than one solution. The caustic structures of all the possible ray mappings are analyzed. A number of simulations illustrate the theoretical considerations.
Mahlumba, Pakama; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness
2016-07-30
Therapeutic proteins and peptides have become notable in the drug delivery arena for their compatibility with the human body as well as their high potency. However, their biocompatibility and high potency does not negate the existence of challenges resulting from physicochemical properties of proteins and peptides, including large size, short half-life, capability to provoke immune responses and susceptibility to degradation. Various delivery routes and delivery systems have been utilized to improve bioavailability, patient acceptability and reduce biodegradation. The ocular route remains of great interest, particularly for responsive delivery of macromolecules due to the anatomy and physiology of the eye that makes it a sensitive and complex environment. Research in this field is slowly gaining attention as this could be the breakthrough in ocular drug delivery of macromolecules. This work reviews stimuli-responsive polymeric delivery systems, their use in the delivery of therapeutic proteins and peptides as well as examples of proteins and peptides used in the treatment of ocular disorders. Stimuli reviewed include pH, temperature, enzymes, light, ultrasound and magnetic field. In addition, it discusses the current progress in responsive ocular drug delivery. Furthermore, it explores future prospects in the use of stimuli-responsive polymers for ocular delivery of proteins and peptides. Stimuli-responsive polymers offer great potential in improving the delivery of ocular therapeutics, therefore there is a need to consider them in order to guarantee a local, sustained and ideal delivery of ocular proteins and peptides, evading tissue invasion and systemic side-effects.
CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE GUARANTEEING OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN ROMANIA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ELENA PARASCHIV
2012-05-01
Full Text Available In our country existed and exists still a constant concern to respect and guarantee human rights and fundamental freedoms, especially after 1989, when Romania became a member or acceding to international or regional treaties and conventions enshrining such rights. Taking into consideration the importance of respecting human rights, we consider that is necessary to research how they are secured in Romania, because only when these guarantees are known by their beneficiaries and those involved in their protection, actions which affect these values of humanity can be avoided. In human rights, rules of international law have priority over those entered in the domestic law if they contain provisions which may be interpreted differently on the same matter, unless the Constitution or national laws contain more favourable provisions.
The fiduciary guarantee in the Romanian and European legal context
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cornelia Lefter
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The importance of the fiduciary guarantee has not reached its full potential in the Romanian market, nor in the European area. The ongoing “dispute” between the fiduciary operations (familiar to the continental law and the trust (with its common -law heritage seems to be won by the latter. However, considering the express provisions on the fiduciary operations in the Romanian Civil Code entered into force in 2011, similar to the introduction of the same legal instrument in the French Civil Code in 2007, could give a boost to this ancient tool, present from the Roman era. Even if the European legal framework do not provide many rules on this institution, however, the Financial Collateral Directive raised many questions on how the fiduciary guarantees can be used in practice, and contributed to the change that followed in this area.
Image understanding using geometric context
Zhang, Xiaochun; Liu, Chuancai
2017-07-01
A Gibbs Sampler based topic model for image annotation, which takes into account the interaction between visual geometric context and related topic, is presented. Most of the existing topic models for scene annotation use segmentation-based algorithm. However, topic models using segmentation algorithm alone sometimes can produce erroneous results when used to annotate real-life scene pictures. Therefore, our algorithm makes use of peaks of image surface instead of segmentation regions. Existing approaches use SIFT algorithm and treat the peaks as round blob features. In this paper, the peaks are treated as anisotropic blob features, which models low level visual elements more precisely. In order to better utilize visual features, our model not only takes into consideration visual codeword, but also considers influence of visual properties to topic formation, such as orientation, width, length and color. The basic idea is based on the assumption that different topics will produce distinct visual appearance, and different visual appearance is helpful to distinguish topics. During the learning stage, each topic will be associated with a set of distributions of visual properties, which depicts appearance of the topic. This paper considers more geometric properties, which will reduce topic uncertainty and learn the images better. Tested with Corel5K, SAIAPR-TC12 and Espgame100k Datasets, our method performs moderately better than some state of the arts methods.
Geometrical approach to fluid models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuvshinov, B.N.; Schep, T.J.
1997-01-01
Differential geometry based upon the Cartan calculus of differential forms is applied to investigate invariant properties of equations that describe the motion of continuous media. The main feature of this approach is that physical quantities are treated as geometrical objects. The geometrical notion of invariance is introduced in terms of Lie derivatives and a general procedure for the construction of local and integral fluid invariants is presented. The solutions of the equations for invariant fields can be written in terms of Lagrange variables. A generalization of the Hamiltonian formalism for finite-dimensional systems to continuous media is proposed. Analogously to finite-dimensional systems, Hamiltonian fluids are introduced as systems that annihilate an exact two-form. It is shown that Euler and ideal, charged fluids satisfy this local definition of a Hamiltonian structure. A new class of scalar invariants of Hamiltonian fluids is constructed that generalizes the invariants that are related with gauge transformations and with symmetries (Noether). copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Traffic Scheduling in WDM Passive Optical Network with Delay Guarantee
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
WDM passive optical network becomes more favorable as the required bandwidth increases, but currently few media access control algorithms adapted to WDM access network. This paper presented a new scheduling algorithm for bandwidth sharing in WDM passive optical networks, which provides per-flow delay guarantee and supports variable-length packets scheduling. Through theoretical analysis and simulation, the end-to-end delay bound and throughput fairness of the algorithm was demonstrated.
The Belgian deposit guarantee scheme in a European perspective
Ch. Van Nieuwenhuyze; M. D. Zachary
2010-01-01
During the recent financial crisis, the deposit guarantee scheme in Belgium – as in other European countries – played a role in preventing bank runs and restoring confidence : to that end, the intervention ceilings were raised substantially and the scope of the scheme was extended to include certain life insurance policies. Finally, the expansion of the system’s coverage had to be financed by a sharp increase in the contributions from financial institutions. First of all, that measure had a p...
H 2 guaranteed cost control of discrete linear systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Colmenares W.
2000-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a quadratically stabilizing output feedback controller which also assures H 2 guaranteed cost performance on a discrete linear uncertain system where the uncertainty is of the norm bounded type. The conditions are presented as a collection of linear matrix inequalities.The solution, however requires a search over a scalar parameter space.
A general framework for performance guaranteed green data center networking
Wang, Ting; Xia, Yu; Muppala, Jogesh; Hamdi, Mounir; Foufou, Sebti
2014-01-01
From the perspective of resource allocation and routing, this paper aims to save as much energy as possible in data center networks. We present a general framework, based on the blocking island paradigm, to try to maximize the network power conservation and minimize sacrifices of network performance and reliability. The bandwidth allocation mechanism together with power-aware routing algorithm achieve a bandwidth guaranteed tighter network. Besides, our fast efficient heuristics for allocatin...
GUARANTEES OF THE RIGHT TO A FAIR CIVIL TRIAL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Diana-Loredana Jalbă
2015-11-01
Full Text Available In order to ensure the effective protection of human rights and provide for more than theoretical and illusory substantive rights, the need to define the right to a fair trial is emerging, along with the necessity that litigants become aware of the guarantees established by article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Thus, the article aims to approach the ample issue regarding the litigants’ right to a fair civil trial in light of current legal regulations, and in particular, in light of the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights. Given the fact that the right to a fair civil trial involves establishing, throughout the trial, a set of rules of procedure aimed at creating a balance between the parties in the process - the so-called guarantees of a fair trial - in her scientific pursuits, the author analyzes both explicit and implicit guarantees of fair trial, highlighting relevant European standards as well as their degree of implementation in the national (procedural law.
Self-guaranteed measurement-based quantum computation
Hayashi, Masahito; Hajdušek, Michal
2018-05-01
In order to guarantee the output of a quantum computation, we usually assume that the component devices are trusted. However, when the total computation process is large, it is not easy to guarantee the whole system when we have scaling effects, unexpected noise, or unaccounted for correlations between several subsystems. If we do not trust the measurement basis or the prepared entangled state, we do need to be worried about such uncertainties. To this end, we propose a self-guaranteed protocol for verification of quantum computation under the scheme of measurement-based quantum computation where no prior-trusted devices (measurement basis or entangled state) are needed. The approach we present enables the implementation of verifiable quantum computation using the measurement-based model in the context of a particular instance of delegated quantum computation where the server prepares the initial computational resource and sends it to the client, who drives the computation by single-qubit measurements. Applying self-testing procedures, we are able to verify the initial resource as well as the operation of the quantum devices and hence the computation itself. The overhead of our protocol scales with the size of the initial resource state to the power of 4 times the natural logarithm of the initial state's size.
Geometrical theory of ghost and Higgs fields and SU(2/1)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ne'eman, Y.; Thierry-Mieg, J.
1979-10-01
That a Principal Fiber Bundle provides a precise geometrical representation of Yang-Mills gauge theories has been known since 1963 and used since 1975. This work presents an entirely new domain of applications. The Feynman-DeWitt-Fadeev-Popov ghost-fields required in the renormalization procedure are identified with geometrical objects in the Principal Bundle. This procedure directly yields the BRS equations guaranteeing unitarity and Slavnov-Taylor invariance of the quantum effective Lagrangian. Except for one ghost field and its variation, this entire symmetry thus corresponds to classical notions, in that it is geometrical, and completely independent of the gauge-fixing procedure, which determines the quantized Lagrangian. These results may be used to fix the signs associated with the various ghost loops of quantum supergravity. The result is based upon the identification of a geometrical Z(2) x Z(2) double-gradation of the generalized fields in supergravity: [physical/ghost] fields and [integer/half integer] spins. Then the case of a supergroup as an internal symmetry gauge is considered. Ghosts geometrically associated to odd generators may be identified with the Goldstone-Nambu Higgs-Kibble scalar fields of conventional models with spontaneous symmetry breakdown. As an example, the chiral SU(3)/sub L/ x SU(3)/sub R/ flavor symmetry is realized by gauging the supergroup Q(3).Lastly, the main results concerning asthenodynamics (Weak-EM Unification) as given by the ghost-gauge SU(2/1) supergroup are recalled. 1 table
Geometrical charged-particle optics
Rose, Harald
2012-01-01
This second edition is an extended version of the first edition of Geometrical Charged-Particle Optics. The updated reference monograph is intended as a guide for researchers and graduate students who are seeking a comprehensive treatment of the design of instruments and beam-guiding systems of charged particles and their propagation in electromagnetic fields. Wave aspects are included in this edition for explaining electron holography, the Aharanov-Bohm effect and the resolution of electron microscopes limited by diffraction. Several methods for calculating the electromagnetic field are presented and procedures are outlined for calculating the properties of systems with arbitrarily curved axis. Detailed methods are presented for designing and optimizing special components such as aberration correctors, spectrometers, energy filters monochromators, ion traps, electron mirrors and cathode lenses. In particular, the optics of rotationally symmetric lenses, quadrupoles, and systems composed of these elements are...
Geometrical setting of solid mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiala, Zdenek
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Solid mechanics within the Riemannian symmetric manifold GL (3, R)/O (3, R). → Generalized logarithmic strain. → Consistent linearization. → Incremental principle of virtual power. → Time-discrete approximation. - Abstract: The starting point in the geometrical setting of solid mechanics is to represent deformation process of a solid body as a trajectory in a convenient space with Riemannian geometry, and then to use the corresponding tools for its analysis. Based on virtual power of internal stresses, we show that such a configuration space is the (globally) symmetric space of symmetric positive-definite real matrices. From this unifying point of view, we shall analyse the logarithmic strain, the stress rate, as well as linearization and intrinsic integration of corresponding evolution equation.
Geometric Methods in Physics XXXV
Odzijewicz, Anatol; Previato, Emma
2018-01-01
This book features a selection of articles based on the XXXV Białowieża Workshop on Geometric Methods in Physics, 2016. The series of Białowieża workshops, attended by a community of experts at the crossroads of mathematics and physics, is a major annual event in the field. The works in this book, based on presentations given at the workshop, are previously unpublished, at the cutting edge of current research, typically grounded in geometry and analysis, and with applications to classical and quantum physics. In 2016 the special session "Integrability and Geometry" in particular attracted pioneers and leading specialists in the field. Traditionally, the Białowieża Workshop is followed by a School on Geometry and Physics, for advanced graduate students and early-career researchers, and the book also includes extended abstracts of the lecture series.
Geometric Operators on Boolean Functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Falster, Peter
In truth-functional propositional logic, any propositional formula represents a Boolean function (according to some valuation of the formula). We describe operators based on Decartes' concept of constructing coordinate systems, for translation of a propositional formula to the image of a Boolean...... function. With this image of a Boolean function corresponding to a propositional formula, we prove that the orthogonal projection operator leads to a theorem describing all rules of inference in propositional reasoning. In other words, we can capture all kinds of inference in propositional logic by means...... of a few geometric operators working on the images of Boolean functions. The operators we describe, arise from the niche area of array-based logic and have previously been tightly bound to an array-based representation of Boolean functions. We redefine the operators in an abstract form to make them...
Geometric considerations in magnetron sputtering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thornton, J.A.
1982-01-01
The recent development of high performance magnetron type discharge sources has greatly enhaced the range of coating applications where sputtering is a viable deposition process. Magnetron sources can provide high current densities and sputtering rates, even at low pressures. They have much reduced substrate heating rates and can be scaled to large sizes. Magnetron sputter coating apparatuses can have a variety of geometric and plasma configurations. The target geometry affects the emission directions of both the sputtered atoms and the energetic ions which are neutralized and reflected at the cathode. This fact, coupled with the long mean free particle paths which are prevalent at low pressures, can make the coating properties very dependent on the apparatus geometry. This paper reviews the physics of magnetron operation and discusses the influences of apparatus geometry on the use of magnetrons for rf sputtering and reactive sputtering, as well as on the microstructure and internal stresses in sputtered metallic coatings. (author) [pt
Geometric solitons of Hamiltonian flows on manifolds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Chong, E-mail: songchong@xmu.edu.cn [School of Mathematical Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Sun, Xiaowei, E-mail: sunxw@cufe.edu.cn [School of Applied Mathematics, Central University of Finance and Economics, Beijing 100081 (China); Wang, Youde, E-mail: wyd@math.ac.cn [Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
2013-12-15
It is well-known that the LIE (Locally Induction Equation) admit soliton-type solutions and same soliton solutions arise from different and apparently irrelevant physical models. By comparing the solitons of LIE and Killing magnetic geodesics, we observe that these solitons are essentially decided by two families of isometries of the domain and the target space, respectively. With this insight, we propose the new concept of geometric solitons of Hamiltonian flows on manifolds, such as geometric Schrödinger flows and KdV flows for maps. Moreover, we give several examples of geometric solitons of the Schrödinger flow and geometric KdV flow, including magnetic curves as geometric Schrödinger solitons and explicit geometric KdV solitons on surfaces of revolution.
Operational geometric phase for mixed quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersson, O; Heydari, H
2013-01-01
The geometric phase has found a broad spectrum of applications in both classical and quantum physics, such as condensed matter and quantum computation. In this paper, we introduce an operational geometric phase for mixed quantum states, based on spectral weighted traces of holonomies, and we prove that it generalizes the standard definition of the geometric phase for mixed states, which is based on quantum interferometry. We also introduce higher order geometric phases, and prove that under a fairly weak, generically satisfied, requirement, there is always a well-defined geometric phase of some order. Our approach applies to general unitary evolutions of both non-degenerate and degenerate mixed states. Moreover, since we provide an explicit formula for the geometric phase that can be easily implemented, it is particularly well suited for computations in quantum physics. (paper)
Geometrical factors in the perception of sacredness
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Costa, Marco; Bonetti, Leonardo
2016-01-01
Geometrical and environmental factors in the perception of sacredness, dominance, and attractiveness were assessed by 137 participants in five tests. In the first test, a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm was used to test the perception of sacredness, dominance, and attractiveness in geometr......Geometrical and environmental factors in the perception of sacredness, dominance, and attractiveness were assessed by 137 participants in five tests. In the first test, a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm was used to test the perception of sacredness, dominance, and attractiveness...... in geometrical figures differing in shape, verticality, size, and symmetry. Verticality, symmetry, and convexity were found to be important factors in the perception of sacredness. In the second test, participants had to mark the point inside geometrical surfaces that was perceived as most sacred, dominant....... Geometrical factors in the perception of sacredness, dominance, and attractiveness were largely overlapping....
Niu, Ye; Qi, Lin; Zhang, Fen; Zhao, Yi
2018-07-30
Core/shell hydrogel microcapsules attract increasing research attention due to their potentials in tissue engineering, food engineering, and drug delivery. Current approaches for generating core/shell hydrogel microcapsules suffer from large geometric variations. Geometrically defective core/shell microcapsules need to be removed before further use. High-throughput geometric characterization of such core/shell microcapsules is therefore necessary. In this work, a continuous-flow device was developed to measure the geometric properties of microcapsules with a hydrogel shell and an aqueous core. The microcapsules were pumped through a tapered microchannel patterned with an array of interdigitated microelectrodes. The geometric parameters (the shell thickness and the diameter) were derived from the displacement profiles of the microcapsules. The results show that this approach can successfully distinguish all unencapsulated microparticles. The geometric properties of core/shell microcapsules can be determined with high accuracy. The efficacy of this method was demonstrated through a drug releasing experiment where the optimization of the electrospray process based on geometric screening can lead to controlled and extended drug releasing profiles. This method does not require high-speed optical systems, simplifying the system configuration and making it an indeed miniaturized device. The throughput of up to 584 microcapsules per minute was achieved. This study provides a powerful tool for screening core/shell hydrogel microcapsules and is expected to facilitate the applications of these microcapsules in various fields. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Guide to Geometric Algebra in Practice
Dorst, Leo
2011-01-01
This highly practical "Guide to Geometric Algebra in Practice" reviews algebraic techniques for geometrical problems in computer science and engineering, and the relationships between them. The topics covered range from powerful new theoretical developments, to successful applications, and the development of new software and hardware tools. This title: provides hands-on review exercises throughout the book, together with helpful chapter summaries; presents a concise introductory tutorial to conformal geometric algebra (CGA) in the appendices; examines the application of CGA for the d
Geometrical and Graphical Solutions of Quadratic Equations.
Hornsby, E. John, Jr.
1990-01-01
Presented are several geometrical and graphical methods of solving quadratic equations. Discussed are Greek origins, Carlyle's method, von Staudt's method, fixed graph methods and imaginary solutions. (CW)
Organic Law Of Judicial Guarantees And Constitutional Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ernesto López Freire
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the various unconstitutional and fallacies of the Organic Law of Judicial guarantees and Constitutional Control. For that, there will be a comprehensive collation between the mentioned law and the Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador and force. Through this analysis shows a lack of knowledge of Ecuadorian law or legal science by their authors. This study elucidated, inter alia, the inconsistencies in matters relating to the interpretation of constitutional provisions, full compensation, material and integral; challenge administrative acts, judicial unit.
Guarantee of Criminal Policy as Limited to Criminal Decisionism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
María Belén Bonilla Albán
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The essay explains how the inclusion of the security of public policy in the 2008 Constitution of Ecuador as part of the constitutional state of law and justice or “guarantor state” can become a substantial limit for criminal decisionism, which is usually behind the penal policy in Latin America. Thus, the function of this collateral is to eliminate the huge space of discretion in the management of the most sensitive policy of modern state penal policy. However, the guarantee of public policy is not clear in determining the limits of punitive power; therefore, this paper seeks to explore some of the international human rights.
[Living wills in a nursing home, guaranteeing freedom of expression].
Marigard Guyader, Céline; Richard, Christian
The drawing up of a living will in a nursing home for elderly people is a complex process. Not only must the resident think about the end of life, which is not easy, but the institution must be fully aware of the law. Guaranteeing the resident's expression is essential. A study enabled this subject to be reviewed in a nursing home where different players are present around the resident. It enabled professionals to reflect on their practices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
An Optimal Turkish Private Pension Plan with a Guarantee Feature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ayşegül İşcanog̃lu-Çekiç
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The Turkish Private Pension System is an investment system which aims to generate income for future consumption. This is a volunteer system, and the contributions are held in individual portfolios. Therefore, management of the funds is an important issue for both the participants and the insurance company. In this study, we propose an optimal private pension plan with a guarantee feature that is based on Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance (CPPI. We derive a closed form formula for the optimal strategy with the help of dynamic programming. Moreover, our model is evaluated with numerical examples, and we compare its performance by implementing a sensitivity analysis.
Adaptation of failure scenario based resilience schemes toward availability guarantees
Scheffel, Matthias
2006-07-01
Various resilience schemes have been proposed to allow for fault-tolerant transport networks. Their common aim is to survive certain failure patterns such as node or span failures by providing alternative transmission paths. However, network operators guarantee the resulting network reliability in terms of service availability to their business customers. A maximum duration of service disruption per year must not be exceeded. We investigate an optimal design of resilient network configurations that adapts to end-to-end availability requirements. We formulate an integer linear program that minimizes the resource utilization and investigate a case study.
The Minimum Price Guarantee Policy before and after Real Plan
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jackelline Favro
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the performance of the Minimum Price Guarantee Policy - MPGPin Brazil for the main agricultural products, during the 1980s and 1990s, and especially the post-Real Plan period. The research has a bibliographic and descriptive nature. The main results showed that the MPGP remains an important tool for ensuring income to farmers and the supply of selected crops in the analyzed period, but there was a reduction of public action for the new MPGP and new private instruments has revealed efficiency
Human and Citizen Rights Guarantees While Providing Information Security
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Serhii Yesimov
2018-05-01
Full Text Available With the development of information and communication technologies, issues of providing information security are becoming more and more aggravated. These are crimes related to the use of electronic computers, systems and computer networks and telecommunication networks, the propaganda of separatism and extremism, etc. While providing information security in the digital environment, the role of technical and legal human rights guarantees, due to technical means of protection, is increasing. Relying on the developers of technical means of protection determines the difference between the aforesaid concepts and the traditional approach to ensuring the protection of human and citizen rights, in which responsibilities are put on information intermediaries, owners of confidential information. Technical guarantees of human rights are a necessary component of ensuring information security, but the effectiveness of the application is provided in conjunction with the legal guarantees of human rights, as evidenced by the tendency to recognize the principles of inviolability of privacy on the basis of design decisions in the law of the European Union as legal acts. Providing information security is a legitimate goal of establishing constraints of human rights, since it can be correlated with the norms of international law. The establishment of constraints of human rights is permissible in order to attain other objectives–ensuring state security, public order, health, rights and freedoms of the person in the information sphere. The legitimacy of this goal is determined by its compliance with the objectives envisaged by international agreements ratified in an established order. The article examines the impact of the use of technical means in the field of providing information security in the aspect of following the fundamental human and civil rights in Ukraine, taking into account the legislation of the European Union and the decision of the European Court
Discrete geometric structures for architecture
Pottmann, Helmut
2010-06-13
The emergence of freeform structures in contemporary architecture raises numerous challenging research problems, most of which are related to the actual fabrication and are a rich source of research topics in geometry and geometric computing. The talk will provide an overview of recent progress in this field, with a particular focus on discrete geometric structures. Most of these result from practical requirements on segmenting a freeform shape into planar panels and on the physical realization of supporting beams and nodes. A study of quadrilateral meshes with planar faces reveals beautiful relations to discrete differential geometry. In particular, we discuss meshes which discretize the network of principal curvature lines. Conical meshes are among these meshes; they possess conical offset meshes at a constant face/face distance, which in turn leads to a supporting beam layout with so-called torsion free nodes. This work can be generalized to a variety of multilayer structures and laid the ground for an adapted curvature theory for these meshes. There are also efforts on segmenting surfaces into planar hexagonal panels. Though these are less constrained than planar quadrilateral panels, this problem is still waiting for an elegant solution. Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we present a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces\\' in-circles form a packing, i.e., the in-circles of two triangles with a common edge have the same contact point on that edge. These "circle packing (CP) meshes" exhibit an aesthetic balance of shape and size of their faces. They are closely tied to sphere packings on surfaces and to various remarkable structures and patterns which are of interest in art, architecture, and design. CP meshes constitute a new link between architectural freeform design and computational conformal geometry. Recently, certain timber structures motivated us to study discrete patterns of geodesics on surfaces. This
Geometric asymmetry driven Janus micromotors
Zhao, Guanjia; Pumera, Martin
2014-09-01
The production and application of nano-/micromotors is of great importance. In order for the motors to work, asymmetry in their chemical composition or physical geometry must be present if no external asymmetric field is applied. In this paper, we present a ``coconut'' micromotor made of platinum through the partial or complete etching of the silica templates. It was shown that although both the inner and outer surfaces are made of the same material (Pt), motion of the structure can be observed as the convex surface is capable of generating oxygen bubbles. This finding shows that not only the chemical asymmetry of the micromotor, but also its geometric asymmetry can lead to fast propulsion of the motor. Moreover, a considerably higher velocity can be seen for partially etched coconut structures than the velocities of Janus or fully etched, shell-like motors. These findings will have great importance on the design of future micromotors.The production and application of nano-/micromotors is of great importance. In order for the motors to work, asymmetry in their chemical composition or physical geometry must be present if no external asymmetric field is applied. In this paper, we present a ``coconut'' micromotor made of platinum through the partial or complete etching of the silica templates. It was shown that although both the inner and outer surfaces are made of the same material (Pt), motion of the structure can be observed as the convex surface is capable of generating oxygen bubbles. This finding shows that not only the chemical asymmetry of the micromotor, but also its geometric asymmetry can lead to fast propulsion of the motor. Moreover, a considerably higher velocity can be seen for partially etched coconut structures than the velocities of Janus or fully etched, shell-like motors. These findings will have great importance on the design of future micromotors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional SEM images, data analysis, Videos S
Information geometric methods for complexity
Felice, Domenico; Cafaro, Carlo; Mancini, Stefano
2018-03-01
Research on the use of information geometry (IG) in modern physics has witnessed significant advances recently. In this review article, we report on the utilization of IG methods to define measures of complexity in both classical and, whenever available, quantum physical settings. A paradigmatic example of a dramatic change in complexity is given by phase transitions (PTs). Hence, we review both global and local aspects of PTs described in terms of the scalar curvature of the parameter manifold and the components of the metric tensor, respectively. We also report on the behavior of geodesic paths on the parameter manifold used to gain insight into the dynamics of PTs. Going further, we survey measures of complexity arising in the geometric framework. In particular, we quantify complexity of networks in terms of the Riemannian volume of the parameter space of a statistical manifold associated with a given network. We are also concerned with complexity measures that account for the interactions of a given number of parts of a system that cannot be described in terms of a smaller number of parts of the system. Finally, we investigate complexity measures of entropic motion on curved statistical manifolds that arise from a probabilistic description of physical systems in the presence of limited information. The Kullback-Leibler divergence, the distance to an exponential family and volumes of curved parameter manifolds, are examples of essential IG notions exploited in our discussion of complexity. We conclude by discussing strengths, limits, and possible future applications of IG methods to the physics of complexity.
Geometrical aspects of quantum spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ho, P.M.
1996-01-01
Various geometrical aspects of quantum spaces are presented showing the possibility of building physics on quantum spaces. In the first chapter the authors give the motivations for studying noncommutative geometry and also review the definition of a Hopf algebra and some general features of the differential geometry on quantum groups and quantum planes. In Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 the noncommutative version of differential calculus, integration and complex structure are established for the quantum sphere S 1 2 and the quantum complex projective space CP q (N), on which there are quantum group symmetries that are represented nonlinearly, and are respected by all the aforementioned structures. The braiding of S q 2 and CP q (N) is also described. In Chapter 4 the quantum projective geometry over the quantum projective space CP q (N) is developed. Collinearity conditions, coplanarity conditions, intersections and anharmonic ratios is described. In Chapter 5 an algebraic formulation of Reimannian geometry on quantum spaces is presented where Riemannian metric, distance, Laplacian, connection, and curvature have their quantum counterparts. This attempt is also extended to complex manifolds. Examples include the quantum sphere, the complex quantum projective space and the two-sheeted space. The quantum group of general coordinate transformations on some quantum spaces is also given
Yang Mills instantons, geometrical aspects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stora, R.
1977-09-01
The word instanton has been coined by analogy with the word soliton. They both refer to solutions of elliptic non linear field equations with boundary conditions at infinity (of euclidean space time in the first case, euclidean space in the second case) lying on the set of classical vacua in such a way that stable topological properties emerge, susceptible to survive quantum effects, if those are small. Under this assumption, instantons are believed to be relevant to the description of tunnelling effects between classical vacua and signal some characteristics of the vacuum at the quantum level, whereas solitons should be associated with particles, i.e. discrete points in the mass spectrum. In one case the euclidean action is finite, in the other case, the energy is finite. From the mathematical point of view, the geometrical phenomena associated with the existence of solitons have forced physicists to learn rudiments of algebraic topology. The study of euclidean classical Yang Mills fields involves naturally mathematical items falling under the headings: differential geometry (fibre bundles, connections); differential topology (characteristic classes, index theory) and more recently algebraic geometry. These notes are divided as follows: a first section is devoted to a description of the physicist's views; a second section is devoted to the mathematician's vie
Geometric Reasoning for Automated Planning
Clement, Bradley J.; Knight, Russell L.; Broderick, Daniel
2012-01-01
An important aspect of mission planning for NASA s operation of the International Space Station is the allocation and management of space for supplies and equipment. The Stowage, Configuration Analysis, and Operations Planning teams collaborate to perform the bulk of that planning. A Geometric Reasoning Engine is developed in a way that can be shared by the teams to optimize item placement in the context of crew planning. The ISS crew spends (at the time of this writing) a third or more of their time moving supplies and equipment around. Better logistical support and optimized packing could make a significant impact on operational efficiency of the ISS. Currently, computational geometry and motion planning do not focus specifically on the optimized orientation and placement of 3D objects based on multiple distance and containment preferences and constraints. The software performs reasoning about the manipulation of 3D solid models in order to maximize an objective function based on distance. It optimizes for 3D orientation and placement. Spatial placement optimization is a general problem and can be applied to object packing or asset relocation.
Simulating geometrically complex blast scenarios
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ian G. Cullis
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The effects of blast waves generated by energetic and non-energetic sources are of continuing interest to the ballistics research community. Modern conflicts are increasingly characterised by asymmetric urban warfare, with improvised explosive devices (IEDs often playing a dominant role on the one hand and an armed forces requirement for minimal collateral effects from their weapons on the other. These problems are characterised by disparate length- and time-scales and may also be governed by complex physics. There is thus an increasing need to be able to rapidly assess and accurately predict the effects of energetic blast in topologically complex scenarios. To this end, this paper presents a new QinetiQ-developed advanced computational package called EAGLE-Blast, which is capable of accurately resolving the generation, propagation and interaction of blast waves around geometrically complex shapes such as vehicles and buildings. After a brief description of the numerical methodology, various blast scenario simulations are described and the results compared with experimental data to demonstrate the validation of the scheme and its ability to describe these complex scenarios accurately and efficiently. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the use of the code in supporting the development of algorithms for fast running engineering models.
Generalized Geometric Quantum Speed Limits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Diego Paiva Pires
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The attempt to gain a theoretical understanding of the concept of time in quantum mechanics has triggered significant progress towards the search for faster and more efficient quantum technologies. One of such advances consists in the interpretation of the time-energy uncertainty relations as lower bounds for the minimal evolution time between two distinguishable states of a quantum system, also known as quantum speed limits. We investigate how the nonuniqueness of a bona fide measure of distinguishability defined on the quantum-state space affects the quantum speed limits and can be exploited in order to derive improved bounds. Specifically, we establish an infinite family of quantum speed limits valid for unitary and nonunitary evolutions, based on an elegant information geometric formalism. Our work unifies and generalizes existing results on quantum speed limits and provides instances of novel bounds that are tighter than any established one based on the conventional quantum Fisher information. We illustrate our findings with relevant examples, demonstrating the importance of choosing different information metrics for open system dynamics, as well as clarifying the roles of classical populations versus quantum coherences, in the determination and saturation of the speed limits. Our results can find applications in the optimization and control of quantum technologies such as quantum computation and metrology, and might provide new insights in fundamental investigations of quantum thermodynamics.
Geometric structure of percolation clusters.
Xu, Xiao; Wang, Junfeng; Zhou, Zongzheng; Garoni, Timothy M; Deng, Youjin
2014-01-01
We investigate the geometric properties of percolation clusters by studying square-lattice bond percolation on the torus. We show that the density of bridges and nonbridges both tend to 1/4 for large system sizes. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study the probability that a given edge is not a bridge but has both its loop arcs in the same loop and find that it is governed by the two-arm exponent. We then classify bridges into two types: branches and junctions. A bridge is a branch iff at least one of the two clusters produced by its deletion is a tree. Starting from a percolation configuration and deleting the branches results in a leaf-free configuration, whereas, deleting all bridges produces a bridge-free configuration. Although branches account for ≈43% of all occupied bonds, we find that the fractal dimensions of the cluster size and hull length of leaf-free configurations are consistent with those for standard percolation configurations. By contrast, we find that the fractal dimensions of the cluster size and hull length of bridge-free configurations are given by the backbone and external perimeter dimensions, respectively. We estimate the backbone fractal dimension to be 1.643 36(10).
Geometric Phase Generated Optical Illusion.
Yue, Fuyong; Zang, Xiaofei; Wen, Dandan; Li, Zile; Zhang, Chunmei; Liu, Huigang; Gerardot, Brian D; Wang, Wei; Zheng, Guoxing; Chen, Xianzhong
2017-09-12
An optical illusion, such as "Rubin's vase", is caused by the information gathered by the eye, which is processed in the brain to give a perception that does not tally with a physical measurement of the stimulus source. Metasurfaces are metamaterials of reduced dimensionality which have opened up new avenues for flat optics. The recent advancement in spin-controlled metasurface holograms has attracted considerate attention, providing a new method to realize optical illusions. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a metasurface device to generate an optical illusion. The metasurface device is designed to display two asymmetrically distributed off-axis images of "Rubin faces" with high fidelity, high efficiency and broadband operation that are interchangeable by controlling the helicity of the incident light. Upon the illumination of a linearly polarized light beam, the optical illusion of a 'vase' is perceived. Our result provides an intuitive demonstration of the figure-ground distinction that our brains make during the visual perception. The alliance between geometric metasurface and the optical illusion opens a pathway for new applications related to encryption, optical patterning, and information processing.
7 CFR 1738.30 - Rural broadband access loans and loan guarantees.
2010-01-01
... interest at a rate set by the lender consistent with the current applicable market rate for a loan of... Derivative or any Guaranteed-Amount Debt Derivative; or (B) Any holder of the Guaranteed Loan Note or any Guaranteed Loan Portion Note or any Derivative, as the case may be, having a claim to payments on the...
13 CFR 120.521 - What interest rate applies after SBA purchases its guaranteed portion?
2010-01-01
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What interest rate applies after... 504 Loans Sba's Purchase of A Guaranteed Portion § 120.521 What interest rate applies after SBA purchases its guaranteed portion? When SBA purchases the guaranteed portion of a fixed interest rate loan...
13 CFR 120.620 - SBA guarantee of a Pool Certificate.
2010-01-01
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SBA guarantee of a Pool Certificate. 120.620 Section 120.620 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Secondary Market The Sba Guarantee of A Certificate § 120.620 SBA guarantee of a Pool Certificate...
13 CFR 120.621 - SBA guarantee of an Individual Certificate.
2010-01-01
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SBA guarantee of an Individual Certificate. 120.621 Section 120.621 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Secondary Market The Sba Guarantee of A Certificate § 120.621 SBA guarantee of an Individual...
DEPOSIT GUARANTEE SCHEMES JOIN FINANCIAL SAFETY-NET
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eugen Dijmarescu
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Deposit Guarantee Schemes (DGS become more visible under the current conditions of the world financial markets. If those have played in the past a rather discreet role for social stability through the function of pay box following a bank failure, the recent crisis put them in a new light, once the guarantee ceiling for eligible deposits grew in order to make for the accumulation of wealth worldwide and the increased risk incurred by the leverage of banking operations. Consequently, the resources accumulated by the DGS from the member banks and their proper management make possible their involvement in pre-emptive actions aimed to avoid bankruptcies via special administration and purchase of assets and assumption of liabilities. These new attributes give DGS a role in the mechanism of financial safety-net, along the supervisors of the market. Hence, an increased preoccupation for applied corporate governance has developed and Core Principles for Effective Deposit Insurance Systems have been adopted by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision together with International Association of Deposit Insurers. Concurrently, the EU Commission has put forward a process for reviewing the Directives 94/39 and 09/14 EC, in order to make the European DGS more prepared to deal with above mentioned issues and bestow increased confidence upon depositors.
Resilient guaranteed cost control of a power system.
Soliman, Hisham M; Soliman, Mostafa H; Hassan, Mohammad F
2014-05-01
With the development of power system interconnection, the low-frequency oscillation is becoming more and more prominent which may cause system separation and loss of energy to consumers. This paper presents an innovative robust control for power systems in which the operating conditions are changing continuously due to load changes. However, practical implementation of robust control can be fragile due to controller inaccuracies (tolerance of resistors used with operational amplifiers). A new design of resilient (non-fragile) robust control is given that takes into consideration both model and controller uncertainties by an iterative solution of a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMI). Both uncertainties are cast into a norm-bounded structure. A sufficient condition is derived to achieve the desired settling time for damping power system oscillations in face of plant and controller uncertainties. Furthermore, an improved controller design, resilient guaranteed cost controller, is derived to achieve oscillations damping in a guaranteed cost manner. The effectiveness of the algorithm is shown for a single machine infinite bus system, and then, it is extended to multi-area power system.
GMG: A Guaranteed, Efficient Global Optimization Algorithm for Remote Sensing.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D' Helon, CD
2004-08-18
The monocular passive ranging (MPR) problem in remote sensing consists of identifying the precise range of an airborne target (missile, plane, etc.) from its observed radiance. This inverse problem may be set as a global optimization problem (GOP) whereby the difference between the observed and model predicted radiances is minimized over the possible ranges and atmospheric conditions. Using additional information about the error function between the predicted and observed radiances of the target, we developed GMG, a new algorithm to find the Global Minimum with a Guarantee. The new algorithm transforms the original continuous GOP into a discrete search problem, thereby guaranteeing to find the position of the global minimum in a reasonably short time. The algorithm is first applied to the golf course problem, which serves as a litmus test for its performance in the presence of both complete and degraded additional information. GMG is further assessed on a set of standard benchmark functions and then applied to various realizations of the MPR problem.
Incentive-compatible guaranteed renewable health insurance premiums.
Herring, Bradley; Pauly, Mark V
2006-05-01
Theoretical models of guaranteed renewable insurance display front-loaded premium schedules. Such schedules both cover lifetime total claims of low-risk and high-risk individuals and provide an incentive for those who remain low-risk to continue to purchase the policy. Questions have been raised of whether actual individual insurance markets in the US approximate the behavior predicted by these models, both because young consumers may not be able to "afford" front-loading and because insurers may behave strategically in ways that erode the value of protection against risk reclassification. In this paper, the optimal competitive age-based premium schedule for a benchmark guaranteed renewable health insurance policy is estimated using medical expenditure data. Several factors are shown to reduce the amount of front-loading necessary. Indeed, the resulting optimal premium path increases with age. Actual premium paths exhibited by purchasers of individual insurance are close to the optimal renewable schedule we estimate. Finally, consumer utility associated with the feature is examined.
Geometrical scaling, furry branching and minijets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwa, R.C.
1988-01-01
Scaling properties and their violations in hadronic collisions are discussed in the framework of the geometrical branching model. Geometrical scaling supplemented by Furry branching characterizes the soft component, while the production of jets specifies the hard component. Many features of multiparticle production processes are well described by this model. 21 refs
Geometric integrators for stochastic rigid body dynamics
Tretyakov, Mikhail
2016-01-05
Geometric integrators play an important role in simulating dynamical systems on long time intervals with high accuracy. We will illustrate geometric integration ideas within the stochastic context, mostly on examples of stochastic thermostats for rigid body dynamics. The talk will be mainly based on joint recent work with Rusland Davidchak and Tom Ouldridge.
Geometric integrators for stochastic rigid body dynamics
Tretyakov, Mikhail
2016-01-01
Geometric integrators play an important role in simulating dynamical systems on long time intervals with high accuracy. We will illustrate geometric integration ideas within the stochastic context, mostly on examples of stochastic thermostats for rigid body dynamics. The talk will be mainly based on joint recent work with Rusland Davidchak and Tom Ouldridge.
Geometric phases in discrete dynamical systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cartwright, Julyan H.E., E-mail: julyan.cartwright@csic.es [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC–Universidad de Granada, E-18100 Armilla, Granada (Spain); Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Piro, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.piro@epfl.ch [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Piro, Oreste, E-mail: piro@imedea.uib-csic.es [Departamento de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Tuval, Idan, E-mail: ituval@imedea.uib-csic.es [Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies, CSIC–Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07190 Mallorca (Spain)
2016-10-14
In order to study the behaviour of discrete dynamical systems under adiabatic cyclic variations of their parameters, we consider discrete versions of adiabatically-rotated rotators. Parallelling the studies in continuous systems, we generalize the concept of geometric phase to discrete dynamics and investigate its presence in these rotators. For the rotated sine circle map, we demonstrate an analytical relationship between the geometric phase and the rotation number of the system. For the discrete version of the rotated rotator considered by Berry, the rotated standard map, we further explore this connection as well as the role of the geometric phase at the onset of chaos. Further into the chaotic regime, we show that the geometric phase is also related to the diffusive behaviour of the dynamical variables and the Lyapunov exponent. - Highlights: • We extend the concept of geometric phase to maps. • For the rotated sine circle map, we demonstrate an analytical relationship between the geometric phase and the rotation number. • For the rotated standard map, we explore the role of the geometric phase at the onset of chaos. • We show that the geometric phase is related to the diffusive behaviour of the dynamical variables and the Lyapunov exponent.
Geometrical optics and the diffraction phenomenon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Timofeev, Aleksandr V
2005-01-01
This note outlines the principles of the geometrical optics of inhomogeneous waves whose description necessitates the use of complex values of the wave vector. Generalizing geometrical optics to inhomogeneous waves permits including in its scope the analysis of the diffraction phenomenon. (methodological notes)
Solving Absolute Value Equations Algebraically and Geometrically
Shiyuan, Wei
2005-01-01
The way in which students can improve their comprehension by understanding the geometrical meaning of algebraic equations or solving algebraic equation geometrically is described. Students can experiment with the conditions of the absolute value equation presented, for an interesting way to form an overall understanding of the concept.
On the Guarantee of the Realization of the Right to Education
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elena A. Kashtanova
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The article reveals the issues of the essence and content of the guarantee of the realization of the right to education, the system of guarantees for the implementation of constitutional and legal principles and norms, including those that consolidate the system of rights and freedoms of human and citizen. The Author examines the functions of guarantee (stimulating, law enforcement and law enforcement, analyzes types of guarantees – guarantees related to the very right to education and quality of education.
... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Assisted Vaginal Delivery Home For Patients Search FAQs Assisted Vaginal ... Vaginal Delivery FAQ192, February 2016 PDF Format Assisted Vaginal Delivery Labor, Delivery, and Postpartum Care What is ...
Constitutional judges (guarantee of the Constitution and responsibility
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francisco Javier Ansuátegui Roig
2012-06-01
Full Text Available My aim in this paper is to propose a reflection on the position and the importance that the constitutional judge has in the legal systems of contemporary constitutionalism. The figure of the judge responsible of protecting the Constitution is a key institution, without which we cannot understand the laws of constitutional democracies, their current lines of development, and the guarantee of rights and freedoms that constitute the normative core of these systems. Moreover, the reflection on the exercise of the powers of the judge, its scope and its justification is an important part of contemporary legal discussion, still relevant, albeit not exclusively - in the field of legal philosophy. The object of attention of my reflection is the judge who has the power of judicial review, in a scheme of defense of the Constitution, regardless the specific ways of this defense.
Honeywell starts energy-management service: savings guaranteed; BOSS replaced
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schwartz, R.
1983-01-24
Honeywell Inc. guarantees that its new Honeywell Service Link Operation (HSLO), a time-sharing service, will produce greater energy savings than its monthly fees. There are no front-end costs because the central computer is located at the supplier's Atlanta site, making energy management cost-affordable for facilities as small as 25,000 square feet. HSLO replaces Honeywell's Building Operations Service System (BOSS) that has a minimum-size requirement of 100,000 square feet. BOSS customers will be automatically changed to HSLO at no charge. All 21 regional computer centers will be available to users. Johnson Controls, Inc. also operates a time-sharing operation called Total Automated Building Services (TABS). (DCK)
Basic income guarantee: a review of implications for oral health.
Chen, Yi-An; Quiñonez, Carlos
2018-12-01
To: a) Familiarize readers with the concept of a basic income guarantee (BIG) and its different forms; b) Consider how BIG could improve oral health and decrease oral health disparities; c) Motivate readers to advocate for the evaluation of oral health outcomes in BIG experiments. Published articles and book chapters that have analyzed and reviewed data from past BIG pilot projects were examined for their findings on health and socioeconomic outcomes. Our findings suggest various areas and mechanisms whereby BIG can influence oral health-related outcomes, whether through impacts on work, illness and injury, education, a social multiplier effect, expenditure behavior, and/or mental illness and other health outcomes. Our findings illustrate the importance of assessing oral health-related outcomes in future BIG pilot projects. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bernardita Donoso Bernales
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Preterm delivery is the single most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. In Chile, preterm births have increased in the past decade, although neonatal morbidity and mortality attributable to it shows a downward trend, thanks to improvements in neonatal care of premature babies, rather than the success of obstetric preventive and therapeutic strategies. This article describes clinical entities, disease processes and conditions that constitute predisposing factors of preterm birth, as well as an outline for the prevention and clinical management of women at risk of preterm birth.
Geometrical formulation of the conformal Ward identity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kachkachi, M.
2002-08-01
In this paper we use deep ideas in complex geometry that proved to be very powerful in unveiling the Polyakov measure on the moduli space of Riemann surfaces and lead to obtain the partition function of perturbative string theory for 2, 3, 4 loops. Indeed, a geometrical interpretation of the conformal Ward identity in two dimensional conformal field theory is proposed: the conformal anomaly is interpreted as a deformation of the complex structure of the basic Riemann surface. This point of view is in line with the modern trend of geometric quantizations that are based on deformations of classical structures. Then, we solve the conformal Ward identity by using this geometrical formalism. (author)
Initial singularity and pure geometric field theories
Wanas, M. I.; Kamal, Mona M.; Dabash, Tahia F.
2018-01-01
In the present article we use a modified version of the geodesic equation, together with a modified version of the Raychaudhuri equation, to study initial singularities. These modified equations are used to account for the effect of the spin-torsion interaction on the existence of initial singularities in cosmological models. Such models are the results of solutions of the field equations of a class of field theories termed pure geometric. The geometric structure used in this study is an absolute parallelism structure satisfying the cosmological principle. It is shown that the existence of initial singularities is subject to some mathematical (geometric) conditions. The scheme suggested for this study can be easily generalized.
SOME PROPERTIES OF GEOMETRIC DEA MODELS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ozren Despić
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Some specific geometric data envelopment analysis (DEA models are well known to the researchers in DEA through so-called multiplicative or log-linear efficiency models. Valuable properties of these models were noted by several authors but the models still remain somewhat obscure and rarely used in practice. The purpose of this paper is to show from a mathematical perspective where the geometric DEA fits in relation to the classical DEA, and to provide a brief overview of some benefits in using geometric DEA in practice of decision making and/or efficiency measurement.
Refined geometric transition and qq-characters
Kimura, Taro; Mori, Hironori; Sugimoto, Yuji
2018-01-01
We show the refinement of the prescription for the geometric transition in the refined topological string theory and, as its application, discuss a possibility to describe qq-characters from the string theory point of view. Though the suggested way to operate the refined geometric transition has passed through several checks, it is additionally found in this paper that the presence of the preferred direction brings a nontrivial effect. We provide the modified formula involving this point. We then apply our prescription of the refined geometric transition to proposing the stringy description of doubly quantized Seiberg-Witten curves called qq-characters in certain cases.
A Geometrical View of Higgs Effective Theory
CERN. Geneva
2016-01-01
A geometric formulation of Higgs Effective Field Theory (HEFT) is presented. Experimental observables are given in terms of geometric invariants of the scalar sigma model sector such as the curvature of the scalar field manifold M. We show how the curvature can be measured experimentally via Higgs cross-sections, W_L scattering, and the S parameter. The one-loop action of HEFT is given in terms of geometric invariants of M. The distinction between the Standard Model (SM) and HEFT is whether M is flat or curved, with the curvature a signal of the scale of new physics.
Geometrical analysis of the interacting boson model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dieperink, A.E.L.
1983-01-01
The Interacting Boson Model is considered, in relation with geometrical models and the application of mean field techniques to algebraic models, in three lectures. In the first, several methods are reviewed to establish a connection between the algebraic formulation of collective nuclear properties in terms of the group SU(6) and the geometric approach. In the second lecture the geometric interpretation of new degrees of freedom that arise in the neutron-proton IBA is discussed, and in the third one some further applications of algebraic techniques to the calculation of static and dynamic collective properties are presented. (U.K.)
Lectures on geometrical properties of nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myers, W.D.
1975-11-01
Material concerning the geometrical properties of nuclei is drawn from a number of different sources. The leptodermous nature of nuclear density distributions and potential wells is used to draw together the various geometrical properties of these systems and to provide a unified means for their description. Extensive use is made of expansions of radial properties in terms of the surface diffuseness. A strong case is made for the use of convolution as a geometrical ansatz for generating diffuse surface distributions because of the number of simplifications that arise which are of practical importance. 7 figures
Stock price prediction using geometric Brownian motion
Farida Agustini, W.; Restu Affianti, Ika; Putri, Endah RM
2018-03-01
Geometric Brownian motion is a mathematical model for predicting the future price of stock. The phase that done before stock price prediction is determine stock expected price formulation and determine the confidence level of 95%. On stock price prediction using geometric Brownian Motion model, the algorithm starts from calculating the value of return, followed by estimating value of volatility and drift, obtain the stock price forecast, calculating the forecast MAPE, calculating the stock expected price and calculating the confidence level of 95%. Based on the research, the output analysis shows that geometric Brownian motion model is the prediction technique with high rate of accuracy. It is proven with forecast MAPE value ≤ 20%.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Houwing; Michiel; Vries, Laurens J. de
2005-01-01
With the Renewables Directive (2001/77/EC) the EU has obliged its Member States to implement the Guarantees of Origin (GO) policy instrument into their national renewable electricity support schemes. Compared to formerly existing policy instruments as tradable green certificates, GOs can in a Union broad quota obligation scheme, for example, prove to be of major value in arriving at a more transparent and efficient way of trading renewable electricity. This paper gives an overview of the most important hurdles still to be addressed, mainly being double counting issues and policy interactions. When more clarity is given from the Commission in the future and when more EU Member States implement GOs beyond the minimum requirements, international trading of renewable electricity can become truly feasible. (Author)
Transition curves for highway geometric design
Kobryń, Andrzej
2017-01-01
This book provides concise descriptions of the various solutions of transition curves, which can be used in geometric design of roads and highways. It presents mathematical methods and curvature functions for defining transition curves. .
Geometrical scaling of jet fragmentation photons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hattori, Koichi, E-mail: koichi.hattori@riken.jp [RIKEN BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY 11973 (United States); Theoretical Research Division, Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); McLerran, Larry, E-mail: mclerran@bnl.gov [RIKEN BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY 11973 (United States); Physics Dept., Bdg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY-11973 (United States); Physics Dept., China Central Normal University, Wuhan (China); Schenke, Björn, E-mail: bschenke@bnl.gov [Physics Dept., Bdg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY-11973 (United States)
2016-12-15
We discuss jet fragmentation photons in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. We argue that, if the jet distribution satisfies geometrical scaling and an anisotropic spectrum, these properties are transferred to photons during the jet fragmentation.
Geometric U-folds in four dimensions
Lazaroiu, C. I.; Shahbazi, C. S.
2018-01-01
We describe a general construction of geometric U-folds compatible with a non-trivial extension of the global formulation of four-dimensional extended supergravity on a differentiable spin manifold. The topology of geometric U-folds depends on certain flat fiber bundles which encode how supergravity fields are globally glued together. We show that smooth non-trivial U-folds of this type can exist only in theories where both the scalar and space-time manifolds have non-trivial fundamental group and in addition the scalar map of the solution is homotopically non-trivial. Consistency with string theory requires smooth geometric U-folds to be glued using subgroups of the effective discrete U-duality group, implying that the fundamental group of the scalar manifold of such solutions must be a subgroup of the latter. We construct simple examples of geometric U-folds in a generalization of the axion-dilaton model of \
5th Dagstuhl Seminar on Geometric Modelling
Brunnett, Guido; Farin, Gerald; Goldman, Ron
2004-01-01
In 19 articles presented by leading experts in the field of geometric modelling the state-of-the-art on representing, modeling, and analyzing curves, surfaces as well as other 3-dimensional geometry is given. The range of applications include CAD/CAM-systems, computer graphics, scientific visualization, virtual reality, simulation and medical imaging. The content of this book is based on selected lectures given at a workshop held at IBFI Schloss Dagstuhl, Germany. Topics treated are: – curve and surface modelling – non-manifold modelling in CAD – multiresolution analysis of complex geometric models – surface reconstruction – variational design – computational geometry of curves and surfaces – 3D meshing – geometric modelling for scientific visualization – geometric models for biomedical applications
The perception of geometrical structure from congruence
Lappin, Joseph S.; Wason, Thomas D.
1989-01-01
The principle function of vision is to measure the environment. As demonstrated by the coordination of motor actions with the positions and trajectories of moving objects in cluttered environments and by rapid recognition of solid objects in varying contexts from changing perspectives, vision provides real-time information about the geometrical structure and location of environmental objects and events. The geometric information provided by 2-D spatial displays is examined. It is proposed that the geometry of this information is best understood not within the traditional framework of perspective trigonometry, but in terms of the structure of qualitative relations defined by congruences among intrinsic geometric relations in images of surfaces. The basic concepts of this geometrical theory are outlined.
Strategic design of cost savings guarantee in energy performance contracting under uncertainty
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deng, Qianli; Jiang, Xianglin; Cui, Qingbin; Zhang, Limao
2015-01-01
Highlights: • A methodology is proposed to assist Energy Service Companies to maintain competitiveness in winning bids. • Uncertainties within the energy cost savings are modeled stochastically using the Monte-Carlo simulation. • A strategic energy savings guarantee design curve is derived, where all points return as appropriate guarantees. • A campus case is presented to demonstrate the applicability for finding appropriate guaranteed savings value. - Abstract: Among the key barriers to profit in Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) are uncertainties about attaining the realized energy cost savings and potential disputes over the guaranteed cost savings. In this paper, a methodology has been proposed to assist the Energy Service Company (ESCO): (1) to evaluate the risk threshold if the guarantee has already been made, and (2) to determine the guarantee design, if the guarantee has not been made yet, that not only promises the ESCO’s profitability from EPC but also maintains its competitiveness to win the bid. Uncertainties within the energy cost savings are modeled stochastically using Monte-Carlo simulation, taking both the energy price fluctuation and the facility performance variability into account. Based on that, a strategic energy savings guarantee design curve is derived, that all the points on it would return as appropriate guarantees. Finally, a campus case is presented to demonstrate the applicability for finding the appropriate guaranteed savings value. This method is also worth popularizing in similar performance-based projects
Mechanisms of geometrical seismic attenuation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Igor B. Morozov
2011-07-01
Full Text Available In several recent reports, we have explained the frequency dependence of the apparent seismic quality-factor (Q observed in many studies according to the effects of geometrical attenuation, which was defined as the zero-frequency limit of the temporal attenuation coefficient. In particular, geometrical attenuation was found to be positive for most waves traveling within the lithosphere. Here, we present three theoretical models that illustrate the origin of this geometrical attenuation, and we investigate the causes of its preferential positive values. In addition, we discuss the physical basis and limitations of both the conventional and new attenuation models. For waves in media with slowly varying properties, geometrical attenuation is caused by variations in the wavefront curvature, which can be both positive (for defocusing and negative (for focusing. In media with velocity/density contrasts, incoherent reflectivity leads to geometrical-attenuation coefficients which are proportional to the mean squared reflectivity and are always positive. For «coherent» reflectivity, the geometrical attenuation is approximately zero, and the attenuation process can be described according to the concept of «scattering Q». However, the true meaning of this parameter is in describing the mean reflectivity within the medium, and not that of the traditional resonator quality factor known in mechanics. The general conclusion from these models is that non-zero and often positive levels of geometrical attenuation are common in realistic, heterogeneous media, both observationally and theoretically. When transformed into the conventional Q-factor form, this positive geometrical attenuation leads to Q values that quickly increase with frequency. These predictions show that the positive frequency-dependent Q observed in many datasets might represent artifacts of the transformations of the attenuation coefficients into Q.
THE METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE BANK DEPOSITS GUARANTEE PROBLEM SOLVING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O.I. Pechonik
2006-12-01
Full Text Available In world banking practice it is considered that it is better to solve the problem of one bank, rather than arouse the mass impressment of deposits, generating the effect of spreading the disease onto the other credit institutions. In our conditions the process of spreading was specifically reflected in flowing the financial resources of people out of the commercial banks into Sberbank, that shortened drawn resources of other banks, lowed their financial steadiness. The decision of this problem demands conducting aim-oriented policy on the safe-keeping of funds of individuals and organizations in all commercial banks. In other words, the system of deposits insurance is needed, which is based on the necessary participation of all banks and credit organizations, drawing money resources into deposits. But the legislation we have nowadays does not allow to provide in full measure the demanded guarantees to depositors, to form real mechanism of bank liquidity crisis and mass impressments of financial resources by the depositors prevention in case of negative economic market or bankruptcy.
ACCESS TO FINANCE FOR SMEs BY CREDIT GUARANTEE SCHEMES IN TURKEY
Sarigul, Hasmet
2013-01-01
Credit guarantee schemes assist banks in lending to SMEs by overcoming collateral problems. The guarantees are used to share the risk between the bank and the guarantee institution in an agreed ratio. Thus, the bank’s risk and operation costs are lowered and its returns increased. This encourages banks to lend to SMEs who are unable to provide adequate collateral. In our study, we investigate the relationship between SMEs, banks and CGSs. We also aimed to explain the functioning of CGSs...
Optimal design of uptime-guarantee contracts under IGFR valuations and convex costs
Hezarkhni, Behzad
2016-01-01
An uptime-guarantee contract commits a service provider to maintain the functionality of a customer’s equipment at least for certain fraction of working time during a contracted period. This paper addresses the optimal design of uptime-guarantee contracts for the service provider when the customer’s valuation of a contract with a given guaranteed uptime level has an Increasing Generalized Failure Rate (IGFR) distribution. We first consider the case where the service provider proposes only one...
Financial guarantee for decommissioning and nuclear waste management activities at OPG
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van den Hengel, J.
2006-01-01
This paper provides an overview on the establishment and maintenance of a financial guarantee for decommissioning and nuclear waste management activities at Ontario Power Generation (OPG) in accordance with CNSC requirements. The process and timelines are documented leading to the establishment of the guarantee effective July 31, 2003. Reference plans, cost estimates, funding mechanisms and reporting mechanisms are summarized. The renewal process projected at the end of the 5-year initial financial guarantee period is also included. (author)
Guaranteed Cost Finite-Time Control of Discrete-Time Positive Impulsive Switched Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leipo Liu
2018-01-01
Full Text Available This paper considers the guaranteed cost finite-time boundedness of discrete-time positive impulsive switched systems. Firstly, the definition of guaranteed cost finite-time boundedness is introduced. By using the multiple linear copositive Lyapunov function (MLCLF and average dwell time (ADT approach, a state feedback controller is designed and sufficient conditions are obtained to guarantee that the corresponding closed-loop system is guaranteed cost finite-time boundedness (GCFTB. Such conditions can be solved by linear programming. Finally, a numerical example is provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement of loss, theft, destruction, mutilation..., theft, destruction, mutilation, or defacement of Loan Note Guarantee or Assignment Guarantee Agreement... circumstances of the loss, theft, or destruction of the Loan Note Guarantee or Assignment Guarantee Agreement...
Morphing of geometric composites via residual swelling.
Pezzulla, Matteo; Shillig, Steven A; Nardinocchi, Paola; Holmes, Douglas P
2015-08-07
Understanding and controlling the shape of thin, soft objects has been the focus of significant research efforts among physicists, biologists, and engineers in the last decade. These studies aim to utilize advanced materials in novel, adaptive ways such as fabricating smart actuators or mimicking living tissues. Here, we present the controlled growth-like morphing of 2D sheets into 3D shapes by preparing geometric composite structures that deform by residual swelling. The morphing of these geometric composites is dictated by both swelling and geometry, with diffusion controlling the swelling-induced actuation, and geometric confinement dictating the structure's deformed shape. Building on a simple mechanical analog, we present an analytical model that quantitatively describes how the Gaussian and mean curvatures of a thin disk are affected by the interplay among geometry, mechanics, and swelling. This model is in excellent agreement with our experiments and numerics. We show that the dynamics of residual swelling is dictated by a competition between two characteristic diffusive length scales governed by geometry. Our results provide the first 2D analog of Timoshenko's classical formula for the thermal bending of bimetallic beams - our generalization explains how the Gaussian curvature of a 2D geometric composite is affected by geometry and elasticity. The understanding conferred by these results suggests that the controlled shaping of geometric composites may provide a simple complement to traditional manufacturing techniques.
Geometric phases and hidden local gauge symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujikawa, Kazuo
2005-01-01
The analysis of geometric phases associated with level crossing is reduced to the familiar diagonalization of the Hamiltonian in the second quantized formulation. A hidden local gauge symmetry, which is associated with the arbitrariness of the phase choice of a complete orthonormal basis set, becomes explicit in this formulation (in particular, in the adiabatic approximation) and specifies physical observables. The choice of a basis set which specifies the coordinate in the functional space is arbitrary in the second quantization, and a subclass of coordinate transformations, which keeps the form of the action invariant, is recognized as the gauge symmetry. We discuss the implications of this hidden local gauge symmetry in detail by analyzing geometric phases for cyclic and noncyclic evolutions. It is shown that the hidden local symmetry provides a basic concept alternative to the notion of holonomy to analyze geometric phases and that the analysis based on the hidden local gauge symmetry leads to results consistent with the general prescription of Pancharatnam. We however note an important difference between the geometric phases for cyclic and noncyclic evolutions. We also explain a basic difference between our hidden local gauge symmetry and a gauge symmetry (or equivalence class) used by Aharonov and Anandan in their definition of generalized geometric phases
Realization of Human Rights Guarantees in Civil Proceedings in Russia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Badma V. Sangadzhiev
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Civil legal proceedings are conducted according to the federal laws existing during consideration and permission of a civil case (making of separate legal proceedings or execution of court decrees. In case of lack of the regulation of a procedural law governing the relations which arose during civil legal proceedings, federal courts of the general jurisdiction and magistrate's courts apply the regulation governing the similar relations (analogy of the law. In the absence of such regulation of the judge work proceeding from the general principles of implementation of justice in the Russian Federation (analogy is right. Dispositions of general constitutional guarantees (which don't belong directly to judicial system, however their sense can quite be applied to judicial process of consideration of civil cases contain in the following articles of the Constitution of Russia: 17, 19, 29 and 45. Judicial activities are characterized by the major indicators: quality and efficiency (observance of procedural terms. According to the conventional principles and rules of international law to be an offender without unjustifiable delay constitutes one of the fundamental human rights inseparably linked with the right to fair legal proceeding. In a sense of the constitutional regulation, first, everyone has the right, but isn't obliged to protect the rights, secondly, to protect by all methods which aren't forbidden by the law. It is thought, the last purchases the force and the importance not as ascertaining (or transfer these methods in the law and as availability of real mechanisms of their use by the individual and availability of use.
Han, Kai; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Weiyun; Wang, Shibo; Xu, Luming; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Xianzheng; Han, Heyou
2017-03-28
Geometrical shape of nanoparticles plays an important role in cellular internalization. However, the applicability in tumor selective therapeutics is still scarcely reported. In this article, we designed a tumor extracellular acidity-responsive chimeric peptide with geometrical shape switch for enhanced tumor internalization and photodynamic therapy. This chimeric peptide could self-assemble into spherical nanoparticles at physiological condition. While at tumor extracellular acidic microenvironment, chimeric peptide underwent detachment of acidity-sensitive 2,3-dimethylmaleic anhydride groups. The subsequent recovery of ionic complementarity between chimeric peptides resulted in formation of rod-like nanoparticles. Both in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that this acidity-triggered geometrical shape switch endowed chimeric peptide with accelerated internalization in tumor cells, prolonged accumulation in tumor tissue, enhanced photodynamic therapy, and minimal side effects. Our results suggested that fusing tumor microenvironment with geometrical shape switch should be a promising strategy for targeted drug delivery.
Assisted delivery with forceps
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000509.htm Assisted delivery with forceps To use the sharing features on ... called vacuum assisted delivery . When is a Forceps Delivery Needed? Even after your cervix is fully dilated ( ...
Geometric inequalities for axially symmetric black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dain, Sergio
2012-01-01
A geometric inequality in general relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse; they are closely related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. Axially symmetric black holes are the natural candidates to study these inequalities because the quasi-local angular momentum is well defined for them. We review recent results in this subject and we also describe the main ideas behind the proofs. Finally, a list of relevant open problems is presented. (topical review)
MM Algorithms for Geometric and Signomial Programming.
Lange, Kenneth; Zhou, Hua
2014-02-01
This paper derives new algorithms for signomial programming, a generalization of geometric programming. The algorithms are based on a generic principle for optimization called the MM algorithm. In this setting, one can apply the geometric-arithmetic mean inequality and a supporting hyperplane inequality to create a surrogate function with parameters separated. Thus, unconstrained signomial programming reduces to a sequence of one-dimensional minimization problems. Simple examples demonstrate that the MM algorithm derived can converge to a boundary point or to one point of a continuum of minimum points. Conditions under which the minimum point is unique or occurs in the interior of parameter space are proved for geometric programming. Convergence to an interior point occurs at a linear rate. Finally, the MM framework easily accommodates equality and inequality constraints of signomial type. For the most important special case, constrained quadratic programming, the MM algorithm involves very simple updates.
The Geometric Phase of Stock Trading.
Altafini, Claudio
2016-01-01
Geometric phases describe how in a continuous-time dynamical system the displacement of a variable (called phase variable) can be related to other variables (shape variables) undergoing a cyclic motion, according to an area rule. The aim of this paper is to show that geometric phases can exist also for discrete-time systems, and even when the cycles in shape space have zero area. A context in which this principle can be applied is stock trading. A zero-area cycle in shape space represents the type of trading operations normally carried out by high-frequency traders (entering and exiting a position on a fast time-scale), while the phase variable represents the cash balance of a trader. Under the assumption that trading impacts stock prices, even zero-area cyclic trading operations can induce geometric phases, i.e., profits or losses, without affecting the stock quote.
Exponentiated Lomax Geometric Distribution: Properties and Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amal Soliman Hassan
2017-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new four-parameter lifetime distribution, called the exponentiated Lomax geometric (ELG is introduced. The new lifetime distribution contains the Lomax geometric and exponentiated Pareto geometric as new sub-models. Explicit algebraic formulas of probability density function, survival and hazard functions are derived. Various structural properties of the new model are derived including; quantile function, Re'nyi entropy, moments, probability weighted moments, order statistic, Lorenz and Bonferroni curves. The estimation of the model parameters is performed by maximum likelihood method and inference for a large sample is discussed. The flexibility and potentiality of the new model in comparison with some other distributions are shown via an application to a real data set. We hope that the new model will be an adequate model for applications in various studies.
Normed algebras and the geometric series test
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert Kantrowitz
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to survey a class of normed algebras that share many central features of Banach algebras, save for completeness. The likeness of these algebras to Banach algebras derives from the fact that the geometric series test is valid, whereas the lack of completeness points to the failure of the absolute convergence test for series in the algebra. Our main result is a compendium of conditions that are all equivalent to the validity of the geometric series test for commutative unital normed algebras. Several examples in the final section showcase some incomplete normed algebras for which the geometric series test is valid, and still others for which it is not.
Geometric function theory in higher dimension
2017-01-01
The book collects the most relevant outcomes from the INdAM Workshop “Geometric Function Theory in Higher Dimension” held in Cortona on September 5-9, 2016. The Workshop was mainly devoted to discussions of basic open problems in the area, and this volume follows the same line. In particular, it offers a selection of original contributions on Loewner theory in one and higher dimensions, semigroups theory, iteration theory and related topics. Written by experts in geometric function theory in one and several complex variables, it focuses on new research frontiers in this area and on challenging open problems. The book is intended for graduate students and researchers working in complex analysis, several complex variables and geometric function theory.
EARLY HISTORY OF GEOMETRIC PROBABILITY AND STEREOLOGY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Magdalena Hykšová
2012-03-01
Full Text Available The paper provides an account of the history of geometric probability and stereology from the time of Newton to the early 20th century. It depicts the development of two parallel ways: on one hand, the theory of geometric probability was formed with minor attention paid to other applications than those concerning spatial chance games. On the other hand, practical rules of the estimation of area or volume fraction and other characteristics, easily deducible from geometric probability theory, were proposed without the knowledge of this branch. A special attention is paid to the paper of J.-É. Barbier published in 1860, which contained the fundamental stereological formulas, but remained almost unnoticed both by mathematicians and practicians.
Geometric optimization and sums of algebraic functions
Vigneron, Antoine E.
2014-01-01
We present a new optimization technique that yields the first FPTAS for several geometric problems. These problems reduce to optimizing a sum of nonnegative, constant description complexity algebraic functions. We first give an FPTAS for optimizing such a sum of algebraic functions, and then we apply it to several geometric optimization problems. We obtain the first FPTAS for two fundamental geometric shape-matching problems in fixed dimension: maximizing the volume of overlap of two polyhedra under rigid motions and minimizing their symmetric difference. We obtain the first FPTAS for other problems in fixed dimension, such as computing an optimal ray in a weighted subdivision, finding the largest axially symmetric subset of a polyhedron, and computing minimum-area hulls.
Understanding geometric algebra for electromagnetic theory
Arthur, John W
2011-01-01
"This book aims to disseminate geometric algebra as a straightforward mathematical tool set for working with and understanding classical electromagnetic theory. It's target readership is anyone who has some knowledge of electromagnetic theory, predominantly ordinary scientists and engineers who use it in the course of their work, or postgraduate students and senior undergraduates who are seeking to broaden their knowledge and increase their understanding of the subject. It is assumed that the reader is not a mathematical specialist and is neither familiar with geometric algebra or its application to electromagnetic theory. The modern approach, geometric algebra, is the mathematical tool set we should all have started out with and once the reader has a grasp of the subject, he or she cannot fail to realize that traditional vector analysis is really awkward and even misleading by comparison"--Provided by publisher.
Spherical projections and liftings in geometric tomography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Goodey, Paul; Kiderlen, Markus; Weil, Wolfgang
2011-01-01
We consider a variety of integral transforms arising in Geometric Tomography. It will be shown that these can be put into a common framework using spherical projection and lifting operators. These operators will be applied to support functions and surface area measures of convex bodies and to rad......We consider a variety of integral transforms arising in Geometric Tomography. It will be shown that these can be put into a common framework using spherical projection and lifting operators. These operators will be applied to support functions and surface area measures of convex bodies...... and to radial functions of star bodies. We then investigate averages of lifted projections and show that they correspond to self-adjoint intertwining operators. We obtain formulas for the eigenvalues of these operators and use them to ascertain circumstances under which tomographic measurements determine...... the original bodies. This approach via mean lifted projections leads us to some unexpected relationships between seemingly disparate geometric constructions....
The effect of photometric and geometric context on photometric and geometric lightness effects.
Lee, Thomas Y; Brainard, David H
2014-01-24
We measured the lightness of probe tabs embedded at different orientations in various contextual images presented on a computer-controlled stereo display. Two background context planes met along a horizontal roof-like ridge. Each plane was a graphic rendering of a set of achromatic surfaces with the simulated illumination for each plane controlled independently. Photometric context was varied by changing the difference in simulated illumination intensity between the two background planes. Geometric context was varied by changing the angle between them. We parsed the data into separate photometric effects and geometric effects. For fixed geometry, varying photometric context led to linear changes in both the photometric and geometric effects. Varying geometric context did not produce a statistically reliable change in either the photometric or geometric effects.
Measurement of the geometric parameters of power contact wire based on binocular stereovision
Pan, Xue-Tao; Zhang, Ya-feng; Meng, Fei
2010-10-01
In the electrified railway power supply system, electric locomotive obtains power from the catenary's wire through the pantograph. Under the action of the pantograph, combined with various factors such as vibration, touch current, relative sliding speed, load, etc, the contact wire will produce mechanical wear and electrical wear. Thus, in electrified railway construction and daily operations, the geometric parameters such as line height, pull value, the width of wear surface must be under real-timely and non-contact detection. On the one hand, the safe operation of electric railways will be guaranteed; on the other hand, the wire endurance will be extended, and operating costs reduced. Based on the characteristics of the worn wires' image signal, the binocular stereo vision technology was applied for measurement of contact wire geometry parameters, a mathematical model of measurement of geometric parameters was derived, and the boundaries of the wound wire abrasion-point value were extracted by means of sub-pixel edge detection method based on the LOG operator with the least-squares fitting, thus measurements of the wire geometry parameters were realized. Principles were demonstrated through simulation experiments, and the experimental results show that the detection methods presented in this paper for measuring the accuracy, efficiency and convenience, etc. are close to or superior to the traditional measurements, which has laid a good foundation for the measurement system of geometric parameters for the contact wire of the development of binocular vision.
Sudan-decoding generalized geometric Goppa codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heydtmann, Agnes Eileen
2003-01-01
Generalized geometric Goppa codes are vector spaces of n-tuples with entries from different extension fields of a ground field. They are derived from evaluating functions similar to conventional geometric Goppa codes, but allowing evaluation in places of arbitrary degree. A decoding scheme...... for these codes based on Sudan's improved algorithm is presented and its error-correcting capacity is analyzed. For the implementation of the algorithm it is necessary that the so-called increasing zero bases of certain spaces of functions are available. A method to obtain such bases is developed....
The geometric phase in quantum physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bohm, A.
1993-03-01
After an explanatory introduction, a quantum system in a classical time-dependent environment is discussed; an example is a magnetic moment in a classical magnetic field. At first, the general abelian case is discussed in the adiabatic approximation. Then the geometric phase for nonadiabatic change of the environment (Anandan--Aharonov phase) is introduced, and after that general cyclic (nonadiabatic) evolution is discussed. The mathematics of fiber bundles is introduced, and some of its results are used to describe the relation between the adiabatic Berry phase and the geometric phase for general cyclic evolution of a pure state. The discussion is restricted to the abelian, U(1) phase
Geometric modular action and transformation groups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Summers, S.J.
1996-01-01
We study a weak form of geometric modular action, which is naturally associated with transformation groups of partially ordered sets and which provides these groups with projective representations. Under suitable conditions it is shown that these groups are implemented by point transformations of topological spaces serving as models for space-times, leading to groups which may be interpreted as symmetry groups of the space-times. As concrete examples, it is shown that the Poincare group and the de Sitter group can be derived from this condition of geometric modular action. Further consequences and examples are discussed. (orig.)
Geometrical methods for power network analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bellucci, Stefano; Tiwari, Bhupendra Nath [Istituto Nazioneale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati, Rome (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Frascati; Gupta, Neeraj [Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering
2013-02-01
Uses advanced geometrical methods to analyse power networks. Provides a self-contained and tutorial introduction. Includes a fully worked-out example for the IEEE 5 bus system. This book is a short introduction to power system planning and operation using advanced geometrical methods. The approach is based on well-known insights and techniques developed in theoretical physics in the context of Riemannian manifolds. The proof of principle and robustness of this approach is examined in the context of the IEEE 5 bus system. This work addresses applied mathematicians, theoretical physicists and power engineers interested in novel mathematical approaches to power network theory.
Aspects of the geometrical approach to supermanifolds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogers, A.
1984-01-01
Various topics in the theory and application of the geometrical approach to supermanifolds are discussed. The construction of the superspace used in supergravity over an arbitrary spacetime manifold is described. Super Lie groups and their relation to graded Lie algebras (and more general structures referred to as 'graded Lie modules') are discussed, with examples. Certain supermanifolds, allowed in the geometric approach (using the fine topology), but having no analogue in the algebraic approach, are discussed. Finally lattice supersymmetry, and its relation to the differential geometry of supermanifolds, is discussed. (orig.)
Geometrical superresolved imaging using nonperiodic spatial masking.
Borkowski, Amikam; Zalevsky, Zeev; Javidi, Bahram
2009-03-01
The resolution of every imaging system is limited either by the F-number of its optics or by the geometry of its detection array. The geometrical limitation is caused by lack of spatial sampling points as well as by the shape of every sampling pixel that generates spectral low-pass filtering. We present a novel approach to overcome the low-pass filtering that is due to the shape of the sampling pixels. The approach combines special algorithms together with spatial masking placed in the intermediate image plane and eventually allows geometrical superresolved imaging without relation to the actual shape of the pixels.
Workshop on Topology and Geometric Group Theory
Fowler, James; Lafont, Jean-Francois; Leary, Ian
2016-01-01
This book presents articles at the interface of two active areas of research: classical topology and the relatively new field of geometric group theory. It includes two long survey articles, one on proofs of the Farrell–Jones conjectures, and the other on ends of spaces and groups. In 2010–2011, Ohio State University (OSU) hosted a special year in topology and geometric group theory. Over the course of the year, there were seminars, workshops, short weekend conferences, and a major conference out of which this book resulted. Four other research articles complement these surveys, making this book ideal for graduate students and established mathematicians interested in entering this area of research.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amell A, Andres; Hernandez V, Jaime; Cortes T, Jaime
2000-01-01
In this kind of atmospheric burners, high-pressure gas supply and Venturi geometry guarantee a good primary air entrance for combustion. In this project we analyze the most important burner geometric parameters (outlet diameter, injection diameter and mixer geometry) and gas flux conditions (supply pressure) that have an influence over primary aeration rate. The results of this investigation will contribute with the methodology design improvement, focused to use this kind of burners in our country
Low-cost guaranteed-throughput communication ring for real-time streaming MPSoCs
Dekens, B.H.J.; Kurtin, Philip Sebastian; Bekooij, Marco Jan Gerrit; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria
2013-01-01
Connection-oriented guaranteed-throughput mesh-based networks on chip have been proposed as a replacement for buses in real-time embedded multiprocessor systems such as software defined radios. Even with attractive features like throughput and latency guarantees they are not always used because
16 CFR 239.2 - Disclosures in warranty or guarantee advertising.
2010-01-01
... warranty coverage. These examples are for both print and broadcast advertising. These examples are... advertising. 239.2 Section 239.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE ADVERTISING OF WARRANTIES AND GUARANTEES § 239.2 Disclosures in warranty or guarantee...
When Justice Is Up to You. Celebrating America's Guarantee of Trial by Jury.
National Inst. for Citizen Education in the Law, Washington, DC.
Featuring a mock trial tested in the District of Columbia, the objective of this manual is to help students learn more about the constitutional guarantee of trial by jury. Prepared as five separate lessons, the manual examines one alternative to the jury system--trial by ordeal; traces the development of the guarantee of trial by jury; explores…
The Impact of Public Guarantees on Bank Risk Taking : Evidence from a Natural Experiment
Gropp, R.; Grundl, C.; Guttler, A.
2010-01-01
In 2001, government guarantees for savings banks in Germany were removed following a law suit. We use this natural experiment to examine the effect of government guarantees on bank risk taking, using a large data set of matched bank/borrower information. The results suggest that banks whose
22 CFR 231.05 - Non-impairment of the Guarantee.
2010-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non-impairment of the Guarantee. 231.05 Section 231.05 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD...
Linking Financial Service Providers to Commercial Capital : How Do Guarantees Add Value?
Alexia Latortue; Jasmina Glisovic-Mezieres
2008-01-01
In microfinance, experimentation with loan guarantees began largely as an attempt to demonstrate to local banks that Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) are creditworthy. Though loan guarantees are far less common than other funding instruments, such as debt, equity, and grants, they are beginning to be used more often. This brief is based on a joint Consultative Group to Assist the Poorest (...
12 CFR 370.7 - Assessment for the Transaction Account Guarantee Program.
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment for the Transaction Account Guarantee Program. 370.7 Section 370.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY TEMPORARY LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.7 Assessment for the...
14 CFR 272.3 - Places eligible for guaranteed essential air service.
2010-01-01
... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE TO THE FREELY ASSOCIATED STATES § 272.3 Places eligible for guaranteed essential air service. (a) Subject to the provisions of this part... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Places eligible for guaranteed essential...
2013-11-07
... AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT 22 CFR Part 230 Israel Loan Guarantees Issued Under the... the Government of Israel on behalf of the State of Israel. Pursuant to the Emergency Wartime... International Development, may issue loan guarantees applicable to sums borrowed by the Government of Israel on...
12 CFR 370.6 - Assessments under the Debt Guarantee Program.
2010-01-01
... OF GENERAL POLICY TEMPORARY LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.6 Assessments under the Debt Guarantee... participating entity shall ensure that funds in an amount at least equal to the amount of the assessment are... institution shall provide the necessary funds for payment of its assessments. (3) Failure to take all...
78 FR 691 - Maximum Loan Amount for Business and Industry Guaranteed Loans in Fiscal Year 2013
2013-01-04
... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Business-Cooperative Service Maximum Loan Amount for Business and Industry Guaranteed Loans in Fiscal Year 2013 AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service, USDA. ACTION... and Industry (B&I) guaranteed loans of $25 million or less under certain circumstances. Due to the...
Public initiatives to support entrepreneurs: Credit guarantees versus co-funding
Arping, S.; Lóránth, G.; Morrison, A.D.
2008-01-01
We analyze state-sponsored credit guarantees in a setting where entrepreneurs are capital-constrained and subject to moral hazard. In our model, guarantees can raise welfare because they reduce the cost of capital faced by entrepreneurs, and so potentially enhance entrepreneurial effort incentives.
42 CFR 57.1514 - Loan guarantee and interest subsidy agreements.
2010-10-01
... GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest Subsidies to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for Health Profession Personnel § 57.1514 Loan guarantee and interest subsidy agreements. For each application for a...
Do not pay for a Danish interest guarantee. The law of the triple blow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guillén, Montserrat; Konicz, Agnieszka Karolina; Perch Nielsen, Jens
2013-01-01
We have investigated the performance of pension schemes of with-profit policies containing a guaranteed minimum rate of return and we have found that the price of the guarantee measured in terms of lost returns is enormous. We use simple simulations rather than complex pricing methods to illustrate...... that the price of an interest guarantee is high in pension products that are currently commercialised in the market. We have found that the customer loses up to about 0.75% yearly in the rate of return when an interest guarantee is purchased, compared to the return of an equivalent saving strategy with the same...... risk at the level 95%. This can explain why such arrangements are not widely popular. Our approach can be used to inform clients, who are not experts in modern financial models, the impact of paying for an interest guarantee....
Theoretical frameworks for the learning of geometrical reasoning
Jones, Keith
1998-01-01
With the growth in interest in geometrical ideas it is important to be clear about the nature of geometrical reasoning and how it develops. This paper provides an overview of three theoretical frameworks for the learning of geometrical reasoning: the van Hiele model of thinking in geometry, Fischbein’s theory of figural concepts, and Duval’s cognitive model of geometrical reasoning. Each of these frameworks provides theoretical resources to support research into the development of geometrical...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lola D. Sanginova
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Importance: Under current conditions, the Russian economy needs investment resources to ensure sustainable social and economic development. One of instruments of state-financing backing that can be used to support capital intensive, economically viable, financially and socially efficient investment projects that create "growing points" are state guarantees of theRussian Federation.Objective: The objective of this study is to identify possible ways to improve the requirements and procedures of providing state guarantees of theRussian Federationwhich contribute to the increase in the quantity and quality of investment projects of high social importance. Methods: Through the use of general scientific methods, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction the possibility of creating a more attractive environment for principals is analyzed, measures to reduce the risk for public legal entities in providing state guarantees of theRussian Federationunder credits or bonded loans raised for investment projects implementation.Results: Principles of state guarantee support that ensure the interests of both the principals and the guarantor are defined. The basic directions for improving the mechanism how state guarantees of theRussian Federationsupport investment projects are justified. These directions include increasing availability of obtaining state guarantee support by lowering the cost of investment projects for which the state guarantees may be provided; reducing time of decision making on granting a state guarantee; increasing the creditors’ responsibility for a qualitative assessment of the creditworthiness of principals and investment projects; changing the methodology for assessing the social efficiency of investment projects; increasing the information transparency of provided state guarantees of the Russian Federation.Conclusions: The main result of this study is that under current conditions of economic turbulence state guarantees of the
Certain aspects of the accounting of the bank guarantee at the principal and the beneficiary
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. A. Zimakova
2016-01-01
Full Text Available For any kind of business such category as risks is peculiar. The research of this category was conducted by scientists from the different sides, certain approaches of protection against risks were developed and instruments of decrease in financial risks are offered. The bank guarantee is one of the most demanded instruments of additional financial protection today. Its active using of the commercial organizations courses questions of the organization of the detailed accounting of guarantees at the principal and the beneficiary. A little concerning the historical aspect of the bank guarantee, authors provided the overview of the determinations of "bank guarantee" characterizing it as the banking service providing distribution of responsibility between the guarantor and the principal under certain conditions. Having considered the essence of the legal nature and features of the bank guarantee recommendations about the organization of the disaggregated financial accounting on off-balance accounts were developed. In particular, need of allocation of a currency type as the directions of conducting the analytics providing correctness of reflection of cost criterion is proved. For the purpose of control of timeliness of carrying out calculations it is recommended to allocate guarantees: coincident and in coincident with primary obligation; short-term and long-term. From the point of view of nature of guarantees payment guarantees and guarantees of obligation fulfilment were allocated. These recommendations concern the beneficiary, and lack of accounting entries at a principal generates need of creation of additional registers and analytical reports which forms were offered by authors. The provided recommendations will allow obtaining transparent information on bank guarantees for the purpose of its full disclosure in the financial reporting.
Two particle entanglement and its geometric duals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wasay, Muhammad Abdul [University of Agriculture, Department of Physics, Faisalabad (Pakistan); Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, National Centre for Physics, Islamabad (Pakistan); Bashir, Asma [University of Agriculture, Department of Physics, Faisalabad (Pakistan)
2017-12-15
We show that for a system of two entangled particles, there is a dual description to the particle equations in terms of classical theory of conformally stretched spacetime. We also connect these entangled particle equations with Finsler geometry. We show that this duality translates strongly coupled quantum equations in the pilot-wave limit to weakly coupled geometric equations. (orig.)
Impossible Geometric Constructions: A Calculus Writing Project
Awtrey, Chad
2013-01-01
This article discusses a writing project that offers students the opportunity to solve one of the most famous geometric problems of Greek antiquity; namely, the impossibility of trisecting the angle [pi]/3. Along the way, students study the history of Greek geometry problems as well as the life and achievements of Carl Friedrich Gauss. Included is…
Rejuvenating Allen's Arc with the Geometric Mean.
Phillips, William A.
1994-01-01
Contends that, despite ongoing criticism, Allen's arc elasticity formula remains entrenched in the microeconomics principles curriculum. Reviews the evolution and continuing scrutiny of the formula. Argues that the use of the geometric mean offers pedagogical advantages over the traditional arithmetic mean approach. (CFR)
Geometric Models for Collaborative Search and Filtering
Bitton, Ephrat
2011-01-01
This dissertation explores the use of geometric and graphical models for a variety of information search and filtering applications. These models serve to provide an intuitive understanding of the problem domains and as well as computational efficiencies to our solution approaches. We begin by considering a search and rescue scenario where both…
Two particle entanglement and its geometric duals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wasay, Muhammad Abdul; Bashir, Asma
2017-01-01
We show that for a system of two entangled particles, there is a dual description to the particle equations in terms of classical theory of conformally stretched spacetime. We also connect these entangled particle equations with Finsler geometry. We show that this duality translates strongly coupled quantum equations in the pilot-wave limit to weakly coupled geometric equations. (orig.)
Geometric Abstract Art and Public Health Data
Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts
2016-10-18
Dr. Salaam Semaan, a CDC behavioral scientist, discusses the similarities between geometric abstract art and public health data analysis. Created: 10/18/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 10/18/2016.
Geometric phase topology in weak measurement
Samlan, C. T.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.
2017-12-01
The geometric phase visualization proposed by Bhandari (R Bhandari 1997 Phys. Rep. 281 1-64) in the ellipticity-ellipse orientation basis of the polarization ellipse of light is implemented to understand the geometric aspects of weak measurement. The weak interaction of a pre-selected state, acheived via spin-Hall effect of light (SHEL), results in a spread in the polarization ellipticity (η) or ellipse orientation (χ) depending on the resulting spatial or angular shift, respectively. The post-selection leads to the projection of the η spread in the complementary χ basis results in the appearance of a geometric phase with helical phase topology in the η - χ parameter space. By representing the weak measurement on the Poincaré sphere and using Jones calculus, the complex weak value and the geometric phase topology are obtained. This deeper understanding of the weak measurement process enabled us to explore the techniques’ capabilities maximally, as demonstrated via SHEL in two examples—external reflection at glass-air interface and transmission through a tilted half-wave plate.
Geometrical tile design for complex neighborhoods.
Czeizler, Eugen; Kari, Lila
2009-01-01
Recent research has showed that tile systems are one of the most suitable theoretical frameworks for the spatial study and modeling of self-assembly processes, such as the formation of DNA and protein oligomeric structures. A Wang tile is a unit square, with glues on its edges, attaching to other tiles and forming larger and larger structures. Although quite intuitive, the idea of glues placed on the edges of a tile is not always natural for simulating the interactions occurring in some real systems. For example, when considering protein self-assembly, the shape of a protein is the main determinant of its functions and its interactions with other proteins. Our goal is to use geometric tiles, i.e., square tiles with geometrical protrusions on their edges, for simulating tiled paths (zippers) with complex neighborhoods, by ribbons of geometric tiles with simple, local neighborhoods. This paper is a step toward solving the general case of an arbitrary neighborhood, by proposing geometric tile designs that solve the case of a "tall" von Neumann neighborhood, the case of the f-shaped neighborhood, and the case of a 3 x 5 "filled" rectangular neighborhood. The techniques can be combined and generalized to solve the problem in the case of any neighborhood, centered at the tile of reference, and included in a 3 x (2k + 1) rectangle.
Geometric Representations for Discrete Fourier Transforms
Cambell, C. W.
1986-01-01
Simple geometric representations show symmetry and periodicity of discrete Fourier transforms (DFT's). Help in visualizing requirements for storing and manipulating transform value in computations. Representations useful in any number of dimensions, but particularly in one-, two-, and three-dimensional cases often encountered in practice.
Geometric Series and Computers--An Application.
McNerney, Charles R.
1983-01-01
This article considers the sum of a finite geometric series as applied to numeric data storage in the memory of an electronic digital computer. The presentation is viewed as relevant to programing in several languages and removes some of the mystique associated with syntax constraints that any language imposes. (MP)
Geometric Transformations in Middle School Mathematics Textbooks
Zorin, Barbara
2011-01-01
This study analyzed treatment of geometric transformations in presently available middle grades (6, 7, 8) student mathematics textbooks. Fourteen textbooks from four widely used textbook series were evaluated: two mainline publisher series, Pearson (Prentice Hall) and Glencoe (Math Connects); one National Science Foundation (NSF) funded curriculum…
Geometric calibration of ERS satellite SAR images
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mohr, Johan Jacob; Madsen, Søren Nørvang
2001-01-01
Geometric calibration of the European Remote Sensing (ERS) Satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) slant range images is important in relation to mapping areas without ground reference points and also in relation to automated processing. The relevant SAR system parameters are discussed...
Non-crossing geometric steiner arborescences
Kostitsyna, I.; Speckmann, B.; Verbeek, K.A.B.; Okamoto, Yoshio; Tokuyama, Takeshi
2017-01-01
Motivated by the question of simultaneous embedding of several flow maps, we consider the problem of drawing multiple geometric Steiner arborescences with no crossings in the rectilinear and in the angle-restricted setting. When terminal-to-root paths are allowed to turn freely, we show that two
On Kaehler's geometric description of dirac fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goeckeler, M.; Joos, H.
1983-12-01
A differential geometric generalization of the Dirac equation due to E. Kaehler seems to be an appropriate starting point for the lattice approximation of matter fields. It is the purpose of this lecture to illustrate several aspects of this approach. (orig./HSI)
Robust Geometric Control of a Distillation Column
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kymmel, Mogens; Andersen, Henrik Weisberg
1987-01-01
A frequency domain method, which makes it possible to adjust multivariable controllers with respect to both nominal performance and robustness, is presented. The basic idea in the approach is that the designer assigns objectives such as steady-state tracking, maximum resonance peaks, bandwidth, m...... is used to examine and improve geometric control of a binary distillation column....
Geometric Algorithms for Part Orienting and Probing
Panahi, F.
2015-01-01
In this thesis, detailed solutions are presented to several problems dealing with geometric shape and orientation of an object in the field of robotics and automation. We first have considered a general model for shape variations that allows variation along the entire boundary of an object, both in
Non-equilibrium current via geometric scatterers
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Exner, Pavel; Neidhardt, H.; Tater, Miloš; Zagrebnov, V. A.
2014-01-01
Roč. 47, č. 39 (2014), s. 395301 ISSN 1751-8113 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : non-equilibrioum steady states * geometric scatterer * Landauer-Buttiker formula Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.583, year: 2014
Geometrical scaling in high energy hadron collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kundrat, V.; Lokajicek, M.V.
1984-06-01
The concept of geometrical scaling for high energy elastic hadron scattering is analyzed and its basic equations are solved in a consistent way. It is shown that they are applicable to a rather small interval of momentum transfers, e.g. maximally for |t| 2 for pp scattering at the ISR energies. (author)
Geometrical efficiency in computerized tomography: generalized model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa, P.R.; Robilotta, C.C.
1992-01-01
A simplified model for producing sensitivity and exposure profiles in computerized tomographic system was recently developed allowing the forecast of profiles behaviour in the rotation center of the system. The generalization of this model for some point of the image plane was described, and the geometrical efficiency could be evaluated. (C.G.C.)
Can EPR non-locality be geometrical?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ne'eman, Y.
1995-01-01
The presence in Quantum Mechanics of non-local correlations is one of the two fundamentally non-intuitive features of that theory. The non-local correlations themselves fall into two classes: EPR and Geometrical. The non-local characteristics of the geometrical type are well-understood and are not suspected of possibly generating acausal features, such as faster-than-light propagation of information. This has especially become true since the emergence of a geometrical treatment for the relevant gauge theories, i.e. Fiber Bundle geometry, in which the quantum non-localities are seen to correspond to pure homotopy considerations. This aspect is reviewed in section 2. Contrary-wise, from its very conception, the EPR situation was felt to be paradoxical. It has been suggested that the non-local features of EPR might also derive from geometrical considerations, like all other non-local characteristics of QM. In[7], one of the authors was able to point out several plausibility arguments for this thesis, emphasizing in particular similarities between the non-local correlations provided by any gauge field theory and those required by the preservation of the quantum numbers of the original EPR state-vector, throughout its spatially-extended mode. The derivation was, however, somewhat incomplete, especially because of the apparent difference between, on the one hand, the closed spatial loops arising in the analysis of the geometrical non-localities, from Aharonov-Bohm and Berry phases to magnetic monopoles and instantons, and on the other hand, in the EPR case, the open line drawn by the positions of the two moving decay products of the disintegrating particle. In what follows, the authors endeavor to remove this obstacle and show that as in all other QM non-localities, EPR is somehow related to closed loops, almost involving homotopy considerations. They develop this view in section 3
A GEOMETRICAL HEIGHT SCALE FOR SUNSPOT PENUMBRAE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Puschmann, K. G.; Ruiz Cobo, B.; MartInez Pillet, V.
2010-01-01
Inversions of spectropolarimetric observations of penumbral filaments deliver the stratification of different physical quantities in an optical depth scale. However, without establishing a geometrical height scale, their three-dimensional geometrical structure cannot be derived. This is crucial in understanding the correct spatial variation of physical properties in the penumbral atmosphere and to provide insights into the mechanism capable of explaining the observed penumbral brightness. The aim of this work is to determine a global geometrical height scale in the penumbra by minimizing the divergence of the magnetic field vector and the deviations from static equilibrium as imposed by a force balance equation that includes pressure gradients, gravity, and the Lorentz force. Optical depth models are derived from the inversion of spectropolarimetric data of an active region observed with the Solar Optical Telescope on board the Hinode satellite. We use a genetic algorithm to determine the boundary condition for the inference of geometrical heights. The retrieved geometrical height scale permits the evaluation of the Wilson depression at each pixel and the correlation of physical quantities at each height. Our results fit into the uncombed penumbral scenario, i.e., a penumbra composed of flux tubes with channeled mass flow and with a weaker and more horizontal magnetic field as compared with the background field. The ascending material is hotter and denser than their surroundings. We do not find evidence of overturning convection or field-free regions in the inner penumbral area analyzed. The penumbral brightness can be explained by the energy transfer of the ascending mass carried by the Evershed flow, if the physical quantities below z = -75 km are extrapolated from the results of the inversion.
Prausnitz, Mark R.; Langer, Robert
2008-01-01
Transdermal drug delivery has made an important contribution to medical practice, but has yet to fully achieve its potential as an alternative to oral delivery and hypodermic injections. First-generation transdermal delivery systems have continued their steady increase in clinical use for delivery of small, lipophilic, low-dose drugs. Second-generation delivery systems using chemical enhancers, non-cavitational ultrasound and iontophoresis have also resulted in clinical products; the ability ...
Wu, Chensheng; Nelson, William; Davis, Christopher C.
2014-10-01
Plenoptic functions are functions that preserve all the necessary light field information of optical events. Theoretical work has demonstrated that geometric based plenoptic functions can serve equally well in the traditional wave propagation equation known as the "scalar stochastic Helmholtz equation". However, in addressing problems of 3D turbulence simulation, the dominant methods using phase screen models have limitations both in explaining the choice of parameters (on the transverse plane) in real-world measurements, and finding proper correlations between neighboring phase screens (the Markov assumption breaks down). Though possible corrections to phase screen models are still promising, the equivalent geometric approach based on plenoptic functions begins to show some advantages. In fact, in these geometric approaches, a continuous wave problem is reduced to discrete trajectories of rays. This allows for convenience in parallel computing and guarantees conservation of energy. Besides the pairwise independence of simulated rays, the assigned refractive index grids can be directly tested by temperature measurements with tiny thermoprobes combined with other parameters such as humidity level and wind speed. Furthermore, without loss of generality one can break the causal chain in phase screen models by defining regional refractive centers to allow rays that are less affected to propagate through directly. As a result, our work shows that the 3D geometric approach serves as an efficient and accurate method in assessing relevant turbulence problems with inputs of several environmental measurements and reasonable guesses (such as Cn 2 levels). This approach will facilitate analysis and possible corrections in lateral wave propagation problems, such as image de-blurring, prediction of laser propagation over long ranges, and improvement of free space optic communication systems. In this paper, the plenoptic function model and relevant parallel algorithm computing
An Electronic Commerce Strategy for MTMC’s Guaranteed Traffic Program
1992-10-01
AD-A264 299 SELECTE October 1992 S MAY1 4 1993U C An Electronic Commerce Strategy for MTMC’s Guaranteed Traffic Program MT901R I N1. Augustine...NUMBERS An Electronic Commerce Strategy for MTMC’s Guaranteed Traffic Program C MDA903-85-C -0139 M DA903-90-C-0006 PE 0902198D 6. AUTHOR(S) M...239-1L 299-01 LMI Executive Summary AN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE STRATEGY FOR MTMC’S GUARANTEED TRAFFIC PROGRAM In 1979, the Military Traffic Management
Guaranteed Cost Finite-Time Control of Fractional-Order Positive Switched Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leipo Liu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of guaranteed cost finite-time control of fractional-order positive switched systems (FOPSS is considered in this paper. Firstly, a new cost function is defined. Then, by constructing linear copositive Lyapunov functions and using the average dwell time (ADT approach, a state feedback controller and a static output feedback controller are constructed, respectively, and sufficient conditions are derived to guarantee that the corresponding closed-loop systems are guaranteed cost finite-time stable (GCFTS. Such conditions can be easily solved by linear programming. Finally, two examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
The impact of SMEs’ lending and credit guarantee on bank efficiency in South Korea
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lien-Wen Liang
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This study examines how small and medium-size enterprises’ (SMEs’ lending and credit guarantee affect Korean banks’ efficiency, by employing the stochastic frontier approach on 14 banks over the period 2001–2010. When lending increases to SMEs, the findings indicate that banks’ cost efficiency decreases due to information asymmetry. However, the increased proportion of credit guarantee can improve their cost efficiency. This proves that South Korea’s credit guarantee system can indeed share SMEs’ credit risk of lending in order to help raise bank efficiency.
Providing QoS guarantee in 3G wireless networks
Chuah, MooiChoo; Huang, Min; Kumar, Suresh
2001-07-01
The third generation networks and services present opportunities to offer multimedia applications and services that meet end-to-end quality of service requirements. In this article, we present UMTS QoS architecture and its requirements. This includes the definition of QoS parameters, traffic classes, the end-to-end data delivery model, and the mapping of end-to-end services to the services provided by the network elements of the UMTS. End-to-end QoS of a user flow is achieved by the combination of the QoS control over UMTS Domain and the IP core Network. In the Third Generation Wireless network, UMTS bearer service manager is responsible to manage radio and transport resources to QoS-enabled applications. The UMTS bearer service consists of the Radio Access Bearer Service between Mobile Terminal and SGSN and Core Network bearer service between SGSN and GGSN. The Radio Access Bearer Service is further realized by the Radio Bearer Service (mostly air interface) and Iu bearer service. For the 3G air interface, one can provide differentiated QoS via intelligent burst allocation scheme, adaptive spreading factor control and weighted fair queueing scheduling algorithms. Next, we discuss the requirements for the transport technologies in the radio access network to provide differentiated QoS to multiple classes of traffic. We discuss both ATM based and IP based transport solutions. Last but not least, we discuss how QoS mechanism is provided in the core network to ensure e2e quality of service requirements. We discuss how mobile terminals that use RSVP as QoS signaling mechanisms can be are supported in the 3G network which may implement only IETF diffserv mechanism. . We discuss how one can map UMTS QoS classes with IETF diffserv code points. We also discuss 2G/3G handover scenarios and how the 2G/3G QoS parameters can be mapped.
Geometric description of images as topographic maps
Caselles, Vicent
2010-01-01
This volume discusses the basic geometric contents of an image and presents a tree data structure to handle those contents efficiently. The nodes of the tree are derived from connected components of level sets of the intensity, while the edges represent inclusion information. Grain filters, morphological operators simplifying these geometric contents, are analyzed and several applications to image comparison and registration, and to edge and corner detection, are presented. The mathematically inclined reader may be most interested in Chapters 2 to 6, which generalize the topological Morse description to continuous or semicontinuous functions, while mathematical morphologists may more closely consider grain filters in Chapter 3. Computer scientists will find algorithmic considerations in Chapters 6 and 7, the full justification of which may be found in Chapters 2 and 4 respectively. Lastly, all readers can learn more about the motivation for this work in the image processing applications presented in Chapter 8...
Towards a theory of geometric graphs
Pach, Janos
2004-01-01
The early development of graph theory was heavily motivated and influenced by topological and geometric themes, such as the Konigsberg Bridge Problem, Euler's Polyhedral Formula, or Kuratowski's characterization of planar graphs. In 1936, when Denes Konig published his classical Theory of Finite and Infinite Graphs, the first book ever written on the subject, he stressed this connection by adding the subtitle Combinatorial Topology of Systems of Segments. He wanted to emphasize that the subject of his investigations was very concrete: planar figures consisting of points connected by straight-line segments. However, in the second half of the twentieth century, graph theoretical research took an interesting turn. In the most popular and most rapidly growing areas (the theory of random graphs, Ramsey theory, extremal graph theory, algebraic graph theory, etc.), graphs were considered as abstract binary relations rather than geometric objects. Many of the powerful techniques developed in these fields have been su...
Plasmon Geometric Phase and Plasmon Hall Shift
Shi, Li-kun; Song, Justin C. W.
2018-04-01
The collective plasmonic modes of a metal comprise a simple pattern of oscillating charge density that yields enhanced light-matter interaction. Here we unveil that beneath this familiar facade plasmons possess a hidden internal structure that fundamentally alters its dynamics. In particular, we find that metals with nonzero Hall conductivity host plasmons with an intricate current density configuration that sharply departs from that of ordinary zero Hall conductivity metals. This nontrivial internal structure dramatically enriches the dynamics of plasmon propagation, enabling plasmon wave packets to acquire geometric phases as they scatter. At boundaries, these phases accumulate allowing plasmon waves that reflect off to experience a nonreciprocal parallel shift. This plasmon Hall shift, tunable by Hall conductivity as well as plasmon wavelength, displaces the incident and reflected plasmon trajectories and can be readily probed by near-field photonics techniques. Anomalous plasmon geometric phases dramatically enrich the nanophotonics toolbox, and yield radical new means for directing plasmonic beams.
Geometric mechanics of periodic pleated origami.
Wei, Z Y; Guo, Z V; Dudte, L; Liang, H Y; Mahadevan, L
2013-05-24
Origami structures are mechanical metamaterials with properties that arise almost exclusively from the geometry of the constituent folds and the constraint of piecewise isometric deformations. Here we characterize the geometry and planar and nonplanar effective elastic response of a simple periodically folded Miura-ori structure, which is composed of identical unit cells of mountain and valley folds with four-coordinated ridges, defined completely by two angles and two lengths. We show that the in-plane and out-of-plane Poisson's ratios are equal in magnitude, but opposite in sign, independent of material properties. Furthermore, we show that effective bending stiffness of the unit cell is singular, allowing us to characterize the two-dimensional deformation of a plate in terms of a one-dimensional theory. Finally, we solve the inverse design problem of determining the geometric parameters for the optimal geometric and mechanical response of these extreme structures.
Manfredini, Maria; Morbidelli, Daniele; Polidoro, Sergio; Uguzzoni, Francesco
2015-01-01
The analysis of PDEs is a prominent discipline in mathematics research, both in terms of its theoretical aspects and its relevance in applications. In recent years, the geometric properties of linear and nonlinear second order PDEs of elliptic and parabolic type have been extensively studied by many outstanding researchers. This book collects contributions from a selected group of leading experts who took part in the INdAM meeting "Geometric methods in PDEs", on the occasion of the 70th birthday of Ermanno Lanconelli. They describe a number of new achievements and/or the state of the art in their discipline of research, providing readers an overview of recent progress and future research trends in PDEs. In particular, the volume collects significant results for sub-elliptic equations, potential theory and diffusion equations, with an emphasis on comparing different methodologies and on their implications for theory and applications. .
A Practical Guide to Experimental Geometrical Optics
Garbovskiy, Yuriy A.; Glushchenko, Anatoliy V.
2017-12-01
Preface; 1. Markets of optical materials, components, accessories, light sources and detectors; 2. Introduction to optical experiments: light producing, light managing, light detection and measuring; 3. Light detectors based on semiconductors: photoresistors, photodiodes in a photo-galvanic regime. Principles of operation and measurements; 4. Linear light detectors based on photodiodes; 5. Basic laws of geometrical optics: experimental verification; 6. Converging and diverging thin lenses; 7. Thick lenses; 8. Lens systems; 9. Simple optical instruments I: the eye and the magnifier, eyepieces and telescopes; 10. Simple optical instruments II: light illuminators and microscope; 11. Spherical mirrors; 12. Introduction to optical aberrations; 13. Elements of optical radiometry; 14. Cylindrical lenses and vials; 15. Methods of geometrical optics to measure refractive index; 16. Dispersion of light and prism spectroscope; 17. Elements of computer aided optical design; Index.
Coated sphere scattering by geometric optics approximation.
Mengran, Zhai; Qieni, Lü; Hongxia, Zhang; Yinxin, Zhang
2014-10-01
A new geometric optics model has been developed for the calculation of light scattering by a coated sphere, and the analytic expression for scattering is presented according to whether rays hit the core or not. The ray of various geometric optics approximation (GOA) terms is parameterized by the number of reflections in the coating/core interface, the coating/medium interface, and the number of chords in the core, with the degeneracy path and repeated path terms considered for the rays striking the core, which simplifies the calculation. For the ray missing the core, the various GOA terms are dealt with by a homogeneous sphere. The scattering intensity of coated particles are calculated and then compared with those of Debye series and Aden-Kerker theory. The consistency of the results proves the validity of the method proposed in this work.
Geometrical Description of fractional quantum Hall quasiparticles
Park, Yeje; Yang, Bo; Haldane, F. D. M.
2012-02-01
We examine a description of fractional quantum Hall quasiparticles and quasiholes suggested by a recent geometrical approach (F. D. M. Haldane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 116801 (2011)) to FQH systems, where the local excess electric charge density in the incompressible state is given by a topologically-quantized ``guiding-center spin'' times the Gaussian curvature of a ``guiding-center metric tensor'' that characterizes the local shape of the correlation hole around electrons in the fluid. We use a phenomenological energy function with two ingredients: the shear distortion energy of area-preserving distortions of the fluid, and a local (short-range) approximation to the Coulomb energy of the fluctuation of charge density associated with the Gaussian curvature. Quasiparticles and quasiholes of the 1/3 Laughlin state are modeled as ``punctures'' in the incompressible fluid which then relax by geometric distortion which generates Gaussian curvature, giving rise to the charge-density profile around the topological excitation.
The geometric Hopf invariant and surgery theory
Crabb, Michael
2017-01-01
Written by leading experts in the field, this monograph provides homotopy theoretic foundations for surgery theory on higher-dimensional manifolds. Presenting classical ideas in a modern framework, the authors carefully highlight how their results relate to (and generalize) existing results in the literature. The central result of the book expresses algebraic surgery theory in terms of the geometric Hopf invariant, a construction in stable homotopy theory which captures the double points of immersions. Many illustrative examples and applications of the abstract results are included in the book, making it of wide interest to topologists. Serving as a valuable reference, this work is aimed at graduate students and researchers interested in understanding how the algebraic and geometric topology fit together in the surgery theory of manifolds. It is the only book providing such a wide-ranging historical approach to the Hopf invariant, double points and surgery theory, with many results old and new. .
Geometric modeling in probability and statistics
Calin, Ovidiu
2014-01-01
This book covers topics of Informational Geometry, a field which deals with the differential geometric study of the manifold probability density functions. This is a field that is increasingly attracting the interest of researchers from many different areas of science, including mathematics, statistics, geometry, computer science, signal processing, physics and neuroscience. It is the authors’ hope that the present book will be a valuable reference for researchers and graduate students in one of the aforementioned fields. This textbook is a unified presentation of differential geometry and probability theory, and constitutes a text for a course directed at graduate or advanced undergraduate students interested in applications of differential geometry in probability and statistics. The book contains over 100 proposed exercises meant to help students deepen their understanding, and it is accompanied by software that is able to provide numerical computations of several information geometric objects. The reader...
Geometrical dynamics of Born-Infeld objects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cordero, Ruben [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del I.P.N., Unidad Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Molgado, Alberto [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Col. Villas San Sebastian, Colima (Mexico); Rojas, Efrain [Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)
2007-03-21
We present a geometrically inspired study of the dynamics of Dp-branes. We focus on the usual non-polynomial Dirac-Born-Infeld action for the worldvolume swept out by the brane in its evolution in general background spacetimes. We emphasize the form of the resulting equations of motion which are quite simple and resemble Newton's second law, complemented with a conservation law for a worldvolume bicurrent. We take a closer look at the classical Hamiltonian analysis which is supported by the ADM framework of general relativity. The constraints and their algebra are identified as well as the geometrical role they play in phase space. In order to illustrate our results, we review the dynamics of a D1-brane immersed in a AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} background spacetime. We exhibit the mechanical properties of Born-Infeld objects paving the way to a consistent quantum formulation.
Geometrical dynamics of Born-Infeld objects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cordero, Ruben; Molgado, Alberto; Rojas, Efrain
2007-01-01
We present a geometrically inspired study of the dynamics of Dp-branes. We focus on the usual non-polynomial Dirac-Born-Infeld action for the worldvolume swept out by the brane in its evolution in general background spacetimes. We emphasize the form of the resulting equations of motion which are quite simple and resemble Newton's second law, complemented with a conservation law for a worldvolume bicurrent. We take a closer look at the classical Hamiltonian analysis which is supported by the ADM framework of general relativity. The constraints and their algebra are identified as well as the geometrical role they play in phase space. In order to illustrate our results, we review the dynamics of a D1-brane immersed in a AdS 3 x S 3 background spacetime. We exhibit the mechanical properties of Born-Infeld objects paving the way to a consistent quantum formulation
A practical guide to experimental geometrical optics
Garbovskiy, Yuriy A
2017-01-01
A concise, yet deep introduction to experimental, geometrical optics, this book begins with fundamental concepts and then develops the practical skills and research techniques routinely used in modern laboratories. Suitable for students, researchers and optical engineers, this accessible text teaches readers how to build their own optical laboratory and to design and perform optical experiments. It uses a hands-on approach which fills a gap between theory-based textbooks and laboratory manuals, allowing the reader to develop their practical skills in this interdisciplinary field, and also explores the ways in which this knowledge can be applied to the design and production of commercial optical devices. Including supplementary online resources to help readers track and evaluate their experimental results, this text is the ideal companion for anyone with a practical interest in experimental geometrical optics.
Prausnitz, Mark R.; Langer, Robert
2009-01-01
Transdermal drug delivery has made an important contribution to medical practice, but has yet to fully achieve its potential as an alternative to oral delivery and hypodermic injections. First-generation transdermal delivery systems have continued their steady increase in clinical use for delivery of small, lipophilic, low-dose drugs. Second-generation delivery systems using chemical enhancers, non-cavitational ultrasound and iontophoresis have also resulted in clinical products; the ability of iontophoresis to control delivery rates in real time provides added functionality. Third-generation delivery systems target their effects to skin’s barrier layer of stratum corneum using microneedles, thermal ablation, microdermabrasion, electroporation and cavitational ultrasound. Microneedles and thermal ablation are currently progressing through clinical trials for delivery of macromolecules and vaccines, such as insulin, parathyroid hormone and influenza vaccine. Using these novel second- and third-generation enhancement strategies, transdermal delivery is poised to significantly increase impact on medicine. PMID:18997767
Is biomass always a renewable fuel as guaranteed?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veski, Rein
1999-01-01
alternative electric energy must be energy which is not produced from oil shale. TheLong-Term Development Plan for the Estonian Fuel and Energy Sector includes such misleading terms as peat, wood and renewable energy resources, biofuels and peat. However, there are also quite correct phrases such as peat, wood and other renewable natural resources, as wood and other biofuels are renewable natural resources. As a rule, wood and wood waste, energy cultures, agricultural, woodpulp and paper industry waste, as well as solid animal breeding and household waste, and also peat are classified as biomass in many countries. Biomass seems to be a more convenient term instead of renewable biofuel. In most statements it is with no doubt classified as renewable resource, while biofuels are not because fossil fuels are also biofuels (or fuels of biological origin) and they are renewable only to a very limited extent. Fossil fuels originated in sapropel and peat, oil and natural gas from dispersed organic matter, too. So, their recovery depends on the speed of accumulation of organic carbon in recent sediments. The recovery should not be a question of what somebody believes in or not. It must not be a 'religious' question but a purely scientific and methodological issue. There is only one condition when a fuel (or biomass as one type of biofuel) is renewable: biomass or biofuel may be considered renewable if they are replenished at a rate which is comparable to the rate at which they are consumed in a country or part of it (on an island, for example). The overused amount is a non-renewable biomass or biofuel. So, the replenishment of biomass or biofuel is not guaranteed. Biomass and other biofuels, including fossil ones, are products of the activity of the sun. There are also other, non-fuel types of energy such as water and wind energy, as well as solar and geothermal energy. They are also considered renewable energy resources as is biomass. All these types of energy (except, may be, the
Fast decoding algorithms for geometric coded apertures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Byard, Kevin
2015-01-01
Fast decoding algorithms are described for the class of coded aperture designs known as geometric coded apertures which were introduced by Gourlay and Stephen. When compared to the direct decoding method, the algorithms significantly reduce the number of calculations required when performing the decoding for these apertures and hence speed up the decoding process. Experimental tests confirm the efficacy of these fast algorithms, demonstrating a speed up of approximately two to three orders of magnitude over direct decoding.
Geometrical framework for robust portfolio optimization
Bazovkin, Pavel
2014-01-01
We consider a vector-valued multivariate risk measure that depends on the user's profile given by the user's utility. It is constructed on the basis of weighted-mean trimmed regions and represents the solution of an optimization problem. The key feature of this measure is convexity. We apply the measure to the portfolio selection problem, employing different measures of performance as objective functions in a common geometrical framework.
Geometric measure theory a beginner's guide
Morgan, Frank
1995-01-01
Geometric measure theory is the mathematical framework for the study of crystal growth, clusters of soap bubbles, and similar structures involving minimization of energy. Morgan emphasizes geometry over proofs and technicalities, and includes a bibliography and abundant illustrations and examples. This Second Edition features a new chapter on soap bubbles as well as updated sections addressing volume constraints, surfaces in manifolds, free boundaries, and Besicovitch constant results. The text will introduce newcomers to the field and appeal to mathematicians working in the field.
Geometrical Aspects of non-gravitational interactions
Roldan, Omar; Barros Jr, C. C.
2016-01-01
In this work we look for a geometric description of non-gravitational forces. The basic ideas are proposed studying the interaction between a punctual particle and an electromagnetic external field. For this purpose, we introduce the concept of proper space-time, that allow us to describe this interaction in a way analogous to the one that the general relativity theory does for gravitation. The field equations that define this geometry are similar to the Einstein's equations, where in general...
Chirality: a relational geometric-physical property.
Gerlach, Hans
2013-11-01
The definition of the term chirality by Lord Kelvin in 1893 and 1904 is analyzed by taking crystallography at that time into account. This shows clearly that chirality is a relational geometric-physical property, i.e., two relations between isometric objects are possible: homochiral or heterochiral. In scientific articles the relational term chirality is often mistaken for the two valued measure for the individual (absolute) sense of chirality, an arbitrary attributive term. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Geometric (Berry) phases in neutron molecular spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lovesey, S.W.
1992-02-01
A theory of neutron scattering by nuclei in a molecule, accompanied by an electronic transition, is formulated with attention to gauge potentials and geometric phases in the Born-Oppenheimer scheme. Non-degenerate and nearly degenerate electronic levels are considered. For nearly degenerate levels it is shown that, the cross-section is free of the singular structure which characterizes the corresponding gauge potential for the phase, and much larger than for well separated electronic states. (author)
Geometric continuum regularization of quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halpern, M.B.
1989-01-01
An overview of the continuum regularization program is given. The program is traced from its roots in stochastic quantization, with emphasis on the examples of regularized gauge theory, the regularized general nonlinear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity. In its coordinate-invariant form, the regularization is seen as entirely geometric: only the supermetric on field deformations is regularized, and the prescription provides universal nonperturbative invariant continuum regularization across all quantum field theory. 54 refs
Graph Treewidth and Geometric Thickness Parameters
Dujmović, Vida; Wood, David R.
2005-01-01
Consider a drawing of a graph $G$ in the plane such that crossing edges are coloured differently. The minimum number of colours, taken over all drawings of $G$, is the classical graph parameter "thickness". By restricting the edges to be straight, we obtain the "geometric thickness". By further restricting the vertices to be in convex position, we obtain the "book thickness". This paper studies the relationship between these parameters and treewidth. Our first main result states that for grap...
Geometric morphometric footprint analysis of young women
Domjanic, Jacqueline; Fieder, Martin; Seidler, Horst; Mitteroecker, Philipp
2013-01-01
Background Most published attempts to quantify footprint shape are based on a small number of measurements. We applied geometric morphometric methods to study shape variation of the complete footprint outline in a sample of 83 adult women. Methods The outline of the footprint, including the toes, was represented by a comprehensive set of 85 landmarks and semilandmarks. Shape coordinates were computed by Generalized Procrustes Analysis. Results The first four principal components represented t...
Geometrical characterization of micro end milling tools
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borsetto, Francesca; Bariani, Paolo; Bissacco, Giuliano
2005-01-01
Performance of the milling process is directly affected by the accuracy of tool geometry. Development of methods suitable for dimensional characterization of such tools, with low measurement uncertainties is therefore of relevance. The present article focuses on the geometrical characterization...... of a flat micro end milling tool with a nominal mill diameter of 200 microns. An experimental investigation was carried out involving two different non-contact systems...
Geometric Measure Theory and Minimal Surfaces
Bombieri, Enrico
2011-01-01
W.K. ALLARD: On the first variation of area and generalized mean curvature.- F.J. ALMGREN Jr.: Geometric measure theory and elliptic variational problems.- E. GIUSTI: Minimal surfaces with obstacles.- J. GUCKENHEIMER: Singularities in soap-bubble-like and soap-film-like surfaces.- D. KINDERLEHRER: The analyticity of the coincidence set in variational inequalities.- M. MIRANDA: Boundaries of Caciopoli sets in the calculus of variations.- L. PICCININI: De Giorgi's measure and thin obstacles.
Geometrical optics in correlated imaging systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao Dezhong; Xiong Jun; Wang Kaige
2005-01-01
We discuss the geometrical optics of correlated imaging for two kinds of spatial correlations corresponding, respectively, to a classical thermal light source and a quantum two-photon entangled source. Due to the different features in the second-order spatial correlation, the two sources obey different imaging equations. The quantum entangled source behaves as a mirror, whereas the classical thermal source looks like a phase-conjugate mirror in the correlated imaging
Nociones de geometría vectorial
Ospina Arteaga, Omar Evelio
1990-01-01
Las presentes notas de geometría vectorial pretenden ser una ayuda para los estudiantes que se inician en el tema de vectores y deberá ser complementado con ejercicios sobre el tema. Este texto contiene temas de interés tales como: Espacios euclidianos, Distancian entre dos puntos, Concepto de vector, Igualdad de vectores, entre otros relacionados con el estudio de vectores.
Geometrical Determinants of Neuronal Actin Waves
Tomba, Caterina; Bra?ni, C?line; Bugnicourt, Ghislain; Cohen, Floriane; Friedrich, Benjamin M.; Gov, Nir S.; Villard, Catherine
2017-01-01
Hippocampal neurons produce in their early stages of growth propagative, actin-rich dynamical structures called actin waves. The directional motion of actin waves from the soma to the tip of neuronal extensions has been associated with net forward growth, and ultimately with the specification of neurites into axon and dendrites. Here, geometrical cues are used to control actin wave dynamics by constraining neurons on adhesive stripes of various widths. A key observable, the average time betwe...
Multiphase flow in geometrically simple fracture intersections
Basagaoglu, H.; Meakin, P.; Green, C.T.; Mathew, M.; ,
2006-01-01
A two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann (LB) model with fluid-fluid and solid-fluid interaction potentials was used to study gravity-driven flow in geometrically simple fracture intersections. Simulated scenarios included fluid dripping from a fracture aperture, two-phase flow through intersecting fractures and thin-film flow on smooth and undulating solid surfaces. Qualitative comparisons with recently published experimental findings indicate that for these scenarios the LB model captured the underlying physics reasonably well.
The Geometric Nonlinear Generalized Brazier Effect
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nikolajsen, Jan Ánike; Lauridsen, Peter Riddersholm; Damkilde, Lars
2016-01-01
that the generalized Brazier effect is a local effect not influencing the overall mechanical behavior of the structure significantly. The offset is a nonlinear geometric beam-type Finite Element calculation, which takes into account the large displacements and rotations. The beam-type model defines the stresses which...... mainly are in the direction of the beam axis. The generalized Brazier effect is calculated as a linear load case based on these stresses....
Time as a geometric property of space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James Michael Chappell
2016-11-01
Full Text Available The proper description of time remains a key unsolved problem in science. Newton conceived of time as absolute and universal which it `flows equably without relation to anything external'}. In the nineteenth century, the four-dimensional algebraic structure of the quaternions developed by Hamilton, inspired him to suggest that they could provide a unified representation of space and time. With the publishing of Einstein's theory of special relativity these ideas then lead to the generally accepted Minkowski spacetime formulation in 1908. Minkowski, though, rejected the formalism of quaternions suggested by Hamilton and adopted rather an approach using four-vectors. The Minkowski framework is indeed found to provide a versatile formalism for describing the relationship between space and time in accordance with Einstein's relativistic principles, but nevertheless fails to provide more fundamental insights into the nature of time itself. In order to answer this question we begin by exploring the geometric properties of three-dimensional space that we model using Clifford geometric algebra, which is found to contain sufficient complexity to provide a natural description of spacetime. This description using Clifford algebra is found to provide a natural alternative to the Minkowski formulation as well as providing new insights into the nature of time. Our main result is that time is the scalar component of a Clifford space and can be viewed as an intrinsic geometric property of three-dimensional space without the need for the specific addition of a fourth dimension.
Ricci flow and geometrization of 3-manifolds
Morgan, John W
2010-01-01
This book is based on lectures given at Stanford University in 2009. The purpose of the lectures and of the book is to give an introductory overview of how to use Ricci flow and Ricci flow with surgery to establish the Poincar� Conjecture and the more general Geometrization Conjecture for 3-dimensional manifolds. Most of the material is geometric and analytic in nature; a crucial ingredient is understanding singularity development for 3-dimensional Ricci flows and for 3-dimensional Ricci flows with surgery. This understanding is crucial for extending Ricci flows with surgery so that they are defined for all positive time. Once this result is in place, one must study the nature of the time-slices as the time goes to infinity in order to deduce the topological consequences. The goal of the authors is to present the major geometric and analytic results and themes of the subject without weighing down the presentation with too many details. This book can be read as an introduction to more complete treatments of ...
Salt bridges: geometrically specific, designable interactions.
Donald, Jason E; Kulp, Daniel W; DeGrado, William F
2011-03-01
Salt bridges occur frequently in proteins, providing conformational specificity and contributing to molecular recognition and catalysis. We present a comprehensive analysis of these interactions in protein structures by surveying a large database of protein structures. Salt bridges between Asp or Glu and His, Arg, or Lys display extremely well-defined geometric preferences. Several previously observed preferences are confirmed, and others that were previously unrecognized are discovered. Salt bridges are explored for their preferences for different separations in sequence and in space, geometric preferences within proteins and at protein-protein interfaces, co-operativity in networked salt bridges, inclusion within metal-binding sites, preference for acidic electrons, apparent conformational side chain entropy reduction on formation, and degree of burial. Salt bridges occur far more frequently between residues at close than distant sequence separations, but, at close distances, there remain strong preferences for salt bridges at specific separations. Specific types of complex salt bridges, involving three or more members, are also discovered. As we observe a strong relationship between the propensity to form a salt bridge and the placement of salt-bridging residues in protein sequences, we discuss the role that salt bridges might play in kinetically influencing protein folding and thermodynamically stabilizing the native conformation. We also develop a quantitative method to select appropriate crystal structure resolution and B-factor cutoffs. Detailed knowledge of these geometric and sequence dependences should aid de novo design and prediction algorithms. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Geometric phase effects in ultracold chemistry
Hazra, Jisha; Naduvalath, Balakrishnan; Kendrick, Brian K.
2016-05-01
In molecules, the geometric phase, also known as Berry's phase, originates from the adiabatic transport of the electronic wavefunction when the nuclei follow a closed path encircling a conical intersection between two electronic potential energy surfaces. It is demonstrated that the inclusion of the geometric phase has an important effect on ultracold chemical reaction rates. The effect appears in rotationally and vibrationally resolved integral cross sections as well as cross sections summed over all product quantum states. It arises from interference between scattering amplitudes of two reaction pathways: a direct path and a looping path that encircle the conical intersection between the two lowest adiabatic electronic potential energy surfaces. Illustrative results are presented for the O+ OH --> H+ O2 reaction and for hydrogen exchange in H+ H2 and D+HD reactions. It is also qualitatively demonstrated that the geometric phase effect can be modulated by applying an external electric field allowing the possibility of quantum control of chemical reactions in the ultracold regime. This work was supported in part by NSF Grant PHY-1505557 (N.B.) and ARO MURI Grant No. W911NF-12-1-0476 (N.B.).
Edit propagation using geometric relationship functions
Guerrero, Paul; Jeschke, Stefan; Wimmer, Michael; Wonka, Peter
2014-01-01
We propose a method for propagating edit operations in 2D vector graphics, based on geometric relationship functions. These functions quantify the geometric relationship of a point to a polygon, such as the distance to the boundary or the direction to the closest corner vertex. The level sets of the relationship functions describe points with the same relationship to a polygon. For a given query point, we first determine a set of relationships to local features, construct all level sets for these relationships, and accumulate them. The maxima of the resulting distribution are points with similar geometric relationships. We show extensions to handle mirror symmetries, and discuss the use of relationship functions as local coordinate systems. Our method can be applied, for example, to interactive floorplan editing, and it is especially useful for large layouts, where individual edits would be cumbersome. We demonstrate populating 2D layouts with tens to hundreds of objects by propagating relatively few edit operations. © 2014 ACM 0730-0301/2014/03- ART15 $15.00.
Geometric transitions on non-Kaehler manifolds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knauf, A.
2007-01-01
We study geometric transitions on the supergravity level using the basic idea of an earlier paper (M. Becker et al., 2004), where a pair of non-Kaehler backgrounds was constructed, which are related by a geometric transition. Here we embed this idea into an orientifold setup. The non-Kaehler backgrounds we obtain in type IIA are non-trivially fibered due to their construction from IIB via T-duality with Neveu-Schwarz flux. We demonstrate that these non-Kaehler manifolds are not half-flat and show that a symplectic structure exists on them at least locally. We also review the construction of new non-Kaehler backgrounds in type I and heterotic theory. They are found by a series of T- and S-duality and can be argued to be related by geometric transitions as well. A local toy model is provided that fulfills the flux equations of motion in IIB and the torsional relation in heterotic theory, and that is consistent with the U-duality relating both theories. For the heterotic theory we also propose a global solution that fulfills the torsional relation because it is similar to the Maldacena-Nunez background. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Edit propagation using geometric relationship functions
Guerrero, Paul
2014-04-15
We propose a method for propagating edit operations in 2D vector graphics, based on geometric relationship functions. These functions quantify the geometric relationship of a point to a polygon, such as the distance to the boundary or the direction to the closest corner vertex. The level sets of the relationship functions describe points with the same relationship to a polygon. For a given query point, we first determine a set of relationships to local features, construct all level sets for these relationships, and accumulate them. The maxima of the resulting distribution are points with similar geometric relationships. We show extensions to handle mirror symmetries, and discuss the use of relationship functions as local coordinate systems. Our method can be applied, for example, to interactive floorplan editing, and it is especially useful for large layouts, where individual edits would be cumbersome. We demonstrate populating 2D layouts with tens to hundreds of objects by propagating relatively few edit operations. © 2014 ACM 0730-0301/2014/03- ART15 $15.00.
Geometric phase modulation for stellar interferometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roy, M.; Boschung, B.; Tango, W.J.; Davis, J.
2002-01-01
Full text: In a long baseline optical interferometer, the fringe visibility is normally measured by modulation of the optical path difference between the two arms of the instruments. To obtain accurate measurements, the spectral bandwidth must be narrow, limiting the sensitivity of the technique. The application of geometric phase modulation technique to stellar interferometry has been proposed by Tango and Davis. Modulation of the geometric phase has the potential for improving the sensitivity of optical interferometers, and specially the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer (SUSI), by allowing broad band modulation of the light signals. This is because a modulator that changes the geometric phase of the signal is, in principle, achromatic. Another advantage of using such a phase modulator is that it can be placed in the common path traversed by the two orthogonally polarized beams emerging from the beam combiner in a stellar interferometer. Thus the optical components of the modulator do not have to be interferometric quality and could be relatively easily introduced into SUSI. We have investigated the proposed application in a laboratory-based experiment using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with white-light source. This can be seen as a small model of an amplitude stellar interferometer where the light source takes the place of the distant star and two corner mirrors replaces the entrance pupils of the stellar interferometer
Plasma geometric optics analysis and computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, T.M.
1983-01-01
Important practical applications in the generation, manipulation, and diagnosis of laboratory thermonuclear plasmas have created a need for elaborate computational capabilities in the study of high frequency wave propagation in plasmas. A reduced description of such waves suitable for digital computation is provided by the theory of plasma geometric optics. The existing theory is beset by a variety of special cases in which the straightforward analytical approach fails, and has been formulated with little attention to problems of numerical implementation of that analysis. The standard field equations are derived for the first time from kinetic theory. A discussion of certain terms previously, and erroneously, omitted from the expansion of the plasma constitutive relation is given. A powerful but little known computational prescription for determining the geometric optics field in the neighborhood of caustic singularities is rigorously developed, and a boundary layer analysis for the asymptotic matching of the plasma geometric optics field across caustic singularities is performed for the first time with considerable generality. A proper treatment of birefringence is detailed, wherein a breakdown of the fundamental perturbation theory is identified and circumvented. A general ray tracing computer code suitable for applications to radiation heating and diagnostic problems is presented and described
Jiang, Runqing
Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) uses non-uniform beam intensities within a radiation field to provide patient-specific dose shaping, resulting in a dose distribution that conforms tightly to the planning target volume (PTV). Unavoidable geometric uncertainty arising from patient repositioning and internal organ motion can lead to lower conformality index (CI) during treatment delivery, a decrease in tumor control probability (TCP) and an increase in normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). The CI of the IMRT plan depends heavily on steep dose gradients between the PTV and organ at risk (OAR). Geometric uncertainties reduce the planned dose gradients and result in a less steep or "blurred" dose gradient. The blurred dose gradients can be maximized by constraining the dose objective function in the static IMRT plan or by reducing geometric uncertainty during treatment with corrective verification imaging. Internal organ motion and setup error were evaluated simultaneously for 118 individual patients with implanted fiducials and MV electronic portal imaging (EPI). A Gaussian probability density function (PDF) is reasonable for modeling geometric uncertainties as indicated by the 118 patients group. The Gaussian PDF is patient specific and group standard deviation (SD) should not be used for accurate treatment planning for individual patients. In addition, individual SD should not be determined or predicted from small imaging samples because of random nature of the fluctuations. Frequent verification imaging should be employed in situations where geometric uncertainties are expected. Cumulative PDF data can be used for re-planning to assess accuracy of delivered dose. Group data is useful for determining worst case discrepancy between planned and delivered dose. The margins for the PTV should ideally represent true geometric uncertainties. The measured geometric uncertainties were used in this thesis to assess PTV coverage, dose to OAR, equivalent
78 FR 64294 - Loan Guaranty: Mandatory Electronic Delivery of Loan Files for Review
2013-10-28
... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Loan Guaranty: Mandatory Electronic Delivery of Loan Files for... Affairs (VA) Loan Guaranty Service (LGY) announces a new policy with regard to lender submission of VA- guaranteed closed loan files for review. Currently, lenders can submit loan files selected for review by LGY...
A Best Practice for Developing Availability Guarantee Language in Photovoltaic (PV) O&M Agreements.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Balfour, John [High Performance PV, Phoenix, AZ (United States)
2015-11-01
This document outlines the foundation for developing language that can be utilized in an Equipment Availability Guarantee, typically included in an O&M services agreement between a PV system or plant owner and an O&M services provider, or operator. Many of the current PV O&M service agreement Availability Guarantees are based on contracts used for traditional power generation, which create challenges for owners and operators due to the variable nature of grid-tied photovoltaic generating technologies. This report documents language used in early PV availability guarantees and presents best practices and equations that can be used to more openly communicate how the reliability of the PV system and plant equipment can be expressed in an availability guarantee. This work will improve the bankability of PV systems by providing greater transparency into the equipment reliability state to all parties involved in an O&M services contract.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagano, Koji
2009-01-01
This paper first discusses where and why those ideas for nuclear fuel supply assurance and guarantee mechanisms came out, and attempts to draw a comparison among the proposed schemes and thereby examine possible steps forward. (author)
7 CFR 4279.75 - Sale or assignment of guaranteed loan.
2010-01-01
... borrower's immediate families, officers, directors, stockholders, other owners, or a parent, subsidiary or...) or any successor section will not be guaranteed. (a) Single note system. The entire loan is evidenced...
7 CFR 4290.820 - Financings in the form of guarantees.
2010-01-01
...-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY...-Types of Financings § 4290.820 Financings in the form of guarantees. (a) General rule. At the request of...
The Geometric Phase in Quantum Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pascazio, S
2003-01-01
The discovery of the geometric phase is one of the most interesting and intriguing findings of the last few decades. It led to a deeper understanding of the concept of phase in quantum mechanics and motivated a surge of interest in fundamental quantum mechanical issues, disclosing unexpected applications in very diverse fields of physics. Although the key ideas underlying the existence of a purely geometrical phase had already been proposed in 1956 by Pancharatnam, it was Michael Berry who revived this issue 30 years later. The clarity of Berry's seminal paper, in 1984, was extraordinary. Research on the topic flourished at such a pace that it became difficult for non-experts to follow the many different theoretical ideas and experimental proposals which ensued. Diverse concepts in independent areas of mathematics, physics and chemistry were being applied, for what was (and can still be considered) a nascent arena for theory, experiments and technology. Although collections of papers by different authors appeared in the literature, sometimes with ample introductions, surprisingly, to the best of my knowledge, no specific and exhaustive book has ever been written on this subject. The Geometric Phase in Quantum Systems is the first thorough book on geometric phases and fills an important gap in the physical literature. Other books on the subject will undoubtedly follow. But it will take a fairly long time before other authors can cover that same variety of concepts in such a comprehensive manner. The book is enjoyable. The choice of topics presented is well balanced and appropriate. The appendices are well written, understandable and exhaustive - three rare qualities. I also find it praiseworthy that the authors decided to explicitly carry out most of the calculations, avoiding, as much as possible, the use of the joke 'after a straightforward calculation, one finds...' This was one of the sentences I used to dislike most during my undergraduate studies. A student is
Geometric Data Perturbation-Based Personal Health Record Transactions in Cloud Computing
Balasubramaniam, S.; Kavitha, V.
2015-01-01
Cloud computing is a new delivery model for information technology services and it typically involves the provision of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources over the Internet. However, cloud computing raises concerns on how cloud service providers, user organizations, and governments should handle such information and interactions. Personal health records represent an emerging patient-centric model for health information exchange, and they are outsourced for storage by third parties, such as cloud providers. With these records, it is necessary for each patient to encrypt their own personal health data before uploading them to cloud servers. Current techniques for encryption primarily rely on conventional cryptographic approaches. However, key management issues remain largely unsolved with these cryptographic-based encryption techniques. We propose that personal health record transactions be managed using geometric data perturbation in cloud computing. In our proposed scheme, the personal health record database is perturbed using geometric data perturbation and outsourced to the Amazon EC2 cloud. PMID:25767826
Geometric Data Perturbation-Based Personal Health Record Transactions in Cloud Computing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Balasubramaniam
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Cloud computing is a new delivery model for information technology services and it typically involves the provision of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources over the Internet. However, cloud computing raises concerns on how cloud service providers, user organizations, and governments should handle such information and interactions. Personal health records represent an emerging patient-centric model for health information exchange, and they are outsourced for storage by third parties, such as cloud providers. With these records, it is necessary for each patient to encrypt their own personal health data before uploading them to cloud servers. Current techniques for encryption primarily rely on conventional cryptographic approaches. However, key management issues remain largely unsolved with these cryptographic-based encryption techniques. We propose that personal health record transactions be managed using geometric data perturbation in cloud computing. In our proposed scheme, the personal health record database is perturbed using geometric data perturbation and outsourced to the Amazon EC2 cloud.
Geometric data perturbation-based personal health record transactions in cloud computing.
Balasubramaniam, S; Kavitha, V
2015-01-01
Cloud computing is a new delivery model for information technology services and it typically involves the provision of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources over the Internet. However, cloud computing raises concerns on how cloud service providers, user organizations, and governments should handle such information and interactions. Personal health records represent an emerging patient-centric model for health information exchange, and they are outsourced for storage by third parties, such as cloud providers. With these records, it is necessary for each patient to encrypt their own personal health data before uploading them to cloud servers. Current techniques for encryption primarily rely on conventional cryptographic approaches. However, key management issues remain largely unsolved with these cryptographic-based encryption techniques. We propose that personal health record transactions be managed using geometric data perturbation in cloud computing. In our proposed scheme, the personal health record database is perturbed using geometric data perturbation and outsourced to the Amazon EC2 cloud.
An Active Queue Management for QoS Guarantee of the High Priority Service Class
Kim, Hyun Jong; Shim, Jae Chan; Kim, Hwa-Suk; Cho, Kee Seong; Choi, Seong Gon
In this paper, we propose the active queue management mechanism (Active-WRED) for guaranteeing the quality of the high priority service class (VoIP or IPTV) in the multi-class traffic service environment. In the congestion situation, this mechanism increases the drop probability of the low priority traffic and reduces the drop probability of the high priority traffic; therefore it can guarantee the quality of the high priority service class from the poor quality by the packet loss.
Geometric Approaches to Quadratic Equations from Other Times and Places.
Allaire, Patricia R.; Bradley, Robert E.
2001-01-01
Focuses on geometric solutions of quadratic problems. Presents a collection of geometric techniques from ancient Babylonia, classical Greece, medieval Arabia, and early modern Europe to enhance the quadratic equation portion of an algebra course. (KHR)
Some Hermite–Hadamard Type Inequalities for Geometrically Quasi ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. In the paper, we introduce a new concept 'geometrically quasi-convex function' and establish some Hermite–Hadamard type inequalities for functions whose derivatives are of geometric quasi-convexity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nooraini Mohamad Sheriff
2006-12-01
Full Text Available The intangible nature of education is one contributor to consumers’ perception of risk prior to their purchase and consumption. This risk includes: functional risk, financial risk, temporal risk, physical risk, psychological risk and social risk. The presence of these risks often makes consumer evaluation prior to purchase and consumption difficult. Invoking a service guarantee is a platform available to enable higher educational institutions to minimize such risk perception so as to induce purchase. Specifically, service guarantee for higher education entails the application of teaching performance guarantee. This form of guarantee focuses on two important customer groups of higher educational institutions namely, students and faculty members, and focuses only on a specific performance aspect such as instructor’s performance. Thus, if students are dissatisfied with an instructor’s performance they are entitled to receive their money back. The imposition of such a teaching performance guarantee would implicate instructor’s accountability for certain aspects of their performance. It also establishes a mechanism to solicit feedback to better understand why and how instructors fail. Consequently, service performance guarantee creates a high level of customer focus and signals instructors’ care towards students
Building Trust in a Guarantee Fund in a Challenging Institutional Environment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luciano Quinto Lanz
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Difficult access to credit is a major obstacle to micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs survival, especially in emerging countries, affecting their competitiveness. Lack of guarantees is a main reason why banks do not lend to MSMEs. Guarantee schemes provide partial credit guarantees, but often fail to win trust of banks and enterprises. This study analyzes the process of building trust between the Fundo Garantidor para Investimentos (Investment Guarantee Fund, FGI, created in 2009, and banks in Brazil. This trust was hampered by the failure of public guarantee funds created in the 1990’s. This created a challenging institutional environment to the new fund. The methodology employed was a case study, based on a qualitative approach with document analysis, semi-structured interviews and descriptive statistics. The analysis used models for building and repairing trust in inter-organizational relations and international benchmark for governance and effectiveness of guarantee schemes. The analysis showed that the FGI used other emerging countries and developed countries experience to construct adequate governance and succeeded in establishing trust with the banks. The results show that by 2017, 26 banks contract more than 32,000 operations worth 1.9 billion dollars, with additionalities comparable to the international benchmark.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Kavoosi Kalashami
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Cultivation of the strategic crop of rice highly depends to the existence of sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water, and water shortage stresses have irreparable effects on yield and quality of productions. Decrease of the Sefidrud river inflow in Guilan province which is the main source of supplying irrigation water for 171 thousand hectares under rice cropping area of this province, has been challenged sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply in many regions of mentioned province. Hence, in present study estimating the value that paddy farmers place on sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply has been considered. Economic valuation of sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply improves water resource management policies in demand side. Requested data set were obtained on the base of a survey and are collected from 224 paddy farms in rural regions that faced with irrigation water shortages. Then, using open-ended valuation approach and estimation of Tobit model via ML and two stages Heckman approach, eliciting paddy farmers' willingness to pay for sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply has been accomplished. Results revealed that farmers in investigated regions willing to pay 26.49 percent more than present costs of providing irrigation water in order to have sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement of loss, theft, destruction, mutilation... AGRICULTURE GENERAL Community Programs Guaranteed Loans § 3575.73 Replacement of loss, theft, destruction... circumstances of the loss, theft, or destruction of the Loan Note Guarantee or Assignment Guarantee Agreement...
US Agency for International Development — eDelivery provides the electronic packaging and delivery of closed and complete OPM investigation files to government agencies, including USAID, in a secure manner....
... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000514.htm Vacuum-assisted delivery To use the sharing features on this page, ... through the birth canal. When is Vacuum-assisted Delivery Needed? Even after your cervix is fully dilated ( ...
Nonadiabatic geometrical quantum gates in semiconductor quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solinas, Paolo; Zanghi, Nino; Zanardi, Paolo; Rossi, Fausto
2003-01-01
In this paper, we study the implementation of nonadiabatic geometrical quantum gates with in semiconductor quantum dots. Different quantum information enconding (manipulation) schemes exploiting excitonic degrees of freedom are discussed. By means of the Aharanov-Anandan geometrical phase, one can avoid the limitations of adiabatic schemes relying on adiabatic Berry phase; fast geometrical quantum gates can be, in principle, implemented
The representations of Lie groups and geometric quantizations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Qiang
1998-01-01
In this paper we discuss the relation between representations of Lie groups and geometric quantizations. A series of representations of Lie groups are constructed by geometric quantization of coadjoint orbits. Particularly, all representations of compact Lie groups, holomorphic discrete series of representations and spherical representations of reductive Lie groups are constructed by geometric quantizations of elliptic and hyperbolic coadjoint orbits. (orig.)
Identifying and Fostering Higher Levels of Geometric Thinking
Škrbec, Maja; Cadež, Tatjana Hodnik
2015-01-01
Pierre M. Van Hiele created five levels of geometric thinking. We decided to identify the level of geometric thinking in the students in Slovenia, aged 9 to 11 years. The majority of students (60.7%) are at the transition between the zero (visual) level and the first (descriptive) level of geometric thinking. Nearly a third (31.7%) of students is…
Articulating feedstock delivery device
Jordan, Kevin
2013-11-05
A fully articulable feedstock delivery device that is designed to operate at pressure and temperature extremes. The device incorporates an articulating ball assembly which allows for more accurate delivery of the feedstock to a target location. The device is suitable for a variety of applications including, but not limited to, delivery of feedstock to a high-pressure reaction chamber or process zone.
PRICING AND ASSESSING UNIT-LINKED INSURANCE CONTRACTS WITH INVESTMENT GUARANTEES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ciumas Cristina
2014-07-01
Full Text Available One of the most interesting life insurance products to have emerged in recent years in the Romanian insurance market has been the unit-linked contract. Unit-linked insurance products are life insurance policies with investment component. A unit-linked life insurance has two important components: protection and investment. The protection component refers to the insured sum in case of the occurrence of insured risks and the investment component refers to the policyholders’ account that represents the present value of the units from the chosen investment funds. Due to the financial instability caused by the Global Crisis and the amplification of market competitiveness, insurers from international markets have started to incorporate guarantees in unit-linked products. So a unit- linked life insurance policy with an asset value guarantee is an insurance policy whose benefit payable on death or at maturity consists of the greater of some guaranteed amount and the value of the units from the investment funds. One of the most challenging issues concerns the pricing of minimum death benefit and maturity benefit guarantees and the establishing of proper reserves for these guarantees. Insurers granting guarantees of this type must estimate the cost and include the cost in the premium. An important component of the activity carried out by the insurance companies is the investment of the premiums paid by policyholders in various types of assets, in order to obtain higher yields than those guaranteed by the insurance contracts, while providing the necessary liquidity for the payment of insurance claims in case of occurrence of the assumed risks. So the guaranteed benefits can be broadly matched or immunized with various types of financial assets, especially with fixed-interest instruments. According to Romanian legislation which regulates the unit-linked life insurance market, unit-linked life insurance contracts pass most of the investment risk to the
Optimization of biotechnological systems through geometric programming
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Torres Nestor V
2007-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past, tasks of model based yield optimization in metabolic engineering were either approached with stoichiometric models or with structured nonlinear models such as S-systems or linear-logarithmic representations. These models stand out among most others, because they allow the optimization task to be converted into a linear program, for which efficient solution methods are widely available. For pathway models not in one of these formats, an Indirect Optimization Method (IOM was developed where the original model is sequentially represented as an S-system model, optimized in this format with linear programming methods, reinterpreted in the initial model form, and further optimized as necessary. Results A new method is proposed for this task. We show here that the model format of a Generalized Mass Action (GMA system may be optimized very efficiently with techniques of geometric programming. We briefly review the basics of GMA systems and of geometric programming, demonstrate how the latter may be applied to the former, and illustrate the combined method with a didactic problem and two examples based on models of real systems. The first is a relatively small yet representative model of the anaerobic fermentation pathway in S. cerevisiae, while the second describes the dynamics of the tryptophan operon in E. coli. Both models have previously been used for benchmarking purposes, thus facilitating comparisons with the proposed new method. In these comparisons, the geometric programming method was found to be equal or better than the earlier methods in terms of successful identification of optima and efficiency. Conclusion GMA systems are of importance, because they contain stoichiometric, mass action and S-systems as special cases, along with many other models. Furthermore, it was previously shown that algebraic equivalence transformations of variables are sufficient to convert virtually any types of dynamical models into
La Marca, Floriana; Moroni, Monica; Cherubini, Lorenzo; Lupo, Emanuela; Cenedese, Antonio
2012-07-01
The recovery of high-quality plastic materials is becoming an increasingly challenging issue for the recycling sector. Technologies for plastic recycling have to guarantee high-quality secondary raw material, complying with specific standards, for use in industrial applications. The variability in waste plastics does not always correspond to evident differences in physical characteristics, making traditional methodologies ineffective for plastic separation. The Multidune separator is a hydraulic channel allowing the sorting of solid particles on the basis of differential transport mechanisms by generating particular fluid dynamic conditions due to its geometric configuration and operational settings. In this paper, the fluid dynamic conditions were investigated by an image analysis technique, allowing the reconstruction of velocity fields generated inside the Multidune, considering two different geometric configurations of the device, Configuration A and Configuration B. Furthermore, tests on mono- and bi-material samples were completed with varying operational conditions under both configurations. In both series of experiments, the bi-material samples were composed of differing proportions (85% vs. 15%) to simulate real conditions in an industrial plant for the purifying of a useful fraction from a contaminating fraction. The separation results were evaluated in terms of grade and recovery of the useful fraction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Guangyu; Nguang, Sing Kiong; Partridge, Ashton
2011-01-01
Highlights: → A novel and general method is proposed for modeling PV arrays or modules. → A robust algorithm is used for the first time to improve the convergence to solution. → Auxiliary functions in other general methods are not compulsory in our method. → It is novel that geometric configuration is also incorporated. → A case study is performed to show the approach's advantages and unique features. - Abstract: A general method for modeling typical photovoltaic (PV) arrays and modules is proposed to find the exact current and voltage relationship of PV arrays or modules of geometrically and electrically different configurations. Nonlinear characteristic equations of electrical devices in solar array or module systems are numerically constructed without adding any virtual electrical components. Then, a robust damped Newton method is used to find exact I-V relationship of these general nonlinear equations, where the convergence is guaranteed. The model can deal with different mismatch effects such as different configurations of bypass diodes, and partial shading. Geometry coordinates of PV components are also considered to facilitate the modeling of the actual physical configuration. Simulation of a PV array with 48 modules, partially shaded by a concrete structure, is performed to verify the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pooyan Vahidi Pashsaki
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Accuracy of a five-axis CNC machine tool is affected by a vast number of error sources. This paper investigates volumetric error modeling and its compensation to the basis for creation of new tool path for improvement of work pieces accuracy. The volumetric error model of a five-axis machine tool with the configuration RTTTR (tilting head B-axis and rotary table in work piece side A΄ was set up taking into consideration rigid body kinematics and homogeneous transformation matrix, in which 43 error components are included. Volumetric error comprises 43 error components that can separately reduce geometrical and dimensional accuracy of work pieces. The machining accuracy of work piece is guaranteed due to the position of the cutting tool center point (TCP relative to the work piece. The cutting tool is deviated from its ideal position relative to the work piece and machining error is experienced. For compensation process detection of the present tool path and analysis of the RTTTR five-axis CNC machine tools geometrical error, translating current position of component to compensated positions using the Kinematics error model, converting newly created component to new tool paths using the compensation algorithms and finally editing old G-codes using G-code generator algorithm have been employed.
Geometric derivation of the quantum speed limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, Philip J.; Kok, Pieter
2010-01-01
The Mandelstam-Tamm and Margolus-Levitin inequalities play an important role in the study of quantum-mechanical processes in nature since they provide general limits on the speed of dynamical evolution. However, to date there has been only one derivation of the Margolus-Levitin inequality. In this paper, alternative geometric derivations for both inequalities are obtained from the statistical distance between quantum states. The inequalities are shown to hold for unitary evolution of pure and mixed states, and a counterexample to the inequalities is given for evolution described by completely positive trace-preserving maps. The counterexample shows that there is no quantum speed limit for nonunitary evolution.
A geometric form of the canonical commutation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guz, W.
1987-01-01
Some aspects of a geometric approach to quantum theory, in which the quantum-mechanical position and momentum operators are represented by covariant derivatives, are here developed. Here, the previously estabilished formalism of Caianiello and his co-workers is extended to the case of an integrable almost complex Hermitian manifold. The general theory is then applied to the two-dimensional case, where the structure of the 'quantum geometry' induced in the manifold by the quantum-mechanical CCR can be explicitly determined
Geometrical scaling vs factorizable eikonal models
Kiang, D
1975-01-01
Among various theoretical explanations or interpretations for the experimental data on the differential cross-sections of elastic proton-proton scattering at CERN ISR, the following two seem to be most remarkable: A) the excellent agreement of the Chou-Yang model prediction of d sigma /dt with data at square root s=53 GeV, B) the general manifestation of geometrical scaling (GS). The paper confronts GS with eikonal models with factorizable opaqueness, with special emphasis on the Chou-Yang model. (12 refs).
On geometrical splitting in nonanalog Monte Carlo
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lux, I.
1985-01-01
A very general geometrical procedure is considered, and it is shown how the free flights, the statistical weights and the contribution of particles participating in splitting are to be chosen in order to reach unbiased estimates in games where the transition kernels are nonanalog. Equations governing the second moment of the score and the number of flights to be stimulated are derived. It is shown that the post-splitting weights of the fragments are to be chosen equal to reach maximum gain in variance. Conditions are derived under which the expected number of flights remains finite. Simplified example illustrate the optimization of the procedure (author)
Projective geometry for polarization in geometric quantization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campbell, P.; Dodson, C.T.J.
1976-12-01
It is important to know the extent to which the procedure of geometric quantization depends on a choice of polarization of the symplectic manifold that is the classical phase space. Published results have so far been restricted to real and transversal polarizations. Here we also consider these cases by presenting a formulation in terms of projective geometry. It turns out that there is a natural characterization of real transversal polarizations and maps among them using projective concepts. We give explicit constructions for Rsup(2n)
Irreducible geometric subgroups of classical algebraic groups
Burness, Timothy C; Testerman, Donna M
2016-01-01
Let G be a simple classical algebraic group over an algebraically closed field K of characteristic p \\ge 0 with natural module W. Let H be a closed subgroup of G and let V be a non-trivial irreducible tensor-indecomposable p-restricted rational KG-module such that the restriction of V to H is irreducible. In this paper the authors classify the triples (G,H,V) of this form, where H is a disconnected maximal positive-dimensional closed subgroup of G preserving a natural geometric structure on W.
Geometric and numerical foundations of movements
Mansard, Nicolas; Lasserre, Jean-Bernard
2017-01-01
This book aims at gathering roboticists, control theorists, neuroscientists, and mathematicians, in order to promote a multidisciplinary research on movement analysis. It follows the workshop “ Geometric and Numerical Foundations of Movements ” held at LAAS-CNRS in Toulouse in November 2015[1]. Its objective is to lay the foundations for a mutual understanding that is essential for synergetic development in motion research. In particular, the book promotes applications to robotics --and control in general-- of new optimization techniques based on recent results from real algebraic geometry.
Geometric Algebra Techniques in Flux Compactifications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coman, Ioana Alexandra; Lazaroiu, Calin Iuliu; Babalic, Elena Mirela
2016-01-01
We study “constrained generalized Killing (s)pinors,” which characterize supersymmetric flux compactifications of supergravity theories. Using geometric algebra techniques, we give conceptually clear and computationally effective methods for translating supersymmetry conditions into differential and algebraic constraints on collections of differential forms. In particular, we give a synthetic description of Fierz identities, which are an important ingredient of such problems. As an application, we show how our approach can be used to efficiently treat N=1 compactification of M-theory on eight manifolds and prove that we recover results previously obtained in the literature.
Geometric Total Variation for Texture Deformation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bespalov, Dmitriy; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Shokoufandeh, Ali
2010-01-01
In this work we propose a novel variational method that we intend to use for estimating non-rigid texture deformation. The method is able to capture variation in grayscale images with respect to the geometry of its features. Our experimental evaluations demonstrate that accounting for geometry...... of features in texture images leads to significant improvements in localization of these features, when textures undergo geometrical transformations. Accurate localization of features in the presense of unkown deformations is a crucial property for texture characterization methods, and we intend to expoit...
Universal geometrical module for MARS program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Talanov, V.V.
1992-01-01
Geometrical program module for modeling hadron and electromagnetic cascades, which accomplishes comparison of physical coordinates with the particle current state of one of the auxilliary cells, is described. The whole medium wherein the particles are tracked, is divided into a certain number of auxilliary cells. The identification algorithm of the cell, through which the particle trajectory passes, is considered in detail. The described algorithm for cell identification was developed for the MARS program and realized in form of a set of subprograms written in the FORTRAN language. 4 refs., 1 tab
Geometrical optics model of Mie resonances
Roll; Schweiger
2000-07-01
The geometrical optics model of Mie resonances is presented. The ray path geometry is given and the resonance condition is discussed with special emphasis on the phase shift that the rays undergo at the surface of the dielectric sphere. On the basis of this model, approximate expressions for the positions of first-order resonances are given. Formulas for the cavity mode spacing are rederived in a simple manner. It is shown that the resonance linewidth can be calculated regarding the cavity losses. Formulas for the mode density of Mie resonances are given that account for the different width of resonances and thus may be adapted to specific experimental situations.
On the geometrization of electromagnetism by torsion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fonseca Neto, J.B. da.
1984-01-01
The possibility of electromagnetism geometrization using an four dimension Cartan geometry is investigated. The Lagrangian density which presents dual invariance for dyons electrodynamics formulated in term of two potentials is constructed. This theory by association of two potentials with track and with torsion pseudo-track and of the field with torsion covariant divergent is described. The minimum coupling of particle gravitational field of scalar and spinorial fields with dyon geometry theory by the minimum coupling of these fields with Cartan geometry was obtained. (author)
Electronic and geometric structures of calcium metaborates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baranovskij, V.I.; Lopatin, S.I.; Sizov, V.V.
2000-01-01
Calculations of geometric structure, vibration frequencies, ionization potentials and atomization energies of CaBO 2 and CaB 2 O 4 molecules were made. It is shown that linear conformations of the molecules are the most stable ones. In the metaborates studied calcium atom coordination with oxygen is a monodentate one, meanwhile CaB 2 O 4 can be considered as a Ca 2+ compound, whereas CaBO 2 - as a Ca + compound, which explains similarity of the molecule (from the viewpoint of its geometry, spectral and energy characteristics) to alkaline metal metaborates [ru
Geometric and Texture Inpainting by Gibbs Sampling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gustafsson, David Karl John; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Nielsen, Mads
2007-01-01
. In this paper we use the well-known FRAME (Filters, Random Fields and Maximum Entropy) for inpainting. We introduce a temperature term in the learned FRAME Gibbs distribution. By sampling using different temperature in the FRAME Gibbs distribution, different contents of the image are reconstructed. We propose...... a two step method for inpainting using FRAME. First the geometric structure of the image is reconstructed by sampling from a cooled Gibbs distribution, then the stochastic component is reconstructed by sample froma heated Gibbs distribution. Both steps in the reconstruction process are necessary...
Geometric interpretation of optimal iteration strategies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, R.B.
1977-01-01
The relationship between inner and outer iteration errors is extremely complex, and even formal description of total error behavior is difficult. Inner and outer iteration error propagation is analyzed in a variational formalism for a reactor model describing multidimensional, one-group theory. In a generalization the work of Akimov and Sabek, the number of inner iterations performed during each outer serial that minimizes the total computation time is determined. The generalized analysis admits a geometric interpretation of total error behavior. The results can be applied to both transport and diffusion theory computer methods. 1 figure
Fundamentos de geometría euclidiana
Salazar Salazar, Luis Álvaro
1984-01-01
Este texto no pretende hacer un desfile monótono de definiciones, teoremas, demostraciones o corolarios sino que procurará hacer entender las definiciones, interpretar los enunciados de los principales teoremas y aplicarlos en la solución de algunos problemas. Tampoco se busca negar la importancia de las demostraciones de los teoremas y sus repercusiones en el desarrollo intelectual del lector, teniendo en cuenta que la geometría es la matemática por excelencia, entendiéndose por esto que la...
Femtosecond pulse shaping using the geometric phase.
Gökce, Bilal; Li, Yanming; Escuti, Michael J; Gundogdu, Kenan
2014-03-15
We demonstrate a femtosecond pulse shaper that utilizes polarization gratings to manipulate the geometric phase of an optical pulse. This unique approach enables circular polarization-dependent shaping of femtosecond pulses. As a result, it is possible to create coherent pulse pairs with orthogonal polarizations in a 4f pulse shaper setup, something until now that, to our knowledge, was only achieved via much more complex configurations. This approach could be used to greatly simplify and enhance the functionality of multidimensional spectroscopy and coherent control experiments, in which multiple coherent pulses are used to manipulate quantum states in materials of interest.
Toroidal Precession as a Geometric Phase
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
J.W. Burby and H. Qin
2012-09-26
Toroidal precession is commonly understood as the orbit-averaged toroidal drift of guiding centers in axisymmetric and quasisymmetric configurations. We give a new, more natural description of precession as a geometric phase effect. In particular, we show that the precession angle arises as the holonomy of a guiding center's poloidal trajectory relative to a principal connection. The fact that this description is physically appropriate is borne out with new, manifestly coordinate-independent expressions for the precession angle that apply to all types of orbits in tokamaks and quasisymmetric stellarators alike. We then describe how these expressions may be fruitfully employed in numerical calculations of precession.
Moduli stabilization in non-geometric backgrounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Vafa, Cumrun; Walcher, Johannes
2007-01-01
Type II orientifolds based on Landau-Ginzburg models are used to describe moduli stabilization for flux compactifications of type II theories from the world-sheet CFT point of view. We show that for certain types of type IIB orientifolds which have no Kaehler moduli and are therefore intrinsically non-geometric, all moduli can be explicitly stabilized in terms of fluxes. The resulting four-dimensional theories can describe Minkowski as well as anti-de Sitter vacua. This construction provides the first string vacuum with all moduli frozen and leading to a 4D Minkowski background
In the realm of the geometric transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexander, Stephon; Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Dasgupta, Keshav; Knauf, Anke; Tatar, Radu
2005-01-01
We complete the duality cycle by constructing the geometric transition duals in the type IIB, type I and heterotic theories. We show that in the type IIB theory the background on the closed string side is a Kaehler deformed conifold, as expected, even though the mirror type IIA backgrounds are non-Kaehler (both before and after the transition). On the other hand, the type I and heterotic backgrounds are non-Kaehler. Therefore, on the heterotic side these backgrounds give rise to new torsional manifolds that have not been studied before. We show the consistency of these backgrounds by verifying the torsional equation
ERC Workshop on Geometric Partial Differential Equations
Novaga, Matteo; Valdinoci, Enrico
2013-01-01
This book is the outcome of a conference held at the Centro De Giorgi of the Scuola Normale of Pisa in September 2012. The aim of the conference was to discuss recent results on nonlinear partial differential equations, and more specifically geometric evolutions and reaction-diffusion equations. Particular attention was paid to self-similar solutions, such as solitons and travelling waves, asymptotic behaviour, formation of singularities and qualitative properties of solutions. These problems arise in many models from Physics, Biology, Image Processing and Applied Mathematics in general, and have attracted a lot of attention in recent years.
Geometric phases for mixed states during cyclic evolutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu Libin; Chen Jingling
2004-01-01
The geometric phases of cyclic evolutions for mixed states are discussed in the framework of unitary evolution. A canonical 1-form is defined whose line integral gives the geometric phase, which is gauge invariant. It reduces to the Aharonov and Anandan phase in the pure state case. Our definition is consistent with the phase shift in the proposed experiment (Sjoeqvist et al 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 2845) for a cyclic evolution if the unitary transformation satisfies the parallel transport condition. A comprehensive geometric interpretation is also given. It shows that the geometric phases for mixed states share the same geometric sense with the pure states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moutsatsos, A.; Karaiskos, P.; Pantelis, E.; Georgiou, E.; Petrokokkinos, L.; Sakelliou, L.; Torrens, M.; Seimenis, I.
2013-01-01
Purpose: This work proposes and implements an experimental methodology, based on polymer gels, for assessing the total geometric uncertainty and characterizing its contributors in Gamma Knife (GK) radiosurgery. Methods: A treatment plan consisting of 26, 4-mm GK single shot dose distributions, covering an extended region of the Leksell stereotactic space, was prepared and delivered to a polymer gel filled polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) head phantom (16 cm diameter) used to accurately reproduce every link in the GK treatment chain. The center of each shot served as a “control point” in the assessment of the GK total geometric uncertainty, which depends on (a) the spatial dose delivery uncertainty of the PERFEXION GK unit used in this work, (b) the spatial distortions inherent in MR images commonly used for target delineation, and (c) the geometric uncertainty contributor associated with the image registration procedure performed by the Leksell GammaPlan (LGP) treatment planning system (TPS), in the case that registration is directly based on the apparent fiducial locations depicted in each MR image by the N-shaped rods on the Leksell localization box. The irradiated phantom was MR imaged at 1.5 T employing a T2-weighted pulse sequence. Four image series were acquired by alternating the frequency encoding axis and reversing the read gradient polarity, thus allowing the characterization of the MR-related spatial distortions. Results: MR spatial distortions stemming from main field (B 0 ) inhomogeneity as well as from susceptibility and chemical shift phenomena (also known as sequence dependent distortions) were found to be of the order of 0.5 mm, while those owing to gradient nonlinearities (also known as sequence independent distortions) were found to increase with distance from the MR scanner isocenter extending up to 0.47 mm at an Euclidean distance of 69.6 mm. Regarding the LGP image registration procedure, the corresponding average contribution to the total
Moutsatsos, A; Karaiskos, P; Petrokokkinos, L; Sakelliou, L; Pantelis, E; Georgiou, E; Torrens, M; Seimenis, I
2013-03-01
This work proposes and implements an experimental methodology, based on polymer gels, for assessing the total geometric uncertainty and characterizing its contributors in Gamma Knife (GK) radiosurgery. A treatment plan consisting of 26, 4-mm GK single shot dose distributions, covering an extended region of the Leksell stereotactic space, was prepared and delivered to a polymer gel filled polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) head phantom (16 cm diameter) used to accurately reproduce every link in the GK treatment chain. The center of each shot served as a "control point" in the assessment of the GK total geometric uncertainty, which depends on (a) the spatial dose delivery uncertainty of the PERFEXION GK unit used in this work, (b) the spatial distortions inherent in MR images commonly used for target delineation, and (c) the geometric uncertainty contributor associated with the image registration procedure performed by the Leksell GammaPlan (LGP) treatment planning system (TPS), in the case that registration is directly based on the apparent fiducial locations depicted in each MR image by the N-shaped rods on the Leksell localization box. The irradiated phantom was MR imaged at 1.5 T employing a T2-weighted pulse sequence. Four image series were acquired by alternating the frequency encoding axis and reversing the read gradient polarity, thus allowing the characterization of the MR-related spatial distortions. MR spatial distortions stemming from main field (B0) inhomogeneity as well as from susceptibility and chemical shift phenomena (also known as sequence dependent distortions) were found to be of the order of 0.5 mm, while those owing to gradient nonlinearities (also known as sequence independent distortions) were found to increase with distance from the MR scanner isocenter extending up to 0.47 mm at an Euclidean distance of 69.6 mm. Regarding the LGP image registration procedure, the corresponding average contribution to the total geometric uncertainty ranged from
UAV Delivery Monitoring System
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San Khin Thida
2018-01-01
Full Text Available UAV-based delivery systems are increasingly being used in the logistics field, particularly to achieve faster last-mile delivery. This study develops a UAV delivery system that manages delivery order assignments, autonomous flight operation, real time control for UAV flights, and delivery status tracking. To manage the delivery item assignments, we apply the concurrent scheduler approach with a genetic algorithm. The present paper describes real time flight data based on a micro air vehicle communication protocol (MAVLink. It also presents the detailed hardware components used for the field tests. Finally, we provide UAV component analysis to choose the suitable components for delivery in terms of battery capacity, flight time, payload weight and motor thrust ratio.
Geometric reconstruction methods for electron tomography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alpers, Andreas, E-mail: alpers@ma.tum.de [Zentrum Mathematik, Technische Universität München, D-85747 Garching bei München (Germany); Gardner, Richard J., E-mail: Richard.Gardner@wwu.edu [Department of Mathematics, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA 98225-9063 (United States); König, Stefan, E-mail: koenig@ma.tum.de [Zentrum Mathematik, Technische Universität München, D-85747 Garching bei München (Germany); Pennington, Robert S., E-mail: robert.pennington@uni-ulm.de [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Boothroyd, Chris B., E-mail: ChrisBoothroyd@cantab.net [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Houben, Lothar, E-mail: l.houben@fz-juelich.de [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E., E-mail: rdb@fz-juelich.de [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Joost Batenburg, Kees, E-mail: Joost.Batenburg@cwi.nl [Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, NL-1098XG, Amsterdam, The Netherlands and Vision Lab, Department of Physics, University of Antwerp, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)
2013-05-15
Electron tomography is becoming an increasingly important tool in materials science for studying the three-dimensional morphologies and chemical compositions of nanostructures. The image quality obtained by many current algorithms is seriously affected by the problems of missing wedge artefacts and non-linear projection intensities due to diffraction effects. The former refers to the fact that data cannot be acquired over the full 180° tilt range; the latter implies that for some orientations, crystalline structures can show strong contrast changes. To overcome these problems we introduce and discuss several algorithms from the mathematical fields of geometric and discrete tomography. The algorithms incorporate geometric prior knowledge (mainly convexity and homogeneity), which also in principle considerably reduces the number of tilt angles required. Results are discussed for the reconstruction of an InAs nanowire. - Highlights: ► Four algorithms for electron tomography are introduced that utilize prior knowledge. ► Objects are assumed to be homogeneous; convexity and regularity is also discussed. ► We are able to reconstruct slices of a nanowire from as few as four projections. ► Algorithms should be selected based on the specific reconstruction task at hand.
Implicit face prototype learning from geometric information.
Or, Charles C-F; Wilson, Hugh R
2013-04-19
There is evidence that humans implicitly learn an average or prototype of previously studied faces, as the unseen face prototype is falsely recognized as having been learned (Solso & McCarthy, 1981). Here we investigated the extent and nature of face prototype formation where observers' memory was tested after they studied synthetic faces defined purely in geometric terms in a multidimensional face space. We found a strong prototype effect: The basic results showed that the unseen prototype averaged from the studied faces was falsely identified as learned at a rate of 86.3%, whereas individual studied faces were identified correctly 66.3% of the time and the distractors were incorrectly identified as having been learned only 32.4% of the time. This prototype learning lasted at least 1 week. Face prototype learning occurred even when the studied faces were further from the unseen prototype than the median variation in the population. Prototype memory formation was evident in addition to memory formation of studied face exemplars as demonstrated in our models. Additional studies showed that the prototype effect can be generalized across viewpoints, and head shape and internal features separately contribute to prototype formation. Thus, implicit face prototype extraction in a multidimensional space is a very general aspect of geometric face learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A geometric viewpoint on generalized hydrodynamics
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Benjamin Doyon
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Generalized hydrodynamics (GHD is a large-scale theory for the dynamics of many-body integrable systems. It consists of an infinite set of conservation laws for quasi-particles traveling with effective (“dressed” velocities that depend on the local state. We show that these equations can be recast into a geometric dynamical problem. They are conservation equations with state-independent quasi-particle velocities, in a space equipped with a family of metrics, parametrized by the quasi-particles' type and speed, that depend on the local state. In the classical hard rod or soliton gas picture, these metrics measure the free length of space as perceived by quasi-particles; in the quantum picture, they weigh space with the density of states available to them. Using this geometric construction, we find a general solution to the initial value problem of GHD, in terms of a set of integral equations where time appears explicitly. These integral equations are solvable by iteration and provide an extremely efficient solution algorithm for GHD.
Geometrical effects in X-mode scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bretz, N.
1986-10-01
One technique to extend microwave scattering as a probe of long wavelength density fluctuations in magnetically confined plasmas is to consider the launching and scattering of extraordinary (X-mode) waves nearly perpendicular to the field. When the incident frequency is less than the electron cyclotron frequency, this mode can penetrate beyond the ordinary mode cutoff at the plasma frequency and avoid significant distortions from density gradients typical of tokamak plasmas. In the more familiar case, where the incident and scattered waves are ordinary, the scattering is isotropic perpendicular to the field. However, because the X-mode polarization depends on the frequency ratios and the ray angle to the magnetic field, the coupling between the incident and scattered waves is complicated. This geometrical form factor must be unfolded from the observed scattering in order to interpret the scattering due to density fluctuations alone. The geometrical factor is calculated here for the special case of scattering perpendicular to the magnetic field. For frequencies above the ordinary mode cutoff the scattering is relatively isotropic, while below cutoff there are minima in the forward and backward directions which go to zero at approximately half the ordinary mode cutoff density
Geometrical analysis of cytochrome c unfolding
Urie, Kristopher G.; Pletneva, Ekaterina; Gray, Harry B.; Winkler, Jay R.; Kozak, John J.
2011-01-01
A geometrical model has been developed to study the unfolding of iso-1 cytochrome c. The model draws on the crystallographic data reported for this protein. These data were used to calculate the distance between specific residues in the folded state, and in a sequence of extended states defined by n = 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15 residue units. Exact calculations carried out for each of the 103 residues in the polypeptide chain demonstrate that different regions of the chain have different unfolding histories. Regions where there is a persistence of compact structures can be identified, and this geometrical characterization is fully consistent with analyses of time-resolved fluorescence energy-transfer (TrFET) data using dansyl-derivatized cysteine side-chain probes at positions 39, 50, 66, 85, and 99. The calculations were carried out assuming that different regions of the polypeptide chain unfold synchronously. To test this assumption, lattice Monte Carlo simulations were performed to study systematically the possible importance of asynchronicity. Calculations show that small departures from synchronous dynamics can arise if displacements of residues in the main body of the chain are much more sluggish than near-terminal residues.
GEOMETRIC AND RADIOMETRIC EVALUATION OF RASAT IMAGES
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A. Cam
2016-06-01
Full Text Available RASAT, the second remote sensing satellite of Turkey, was designed and assembled, and also is being operated by TÜBİTAK Uzay (Space Technologies Research Institute (Ankara. RASAT images in various levels are available free-of-charge via Gezgin portal for Turkish citizens. In this paper, the images in panchromatic (7.5 m GSD and RGB (15 m GSD bands in various levels were investigated with respect to its geometric and radiometric characteristics. The first geometric analysis is the estimation of the effective GSD as less than 1 pixel for radiometrically processed level (L1R of both panchromatic and RGB images. Secondly, 2D georeferencing accuracy is estimated by various non-physical transformation models (similarity, 2D affine, polynomial, affine projection, projective, DLT and GCP based RFM reaching sub-pixel accuracy using minimum 39 and maximum 52 GCPs. The radiometric characteristics are also investigated for 8 bits, estimating SNR between 21.8-42.2, and noise 0.0-3.5 for panchromatic and MS images for L1R when the sea is masked to obtain the results for land areas. The analysis show that RASAT images satisfies requirements for various applications. The research is carried out in Zonguldak test site which is mountainous and partly covered by dense forest and urban areas.
Geometric Modelling of Octagonal Lamp Poles
Chan, T. O.; Lichti, D. D.
2014-06-01
Lamp poles are one of the most abundant highway and community components in modern cities. Their supporting parts are primarily tapered octagonal cones specifically designed for wind resistance. The geometry and the positions of the lamp poles are important information for various applications. For example, they are important to monitoring deformation of aged lamp poles, maintaining an efficient highway GIS system, and also facilitating possible feature-based calibration of mobile LiDAR systems. In this paper, we present a novel geometric model for octagonal lamp poles. The model consists of seven parameters in which a rotation about the z-axis is included, and points are constrained by the trigonometric property of 2D octagons after applying the rotations. For the geometric fitting of the lamp pole point cloud captured by a terrestrial LiDAR, accurate initial parameter values are essential. They can be estimated by first fitting the points to a circular cone model and this is followed by some basic point cloud processing techniques. The model was verified by fitting both simulated and real data. The real data includes several lamp pole point clouds captured by: (1) Faro Focus 3D and (2) Velodyne HDL-32E. The fitting results using the proposed model are promising, and up to 2.9 mm improvement in fitting accuracy was realized for the real lamp pole point clouds compared to using the conventional circular cone model. The overall result suggests that the proposed model is appropriate and rigorous.
Geometric correction of APEX hyperspectral data
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Vreys Kristin
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Hyperspectral imagery originating from airborne sensors is nowadays widely used for the detailed characterization of land surface. The correct mapping of the pixel positions to ground locations largely contributes to the success of the applications. Accurate geometric correction, also referred to as “orthorectification”, is thus an important prerequisite which must be performed prior to using airborne imagery for evaluations like change detection, or mapping or overlaying the imagery with existing data sets or maps. A so-called “ortho-image” provides an accurate representation of the earth’s surface, having been adjusted for lens distortions, camera tilt and topographic relief. In this paper, we describe the different steps in the geometric correction process of APEX hyperspectral data, as applied in the Central Data Processing Center (CDPC at the Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO, Mol, Belgium. APEX ortho-images are generated through direct georeferencing of the raw images, thereby making use of sensor interior and exterior orientation data, boresight calibration data and elevation data. They can be referenced to any userspecified output projection system and can be resampled to any output pixel size.
Geometric-optical illusions at isoluminance.
Hamburger, Kai; Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R
2007-12-01
The idea of a largely segregated processing of color and form was initially supported by observations that geometric-optical illusions vanish under isoluminance. However, this finding is inconsistent with some psychophysical studies and also with physiological evidence showing that color and luminance are processed together by largely overlapping sets of neurons in the LGN, in V1, and in extrastriate areas. Here we examined the strength of nine geometric-optical illusions under isoluminance (Delboeuf, Ebbinghaus, Hering, Judd, Müller-Lyer, Poggendorff, Ponzo, Vertical, Zöllner). Subjects interactively manipulated computer-generated line drawings to counteract the illusory effect. In all cases, illusions presented under isoluminance (both for colors drawn from the cardinal L-M or S-(L+M) directions of DKL color space) were as effective as the luminance versions (both for high and low contrast). The magnitudes of the illusion effects were highly correlated across subjects for the different conditions. In two additional experiments we determined that the strong illusions observed under isoluminance were not due to individual deviations from the photometric point of isoluminance or due to chromatic aberrations. Our findings show that our conscious percept is affected similarly for both isoluminance and luminance conditions, suggesting that the joint processing for chromatic and luminance defined contours may extend well beyond early visual areas.
Geometrical basis for the Standard Model
Potter, Franklin
1994-02-01
The robust character of the Standard Model is confirmed. Examination of its geometrical basis in three equivalent internal symmetry spaces-the unitary plane C 2, the quaternion space Q, and the real space R 4—as well as the real space R 3 uncovers mathematical properties that predict the physical properties of leptons and quarks. The finite rotational subgroups of the gauge group SU(2) L × U(1) Y generate exactly three lepton families and four quark families and reveal how quarks and leptons are related. Among the physical properties explained are the mass ratios of the six leptons and eight quarks, the origin of the left-handed preference by the weak interaction, the geometrical source of color symmetry, and the zero neutrino masses. The ( u, d) and ( c, s) quark families team together to satisfy the triangle anomaly cancellation with the electron family, while the other families pair one-to-one for cancellation. The spontaneously broken symmetry is discrete and needs no Higgs mechanism. Predictions include all massless neutrinos, the top quark at 160 GeV/ c 2, the b' quark at 80 GeV/ c 2, and the t' quark at 2600 GeV/ c 2.
New developments in geometric dynamic recrystallization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kassner, M.E.; Barrabes, S.R.
2005-01-01
The concept of geometric dynamic recrystallization (GDX) originated in 1980s with work on elevated-temperature deformation aluminum to large strains. In this case, substantial grain refinement occurs through a process of grain elongation and thinning leading to a dramatic increase in grain boundary area. The grain boundaries become serrated as a result of subgrain (low angle) boundary formation. Pinching off and annihilation of high-angle grain boundaries occurs as the original grains thin to about twice the subgrain diameter to and a 'steady-state' structure. This concept has since been carefully verified in pure Al, as well as Al-Mg alloys deforming in the three-power regime. Large strain deformation of Al single crystals is also consistent with the concept. Also, data in the literature on large strain deformation of a bcc iron alloy are consistent with GDX. Recent experiments on α-zirconium show that GDX applies to this hcp metal. Thus, it appears that GDX is a general phenomenon that can lead to grain refinement in the absence of any discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DRX) or continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDX). A discussion of continuous dynamic recrystallization and geometric necessary boundaries in relation to GDX will also be discussed. This may be particularly relevant to severe plastic deformation such as rolling and equal-channel angular pressing where dramatic increases in the number of high-angle boundaries are observed
Geometric reconstruction methods for electron tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alpers, Andreas; Gardner, Richard J.; König, Stefan; Pennington, Robert S.; Boothroyd, Chris B.; Houben, Lothar; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Joost Batenburg, Kees
2013-01-01
Electron tomography is becoming an increasingly important tool in materials science for studying the three-dimensional morphologies and chemical compositions of nanostructures. The image quality obtained by many current algorithms is seriously affected by the problems of missing wedge artefacts and non-linear projection intensities due to diffraction effects. The former refers to the fact that data cannot be acquired over the full 180° tilt range; the latter implies that for some orientations, crystalline structures can show strong contrast changes. To overcome these problems we introduce and discuss several algorithms from the mathematical fields of geometric and discrete tomography. The algorithms incorporate geometric prior knowledge (mainly convexity and homogeneity), which also in principle considerably reduces the number of tilt angles required. Results are discussed for the reconstruction of an InAs nanowire. - Highlights: ► Four algorithms for electron tomography are introduced that utilize prior knowledge. ► Objects are assumed to be homogeneous; convexity and regularity is also discussed. ► We are able to reconstruct slices of a nanowire from as few as four projections. ► Algorithms should be selected based on the specific reconstruction task at hand
On QoS guarantee in MPLS network with software deadline awareness
Gao, Yu; Jin, Yaohui; Cheng, Hong; Yu, Yingdi; Sun, Weiqiang; Guo, Wei; Hu, Weisheng
2007-11-01
With the increasing number of internet users, more and more real-time services are added into the network, such as IPTV, online-video, Voice over IP, etc. As we know, throughput is a highly important performance criterion for scheduling algorithms of networks. Besides throughput, these growing real-time services are very sensitive to delay variance termed as jitter. Therefore, high performance scheduling algorithm should achieve good performance in terms of throughput, delay, jitter and fairness together. Scheduling algorithm with deadline-awareness employed in packet switching plays a key role in QoS guarantees. Although traditional hard-deadline can provide guarantee on in-node delay-deadline criteria, the end-to-end delay-deadline criteria cannot be guaranteed due to the characteristic of hard-deadline, while the delay-deadline guaranteed throughput is low. Thus, soft-deadline scheduling algorithm has been proposed. In this paper, we investigate and compare the classical hard-deadline and soft-deadline switching algorithm. A new scheme "Bonus System" is proposed in order to realize the idea of soft-deadline switching algorithm. Bonus System based on soft-deadline is compared with classical Early-Deadline First scheme based on hard-deadline, which shows that Bonus System has better performance in End-to-End deadline guarantee.
Modelling the guaranteed QoS for wireless sensor networks: a network calculus approach
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Yu Jianping
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Wireless sensor networks (WSNs became one of the high technology domains during the last 10 years. Real-time applications for them make it necessary to provide the guaranteed quality of service (QoS. The main contributions of this article are a system skeleton and a guaranteed QoS model that are suitable for the WSNs. To do it, we develop a sensor node model based on virtual buffer sharing and present a two-layer scheduling model using the network calculus. With the system skeleton, we develop a guaranteed QoS model, such as the upper bounds on buffer queue length/delay/effective bandwidth, and single-hop/multi-hops delay/jitter/effective bandwidth. Numerical results show the system skeleton and the guaranteed QoS model are scalable for different types of flows, including the self-similar traffic flows, and the parameters of flow regulators and service curves of sensor nodes affect them. Our proposal leads to buffer dimensioning, guaranteed QoS support and control in the WSNs.
Community oral health literacy: improving use of oral-health care guarantee in children aged 6.
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Marco Cornejo-Ovalle
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The assessment of comprehensive oral health care for children aged 6 (GES-6years showed low utilization of this guarantee, with lower use for children from municipal public schools. The empowerment and health literacy of parents improve their role as oral-health promoters for their children. Objective: To implement and to assess a strategy of empowerment and health literacy of the community about their guaranteed health rights to increase the use of GES-6years. Methods: A mixed design. Using qualitative methodology we will design a communication tool, culturally and socially appropriate to be sent to the beneficiary community of this guarantee. Using a nonrandomized community trial, this instrument designed to empower and improve oral health literacy on GES-6 guarantee, will be sent as personalized letter (intervention signed by the mayor of the municipality with a message aimed to children beneficiaries for GES -6years and another addressed to their parents/guardians. Schools would be selected from clusters (communes of the two regions selected for convenience. Communes will be randomly selected amog those whose authorities agree to participate, and will be selected as for intervention or control. Data analysis will assess the differences in the prevalence of use of this guarantee among children from municipal schools belonging to the intervention or control arm.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fangmin Li
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Device-to-device (D2D multicast communication can greatly improve the spectrum utilization in a content delivery scenario. However, the co-channel interference and power consumption brought by D2D bring new challenges. All the D2D multicast groups expect to achieve a higher system capacity with less extra energy cost. In this paper, we investigate the uplink resource allocation issue when D2D multicast groups share the resources with other cellular uses (CUs, while guaranteeing a certain level of quality of service (QoS to CUs and D2D users. Firstly we address a flexible tradeoff framework in which the system power consumption and the system capacity (i.e., the number of admitted D2D links are assigned with different weight factors so that these two objectives are jointly considered. Then we propose an efficient resource optimization scheme, which comprises sub-channel allocation and signal-to-interference- plus-noise ratio (SINR assignment. Numerical results validate the effectiveness of the proposed framework, and demonstrate the advantages in dealing with the proposed multi-objective optimization problem.
Geometric entanglement in topologically ordered states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orús, Román; Wei, Tzu-Chieh; Buerschaper, Oliver; Nest, Maarten Van den
2014-01-01
Here we investigate the connection between topological order and the geometric entanglement, as measured by the logarithm of the overlap between a given state and its closest product state of blocks. We do this for a variety of topologically ordered systems such as the toric code, double semion, colour code and quantum double models. As happens for the entanglement entropy, we find that for sufficiently large block sizes the geometric entanglement is, up to possible sub-leading corrections, the sum of two contributions: a bulk contribution obeying a boundary law times the number of blocks and a contribution quantifying the underlying pattern of long-range entanglement of the topologically ordered state. This topological contribution is also present in the case of single-spin blocks in most cases, and constitutes an alternative characterization of topological order for these quantum states based on a multipartite entanglement measure. In particular, we see that the topological term for the two-dimensional colour code is twice as much as the one for the toric code, in accordance with recent renormalization group arguments (Bombin et al 2012 New J. Phys. 14 073048). Motivated by these results, we also derive a general formalism to obtain upper- and lower-bounds to the geometric entanglement of states with a non-Abelian group symmetry, and which we explicitly use to analyse quantum double models. Furthermore, we also provide an analysis of the robustness of the topological contribution in terms of renormalization and perturbation theory arguments, as well as a numerical estimation for small systems. Some of the results in this paper rely on the ability to disentangle single sites from the quantum state, which is always possible for the systems that we consider. Additionally we relate our results to the behaviour of the relative entropy of entanglement in topologically ordered systems, and discuss a number of numerical approaches based on tensor networks that could be
Modern Geometric Methods of Distance Determination
Thévenin, Frédéric; Falanga, Maurizio; Kuo, Cheng Yu; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Yamaguchi, Masaki
2017-11-01
Building a 3D picture of the Universe at any distance is one of the major challenges in astronomy, from the nearby Solar System to distant Quasars and galaxies. This goal has forced astronomers to develop techniques to estimate or to measure the distance of point sources on the sky. While most distance estimates used since the beginning of the 20th century are based on our understanding of the physics of objects of the Universe: stars, galaxies, QSOs, the direct measures of distances are based on the geometric methods as developed in ancient Greece: the parallax, which has been applied to stars for the first time in the mid-19th century. In this review, different techniques of geometrical astrometry applied to various stellar and cosmological (Megamaser) objects are presented. They consist in parallax measurements from ground based equipment or from space missions, but also in the study of binary stars or, as we shall see, of binary systems in distant extragalactic sources using radio telescopes. The Gaia mission will be presented in the context of stellar physics and galactic structure, because this key space mission in astronomy will bring a breakthrough in our understanding of stars, galaxies and the Universe in their nature and evolution with time. Measuring the distance to a star is the starting point for an unbiased description of its physics and the estimate of its fundamental parameters like its age. Applying these studies to candles such as the Cepheids will impact our large distance studies and calibration of other candles. The text is constructed as follows: introducing the parallax concept and measurement, we shall present briefly the Gaia satellite which will be the future base catalogue of stellar astronomy in the near future. Cepheids will be discussed just after to demonstrate the state of the art in distance measurements in the Universe with these variable stars, with the objective of 1% of error in distances that could be applied to our closest
Towards an integral analysis of stereotypes: Challenging the standard guarantee of impartiality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laura Clérico
2018-05-01
Full Text Available The use of stereotypes to the detriment of the discriminated group should imply questioning the standard guarantee of judicial impartiality. Even taking the analysis of stereotypes seriously, the depth of its consequences has not been sufficiently taken into account in the constitutional and human rights argumentation because it has not challenged with all intensity the standard way in which the guarantee of impartiality is conceived and applied in legal practice and even by the regional court for the protection of human rights. I will defend two central theses: (1 the use of stereotypes necessarily impacts on the analysis of the guarantee of impartiality and (2 impartiality must get rid of the presumption of impartiality.
Nonfragile Guaranteed Cost Control and Optimization for Interconnected Systems of Neutral Type
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Heli Hu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The design and optimization problems of the nonfragile guaranteed cost control are investigated for a class of interconnected systems of neutral type. A novel scheme, viewing the interconnections with time-varying delays as effective information but not disturbances, is developed to decrease the conservatism. Many techniques on decomposing and magnifying the matrices are utilized to obtain the guaranteed cost of the considered system. Also, an algorithm is proposed to solve the nonlinear problem of the interconnected matrices. Based on this algorithm, the minimization of the guaranteed cost of the considered system is obtained by optimization. Further, the state feedback control is extended to the case in which the underlying system is dependent on uncertain parameters. Finally, two numerical examples are given to illustrate the proposed method, and some comparisons are made to show the advantages of the schemes of dealing with the interconnections.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qin Qin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In order to improve the Internet coverage ratio and provide connectivity guarantee, based on sensor opportunistic coverage mechanism and cooperative cloud service, we proposed the coverage connectivity guarantee protocol for mobile Internet. In this scheme, based on the opportunistic covering rules, the network coverage algorithm of high reliability and real-time security was achieved by using the opportunity of sensor nodes and the Internet mobile node. Then, the cloud service business support platform is created based on the Internet application service management capabilities and wireless sensor network communication service capabilities, which is the architecture of the cloud support layer. The cooperative cloud service aware model was proposed. Finally, we proposed the mobile Internet coverage connectivity guarantee protocol. The results of experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has excellent performance, in terms of the security of the Internet and the stability, as well as coverage connectivity ability.
Asset securitization and rate of return: A study on letters of guarantee
Wu, Binghui
2018-01-01
Using the theory of asset securitization, we analyze the feasibility of the securitization of letters of guarantee in theory. In the process of constructing the model of rate of return of securities backed by letters of guarantee, we propose two indices: the risk probability of asset-backed securities and the loss rate of asset-backed securities to analyze the cash flow of securities. On the basis of no arbitrage principle, the expression of rate of return of securities backed by letters of guarantee is put forward. In order to study the relationship between the rate of return of securities and other influential factor in the model, a simulation experiment is designed. The experiment results show that (i) an increasing risk probability of cash flow or a short maturity date also make the return rate of securities increase and (ii) the return rate of securities is higher in economic boom than that in economic recession when other parameters remain unchanged.
The structure and economic significance of government guarantees in Croatia and the European Union
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Marko Primorac
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In the aftermath of the financial crisis, when countries are facing difficulties in raising the amounts of revenue needed to cover the expenditure side of the budget, fiscal risks can pose a significant threat to the sustainability of public finance. This became particularly evident in the case of public enterprises and their liabilities, which often increased public debt because of difficulties in meeting their financial obligations. The aim of this paper is to evaluate fiscal risks from government guarantees in Croatia and the European Union in general. Moreover, the paper aims to analyse the dynamics of the value and structure of government guarantees in Croatia in the period from 2009 to first half of 2015. Particular emphasis is placed on the impact of government guarantees on direct public debt in the context of methodological changes in the registration of public debt.
THE LETTER OF GUARANTEE FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE NEW CIVIL CODE
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LUMINITA TULEASCA
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The letter of guarantee is frequently used in the domestic and international commercial activity, first of all, for the safety offered for securing the contractual obligations without blocking the pecuniary funds and, second of all, due to the existing uniform international regulations that correspond to the needs supporting the occurrence of these types of autonomous securities.In Romania, the lack of legal policing of the letter of guarantee has created practical difficulties and offered judges the possibility to "make the law" in the litigations generated by the enforcement or by the suspension of enforcement of these contractual securities.This work analysis the regulation of the letter of guarantee provided in the New Civil Code from the perspective of its harmonization with the Uniform Rules of the International Chamber of Commerce in Paris and with the Draft Common Frame of Reference in the matter of the European private law.
Geometric methods for discrete dynamical systems
Easton, Robert W
1998-01-01
This book looks at dynamics as an iteration process where the output of a function is fed back as an input to determine the evolution of an initial state over time. The theory examines errors which arise from round-off in numerical simulations, from the inexactness of mathematical models used to describe physical processes, and from the effects of external controls. The author provides an introduction accessible to beginning graduate students and emphasizing geometric aspects of the theory. Conley''s ideas about rough orbits and chain-recurrence play a central role in the treatment. The book will be a useful reference for mathematicians, scientists, and engineers studying this field, and an ideal text for graduate courses in dynamical systems.
Gauge field vacuum structure in geometrical aspect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konopleva, N.P.
2003-01-01
Vacuum conception is one of the main conceptions of quantum field theory. Its meaning in classical field theory is also very profound. In this case the vacuum conception is closely connected with ideas of the space-time geometry. The global and local geometrical space-time conceptions lead to different vacuum definitions and therefore to different ways of physical theory construction. Some aspects of the gauge field vacuum structure are analyzed. It is shown that in the gauge field theory the vacuum Einstein equation solutions describe the relativistic vacuum as common vacuum of all gauge fields and its sources. Instantons (both usual and hyperbolical) are regarded as nongravitating matter, because they have zero energy-momentum tensors and correspond to vacuum Einstein equations
Geometrical scaling in charm structure function ratios
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boroun, G.R.; Rezaei, B.
2014-01-01
By using a Laplace-transform technique, we solve the next-to-leading-order master equation for charm production and derive a compact formula for the ratio R c =F L cc ¯ /F 2 cc ¯ , which is useful for extracting the charm structure function from the reduced charm cross section, in particular, at DESY HERA, at small x. Our results show that this ratio is independent of x at small x. In this method of determining the ratios, we apply geometrical scaling in charm production in deep inelastic scattering (DIS). Our analysis shows that the renormalization scales have a sizable impact on the ratio R c at high Q 2 . Our results for the ratio of the charm structure functions are in a good agreement with some phenomenological models
On the Distribution of Random Geometric Graphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Badiu, Mihai Alin; Coon, Justin P.
2018-01-01
as a measure of the graph’s topological uncertainty (or information content). Moreover, the distribution is also relevant for determining average network performance or designing protocols. However, a major impediment in deducing the graph distribution is that it requires the joint probability distribution......Random geometric graphs (RGGs) are commonly used to model networked systems that depend on the underlying spatial embedding. We concern ourselves with the probability distribution of an RGG, which is crucial for studying its random topology, properties (e.g., connectedness), or Shannon entropy...... of the n(n − 1)/2 distances between n nodes randomly distributed in a bounded domain. As no such result exists in the literature, we make progress by obtaining the joint distribution of the distances between three nodes confined in a disk in R 2. This enables the calculation of the probability distribution...
A Geometrical Approach to Bell's Theorem
Rubincam, David Parry
2000-01-01
Bell's theorem can be proved through simple geometrical reasoning, without the need for the Psi function, probability distributions, or calculus. The proof is based on N. David Mermin's explication of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment, which involves Stern-Gerlach detectors which flash red or green lights when detecting spin-up or spin-down. The statistics of local hidden variable theories for this experiment can be arranged in colored strips from which simple inequalities can be deduced. These inequalities lead to a demonstration of Bell's theorem. Moreover, all local hidden variable theories can be graphed in such a way as to enclose their statistics in a pyramid, with the quantum-mechanical result lying a finite distance beneath the base of the pyramid.
Geometric covers, graph orientations, counter games
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berglin, Edvin
-directed graph is dynamic (can be altered by some outside actor), some orientations may need to be reversed in order to maintain the low out-degree. We present a new algorithm that is simpler than earlier work, yet matches or outperforms the efficiency of these results with very few exceptions. Counter games...... example is Line Cover, also known as Point-Line Cover, where a set of points in a geometric space are to be covered by placing a restricted number of lines. We present new FPT algorithms for the sub-family Curve Cover (which includes Line Cover), as well as for Hyperplane Cover restricted to R 3 (i...... are a type of abstract game played over a set of counters holding values, and these values may be moved between counters according to some set of rules. Typically they are played between two players: the adversary who tries to concentrate the greatest value possible in a single counter, and the benevolent...
Geometric flows in Horava-Lifshitz gravity
Bakas, Ioannis; Lust, Dieter; Petropoulos, Marios
2010-01-01
We consider instanton solutions of Euclidean Horava-Lifshitz gravity in four dimensions satisfying the detailed balance condition. They are described by geometric flows in three dimensions driven by certain combinations of the Cotton and Ricci tensors as well as the cosmological-constant term. The deformation curvature terms can have competing behavior leading to a variety of fixed points. The instantons interpolate between any two fixed points, which are vacua of topologically massive gravity with Lambda > 0, and their action is finite. Special emphasis is placed on configurations with SU(2) isometry associated with homogeneous but generally non-isotropic Bianchi IX model geometries. In this case, the combined Ricci-Cotton flow reduces to an autonomous system of ordinary differential equations whose properties are studied in detail for different couplings. The occurrence and stability of isotropic and anisotropic fixed points are investigated analytically and some exact solutions are obtained. The correspond...
Geometric Properties of Grassmannian Frames for and
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Benedetto John J
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Grassmannian frames are frames satisfying a min-max correlation criterion. We translate a geometrically intuitive approach for two- and three-dimensional Euclidean space ( and into a new analytic method which is used to classify many Grassmannian frames in this setting. The method and associated algorithm decrease the maximum frame correlation, and hence give rise to the construction of specific examples of Grassmannian frames. Many of the results are known by other techniques, and even more generally, so that this paper can be viewed as tutorial. However, our analytic method is presented with the goal of developing it to address unresovled problems in -dimensional Hilbert spaces which serve as a setting for spherical codes, erasure channel modeling, and other aspects of communications theory.