WorldWideScience

Sample records for delivering timely environmental

  1. DELIVERING TIMELY AIR QUALITY, TRAFFIC, AND WEATHER INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY/THE PASO DEL NORTE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROJECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has developed a technology transfer handbook for the EMPACT Paso del Norte Project. The EMPACT Paso del Norte Environmental Monitoring Project is a mobile vehicle emissions project that involves the international community of El Paso, TX; Sundland Park, NM; and Juarez, Mexico...

  2. Time Outdoors May Deliver Better Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_163389.html Time Outdoors May Deliver Better Sleep Camping and exposure to natural light helps prime ... Spending time in the outdoors may improve your sleep, a small study suggests. Researchers found that a ...

  3. Can the capitalist economic system deliver environmental justice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Karen

    2015-12-01

    Can a healthy environment for all social groups be delivered through capitalism via market mechanisms? Or is it the capitalist system, itself, that has been at the root of the environmental and social crises we now face? This letter engages with this ongoing debate by drawing on material from a wider study, ‘Achieving Environmental Justice’, which examined the extent, form and causes of environmental justice and injustice in a range of countries with varying depths of marketization—United States, South Korea, United Kingdom, Sweden, China, Bolivia and Cuba. The analysis described here focuses on the interview material from this mixed methods study, drawing on over 140 interviews with officials, policy makers, and civil society leaders. The letter argues that there is an apparent propensity for capitalist processes to exacerbate, rather than reduce, environmental problems and inequities though the pursuit of relentless economic growth and profit accumulation. Therefore, we should perhaps let go of efforts to resolve environmental injustice within the constraints of capitalism and, instead, build an alternative economic system that can meet human needs in the context of a harmonious and respectful relationship with nature.

  4. A Paradox for Environmental Education: How can we 'deliver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jenny

    environmental component into many development initiatives. ... ongoing community based tourism development after the Programme ends; establishment of ..... In this case study, the tensions had negative impacts, limiting the extent to which.

  5. Delivering Global Environmental Change Science Through Documentary Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodgson, K.; Byrne, J. M.; Graham, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    Communicating authentic science to society presents a significant challenge to researchers. This challenge stems from unfortunate misrepresentation and misunderstanding in the mainstream media, particularly in relation to science on global environmental change. This has resulted in a lower level of confidence and interest amongst audiences in regards to global environmental change and anthropogenic climate change discussions. This project describes a new form of documentary film that aspires to break this trend and increase audiences’ interest, reinvigorating discussion about global environmental change. The documentary film adopts a form that marries traditional scientific presentation with the high entertainment value of narrative storytelling. This format maintains the authenticity of the scientific message and ensures audience engagement throughout the entire presentation due to the fact that a sense of equality and intimacy between the audience and the scientists is achieved. The film features interviews with scientists studying global environmental change and opens with a comparison of authentic scientific information and the mainstream media’s presentation, and subsequent public opinion. This enables an analysis of the growing disconnect between society and the scientific community. Topics investigated include: Arctic ice melt, coastal zone hypoxia, tropical cyclones and acidification. Upon completion of the film, public and private screenings with predetermined audience demographics will be conducted using a short, standardized survey to gain feedback regarding the audience’s overall review of the presentation. In addition to the poster, this presentation features an extended trailer for the documentary film.

  6. Global cancer surgery: delivering safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Richard; Alatise, Olusegun Isaac; Anderson, Benjamin O; Audisio, Riccardo; Autier, Philippe; Aggarwal, Ajay; Balch, Charles; Brennan, Murray F; Dare, Anna; D'Cruz, Anil; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Fleming, Kenneth; Gueye, Serigne Magueye; Hagander, Lars; Herrera, Cristian A; Holmer, Hampus; Ilbawi, André M; Jarnheimer, Anton; Ji, Jia-Fu; Kingham, T Peter; Liberman, Jonathan; Leather, Andrew J M; Meara, John G; Mukhopadhyay, Swagoto; Murthy, Shilpa S; Omar, Sherif; Parham, Groesbeck P; Pramesh, C S; Riviello, Robert; Rodin, Danielle; Santini, Luiz; Shrikhande, Shailesh V; Shrime, Mark; Thomas, Robert; Tsunoda, Audrey T; van de Velde, Cornelis; Veronesi, Umberto; Vijaykumar, Dehannathparambil Kottarathil; Watters, David; Wang, Shan; Wu, Yi-Long; Zeiton, Moez; Purushotham, Arnie

    2015-09-01

    Surgery is essential for global cancer care in all resource settings. Of the 15.2 million new cases of cancer in 2015, over 80% of cases will need surgery, some several times. By 2030, we estimate that annually 45 million surgical procedures will be needed worldwide. Yet, less than 25% of patients with cancer worldwide actually get safe, affordable, or timely surgery. This Commission on global cancer surgery, building on Global Surgery 2030, has examined the state of global cancer surgery through an analysis of the burden of surgical disease and breadth of cancer surgery, economics and financing, factors for strengthening surgical systems for cancer with multiple-country studies, the research agenda, and the political factors that frame policy making in this area. We found wide equity and economic gaps in global cancer surgery. Many patients throughout the world do not have access to cancer surgery, and the failure to train more cancer surgeons and strengthen systems could result in as much as US $6.2 trillion in lost cumulative gross domestic product by 2030. Many of the key adjunct treatment modalities for cancer surgery--e.g., pathology and imaging--are also inadequate. Our analysis identified substantial issues, but also highlights solutions and innovations. Issues of access, a paucity of investment in public surgical systems, low investment in research, and training and education gaps are remarkably widespread. Solutions include better regulated public systems, international partnerships, super-centralisation of surgical services, novel surgical clinical trials, and new approaches to improve quality and scale up cancer surgical systems through education and training. Our key messages are directed at many global stakeholders, but the central message is that to deliver safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery to all, surgery must be at the heart of global and national cancer control planning.

  7. Supporting Quality Timely PhD Completions: Delivering Research Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasson, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The case study used a three-phase organising process to explain how design and implementation of an accessible and interactive electronic thesis submission form streamlined quality assurance of theses and their timely dissemination via an online thesis repository. The quality of the theses submitted is assured by key academics in their final sign…

  8. The Husky Byte Program: Delivering Nutrition Education One Sound Byte at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Michelle B.; Hudson, Kerrian A.; Lora, Karina R.; Havens, Erin K.; Ferris, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    The Husky Byte program uses interactive displays to deliver quick sound bytes of nutrition information to adults in frequented community settings. This innovative program considers time constraints, adult learning theory, diverse learning styles, and is easily accessible to adults. Both process and impact evaluations have demonstrated positive…

  9. The Husky Byte Program: Delivering Nutrition Education One Sound Byte at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Michelle B.; Hudson, Kerrian A.; Lora, Karina R.; Havens, Erin K.; Ferris, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    The Husky Byte program uses interactive displays to deliver quick sound bytes of nutrition information to adults in frequented community settings. This innovative program considers time constraints, adult learning theory, diverse learning styles, and is easily accessible to adults. Both process and impact evaluations have demonstrated positive…

  10. Delivering better power: the role of simulation in reducing the environmental impact of aircraft engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Kevin

    2014-08-13

    The growth in simulation capability over the past 20 years has led to remarkable changes in the design process for gas turbines. The availability of relatively cheap computational power coupled to improvements in numerical methods and physical modelling in simulation codes have enabled the development of aircraft propulsion systems that are more powerful and yet more efficient than ever before. However, the design challenges are correspondingly greater, especially to reduce environmental impact. The simulation requirements to achieve a reduced environmental impact are described along with the implications of continued growth in available computational power. It is concluded that achieving the environmental goals will demand large-scale multi-disciplinary simulations requiring significantly increased computational power, to enable optimization of the airframe and propulsion system over the entire operational envelope. However even with massive parallelization, the limits imposed by communications latency will constrain the time required to achieve a solution, and therefore the position of such large-scale calculations in the industrial design process.

  11. Health service planning and sustainable development: considering what, where and how care is delivered through a pro-environmental lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Sharon

    2017-03-02

    The aim of the present paper was to review the opportunities currently available to health service planners to advance sustainable development in their future-facing roles within health service organisation. Critical challenges and enablers to facilitate health services planners in adopting a pro-environmental lens are discussed.What is known about the topic? Despite its harmful effect on the environment, health has been slower than other industries to embrace the sustainable development agenda. The attitudes and knowledge base of health service planners with regard to environmental sustainability has not been widely studied. For health service planners, embracing pro-environmental considerations in sustainable model of care development is a powerful opportunity to review care paradigms and prepare for the implementation of meaningful, improved health and system efficiency.What does this paper add? This paper advances the case for health service planners to embrace a pro-environmental stance and guides health service leaders in the preparation and implementation of sustainable and improved health and system efficiency.What are the implications for practitioners? Health service planers are in an ideal position to champion the sustainable development agenda as they explore what care is delivered, how care is delivered and where care is delivered. External policy, health service leadership and carbon literacy are advanced as critical contextual factors to facilitate the key role that health service planners can play in building sustainable healthcare organisations.

  12. Continuous online monitoring of ionic dialysance allows modification of delivered hemodialysis treatment time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesterton, Lindsay J; Priestman, William S; Lambie, Stewart H; Fielding, Catherine A; Taal, Maarten W; Fluck, Richard J; McIntyre, Christopher W

    2006-10-01

    Considerable intrinsic intrapatient variability influences the actual delivery of Kt/V. The aim of this study is to examine the feasibility of using continuous online assessment of ionic dialysance measurements (Kt/V(ID)) to allow dialysis sessions to be altered on an individual basis. Ten well-established chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients without significant residual renal function were studied (mean age 65+/-4.3 [38-81] years, mean length of time on dialysis 66+/-18 [14-189] months). These patients had all been receiving thrice-weekly 4-hr dialysis using Integra dialysis monitors. Dialysis monitors were equipped with Diascan modules permitting measurement of Kt/V(ID). Predicted treatment time required to achieve a Kt/V(ID) > or = 1.1 (equivalent to a urea-based method of 1.2) was calculated from the delivered Kt/V(ID) at 60 and 120 min. Treatment time was reprogrammed at 2 hr (ensuring all planned ultrafiltration would be accommodated into the new modified session duration). Owing to practical issues, and to avoid excessively short dialysis times, these changes were censored at no more than+/-10% of the usual 240-min treatment time (210-265 min). Data were collected from a total of 50 dialysis sessions. Almost all sessions (47/50) required modification of the standard treatment time: 13/50 sessions were lengthened and 34/50 shortened (mean length of session 232.2+/-2.5 [210-265] min). A Kt/V(ID) of > or = 1.1 was achieved in 39/50 sessions. The difference in mean urea-based Kt/V poststudy (1.3+/-0.05 [1.1-1.6]) and mean achieved Kt/V(ID) (1.16+/-0.02 [0.7-1.37]) was significant (p = 0.002). The use of individualized variable dialysis treatment time using online ionic dialysance measurements of Kt/V(ID) appears both practicable and effective at ensuring consistently delivered adequate dialysis.

  13. Towards an environmental measurement cloud: delivering pollution awareness to the public

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Domínguez; Samuel Dauwe; Nguyen The Cuong; Dimitri Cariolaro; Abdellah Touhafi; Bart Dhoedt; Dick Botteldooren; Kris Steenhaut

    2014-01-01

    Geosensor networks and sensor webs are two technologies widely used for determining our exposure to pollution levels and ensuring that this information is publicly available. However, most of these networks are independent from each other and often designed for specific domains, hindering the integration of sensor data from different sources. We contributed to the integration of several environmental sensor networks in the context of the IDEA project. The objective of this project was to meas...

  14. Reduced grazing pressure delivers production and environmental benefits for the typical steppe of north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingjun; Huang, Ding; Badgery, Warwick B; Kemp, David R; Chen, Wenqing; Wang, Xiaoya; Liu, Nan

    2015-11-10

    Degradation by overgrazing is common in many areas of the world and optimising grassland functions depends upon finding suitable grazing tactics. This four-year study on the northern China steppe investigated combinations of rest, moderate or heavy grazing pressure early in the summer growing season, then moderate or heavy grazing in the mid and late season. Results showed that moderate grazing pressure (~550 sheep equivalent (SE) grazing days ha(-1) year(-1)) gave the optimal balance between maintaining a productive and diverse grassland, a profitable livestock system, and greenhouse gas mitigation. Further analyses identified that more conservative stocking (~400 SE grazing days ha(-1) year(-1)) maintained a desirable Leymus chinensis composition and achieved a higher live weight gain of sheep. Early summer rest best maintained a desirable grassland composition, but had few other benefits and reduced incomes. These findings demonstrate that reducing grazing pressure to half the current district stocking rates can deliver improved ecosystem services (lower greenhouse gases and improved grassland composition) while sustaining herder incomes.

  15. A robotic system for delivering novel real-time, movement dependent perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potocanac, Zrinka; Goljat, Rok; Babic, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Perturbations are often used to study movement control and balance, especially in the context of falling. Most often, discrete perturbations defined prior to the experiment are used to mimic external disturbances to balance. However, the largest proportion of falls is due to self-generated errors in weight shifting. Inspired by self-generated weight shifting errors, we created a novel, continuous mediolateral perturbation proportional to subjects' mediolateral center of mass movement with minimal delays. This perturbation was delivered by a robotic platform controlled by a real time Matlab Simulink model using kinematic data from a marker positioned at subjects' L5 as input. Fifteen healthy young adults stood as still as possible atop the robotic platform with their eyes closed. We evaluated the performance of the perturbation in terms of accuracy and delay relative to the input signal by using cross-correlations. The perturbations were accurate (r=-0.984), with delays of 154 ms. Such systematic perturbation significantly affected mediolateral sway, increasing its range (from 5.56±3.72 to 9.58 ±4.83 mm, p=0.01), SD (from 1.08±0.74 to 1.72±0.74 mm, p = 0.02), and mean power frequency (from 0.08±0.05 to 0.25±0.17 Hz, p<0.01). These perturbation characteristics enable inducing systematic, movement-dependent perturbations and open the door for future studies investigating self-generated movement errors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Delivering 10 Gb/s optical data with picosecond timing uncertainty over 75 km distance

    CERN Document Server

    Sotiropoulos, N; Nuijts, R; de Waardt, H; Koelemeij, J C J

    2014-01-01

    We report a method to determine propagation delays of optical 10 Gb/s data traveling through a 75 km long amplified fiber link with an uncertainty of 4 ps. The one-way propagation delay is determined by two-way exchange and cross correlation of short (< 1 ms) bursts of 10 Gb/s data, with a single-shot time resolution better than 2.5 ps. We thus achieve a novel optical communications link suited for both long-haul high-capacity data transfer and time transfer with picosecond-range uncertainty. This opens up the perspective of synchronized optical telecommunication networks allowing picosecond-range time distribution and millimeter-range positioning.

  17. Effecting Factors Delivered Financial Reporting Time Lines at Manufacturing Company Groups Listed IDX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunaryo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this research is to learn the effect among ROA, Leverage, Company Size, and Outsider Ownership with time lines, either partially or simultaneously. Secondary data were collected by purposive sampling of manufacturing company groups listed on IDX and the preceding scientific research journals, using logistic regression to test the hypothesis simultaneously. The results of this research describe that ROA and Leverage do not significant effect to time lines, but company size and outsider ownership have significant effect to time lines. It is recommended that the topic of this research can be continued with merchandising company groups, or service company groups either general or special, like: hotels, insurances, bankings; or, with new independence variables added

  18. EFFECTING FACTORS DELIVERED FINANCIAL REPORTING TIME LINES AT MANUFACTURING COMPANY GROUPS LISTED IDX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunaryo Sunaryo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this research is to learn the effect among ROA, Leverage, Company Size, and Outsider Ownership with time lines, either partially or simultaneously. Secondary data were collected by purposive sampling of manufacturing company groups listed on IDX and the preceding scientific research journals, using logistic regression to test the hypothesis simultaneously. The results of this research describe that ROA and Leverage do not significant effect to time lines, but company size and outsider ownership have significant effect to time lines. It is recommended that the topic of this research can be continued with merchandising company groups, or service company groups either general or special, like: hotels, insurances, bankings; or, with new independence variables added. 

  19. Smartphone mobile application delivering personalized, real-time sun protection advice: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B; Berwick, Marianne; Lantz, Kathy; Buller, Mary Klein; Shane, James; Kane, Ilima; Liu, Xia

    2015-05-01

    Mobile smartphones are rapidly emerging as an effective means of communicating with many Americans. Using mobile applications (apps), they can access remote databases, track time and location, and integrate user input to provide tailored health information. A smartphone mobile app providing personalized, real-time sun protection advice was evaluated in a randomized clinical trial. The trial was conducted in 2012 and had a randomized pretest-posttest controlled design with a 10-week follow-up. Data were collected from a nationwide population-based survey panel. A sample of 604 non-Hispanic and Hispanic adults from the Knowledge Panel 18 years or older who owned an Android smartphone were enrolled. The mobile app provided advice on sun protection (ie, protection practices and risk of sunburn) and alerts (to apply or reapply sunscreen and get out of the sun), hourly UV Index, and vitamin D production based on the forecast UV Index, the phone's time and location, and user input. Percentage of days using sun protection and time spent outdoors (days and minutes) in the midday sun and number of sunburns in the past 3 months were collected. Individuals in the treatment group reported more shade use (mean days staying in the shade, 41.0% vs 33.7%; P = .03) but less sunscreen use (mean days, 28.6% vs 34.5%; P = .048) than controls. There was no significant difference in number of sunburns in the past 3 months (mean, 0.60 in the treatment group vs 0.62 for controls; P = .87). Those who used the mobile app reported spending less time in the sun (mean days keeping time in the sun to a minimum, 60.4% for app users vs 49.3% for nonusers; P = .04) and using all protection behaviors combined more (mean days, 39.4% vs 33.8%; P = .04). The mobile app improved some sun protection. Use of the mobile app was lower than expected but associated with increased sun protection. Providing personalized advice when and where people are in the sun may help reduce sun exposure.

  20. Using tablet-based technology to deliver time-efficient ototoxicity monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brungart, Douglas; Schurman, Jaclyn; Konrad-Martin, Dawn; Watts, Kelly; Buckey, Jay; Clavier, Odile; Jacobs, Peter G; Gordon, Samuel; Dille, Marilyn F

    2017-09-12

    The goal of this article is to highlight mobile technology that is not yet standard of care but could be considered for use in an ototoxicity monitoring programme (OMP) as an adjunct to traditional audiometric testing. Current guidelines for ototoxicity monitoring include extensive test protocols performed by an audiologist in an audiometric booth. This approach is comprehensive, but it may be taxing for patients suffering from life-threatening illnesses and cost prohibitive if it requires serial clinical appointments. With the use of mobile technology, testing outside of the confines of the audiometric booth may be possible, which could create more efficient and less burdensome OMPs. A non-systematic review of new OMP technology was performed. Experts were canvassed regarding the impact of new technology on OMPs. OMP devices and technologies that are commercially available and discussed in the literature. The benefits and limitations of portable, tablet-based technology that can be deployed for efficient ototoxicity monitoring are discussed. New mobile technology has the potential to influence the development and implementation of OMPs and lower barriers to patient access by providing time efficient, portable and self-administered testing options for use in the clinic and in the patient's home.

  1. DELIVERING TIMELY ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY: THE BOULDER AREA SUSTAINABILITY INFORMATION NETWORK

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Technology Transfer and Support Division of the EPA Office of Research and Development's (ORD's) National Risk Management Laboratory in conjunction with the Boulder Area Sustainability Information Network (BASIN) has developed a "how-to" handbook to allow other community orga...

  2. Environmental Education Evaluation: Time to Reflect, Time for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crohn, Kara; Birnbaum, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation in environmental education is fairly nascent despite decades-long attention to its importance. In setting the context for future chapters appearing in this special issue of the "Journal of Evaluation and Program Planning," attention is devoted to the political circumstances associated with retrenchment in the public sector and increased…

  3. 戴姆勒时间%A Time for Daimler-We Deliver. Today and In the Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于占波

    2016-01-01

    Daimler presented a significant highlight at IAA 2016 by promoting its themes “We Deliver. Today and In the Future”, which had not only brought a bright imaginary and enlighten blue-map of future to audiences, but also provided a solution to the current challenge of transport and logistics industry in the world.

  4. Possible effects of delivering methionine to broilers in drinking water at constant low and high environmental temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin Cadirci

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effects of water-soluble DL-methionine supplied through water and feed on the performance and carcass yield of broilers housed at two constant temperatures from 21 to 42 days of age. Birds were housed in two rooms (240 birds per room with temperatures set at 21±2 and 30±2oC, respectively. Birds were divided into five groups of equal number within each room and fed five different diets (G1-G5. A low-methionine basal diet without supplemental methionine was fed to group 1 (G1. The basal diet was fortified with 0.025% or 0.050% methionine, either in feed (G2 and G3, respectively, or in a water solution (G4 and G5, respectively. Mortality was not significantly altered by any dietary treatment. Neither feed nor water intake was affected adversely by DLmethionine inclusion in drinking water. Housing at high temperature showed deleterious effect on birds’ weight gain. Additional methionine intake both in feed and water was associated with significantly heavier body weight, weight gain and feed conversion ratio, than the basal diet at low and high environmental temperature. Carcass yields, as a percentage of live body weight, were not affected by dietary treatment. The results indicate that, under the experimental conditions, DLmethionine provided in drinking water can be effectively assimilated by broilers, at least from 21 to 42 days of age.

  5. Environmental Events and the Timing of Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Cindy

    There is some evidence that the timing of death may not be random. Taking into consideration some of the variables which possibly affect death, this paper reviews intervention techniques with the possible goal of saving lives. Knowing that the elderly respond to the environment, society should accept as its responsibility the provision of support…

  6. Environmental Catastrophes Under Time-inconsistent Preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, T.O.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract I analyze optimal natural resource use in an intergenerational model with the risk of a catastrophe. Each generation maximizes a weighted sum of discounted utility (positive) and the probability that a catastrophe will occur at any point in the future (negative). The model generates time-in

  7. Seasonality : Biological time keeping meets environmental change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hut, R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The ratio between day and night varies across the year and its annual amplitude increases with latitude. As a result, seasonal variation, which operates over the very slow time-scale of months, in temperature and food availability, increases with latitude. We can thus expect latitudinal

  8. Uncertainty, Irreversibility and the Timing Problems of Environmental Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haisheng; Jia Jia; Zhou Yongzhang

    2006-01-01

    Most environmental issues and policy designing are uncertain and irreversible; therefore, the timing of environmental policy implementation becomes especially important. This paper establishes a random dynamic programming model and analyzes the optimal timing problems in environmental policy under uncertain variables. This model results indicate that two variables have a significant impact on the timing of environmental policy implementation and they work in opposite direcfons: on one hand, the more uncertain the economy is, the higher the cost of policies implementation will be, and consequently the incentive to immediately adopt the policy will be stronger. On the other hand, the higher the uncertainty of the environment is, the stronger the irreversibility of ecological harm caused by pollutants per unit will be. Therefore, the government should implement new environmental policies as early as possible in order to gain more ecological benefits.

  9. Role of environmental factors in the timing of puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Euling, S.Y.; Selevan, S.G.; Pescovitz, O.H.

    2008-01-01

    Puberty-timing measures have historically been used as indicators of adequate nutrition and growth. More recently, these measures have been examined in relation to exposure to estrogenic or antiandrogenic agents, as well as other environmental factors. The scientific community has debated whether...... puberty timing is occurring earlier today than in the mid-1900s in the United States and, if so, whether environmental factors play a role; however, no one has asked a multidisciplinary panel to resolve this question. Thus, a multidisciplinary expert panel jointly sponsored by the US Environmental...... Role of Environmental Factors on the Timing and Progression of Puberty" workshop. The majority of the panelists concluded that the girls' data are sufficient to suggest a secular trend toward earlier breast development onset and menarche from 1940 to 1994 but that the boys' data are insufficient...

  10. Stand & Deliver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    October is national Cyber Security Awareness Month, and for the world of higher education, that means it is time to take a look at defense systems and plan for the future. Clearly, more planning is needed now than ever before. According to the majority of IT market research firms, phishing and identity theft have leapfrogged spam and spyware as…

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING RACING TIME OF TROTTER HORSES IN SERBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ljuba Štrbac; Snežana Trivunović; Mirjana Baban

    2015-01-01

    Speed, the most important trait in trotter horses, forms the basis for examining their racing ability, and is calculated according to the time it takes to run a certain distance. The phenotypic manifestation of a horse’s speed is controlled by numerous genes and larger or smaller impacts of environmental factors. To improve trotter horse selection to be more successful and faster in genetic progress it is very important to determine the impacts of such gene-related and environmental factors. ...

  12. Trends in puberty timing in humans and environmental modifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, Jorma; Juul, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Secular trends in timing of puberty appear to continue although under-nutrition has not been any longer a limiting factor for pubertal development. Now obesity and other environmental reasons have been suspected to cause this trend, and endocrine disrupting chemicals have become into focus...... as possible contributors. Epidemiological studies on endocrine disrupters are still scarce and show only weak associations between exposures and timing of puberty. Since genetic background explains 50-80% of variability in the timing of puberty, it is not surprising that the observed environmental effects...... are rather modest when individual exposures are assessed. Despite that, some exposures have been reported to be associated to early (e.g., polybrominated biphenyls) or delayed (e.g., lead) puberty. Here we shortly review the available data on recent trends in timing of puberty and the possible role...

  13. Trends in puberty timing in humans and environmental modifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, Jorma; Juul, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Secular trends in timing of puberty appear to continue although under-nutrition has not been any longer a limiting factor for pubertal development. Now obesity and other environmental reasons have been suspected to cause this trend, and endocrine disrupting chemicals have become into focus...... as possible contributors. Epidemiological studies on endocrine disrupters are still scarce and show only weak associations between exposures and timing of puberty. Since genetic background explains 50-80% of variability in the timing of puberty, it is not surprising that the observed environmental effects...... are rather modest when individual exposures are assessed. Despite that, some exposures have been reported to be associated to early (e.g., polybrominated biphenyls) or delayed (e.g., lead) puberty. Here we shortly review the available data on recent trends in timing of puberty and the possible role...

  14. Development of environmental management accounting and EMAS over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Ptáčková Mísařová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental management accounting (EMA is a system that collects, records, evaluates and transmits information about environmentally induced financial impacts and environmental impacts of the given system. In 2006 and 2010 there were two questionnaire surveys. The first survey was carried out under the resolution of grant, which was funded by the Internal Grant Agency of the Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry in Brno, No. 68/2006, entitled “Development of the EMAS and environmental management accounting in the Czech Republic”. The second evaluated questionnaire survey was conducted in the study, which was made in connection with solution of the thesis of author‘s article. Group of 25 companies that had validated EMAS during the first questionnaire survey was subjected to a survey. The second questionnaire survey was carried out in the same companies in order to make evaluation of development over time. The aim of this paper is to create coherent conclusion about firms that had or have validated EMAS system and use a voluntary instrument EMA in its corporate practice. Partial aim is to evaluate the development of validated organizations and ‘sites’ with EMAS in time in EU countries. EMAS is a system of management of company and audits in terms of environmental protection. This system is applied within the European Union.

  15. Effects of Fixed-Time Reinforcement Delivered by Teachers for Reducing Problem Behavior in Special Education Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlin, Michelle; Reed, Phil

    2012-01-01

    The effects of fixed-time (FT) reinforcement schedules on the disruptive behavior of 4 students in special education classrooms were studied. Attention provided on FT schedules in the context of a multiple-baseline design across participants substantially decreased all students' challenging behavior. Disruptive behavior was maintained at levels…

  16. Studies on time series applications in environmental sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Bărbulescu, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Time series analysis and modelling represent a large study field, implying the approach from the perspective of the time and frequency, with applications in different domains. Modelling hydro-meteorological time series is difficult due to the characteristics of these series, as long range dependence, spatial dependence, the correlation with other series. Continuous spatial data plays an important role in planning, risk assessment and decision making in environmental management. In this context, in this book we present various statistical tests and modelling techniques used for time series analysis, as well as applications to hydro-meteorological series from Dobrogea, a region situated in the south-eastern part of Romania, less studied till now. Part of the results are accompanied by their R code. .

  17. Environmental stress and flowering time: the photoperiodic connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboni, Matteo; Robustelli Test, Alice; Galbiati, Massimo; Tonelli, Chiara; Conti, Lucio

    2014-01-01

    Plants maximize their chances to survive adversities by reprogramming their development according to environmental conditions. Adaptive variations in the timing to flowering reflect the need for plants to set seeds under the most favorable conditions. A complex network of genetic pathways allows plants to detect and integrate external (e.g., photoperiod and temperature) and/or internal (e.g., age) information to initiate the floral transition. Furthermore different types of environmental stresses play an important role in the floral transition. The emerging picture is that stress conditions often affect flowering through modulation of the photoperiodic pathway. In this review we will discuss different modes of cross talk between stress signaling and photoperiodic flowering, highlighting the central role of the florigen genes in this process.

  18. Feature-preserving interpolation and filtering of environmental time series

    CERN Document Server

    Mariethoz, Gregoire; Jougnot, Damien; Rezaee, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method for filling gaps and removing interferences in time series for applications involving continuous monitoring of environmental variables. The approach is non-parametric and based on an iterative pattern-matching between the affected and the valid parts of the time series. It considers several variables jointly in the pattern matching process and allows preserving linear or non-linear dependences between variables. The uncertainty in the reconstructed time series is quantified through multiple realizations. The method is tested on self-potential data that are affected by strong interferences as well as data gaps, and the results show that our approach allows reproducing the spectral features of the original signal. Even in the presence of intense signal perturbations, it significantly improves the signal and corrects bias introduced by asymmetrical interferences. Potential applications are wide-ranging, including geophysics, meteorology and hydrology.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING RACING TIME OF TROTTER HORSES IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljuba Štrbac

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Speed, the most important trait in trotter horses, forms the basis for examining their racing ability, and is calculated according to the time it takes to run a certain distance. The phenotypic manifestation of a horse’s speed is controlled by numerous genes and larger or smaller impacts of environmental factors. To improve trotter horse selection to be more successful and faster in genetic progress it is very important to determine the impacts of such gene-related and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of year and month of birth, sex, year and season of race, age, racetrack, distance and type of start on trotter horse racing times. Data from the Association for Trotting Sport of Serbia (UKSS for the registered horses and races in the period from 1998 to 2010 were used. The database is comprised of data for 1263 horses over a total of 14398 races. After calculating descriptive statistics of racing times, the effect of fixed factors using the general linear model (GLM was examined. The average racing time achieved was 84.21s, and ranged from 73.8 to 132.2s. All of the tested factors had a statistically significant effect on the observed racing times. Thus, each of these factors should be included in future models for genetic prediction of the suitability of animals use as parents of further generations of racing trotters. This should increase the rate of genetic progress and competitiveness of the animals at both national and international levels.

  20. 39 CFR 775.12 - Time frames for environmental impact statement actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time frames for environmental impact statement... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.12 Time frames for environmental impact statement... environmental impact statements received in that office during the preceding week. The minimum time periods...

  1. The time-dependent two-echelon capacitated vehicle routing problem with environmental considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soysal, M.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Bektas, T.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-echelon distribution strategies in which freight is delivered to customers via intermediate depots rather than direct shipments is an increasingly popular strategy in urban logistics. This is primarily to alleviate the environmental (e.g., energy usage and congestion) and social (e.g., traffic

  2. The time-dependent two-echelon capacitated vehicle routing problem with environmental considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soysal, M.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Bektas, T.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-echelon distribution strategies in which freight is delivered to customers via intermediate depots rather than direct shipments is an increasingly popular strategy in urban logistics. This is primarily to alleviate the environmental (e.g., energy usage and congestion) and social (e.g.,

  3. Use of time to pregnancy in environmental epidemiology and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Mike; Paranjothy, Shantini; Fielder, Hilary; Lyons, Ronan; Palmer, Stephen

    2008-06-01

    Potential sources of environmental pollution, such as incinerators or landfill sites, can adversely affect reproduction and/or development. Time to pregnancy (TTP) is a validated measure of biological fertility that can be studied with relatively small populations. Pregnant local residents living within 3 km of a landfill site ('exposed' group, n = 200) or elsewhere in the Rhondda valleys ('unexposed' group, n = 400) were interviewed by health visitors or midwives. The response rate was 83%. No difference was found in the TTP distributions between the exposed and unexposed groups. Relationships of TTP with covariates were consistent with the literature. In a context of public and scientific concern about possible reproductive toxicity, an interview study of TTP was highly acceptable to local women. A large enough sample to generate stable TTP distributions was readily achieved.

  4. Opposing selection and environmental variation modify optimal timing of breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarwater, Corey E; Beissinger, Steven R

    2013-09-17

    Studies of evolution in wild populations often find that the heritable phenotypic traits of individuals producing the most offspring do not increase proportionally in the population. This paradox may arise when phenotypic traits influence both fecundity and viability and when there is a tradeoff between these fitness components, leading to opposing selection. Such tradeoffs are the foundation of life history theory, but they are rarely investigated in selection studies. Timing of breeding is a classic example of a heritable trait under directional selection that does not result in an evolutionary response. Using a 22-y study of a tropical parrot, we show that opposing viability and fecundity selection on the timing of breeding is common and affects optimal breeding date, defined by maximization of fitness. After accounting for sampling error, the directions of viability (positive) and fecundity (negative) selection were consistent, but the magnitude of selection fluctuated among years. Environmental conditions (rainfall and breeding density) primarily and breeding experience secondarily modified selection, shifting optimal timing among individuals and years. In contrast to other studies, viability selection was as strong as fecundity selection, late-born juveniles had greater survival than early-born juveniles, and breeding later in the year increased fitness under opposing selection. Our findings provide support for life history tradeoffs influencing selection on phenotypic traits, highlight the need to unify selection and life history theory, and illustrate the importance of monitoring survival as well as reproduction for understanding phenological responses to climate change.

  5. Periodic email prompts to re-use an internet-delivered computer-tailored lifestyle program: influence of prompt content and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Francine; de Vries, Hein; Candel, Math; van de Kar, Angelique; van Osch, Liesbeth

    2013-01-31

    Adherence to Internet-delivered lifestyle interventions using multiple tailoring is suboptimal. Therefore, it is essential to invest in proactive strategies, such as periodic email prompts, to boost re-use of the intervention. This study investigated the influence of content and timing of a single email prompt on re-use of an Internet-delivered computer-tailored (CT) lifestyle program. A sample of municipality employees was invited to participate in the program. All participants who decided to use the program received an email prompting them to revisit the program. A 2×3 (content × timing) design was used to test manipulations of prompt content and timing. Depending on the study group participants were randomly assigned to, they received either a prompt containing standard content (an invitation to revisit the program), or standard content plus a preview of new content placed on the program website. Participants received this prompt after 2, 4, or 6 weeks. In addition to these 6 experimental conditions, a control condition was included consisting of participants who did not receive an additional email prompt. Clicks on the uniform resource locator (URL) provided in the prompt and log-ins to the CT program were objectively monitored. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether prompt content and/or prompt timing predicted clicking on the URL and logging in to the CT program. Of all program users (N=240), 206 participants received a subsequent email prompting them to revisit the program. A total of 53 participants (25.7%) who received a prompt reacted to this prompt by clicking on the URL, and 25 participants (12.1%) actually logged in to the program. There was a main effect of prompt timing; participants receiving an email prompt 2 weeks after their first visit clicked on the URL significantly more often compared with participants that received the prompt after 4 weeks (odds ratio [OR] 3.069, 95% CI 1.392-6.765, P=.005) and after 6 weeks (OR 4

  6. Satellite image time series simulation for environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tao

    2014-11-01

    The performance of environmental monitoring heavily depends on the availability of consecutive observation data and it turns out an increasing demand in remote sensing community for satellite image data in the sufficient resolution with respect to both spatial and temporal requirements, which appear to be conflictive and hard to tune tradeoffs. Multiple constellations could be a solution if without concerning cost, and thus it is so far interesting but very challenging to develop a method which can simultaneously improve both spatial and temporal details. There are some research efforts to deal with the problem from various aspects, a type of approaches is to enhance the spatial resolution using techniques of super resolution, pan-sharpen etc. which can produce good visual effects, but mostly cannot preserve spectral signatures and result in losing analytical value. Another type is to fill temporal frequency gaps by adopting time interpolation, which actually doesn't increase informative context at all. In this paper we presented a novel method to generate satellite images in higher spatial and temporal details, which further enables satellite image time series simulation. Our method starts with a pair of high-low resolution data set, and then a spatial registration is done by introducing LDA model to map high and low resolution pixels correspondingly. Afterwards, temporal change information is captured through a comparison of low resolution time series data, and the temporal change is then projected onto high resolution data plane and assigned to each high resolution pixel referring the predefined temporal change patterns of each type of ground objects to generate a simulated high resolution data. A preliminary experiment shows that our method can simulate a high resolution data with a good accuracy. We consider the contribution of our method is to enable timely monitoring of temporal changes through analysis of low resolution images time series only, and usage of

  7. Use of ROV for assessing marine litter on the seafloor of Saronikos Gulf (Greece): a way to fill data gaps and deliver environmental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioakeimidis, C; Papatheodorou, G; Fermeli, G; Streftaris, N; Papathanassiou, E

    2015-01-01

    A visual census of marine litter on the seafloor of the Saronikos Gulf (Greece) is presented in the current work. The abundance and qualitative composition of benthic marine litter were investigated in two selected locations of the Saronikos Gulf with a Remote Operated Vehicle, where other sampling strategies couldn't be implemented. The assessment of marine litter was combined with environmental education within the PERSEUS (FP7) Research Project, in a novel 2-day research cruise where schoolchildren actively participated. Two transects of total length 2.36 km were carried out. A relevant marine litter protocol was developed where marine litter was categorized into six different categories according to their material type and where possible, the source of the items was identified. Plastics (55 %) and metals (36 %) had the biggest share among the recorded marine litter items. Marine litter proved to be an ideal theme in order to enhance the environmental awareness of schoolchildren.

  8. A geospatial time-aware web interface to deliver information about air pollution and exposure in a big city and its surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogliolo, M. P.; Contino, G.

    2014-11-01

    A GIS-based web-mapping system is presented, aimed at providing specialists, stakeholders and population with a simple, while scientifically rigorous, way to obtain information about people exposure to air pollution in the city of Rome (Italy). It combines a geo-spatial visualization with easy access to time dimension and to quantitative information. The study is part of the EXPAH (Population Exposure to PAHs) LIFE+ EC Project, which goal is to identify and quantify children and elderly people exposure to PM2.5-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the atmosphere of Rome, and to assess the impact on human health. The core of the system is a GIS, which database contains data and results of the project research activity. They include daily indoor and outdoor ground measurements and daily maps from simulation modeling of atmospheric PAHs and PM2.5 concentration for the period June 2011-May 2012, and daily and average exposure maps. Datasets have been published as time-enabled standard OGC Web Map Services (WMS). A set of web mapping applications query the web services to produce a set of interactive and time-aware thematic maps. Finding effective ways to communicate risk for human health, and environmental determinants for it, is a topical and challenging task: the web mapping system presented is a prototype of a possible model to disseminate scientific results on these items, providing a sight into impacts of air pollution on people living and working in a big city, and shipping information about the overall exposure, its spatial pattern and levels at specific locations.

  9. Delivering SKA Science

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, Peter; Bird, Ian; Dodson, Richard; Szalay, Alex; Wicenec, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The SKA will be capable of producing a stream of science data products that are Exa-scale in terms of their storage and processing requirements. This Google-scale enterprise is attracting considerable international interest and excitement from within the industrial and academic communities. In this chapter we examine the data flow, storage and processing requirements of a number of key SKA survey science projects to be executed on the baseline SKA1 configuration. Based on a set of conservative assumptions about trends for HPC and storage costs, and the data flow process within the SKA Observatory, it is apparent that survey projects of the scale proposed will potentially drive construction and operations costs beyond the current anticipated SKA1 budget. This implies a sharing of the resources and costs to deliver SKA science between the community and what is contained within the SKA Observatory. A similar situation was apparent to the designers of the LHC more than 10 years ago. We propose that it is time for...

  10. The Role of Time in Environmental Risk Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karman, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental risk assessment is generally based on the comparison of the exposure concentration of a chemical with the sensitivity of the ecosystems for this chemical. The exposure to this chemical is often assumed to be constant and continuous, while in reality exposure is more likely to be variab

  11. Protist metabarcoding and environmental biomonitoring: Time for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, J; Lejzerowicz, F; Apotheloz-Perret-Gentil, L; Visco, J; Esling, P

    2016-08-01

    High-throughput amplicon sequencing of environmental DNA and/or RNA proved to be a powerful tool to describe protist diversity. This new approach called also the metabarcoding has totally transformed our view of protist diversity, revealing a large number of novel lineages and expanding the range of protist phylogenetic diversity at almost every taxonomic level. However, until now the objectives of the vast majority of metabarcoding studies were purely academic. Practical applications of protist metabarcoding are surprisingly scarce, despite the fact that several groups of protists are commonly used as bioindicators of environmental impacts in freshwater or marine ecosystems. Here, we are reviewing studies that examine the ecological applications of metabarcoding for two groups of well-known protist bioindicators: diatoms and foraminifera. The results of these studies show that despite some biological and technical biases, molecular data quite faithfully reflect the morphology-based biotic indices and provide a similar assessment of ecosystem status. In view of these results, protist metabarcoding appears as a rapid and accurate tool for the evaluation of the quality of aquatic ecosystems. Hence, we plead for integration of protist metabarcoding in future biomonitoring projects as a complement of traditional methods and a source of new biosensors for environmental impact assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental factors and puberty timing: expert panel research needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louis, G.M. Buck; Jr, L.E. Gray; Marcus, M.

    2008-01-01

    , and (3) basic research to identify the primary signal(s) for the onset of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-dependent/central puberty and gonadotropin-releasing hormone-independent/peripheral puberty. Prospective studies of couples who are planning pregnancies or pregnant women are needed to capture......, body size, and puberty. The panel concluded that available experimental animal and human data support a possible role of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and body size in relation to alterations in pubertal onset and progression in boys and girls. Critical data gaps prioritized for future research...... initiatives include (1) etiologic research that focus on environmentally relevant levels of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and body size in relation to normal puberty as well as its variants, (2) exposure assessment of relevant endocrine-disrupting chemicals during critical windows of human development...

  13. TC-2 Satellite Delivered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    On April 18, 2005, TC-2, the second satellite of Double Star Program (DSP), which was jointly developed by CNSA and ESA, was approved to be delivered to the user after the on-board test and trial operation. The satellite is working well and the performance can meet the user's need. The satellite has collected large amount of valuable scientific data

  14. Are Geography Students Good "Environmental Citizens?" A Comparison between Year of Study and over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Zoe P.

    2015-01-01

    Are geography students good "environmental citizens?" Has this improved over time with increasing emphasis on sustainability within higher education? This paper compares environmental attitudes and behaviours of geography students at different stages of their degree and over a seven-year period. The findings show that although geography…

  15. Do we care about sustainability? An analysis of time sensitivity of social preferences under environmental time-persistent effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccioli, Michela; Hanley, Nick; Torres, Cati; Font, Antoni Riera

    2016-07-15

    Environmental cost-benefit analysis has traditionally assumed that the value of benefits is sensitive to their timing and that outcomes are valued higher, the sooner in time they occur following implementation of a project or policy. Though, this assumption might have important implications especially for the social desirability of interventions aiming at counteracting time-persistent environmental problems, whose impacts occur in the long- and very long-term, respectively involving the present and future generations. This study analyzes the time sensitivity of social preferences for preservation policies of adaptation to climate change stresses. Results show that stated preferences are time insensitive, due to sustainability issues: individuals show insignificant differences in benefits they can experience within their own lifetimes compared to those which occur in the longer term, and which will instead be enjoyed by future generations. Whilst these results may be specific to the experimental design employed here, they do raise interesting questions regarding choices over time-persistent environmental problems, particularly in terms of the desirability of interventions which produce longer-term benefits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 1000th magnet delivered!

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    On Monday 20 February members of the AT Department marked the delivery of the 1000th superconducting dipole magnet to CERN. Only 232 more of the dipole magnets are needed for the LHC. The 35-tonne-dipoles are 15 meters long and are being manufactured by three companies: Babcock Noell Nuclear in Germany (which completed its contract in November 2005), Ansaldo Superconduttori in Italy and Alstom-Jeumont in France. 'The production is proceeding well and we expect to be complete in October as foreseen,' said Lucio Rossi, Head of the Magnets and Superconductors Group (AT-MAS). In total, 1650 main magnets are needed for the LHC, of which 1300 have already been delivered.

  17. 1000th magnet delivered!

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    On Monday 20 February members of the AT Department marked the delivery of the 1000th superconducting dipole magnet to CERN. Only 232 more of the dipole magnets are needed for the LHC. The 35 tonne-dipoles are 15 meters long and are being manufactured by three companies: Babcock Noell Nuclear in Germany (which finished its contract in November 2005), Ansaldo Superconduttori in Italy and Alstom-Jeumont in France. "The production is proceeding well and we expect to be complete in October as previously foreseen," said Lucio Rossi, Head of the Magnets and Superconductors Group (AT-MAS). In total, 1650 main magnets are needed for the LHC, of which 1300 have been delivered.

  18. Addressing critical environmental data gaps via low-cost, real-time, cellular-based environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caylor, K. K.; Wolf, A.; Siegfried, B.

    2014-12-01

    Models in the environmental sciences are repositories in a sense of the current state of understanding of critical processes. However, as our understanding of these processes (and their accompanying models) become more granular, the data requirements to parameterize them become more limiting. In addition, as these models become more useful, they are often pressed into service for decision support, meaning that they cannot accept the data latency typical of most environmental observations. Finally, the vast majority of environmental data is generated at highly-instrumented, infrastructure-rich "mega sites" in the US/Europe, while many of the most pressing environmental issues are in rural locales and in the developing world. Cellular-based environmental sensing is a promising means to provide granular data in real time from remote locales to improve model-based forecasting using data assimilation. Applications we are working on include drought forecasting and food security; forest and crop responses to weather and climate change; and rural water usage. Over the past two years, we have developed a suite of integrated hardware, firmware, and backend APIs that accommodates an unlimited variety of sensors, and propagates these data onto the internet over mobile networks. Scientific data holds a unique role for demanding well-characterized information on sensor error and our design attempts to balance error reduction with low costs. The result is a deployment system that undercuts competing commercial products by as much as 90%, allowing more ubiquitous deployment with lower risks associated with sensor loss. Enclosure design and power management are critical ingredients for remote deployments under variable environmental conditions. Sensors push data onto cloud storage and make this data available via public API's via a backend server that accommodates additional metadata essential for interpreting observations, particularly their measurement errors. The data these pods

  19. Current Changes in Pubertal Timing: Revised Vision in Relation with Environmental Factors Including Endocrine Disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Franssen, Delphine; Fudvoye, Julie; Pinson, Anneline; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to revise some common views on changes in pubertal timing. This revision is based on recent epidemiological findings on the clinical indicators of pubertal timing and data on environmental factor effects and underlying mechanisms. A current advancement in timing of female puberty is usually emphasized. It appears, however, that timing is also changing in males. Moreover, the changes are towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final stages in both sexes. Such observations indicate the complexity of environmental influences on pubertal timing. The mechanisms of changes in pubertal timing may involve both the central neuroendocrine control and peripheral effects at tissues targeted by gonadal steroids. While sufficient energy availability is a clue to the mechanism of pubertal development, changes in the control of both energy balance and reproduction may vary under the influence of common determinants such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). These effects can take place right before puberty as well as much earlier, during fetal and neonatal life. Finally, environmental factors can interact with genetic factors in determining changes in pubertal timing. Therefore, the variance in pubertal timing is no longer to be considered under absolutely separate control by environmental and genetic determinants. Some recommendations are provided for evaluation of EDC impact in the management of pubertal disorders and for possible reduction of EDC exposure along the precautionary principle.

  20. Nonparametric estimation of groundwater residence time distributions: What can environmental tracer data tell us about groundwater residence time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, James L.; Engdahl, Nicholas B.; Ginn, Timothy R.; Cook, Peter. G.

    2014-03-01

    Residence time distributions (RTDs) have been used extensively for quantifying flow and transport in subsurface hydrology. In geochemical approaches, environmental tracer concentrations are used in conjunction with simple lumped parameter models (LPMs). Conversely, numerical simulation techniques require large amounts of parameterization and estimated RTDs are certainly limited by associated uncertainties. In this study, we apply a nonparametric deconvolution approach to estimate RTDs using environmental tracer concentrations. The model is based only on the assumption that flow is steady enough that the observed concentrations are well approximated by linear superposition of the input concentrations with the RTD; that is, the convolution integral holds. Even with large amounts of environmental tracer concentration data, the entire shape of an RTD remains highly nonunique. However, accurate estimates of mean ages and in some cases prediction of young portions of the RTD may be possible. The most useful type of data was found to be the use of a time series of tritium. This was due to the sharp variations in atmospheric concentrations and a short half-life. Conversely, the use of CFC compounds with smoothly varying atmospheric concentrations was more prone to nonuniqueness. This work highlights the benefits and limitations of using environmental tracer data to estimate whole RTDs with either LPMs or through numerical simulation. However, the ability of the nonparametric approach developed here to correct for mixing biases in mean ages appears promising.

  1. Study on common seasonal signals in GPS time series and environmental loadings using Multichannel Singular Spectrum Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszczynska, Marta; Rosat, Severine; Klos, Anna; Bogusz, Janusz

    2017-04-01

    Seasonal oscillations in the GPS position time series can arise from real geophysical effects and numerical artefacts. According to Dong et al. (2002) environmental loading effects can account for approximately 40% of the total variance of the annual signals in GPS time series, however using generally acknowledged methods (e.g. Least Squares Estimation, Wavelet Decomposition, Singular Spectrum Analysis) to model seasonal signals we are not able to separate real from spurious signals (effects of mismodelling aliased into annual period as well as draconitic). Therefore, we propose to use Multichannel Singular Spectrum Analysis (MSSA) to determine seasonal oscillations (with annual and semi-annual periods) from GPS position time series and environmental loading displacement models. The MSSA approach is an extension of the classical Karhunen-Loève method and it is a special case of SSA for multivariate time series. The main advantage of MSSA is the possibility to extract common seasonal signals for stations from selected area and to investigate the causality between a set of time series as well. In this research, we explored the ability of MSSA application to separate real geophysical effects from spurious effects in GPS time series. For this purpose, we used GPS position changes and environmental loading models. We analysed the topocentric time series from 250 selected stations located worldwide, delivered from Network Solution obtained by the International GNSS Service (IGS) as a contribution to the latest realization of the International Terrestrial Reference System (namely ITRF2014, Rebishung et al., 2016). We also researched atmospheric, hydrological and non-tidal oceanic loading models provided by the EOST/IPGS Loading Service in the Centre-of-Figure (CF) reference frame. The analysed displacements were estimated from ERA-Interim (surface pressure), MERRA-land (soil moisture and snow) as well as ECCO2 ocean bottom pressure. We used Multichannel Singular Spectrum

  2. A multimodal logistics service network design with time windows and environmental concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dezhi; He, Runzhong; Wang, Zhongwei

    2017-01-01

    The design of a multimodal logistics service network with customer service time windows and environmental costs is an important and challenging issue. Accordingly, this work established a model to minimize the total cost of multimodal logistics service network design with time windows and environmental concerns. The proposed model incorporates CO2 emission costs to determine the optimal transportation mode combinations and investment selections for transfer nodes, which consider transport cost, transport time, carbon emission, and logistics service time window constraints. Furthermore, genetic and heuristic algorithms are proposed to set up the abovementioned optimal model. A numerical example is provided to validate the model and the abovementioned two algorithms. Then, comparisons of the performance of the two algorithms are provided. Finally, this work investigates the effects of the logistics service time windows and CO2 emission taxes on the optimal solution. Several important management insights are obtained. PMID:28934272

  3. A multimodal logistics service network design with time windows and environmental concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dezhi; He, Runzhong; Li, Shuangyan; Wang, Zhongwei

    2017-01-01

    The design of a multimodal logistics service network with customer service time windows and environmental costs is an important and challenging issue. Accordingly, this work established a model to minimize the total cost of multimodal logistics service network design with time windows and environmental concerns. The proposed model incorporates CO2 emission costs to determine the optimal transportation mode combinations and investment selections for transfer nodes, which consider transport cost, transport time, carbon emission, and logistics service time window constraints. Furthermore, genetic and heuristic algorithms are proposed to set up the abovementioned optimal model. A numerical example is provided to validate the model and the abovementioned two algorithms. Then, comparisons of the performance of the two algorithms are provided. Finally, this work investigates the effects of the logistics service time windows and CO2 emission taxes on the optimal solution. Several important management insights are obtained.

  4. Socio-demographic, psychosocial and home-environmental attributes associated with adults' domestic screen time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Neville

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behaviors (involving prolonged sitting time are associated with deleterious health consequences, independent of (lack of physical activity. To inform interventions, correlates of prevalent sedentary behaviors need to be identified. We examined associations of socio-demographic, home-environmental and psychosocial factors with adults' TV viewing time and leisure-time Internet use; and whether psychosocial and environmental correlates differed according to gender, age and educational attainment. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in Ghent, Belgium, between March and May 2010. Respondents to a mail-out survey (n = 419; 20-65 years; mean age 48.5 [12.1] years; 47.3% men completed a questionnaire on sedentary behaviors and their potential socio-demographic, psychosocial and home environmental correlates. Statistical analyses were performed using multiple linear regression models. Results The independent variables explained 31% of the variance in TV viewing time and 38% of the variance in leisure-time Internet use. Higher education, greater perceived pros of and confidence about reducing TV time were negatively associated with TV viewing time; older age, higher body mass index, larger TV set size and greater perceived cons of reducing TV time showed positive associations. Perceived pros of and confidence about reducing Internet use were negatively associated with leisure-time Internet use; higher education, number of computers in the home, positive family social norms about Internet use and perceived cons of reducing Internet use showed positive associations. None of the socio-demographic factors moderated these associations. Conclusions Educational level, age, self-efficacy and pros/cons were the most important correlates identified in this study. If further cross-sectional and longitudinal research can confirm these findings, tailored interventions focusing on both psychosocial and environmental factors in

  5. Annual rhythms that underlie phenology : biological time-keeping meets environmental change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helm, Barbara; Ben-Shlomo, Rachel; Sheriff, Michael J; Hut, Roelof A; Foster, Russell; Barnes, Brian M; Dominoni, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal recurrence of biological processes (phenology) and its relationship to environmental change is recognized as being of key scientific and public concern, but its current study largely overlooks the extent to which phenology is based on biological time-keeping mechanisms. We highlight the rel

  6. Optical time-domain reflectometer based multiplexed sensing scheme for environmental sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, J. P.; Gouveia, C.; Santos, J. L.; Jorge, P. A. S.; Baptista, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    In our study, remote environmental sensing is presented using a standard optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR). The measurement of environmental parameters using optical sensors is an expanding area of research with growing importance. Fiber optic sensors are an interesting solution for that due to their high sensitivity, small size, and capability for on-site, real-time, remote, and distributed sensing capabilities. Our multiplexing sensing scheme approach uses transmissive filters (long period gratings - LPGs) interrogated by the OTDR return pulses. The loss induced at the resonance wavelengths varies with changes in the environment refractive index, temperature or other physical parameters. Experimental results show that the insertion of an erbium amplifier improves the measurement resolution in certain situations. Further analysis show that a remote multiplexed sensing scheme allows us to perform simple and low cost real time measurement of refractive index and temperature over long distances.

  7. Considering the influence of artificial environmental noise to study cough time-frequency features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hirtum, A.; Berckmans, D.

    2003-09-01

    In general the study of the cough mechanism and sound in both animal and human is performed by eliciting coughing in a reproducible way by nebulization of an irritating substance. Due to ventilation the controlled evaporation-protocol causes artificial noises from a mechanical origin. The resulting environmental low-frequency noises complicate cough time-frequency features. In order to optimize the study of the cough-sound the research described in this paper attempts on the one hand to characterize and model the environmental noises and on the other hand to evaluate the influence of the noise on the time-frequency representation for the intended cough sounds by comparing different de-noising approaches. Free field acoustic sound is continuously registered during 30 min citric acid cough-challenges on individual Belgian Landrace piglets and during respiratory infection experiments, with a duration of about 10 days, where room-ventilation was present.

  8. Dynamical analysis in a bioeconomic phytoplankton zooplankton system with double time delays and environmental stochasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Wang, Luping; Zhang, Qingling; Yan, Yun

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a double delayed bioeconomic phytoplankton zooplankton system with commercial harvesting on zooplankton and environmental stochasticity. Maturation delay for toxin producing phytoplankton and gestation delay for zooplankton are considered. Environmental stochasticity is incorporated into the proposed system in form of Gaussian white noises. Some sufficient conditions are derived to show that the proposed system has a unique global positive solution. In absence of double time delays, stochastic stability and existence of stochastic Hopf bifurcation are studied based on invariant measure theory and singular boundary theory of diffusion process for the proposed system. In presence of double time delays, asymptotic behaviors of the interior equilibrium are discussed by constructing some appropriate Lyapunov functions.

  9. Diastolic timed Vibro-Percussion at 50 Hz delivered across a chest wall sized meat barrier enhances clot dissolution and remotely administered Streptokinase effectiveness in an in-vitro model of acute coronary thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Andrew

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low Frequency Vibro-Percussion (LFVP assists clearance of thrombi in catheter systems and when applied to the heart and timed to diastole is known to enhance coronary flow. However LFVP on a clotted coronary like vessel given engagement over a chest wall sized barrier (to resemble non-invasive heart attack therapy requires study. Methods One hour old clots (n=16 were dispensed within a flexible segment of Soft-Flo catheter (4 mm lumen, weighted, interfaced with Heparinized Saline (HS, secured atop a curved dampening base, and photographed. A ~4 cm meat slab was placed over the segment and randomized to receive intermittent LFVP (engaged, - disengaged at 1 second intervals, or no LFVP for 20 minutes. HS was pulsed (~120/80 mmHg, with the diastolic phase coordinated to match LFVP delivery. The segment was then re-photographed and aspirated of fluid to determine post clot weight. The trial was then repeated with 0.5 mls of Streptokinase (15,000 IU/100 microlitre delivered ~ 2 cm upstream from the clot. Results LFVP - HS only samples (vs. controls showed; a development of clot length fluid channels absent in the control group (p Conclusion Diastolic timed LFVP (50 Hz engaged across a chest wall sized barrier enhances clot disruptive effects to an underlying coronary like system.

  10. Crash Frequency Modeling Using Real-Time Environmental and Traffic Data and Unbalanced Panel Data Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Chen, Suren; Ma, Xiaoxiang

    2016-06-18

    Traffic and environmental conditions (e.g., weather conditions), which frequently change with time, have a significant impact on crash occurrence. Traditional crash frequency models with large temporal scales and aggregated variables are not sufficient to capture the time-varying nature of driving environmental factors, causing significant loss of critical information on crash frequency modeling. This paper aims at developing crash frequency models with refined temporal scales for complex driving environments, with such an effort providing more detailed and accurate crash risk information which can allow for more effective and proactive traffic management and law enforcement intervention. Zero-inflated, negative binomial (ZINB) models with site-specific random effects are developed with unbalanced panel data to analyze hourly crash frequency on highway segments. The real-time driving environment information, including traffic, weather and road surface condition data, sourced primarily from the Road Weather Information System, is incorporated into the models along with site-specific road characteristics. The estimation results of unbalanced panel data ZINB models suggest there are a number of factors influencing crash frequency, including time-varying factors (e.g., visibility and hourly traffic volume) and site-varying factors (e.g., speed limit). The study confirms the unique significance of the real-time weather, road surface condition and traffic data to crash frequency modeling.

  11. Review: the environmental status and implications of the nitrate time lag in Europe and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vero, Sara E.; Basu, Nandita B.; Van Meter, Kimberly; Richards, Karl G.; Mellander, Per-Erik; Healy, Mark G.; Fenton, Owen

    2017-08-01

    The efficacy of water quality policies aiming to reduce or prevent nitrate contamination of waterbodies may be constrained by the inherent delay or "time lag" of water and solute transport through unsaturated (soil) and saturated (groundwater) pathways. These delays must be quantified in order to establish realistic deadlines, thresholds and policy expectations, and to design effective best management practices. The objective of this review is to synthesise the current state of research on nitrate-related time lags in both the European and North American environmental and legislative contexts. The durations of time lags have been found to differ according to climatic, pedological, landscape and management scenarios. Elucidation of these driving factors at a watershed scale is essential where water quality is impaired or at risk. Finally, the existence of time lags is increasingly being acknowledged at a policy level and incorporated into the development of environmental legislation. However, the full impact of these time lags is not yet fully understood or appreciated, and continued outreach and education in scientific, public and policy venues is still required.

  12. What can environmental tracer concentrations tell us about groundwater residence time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, J. L.; Engdahl, N. B.; Cook, P. G.; Simmons, C.

    2013-12-01

    Quantification of groundwater age distributions through the use on lumped parameter models and environmental tracer concentrations is an ongoing practice. These models are based on simple geometries and sampling conditions and may not be applicable outside of ideal conditions, limiting the results that can be obtained. We have developed a method that requires no underlying assumptions about the structure of the groundwater age distribution. This method assumes that the convolution relationship describes the relationship between temporal atmospheric concentrations and measured groundwater sample concentrations. We looked at synthetically generated groundwater age distributions and a number of levels of tracer data including a long time series of tritium, the use of CFCs and SF6 sampled at various times and the use of CFCs, SF6, 3H and 14C sampled at a single time. In general, we found that environmental tracers are not very informative of groundwater age distributions resulting in estimates being highly non-unique. The exception was the use of a time series of tritium data. Tritium is more informative due to the temporal variations of atmospheric concentrations and a short half-life reducing the correlation of sequential measurements. The ability of CFC compounds to estimate entire distributions was limited due to the lack of variation in temporal atmospheric concentrations and correlation between sampled concentrations. Despite varying ability of the method to predict whole distributions, some indicators such as the mean age and some arrival time statistics were estimated well by the method. The implications of this show that care should be taken in the choice of lumped parameter model used in conjunction with environmental tracer techniques to constrain entire groundwater age distributions. Interestingly, the ability to correct for mixing bias of mean ages despite poor estimates of entire groundwater age distributions shows some promise.

  13. Does residence time affect responses of alien species richness to environmental and spatial processes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Dainese

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most robust emerging generalisations in invasion biology is that the probability of invasion increases with the time since introduction (residence time. We analysed the spatial distribution of alien vascular plant species in a region of north-eastern Italy to understand the influence of residence time on patterns of alien species richness. Neophytes were grouped according to three periods of arrival in the study region (1500–1800, 1800–1900, and > 1900. We applied multiple regression (spatial and non-spatial with hierarchical partitioning to determine the influence of climate and human pressure on species richness within the groups. We also applied variation partitioning to evaluate the relative importance of environmental and spatial processes. Temperature mainly influenced groups with speciesa longer residence time, while human pressure influenced the more recently introduced species, although its influence remained significant in all groups. Partial regression analyses showed that most of the variation explained by the models is attributable to spatially structured environmental variation, while environment and space had small independent effects. However, effects independent of environment decreased, and spatially independent effects increased, from older to the more recent neophytes. Our data illustrate that the distribution of alien species richness for species that arrived recently is related to propagule pressure, availability of novel niches created by human activity, and neutral-based (dispersal limitation processes, while climate filtering plays a key role in the distribution of species that arrived earlier. This study highlights the importance of residence time, spatial structure, and environmental conditions in the patterns of alien species richness and for a better understanding of its geographical variation.

  14. Method for neural network control of motion using real-time environmental feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A method of motion control for robotics and other automatically controlled machinery using a neural network controller with real-time environmental feedback. The method is illustrated with a two-finger robotic hand having proximity sensors and force sensors that provide environmental feedback signals. The neural network controller is taught to control the robotic hand through training sets using back- propagation methods. The training sets are created by recording the control signals and the feedback signal as the robotic hand or a simulation of the robotic hand is moved through a representative grasping motion. The data recorded is divided into discrete increments of time and the feedback data is shifted out of phase with the control signal data so that the feedback signal data lag one time increment behind the control signal data. The modified data is presented to the neural network controller as a training set. The time lag introduced into the data allows the neural network controller to account for the temporal component of the robotic motion. Thus trained, the neural network controlled robotic hand is able to grasp a wide variety of different objects by generalizing from the training sets.

  15. 28 CFR 91.58 - Timing of the environmental review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review... anticipated environmental impacts, an environmental impact statement should be initiated. (c) Design phase... projects under construction, OJP will work with the States to determine what environmental analysis...

  16. Time series models of environmental exposures: Good predictions or good understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Adrian G; Stephen, Dimity; Huang, Cunrui; Wolkewitz, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Time series data are popular in environmental epidemiology as they make use of the natural experiment of how changes in exposure over time might impact on disease. Many published time series papers have used parameter-heavy models that fully explained the second order patterns in disease to give residuals that have no short-term autocorrelation or seasonality. This is often achieved by including predictors of past disease counts (autoregression) or seasonal splines with many degrees of freedom. These approaches give great residuals, but add little to our understanding of cause and effect. We argue that modelling approaches should rely more on good epidemiology and less on statistical tests. This includes thinking about causal pathways, making potential confounders explicit, fitting a limited number of models, and not over-fitting at the cost of under-estimating the true association between exposure and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. R/S method for evaluation of pollutant time series in environmental quality assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bu Quanmin; Bi Jun; Yuan Zengwei; Huang Lei

    2008-01-01

    The significance of the fluctuation and randomness of the time series of each pollutant in environmental quality assessment is described for the first time in this paper. A comparative study was made of three different computing methods: the same starting point method, the striding averaging method, and the stagger phase averaging method. All of them can be used to calculate the Hurst index, which quantifies fluctuation and randomness. This study used real water quality data from Shazhu monitoring station on Taihu Lake in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province. The results show that, of the three methods, the stagger phase averaging method is best for calculating the Hurst index of a pollutant time series from the perspective of statistical regularity.

  18. 4D Near Real-Time Environmental Monitoring Using Highly Temporal LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfle, Bernhard; Canli, Ekrem; Schmitz, Evelyn; Crommelinck, Sophie; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Glade, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The last decade has witnessed extensive applications of 3D environmental monitoring with the LiDAR technology, also referred to as laser scanning. Although several automatic methods were developed to extract environmental parameters from LiDAR point clouds, only little research has focused on highly multitemporal near real-time LiDAR (4D-LiDAR) for environmental monitoring. Large potential of applying 4D-LiDAR is given for landscape objects with high and varying rates of change (e.g. plant growth) and also for phenomena with sudden unpredictable changes (e.g. geomorphological processes). In this presentation we will report on the most recent findings of the research projects 4DEMON (http://uni-heidelberg.de/4demon) and NoeSLIDE (https://geomorph.univie.ac.at/forschung/projekte/aktuell/noeslide/). The method development in both projects is based on two real-world use cases: i) Surface parameter derivation of agricultural crops (e.g. crop height) and ii) change detection of landslides. Both projects exploit the "full history" contained in the LiDAR point cloud time series. One crucial initial step of 4D-LiDAR analysis is the co-registration over time, 3D-georeferencing and time-dependent quality assessment of the LiDAR point cloud time series. Due to the high amount of datasets (e.g. one full LiDAR scan per day), the procedure needs to be performed fully automatically. Furthermore, the online near real-time 4D monitoring system requires to set triggers that can detect removal or moving of tie reflectors (used for co-registration) or the scanner itself. This guarantees long-term data acquisition with high quality. We will present results from a georeferencing experiment for 4D-LiDAR monitoring, which performs benchmarking of co-registration, 3D-georeferencing and also fully automatic detection of events (e.g. removal/moving of reflectors or scanner). Secondly, we will show our empirical findings of an ongoing permanent LiDAR observation of a landslide (Gresten

  19. A latent process model for forecasting multiple time series in environmental public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Kathryn T; Shaddick, Gavin; Henderson, Sarah B; Buckeridge, David L

    2016-08-15

    This paper outlines a latent process model for forecasting multiple health outcomes arising from a common environmental exposure. Traditionally, surveillance models in environmental health do not link health outcome measures, such as morbidity or mortality counts, to measures of exposure, such as air pollution. Moreover, different measures of health outcomes are treated as independent, while it is known that they are correlated with one another over time as they arise in part from a common underlying exposure. We propose modelling an environmental exposure as a latent process, and we describe the implementation of such a model within a hierarchical Bayesian framework and its efficient computation using integrated nested Laplace approximations. Through a simulation study, we compare distinct univariate models for each health outcome with a bivariate approach. The bivariate model outperforms the univariate models in bias and coverage of parameter estimation, in forecast accuracy and in computational efficiency. The methods are illustrated with a case study using healthcare utilization and air pollution data from British Columbia, Canada, 2003-2011, where seasonal wildfires produce high levels of air pollution, significantly impacting population health. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. A multiple ship routing and speed optimization problem under time, cost and environmental objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, M.; Pacino, Dario; Kontovas, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate a multiple ship routing and speed optimization problem under time, cost and environmental objectives. A branch and price algorithm as well as a constraint programming model are developed that consider (a) fuel consumption as a function of payload, (b......) fuel price as an explicit input, (c) freight rate as an input, and (d) in-transit cargo inventory costs. The alternative objective functions are minimum total trip duration, minimum total cost and minimum emissions. Computational experience with the algorithm is reported on a variety of scenarios....

  1. Environmental Kuznets revisited. Time-series versus panel estimation. The CO2-case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, E.; Vollebergh, H.R.J.

    1998-07-01

    should be based on time series analysis. This has far reaching implications as time series are not widely available for many environmental indicators. Thus, existing evidence on the EKC is possibly not very sound while more rigorous testing may be impossible for many indicators. Maybe we do not know at all what we think to know about the EKC. 23 refs.

  2. Delivering Online Examinations: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John MESSING

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Delivering Online Examinations: A Case Study Jason HOWARTH John MESSING Irfan ALTAS Charles Sturt University Wagga Wagga-AUSTRALIA ABSTRACT This paper represents a brief case study of delivering online examinations to a worldwide audience. These examinations are delivered in partnership with a commercial online testing company as part of the Industry Master’s degree at Charles Sturt University (CSU. The Industry Master’s degree is an academic program for students currently employed in the IT industry. Using Internet Based Testing (IBT, these students are examined in test centres throughout the world. This offers many benefits. For example, students have the freedom of sitting exams at any time during a designated interval. Computer-based testing also provides instructors with valuable feedback through test statistics and student comments. In this paper, we document CSU’s use of the IBT system, including how tests are built and delivered, and how both human and statistical feedback is used to evaluate and enhance the testing process.

  3. Real-Time PCR Method for Detection of Salmonella spp. in Environmental Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasturi, Kuppuswamy N; Drgon, Tomas

    2017-07-15

    The methods currently used for detecting Salmonella in environmental samples require 2 days to produce results and have limited sensitivity. Here, we describe the development and validation of a real-time PCR Salmonella screening method that produces results in 18 to 24 h. Primers and probes specific to the gene invA, group D, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis organisms were designed and evaluated for inclusivity and exclusivity using a panel of 329 Salmonella isolates representing 126 serovars and 22 non-Salmonella organisms. The invA- and group D-specific sets identified all the isolates accurately. The PCR method had 100% inclusivity and detected 1 to 2 copies of Salmonella DNA per reaction. Primers specific for Salmonella-differentiating fragment 1 (Sdf-1) in conjunction with the group D set had 100% inclusivity for 32 S Enteritidis isolates and 100% exclusivity for the 297 non-Enteritidis Salmonella isolates. Single-laboratory validation performed on 1,741 environmental samples demonstrated that the PCR method detected 55% more positives than the Vitek immunodiagnostic assay system (VIDAS) method. The PCR results correlated well with the culture results, and the method did not report any false-negative results. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis documented excellent agreement between the results from the culture and PCR methods (area under the curve, 0.90; 95% confidence interval of 0.76 to 1.0) confirming the validity of the PCR method.IMPORTANCE This validated PCR method detects 55% more positives for Salmonella in half the time required for the reference method, VIDAS. The validated PCR method will help to strengthen public health efforts through rapid screening of Salmonella spp. in environmental samples.

  4. The Energy and Environmental Performance of Ground-Mounted Photovoltaic Systems—A Timely Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Leccisi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Given photovoltaics’ (PVs constant improvements in terms of material usage and energy efficiency, this paper provides a timely update on their life-cycle energy and environmental performance. Single-crystalline Si (sc-Si, multi-crystalline Si (mc-Si, cadmium telluride (CdTe and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS systems are analysed, considering the actual country of production and adapting the input electricity mix accordingly. Energy pay-back time (EPBT results for fixed-tilt ground mounted installations range from 0.5 years for CdTe PV at high-irradiation (2300 kWh/(m2·yr to 2.8 years for sc-Si PV at low-irradiation (1000 kWh/(m2·yr, with corresponding quality-adjusted energy return on investment (EROIPE-eq values ranging from over 60 to ~10. Global warming potential (GWP per kWhel averages out at ~30 g(CO2-eq, with lower values (down to ~10 g for CdTe PV at high irradiation, and up to ~80 g for Chinese sc-Si PV at low irradiation. In general, results point to CdTe PV as the best performing technology from an environmental life-cycle perspective, also showing a remarkable improvement for current production modules in comparison with previous generations. Finally, we determined that one-axis tracking installations can improve the environmental profile of PV systems by approximately 10% for most impact metrics.

  5. Timing and Variability of Galactose Metabolic Gene Activation Depend on the Rate of Environmental Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong D Nguyen-Huu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of gene network activity allows cells to respond to changes in environmental conditions. For example, the galactose utilization network in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is activated by the presence of galactose but repressed by glucose. If both sugars are present, the yeast will first metabolize glucose, depleting it from the extracellular environment. Upon depletion of glucose, the genes encoding galactose metabolic proteins will activate. Here, we show that the rate at which glucose levels are depleted determines the timing and variability of galactose gene activation. Paradoxically, we find that Gal1p, an enzyme needed for galactose metabolism, accumulates more quickly if glucose is depleted slowly rather than taken away quickly. Furthermore, the variability of induction times in individual cells depends non-monotonically on the rate of glucose depletion and exhibits a minimum at intermediate depletion rates. Our mathematical modeling suggests that the dynamics of the metabolic transition from glucose to galactose are responsible for the variability in galactose gene activation. These findings demonstrate that environmental dynamics can determine the phenotypic outcome at both the single-cell and population levels.

  6. Real-Time Performance of a Self-Powered Environmental IoT Sensor Network System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Wu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs play an increasingly important role in monitoring applications in many areas. With the emergence of the Internet-of-Things (IoT, many more lowpower sensors will need to be deployed in various environments to collect and monitor data about environmental factors in real time. Providing power supply to these sensor nodes becomes a critical challenge for realizations of IoT applications as sensor nodes are normally battery-powered and have a limited lifetime. This paper proposes a wireless sensor network that is powered by solar energy harvesting. The sensor network monitors the environmental data with low-power sensor electronics and forms a network using multiple XBee wireless modules. A detailed performance analysis of the network system under solar energy harvesting has been presented. The sensor network system and the proposed energy-harvesting techniques are configured to achieve a continuous energy source for the sensor network. The proposed energy-harvesting system has been successfully designed to enable an energy solution in order to keep sensor nodes active and reliable for a whole day. The paper also outlines some of our experiences in real-time implementation of a sensor network system with energy harvesting.

  7. Real-Time Performance of a Self-Powered Environmental IoT Sensor Network System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Rüdiger, Christoph; Yuce, Mehmet Rasit

    2017-02-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) play an increasingly important role in monitoring applications in many areas. With the emergence of the Internet-of-Things (IoT), many more lowpower sensors will need to be deployed in various environments to collect and monitor data about environmental factors in real time. Providing power supply to these sensor nodes becomes a critical challenge for realizations of IoT applications as sensor nodes are normally battery-powered and have a limited lifetime. This paper proposes a wireless sensor network that is powered by solar energy harvesting. The sensor network monitors the environmental data with low-power sensor electronics and forms a network using multiple XBee wireless modules. A detailed performance analysis of the network system under solar energy harvesting has been presented. The sensor network system and the proposed energy-harvesting techniques are configured to achieve a continuous energy source for the sensor network. The proposed energy-harvesting system has been successfully designed to enable an energy solution in order to keep sensor nodes active and reliable for a whole day. The paper also outlines some of our experiences in real-time implementation of a sensor network system with energy harvesting.

  8. Parallel Motion Simulation of Large-Scale Real-Time Crowd in a Hierarchical Environmental Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a parallel real-time crowd simulation method based on a hierarchical environmental model. A dynamical model of the complex environment should be constructed to simulate the state transition and propagation of individual motions. By modeling of a virtual environment where virtual crowds reside, we employ different parallel methods on a topological layer, a path layer and a perceptual layer. We propose a parallel motion path matching method based on the path layer and a parallel crowd simulation method based on the perceptual layer. The large-scale real-time crowd simulation becomes possible with these methods. Numerical experiments are carried out to demonstrate the methods and results.

  9. Real-time Environmental Monitoring from a Wind Farm Platform in the Texas Hypoxic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, R. L.; Dimarco, S. F.; Walpert, J. N.; Guinasso, N. L.; Howard, M. K.

    2009-12-01

    Ocean observing systems (OOS) provide coastal managers with data for informed decision-making. OOS are designed to monitor oceanographic and atmospheric conditions from a variety of offshore platforms. In the summer of 2009, a multi-disciplinary system, the Galveston Instrument Garden for Environmental Monitoring (GIGEM), was deployed off the coast of Galveston, Texas (Location: 29o 08’ 29.654’’N, 94o 44’ 51.339’’W) to monitor coastal waters and provide real-time observations for investigating processes responsible for coastal Texas hypoxia. Hypoxia occurs in the Gulf of Mexico over the continental shelf and refers to low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the bottom waters caused by a combination of environmental and physical parameters. Events form rapidly, last for a few days to weeks, and commonly occur along the Louisiana and Texas coasts; however, little research has been conducted to investigate the processes responsible for Texas hypoxia formation. GIGEM was designed to study this problem by contributing real-time measurements to compare with historical coastal data series. Unlike most coastal OOS, GIGEM is installed on an experimental wind farm platform operated by Wind Energy System Technologies Inc. This platform is the first executed offshore wind energy lease in the United States. GIGEM is comprised of two components, the subsurface mooring and a nearby bottom package. The data telemetry system includes a unique design of underwater and surface inductive modems. GIGEM is the only coastal OOS currently collecting real-time environmental water quality measurements on the Texas shelf. The work presented describes: the obstacles and challenges associated with deploying GIGEM, the flow of information from the water column to the user, and how this type of OOS fulfills the societal goals for protecting coastal ecosystems and improving coastal weather and ocean predictions envisioned by the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS). Data and

  10. Compensatory growth strategies are affected by the strength of environmental time constraints in anuran larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orizaola, Germán; Dahl, Emma; Laurila, Anssi

    2014-01-01

    Organisms normally grow at a sub-maximal rate. After experiencing a period of arrested growth, individuals often show compensatory growth responses by modifying their life-history, behaviour and physiology. However, the strength of compensatory responses may vary across broad geographic scales as populations differ in their exposition to varying time constraints. We examined differences in compensatory growth strategies in common frog (Rana temporaria) populations from southern and northern Sweden. Tadpoles from four populations were reared in the laboratory and exposed to low temperature to evaluate the patterns and mechanisms of compensatory growth responses. We determined tadpoles' growth rate, food intake and growth efficiency during the compensation period. In the absence of arrested growth conditions, tadpoles from all the populations showed similar (size-corrected) growth rates, food intake and growth efficiency. After being exposed to low temperature for 1 week, only larvae from the northern populations increased growth rates by increasing both food intake and growth efficiency. These geographic differences in compensatory growth mechanisms suggest that the strategies for recovering after a period of growth deprivation may depend on the strength of time constraints faced by the populations. Due to the costs of fast growth, only populations exposed to the strong time constraints are prone to develop fast recovering strategies in order to metamorphose before conditions deteriorate. Understanding how organisms balance the cost and benefits of growth strategies may help in forecasting the impact of fluctuating environmental conditions on life-history strategies of populations likely to be exposed to increasing environmental variation in the future.

  11. Nitrogen and phosphorus changes and optimal drainage time of flooded paddy field based on environmental factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng-hua XIAO; Shuang-en YU; Yan-yan WANG; Rong HUANG

    2013-01-01

    While many controlled irrigation and drainage techniques have been adopted in China, the environmental effects of these techniques require further investigation. This study was conducted to examine the changes of nitrogen and phosphorus of a flooded paddy water system after fertilizer application and at each growth stage so as to obtain the optimal drainage time at each growth stage. Four treatments with different water level management methods at each growth stage were conducted under the condition of ten-day continuous flooding. Results show that the ammonia nitrogen ( NH -N+ ) concentration reached the peak value once the fertilizer was applied, and then 4 decreased to a relatively low level seven to ten days later, and that the nitrate nitrogen ( NO -N− ) 3 concentration gradually rose to its peak value, which appeared later in subsurface water than in surface water. Continuous flooding could effectively reduce the concentrations of NH -N+ , 4 NO -N− , and total phosphorus (TP) in surface water. However, the paddy water disturbance, in the process of soil surface adsorption and nitrification, caused 3 NH -N+ to be released and increased the 4 concentrations of NH -N+ and 4 NO -N− in surface water. A multi-objective controlled drainage 3 model based on environmental factors was established in order to obtain the optimal drainage time at each growth stage and better guide the drainage practices of farmers. The optimal times for surface drainage are the fourth, sixth, fifth, and sixth days after flooding at the tillering, jointing-booting, heading-flowering, and milking stages, respectively.

  12. Association of time of occurrence of electrical heart storms with environmental physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoupel, Eliiyahu; Kusniec, Jairo; Golovchiner, Gregory; Abramson, Evgeny; Kadmon, Udi; Strasberg, Boris

    2014-08-01

    Many publications in recent decades have reported a temporal link between medical events and environmental physical activity. The aim of this study was to analyze the time of occurrence of electrical heart storms against levels of cosmological parameters. The sample included 82 patients (71 male) with ischemic cardiomyopathy treated with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator at a tertiary medical center in 1999-2012 (5,114 days). The time of occurrence of all electrical heart storms, defined as three or more events of ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation daily, was recorded from the defibrillator devices. Findings were analyzed against data on solar, geomagnetic, and cosmic ray (neutron) activity for the same time period obtained from space institutions in the United States and Russia. Electrical storms occurred in all months of the year, with a slight decrease in July, August, and September. Most events took place on days with lower-than-average levels of solar and geomagnetic activity and higher-than-average levels of cosmic ray (neutron) activity. There was a significant difference in mean daily cosmic ray activity between the whole observation period and the days of electrical storm activity (P = 0.0001). These data extend earlier findings on the association of the timing of cardiac events and space weather parameters to the most dangerous form of cardiac arrhythmia-electric storms. Further studies are needed to delineate the pathogenetic mechanism underlying this association. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Effects of holding time and measurement error on culturing Legionella in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, W Dana; Kirkland, Kimberly H; Shelton, Brian G

    2014-10-01

    Outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease require environmental testing of water samples from potentially implicated building water systems to identify the source of exposure. A previous study reports a large impact on Legionella sample results due to shipping and delays in sample processing. Specifically, this same study, without accounting for measurement error, reports more than half of shipped samples tested had Legionella levels that arbitrarily changed up or down by one or more logs, and the authors attribute this result to shipping time. Accordingly, we conducted a study to determine the effects of sample holding/shipping time on Legionella sample results while taking into account measurement error, which has previously not been addressed. We analyzed 159 samples, each split into 16 aliquots, of which one-half (8) were processed promptly after collection. The remaining half (8) were processed the following day to assess impact of holding/shipping time. A total of 2544 samples were analyzed including replicates. After accounting for inherent measurement error, we found that the effect of holding time on observed Legionella counts was small and should have no practical impact on interpretation of results. Holding samples increased the root mean squared error by only about 3-8%. Notably, for only one of 159 samples, did the average of the 8 replicate counts change by 1 log. Thus, our findings do not support the hypothesis of frequent, significant (≥= 1 log10 unit) Legionella colony count changes due to holding.

  14. Time series analyses reveal environmental and fisheries controls on Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) catch rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Time-series models (Dynamic factorial analyses and; Min/max autocorrelation factor analysis) were used to explore the relative influences of environmental variables and fishing pressure of trawl, seine and artisanal fleets on catch rates on Trachurus trachurus in ICES IXa sub-divisions (IXaCN-North coast; IXa- CS-South coast; IXaS-Algarve, South coast, Algarve). Fishing effort influenced catch rates in all areas with a 2 year lag and fishing pressure for each area was related to specific fleet sectors effort. In IXaCN, winter upwelling (spawning peak) and both summer northerly wind and wind magnitude (outside of the spawning peak) were strongly correlated with catch rates. In IXaCS summer/autumn westerly winds were related with catch rates. Northerly winds in spring, upwelling and SST (winter and autumn) were related with catch rates in IXaS-Algarve. For species with a long spawning season such as horse mackerel, seasonal analyses at broad regional scales can detract from a better understanding of variability in short term sub-stock catch rates. Favorable environmental conditions, even during seasons with low spawning activity can positively affect catch rates. Ignoring the role of regional oceanographic features on the spatial distribution of the sub-stocks when analysing variability in catch rates can lead to poor inferences about the productivity of the populations.

  15. Development of a portable time-of-flight membrane inlet mass spectrometer for environmental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A. J.; Blamire, M. G.; Corlett, C. A.; Griffiths, B. W.; Martin, D. M.; Spencer, S. B.; Mullock, S. J.

    1998-02-01

    The benefits of on-site analysis of environmental pollutants are well known, with such techniques increasing sample throughput and reducing the overall cost of pollution level monitoring. This article describes a transportable time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer, based upon a converging, annular TOF (CAT) arrangement. The instrument, the transportable CAT or T-CAT is battery powered and self-contained. The vacuum chamber is never vented and is kept at a very low pressure, even during analysis. Sample gases are admitted to the mass spectrometer via a membrane inlet system. Data collection and analysis are accomplished via a portable PC. The T-CAT is capable of detection limits approaching those of more conventional, nonportable design. The device shows reasonable linearity over wide concentration ranges. Initial results indicate that the T-CAT will be capable of use in a wide range of applications, particularly for environmental monitoring. This article describes the features of the T-CAT, and presents initial results from the membrane inlet/T-CAT system.

  16. Time-Series Modeling and Prediction of Global Monthly Absolute Temperature for Environmental Decision Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Liming; YANG Guixia; Eric VAN RANST; TANG Huajun

    2013-01-01

    A generalized,structural,time series modeling framework was developed to analyze the monthly records of absolute surface temperature,one of the most important environmental parameters,using a deterministicstochastic combined (DSC) approach.Although the development of the framework was based on the characterization of the variation patterns of a global dataset,the methodology could be applied to any monthly absolute temperature record.Deterministic processes were used to characterize the variation patterns of the global trend and the cyclic oscillations of the temperature signal,involving polynomial functions and the Fourier method,respectively,while stochastic processes were employed to account for any remaining patterns in the temperature signal,involving seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) models.A prediction of the monthly global surface temperature during the second decade of the 21st century using the DSC model shows that the global temperature will likely continue to rise at twice the average rate of the past 150 years.The evaluation of prediction accuracy shows that DSC models perform systematically well against selected models of other authors,suggesting that DSC models,when coupled with other ecoenvironmental models,can be used as a supplemental tool for short-term (~10-year) environmental planning and decision making.

  17. Multi-Objective Planning of Multi-Type Distributed Generation Considering Timing Characteristics and Environmental Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Gao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to multi-type distributed generation (DG planning based on the analysis of investment and income brought by grid-connected DG. Firstly, the timing characteristics of loads and DG outputs, as well as the environmental benefits of DG are analyzed. Then, on the basis of the classification of daily load sequences, the typical daily load sequence and the typical daily output sequence of DG per unit capacity can be computed. The proposed planning model takes the location, capacity and types of DG into account as optimization variables. An improved adaptive genetic algorithm is proposed to solve the model. Case studies have been carried out on the IEEE 14-node distribution system to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method and model.

  18. Consensus of Discrete Multiagent System with Various Time Delays and Environmental Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheping Yan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the consensus problem of discrete multiagent systems with time varying sampling periods is studied. Firstly, with thorough analysis of various delays among agents, the control input of each agent is designed with consideration of sending delay and receiving delay. With construction of discrete dynamics of state error vector, it is proved by applying Halanay inequality that consensus of the system can be reached. Further, the definition of bounded consensus is proposed in the situation where environmental disturbances exist. In order to handle this problem, the Halanay inequality is extended into a more general one with boundedness property. Based on the new Halanay inequality obtained, the boundedness of consensus error is guaranteed. At last, simulation examples are presented to demonstrate the theoretical conclusions.

  19. Spillover Effects in Environmental Behaviors, across Time and Context: A Review and Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Andreas; Bergquist, Magnus; Schultz, Wesley P.

    2017-01-01

    When implementing environmental education and interventions to promote one pro-environmental behavior, it is seldom asked if and how non-target pro-environmental behaviors are affected. The spillover effect proposes that engaging in one behavior affects the probability of engagement or disengaging in a second behavior. Therefore, the positive…

  20. A design proposal of real-time monitoring stations: implementation and performance in contrasting environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose González

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of creating a real-time monitoring network for both oceanographic and meteorological data, a monitoring station conceptual design was developed. A common framework for software and electronics was adapted to different environmental conditions using two buoy approaches: one intended for oceanic waters, to be moored up to 30-40 m depth, where waves are the critical design factor, and one for continental waters (rivers, lakes and the inner part of estuaries, where currents are the critical design factor. When structures such as bridges are present in the area, the monitoring station can be installed on these structures, thus reducing its impact and increasing safety. In this paper, the design, implementation, operation and performance of these stations are described. A reliability index is calculated for the longest time series of the three related deployment options on the Galician coast: Cíes (oceanic buoy in front of the Ría de Vigo, Catoira (continental buoy in the Ulla river and Cortegada (installation in a bed in the Ría de Arousa.

  1. Modeling Time-Dependent Behavior of Concrete Affected by Alkali Silica Reaction in Variable Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnaggar, Mohammed; Di Luzio, Giovanni; Cusatis, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR) is known to be a serious problem for concrete worldwide, especially in high humidity and high temperature regions. ASR is a slow process that develops over years to decades and it is influenced by changes in environmental and loading conditions of the structure. The problem becomes even more complicated if one recognizes that other phenomena like creep and shrinkage are coupled with ASR. This results in synergistic mechanisms that can not be easily understood without a comprehensive computational model. In this paper, coupling between creep, shrinkage and ASR is modeled within the Lattice Discrete Particle Model (LDPM) framework. In order to achieve this, a multi-physics formulation is used to compute the evolution of temperature, humidity, cement hydration, and ASR in both space and time, which is then used within physics-based formulations of cracking, creep and shrinkage. The overall model is calibrated and validated on the basis of experimental data available in the literature. Results show that even during free expansions (zero macroscopic stress), a significant degree of coupling exists because ASR induced expansions are relaxed by meso-scale creep driven by self-equilibriated stresses at the meso-scale. This explains and highlights the importance of considering ASR and other time dependent aging and deterioration phenomena at an appropriate length scale in coupled modeling approaches. PMID:28772829

  2. Innovation of floating time domain electromagnetic method in the case of environmental geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjanah, Siti; Widodo

    2017-07-01

    Geophysics has some methods that can be used to reveal the subsurface structure of the earth. The physical features obtained from the acquisition then analyzed and interpreted, so that it can be a great lead to interpret the physical contents, determine its position and its distribution. Geophysical methods also can be used to help the environment contamination survey which is referred to environmental geophysics. There are many sources of pollution that can harm the nature, for example, the source in the form of solid waste, liquid waste containing heavy metals, or radioactive, and etc. As time passes, these sources might settle in any sedimentary area and become sediments. Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) is a trustworthy method to detect the presence of conductive anomaly due to sediment accumulation. Innovation of floating TDEM created to maximize the potential of the method, so that it can be used in aquatic environments. The configuration of TDEM modified using pipes and tires during the process of measurements. We conducted numerical simulation using Marquardt and Occam Algorithms towards synthetic model to ensure the capability of the proposed design. The development of this innovation is expected to be very useful to repair the natural conditions, especially in the water.

  3. In-situ time resolved studies of apatite formation pathways - implications for biological and environmental systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkiewicz, O.; Rakovan, J.; Cahill, C. L.

    2006-05-01

    The mineral apatite, Ca5(PO4)3(F,OH,Cl), is of great significance in a variety of fields including life and environmental sciences. Apatite is the main constituent of almost all hard tissues of human body and plays major role in the metabolic processes. Recently, it has gained a considerable amount of attention as a promising candidate for the use in the in-situ metal sequestration of metal ions for environmental remediation, sometimes called phosphate induced metal stabilization (PIMS). We report preliminary results of in-situ time resolved X-ray diffraction studies of apatite formation pathways from aqueous solutions, performed at the X7B beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY. A series of experiments with different Ca/P and liquid/solid ratios in the starting material, and range of temperatures were performed. In the first stage of the experiment, calcium acetate and ammonium phosphate solutions are mixed at room temperature, resulting in the formation of an initial precipitate. The solution is then press-filtered and the remaining slurry, of the desired liquid/solid ratio, is placed inside a heating cell and analyzed within 10 min. of the initial precipitation. The initial precipitate was identified as brushite (CaHPO4 - 2H2O) in all experiments, independent of the initial Ca/P ratio in solution). In the experiment conducted at ambient temperature brushite was the only phase present in the solution/slurry throughout the duration of the analysis. Under the conditions of elevated temperature, however, a sequence of phase transitions, from brushite to apatite with intermediate monetite (CaHPO4) was observed. The pathway of the transitions and the final product was independent of both the Ca/P ratio and the temperature of the reaction. The rate of the transformation, however, increased with increasing temperature. Numerous studies of apatite formation from solution using standard X-ray diffraction experiments

  4. Calibrating passive acoustic monitoring: correcting humpback whale call detections for site-specific and time-dependent environmental characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helble, Tyler A; D'Spain, Gerald L; Campbell, Greg S; Hildebrand, John A

    2013-11-01

    This paper demonstrates the importance of accounting for environmental effects on passive underwater acoustic monitoring results. The situation considered is the reduction in shipping off the California coast between 2008-2010 due to the recession and environmental legislation. The resulting variations in ocean noise change the probability of detecting marine mammal vocalizations. An acoustic model was used to calculate the time-varying probability of detecting humpback whale vocalizations under best-guess environmental conditions and varying noise. The uncorrected call counts suggest a diel pattern and an increase in calling over a two-year period; the corrected call counts show minimal evidence of these features.

  5. Environmental Data Flow Six Sigma Process Improvement Savings Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paige, Karen S [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-20

    An overview of the Environmental Data Flow Six Sigma improvement project covers LANL’s environmental data processing following receipt from the analytical laboratories. The Six Sigma project identified thirty-three process improvements, many of which focused on cutting costs or reducing the time it took to deliver data to clients.

  6. Distributed Multi-Sensor Real-Time Building Environmental Parameters Monitoring System with Remote Data Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beinarts Ivars

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the advanced monitoring system of multiple environmental parameters is presented. The purpose of the system is a long-term estimation of energy efficiency and sustainability for the research test stands which are made of different building materials. Construction of test stands, and placement of main sensors are presented in the first chapter. The structure of data acquisition system includes a real-time interface with sensors and a data logger that allows to acquire and log data from all sensors with fixed rate. The data logging system provides a remote access to the processing of the acquired data and carries out periodical saving at a remote FTP server using an Internet connection. The system architecture and the usage of sensors are explained in the second chapter. In the third chapter implementation of the system, different interfaces of sensors and energy measuring devices are discussed and several examples of data logger program are presented. Each data logger is reading data from analog and digital channels. Measurements can be displayed directly on a screen using WEB access or using data from FTP server. Measurements and acquired data graphical results are presented in the fourth chapter in the selected diagrams. The benefits of the developed system are presented in the conclusion.

  7. Interannual variability in the timing of New England shellfish toxicity and relationships to environmental forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Apurva; Thomas, Andrew C; Borsuk, Mark E

    2013-03-01

    Routine monitoring along the coast of the Gulf of Maine (GoM) reveals shellfish toxicity nearly every summer, but at varying times, locations, and magnitudes. The responsible toxin is known to be produced by the dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense, yet there is little apparent association between Alexandrium abundance and shellfish toxicity. One possibility is that toxic cells are persistent in offshore areas and variability in shellfish toxicity is caused not by changes in overall abundance, but rather by variability in transport processes. Measurements of offshore Alexandrium biomass are scarce, so we bypass cell abundance as an explanatory variable and focus instead on the relations between shellfish toxicity and concurrent metrics of GoM meteorology, hydrology, and oceanography. While this yields over two decades (1985-2005) of data representing a variety of interannual conditions, the toxicity data are gappy in spatial and temporal coverage. We address this through a combination of parametric curve fitting and hierarchical cluster analysis to reveal eight archetypical modes of seasonal toxicity timing. Groups of locations are then formed that have similar interannual patterns in these archetypes. Finally, the interannual patterns within each group are related to available environmental metrics using classification trees. Results indicate that a weak cross-shore sea surface temperature (SST) gradient in the summer is the strongest correlate of shellfish toxicity, likely by signifying a hydrological connection between offshore Alexandrium populations and near-shore shellfish beds. High cumulative downwelling wind strength early in the season is revealed as a precursor consistent with this mechanism. Although previous studies suggest that alongshore transport is important in moving Alexandrium from the eastern to western GoM, alongshore SST gradient is not an important correlate of toxicity in our study. We conclude by discussing the implications of our results

  8. Real-Time Environmental Sensors to Improve Health in the Sensing City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, L.; Campbell, M.; Epton, M.; Storer, M.; Kingham, S.

    2016-06-01

    The opportunity of an emerging smart city in post-disaster Christchurch has been explored as a way to improve the quality of life of people suffering Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), which is a progressive disease that affects respiratory function. It affects 1 in 15 New Zealanders and is the 4th largest cause of death, with significant costs to the health system. While, cigarette smoking is the leading cause of COPD, long-term exposure to other lung irritants, such as air pollution, chemical fumes, or dust can also cause and exacerbate it. Currently, we do know little what happens to the patients with COPD after they leave a doctor's care. By learning more about patients' movements in space and time, we can better understand the impacts of both the environment and personal mobility on the disease. This research is studying patients with COPD by using GPS-enabled smartphones, combined with the data about their spatiotemporal movements and information about their actual usage of medication in near real-time. We measure environmental data in the city, including air pollution, humidity and temperature and how this may subsequently be associated with COPD symptoms. In addition to the existing air quality monitoring network, to improve the spatial scale of our analysis, we deployed a series of low-cost Internet of Things (IoT) air quality sensors as well. The study demonstrates how health devices, smartphones and IoT sensors are becoming a part of a new health data ecosystem and how their usage could provide information about high-risk health hotspots, which, in the longer term, could lead to improvement in the quality of life for patients with COPD.

  9. GIS and Time-Series Integration in the Kennedy Space Center Environmental Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Ross; Costa, Joao Ribeiro da; Engel, Bernard

    1996-01-01

    NASA started the Ecological Program 14 years ago to collect environmental data which can be used in making environmental management decisions. The EP team created the Mapping Analysis and Planning System (MAPS) to store all the data, including the appropriate tools for data analysis and exploration.

  10. Linking Environmental Régimes, Space and Time: Interpretations of Structural and Functional Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, J.; Ibrahim, T. G.; Lexartza-Artza, I.; Turnbull, L.

    2008-12-01

    Traditional approaches to environmental systems have been heavily constrained by separate disciplinary frameworks within ecology, hydrology and geomorphology. Within these disciplines, there has been a significant amount of attention recently to different ideas of connectivity. These differences have reflected different concepts of structural and functional connectivity, and problems of interpretation have been further exacerbated by a lack of attention to systems connectivity. For example, structural connectivity has tended to focus on static representations of the state of the environment and thereby fail to capture the dynamic behaviour of the system. Approaches to functional connectivity have usually failed to appreciate that this connectivity is process-specific and it is thus difficult to generalize from one disciplinary area to another, and indeed in some cases even within the same disciplinary framework (e.g. dissolved pollutants or eroded soil moving in different ways from the water body). A lack of consideration of connectivity between systems can cause serious misinterpretations of system function due to the importance of what essentially become ill- posed boundary conditions. We argue that a more holistic and transdisciplinary approach to connectivity, based on the integration of a range of structural, functional and systems approaches is fundamental for improved understanding of environmental systems across a wide range of scales. We will illustrate the potential of this holistic approach with reference to a wide range of examples relating to our ongoing work. These examples will include groundwater-stream interactions, slope-channel interactions and land degradation. In all of these settings, there are important interactions in the longitudinal, lateral and vertical dimensions. For the former, the capacity of the hyporheic zone to control the fate of contaminants of stream and groundwater origin in contact with riverbed sediments is critical. Key

  11. Environmentally Benign Energetic Time Delay Compositions: Alternatives for the U.S. Army Hand-Held Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-13

    2014, pp 305-314 305 Environmentally Benign Energetic Time Delay Compositions: Alternatives for the U.S. Army Hand- Held Signal Jay C. Poret...munitions such as hand grenades and signaling devices. For example, U.S. Army hand- held signals (HHS) use a pyrotechnic delay element to properly time...compositions for use in the U.S. Army hand- held signal. The large thermal mass of the HHS delay housing, combined with the long burning time requirement

  12. Performance and Aging of Mn/MnO2 as an Environmentally Friendly Energetic Time Delay Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-16

    toxic delay composition with good longevity. KEYWORDS: Pyrotechnic, Environmentally benign, Microchannel combustion, Pyrotechnic time delays, Manganese ... Manganese dioxide, Aging ■ INTRODUCTION Combustion of pyrotechnic time delay compositions are engineered to provide a repeatable time increment in...products can contain toxic chemicals such as BaCrO4. 4 X-ray diffraction analysis of the combustion products for the Mn/MnO2 system is shown in Figure 6

  13. Facilitating sustainable agriculture: participatory learning and adaptive management in times of environmental uncertainty.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roling, N.; Wagemakers, A.

    1998-01-01

    A move towards more flexible, sustainable agricultural practices is being seen increasingly as the way to address or avoid environmental and economic problems associated with existing, predominantly intensive, farming systems. This book examines the implications of adopting more ecologically sound

  14. Identification of environmental anomaly hot spots in West Africa from time series of NDVI and rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschetti, Mirco; Nutini, Francesco; Brivio, Pietro Alessandro; Bartholomé, Etienne; Stroppiana, Daniela; Hoscilo, Agata

    2013-04-01

    Studies of the impact of human activity on vegetation dynamics of the Sahelian belt of Africa have been recently re-invigorated by new scientific findings that highlighted the primary role of climate in the drought crises of the 1970s-1980s. Time series of satellite observations revealed a re-greening of the Sahelian belt that indicates no noteworthy human effect on vegetation dynamics at sub continental scale from the 1980s to late 1990s. However, several regional/local crises related to natural resources occurred in the last decades despite the re-greening thus underlying that more detailed studies are needed. In this study we used time-series (1998-2010) of SPOT-VGT NDVI and FEWS-RFE rainfall estimates to analyse vegetation - rainfall correlation and to map areas of local environmental anomalies where significant vegetation variations (increase/decrease) are not fully explained by seasonal changes of rainfall. Some of these anomalous zones (hot spots) were further analysed with higher resolution images Landsat TM/ETM+ to evaluate the reliability of the identified anomalous behaviour and to provide an interpretation of some example hot spots. The frequency distribution of the hot spots among the land cover classes of the GlobCover map shows that increase in vegetation greenness is mainly located in the more humid southern part and close to inland water bodies where it is likely to be related to the expansion/intensification of irrigated agricultural activities. On the contrary, a decrease in vegetation greenness occurs mainly in the northern part (12°-15°N) in correspondence with herbaceous vegetation covers where pastoral and cropping practices are often critical due to low and very unpredictable rainfall. The results of this study show that even if a general positive re-greening due to increased rainfall is evident for the entire Sahel, some local anomalous hot spots exist and can be explained by human factors such as population growth whose level reaches the

  15. A molecular approach for the rapid, selective and sensitive detection of Exophiala jeanselmei in environmental samples: development and performance assessment of a real-time PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libert, X; Chasseur, C; Packeu, A; Bureau, F; Roosens, N H; De Keersmaecker, S J C

    2016-02-01

    Exophiala jeanselmei is an opportunistic pathogenic black yeast growing in humid environments such as water reservoirs of air-conditioning systems. Because this fungal contaminant could be vaporized into the air and subsequently cause health problems, its monitoring is recommended. Currently, this monitoring is based on culture and microscopic identification which are complex, sometimes ambiguous and time-demanding, i.e., up to 21 days. Therefore, molecular, culture-independent methods could be more advantageous for the monitoring of E. jeanselmei. In this study, we developed a SYBR®green real-time PCR assay based on the internal transcribed spacer 2 from the 18S ribosomal DNA complex for the specific detection of E. jeanselmei. The selectivity (100 %), PCR efficiency (95.5 %), dynamic range and repeatability of this qPCR assay were subsequently evaluated. The limit of detection for this qPCR assay was determined to be 1 copy of genomic DNA of E. jeanselmei. Finally, water samples collected from cooling reservoirs were analyzed using this qPCR assay to deliver a proof of concept for the molecular detection of E. jeanselmei in environmental samples. The results obtained by molecular analysis were compared with those of classical methods (i.e., culture and microscopic identification) used in routine analysis and were 100 % matching. This comparison demonstrated that this SYBR®green qPCR assay can be used as a molecular alternative for monitoring and routine investigation of samples contaminated by E. jeanselmei, while eliminating the need for culturing and thereby considerably decreasing the required analysis time to 2 days.

  16. Environmental cost-benefit analysis of alternative timing strategies in greenhouse gas abatement. A data envelopment analysis approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuosmanen, Timo [Economic Research Unit, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Luutnantintie 13, 00410 Helsinki (Finland); Bijsterbosch, Neil [Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen (Netherlands); MWH B.V., Rijnsburgstraat 9-11, 1059 AT Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dellink, Rob [Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen (Netherlands); Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-04-15

    Assessing the benefits of climate policies is complicated due to ancillary benefits: abatement of greenhouse gases also reduces local air pollution. The timing of the abatement measures influences both the economic costs and ancillary benefits. This paper conducts efficiency analysis of ten alternative timing strategies, taking into account the ancillary benefits. We apply the approach by Kuosmanen and Kortelainen [Valuing Environmental Factors in Cost-Benefit Analysis Using Data Envelopment Analysis, Ecological Economics 62 (2007), 56-65], which does not require prior valuation of the environmental impacts. The assessment is based on synthetic data from a dynamic applied general equilibrium model calibrated to The Netherlands. Our assessment shows that if one is only interested in GHG abatement at the lowest economic cost, then equal reduction of GHGs over time is preferred. If society is willing to pay a premium for higher ancillary benefits, an early mid-intensive reduction strategy is optimal. (author)

  17. Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Lindelof, Anja Mølle

    from the perspective of time and liveness as experienced in art on environmental performance discussing how environmental performances frame the temporality of the world. The paper engages with contemporary examples of environmental performances from various disciplines (sound, video, television...

  18. A robust damage-detection technique with environmental variability combining time-series models with principal components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, K.; Rama Mohan Rao, A.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a novel output-only damage-detection technique based on time-series models for structural health monitoring in the presence of environmental variability and measurement noise is presented. The large amount of data obtained in the form of time-history response is transformed using principal component analysis, in order to reduce the data size and thereby improve the computational efficiency of the proposed algorithm. The time instant of damage is obtained by fitting the acceleration time-history data from the structure using autoregressive (AR) and AR with exogenous inputs time-series prediction models. The probability density functions (PDFs) of damage features obtained from the variances of prediction errors corresponding to references and healthy current data are found to be shifting from each other due to the presence of various uncertainties such as environmental variability and measurement noise. Control limits using novelty index are obtained using the distances of the peaks of the PDF curves in healthy condition and used later for determining the current condition of the structure. Numerical simulation studies have been carried out using a simply supported beam and also validated using an experimental benchmark data corresponding to a three-storey-framed bookshelf structure proposed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Studies carried out in this paper clearly indicate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm for damage detection in the presence of measurement noise and environmental variability.

  19. The relative dependence of Spanish landscape pattern on environmental and geographical variables over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortega, M.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Barrio, del J.M.G.; Elena-Rossello, R.

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of the dependence of landscape patterns on environment was carried out in order to investigate the landscape structure evolution of Spain. The underlying concept was that the dependence between landscape spatial structure and environmental factors could be gradually decreasing over

  20. Toward a New Understanding of Early Menarche: The Role of Environmental Stress in Pubertal Timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierson, Michelle; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined divorce and interparental conflict in light of theory that environmental stress may trigger early menarche in adolescents. Findings from 71 adolescent females and their mothers revealed that, compared to girls from intact families, those from divorced families had earlier onset of menarche. Higher maternal reports of interparental…

  1. Differences in genetic and environmental variation in adult BMI by sex, age, time period, and region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Genes and the environment contribute to variation in adult body mass index [BMI (in kg/m2)], but factors modifying these variance components are poorly understood. Objective: We analyzed genetic and environmental variation in BMI between men and women from young adulthood to old age f...

  2. Differences in genetic and environmental variation in adult BMI by sex, age, time period, and region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Genes and the environment contribute to variation in adult body mass index [BMI (in kg/m(2))], but factors modifying these variance components are poorly understood.Objective: We analyzed genetic and environmental variation in BMI between men and women from young adulthood to old age ...

  3. Governing Global Environmental Flows: Ecological Modernization in Technonatural Time/Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Environmentalism and social sciences appear to be in a period of disorientation and perhaps transition. In this innovative collection, leading international thinkers explore the notion that one explanation for the current malaise of the ¿politics of ecology¿ is that we increasingly find ourselves

  4. Development of a Real-Time Environmental Monitoring System, Life Cycle Assessment Systems, and Pollution Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Walter M.

    2003-01-01

    Pollution prevention (P2) opportunities and Greening the Government (GtG) activities, including the development of the Real-Time Environmental Monitoring System (RTEMS), are currently under development at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The RTEMS project entails the ongoing development of a monitoring system which includes sensors, instruments, computer hardware and software, plus a data telemetry system.Professor Kocher has been directing the RTEMS project for more than 3 years, and the implementation of the prototype system at GRC will be a major portion of his summer effort. This prototype will provide mulitmedia environmental monitoring and control capabilities, although water quality and air emissions will be the immediate issues addressed this summer. Applications beyond those currently identified for environmental purposes will also be explored.

  5. Development of a Real-Time Environmental Monitoring System, Life Cycle Assessment Systems, and Pollution Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Walter M.

    2003-01-01

    Pollution prevention (P2) opportunities and Greening the Government (GtG) activities, including the development of the Real-Time Environmental Monitoring System (RTEMS), are currently under development at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The RTEMS project entails the ongoing development of a monitoring system which includes sensors, instruments, computer hardware and software, plus a data telemetry system.Professor Kocher has been directing the RTEMS project for more than 3 years, and the implementation of the prototype system at GRC will be a major portion of his summer effort. This prototype will provide mulitmedia environmental monitoring and control capabilities, although water quality and air emissions will be the immediate issues addressed this summer. Applications beyond those currently identified for environmental purposes will also be explored.

  6. Evaluation of a commercial real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of environmental contamination with Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, A; Kundrapu, S; Sunkesula, V C K; Cadnum, J L; Fertelli, D; Donskey, C J

    2013-09-01

    Contaminated environmental surfaces are an important source for transmission of Clostridium difficile. However, there are no efficient and easy methods to assess contamination. The performance of a commercial real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was evaluated for detection of environmental toxigenic C. difficile in comparison with anaerobic culture followed by toxin testing of isolates. For 66 sites sampled, PCR had a sensitivity of 17.39%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100% and negative predictive value 69.35%. Increasing the PCR cycle threshold (CT) value to 45 increased sensitivity to 52% without decreasing specificity. The commercial PCR assay is not sufficiently sensitive for environmental monitoring, but improved sensitivity might be possible through CT value modification.

  7. The role of part-time farms in the economic, environmental and spatial transformation of the urban fringe

    OpenAIRE

    Razpotnik Visković, Nika

    2012-01-01

    The doctoral dissertation focuses on the role of part-time farms in the economic, environmental and spatial transformation of the urban fringe. On the basis of the sample of Slovene suburban farms, the impact level of the proximity of workplaces on the mobility of the agricultural workforce can be determined. It can also be determined if socio-economic characteristics of suburban agricultural economies reflect in the characteristics of farm management and in the environment. This consequentl...

  8. Development and validation of a real-time quantitative PCR assay for rapid identification of Bacillus anthracis in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irenge, Léonid M; Durant, Jean-François; Tomaso, Herbert; Pilo, Paola; Olsen, Jaran S; Ramisse, Vincent; Mahillon, Jacques; Gala, Jean-Luc

    2010-11-01

    A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for rapid identification of Bacillus anthracis in environmental samples. These samples often harbor Bacillus cereus bacteria closely related to B. anthracis, which may hinder its specific identification by resulting in false positive signals. The assay consists of two duplex real-time PCR: the first PCR allows amplification of a sequence specific of the B. cereus group (B. anthracis, B. cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus weihenstephanensis, Bacillus pseudomycoides, and Bacillus mycoides) within the phosphoenolpyruvate/sugar phosphotransferase system I gene and a B. anthracis specific single nucleotide polymorphism within the adenylosuccinate synthetase gene. The second real-time PCR assay targets the lethal factor gene from virulence plasmid pXO1 and the capsule synthesis gene from virulence plasmid pXO2. Specificity of the assay is enhanced by the use of minor groove binding probes and/or locked nucleic acids probes. The assay was validated on 304 bacterial strains including 37 B. anthracis, 67 B. cereus group, 54 strains of non-cereus group Bacillus, and 146 Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains. The assay was performed on various environmental samples spiked with B. anthracis or B. cereus spores. The assay allowed an accurate identification of B. anthracis in environmental samples. This study provides a rapid and reliable method for improving rapid identification of B. anthracis in field operational conditions.

  9. Genotypic diversity effects on the performance of Taraxacum officinale populations increase with time and environmental favorability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily B M Drummond

    Full Text Available Within-population genetic diversity influences many ecological processes, but few studies have examined how environmental conditions may impact these short-term diversity effects. Over four growing seasons, we followed experimental populations of a clonal, ubiquitous weed, Taraxacum officinale, with different numbers of genotypes in relatively favorable fallow field and unfavorable mowed lawn environmental treatments. Population performance (measured as total leaf area, seed production or biomass clearly and consistently increased with diversity, and this effect became stronger over the course of the experiment. Diversity effects were stronger, and with different underlying mechanisms, in the fallow field versus the mowed lawn. Large genotypes dominated in the fallow field driving overyielding (via positive selection effects, whereas in the mowed lawn, where performance was limited by regular disturbance, there was evidence for complementarity among genotypes (with one compact genotype in particular performing better in mixture than monoculture. Hence, we predict stronger genotypic diversity effects in environments where intense intraspecific competition enhances genotypic differences. Our four-year field experiment plus seedling establishment trials indicate that genotypic diversity effects have far-reaching and context-dependent consequences across generations.

  10. Genotypic diversity effects on the performance of Taraxacum officinale populations increase with time and environmental favorability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Emily B M; Vellend, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Within-population genetic diversity influences many ecological processes, but few studies have examined how environmental conditions may impact these short-term diversity effects. Over four growing seasons, we followed experimental populations of a clonal, ubiquitous weed, Taraxacum officinale, with different numbers of genotypes in relatively favorable fallow field and unfavorable mowed lawn environmental treatments. Population performance (measured as total leaf area, seed production or biomass) clearly and consistently increased with diversity, and this effect became stronger over the course of the experiment. Diversity effects were stronger, and with different underlying mechanisms, in the fallow field versus the mowed lawn. Large genotypes dominated in the fallow field driving overyielding (via positive selection effects), whereas in the mowed lawn, where performance was limited by regular disturbance, there was evidence for complementarity among genotypes (with one compact genotype in particular performing better in mixture than monoculture). Hence, we predict stronger genotypic diversity effects in environments where intense intraspecific competition enhances genotypic differences. Our four-year field experiment plus seedling establishment trials indicate that genotypic diversity effects have far-reaching and context-dependent consequences across generations.

  11. Development of real-time PCR to detect oral vaccine-like poliovirus and its application to environmental surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai-Itamochi, Masae; Yoshida, Hiromu; Obara-Nagoya, Mayumi; Horimoto, Eiji; Kurata, Takeshi; Takizawa, Takenori

    2014-01-01

    In order to perform environmental surveillance to track oral poliovirus vaccine-like poliovirus sensitively and conveniently, real-time PCR was developed and applied to a raw sewage concentrate. The real-time PCR method detected 0.01-0.1 TCID50 of 3 serotypes of Sabin strain specifically. The method also detected the corresponding serotypes of oral poliovirus vaccine-like poliovirus specifically, but detected neither wild poliovirus, except Mahoney for type 1 and Saukett for type 3, nor other enteric viruses, as far as examined. When real-time PCR was applied to environmental surveillance, the overall agreement rates between real-time PCR and the cell culture were 83.3% for all serotypes. Since real-time PCR has the advantages of rapid detection of viruses and minimum requirement of sampling volume as compared with ordinary cell culture, it is suitable to monitor oral poliovirus vaccine-like poliovirus in the environment, especially in areas where an oral vaccine is being replaced by an inactivated vaccine.

  12. Recovery of indium from used LCD panel by a time efficient and environmentally sound method assisted HEBM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheol-Hee; Jeong, Mi-Kyung; Kilicaslan, M Fatih; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Hong, Hyun-Seon; Hong, Soon-Jik

    2013-03-01

    In this study, a method which is environmentally sound, time and energy efficient has been used for recovery of indium from used liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. In this method, indium tin oxide (ITO) glass was crushed to micron size particles in seconds via high energy ball milling (HEBM). The parameters affecting the amount of dissolved indium such as milling time, particle size, effect time of acid solution, amount of HCl in the acid solution were tried to be optimized. The results show that by crushing ITO glass to micron size particles by HEBM, it is possible to extract higher amount of indium at room temperature than that by conventional methods using only conventional shredding machines. In this study, 86% of indium which exists in raw materials was recovered about in a very short time.

  13. Harvest time in sugar cane and varietal stability in five environmental conditions of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irenaldo Delgado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting of sugarcane at a proper time, by adopting right techniques, is necessary to make better use of the available genetic material. By determining the harvesting time period for each sugarcane variety to show its highest potential, both yield and sugar quality, higher levels of profitability are achieved. The aim of this study is to identify the harvest time of sugarcane cultivars, as well as the stability of the cultivars studied in five localities. The study was conducted at the Sugarcane Research Stations in Villa Clara, Sancti Spiritus, Camagüey, Holguin and Santiago de Cuba. Five experiments were planted (one for each locality, in a randomized complete block design with three replications under rainfed agriculture. Two harvest times were established, time 1 (M1, according to the harvest data from November to January (beginning of harvest, and time 2 (M2 taking into account the data collected from February to April (average stage- end of harvest. The discriminant analysis results allowed establishing two harvest times (November to January and February to April in these five localities, where the effectiveness of each cultivar-Iocality-harvest time combination was higher than 74%. In general, it is advisable the use of cultivars C86-12 and C92-514 during M1 in these five localities, as well as the use of C90-530 in specific zones; and the use of cultivars C92-514 and C89-165 during M2. .

  14. Protecting a quantum state from environmental noise by an incompatible finite-time measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Brasil, Carlos Alexandre; Napolitano, Reginaldo de Jesus

    2011-01-01

    We show that measurements of finite duration performed on an open two-state system can protect the initial state from a phase-noisy environment, provided the measured observable does not commute with the perturbing interaction. When the measured observable commutes with the environmental interaction, the finite-duration measurement accelerates the rate of decoherence induced by the phase noise. For the description of the measurement of an observable that is incompatible with the interaction between system and environment, we have found an approximate analytical expression, valid at zero temperature and weak coupling with the measuring device. We have tested the validity of the analytical predictions against an exact numerical approach, based on the superoperator-splitting method, that confirms the protection of the initial state of the system. When the coupling between the system and the measuring apparatus increases beyond the range of validity of the analytical approximation, the initial state is still prot...

  15. Development of customised environmental chambers for time-resolved in situ diffraction studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styles, M. J.; Riley, D. P.

    2010-11-01

    In an effort to mitigate the expense and broaden the applicability of customised environment chambers, researchers at the University of Melbourne and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) have designed and are currently commissioning a modular reaction chamber, capable of separating the necessities of diffraction methodologies from those of the desired sample environment. The In Situ Reaction Chamber (ISRC) abstracts many of the details intrinsic to the diffractometer, allowing users to design inexpensive environmental inserts that may be readily customised to their individual needs. The first insert to be developed for use with the ISRC is a high temperature furnace capable of providing an oxidising sample environment up to 1600°C.

  16. Transient Water Age Distributions in Environmental Flow Systems: The Time-Marching Laplace Transform Solution Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Cornaton, F J

    2011-01-01

    Environmental fluid circulations are very often characterized by analyzing the fate and behavior of natural and anthropogenic tracers. Among these tracers, age is taken as an ideal tracer which can yield interesting diagnoses, as for example the characterization of the mixing and renewal of water masses, of the fate and mixing of contaminants, or the calibration of hydro-dispersive parameters used by numerical models. Such diagnoses are of great interest in atmospheric and ocean circulation sciences, as well in surface and subsurface hydrology. The temporal evolution of groundwater age and its frequency distributions can display important changes as flow regimes vary due to natural change in climate and hydrologic conditions and/or human induced pressures on the resource to satisfy the water demand. Steady-state age frequency distributions can be modelled using standard numerical techniques, since the general balance equation describing age transport under steady-state flow conditions is exactly equivalent to...

  17. Hopf bifurcation in a environmental defensive expenditures model with time delay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russu, Paolo [D.E.I.R., University of Sassari, Via Torre Tonda, 34, 07100 Sassari (Italy)], E-mail: russu@uniss.it

    2009-12-15

    In this paper a three-dimensional environmental defensive expenditures model with delay is considered. The model is based on the interactions among visitors V, quality of ecosystem goods E, and capital K, intended as accommodation and entertainment facilities, in Protected Areas (PAs). The tourism user fees (TUFs) are used partly as a defensive expenditure and partly to increase the capital stock. The stability and existence of Hopf bifurcation are investigated. It is that stability switches and Hopf bifurcation occurs when the delay t passes through a sequence of critical values, {tau}{sub 0}. It has been that the introduction of a delay is a destabilizing process, in the sense that increasing the delay could cause the bio-economics to fluctuate. Formulas about the stability of bifurcating periodic solution and the direction of Hopf bifurcation are exhibited by applying the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. Numerical simulations are given to illustrate the results.

  18. It is time to develop ecological thresholds of toxicological concern to assist environmental hazard assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Scott E; Sanderson, Hans; Embry, Michelle R; Coady, Katie; DeZwart, Dick; Farr, Brianna A; Gutsell, Steve; Halder, Marlies; Sternberg, Robin; Wilson, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concept is well established for assessing human safety of food-contact substances and has been reapplied for a variety of endpoints, including carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, and reproductive toxicity. The TTC establishes an exposure level for chemicals below which no appreciable risk to human health or the environment is expected, based on a de minimis value for toxicity identified for many chemicals. Threshold of toxicological concern approaches have benefits for screening-level risk assessments, including the potential for rapid decision-making, fully utilizing existing knowledge, reasonable conservativeness for chemicals used in lower volumes (low production volume chemicals (e.g., 1 t/yr) would in principle always require specific information because of the presumed higher exposure potential. The TTC approach has found particular favor in the assessment of chemicals used in cosmetics and personal care products, as well as other chemicals traditionally used in low volumes. Use of the TTC in environmental safety is just beginning, and initial attempts are being published. Key questions focus on hazard extrapolation of diverse taxa across trophic levels, importance of mode of action, and whether safe concentrations for ecosystems estimated from acute or chronic toxicity data are equally useful and in what contexts. The present study provides an overview of the theoretical basis for developing an ecological (eco)-TTC, with an initial exploration of chemical assessment and boundary conditions for use. An international collaboration under the International Life Sciences Institute Health and Environmental Sciences Institute has been established to address challenges related to developing and applying useful eco-TTC concepts.

  19. Delivering enhanced testosterone replacement therapy through nanochannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrati, Silvia; Nicolov, Eugenia; Bansal, Shyam; Zabre, Erika; Geninatti, Thomas; Ziemys, Arturas; Hudson, Lee; Ferrari, Mauro; Goodall, Randal; Khera, Mohit; Palapattu, Ganesh; Grattoni, Alessandro

    2015-02-18

    Primary or secondary hypogonadism results in a range of signs and symptoms that compromise quality of life and requires life-long testosterone replacement therapy. In this study, an implantable nanochannel system is investigated as an alternative delivery strategy for the long-term sustained and constant release of testosterone. In vitro release tests are performed using a dissolution set up, with testosterone and testosterone:2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (TES:HPCD) 1:1 and 1:2 molar ratio complexes release from the implantable nanochannel system and quantify by HPLC. 1:2 TES:HPCD complex stably achieve 10-15 times higher testosterone solubility with 25-30 times higher in vitro release. Bioactivity of delivered testosterone is verified by LNCaP/LUC cell luminescence. In vivo evaluation of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and multiplex assay is performed in castrated Sprague-Dawley rats over 30 d. Animals are treated with the nanochannel implants or degradable testosterone pellets. The 1:2 TES:HPCD nanochannel implant exhibits sustained and clinically relevant in vivo release kinetics and attains physiologically stable plasma levels of testosterone, LH, and FSH. In conclusion, it is demonstrated that by providing long-term steady release 1:2 TES:HPCD nanochannel implants may represent a major breakthrough for the treatment of male hypogonadism.

  20. Forget about data, deliver results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Roland

    2015-12-01

    High-energy astrophysics space missions have pioneered and demonstrated the power of legacy data sets for generating new discoveries, especially when analysed in ways original researchers could not have anticipated. The only way to ensure that the data of present observatories can be effectively used in the future is to allow users to perform on-the-fly data analysis to produce straightforwardly scientific results for any sky position, time and energy intervals without requiring mission specific software or detailed instrumental knowledge. Providing a straightforward interface to complex data and data analysis makes the data and the process of generating science results available to the public and higher education and promotes the visibility of the investment in science to the society. This is a fundamental step to transmit the values of science and to evolve towards a knowledge society.

  1. Impact of a University-Based Outpatient Telemedicine Program on Time Savings, Travel Costs, and Environmental Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullet, Navjit W; Geraghty, Estella M; Kaufman, Taylor; Kissee, Jamie L; King, Jesse; Dharmar, Madan; Smith, Anthony C; Marcin, James P

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate travel-related and environmental savings resulting from the use of telemedicine for outpatient specialty consultations with a university telemedicine program. The study was designed to retrospectively analyze the telemedicine consultation database at the University of California Davis Health System (UCDHS) between July 1996 and December 2013. Travel distances and travel times were calculated between the patient home, the telemedicine clinic, and the UCDHS in-person clinic. Travel cost savings and environmental impact were calculated by determining differences in mileage reimbursement rate and emissions between those incurred in attending telemedicine appointments and those that would have been incurred if a visit to the hub site had been necessary. There were 19,246 consultations identified among 11,281 unique patients. Telemedicine visits resulted in a total travel distance savings of 5,345,602 miles, a total travel time savings of 4,708,891 minutes or 8.96 years, and a total direct travel cost savings of $2,882,056. The mean per-consultation round-trip distance savings were 278 miles, average travel time savings were 245 minutes, and average cost savings were $156. Telemedicine consultations resulted in a total emissions savings of 1969 metric tons of CO2, 50 metric tons of CO, 3.7 metric tons of NOx, and 5.5 metric tons of volatile organic compounds. This study demonstrates the positive impact of a health system's outpatient telemedicine program on patient travel time, patient travel costs, and environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Consequences of Early Life Programing by Genetic and Environmental Influences: A Synthesis Regarding Pubertal Timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Christian L; DiVall, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Sexual maturation is closely tied to growth and body weight gain, suggesting that regulative metabolic pathways are shared between somatic and pubertal development. The pre- and postnatal environment affects both growth and pubertal development, indicating that common pathways are affected by the environment. Intrauterine and early infantile developmental phases are characterized by high plasticity and thereby susceptibility to factors that affect metabolic function as well as related reproductive function throughout life. In children born small for gestational age, poor nutritional conditions during gestation can modify metabolic systems to adapt to expectations of chronic undernutrition. These children are potentially poorly equipped to cope with energy-dense diets and are possibly programmed to store as much energy as possible, causing rapid weight gain with the risk for adult disease and premature onset of puberty. Environmental factors can cause modifications to the genome, so-called epigenetic changes, to affect gene expression and subsequently modify phenotypic expression of genomic information. Epigenetic modifications, which occur in children born small for gestational age, are thought to underlie part of the metabolic programming that subsequently effects both somatic and pubertal development. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Environmental input and cognitive growth: a study using time-period comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttenlocher, J; Levine, S; Vevea, J

    1998-08-01

    In this study, we examined the relation of input to cognitive growth in a single population of children. We studied 4 domains: Language, Spatial Operations, Concepts, and Associative Memory. Four groups of children drawn from the same population were tested in October of kindergarten, April of kindergarten, October of first grade, and April of first grade. These time points are 6 months apart, but they span periods that differ in amount of school input children receive. Much greater growth was found over time periods with greater amounts of school input (October to April) than over time periods with less school input (April to October) for Language, Spatial Operations, and Concepts, but not for Associative Memory. These findings suggest that amount of input is causally related to cognitive growth in particular domains.

  4. Environmental and genetic sources of diversification in the timing of seed germination: implications for the evolution of bet hedging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Andrew M; Johnston, Mark O

    2006-11-01

    Environmental variation that is not predictably related to cues is expected to drive the evolution of bet-hedging strategies. The high variance observed in the timing of seed germination has led to it being the most cited diversification strategy in the theoretical bet-hedging literature. Despite this theoretical focus, virtually nothing is known about the mechanisms responsible for the generation of individual-level diversification. Here we report analyses of sources of variation in timing of germination within seasons, germination fraction over two generations and three sequential seasons, and the genetic correlation structure of these traits using almost 10,000 seeds from more than 100 genotypes of the monocarpic perennial Lobelia inflata. Microenvironmental analysis of time to germination suggests that extreme sensitivity to environmental gradients, or microplasticity, even within a homogeneous growth chamber, may act as an effective individual-level diversification mechanism and explains more than 30% of variance in time to germination. The heritability of within-season timing of germination was low (h(2) = 0.07) but significant under homogeneous conditions. Consistent with individual-level diversification, this low h(2) was attributable not to low additive genetic variance, but to an unusually high coefficient of residual variation in time to germination. Despite high power to detect additive genetic variance in within-season diversification, it was low and indistinguishable from zero. Restricted maximum likelihood detected significant genetic variation for germination fraction (h(2) = 0.18) under homogeneous conditions. Unexpectedly, this heritability was positive when measured within a generation by sibling analysis and negative when measured across generations by offspring-on-parent regression. The consistency of dormancy fraction over multiple delays, a major premise of Cohen's classic model, was supported by a strong genetic correlation (r = 0

  5. Environmental Effects on Measurement Uncertainties of Time-of-Flight Cameras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Sigurjon Arni; Aanæs, Henrik; Larsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the effect the environment has on the SwissRanger SR3000 Time-Of-Flight camera is investigated. The accuracy of this camera is highly affected by the scene it is pointed at: Such as the reflective properties, color and gloss. Also the complexity of the scene has considerable effects...

  6. Effects of stratification on dependence modeling for environmental studies in space and time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, A.; Sterk, G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes the use of stratification in the modeling of dependence for regionalized variables in space and time. Stratification enables optimal use of available information, and it is used when deterministic, small-scale information is combined with large-scale random variation: on the one

  7. Looking Back to Move Ahead: How Students Learn Geologic Time by Predicting Future Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chen; Rehrey, George; Treadwell, Brooke; Johnson, Claudia C.

    2012-01-01

    This Scholarship of Teaching and Learning project discusses the effectiveness of using distance metaphor-building activities along with a case study exam to help undergraduate nonscience majors understand and apply geologic time. Using action research, we describe how a scholarly teacher integrated previously published and often-used teaching…

  8. THREDDS Second Generation (THematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services): Engaging the GIS Community and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenico, B.; Caron, J.; Davis, E.; Edelson, D.; Kambic, R.; Pandya, R.; Nativi, S.

    2003-12-01

    The central mission of the THREDDS (THematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services) project is to make it possible for educators and researchers to publish, locate, analyze, and visualize data in a wide variety educational settings. In the initial phase THREDDS established a solid, working prototype of services and tools to enable data providers to create inventory catalogs of the data holdings at their site and educational module builders to author compound documents with embedded pointers to environmental datasets and analysis tools. These catalogs and data-interactive documents can then be harvested into digital libraries using standard protocols. THREDDS Second Generation (THREDDS2G) will further enhance collaborations among data providers, toolbuilders, researchers and educators. It will do so by expanding the team of contributors and the breadth of data in the collections, taking advantage of recent technological advancements, and integrating THREDDS technologies with emerging standards and related environmental data systems. Since much of this expansion will involve Geographic Information Systems (GIS), THREDDS will actively engage the GIS community with the disciplines and tools that make the end products more useful at all educational levels, for decision makers and for the general public.

  9. Urban poverty: delivering babies in the slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, M

    1998-01-01

    Government of India statistics indicate that about 3 million of New Delhi's 11 million people live in slums, while another 3 million people, most fleeing rural poverty, are expected to migrate to the capital by 2000. ASHA Community Health and Development Society is a nongovernmental organization currently working in 23 of India's slums, serving a population of about 150,000 people. The group has pioneered the use of community-based networks in New Delhi to improve health in the poorest communities. While ASHA has a small, full-time staff, most of the daily health care work is conducted by slum volunteers. Ekta Vihar is a slum community of 1800 residents. Community members' primary source of health care are Vimla Rana and Sobha, two illiterate women who reside in the community and are part of a team of community health workers trained by ASHA. Rana and Sobha deliver almost all of the babies born annually in the slum and care for community members when they become ill.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF LEAKS USING TIME LAPSED LONG ELECTRODE ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MYERS DA; RUCKER DF; FINK JB; LOKE MH

    2009-12-16

    Highly industrialized areas pose challenges for surface electrical resistivity characterization due to metallic infrastructure. The infrastructure is typically more conductive than the desired targets and will mask the deeper subsurface information. These challenges may be minimized if steel-cased wells are used as long electrodes in the area near the target. We demonstrate a method of using long electrodes to electrically monitor a simulated leak from an underground storage tank with both synthetic examples and a field demonstration. The synthetic examples place a simple target of varying electrical properties beneath a very low resistivity layer. The layer is meant to replicate the effects of infrastructure. Both surface and long electrodes are tested on the synthetic domain. The leak demonstration for the field experiment is simulated by injecting a high conductivity fluid in a perforated well within the S tank farm at Hanford, and the resistivity measurements are made before and after the leak test. All data are processed in four dimensions, where a regularization procedure is applied in both the time and space domains. The synthetic test case shows that the long electrode ERM could detect relative changes in resistivity that are commensurate with the differing target properties. The surface electrodes, on the other hand, had a more difficult time matching the original target's footprint. The field results shows a lowered resistivity feature develop south of the injection site after cessation of the injections. The time lapsed regularization parameter has a strong influence on the differences in inverted resistivity between the pre and post injection datasets, but the interpretation of the target is consistent across all values of the parameter. The long electrode ERM method may provide a tool for near real-time monitoring of leaking underground storage tanks.

  11. A Real-Time Scheduling Framework for Embedded Systems with Environmental Energy Harvesting

    OpenAIRE

    El Ghor, Hussein; Chetto, Maryline; Hage Chehade, Rafic

    2010-01-01

    Real-time scheduling refers to the problem in which there is a deadline associated with the execution of a task. In this paper, we address the scheduling problem for a uniprocessor platform that is powered by a renewable energy storage unit and uses a recharging system such as photovoltaic cells. First, we describe our model where two constraints need to be studied: energy and deadlines. Since executing tasks require a certain amount of energy, classical task scheduling like Earliest Deadline...

  12. Delivering HPC Systems to 132 Dock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettering, Brett Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-23

    The intention of this document is to provide the subcontractor with information to enable trucks delivering HPC (High Performance Computing) systems to the 03-0132, computer rooms with the information they need to do so successfully.

  13. Association mapping of loci controlling genetic and environmental interaction of soybean flowering time under various photo-thermal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Tingting; Li, Jinyu; Wen, Zixiang; Wu, Tingting; Wu, Cunxiang; Sun, Shi; Jiang, Bingjun; Hou, Wensheng; Li, Wenbin; Song, Qijian; Wang, Dechun; Han, Tianfu

    2017-05-26

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is a short day plant. Its flowering and maturity time are controlled by genetic and environmental factors, as well the interaction between the two factors. Previous studies have shown that both genetic and environmental factors, mainly photoperiod and temperature, control flowering time of soybean. Additionally, these studies have reported gene × gene and gene × environment interactions on flowering time. However, the effects of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in response to photoperiod and temperature have not been well evaluated. The objectives of the current study were to identify the effects of loci associated with flowering time under different photo-thermal conditions and to understand the effects of interaction between loci and environment on soybean flowering. Different photoperiod and temperature combinations were obtained by adjusting sowing dates (spring sowing and summer sowing) or day-length (12 h, 16 h). Association mapping was performed on 91 soybean cultivars from different maturity groups (MG000-VIII) using 172 SSR markers and 5107 SNPs from the Illumina SoySNP6K iSelectBeadChip. The effects of the interaction between QTL and environments on flowering time were also analysed using the QTXNetwork. Large-effect loci were detected on Gm 11, Gm 16 and Gm 20 as in previous reports. Most loci associated with flowering time are sensitive to photo-thermal conditions. Number of loci associated with flowering time was more under the long day (LD) than under the short day (SD) condition. The variation of flowering time among the soybean cultivars mostly resulted from the epistasis × environment and additive × environment interactions. Among the three candidate loci, i.e. Gm04_4497001 (near GmCOL3a), Gm16_30766209 (near GmFT2a and GmFT2b) and Gm19_47514601 (E3 or GmPhyA3), the Gm04_4497001 may be the key locus interacting with other loci for controlling soybean flowering time. The effects of loci associated

  14. Prediction of leisure-time walking: an integration of social cognitive, perceived environmental, and personality factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanchard Chris M

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Walking is the primary focus of population-based physical activity initiatives but a theoretical understanding of this behaviour is still elusive. The purpose of this study was to integrate personality, the perceived environment, and planning into a theory of planned behaviour (TPB framework to predict leisure-time walking. Methods Participants were a random sample (N = 358 of Canadian adults who completed measures of the TPB, planning, perceived neighbourhood environment, and personality at Time 1 and self-reported walking behaviour two months later. Results Analyses using structural equation modelling provided evidence that leisure-time walking is largely predicted by intention (standardized effect = .42 with an additional independent contribution from proximity to neighbourhood retail shops (standardized effect = .18. Intention, in turn, was predicted by attitudes toward walking and perceived behavioural control. Effects of perceived neighbourhood aesthetics and walking infrastructure on walking were mediated through attitudes and intention. Moderated regression analysis showed that the intention-walking relationship was moderated by conscientiousness and proximity to neighbourhood recreation facilities but not planning. Conclusion Overall, walking behaviour is theoretically complex but may best be addressed at a population level by facilitating strong intentions in a receptive environment even though individual differences may persist.

  15. Prospective randomized trial to compare the outcome and tolerability of delivering the same total dose of radiation in 61/2 weeks versus 51/2 weeks time in head and neck cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Concurrent chemoradiation is currently considered to be the standard of care in the treatment of head and neck cancer. In developing countries like ours, a good number of patients cannot tolerate chemoradiation because of the poor general condition and financial constraints. Those patients are treated with radiation alone. The optimum radiotherapy (RT schedule for best local control and acceptable toxicity is not yet clear. We aimed to find out whether shortening of treatment time using six instead of five RT fractions per week improves the locoregional control in squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective randomized study for a period of 2 years from September 2007 to August 2009 in 109 untreated patients of squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck with histologically confirmed diagnosis and no evidence of distant metastasis. Study group (55 patients received accelerated RT with 6 fractions per week (66 Gy/33#/51/2 weeks. Control group (54 patients received conventional RT with 5 fractions per week (66 Gy/33#/61/2 weeks. Tumor control, survival, acute and late toxicities were assessed. Results: At a median follow-up of 43 months, 29 patients (52.7% in the 6 fractions group and 24 patients (44.4% in the 5 fractions group were disease-free (P = 0.852. The benefit of shortening was higher for advanced disease control though it was not statistically significant. Grade 3 and 4 skin toxicity was significantly higher in the accelerated RT (70.9% arm as compared to conventional (35.1% arm (P = 0.04. Grade 3 mucositis was significantly higher in the accelerated RT arm (32.7% vs. 16.6%; P = 0.041. Those acute toxicities were managed conservatively. There was no difference in late toxicities between the two arms. Conclusion: Use of 6 fractions per week instead of 5 fractions per week is feasible, tolerable, and results in a better outcome in the patients of head and neck cancers.

  16. Environmental Effects on the Time Dependent Failure of Non-Oxide Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-03

    Ceramics, V2 ’, (Ed. by R. C. Bradt, D. P. R. Hasselman and F. F. Lange), Plenum Press, Hew York, 1974, 647. 13. Hong, J. D., Han, M. H., and Davis, R...dicates that the true fatigue limit should be |2E-, \\1142 at a level equal to 0.61 times the Griffith value _K V2 (8) if the reaction of the entire crack...sintered a-sdikon earbides. In general, the in reported kinectics have been attributed to the differences in oxidation rates of the polycrystaliline

  17. GPS Software Packages Deliver Positioning Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    "To determine a spacecraft s position, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed an innovative software program called the GPS (global positioning system)-Inferred Positioning System and Orbit Analysis Simulation Software, abbreviated as GIPSY-OASIS, and also developed Real-Time GIPSY (RTG) for certain time-critical applications. First featured in Spinoff 1999, JPL has released hundreds of licenses for GIPSY and RTG, including to Longmont, Colorado-based DigitalGlobe. Using the technology, DigitalGlobe produces satellite imagery with highly precise latitude and longitude coordinates and then supplies it for uses within defense and intelligence, civil agencies, mapping and analysis, environmental monitoring, oil and gas exploration, infrastructure management, Internet portals, and navigation technology."

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF LEAKS USING TIME LAPSED LONG ELECTRODE ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RUCKER DF; FINK JB; LOKE MH; MYERS DA

    2009-11-05

    Highly industrialized areas pose significant challenges for surface based electrical resistivity characterization and monitoring due to the high degree of metallic infrastructure. The infrastructure is typically several orders of magnitude more conductive than the desired targets, preventing the geophysicist from obtaining a clear picture of the subsurface. These challenges may be minimized if steel-cased wells are used as long electrodes. We demonstrate a method of using long electrodes in a complex nuclear waste facility to monitor a simulated leak from an underground storage tank. The leak was simulated by injecting high conductivity fluid in a perforated well and the resistivity measurements were made before and after the leak test. The data were processed in four dimensions, where a regularization procedure was applied in both the time and space domains. The results showed a lowered resistivity feature develop south of the injection site. The time lapsed regularization parameter had a strong influence on the differences in inverted resistivity between the pre and post datasets, potentially making calibration of the results to specific hydrogeologic parameters difficult.

  19. Performance of a GM tube based environmental dose rate monitor operating in the Time-To-Count mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zickefoose, J.; Kulkarni, T.; Martinson, T.; Phillips, K.; Voelker, M. [Canberra Industries Inc. (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The events at the Fukushima Daiichi power plant in the aftermath of a natural disaster underline the importance of a large array of networked environmental monitors to cover areas around nuclear power plants. These monitors should meet a few basic criteria: have a uniform response over a wide range of gamma energies, have a uniform response over a wide range of incident angles, and have a large dynamic range. Many of these criteria are met if the probe is qualified to the international standard IEC 60532 (Radiation protection instrumentation - Installed dose rate meters, warning assemblies and monitors - X and gamma radiation of energy between 50 keV and 7 MeV), which specifically deals with energy response, angle of incidence, dynamic range, response time, and a number of environmental characteristics. EcoGamma is a dual GM tube environmental gamma radiation monitor designed specifically to meet the requirements of IEC 60532 and operate in the most extreme conditions. EcoGamma utilizes two energy compensated GM tubes operating with a Time-To-Count (TTC) collection algorithm. The TTC algorithm extends the lifetime and range of a GM tube significantly and allows the dual GM tube probe to achieve linearity over approximately 10 decades of gamma dose rate (from the Sv/hr range to 100 Sv/hr). In the TTC mode of operation, the GM tube is not maintained in a biased condition continuously. This is different from a traditional counting system where the GM tube is held at a constant bias continuously and the total number of strikes that the tube registers are counted. The traditional approach allows for good sensitivity, but does not lend itself to a long lifetime of the tube and is susceptible to linearity issues at high count rates. TTC on the other hand only biases the tube for short periods of time and in effect measures the time between events, which is statistically representative of the total strike rate. Since the tube is not continually biased, the life of the tube

  20. Prevalence and social, demographic and environmental factors associated with leisure time and commuting physical activity in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Godim Pitanga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence the sociodemographic and environmental factors associated with physical activity during leisure time physical activity (LTPA and commuting physical activity (CPA. A cross-sectional research design with 460 adults from 20-79 years of age, 300 (65.2% women was carried out. LTPA and CPA were assessed with the IPAQ - long version. The associations were analyzed with logistic regression, estimating the odds ratio (OR with a confidence interval of 95%. The prevalence of individuals active in leisure time was 20.4% and 27.2% of the transportation. After multivariate analysis, the LTPA was positively associated with male, middle and high school, middle socioeconomic status, marital status divorced and possibility of using public space for physical activity, and, inversely with perceived insecurity/violence in neighborhood. The CPA was inversely associated with and age higher than 60 years and positively to the marital status single and divorced as well as, the possibility of using public space for physical activity. Sociodemographic and environmental factors, mainly sex, age, marital status, socioeconomic status, education, possible use of public space for physical activity and perception of insecurity / violence in the neighborhood were associated with LTPA and CPA in adults.

  1. Experience real-time climate change: Environmental education at Jamtal glacier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andrea; Seiser, Bernd; Hartl, Lea; Bendler, Gebhard

    2016-04-01

    Kids hear about climate change in everyday news, but, unlike grown-ups, they find it much harder to imagine changes over decades, i.e. much longer than their own life span. So how to teach them the issues of climate change? Jamtalferner is an Alpine glacier with an ongoing mass balance monitoring programme started in 1988/89. Surveys of glacier length changes by the Austrian Alpine Club date back even longer, so that the glacier retreat after the Little Ice Age is well documented. As the glacier is easy to access, at just one hour's easy walk from the mountain hut, Jamtalferner was selected to compile materials on climate change for the use in schools and for preparing excursions for a hands-on confrontation with climate change and to give an impression of decadal changes. The materials will be available at www.umweltbildung-jamtal.info and include time series of photographs, maps, tables, background information and exercises.

  2. Detecting environmental change using time series, high resolution imagery and field work - a case study in the Sahel of Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, M.; Samimi, C.; Romankiewicz, C.; Spiekermann, R.

    2012-04-01

    Climatic changes and population pressure have caused major environmental change in the Sahel during the last fifty years. Many studies use coarse resolution NDVI time series such as GIMMS to detect environmental trends; however explanations for these trends remain largely unknown. We suggest a five-step methodology for the validation of trends with a case study on the Dogon Plateau, Mali. The first step is to monitor long-term trends with coarse scale time series. Instead of GIMMS, we use a combination of LTDR (derived from AVHRR) and SPOT VGT NDVI data, covering the period from 1982-today with a temporal resolution of 10 days and a spatial resolution of 5.6 km. Areas with significant trends are further analysed in a second step. Here we use a decomposed MODIS time series with a spatial resolution of 250 m. Due to the large scaled MODIS dataset, trends can be identified at a local scale / village level. Using very high resolution imagery (e.g. SPOT, Quickbird) areas of interest can be compared with pre-drought Corona-imagery. This offers a detailed overview of the environmental change at tree-level. Yet many explanations for the changes identified remain unclear. On-site field work provides information on the land use systems, vegetation composition and the current environmental condition. Still many explanations for change can only be speculated and hypothesized. For this reason, interviews with the local population are vital for providing missing details. In this case study, an area near Fiko is introduced and analysed, where significant negative NDVI-trends are observed at a coarse scale. Using the MODIS dataset, the spatial pattern shows areas with both positive and negative trends within the same area. A comparison of high resolution imagery with the Corona images show major land use changes over the past fifty years. What used to be dense bush cover has partially been converted to farmer managed agro-forestry and a significant proportion is now degraded land

  3. Using a "time machine" to test for local adaptation of aquatic microbes to temporal and spatial environmental variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jeremy W; Harder, Lawrence D

    2015-01-01

    Local adaptation occurs when different environments are dominated by different specialist genotypes, each of which is relatively fit in its local conditions and relatively unfit under other conditions. Analogously, ecological species sorting occurs when different environments are dominated by different competing species, each of which is relatively fit in its local conditions. The simplest theory predicts that spatial, but not temporal, environmental variation selects for local adaptation (or generates species sorting), but this prediction is difficult to test. Although organisms can be reciprocally transplanted among sites, doing so among times seems implausible. Here, we describe a reciprocal transplant experiment testing for local adaptation or species sorting of lake bacteria in response to both temporal and spatial variation in water chemistry. The experiment used a -80°C freezer as a "time machine." Bacterial isolates and water samples were frozen for later use, allowing transplantation of older isolates "forward in time" and newer isolates "backward in time." Surprisingly, local maladaptation predominated over local adaptation in both space and time. Such local maladaptation may indicate that adaptation, or the analogous species sorting process, fails to keep pace with temporal fluctuations in water chemistry. This hypothesis could be tested with more finely resolved temporal data.

  4. Language and Meaning in Environmental Education: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stables, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The devotion of this special issue of EER to the language of environmental and sustainable developmental education (SDE) serves as a timely reminder that SDE cannot simply be seen as a culturally neutral or value-free package that can be "delivered". In a variety of ways, contributors to this volume address the issues involved in re-engineering…

  5. Fiber Optics Deliver Real-Time Structural Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    To alter the shape of aircraft wings during flight, researchers at Dryden Flight Research Center worked on a fiber optic sensor system with Austin-based 4DSP LLC. The company has since commercialized a new fiber optic system for monitoring applications in health and medicine, oil and gas, and transportation, increasing company revenues by 60 percent.

  6. Evaluation of inhibitor-resistant real-time PCR methods for diagnostics in clinical and environmental samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Trombley Hall

    Full Text Available Polymerase chain reaction (PCR is commonly used for pathogen detection in clinical and environmental samples. These sample matrices often contain inhibitors of PCR, which is a primary reason for sample processing; however, the purification process is highly inefficient, becoming unacceptable at lower signature concentrations. One potential solution is direct PCR assessment without sample processing. Here, we evaluated nine inhibitor-resistant PCR reagents for direct detection of Francisella tularensis in seven different clinical and environmental samples using an established real-time PCR assay to assess ability to overcome PCR inhibition. While several of these reagents were designed for standard PCR, the described inhibitor resistant properties (ex. Omni Klentaq can amplify target DNA samples of up to 20% whole blood or soil led to our evaluation with real-time PCR. A preliminary limit of detection (LOD was determined for each chemistry in whole blood and buffer, and LODs (20 replicates were determined for the top five chemistries in each matrix (buffer, whole blood, sputum, stool, swab, soil, and sand. Not surprisingly, no single chemistry performed the best across all of the different matrices evaluated. For instance, Phusion Blood Direct PCR Kit, Phire Hot Start DNA polymerase, and Phire Hot Start DNA polymerase with STR Boost performed best for direct detection in whole blood while Phire Hot Start DNA polymerase with STR Boost were the only reagents to yield an LOD in the femtogram range for soil. Although not the best performer across all matrices, KAPA Blood PCR kit produced the most consistent results among the various conditions assessed. Overall, while these inhibitor resistant reagents show promise for direct amplification of complex samples by real-time PCR, the amount of template required for detection would not be in a clinically relevant range for most matrices.

  7. Decision-Making Using Real-Time Observations for Environmental Sustainability; an integrated 802.11 sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, A.; Kleissl, J.; Farhadi, M.; Kim, D.; Liu, W.; Mao, Y.; Nguyen, H. T.; Roshandell, M.; Sankur, M.; Shiga, Y.; Linden, P.; Hodgkiss, W.

    2007-12-01

    Meteorological conditions have important implications on human activities. They affect human comfort, productivity, and health, and contribute to material wear and tear. The University of California, San Diego (UCSD)'s proximity to the Pacific Ocean places it in a temperate microclimate which has unique advantages and disadvantages for campus water and energy use and air quality. In particular, the daily sea-breezes provide cool, moist, and salt-laden air to campus. For the Decision-Making Using Real-Time Observations for Environmental Sustainability (DEMROES) project a heterogeneous wireless network of monitoring stations is being set up across the UCSD campus and beyond. Conditions to be monitored include temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, surface temperatures, solar radiation, particulate matter, CO, NO2, rainfall, and soil moisture. Stations are strategically placed on rooftops and lampposts across campus, as well as select off-campus locations and will transmit data over the UCSD 802.11 wireless network. In addition to rooftop and lamppost stations, mobile stations will be deployed via remotely controlled ground and air units, and stations affixed to campus shuttle busses. These mobile stations will allow for greater spatial resolution of the environmental conditions across campus and inter-sensor calibration. The hardware consists of meteorological, hydrological, and air quality sensors connected to (a) commercial Campbell datalogging systems with serial2IP modules and wireless bridges, and (b) sensor and 802.11 boards based on the dpac technology developed in-house. The measurements will serve campus facilities management with information to feed the energy management system (EMS) for building operation and energy conservation, and irrigation management. The technology developed for this project can be applied elsewhere thereby contributing to hydrologic and ecologic observatories. Through extensive student involvement a new generation of

  8. On the Use of Space-Environmental Satellite Data for Global Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations. Time-Scale Initialisation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Maibys Sierra; Domingues, Margarete Oliveira; Mecías, Angela León; Menconi, Varlei Everton; Mendes, Odim

    2016-12-01

    A global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model describes the solar-terrestrial system and the physical processes that live in it. Information obtained from satellites provides input to MHD model to compose a more realistic initial state for the equations and, therefore, more accurate simulations. However, the use of high resolution in time data can produce numerical instabilities that quickly interrupt the simulations. Moreover, satellite time series may have gaps which could be a problem in this context. In order to contribute to the overcoming of such challenges, we propose in this work a methodology based on a variant of the continuous wavelet transform to introduce environmental satellite data on the global resistive MHD model originally developed by Prof. Ogino at the University of Nagoya. Our methodology uses a simplified time-scale version of the original data that preserves the most important spectral features of the phenomena of interest. Then, we can do a long-term integration using this MHD model without any computational instability, while preserving the main time-scale features of the original data set and even overcome possible occurrence of gaps on the satellite data. This methodology also contributes to keeping more realistic physical results.

  9. BUSINESS PROCESS RE-ENGINEERING: THE TECHNIQUE TO IMPROVE DELIVERING SPEED OF SERVICE INDUSTRY IN TANZANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Joseph Sungau; Philibert C. Ndunguru; Joseph Kimeme

    2013-01-01

    Problem statement: Delivering speed is very critical in today’s business environment. In most cases, service organizations and customers are sensitive to time spent at delivering or receiving a service. Therefore, service organizations must change in order to meet this challenge. Overtime, service organizations have worked hard to identify techniques that enhance service delivering speed for improved performance. Business process re-engineering is one of such techniques that improves busines...

  10. Social Media–Delivered Sexual Health Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Sheana S.; Levine, Deborah; Black, Sandra R.; Schmiege, Sarah; Santelli, John

    2012-01-01

    Background Youth are using social media regularly and represent a group facing substantial risk for sexually transmitted infection (STI). Although there is evidence that the Internet can be used effectively in supporting healthy sexual behavior, this hasn't yet extended to social networking sites. Purpose To determine whether STI prevention messages delivered via Facebook are efficacious in preventing increases in sexual risk behavior at 2 and 6 months. Design Cluster RCT, October 2010–May 2011. Setting/participants Individuals (seeds) recruited in multiple settings (online, via newspaper ads and face-to-face) were asked to recruit three friends, who in turn recruited additional friends, extending three waves from the seed. Seeds and waves of friends were considered networks and exposed to either the intervention or control condition. Intervention Exposure to Just/Us, a Facebook page developed with youth input, or to control content on 18–24 News, a Facebook page with current events for 2 months. Main outcome measures Condom use at last sex and proportion of sex acts protected by condoms. Repeated measures of nested data were used to model main effects of exposure to Just/Us and time by treatment interaction. Results 1578 participants enrolled, with 14% Latino and 35% African-American; 75% of participants completed at least one study follow-up. Time by treatment effects were observed at 2 months for condom use (intervention 68% vs control 56%, p=0.04) and proportion of sex acts protected by condoms (intervention 63% vs control 57%, p=0.03) where intervention participation reduced the tendency for condom use to decrease over time. No effects were seen at 6 months. Conclusions Social networking sites may be venues for efficacious health education interventions. More work is needed to understand what elements of social media are compelling, how network membership influences effects, and whether linking social media to clinical and social services can be beneficial

  11. Delay Efficient Method for Delivering IPTV Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangamesh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Internet Protocol Television (IPTV is a system through which Internet television services are delivered using the architecture and networking methods of the Internet Protocol Suite over a packet-switched network infrastructure, e.g., the Internet and broadband Internet access networks, instead of being delivered through traditional radio frequency broadcast, satellite signal, and cable television (CATV formats. IPTV provides mainly three services: live TV, catch up TV, and video on demand (VoD.This paper focuses on delivering the live TV services by exploiting the virtualised cloud architecture of the IPTV and statistical multiplexing. The VoD tasks are prescheduled so that there will be less Instant Channel Change (ICC delay. We select a proper scheduling algorithm for rescheduling the VoD tasks. We then implement the scheduling algorithm for preshifting the VoD tasks.

  12. Real-Time Delivery of Global Environmental Observation Data From Space-Based Sensors using the Inmarsat BGAN System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, C. C.; Lenz, C.; Yunck, T.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation describes a technique and the resulting improvements in quality and latency related to the collection, processing, and distribution of environmental observation data that is collected globally, from space-based sensors. The technique employs a newly developed transceiver which allows a spacecraft in low-earth orbit to communicate with the ground in real-time, globally, via the existing constellation of Inmarsat commercial communication satellites. The ability to communicate with the space-based platform and its sensors at all times, with data latencies measured in milliseconds rather than tens of minutes opens up new opportunities for the collection and application of data captured by sensors in space, as well as the ability for closed-loop tasking of the space based instruments or uploading large data sets to the instruments. The authors describe the technology involved, followed by the description of how this technology is being applied for the real-time collection of space weather observations. The process of collection, data transfer, processing, and distribution is described, highlighting the areas where this new technology improves value of the collected data with the reduced latency. Finally, the paper provides a glance at other applications and data products where this technology and approach could be employed to improve data value and to develop new applications of data collected on space-based platforms.

  13. Individual and family environmental correlates of television and computer time in 10- to 12-year-old European children: the ENERGY-project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloigne, Maïté; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Bere, Elling; Manios, Yannis; Kovács, Éva; Grillenberger, Monika; Maes, Lea; Brug, Johannes; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-09-18

    The aim was to investigate which individual and family environmental factors are related to television and computer time separately in 10- to-12-year-old children within and across five European countries (Belgium, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Norway). Data were used from the ENERGY-project. Children and one of their parents completed a questionnaire, including questions on screen time behaviours and related individual and family environmental factors. Family environmental factors included social, political, economic and physical environmental factors. Complete data were obtained from 2022 child-parent dyads (53.8 % girls, mean child age 11.2 ± 0.8 years; mean parental age 40.5 ± 5.1 years). To examine the association between individual and family environmental factors (i.e. independent variables) and television/computer time (i.e. dependent variables) in each country, multilevel regression analyses were performed using MLwiN 2.22, adjusting for children's sex and age. In all countries, children reported more television and/or computer time, if children and their parents thought that the maximum recommended level for watching television and/or using the computer was higher and if children had a higher preference for television watching and/or computer use and a lower self-efficacy to control television watching and/or computer use. Most physical and economic environmental variables were not significantly associated with television or computer time. Slightly more individual factors were related to children's computer time and more parental social environmental factors to children's television time. We also found different correlates across countries: parental co-participation in television watching was significantly positively associated with children's television time in all countries, except for Greece. A higher level of parental television and computer time was only associated with a higher level of children's television and computer time in Hungary. Having rules

  14. Is International Accounting Education Delivering Pedagogical Value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chris; Millanta, Brian; Tweedie, Dale

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines whether universities are delivering pedagogical value to international accounting students commensurate with the costs of studying abroad. The paper uses survey and interview methods to explore the extent to which Chinese Learners (CLs) in an Australian postgraduate accounting subject have distinct learning needs. The paper…

  15. TC-1 Satellite of DSP Delivered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunQing

    2004-01-01

    TC-1 satellite of Double Star Program (DSP), a near-earth equatorial satellite, was delivered to the representative of the end user, the Research Center for Space Science and Application under the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) on April 12, 2004, which symbolized that TC-1 satellite was put into operation formally.

  16. Interactivity in an Electronically Delivered Marketing Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Paul D.

    2002-01-01

    In a marketing course delivered using Lotus Notes, 32 students were randomly assigned to large or small groups with heavy or light coaching. No differences in interactivity appeared related to group size or gender. More coaching increased the quantity, not quality, of interactivity. Quality seemed to decrease as quantity increased. (Contains 35…

  17. Is International Accounting Education Delivering Pedagogical Value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chris; Millanta, Brian; Tweedie, Dale

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines whether universities are delivering pedagogical value to international accounting students commensurate with the costs of studying abroad. The paper uses survey and interview methods to explore the extent to which Chinese Learners (CLs) in an Australian postgraduate accounting subject have distinct learning needs. The paper…

  18. Science Ⅲ marine research ship delivered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Wei

    2006-01-01

    @@ On August 18, China's most advanced marine research ship Science Ⅲ was commissioned into operation at Qingdao and became an official member of China's marine research fleet. Designed and built by CSIC, the ship was delivered at Shanghai to the Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Delivering best care in war and peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alison

    2014-06-24

    Col Alan Finnegan, the fi rst Ministry of Defence professor of nursing, is driving forward research into preparing nurses for deployment and ensuring they deliver the best care possible in war and peace. Research topics range from the role of autonomous practitioners to the effects on soldiers of injuries to their genitalia.

  20. A global cyclostratigraphic framework constrains the timing and pacing of environmental changes over the Late Devonian (Frasnian - Famennian) mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleeschouwer, David; Da Silva, Anne-Christine; Day, James E.; Whalen, Michael; Claeys, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Milankovitch cycles (obliquity, eccentricity and precession) result in changes in the distribution of solar energy over seasons, as well as over latitudes, on time scales of ten thousands of years to millions of years. These changing patterns in insolation have induced significant variations in Earth's past climate over the last 4.5 billion years. Cyclostratigraphy and astrochronology utilize the geologic imprint of such quasi-cyclic climatic variations to measure geologic time. In recent years, major improvements of the Geologic Time Scale have been proposed through the application of cyclostratigraphy, mostly for the Mesozoic and Cenozoic (Gradstein et al., 2012). However, the field of Paleozoic cyclostratigraphy and astrochronology is still in its infancy and the application of cyclostratigraphic techniques in the Paleozoic allows for a whole new range of research questions. For example, unraveling the timing and pacing of environmental changes over the Late Devonian mass extinction on a 105-year time-scale concerns such a novel research question. Here, we present a global cyclostratigraphic framework for late Frasnian to early Famennian climatic and environmental change, through the integration of globally distributed sections. The backbone of this relative time scale consists of previously published cyclostratigraphies for western Canada and Poland (De Vleeschouwer et al., 2012; De Vleeschouwer et al., 2013). We elaborate this Euramerican base by integrating new proxy data -interpreted in terms of astronomical climate forcing- from the Iowa basin (USA, magnetic susceptibility and carbon isotope data) and Belgium (XRF and carbon isotope data). Next, we expand this well-established cyclostratigraphic framework towards the Paleo-Tethys Ocean, using magnetic susceptibility and carbon isotope records from the Fuhe section in South China (Whalen et al., 2015). The resulting global cyclostratigraphic framework implies an important refinement of the late Frasnian to

  1. The backend design of an environmental monitoring system upon real-time prediction of groundwater level fluctuation under the hillslope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsueh-Chun; Hong, Yao-Ming; Kan, Yao-Chiang

    2012-01-01

    The groundwater level represents a critical factor to evaluate hillside landslides. A monitoring system upon the real-time prediction platform with online analytical functions is important to forecast the groundwater level due to instantaneously monitored data when the heavy precipitation raises the groundwater level under the hillslope and causes instability. This study is to design the backend of an environmental monitoring system with efficient algorithms for machine learning and knowledge bank for the groundwater level fluctuation prediction. A Web-based platform upon the model-view controller-based architecture is established with technology of Web services and engineering data warehouse to support online analytical process and feedback risk assessment parameters for real-time prediction. The proposed system incorporates models of hydrological computation, machine learning, Web services, and online prediction to satisfy varieties of risk assessment requirements and approaches of hazard prevention. The rainfall data monitored from the potential landslide area at Lu-Shan, Nantou and Li-Shan, Taichung, in Taiwan, are applied to examine the system design.

  2. Optimizing a Drone Network to Deliver Automated External Defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutilier, Justin J; Brooks, Steven C; Janmohamed, Alyf; Byers, Adam; Buick, Jason E; Zhan, Cathy; Schoellig, Angela P; Cheskes, Sheldon; Morrison, Laurie J; Chan, Timothy C Y

    2017-03-02

    Background -Public access defibrillation programs can improve survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), but automated external defibrillators (AEDs) are rarely available for bystander use at the scene. Drones are an emerging technology that can deliver an AED to the scene of an OHCA for bystander use. We hypothesize that a drone network designed with the aid of a mathematical model combining both optimization and queuing can reduce the time to AED arrival. Methods -We applied our model to 53,702 OHCAs that occurred in the eight regions of the Toronto Regional RescuNET between January 1st 2006 and December 31st 2014. Our primary analysis quantified the drone network size required to deliver an AED one, two, or three minutes faster than historical median 911 response times for each region independently. A secondary analysis quantified the reduction in drone resources required if RescuNET was treated as one large coordinated region. Results -The region-specific analysis determined that 81 bases and 100 drones would be required to deliver an AED ahead of median 911 response times by three minutes. In the most urban region, the 90th percentile of the AED arrival time was reduced by 6 minutes and 43 seconds relative to historical 911 response times in the region. In the most rural region, the 90th percentile was reduced by 10 minutes and 34 seconds. A single coordinated drone network across all regions required 39.5% fewer bases and 30.0% fewer drones to achieve similar AED delivery times. Conclusions -An optimized drone network designed with the aid of a novel mathematical model can substantially reduce the AED delivery time to an OHCA event.

  3. Estimation of transit times in a Karst Aquifer system using environmental tracers: Application on the Jeita Aquifer system-Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doummar, Joanna; Hamdan, Ahmad

    2016-04-01

    Estimating transit times is essential for the assessment of aquifer vulnerability to contaminants. Groundwater in karst aquifer is assumed to be relatively young due to fast preferential pathways; slow flow components are present in water stored in the fissured matrix. Furthermore, transit times are site specific as they depend on recharge rates, temperatures, elevation, and flow media; saturated and unsaturated zones. These differences create significant variation in the groundwater age in karst systems as the water sampled will be a mix of different water that has been transported through different flow pathways (fissured matrix and conduits). Several methods can be applied to estimate water transit time of an aquifer such as artificial tracers, which provide an estimate for fast flow velocities. In this study, groundwater residence times in the Jeita spring aquifer (Lebanon) were estimated using several environmental tracers such as Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6), Helium-Tritium (3H, 3H- 3He). Additional stable isotope and major ion analysis was performed to characterize water types. Groundwater samples were collected from six different wells in the Jeita catchment area (Jurassic Kesrouane aquifer) as well as from the spring and cave itself. The results are reproducible for the Tritium-Helium method, unlike for the CFC/SF6 methods that yielded poor results due to sampling problems. Tritium concentrations in all groundwater samples show nearly the same concentration (~2.73 TU) except for one sample with relatively lower tritium concentration (~2.26 TU). Ages ranging from 0.07 ± 0.07 years to 23.59 ± 0.00 years were obtained. The youngest age is attributed to the spring/ cave while the oldest ages were obtained in wells tapping the fissured matrix. Neon in these samples showed considerable variations and high delta Ne in some samples indicating high excess air. Four (4) samples showed extreme excess air (Delta-Ne is greater than 70 %) and

  4. Segmentation of Environmental Time Lapse Image Sequences for the Determination of Shore Lines Captured by Hand-Held Smartphone Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröhnert, M.; Meichsner, R.

    2017-09-01

    The relevance of globally environmental issues gains importance since the last years with still rising trends. Especially disastrous floods may cause in serious damage within very short times. Although conventional gauging stations provide reliable information about prevailing water levels, they are highly cost-intensive and thus just sparsely installed. Smartphones with inbuilt cameras, powerful processing units and low-cost positioning systems seem to be very suitable wide-spread measurement devices that could be used for geo-crowdsourcing purposes. Thus, we aim for the development of a versatile mobile water level measurement system to establish a densified hydrological network of water levels with high spatial and temporal resolution. This paper addresses a key issue of the entire system: the detection of running water shore lines in smartphone images. Flowing water never appears equally in close-range images even if the extrinsics remain unchanged. Its non-rigid behavior impedes the use of good practices for image segmentation as a prerequisite for water line detection. Consequently, we use a hand-held time lapse image sequence instead of a single image that provides the time component to determine a spatio-temporal texture image. Using a region growing concept, the texture is analyzed for immutable shore and dynamic water areas. Finally, the prevalent shore line is examined by the resultant shapes. For method validation, various study areas are observed from several distances covering urban and rural flowing waters with different characteristics. Future work provides a transformation of the water line into object space by image-to-geometry intersection.

  5. TMS delivered for A-3 Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A state-of-the-art thrust measurement system for the A-3 Test Stand under construction at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center was delivered March 17. Once completed, the A-3 stand (seen in background) will allow simulated high-altitude testing on the next generation of rocket engines for America's space program. Work on the stand began in 2007, with activation scheduled for 2012. The stand is the first major test structure to be built at Stennis since the 1960s. The recently delivered TMS was fabricated by Thrust Measurement Systems in Illinois. It is an advanced calibration system capable of measuring vertical and horizontal thrust loads with an accuracy within 0.15 percent at 225,000 pounds.

  6. The role of accountable care organizations in delivering value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Kevin; Depalma, Andres; Joseph, Vilma; Cobelli, Neil; Sharan, Alok

    2012-12-01

    The goal of Accountable Care Organizations is to improve patient outcomes while maximizing the value of the services provided. This will be achieved through the use of performance and quality measures that facilitate efficient, cost-effective, evidence-based care. By creating a network connecting primary care physicians, specialists, rehabilitation facilities and hospitals, patient care should be maximized while at the same time delivering appropriate value for those services provided. The Medicare Shared Savings Program will financially reward ACOs that meet performance standards while at the same time lowering costs. The orthopaedic surgeon can only benefit by understanding how to participate in and negotiate the complexities of these organizations.

  7. Gulf team delivers on DP drillship promise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flatern, R. von

    2001-06-01

    The technological achievements of the project by Amoco and BP to complete a deepwater subsea well in the Gulf of Mexico from a dynamically positioned (DP) vessel are described. In 2000, the dual activity drillship, Discoverer Enterprise (owned by Transocean Sedco Forex), completed the Nile well in the Viosca Knoll area and then the King Well in Mississippi Canyon Block 85. Stringent safety and environmental protection criteria imposed by Amoco and BP drove the design of the Dril-Quip subsea wellhead to ensure that the wellhead profile and connector coped with the worst case scenario. BP also specified a disconnect system that would secure the well in less than a minute. The SenTREE 7 and Commander telemetry systems developed by Schlumberger, the components of the work string and test work with the Nile well to ensure BP conditions were met and that the perforation and surge procedure proceeded successfully are explained. The time reduction achieved by using large DP drillships and future BP plans are outlined.

  8. Specialist Individuals, Generalist Populations, and Gentoo Penguin Foraging Ecology Across the Scotia Arc During a Time of Rapid Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, R.; Polito, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Populations of Gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua), have increased in the Scotia arc in the last four decades, while sister species such as Chinstrap (P. antarctics) and Adélie penguins (P. adeliae) have experienced substantial declines in numbers. Previous dietary analyses suggest Gentoo penguins have a generalist foraging niche, which may help buffer them from recent climate-driven declines in key prey species, such as Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba). Ecological theory indicates that generalist populations fall under two different categories: Type A generalist populations exhibit large variation within individuals, and little variation between individuals, where Type B generalist populations are comprised of individual specialists, with large variation between individuals. It is important to identify which type of generalist population Gentoo penguins fall under, as these strategies impart differing ecological and evolutionary ramifications under times of environmental change. We conducted stable isotope analysis using tail feathers from Gentoo penguins at four breeding sites across the Scotia arc, including the Falkland Islands, South Georgia, the South Shetland Islands, and the Western Antarctic Peninsula, to assess individual variation in winter diets and determine the type of generalist strategies that Gentoo penguins utilize. Preliminary analysis indicates the presence of individual specialization within the four geographically distinct breeding colonies, suggesting that individual resilience to further shifts in food availability may vary within Gentoo penguin populations.

  9. Developmental variations in environmental influences including endocrine disruptors on pubertal timing and neuroendocrine control: Revision of human observations and mechanistic insight from rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Franssen, Delphine; Fudvoye, Julie; Gérard, Arlette; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Puberty presents remarkable individual differences in timing reaching over 5 years in humans. We put emphasis on the two edges of the age distribution of pubertal signs in humans and point to an extended distribution towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final pubertal stages. Such distortion of distribution is a recent phenomenon. This suggests changing environmental influences including the possible role of nutrition, stress and endocrine disruptors. Our ability to assess neuroendocrine effects and mechanisms is very limited in humans. Using the rodent as a model, we examine the impact of environmental factors on the individual variations in pubertal timing and the possible underlying mechanisms. The capacity of environmental factors to shape functioning of the neuroendocrine system is thought to be maximal during fetal and early postnatal life and possibly less important when approaching the time of onset of puberty.

  10. Engineering a plant community to deliver multiple ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storkey, Jonathan; Döring, Thomas; Baddeley, John; Collins, Rosemary; Roderick, Stephen; Jones, Hannah; Watson, Christine

    2015-06-01

    The sustainable delivery of multiple ecosystem services requires the management of functionally diverse biological communities. In an agricultural context, an emphasis on food production has often led to a loss of biodiversity to the detriment of other ecosystem services such as the maintenance of soil health and pest regulation. In scenarios where multiple species can be grown together, it may be possible to better balance environmental and agronomic services through the targeted selection of companion species. We used the case study of legume-based cover crops to engineer a plant community that delivered the optimal balance of six ecosystem services: early productivity, regrowth following mowing, weed suppression, support of invertebrates, soil fertility building (measured as yield of following crop), and conservation of nutrients in the soil. An experimental species pool of 12 cultivated legume species was screened for a range of functional traits and ecosystem services at five sites across a geographical gradient in the United Kingdom. All possible species combinations were then analyzed, using a process-based model of plant competition, to identify the community that delivered the best balance of services at each site. In our system, low to intermediate levels of species richness (one to four species) that exploited functional contrasts in growth habit and phenology were identified as being optimal. The optimal solution was determined largely by the number of species and functional diversity represented by the starting species pool, emphasizing the importance of the initial selection of species for the screening experiments. The approach of using relationships between functional traits and ecosystem services to design multifunctional biological communities has the potential to inform the design of agricultural systems that better balance agronomic and environmental services and meet the current objective of European agricultural policy to maintain viable food

  11. Delivering IT and eBusiness value

    CERN Document Server

    Willcocks, Leslie

    2001-01-01

    Delivering Business Value from IT' is focused on the evaluation issue in IT and how IT evaluation can proceed across the life-cycle of any IT investment and be linked positively to improving business performance. .Chapters 1,2 and 3 detail an approach to IT evaluation whilst chapters 4 and 5 build on these by showing two distinctive approaches to linking IT to business performance. The remaining three chapters deal with a range of evaluation issues emerging as important - specifically Internet evaluation, Y2K and beyond, EMU, quality outsourcing, infrastructure, role of benchmarking, and cost

  12. Performance of data acceptance criteria over 50 months from an automatic real-time environmental radiation surveillance network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casanovas, R., E-mail: ramon.casanovas@urv.cat [Unitat de Fisica Medica, Facultat de Medicina i Ciencies de la Salut, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, ES-43201 Reus (Tarragona) (Spain); Morant, J.J. [Servei de Proteccio Radiologica, Facultat de Medicina i Ciencies de la Salut, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, ES-43201 Reus (Tarragona) (Spain); Lopez, M. [Unitat de Fisica Medica, Facultat de Medicina i Ciencies de la Salut, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, ES-43201 Reus (Tarragona) (Spain); Servei de Proteccio Radiologica, Facultat de Medicina i Ciencies de la Salut, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, ES-43201 Reus (Tarragona) (Spain); Hernandez-Giron, I. [Unitat de Fisica Medica, Facultat de Medicina i Ciencies de la Salut, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, ES-43201 Reus (Tarragona) (Spain); Batalla, E. [Servei de Coordinacio d' Activitats Radioactives, Departament d' Economia i Finances, Generalitat de Catalunya, ES-08018 Barcelona (Spain); Salvado, M. [Unitat de Fisica Medica, Facultat de Medicina i Ciencies de la Salut, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, ES-43201 Reus (Tarragona) (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    The automatic real-time environmental radiation surveillance network of Catalonia (Spain) comprises two subnetworks; one with 9 aerosol monitors and the other with 8 Geiger monitors together with 2 water monitors located in the Ebre river. Since September 2006, several improvements were implemented in order to get better quality and quantity of data, allowing a more accurate data analysis. However, several causes (natural causes, equipment failure, artificial external causes and incidents in nuclear power plants) may produce radiological measured values mismatched with the own station background, whether spurious without significance or true radiological values. Thus, data analysis for a 50-month period was made and allowed to establish an easily implementable statistical criterion to find those values that require special attention. This criterion proved a very useful tool for creating a properly debugged database and to give a quick response to equipment failures or possible radiological incidents. This paper presents the results obtained from the criterion application, including the figures for the expected, raw and debugged data, percentages of missing data grouped by causes and radiological measurements from the networks. Finally, based on the discussed information, recommendations for the improvement of the network are identified to obtain better radiological information and analysis capabilities. - Highlights: > Causes producing data mismatching with the own stations background are described. > Causes may be natural, equipment failure, external or nuclear plants incidents. > These causes can produce either spurious or true radiological data. > A criterion to find these data was implemented and tested for a 50-month period. > Recommendations for the improvement of the network are identified.

  13. DESIGNS MATTER: Delivering Information Sources for Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie A. Nolasco

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tourism has benefits not just for travelers, but also to the local economy. Since, Bicol Region has natural and cultural attractions; it is a potential travel destination in the country. Technology in delivering information sources played vital role for the success of the tourism industry in the Region. This allows travel enthusiasts to get more information about various tourist attractions. This paper analyzes the effectiveness of delivering information sources such as web advertisement and desktop publishing for tourist promotion in the Bicol Region. Specifically, it determined the status of tourism, and identified common forms of promotions for tourism development. The study adopted mixed method of research. This method was utilized to confirm and validate findings. Interviews and focus group discussions were used to gather data from the respondents of the selected Local Government Units, Department of Tourism, Travel Agencies and Hotel Agents in the Region. Based on the findings, of the total foreign visitors in the country, only 9.14% visited Bicol Region in 2014. That is why, domestic tourist showed high percentage against foreign visitors with 25.7%. Brochures with EZ maps as most commonly used desktop publishing materials and websites and social media for web advertisement. Thus, there is a need to reevaluate promotional activities by the DOT and other agencies. Adoption suggestive features for creative desktop publishing materials and web services should be considered to increase tourist visitors in the Region.

  14. Environmental Management System Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Robert; Thorson, Patrick; Horst, Blair; Speros, John; Rothermich, Nancy; Hatayama, Howard

    2009-03-24

    Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management establishes the policy that Federal agencies conduct their environmental, transportation, and energy-related activities in a manner that is environmentally, economically and fiscally sound, integrated, continually improving, efficient, and sustainable. The Department of Energy (DOE) has approved DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program and DOE Order 430.2B, Departmental Energy, Renewable Energy and Transportation Management as the means of achieving the provisions of this Executive Order. DOE Order 450.1A mandates the development of Environmental Management Systems (EMS) to implement sustainable environmental stewardship practices that: (1) Protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources potentially impacted by facility operations; (2) Meet or exceed applicable environmental, public health, and resource protection laws and regulations; and (3) Implement cost-effective business practices. In addition, the DOE Order 450.1A mandates that the EMS must be integrated with a facility's Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) established pursuant to DOE P 450.4, 'Safety Management System Policy'. DOE Order 430.2B mandates an energy management program that considers energy use and renewable energy, water, new and renovated buildings, and vehicle fleet activities. The Order incorporates the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. The Order also includes the DOE's Transformational Energy Action Management initiative, which assures compliance is achieved through an Executable Plan that is prepared and updated annually by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL, Berkeley Lab, or the Laboratory) and then approved by the DOE Berkeley Site Office. At the time of this revision to the EMS plan, the 'FY2009 LBNL Sustainability Executable Plan' represented the most

  15. Reflecting on mainstreaming through environmental appraisal in times of financial crisis — From ‘greening’ to ‘pricing’?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazzola, Paola, E-mail: Paola.Gazzola@ncl.ac.uk

    2013-07-15

    The issue of mainstreaming has witnessed a revival over the last few years, not least because the latest financial crisis has triggered a renewed enthusiasm and a remarkable comeback amongst policy-making and environmental appraisal (EA) communities. Traditionally, environmental mainstreaming is linked to ideas of (environmental) integration and to the ‘greening’ of public policies. Yet, more recent mainstreaming efforts are building on the idea that the achievement of economic growth and of social well-being is not only dependent upon the protection of the environment, but on the fact that the environment should be valued as a source of goods and a provider of services, as well. In this context and despite the many shortcomings that EA has experienced as a mainstreaming tool over the last two decades, calls for EA to engage with ecosystem services and incorporate pricing valuations in its approach to mainstreaming are emerging, raising questions about the role and purpose of EA as an environmental mainstreaming tool. This paper aims to reflect on the role of EA as a mainstreaming tool, in terms of the extent to which it is mainstreaming the environment into policies for sustainable development and changing ‘the mainstream’ by breaking down the false dichotomy of environment and (economic) development. If mainstreaming through EA was to incorporate both greening and pricing logics, could EA be more effective in reframing the environment and development as correlated variables rather than competing variables? -- Highlights: ► Mainstreaming is witnessing a revival over the last few years and a comeback amongst environmental appraisal communities. ► Mainstreaming efforts through environmental appraisal have failed to challenge the deeply rooted belief in economic growth. ► Recent mainstreaming efforts are incorporated in “green deals” following ecological modernisation discourses. ► Environmental appraisal is urged to embrace ecosystem service

  16. Preferential flow, connectivity and the principle of "minimum time to equilibrium": a new perspective on environmental water flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehe, E.; Blume, T.; Bloeschl, G.

    2008-12-01

    importance, connective preferential pathways do not mean any advantage for an efficient transition to an equilibrium in these systems. In fine grained soils Darcy velocities and therefore redistribution of water is 2-4 orders of magnitude slower. As capillary energy dominates in these soils an effective redistribution of water within the pore space is crucial for a fast transition of system to an equilibrium state. Connective preferential pathways ore even cracks allow a faster redistribution of water and seem therefore necessary for a fast transition into a state of minimum free energy. The suggested principle "of minimum time to equilibrium" may explain the "advantage" of preferential flow as a much more efficient dissipation of energy in fine grained soils and therefore why connective preferential pathways control environmental flow. From a fundamental, long term perspective the principle may help us to understand whether and why soil structures and even cracks evolve in different landscapes and climates and b) to link soil hydrology and (landscape) ecology. Along the lines the proposed study will present model results to test the stated hypothesis.

  17. Environmental Tritium

    OpenAIRE

    百島, 則幸

    2000-01-01

    Environmental tritium was first observed in a helium fraction at a liquid air production facility in Germany in 1949. During the 1950s and early 1960s, huge amounts of artificial tritium were released into the atmosphere by nuclear testing. The environmental tritium level increased to more than 200 times the natural tritium level. Since the signing of a test ban treaty in 1963, the environmental tritium level has decreased, and analysis of recent Japanese rain samples has shown that the envir...

  18. People deliver eye care: managing human resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayode Odusote

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available People deliver health. Effective health care needs an efficient and motivated health workforce, which is the totality of individuals who directly or indirectly contribute to the promotion, protection and improvement of the health of the population.Community eye health is about providing eye health care to the people as close as possible to where they live and as much as possible at a price they can afford. It promotes people-centred care rather than the traditional disease-centred eye care services. In order to provide effective and efficient eye care services, we need an adequate number of well-qualified, well-motivated and equitably distributed eye health workers (EHWs.

  19. ISES Experience in Delivering Space Weather Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boteler, David

    The International Space Environment Service has over eighty years experience in providing space weather services to meet a wide variety of user needs. This started with broadcast on December 1, 2008 from the Eiffel Tower about radio conditions. The delivery of information about ionospheric effects on high frequency (HF) radio propagation continue to be a major concern in many parts of the world. The movement into space brought requirements for a new set of space weather services, ranging from radiation dangers to man in space, damage to satellites and effects on satellite communication and navigation systems. On the ground magnetic survey, power system and pipeline operators require information about magnetic disturbances that can affect their operations. In the past these services have been delivered by individual Regional Warning Centres. However, the needs of new trans-national users are stimulating the development of new collaborative international space weather services.

  20. Delivering Hubble Discoveries to the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhamer, B.; Villard, R.; Weaver, D.; Cordes, K.; Knisely, L.

    2013-04-01

    Today's classrooms are significantly influenced by current news events, delivered instantly into the classroom via the Internet. Educators are challenged daily to transform these events into student learning opportunities. In the case of space science, current news events may be the only chance for educators and students to explore the marvels of the Universe. Inspired by these circumstances, the education and news teams developed the Star Witness News science content reading series. These online news stories (also available in downloadable PDF format) mirror the content of Hubble press releases and are designed for upper elementary and middle school level readers to enjoy. Educators can use Star Witness News stories to reinforce students' reading skills while exposing students to the latest Hubble discoveries.

  1. Combining Technologies to Deliver Distance Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Freeman

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1997 a Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA grant was awarded to the Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences (CLS at The University of Texas Medical Branch - Galveston (UTMB for support of the Laboratory Education and Advancement Project (LEAP. The project entailed three primary objectives, targeting laboratory practitioners in rural and medically underserved areas of Texas for delivering a bachelor's degree, laboratory-intensive course of study via distance education. Several delivery mechanisms were utilized and evaluated for their effectiveness and friendliness to both the faculty and students. The authors discuss and describe the mechanisms utilized for delivery of courses, the advantages and disadvantages encountered with each mechanism, and subjective evaluation of the effectiveness of the courses. Also discussed are the lessons learned and plans for future development.

  2. Empathic engineering: helping deliver dignity through design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Ian; Cornish, Katie; Bradley, Mike; Clarkson, P. John

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dignity is a key value within healthcare. Technology is also recognized as being a fundamental part of healthcare delivery, but also a potential cause of dehumanization of the patient. Therefore, understanding how medical devices can be designed to help deliver dignity is important. This paper explores the role of empathy tools as a way of engendering empathy in engineers and designers to enable them to design for dignity. A framework is proposed that makes the link between empathy tools and outcomes of feelings of dignity. It represents a broad systems view that provides a structure for reviewing the evidence for the efficacy of empathy tools and also how dignity can be systematically understood for particular medical devices. PMID:26453036

  3. Delivering advanced therapies: The big pharma approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnowski, J; Krishna, D; Jespers, L; Ketkar, A; Haddock, R; Imrie, J; Kili, S

    2017-07-24

    After two decades of focused development and some recent clinical successes, cell and gene therapy (CGT) is emerging as a promising approach to personalized medicines. Genetically engineered cells as a medical modality are poised to stand alongside or in combination with small molecule and biopharmaceutical approaches to bring new therapies to patients globally. Big pharma can play a vital role in industrializing CGT by focusing on diseases with high un-met medical need and compelling genetic evidence. Pharma should invest in manufacturing and supply chain solutions that deliver reproducible, high quality therapies at a commercially viable cost. Due to the fast pace of innovation in this field proactive engagement with regulators is critical. It is also vital to understand the needs of patients all along the patient care pathway and to establish product pricing that is accepted by prescribers, payers, and patients.Gene Therapy accepted article preview online, 24 July 2017. doi:10.1038/gt.2017.65.

  4. Intranasal formulations: promising strategy to deliver vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riese, Peggy; Sakthivel, Priya; Trittel, Stephanie; Guzmán, Carlos A

    2014-10-01

    The emergence of new diseases and the lack of efficient vaccines against numerous non-treatable pathogens require the development of novel vaccination strategies. To date, only a few mucosal vaccines have been approved for humans. This was in part due to i) the use of live attenuated vaccines, which are not suitable for certain groups of individuals, ii) safety concerns derived from implementation in humans of some mucosal vaccines, iii) the poor stability, absorption and immunogenicity of antigens delivered by the mucosal route and iv) the limited number of available technologies to overcome the bottlenecks associated with mucosal antigen delivery. Recent advances make feasible the development of efficacious mucosal vaccines with adequate safety profile. Thus, currently intranasal vaccines represent an attractive and valid alternative to conventional vaccines. The present review is focused on the potentials and limitations of market-approved intranasal vaccines and promising candidates undergoing clinical investigations. Furthermore, emerging strategies to overcome main bottlenecks including efficient breaching of the mucosal barrier and safety concerns by implementation of new adjuvants and delivery systems are discussed. The rational design of intranasal vaccines requires an in-depth understanding of the anatomic, physicochemical and barrier properties of the nasal mucosa, as well as the molecular mechanisms governing the activation of the local innate and adaptive immune system. This would provide the critical knowledge to establish effective approaches to deliver vaccine antigens across the mucosal barrier, supporting the stimulation of a long-lasting protective response at both mucosal and systemic levels. Current developments in the area of adjuvants, nanotechnologies and mucosal immunology, together with the identification of surface receptors that can be exploited for cell targeting and manipulating their physiological properties, will become instrumental

  5. The Promise and Peril of the State in Neoliberal Times: Implications for the Critical Environmental Education Movement in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahelin, Nicolas; Accioly, Inny; Sánchez, Celso

    2015-01-01

    Neoliberal ideology has made an impact on environmental education (EE) policies and practices in Brazil. The EE in Family Agriculture Program, of national scope and administered by the Ministry of the Environment, seeks to promote sustainable development in rural areas, specifically through strategies focused on adult education and non-formal…

  6. What multiscale environmental drivers can best be discriminated from a habitat index derived from a remotely sensed vegetation time series?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coops, N.C.; Schaepman, M.E.; Mücher, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding which environmental conditions are critical for species survival is a critical, ongoing question in ecology. These conditions can range from climate, at the broadest scale, through to elevation and other local landscape conditions, to fine scale landscape patterns of land cover and use

  7. The environmental Kuznets curve and CO2 emissions in the USA : Is the relationship between GDP and CO2 emissions time varying? Evidence across economic sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congregado, Emilio; Feria-Gallardo, Julia; Golpe, Antonio A; Iglesias, Jesús

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we analyze the existence of the environmental Kuznets curve as reported by Kuznets (Am Econ Rev 5:1-28, 1955) by using the methodology proposed by Kejriwal and Perron (J Econ 146:59-73, 2008, J Bus Econ Stat 28:503-522, 2010) and applying Jaunky's (Energy Policy 39(3):1228-1240, 2011) specification using quarterly data from 1973:1 to 2015:2. We also allow different behaviors across time and identify it by economic sectors. Our results show the existence of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) in the USA only when we allow for structural breaks. Interestingly, the industrial sector shows a different pattern than do other economic sectors; with the beginning of the economic crisis, it appears to have abandoned the objective of the environmental stabilization found until then.

  8. Committing to creating time for integrating contemporary environmental issues into a traditional introduction to Earth Science course, one topic at a time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, H. M.

    2014-12-01

    I teach an Earth Science course, designed as an introductory science class that also fulfills the Earth Science requirement for pre-service teachers preparing to take their state content exam. This course provides an introduction to astronomy, geology, oceanography, and meteorology. By design, the class is content-heavy. Despite this, with so many current environmental and societal issues directly tied to the Earth Sciences, it is essential to address contemporary problems and to educate students about the changes and challenges in the world around them. I have made a commitment to doing this by incorporating relevant societal and environmental issues into every topic and every class session. While this may sound basic, doing so requires diligence and research. For example, when teaching about weathering and erosion, I discuss soils, soil quality and erosion, and the impact this has on our global food supply. A hands-on mineral activity lends itself to looking at the energy and waste involved in ore extraction. A lecture on ocean circulation results in an opportunity to analyze the consequences of the interruption of this pattern due to global warming. Through this approach, students are provided with necessary content; furthermore, by linking traditional content to modern issues on a regular basis, students see the relevance of what they are learning and become more aware of the environmental issues facing society today. Student evaluations indicate that this approach has been successful: 100% of students reported that they learned a great deal from the course, and 100% of students agreed that the quality of the course was high. In addition, prior to the class 55.8% of the students indicated interested in the content; whereas, after the course 88.6% indicated interest, with strong interest in the content increasing from 16.3% to 41%.

  9. Internet delivered diabetes self-management education: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Katherine; Phillips, Beth; Johnson, Constance; Vorderstrasse, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes self-management education is a cornerstone of successful diabetes management. Various methods have been used to reach the increasing numbers of patients with diabetes, including Internet-based education. The purpose of this article is to review various delivery methods of Internet diabetes education that have been evaluated, as well as their effectiveness in improving diabetes-related outcomes. Literature was identified in the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, Medline, EBSCO, the Cochrane Library, and the Web of Science databases through searches using the following terms: "type 2 diabetes AND internet/web based AND education" and "type 2 diabetes AND diabetes self-management education (DSME) AND web-based/internet OR technology assisted education." The search was limited to English language articles published in the last 10 years. The search yielded 111 articles; of these, 14 met criteria for inclusion in this review. Nine studies were randomized controlled trials, and study lengths varied from 2 weeks to 24 months, for a total of 2,802 participants. DSME delivered via the Internet is effective at improving measures of glycemic control and diabetes knowledge compared with usual care. In addition, results demonstrate that improved eating habits and increased attendance at clinic appointments occur after the online DSME, although engagement and usage of Internet materials waned over time. Interventions that included an element of interaction with healthcare providers were seen as attractive to participants. Internet-delivered diabetes education has the added benefit of easier access for many individuals, and patients can self-pace themselves through materials. More research on the cost-benefits of Internet diabetes education and best methods to maintain patient engagement are needed, along with more studies assessing the long-term impact of Internet-delivered DSME.

  10. Design Environment for Novel Vertical Lift Vehicles: DELIVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Colin

    2016-01-01

    This is a 20 minute presentation discussing the DELIVER vision. DELIVER is part of the ARMD Transformative Aeronautics Concepts Program, particularly the Convergent Aeronautics Solutions Project. The presentation covers the DELIVER vision, transforming markets, conceptual design process, challenges addressed, technical content, and FY2016 key activities.

  11. Can timely vector control interventions triggered by atypical environmental conditions prevent malaria epidemics? A case-study from Wajir County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Peter; Harries, Anthony D; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Noor, Abdisalan; Snow, Robert W; Tayler-Smith, Katherine; Hinderaker, Sven Gudmund; Zachariah, Rony; Allan, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Atypical environmental conditions with drought followed by heavy rainfall and flooding in arid areas in sub-Saharan Africa can lead to explosive epidemics of malaria, which might be prevented through timely vector-control interventions. Wajir County in Northeast Kenya is classified as having seasonal malaria transmission. The aim of this study was to describe in Wajir town the environmental conditions, the scope and timing of vector-control interventions and the associated resulting burden of malaria at two time periods (1996-1998 and 2005-2007). This is a cross-sectional descriptive and ecological study using data collected for routine program monitoring and evaluation. In both time periods, there were atypical environmental conditions with drought and malnutrition followed by massive monthly rainfall resulting in flooding and animal/human Rift Valley Fever. In 1998, this was associated with a large and explosive malaria epidemic (weekly incidence rates peaking at 54/1,000 population/week) with vector-control interventions starting over six months after the massive rainfall and when the malaria epidemic was abating. In 2007, vector-control interventions started sooner within about three months after the massive rainfall and no malaria epidemic was recorded with weekly malaria incidence rates never exceeding 0.5 per 1,000 population per week. Did timely vector-control interventions in Wajir town prevent a malaria epidemic? In 2007, the neighboring county of Garissa experienced similar climatic events as Wajir, but vector-control interventions started six months after the heavy un-seasonal rainfall and large scale flooding resulted in a malaria epidemic with monthly incidence rates peaking at 40/1,000 population. In conclusion, this study suggests that atypical environmental conditions can herald a malaria outbreak in certain settings. In turn, this should alert responsible stakeholders about the need to act rapidly and preemptively with appropriate and wide

  12. Varying polymer architecture to deliver drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Heath, Felicity; Haria, Prinal; Alexander, Cameron

    2007-01-01

    Variable architecture polymers are of considerable interest for the delivery of therapeutic biopolymers, such as DNA and proteins, to their site of action. Polymers that can respond with a change in conformation to biologically relevant stimuli, such as temperature and pH, are being carefully designed to take advantage of the change in environmental conditions the polymer-drug conjugate encounters upon progression from larger-scale systems in the body to subcellular compartments. Viruses resp...

  13. The Risk of Delivering Disturbing Messages to Zoo Family Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esson, Maggie; Moss, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    One of the roles of the modern zoo is to provide environmental education. Zoo visitation comprises primarily family groups seeking to spend time together. There is potential for tension between message and audience expectation as zoos seek to raise awareness of the effects of irresponsible human behavior on the environment. This may unsettle…

  14. The Risk of Delivering Disturbing Messages to Zoo Family Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esson, Maggie; Moss, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    One of the roles of the modern zoo is to provide environmental education. Zoo visitation comprises primarily family groups seeking to spend time together. There is potential for tension between message and audience expectation as zoos seek to raise awareness of the effects of irresponsible human behavior on the environment. This may unsettle…

  15. Smoking onset and the time-varying effects of self-efficacy, environmental smoking, and smoking-specific parenting by using discrete-time survival analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, J.M.; Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the timing of smoking onset during mid- or late adolescence and the time-varying effects of refusal self-efficacy, parental and sibling smoking behavior, smoking behavior of friends and best friend, and parental smoking-specific communication. We used data from five annual waves

  16. Smoking onset and the time-varying effects of self-efficacy, environmental smoking, and smoking-specific parenting by using discrete-time survival analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, J.M.; Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the timing of smoking onset during mid- or late adolescence and the time-varying effects of refusal self-efficacy, parental and sibling smoking behavior, smoking behavior of friends and best friend, and parental smoking-specific communication. We used data from five annual waves

  17. Where should noninvasive ventilation be delivered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nicholas S

    2009-01-01

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has assumed an important role in the management of certain types of respiratory failure in acute-care hospitals. However, the optimal location for NIV has been a matter of debate. Some have argued that all patients begun on NIV in the acute-care setting should go to an intensive care unit (ICU), but this is impractical because ICU beds are often unavailable, and it may not be a sensible use of resources. Also, relatively few studies have examined the question of location for NIV. One problem is that various units' capabilities to deliver NIV differ substantially, even in the same hospital. Choosing the appropriate environment for NIV requires consideration of the patient's need for monitoring, the monitoring capabilities of the unit, including both technical and personnel resources (nursing and respiratory therapy), and the staff's skill and experience. In some hospitals NIV is begun most often in the emergency department, but is most often managed in an ICU. Step-down units are often good locations for NIV, but many institutions do not have step-down units. With ICU beds at a premium, many hospitals are forced to manage some NIV patients on general wards, which can be safely done with more stable patients if the ward is suitably monitored and experienced. When deciding where to locate the patient, clinicians must be familiar with the capabilities of the units in their facility and try to match the patient's need for monitoring and the unit's capabilities.

  18. Delivering new physics at impressive speed

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    The speed with which the heavy ion run at the LHC is delivering new physics is impressive not only for the insights it is bringing to the early Universe, but also for the clear demonstration it gives of the value of competition and complementarity between the experiments.   ALICE was the first off the mark to publish papers from the ion run, as you’d expect from the LHC’s dedicated ion experiment, but results emerging from ATLAS and CMS are bringing new understanding in their own right. Each collaboration’s result plays to the strengths of its detector, and it is by taking all the results together that our knowledge advances. The creation, observation and understanding of the hot dense matter that would have existed in the early Universe, normally known as Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP), is complex science and one of the ion programme’s key goals. Many signals for QGP exist, and like pieces of a puzzle, we must assemble all of them to get the full picture. At th...

  19. Changes in nurse education: delivering the curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Graham

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine changes in pre-registration nursing education through the personal accounts of nurse teachers. This paper is based on 37 in-depth interviews within a central London Healthcare Faculty. Each interview was subjected to a process of content analysis described by Miles and Huberman. The interviews took place between August 2003 and March 2004 and totalled 34.4 hours or 305,736 words. There were thirty female and seven male participants, who shared 1015 years of nursing experience, averaging at 27.4 years (min 7-max 42). These were supplemented by 552 years of teaching practice, the average being 15 years (min 0.5-max 29). This paper--delivering the nursing curriculum--identifies that the nature of nursing has changed as it has both expanded and contracted. Participants identified three major changes; the nature of nursing, selection of future nurses and the current impact that large cohorts have on our traditional model of person-centred education. The practice placements remain central to nursing education and it is the nursing role that should define the curriculum and the values of higher education should be supportive of this identity.

  20. Delivering the Goods for Genome Engineering and Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, Kristian Alsbjerg; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm

    2015-08-01

    A basic understanding of genome evolution and the life and impact of microorganisms, like viruses and bacteria, has been fundamental in the quest for efficient genetic therapies. The expanding tool box for genetic engineering now contains transposases, recombinases, and nucleases, all created from naturally occurring genome-modifying proteins. Whereas conventional gene therapies have sought to establish sustained expression of therapeutic genes, genomic tools are needed only in a short time window and should be delivered to cells ideally in a balanced "hit-and-run" fashion. Current state-of-the-art delivery strategies are based on intracellular production of protein from transfected plasmid DNA or in vitro-transcribed RNA, or from transduced viral templates. Here, we discuss advantages and challenges of intracellular production strategies and describe emerging approaches based on the direct delivery of protein either by transfer of recombinant protein or by lentiviral protein transduction. With focus on adapting viruses for protein delivery, we describe the concept of "all-in-one" lentiviral particles engineered to codeliver effector proteins and donor sequences for DNA transposition or homologous recombination. With optimized delivery methods-based on transferring DNA, RNA, or protein-it is no longer far-fetched that researchers in the field will indeed deliver the goods for somatic gene therapies.

  1. Model approaches for estimating the influence of time-varying socio-environmental factors on macroparasite transmission in two endemic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remais, Justin; Zhong, Bo; Carlton, Elizabeth J; Spear, Robert C

    2009-12-01

    The environmental determinants of vector- and host-borne diseases include time-varying components that modify key transmission parameters, resulting in transient couplings between environmental phenomena and transmission processes. While some time-varying drivers are periodic in nature, some are aperiodic, such as those that involve episodic events or complex patterns of human behavior. Understanding these couplings can allow for prediction of periods of peak infection risk, and ultimately presents opportunities for optimizing intervention selection and timing. Schistosome macroparasites of humans exhibit multiple free-living stages as well as intermediate hosts, and are thus model organisms for illustrating the influence of environmental forcing on transmission. Time-varying environmental factors, termed gating functions, for schistosomes include larval response to temperature and rainfall, seasonal water contact patterns and snail population dynamics driven by weather variables. The biological bases for these modifiers are reviewed, and their values are estimated and incorporated into a transmission model that simulates a multi-year period in two schistosomiasis endemic regions. Modeling results combined with a scale dependent correlation analysis indicate the end effect of these site-specific gating functions is to strongly govern worm burden in these communities, in a manner particularly sensitive to the hydrological differences between sites. Two classes of gating functions were identified, those that act in concert to modify human infection (and determine worm acquisition late in the season), and those that act on snail infection (and determine early season worm acquisition). The importance of these factors for control programs and surveillance is discussed.

  2. Denver Developmental Screening Test in two-year old infants delivered by vacuum extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriah Sembiring

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the developmental retardation of infants of two years of age who were delivered by vacuum extraction. This cross-sectional study examined 44 infants delivered by vacuum extraction, comprising 25 males and 19 females who were born in Tembakau Deli and St. Elizabeth Hospitals, between August 1993 until February 1994. The examination included interview and physical examination in the patient's house. Chi-square statistics analysis was used with a significant level of 95% (1'=0.05. The results showed Ihat of the 44 infants delivered by vacuum extraction. 28 (32% had had were found with mild asphyxia, while 2 infants (5%. whose mothers work as private clerk and entrepreneur, had development retardation. We concluded that there was no significant difference in development between infants delivered by vacuum extraction and those who were born spontaneously. Developmental retardation was found in infants whose mothers lack time to communicate.

  3. Retrovirus-delivered siRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devroe Eric

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of transfected synthetic small interfering (si RNAs to suppress the expression of specific transcripts has proved a useful technique to probe gene function in mammalian cells. However, high production costs limit this technology's utility for many laboratories and experimental situations. Recently, several DNA-based plasmid vectors have been developed that direct transcription of small hairpin RNAs, which are processed into functional siRNAs by cellular enzymes. Although these vectors provide certain advantages over chemically synthesized siRNAs, numerous disadvantages remain including merely transient siRNA expression and low and variable transfection efficiency. Results To overcome several limitations of plasmid-based siRNA, a retroviral siRNA delivery system was developed based on commerically available vectors. As a pilot study, a vector was designed to target the human Nuclear Dbf2-Related (NDR kinase. Cells infected with the anti-NDR siRNA virus dramatically downregulate NDR expression, whereas control viruses have no effect on total NDR levels. To confirm and extend these findings, an additional virus was constructed to target a second gene, transcriptional coactivator p75. Conclusion The experiments presented here demonstrate that retroviruses are efficient vectors for delivery of siRNA into mammalian cells. Retrovirus-delivered siRNA provides significant advancement over previously available methods by providing efficient, uniform delivery and immediate selection of stable "knock-down" cells. This development should provide a method to rapidly assess gene function in established cell lines, primary cells, or animals.

  4. More Soil Delivered to Phoenix Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager, documents the delivery of a soil sample from the 'Snow White' trench to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory. A small pile of soil is visible on the lower edge of the second cell from the top.This deck-mounted lab is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The delivery was made on Sept. 12, 2008, which was Sol 107 (the 107th Martian day) of the mission, which landed on May 25, 2008. The Wet Chemistry Laboratory mixes Martian soil with an aqueous solution from Earth as part of a process to identify soluble nutrients and other chemicals in the soil. Preliminary analysis of this soil confirms that it is alkaline, and composed of salts and other chemicals such as perchlorate, sodium, magnesium, chloride and potassium. This data validates prior results from that same location, said JPL's Michael Hecht, the lead scientist for MECA. In the coming days, the Phoenix team will also fill the final four of eight single-use ovens on another soil-analysis instrument, the Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The team's strategy is to deliver as many samples as possible before the power produced by Phoenix's solar panels declines due to the end of the Martian summer. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. It's time to set some standards: Environmental classification of freshwater wetlands in New Zealand and their protection from eutrophication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, Brian Keith; Clarkson, Beverly

    Most natural resource plans provide protection for lakes and rivers from catchment activities leading to eutrophication. However, they are often silent about wetlands, due to the lack of information available for setting standards, defining reference conditions, and predicting responses to nutrient...... states in New Zealand wetlands, present an environmental classification based on physico-chemical and nutrient data, compare wetlands in New Zealand with those in other temperate regions, and argue for some catchment land use standards to protect wetlands from nutrient enrichment. Our database reveals...

  6. Correlation between bioaerosol microbial community characteristics and real-time measurable environmental items: A case study from KORUS-AQ pre-campaign in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, H.

    2015-12-01

    Due to global climate change, bioaerosols are more globally mixed with a more random manner. During a long-distance traveling dust event, the number of microbes significantly increases in bioaerosol, and the chance for bioaerosol to contain human pathogenic microorganisms may also increase. Recently, we have found that bioaerosol microbial community characteristics (copy number of total bacterial 16S rRNA genes, and population diversity and composition) are correlated with the quantitative detection of potential human pathogens. However, bioaerosol microbial community characteristics cannot be directly used in real-time monitoring because the DNA-based detection method requires at least couple days or a week to get reliable data. To circumvent this problem, a correlation of microbial community characteristics with real-time measurable environmental items (PM10, PM2.5, temperature, humidity, NOx, O3 etc.), if any, will be useful in frequent assessment of microbial risk from available real-time measured environmental data. In this work, we monitored bioaerosol microbial communities using a high-throughput DNA sequencing method (Mi-seq) during the KORUS-AQ (KoreaUS-Air Quality) pre-campaign (May to June, 2015) in Seoul, and investigated whether any correlation exists between the bioaerosol microbial community characteristics and the real-time measureable environmental items simultaneously attained during the pre-campaign period. At the pre-campaign site (Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul), bioaerosol samples were collected using high volume air sampler, and their 16S rRNA gene based bacterial communities were analyzed by Miseq sequencing and bioinformatics. Simultaneously, atmosphere environmental items were monitored at the same site. Using Decision Tree, a non-linear multi-variant correlation was observed between the bioaerosol microbial community characteristics and the real-time measured atmosphere chemistry data, and a rule induction was developed

  7. Social and Ecological Drivers of the Economic Value of Pollination Services Delivered to Coffee in Central Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Mushambanyi Théodore Munyuli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available On-farm pollination experiments were conducted in 30 different small-scale coffee fields to determine monetary value attributable to pollination services in coffee production and to identify the degree of influences of various socio-ecological drivers in Uganda. Ecological-economic approaches were applied to determine the economic value of pollinating services. Economic value of bees increased significantly with increase in coffee farm size, bee diversity, and cover of seminatural habitats. The value of bees declined sharply (P<0.05 with forest distance and cultivation intensity. Economic values of pollinating services associated with coffee fields established in regions with low intensity were found to be high. Organically managed small-scale coffee fields were 2 times more profitable than commercially managed farms. The annual value of pollinating services delivered by wild bees oscillated between US$67.18 and US$1431.36. Central Uganda produces in total 0.401 million tons of coffee beans for an approximate economic value of US$214 million from which US$149.42 million are attributable to pollination services. Policy makers should strengthen environmental/agricultural extension service systems to better serve farmers. Farmers are recommended to protect/increase the cover of natural and semi-natural habitats in the vicinity of their coffee fields to receive high economic benefits from pollinating services delivered by bees.

  8. Defining the biosecurity risk posed by transported soil: Effects of storage time and environmental exposure on survival of soil biota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. McNeill

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil frequently occurs as a contaminant on numerous sea, land and air transport pathways. It can carry unwanted invasive species, is widely recognized as a biosecurity risk, and is usually strictly regulated by biosecurity authorities. However, little is known about relative risk levels between pathways, thus authorities have limited capability to identify and target the riskiest soil pathways for management. We conducted a an experiment to test the hypotheses that biosecurity risks from soil organisms will increase both with declining transport duration and with increasing protection from environmental extremes. Soil was collected from two sites, a native forest remnant and an orchard, and stored on, in and under sea containers, or in cupboards, and assayed after 0, 3, 6 and 12 months for bacteria, fungi, nematodes and seeds. Results showed that viability of Pseudomonas spp., bacteria, nematodes and plants declined over 12 months, irrespective of soil source. Also, mortality of most biota was higher when exposed to sunlight, moisture and desiccation than when protected. However, bacterial and fungal numbers were higher in exposed environments, possibly due to ongoing colonization of exposed soil by airborne propagules. The results were consistent with our observations of organisms in soil intercepted from airports and sea ports, and indicated there is potential to rank risks from transported soils based partly on transport duration and environmental exposure. This would help authorities to optimally allocate management resources according to pathway-specific risks.

  9. Event-Driven Collaboration through Publish/Subscribe Messaging Services for Near-Real- Time Environmental Sensor Anomaly Detection and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Downey, S.; Minsker, B.; Myers, J. D.; Wentling, T.; Marini, L.

    2006-12-01

    One of the challenges in designing cyberinfrastructure for national environmental observatories is how to provide integrated cyberenvironment which not only provides a standardized pipeline for streaming data from sensors into the observatory for archiving and distribution, but also makes raw data and identified events available in real-time for use in individual and group research efforts. This aspect of observatories is critical for promoting efficient collaboration and innovation among scientists and engineers and enabling observatories to serve as a focus that directly supports the broad community. The National Center for Supercomputing Applications' Environmental Cyberinfrastructure Demo (ECID) project has adopted an event-driven architecture and developed a CyberCollaboratory to facilitate event-driven, near-real-time collaboration and management of sensors and workflows for bringing data from environmental observatories into local research contexts. The CyberCollaboratory's event broker uses publish-subscribe service powered by JMS (Java Messaging Service) with semantics-enhanced messages using RDF (Resource Description Framework) triples to allow exchange of contextual information about the event between the event generators and the event consumers. Non-scheduled, event-driven collaboration effectively reduces the barrier to collaboration for scientists and engineers and promotes much faster turn-around time for critical environmental events. This is especially useful for real-time adaptive monitoring and modeling of sensor data in environmental observatories. In this presentation, we illustrate our system using a sensor anomaly detection event as an example where near-real- time data streams from field sensor in Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, trigger monitoring/anomaly alerts in the CyberCollaboratory's CyberDashboard and collaborative activities in the CyberCollaboratory. The CyberDashboard is a Java application where users can monitor various events

  10. Aggregation in environmental systems - Part 1: Seasonal tracer cycles quantify young water fractions, but not mean transit times, in spatially heterogeneous catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental heterogeneity is ubiquitous, but environmental systems are often analyzed as if they were homogeneous instead, resulting in aggregation errors that are rarely explored and almost never quantified. Here I use simple benchmark tests to explore this general problem in one specific context: the use of seasonal cycles in chemical or isotopic tracers (such as Cl-, δ18O, or δ2H) to estimate timescales of storage in catchments. Timescales of catchment storage are typically quantified by the mean transit time, meaning the average time that elapses between parcels of water entering as precipitation and leaving again as streamflow. Longer mean transit times imply greater damping of seasonal tracer cycles. Thus, the amplitudes of tracer cycles in precipitation and streamflow are commonly used to calculate catchment mean transit times. Here I show that these calculations will typically be wrong by several hundred percent, when applied to catchments with realistic degrees of spatial heterogeneity. This aggregation bias arises from the strong nonlinearity in the relationship between tracer cycle amplitude and mean travel time. I propose an alternative storage metric, the young water fraction in streamflow, defined as the fraction of runoff with transit times of less than roughly 0.2 years. I show that this young water fraction (not to be confused with event-based "new water" in hydrograph separations) is accurately predicted by seasonal tracer cycles within a precision of a few percent, across the entire range of mean transit times from almost zero to almost infinity. Importantly, this relationship is also virtually free from aggregation error. That is, seasonal tracer cycles also accurately predict the young water fraction in runoff from highly heterogeneous mixtures of subcatchments with strongly contrasting transit-time distributions. Thus, although tracer cycle amplitudes yield biased and unreliable estimates of catchment mean travel times in heterogeneous

  11. Delivering a Multi-Functional and Resilient Urban Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Hale

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tree planting is widely advocated and applied in urban areas, with large-scale projects underway in cities globally. Numerous potential benefits are used to justify these planting campaigns. However, reports of poor tree survival raise questions about the ability of such projects to deliver on their promises over the long-term. Each potential benefit requires different supporting conditions—relating not only to the type and placement of the tree, but also to the broader urban system within which it is embedded. This set of supporting conditions may not always be mutually compatible and may not persist for the lifetime of the tree. Here, we demonstrate a systems-based approach that makes these dependencies, synergies, and tensions more explicit, allowing them to be used to test the decadal-scale resilience of urban street trees. Our analysis highlights social, environmental, and economic assumptions that are implicit within planting projects; notably that high levels of maintenance and public support for urban street trees will persist throughout their natural lifespan, and that the surrounding built form will remain largely unchanged. Whilst the vulnerability of each benefit may be highly context specific, we identify approaches that address some typical weaknesses, making a functional, resilient, urban forest more attainable.

  12. Electronic compensation technique to deliver a total body dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakeman, Tara E.

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) uses large parallel-opposed radiation fields to suppress the patient's immune system and eradicate the residual cancer cells in preparation of recipient for bone marrow transplant. The manual placement of lead compensators has been conventionally used to compensate for the varying thickness throughout the body in large-field TBI. The goal of this study is to pursue utilizing the modern electronic compensation technique to more accurately and efficiently deliver dose to patients in need of TBI. Method: Treatment plans utilizing the electronic compensation to deliver a total body dose were created retrospectively for patients for whom CT data had been previously acquired. Each treatment plan includes two pair of parallel opposed fields. One pair of large fields is used to encompass the majority of the patient's anatomy. The other pair are very small open fields focused only on the thin bottom portion of the patient's anatomy, which requires much less radiation than the rest of the body to reach 100% of the prescribed dose. A desirable fluence pattern was manually painted within each of the larger fields for each patient to provide a more uniform distribution. Results: Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were calculated for evaluating the electronic compensation technique. In the electronically compensated plans, the maximum body doses calculated from the DVH were reduced from the conventionally-compensated plans by an average of 15%, indicating a more uniform dose. The mean body doses calculated from the electronically compensated DVH remained comparable to that of the conventionally-compensated plans, indicating an accurate delivery of the prescription dose using electronic compensation. All calculated monitor units were within clinically acceptable limits. Conclusion: Electronic compensation technique for TBI will not increase the beam on time beyond clinically acceptable limits while it can substantially reduce the compensator setup

  13. Rebamipide delivered by brushite cement enhances osteoblast and macrophage proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari-Palmer, Michael; Pujari-Palmer, Shiuli; Engqvist, Håkan; Karlsson Ott, Marjam

    2015-01-01

    Many of the bioactive agents capable of stimulating osseous regeneration, such as bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), are limited by rapid degradation, a short bioactive half-life at the target site in vivo, or are prohibitively expensive to obtain in large quantities. Rebamipide, an amino acid modified hydroxylquinoline, can alter the expression of key mediators of bone anabolism, cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), BMP-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), in diverse cell types such as mucosal and endothelial cells or chondrocytes. The present study investigates whether Rebamipide enhances proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts when delivered from brushite cement. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) quenching ability of Rebampide was tested in macrophages as a measure of bioactivity following drug release incubation times, up to 14 days. Rebamipide release from brushite occurs via non-fickian diffusion, with a rapid linear release of 9.70% ± 0.37% of drug per day for the first 5 days, and an average of 0.5%-1% per day thereafter for 30 days. Rebamipide slows the initial and final cement setting time by up to 3 and 1 minute, respectively, but does not significantly reduce the mechanical strength below 4% (weight percentage). Pre-osteoblast proliferation increases by 24% upon exposure to 0.4 uM Rebamipide, and by up to 73% when Rebamipide is delivered via brushite cement. Low doses of Rebamipide do not adversely affect peak alkaline phosphatase activity in differentiating pre-osteoblasts. Rebamipide weakly stimulates proliferation in macrophages at low concentrations (118 ± 7.4% at 1 uM), and quenches ROS by 40-60%. This is the first investigation of Rebamipide in osteoblasts.

  14. Rebamipide delivered by brushite cement enhances osteoblast and macrophage proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pujari-Palmer

    Full Text Available Many of the bioactive agents capable of stimulating osseous regeneration, such as bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, are limited by rapid degradation, a short bioactive half-life at the target site in vivo, or are prohibitively expensive to obtain in large quantities. Rebamipide, an amino acid modified hydroxylquinoline, can alter the expression of key mediators of bone anabolism, cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2, BMP-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, in diverse cell types such as mucosal and endothelial cells or chondrocytes. The present study investigates whether Rebamipide enhances proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts when delivered from brushite cement. The reactive oxygen species (ROS quenching ability of Rebampide was tested in macrophages as a measure of bioactivity following drug release incubation times, up to 14 days. Rebamipide release from brushite occurs via non-fickian diffusion, with a rapid linear release of 9.70% ± 0.37% of drug per day for the first 5 days, and an average of 0.5%-1% per day thereafter for 30 days. Rebamipide slows the initial and final cement setting time by up to 3 and 1 minute, respectively, but does not significantly reduce the mechanical strength below 4% (weight percentage. Pre-osteoblast proliferation increases by 24% upon exposure to 0.4 uM Rebamipide, and by up to 73% when Rebamipide is delivered via brushite cement. Low doses of Rebamipide do not adversely affect peak alkaline phosphatase activity in differentiating pre-osteoblasts. Rebamipide weakly stimulates proliferation in macrophages at low concentrations (118 ± 7.4% at 1 uM, and quenches ROS by 40-60%. This is the first investigation of Rebamipide in osteoblasts.

  15. Logistics Clusters. Delivering Value and Driving Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Kato

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We live in a world where the exchange of goods, information and money is achieved through complex logistic processes. The questions that the author tries to answer in his book are: What is a logistics cluster? Where are these logistics clusters formed, and where are they located? What is the difference in dynamics of the logistics clusters compared to other clusters or industrial parks? What kind of jobs exist in logistics clusters, and why the logistics clusters should be promoted and supported by authorities? How good and how reliable are these jobs? What is the environmental impact of logistics clusters? What is the role of authorities in creating successful logistics clusters and what benefits can be expected from them?

  16. Energy Servers Deliver Clean, Affordable Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    K.R. Sridhar developed a fuel cell device for Ames Research Center, that could use solar power to split water into oxygen for breathing and hydrogen for fuel on Mars. Sridhar saw the potential of the technology, when reversed, to create clean energy on Earth. He founded Bloom Energy, of Sunnyvale, California, to advance the technology. Today, the Bloom Energy Server is providing cost-effective, environmentally friendly energy to a host of companies such as eBay, Google, and The Coca-Cola Company. Bloom's NASA-derived Energy Servers generate energy that is about 67-percent cleaner than a typical coal-fired power plant when using fossil fuels and 100-percent cleaner with renewable fuels.

  17. Development and validation of Burkholderia pseudomallei-specific real-time PCR assays for clinical, environmental or forensic detection applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin P Price

    Full Text Available The bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei causes melioidosis, a rare but serious illness that can be fatal if untreated or misdiagnosed. Species-specific PCR assays provide a technically simple method for differentiating B. pseudomallei from near-neighbor species. However, substantial genetic diversity and high levels of recombination within this species reduce the likelihood that molecular signatures will differentiate all B. pseudomallei from other Burkholderiaceae. Currently available molecular assays for B. pseudomallei detection lack rigorous validation across large in silico datasets and isolate collections to test for specificity, and none have been subjected to stringent quality control criteria (accuracy, precision, selectivity, limit of quantitation (LoQ, limit of detection (LoD, linearity, ruggedness and robustness to determine their suitability for environmental, clinical or forensic investigations. In this study, we developed two novel B. pseudomallei specific assays, 122018 and 266152, using a dual-probe approach to differentiate B. pseudomallei from B. thailandensis, B. oklahomensis and B. thailandensis-like species; other species failed to amplify. Species specificity was validated across a large DNA panel (>2,300 samples comprising Burkholderia spp. and non-Burkholderia bacterial and fungal species of clinical and environmental relevance. Comparison of assay specificity to two previously published B. pseudomallei-specific assays, BurkDiff and TTS1, demonstrated comparable performance of all assays, providing between 99.7 and 100% specificity against our isolate panel. Last, we subjected 122018 and 266152 to rigorous quality control analyses, thus providing quantitative limits of assay performance. Using B. pseudomallei as a model, our study provides a framework for comprehensive quantitative validation of molecular assays and provides additional, highly validated B. pseudomallei assays for the scientific research community.

  18. Sustainable Agriculture Course Delivered Nationally via Satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, R. J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes an instructional model for a sustainable agriculture telecourse offered nationally by Iowa State University. Includes preproduction activities; technology employed; budget; time requirements; course content; student postevaluation results. Provides information and suggestions for individuals and institutions considering production or…

  19. Variability in delivered dose and respirable delivered dose from nebulizers: are current regulatory testing guidelines sufficient to produce meaningful information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatley, Ross HM; Byrne, Sarah M

    2017-01-01

    Background To improve convenience to patients, there have been advances in the operation of nebulizers, resulting in fast treatment times and less drug lost to the environment. However, limited attention has been paid to the effects of these developments on the delivered dose (DD) and respirable delivered dose (RDD). Published pharmacopoeia and ISO testing guidelines for adult-use testing utilize a single breathing pattern, which may not be sufficient to enable effective comparisons between the devices. Materials and methods The DD of 5 mg of salbutamol sulfate into adult breathing patterns with inhalation:exhalation (I:E) ratios between 1:1 and 1:4 was determined. Droplet size was determined by laser diffraction and RDD calculated. Nine different nebulizer brands with different modes of operation (conventional, venturi, breath-enhanced, mesh, and breath-activated) were tested. Results Between the non-breath-activated nebulizers, a 2.5-fold difference in DD (~750–1,900 µg salbutamol) was found; with RDD, there was a more than fourfold difference (~210–980 µg). With increasing time spent on exhalation, there were progressive reductions in DD and RDD, with the RDD at an I:E ratio of 1:4 being as little as 40% of the dose with the 1:1 I:E ratio. The DD and RDD from the breath-activated mesh nebulizer were independent of the I:E ratio, and for the breath-activated jet nebulizer, there was less than 20% change in RDD between the I:E ratios of 1:1 and 1:4. Conclusion Comparing nebulizers using the I:E ratio recommended in the guidelines does not predict relative performance between the devices at other ratios. There was significant variance in DD or RDD between different brands of non-breath-activated nebulizer. In future, consideration should be given to revision of the test protocols included in the guidelines, to reflect more accurately the potential therapeutic dose that is delivered to a realistic spectrum of breathing patterns. PMID:28203110

  20. Oral microflora in infants delivered vaginally and by caesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelun Barfod, Mette; Magnusson, Kerstin; Lexner, Michala Oron

    2011-01-01

    International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2011 Background. Early in life, vaginally delivered infants exhibit a different composition of the gut flora compared with infants delivered by caesarean section (C-section); however, it is unclear whether this also applies to the oral cavity. Aim....... To investigate and compare the oral microbial profile between infants delivered vaginally and by C-section. Design. This is a cross-sectional case-control study. Eighty-four infants delivered either vaginally (n = 42) or by C-section (n = 42) were randomly selected from the 2009 birth cohort at the County...

  1. Can timely vector control interventions triggered by atypical environmental conditions prevent malaria epidemics? A case-study from Wajir County, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Maes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atypical environmental conditions with drought followed by heavy rainfall and flooding in arid areas in sub-Saharan Africa can lead to explosive epidemics of malaria, which might be prevented through timely vector-control interventions. OBJECTIVES: Wajir County in Northeast Kenya is classified as having seasonal malaria transmission. The aim of this study was to describe in Wajir town the environmental conditions, the scope and timing of vector-control interventions and the associated resulting burden of malaria at two time periods (1996-1998 and 2005-2007. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional descriptive and ecological study using data collected for routine program monitoring and evaluation. RESULTS: In both time periods, there were atypical environmental conditions with drought and malnutrition followed by massive monthly rainfall resulting in flooding and animal/human Rift Valley Fever. In 1998, this was associated with a large and explosive malaria epidemic (weekly incidence rates peaking at 54/1,000 population/week with vector-control interventions starting over six months after the massive rainfall and when the malaria epidemic was abating. In 2007, vector-control interventions started sooner within about three months after the massive rainfall and no malaria epidemic was recorded with weekly malaria incidence rates never exceeding 0.5 per 1,000 population per week. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Did timely vector-control interventions in Wajir town prevent a malaria epidemic? In 2007, the neighboring county of Garissa experienced similar climatic events as Wajir, but vector-control interventions started six months after the heavy un-seasonal rainfall and large scale flooding resulted in a malaria epidemic with monthly incidence rates peaking at 40/1,000 population. In conclusion, this study suggests that atypical environmental conditions can herald a malaria outbreak in certain settings. In turn, this should alert responsible

  2. Are Financial Variables Inputs in Delivered Production Functions? Are Financial Variables Inputs in Delivered Production Functions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Kiguel

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Fischer's classic (1974 paper develops conditions under which it is appropriate to use money as an input in a 'delivered' production function. In this paper, we extend Fischer's model I (the Baumol-Tobin inventory approach by incorporating credit into the analysis. Our investigation of the extended model brings out a very restrictive but necessary implicit assumption employed by Fischer to treat money as an input. Namely. that there exists a binding constraint on the use of money! A similar result holds for our more general model. Fischer's classic (1974 paper develops conditions under which it is appropriate to use money as an input in a 'delivered' production function. In this paper, we extend Fischer's model I (the Baumol-Tobin inventory approach by incorporating credit into the analysis. Our investigation of the extended model brings out a very restrictive but necessary implicit assumption employed by Fischer to treat money as an input. Namely. that there exists a binding constraint on the use of money! A similar result holds for our more general model.

  3. A study on the radiation and environmental safety -Development of a real-time radiological dose assessment system-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Moon Heui; Lee, Yung Bok; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    The real-time dose assessment system under development has been updated and the technology for tracer experiment has been established. The calculation of external gamma dose is the most difficult and time-consuming part of the dose calculations. The characteristics of external gamma exposure have been investigated and the method for reducing the calculation time has been devised. The internal exposure via the ingestion of the contaminated foodstuffs is one of the important pathways to the total radiological exposure. In the emergency, it is necessary to take an action such like food ban to protect the internal exposure. An algorithm for the interface between the real-time system and the food chain model has been provided. The second field tracer experiment over flat terrain has been carried out on a plain in Iksan city in Junrabook-Do. Sequential tracer sampler which can be sampled the tracer gas over arbitrary 12 time interval has been designed and manufactured. SF{sub 6} has been used as the tracer gas and the sampled gas has been analysed by gas-chromatographer. 55 figs, 32 tabs, 65 refs. (Author).

  4. Forest conservation delivers highly variable coral reef conservation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Carissa J; Jupiter, Stacy D; Selig, Elizabeth R; Watts, Matthew E; Halpern, Benjamin S; Kamal, Muhammad; Roelfsema, Chris; Possingham, Hugh P

    2012-06-01

    Coral reefs are threatened by human activities on both the land (e.g., deforestation) and the sea (e.g., overfishing). Most conservation planning for coral reefs focuses on removing threats in the sea, neglecting management actions on the land. A more integrated approach to coral reef conservation, inclusive of land-sea connections, requires an understanding of how and where terrestrial conservation actions influence reefs. We address this by developing a land-sea planning approach to inform fine-scale spatial management decisions and test it in Fiji. Our aim is to determine where the protection of forest can deliver the greatest return on investment for coral reef ecosystems. To assess the benefits of conservation to coral reefs, we estimate their relative condition as influenced by watershed-based pollution and fishing. We calculate the cost-effectiveness of protecting forest and find that investments deliver rapidly diminishing returns for improvements to relative reef condition. For example, protecting 2% of forest in one area is almost 500 times more beneficial than protecting 2% in another area, making prioritization essential. For the scenarios evaluated, relative coral reef condition could be improved by 8-58% if all remnant forest in Fiji were protected rather than deforested. Finally, we determine the priority of each coral reef for implementing a marine protected area when all remnant forest is protected for conservation. The general results will support decisions made by the Fiji Protected Area Committee as they establish a national protected area network that aims to protect 20% of the land and 30% of the inshore waters by 2020. Although challenges remain, we can inform conservation decisions around the globe by tackling the complex issues relevant to integrated land-sea planning.

  5. Intérvalo unitario de tiempo de medición para ruido ambiental Unit timing for environmental noise measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Giraldo A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En las entidades ambientales, los encargados de las mediciones de ruido ambiental y en general todas las personas que de una u otra forma han trabajado en esta temática, en algún momento se han puesto a pensar sobre la representatividad del tiempo unitario de muestreo y la forma de realizar evaluaciones para dar cumplimiento con dicho tiempo, sin que se aumenten considerablemente los costos de medición. En este artículo se plantea una metodología para determinar cómo un intervalo de cierta duración -en este caso, quince (15 minutos- para el muestreo del nivel de presión sonora es representativo para el período de una (1 hora, logrando de esta manera optimizar el uso de los sonómetros "fijos" y proponiendo una estrategia para reducir los costos en las mediciones de ruido ambiental y en general la elaboración de mapas de ruido.The managers of environmental noise measurements in environmental control agencies, or in general every person that work in this subject, have to think on the representativity of the unit measurement time interval, and how to evaluate it in order to get good quality results regarding the unit measurement time without increasing the measurement costs. A methodology for deciding if a certain measuring time interval -in this case, fifteen (15 minutes- is representative of noise pressure levels occurring during one hour, is proposed in this paper. This methodology allows to optimize the use of stationary sound level meters and to propose a strategy for reducing the costs of environmental noise measurements and of the designing of noise maps in general.

  6. Distilling allometric and environmental information from time series of conduit size: the standardization issue and its relationship to tree hydraulic architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrer, Marco; von Arx, Georg; Castagneri, Daniele; Petit, Giai

    2015-01-01

    Trees are among the best natural archives of past environmental information. Xylem anatomy preserves information related to tree allometry and ecophysiological performance, which is not available from the more customary ring-width or wood-density proxy parameters. Recent technological advances make tree-ring anatomy very attractive because time frames of many centuries can now be covered. This calls for the proper treatment of time series of xylem anatomical attributes. In this article, we synthesize current knowledge on the biophysical and physiological mechanisms influencing the short- to long-term variation in the most widely used wood-anatomical feature, namely conduit size. We also clarify the strong mechanistic link between conduit-lumen size, tree hydraulic architecture and height growth. Among the key consequences of these biophysical constraints is the pervasive, increasing trend of conduit size during ontogeny. Such knowledge is required to process time series of anatomical parameters correctly in order to obtain the information of interest. An appropriate standardization procedure is fundamental when analysing long tree-ring-related chronologies. When dealing with wood-anatomical parameters, this is even more critical. Only an interdisciplinary approach involving ecophysiology, wood anatomy and dendrochronology will help to distill the valuable information about tree height growth and past environmental variability correctly.

  7. Environmental cost-benefit analysis of alternative timing strategies in greenhouse gas abatement: A data envelopment analysis approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuosmanen, T.K.; Bijsterbosch, N.; Dellink, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    Assessing the benefits of climate policies is complicated due to ancillary benefits: abatement of greenhouse gases also reduces local air pollution. The timing of the abatement measures influences both the economic costs and ancillary benefits. This paper conducts efficiency analysis of ten alternat

  8. Development of intracerebral dopaminergic grafts: a combined immunohistochemical and autoradiographic study of its time course and environmental influences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrous, N.; Guy, J.; Vigny, A.; Calas, A.; Le Moal, M.; Herman, J.P.

    1988-07-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain a description of some aspects of the development of intracerebral dopaminergic grafts, namely, the time course of the glial reaction and its relation to cell division on one hand, and the development of graft-originated innervation and its dependence on adequate matching of the implanted neurons and target site on the other hand. Cell suspensions obtained from the mesencephalon or hypothalamus of embryonic day (ED) 14 rat embryos were implanted into the striatum or lateral hypothalamus of adult rats following the destruction of the nigrostriatal system of the hosts. Animals were sacrificed at different postimplantation times, and the development of the graft was followed by immunohistochemistry by using antisera directed against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) or glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFA). Furthermore, the existence of cell division at various times following implantation was examined by performing autoradiography on immunostained sections after prior intraventricular administration of 3H-thymidine to the host. The first stage of the development of intracerebral grafts was characterized by the existence of intense cell division within the grafted tissue, lasting about 2 weeks, and also in the host tissue surrounding the graft, lasting only about 6 days. The cell division in the host tissue was paralleled by the existence of a strong glial reaction which, however, did not extend into the graft itself. Glial reaction in the host tissue gradually decreased at later times and disappeared by 4 weeks postimplantation without leaving behind a noticeable glial scar. The graft itself was, however, transiently filled with a population of reactive astroglial cells between 3 and 6 weeks postimplantation. Within grafts of mesencephalic tissue located in the striatum TH-positive neurons were distributed evenly at short times postimplantation (2-6 days).

  9. The Use of Freshmen Seminar Programs to Deliver Personalized Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henslee, Amber M.; Correia, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    The current study tested the effectiveness of delivering personalized feedback to first-semester college freshmen in a group lecture format. Participants enrolled in semester-long courses were randomly assigned to receive either personalized feedback or general information about alcohol. Both lecture conditions were delivered during a standard…

  10. Delivering value to multiple stakeholders: 2013 and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Michael E

    2012-12-01

    To deliver greater value, top payers and providers should: Measure the value they deliver to their business partners and customers, Create value through continuous performance improvement, Package and price value to optimize their margin, mission, and market share, Organize for value through new legal entities, employed medical groups, or both.

  11. 76 FR 35295 - Delivering an Efficient, Effective, and Accountable Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... June 16, 2011 Part III The President Executive Order 13576--Delivering an Efficient, Effective, and... 13576 of June 13, 2011 Delivering an Efficient, Effective, and Accountable Government By the authority... frequently analyzed ] and reviewed by agency leadership. Agencies shall update these metrics quarterly,...

  12. Impact of change in climate and policy from 1988 to 2007 on environmental and microbial variables at the time series station Boknis Eck, Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-G. Hoppe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton and bacteria are sensitive indicators of environmental change. The temporal development of these key organisms was monitored from 1988 to the end of 2007 at the time series station Boknis Eck in the western Baltic Sea. This period was characterized by the adaption of the Baltic Sea ecosystem to changes in the environmental conditions caused by the conversion of the political system in the southern and eastern border states, accompanied by the general effects of global climate change. Measured variables were chlorophyll, primary production, bacteria number, -biomass and -production, glucose turnover rate, macro-nutrients, pH, temperature and salinity. Negative trends with time were recorded for chlorophyll, bacteria number, bacterial biomass and bacterial production, nitrate, ammonia, phosphate, silicate, oxygen and salinity while temperature, pH, and the ratio between bacteria numbers and chlorophyll increased. Strongest reductions with time occurred for the annual maximum values, e.g. for chlorophyll during the spring bloom or for nitrate during winter, while the annual minimum values remained more stable. In deep water above sediment the negative trends of oxygen, nitrate, phosphate and bacterial variables as well as the positive trend of temperature were similar to those in the surface while the trends of salinity, ammonia and silicate were opposite to those in the surface. Decreasing oxygen, even in the surface layer, was of particular interest because it suggested enhanced recycling of nutrients from the deep hypoxic zones to the surface by vertical mixing. The long-term seasonal patterns of all variables correlated positively with temperature, except chlorophyll and salinity. Salinity correlated negatively with all bacterial variables (as well as precipitation and positively with chlorophyll. Surprisingly, bacterial variables did not correlate with chlorophyll, which may be inherent with the time lag between the peaks of

  13. Adenovirally Delivered Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor to Rat Retina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hou; Dan Hu; Yannian Hui

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To study the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the rat retina delivered by adenovirus.Methods: Adenovirus with BDNF gene was injected into the vitreous. Gene expression was detected by immunofluorescence staining, and quantitative analysis was performed after injury and transfection by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results: The positive cells can be seen on the 3rd day and last 4 weeks by immunofluorescence staining. Positive cells in the control group were fewer than those in the transfection group or the fluorescence intensity was lower at every time point. Quantitative analysis showed that the expression of BDNF groups was higher than that of the control group at every time point(P < 0.01 ), and that of the injured group without transfection was higher than that of the control group on the 3rd day and the 7th day (P < 0.01 ).Conclusion: Efficient and stable transfer of BDNF gene could be achieved by adenovirus delivery into the retina of rats. Injury can promote the expression of BDNF in early period.

  14. The relationship between physical activity and the living environment: a multi-level analyses focusing on changes over time in environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongeneel-Grimen, Birthe; Droomers, Mariël; van Oers, Hans A M; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2014-03-01

    There is limited evidence on the causality of previously observed associations between neighborhood characteristics and physical activity (PA). We aimed to assess whether individual-level PA was associated with changes in fear of crime, social cohesion, green spaces, parking facilities, social disorder, and physical disorder that occurred over the past 3 years. In general, in neighborhoods where residents had more favorable perceptions of the environment in 2006, residents were more likely to be physically active in 2009. In addition, improvements between 2006 and 2009 with respect to perceived social cohesion, green spaces, social disorder, and physical disorder were associated with increased odds of being active in 2009. For both the levels in 2006 and trends in the period 2006-2009, the associations were somewhat stronger among women than among men, but associations did not vary by age or length of residence. For several environmental factors, we observed that not only the levels at a certain point in time, but also recent improvements over time were related to PA. These results provide new support for a causal relationship between these environmental factors and PA.

  15. Selective determination of antimycotic drugs in environmental water samples by mixed-mode solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, J; Rodríguez, I; Ramil, M; Cela, R

    2014-04-25

    The suitability of mixed-mode (reversed-phase and cationic exchange) solid-phase extraction (SPE) for the selective concentration of basic antimycotic drugs (belonging to triazole, imidazole and allylamine chemical classes) in environmental water samples has been demonstrated for first time. The use of a sequential elution protocol, allowing the removal of neutral and acidic interferences before analytes extraction, led to a significant reduction of matrix effects, during electrospray ionization (ESI), in comparison with results reported for reversed-phase sorbents. In combination with liquid chromatography (LC) quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry (MS) determination, the developed method attained limits of quantification (LOQs) comprised between 2 and 15ngL(-1). After internal surrogate correction, accurate results (in most cases, recoveries ranged between 75 and 117%) were obtained for spiked aliquots of raw and treated wastewater, as well as river water, using quantification against calibration standard solutions in methanol (2% in NH3). Accurate, scan MS/MS spectra allowed the unambiguous identification of target compounds in environmental samples; furthermore, the information contained in MS spectra was used for the screening of additional antimycotics in the processed samples. Fluconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole and clotrimazole were measured in wastewater samples at concentrations up to 200ngL(-1). The screening capabilities of the LC-QTOF-MS system permitted to identify the systematic presence of climbazole in the processed samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Treat Insomnia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Seyffert

    Full Text Available Insomnia is of major public health importance. While cognitive behavioral therapy is beneficial, in-person treatment is often unavailable. We assessed the effectiveness of internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia.The primary objectives were to determine whether online cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia could improve sleep efficiency and reduce the severity of insomnia in adults. Secondary outcomes included sleep quality, total sleep time, time in bed, sleep onset latency, wake time after sleep onset, and number of nocturnal awakenings.We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycInfo, Cochrane Library, Embase, and the Web of Science for randomized trials.Studies were eligible if they were randomized controlled trials in adults that reported application of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia via internet delivery. Mean differences in improvement in sleep measures were calculated using the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method for random effects meta-analysis.We found 15 trials, all utilizing a pretest-posttest randomized control group design. Sleep efficiency was 72% at baseline and improved by 7.2% (95% CI: 5.1%, 9.3%; p<0.001 with internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy versus control. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy resulted in a decrease in the insomnia severity index by 4.3 points (95% CI: -7.1, -1.5; p = 0.017 compared to control. Total sleep time averaged 5.7 hours at baseline and increased by 20 minutes with internet-delivered therapy versus control (95% CI: 9, 31; p = 0.004. The severity of depression decreased by 2.3 points (95% CI: -2.9, -1.7; p = 0.013 in individuals who received internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy compared to control. Improvements in sleep efficiency, the insomnia severity index and depression scores with internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy were maintained from 4 to 48 weeks after post

  17. Leveraging Gaming Technology to Deliver Effective Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, James D.

    2011-01-01

    The best way to engage a soldier is to present them with training content consistent with their learning preference. Blended Interactive Multimedia Instruction (IMI) can be used to leach soldiers what they need to do, how to do each step, and utilize a COTS game engine to actually practices the skills learned. Blended IMI provides an enjoyable experience for the soldier, thereby increasing retention rates and motivation while decreasing the time to subject mastery. And now mobile devices have emerged as an exciting new platform, literally placing the training into the soldier's hands. In this paper, we will discuss how we leveraged commercial game engine technology, tightly integrated with the Blended IMI, to train soldiers on both laptops and mobile devices. We will provide a recent case study of how this training is being utilized, benefits and student/instructor feedback.

  18. A study of genetic and environmental contributions to structural brain changes over time in twins concordant and discordant for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bootsman, F; Brouwer, R M; Schnack, H G; Kemner, S M; Hillegers, M H J; Sarkisyan, G; van der Schot, A C; Vonk, R; Hulshoff Pol, H E; Nolen, W A; Kahn, R S; van Haren, N E M

    2016-08-01

    This is the first longitudinal twin study examining genetic and environmental contributions to the association between liability to bipolar disorder (BD) and changes over time in global brain volumes, and global and regional measures of cortical surface area, cortical thickness and cortical volume. A total of 50 twins from pairs discordant or concordant for BD (monozygotic: 8 discordant and 3 concordant pairs, and 1 patient and 3 co-twins from incomplete pairs; dizygotic: 6 discordant and 2 concordant pairs, and 1 patient and 7 co-twins from incomplete pairs) underwent magnetic resonance imaging twice. In addition, 57 twins from healthy twin pairs (15 monozygotic and 10 dizygotic pairs, and 4 monozygotic and 3 dizygotic subjects from incomplete pairs) were also scanned twice. Mean follow-up duration for all twins was 7.5 years (standard deviation: 1.5 years). Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling software OpenMx. The liability to BD was not associated with global or regional structural brain changes over time. Although we observed a subtle increase in cerebral white matter in BD patients, this effect disappeared after correction for multiple comparisons. Heritability of brain changes over time was generally low to moderate. Structural brain changes appear to follow similar trajectories in BD patients and healthy controls. Existing brain abnormalities in BD do not appear to progressively change over time, but this requires additional confirmation. Further study with large cohorts is recommended to assess genetic and environmental influences on structural brain abnormalities in BD, while taking into account the influence of lithium on the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Lipid nanocapsules for behavioural testing in aquatic toxicology: Time-response of Eurytemora affinis to environmental concentrations of PAHs and PCB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalec, François-Gaël; Holzner, Markus; Souissi, Anissa; Stancheva, Stefka; Barras, Alexandre; Boukherroub, Rabah; Souissi, Sami

    2016-01-01

    The increasing interest for behavioural investigations in aquatic toxicology has heightened the need for developing tools that allow realistic exposure conditions and provide robust quantitative data. Calanoid copepods dominate the zooplankton community in marine and brackish environments. These small organisms have emerged as attractive models because of the sensitivity of their behaviour to important environmental parameters and the significance of self-induced motion in their ecology. Estuarine copepods are particularly relevant in this context because of their incessant exposure to high levels of pollution. We used lipid nanocapsules to deliver sub-lethal concentrations of PAHs (pyrene, phenanthrene and fluoranthene) and PCB 153 into the digestive track of males and females Eurytemora affinis. This novel approach enabled us to achieve both contact and trophic exposure without using phytoplankton, and to expose copepods to small hydrophobic molecules without using organic solvent. We reconstructed the motion of many copepods swimming simultaneously by means of three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry. We quantified the combined effects of contact and trophic toxicity by comparing the kinematic and diffusive properties of their motion immediately and after 3h and 24h of exposure. Despite the lack of toxicity of their excipients, both empty and loaded capsules increased swimming activity and velocity immediately after exposure. Laser microscopy imaging shows adhesion of nanocapsules on the exoskeleton of the animals, suggesting contact toxicity. The behavioural response resembles an escape reaction allowing copepods to escape stressful conditions. The contact toxicity of empty capsules and pollutants appeared to be additive and nanocapsules loaded with PCB caused the greatest effects. We observed a progressive accumulation of capsules in the digestive track of the animals after 3h and 24h of exposure, which suggests an increasing contribution of systemic

  20. Processing and inversion of commercial helicopter time-domain electromagnetic data for environmental assessments and geologic and hydrologic mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J.E., Podgorski; Auken, Esben; Schamper, Cyril Noel Clarence

    2013-01-01

    -to-line amplitude factors in the inversion process. The final inverted model was very different from that generated from the original data provided by the contractor. For example, the average resistivity of the thick surface layer decreased from 1800 to 30Ωm, the depths to the layer boundaries were reduced by 15...... contaminated by transmitter currents, noise in late time gates, and amplitude shifts between adjacent flights that appeared as artificial lineations in maps of the data and horizontal slices extracted from inversion models. Multiple processing steps were required to address these issues. Contaminated early...... accurate ground-based TEM measurements. After editing and calibration, application of a quasi-3D spatially constrained inversion scheme significantly reduced the artificial lineations. Residual lineations were effectively eliminated after incorporating the transmitter and receiver altitudes and line...

  1. Estimation of groundwater residence time using environmental radioisotopes (14C,T) in carbonate aquifers, southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samborska, Katarzyna; Różkowski, Andrzej; Małoszewski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Triassic carbonate aquifers in the Upper Silesia region, affected by intense withdrawal, have been investigated by means of isotopic analyses of (14)C, δ(13)C, δ(2)H, δ(18)O and (3)H. The isotopic examinations were carried out in the 1970s and in the early 1980s, and it was the first application of tracers to estimate age and vulnerability for the contamination of groundwater in this region. Similar isotopic analyses were conducted in 2007 and 2008 with the same Triassic carbonate formation. The isotopic examinations were performed within the confined part of the carbonate formation, wherein aquifers are covered by semi-permeable deposits. The direct recharge of the aquifer occurs in the outcrop areas, but it mainly takes place due to percolation of the water through aquitards and erosional windows. The Triassic aquifer has been intensively drained by wells and by lead-zinc mines. Nowadays, the declining water demand and closure of some mines have induced a significant increase in the water table level. The detailed analysis of the results, including the radiocarbon age corrections and the comparison of radioisotope activities, has made it possible to estimate the range of residence time within the carbonate Triassic aquifer. This range from several tens to several tens of thousands indicates that the recharge of aquifers might have occurred between modern times and the Pleistocene. The apparent age of the water estimated on the basis of (14)C activity was corrected considering the carbon isotope exchange and the diffusion between mobile water in fractures and stagnant water in micropores. The obtained corrected period of recharge corresponds to the result of investigations of noble gases, which were carried out in the 1990s. In almost half of the cases, groundwater is a mixture of young and old water. The mixing processes occur mainly in areas of heavy exploitation of the aquifer.

  2. Liquid chromatography time of flight mass spectrometry based environmental metabolomics for the analysis of Pseudomonas putida Bacteria in potable water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouremenos, Konstantinos A; Beale, David J; Antti, Henrik; Palombo, Enzo A

    2014-09-01

    Water supply biofilms have the potential to harbour waterborne diseases, accelerate corrosion, and contribute to the formation of tuberculation in metallic pipes. One particular species of bacteria known to be found in the water supply networks is Pseudomonas sp., with the presence of Pseudomonas putida being isolated to iron pipe tubercles. Current methods for detecting and analysis pipe biofilms are time consuming and expensive. The application of metabolomics techniques could provide an alternative method for assessing biofilm risk more efficiently based on bacterial activity. As such, this paper investigates the application of metabolomic techniques and provides a proof-of-concept application using liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ToF-MS) to three biologically independent P. putida samples, across five different growth conditions exposed to solid and soluble iron (Fe). Analysis of the samples in +ESI and -ESI mode yielded 887 and 1789 metabolite features, respectively. Chemometric analysis of the +ESI and -ESI data identified 34 and 39 significant metabolite features, respectively, where features were considered significant if the fold change was greater than 2 and obtained a p-value less than 0.05. Metabolite features were subsequently identified according to the Metabolomics Standard Initiative (MSI) Chemical Analysis Workgroup using analytical standards and standard online LC-MS databases. Possible markers for P. putida growth, with and without being exposed to solid and soluble Fe, were identified from a diverse range of different chemical classes of metabolites including nucleobases, nucleosides, dipeptides, tripeptides, amino acids, fatty acids, sugars, and phospholipids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay as an advantageous analytical method for assessing the total concentration and environmental risk of fluoroquinolones in surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Jing-fu; Feng, Ting-ting; Yao, Yan; Gao, Li-hong; Jiang, Gui-bin

    2013-01-01

    Due to the widespread occurrence in the environment and potential risk toward organisms of fluoroquinolones (FQs), it is of importance to develop high efficient methods for assessing their occurrence and environmental risk. A monoclonal antibody (Mab) with broad cross-reactivity to FQs was produced by immunizing BALB/c mice with a synthesized immunogen prepared by conjugating ciprofloxacin with bovine serum albumin. This developed Mab (C2F3C2) showed broad and high cross-reactivity (40.3-116%) to 12 out of the 13 studied FQs. Using this Mab and norfloxacin conjugated with carrier protein ovalbumin as coating antigen, a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA) method was developed for determining the total concentration of at least 12 FQs in environmental waters. The respective detection limit (LOD) and IC(50) calculated from the standard curve were 0.053 μg/L and 1.83 μg/L for enrofloxacin (ENR). The LODs of the other FQs, estimated based on the corresponding cross-reactivity and the LOD of ENR, were in the range of 0.051-0.10 μg/L. The developed TRFIA method showed good tolerance to various interfering substances present in environmental matrix at relevant levels, such as humic acids (0-10 mg/L DOC), water hardness (0-2% Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), w/v), and heavy metals (0-1 mg/L). The spiked recoveries estimated by spiking 0.5, 1, and 2 μg/L of five representative FQs into various water samples including paddy water, tap water, pond water, and river water were in the range of 63-120%. The measured total FQ concentration by TRFIA agreed well with that of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and was applied to directly evaluate the occurrence and environmental risk of FQs in the surface water of a case area. TRFIA showed high efficiency and great potential in environmental risk assessment as it measures directly the total concentration of a class of pollutants.

  4. Delivering the Goods : Scaling out Results of Natural Resource Management Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrington, L.; White, J.; Grace, P.; Hodson, D.; Hartkamp, A.D.; Vaughan, C.; Meisner, C.

    2002-01-01

    To help integrated natural resource management (INRM) research "deliver the goods" for many of the world's poor over a large area and in a timely manner, the authors suggest a problem-solving approach that facilitates the scaling out of relevant agricultural practices. They propose seven ways to fos

  5. Alternative Models to Deliver Developmental Math: Issues of Use and Student Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosiewicz, Holly; Ngo, Federick; Fong, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Changing how community colleges deliver developmental education has become a key policy lever to increase student achievement. Alternative development education models reduce the amount of time a student spends in remediation, provide students with supplemental instruction and support, and contextualize content to align with student…

  6. Delivering the Goods : Scaling out Results of Natural Resource Management Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrington, L.; White, J.; Grace, P.; Hodson, D.; Hartkamp, A.D.; Vaughan, C.; Meisner, C.

    2002-01-01

    To help integrated natural resource management (INRM) research "deliver the goods" for many of the world's poor over a large area and in a timely manner, the authors suggest a problem-solving approach that facilitates the scaling out of relevant agricultural practices. They propose seven ways to

  7. Delivering the Goods : Scaling out Results of Natural Resource Management Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrington, L.; White, J.; Grace, P.; Hodson, D.; Hartkamp, A.D.; Vaughan, C.; Meisner, C.

    2002-01-01

    To help integrated natural resource management (INRM) research "deliver the goods" for many of the world's poor over a large area and in a timely manner, the authors suggest a problem-solving approach that facilitates the scaling out of relevant agricultural practices. They propose seven ways to fos

  8. Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Lindelof, Anja Mølle

    2017-01-01

    Presence, attention and awareness are challenged in a cultural landscape with an overflow of media and information (big data, mediatization processes), an overflow of time scheduling (rationalization, effectuation), and an overflow of marketing for example of ‘live performance’ as a promotional...... from the perspective of time and liveness as experienced in art on environmental performance discussing how environmental performances frame the temporality of the world. The paper engages with contemporary examples of environmental performances from various disciplines (sound, video, television......, performance art), and seeks to contribute to the ongoing debate on the quality and status of live performance (Reason & Lindelof 2016). As a critical response to the above mentioned overflows these performances make their own overflow through their characteristically non-representational, unpredictable...

  9. On Rhetorical Features in Inaugural Address Delivered by John F.Kennedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    揭美琴

    2012-01-01

    John F.Kennedy delivered the well-known inaugural address on January 20th,1961 which made a deep impression on the whole world at that time.Analyzing the speech will not merely benefit our English learning and studying,but also provides us with an efficient access to the wells of wisdom of American culture.The analysis is mainly focusing on its rhetorical features such as parallelism,repetition,antithesis,alliteration and metaph or which are worth for English learners to deliver speech-es.

  10. Collaboration With Urban Parents to Deliver a Community-Based Youth HIV Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Jenifar; Alicea, Stacey; Jackson, Jerrold M; Elwyn, Laura; Rivera-Rodriguez, Anita; Miranda, Ana; Watson, Janet; McKay, Mary M

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on the unified theory of behavior change to examine adult community members' participation in a collaborative, community-based HIV prevention program for inner-city youth. Specifically, the impact of a training and mentorship process is examined with a sample of parent facilitators hired to deliver an evidence-based HIV prevention program in Bronx, New York. Findings indicate that the training program impacted four of five key constructs (environmental constraints, habitual behavior, social norms, and self-concept) expected to be related to parents' ability to deliver the program constructs significantly beyond any increase evidenced by the control group (HIV knowledge increased in both groups). Community-level training programs may therefore be an effective medium for increasing caregivers' intention to collaborate in community-based prevention programs.

  11. Suspect screening of large numbers of emerging contaminants in environmental waters using artificial neural networks for chromatographic retention time prediction and high resolution mass spectrometry data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bade, Richard; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Miller, Thomas H; Barron, Leon P; Sancho, Juan Vicente; Hernández, Felix

    2015-12-15

    The recent development of broad-scope high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) screening methods has resulted in a much improved capability for new compound identification in environmental samples. However, positive identifications at the ng/L concentration level rely on analytical reference standards for chromatographic retention time (tR) and mass spectral comparisons. Chromatographic tR prediction can play a role in increasing confidence in suspect screening efforts for new compounds in the environment, especially when standards are not available, but reliable methods are lacking. The current work focuses on the development of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for tR prediction in gradient reversed-phase liquid chromatography and applied along with HRMS data to suspect screening of wastewater and environmental surface water samples. Based on a compound tR dataset of >500 compounds, an optimized 4-layer back-propagation multi-layer perceptron model enabled predictions for 85% of all compounds to within 2min of their measured tR for training (n=344) and verification (n=100) datasets. To evaluate the ANN ability for generalization to new data, the model was further tested using 100 randomly selected compounds and revealed 95% prediction accuracy within the 2-minute elution interval. Given the increasing concern on the presence of drug metabolites and other transformation products (TPs) in the aquatic environment, the model was applied along with HRMS data for preliminary identification of pharmaceutically-related compounds in real samples. Examples of compounds where reference standards were subsequently acquired and later confirmed are also presented. To our knowledge, this work presents for the first time, the successful application of an accurate retention time predictor and HRMS data-mining using the largest number of compounds to preliminarily identify new or emerging contaminants in wastewater and surface waters.

  12. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR) outperforms real-time PCR in the detection of environmental DNA from an invasive fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Hideyuki; Takahara, Teruhiko; Minamoto, Toshifumi; Matsuhashi, Saeko; Uchii, Kimiko; Yamanaka, Hiroki

    2015-05-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) has been used to investigate species distributions in aquatic ecosystems. Most of these studies use real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect eDNA in water; however, PCR amplification is often inhibited by the presence of organic and inorganic matter. In droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), the sample is partitioned into thousands of nanoliter droplets, and PCR inhibition may be reduced by the detection of the end-point of PCR amplification in each droplet, independent of the amplification efficiency. In addition, real-time PCR reagents can affect PCR amplification and consequently alter detection rates. We compared the effectiveness of ddPCR and real-time PCR using two different PCR reagents for the detection of the eDNA from invasive bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus, in ponds. We found that ddPCR had higher detection rates of bluegill eDNA in pond water than real-time PCR with either of the PCR reagents, especially at low DNA concentrations. Limits of DNA detection, which were tested by spiking the bluegill DNA to DNA extracts from the ponds containing natural inhibitors, found that ddPCR had higher detection rate than real-time PCR. Our results suggest that ddPCR is more resistant to the presence of PCR inhibitors in field samples than real-time PCR. Thus, ddPCR outperforms real-time PCR methods for detecting eDNA to document species distributions in natural habitats, especially in habitats with high concentrations of PCR inhibitors.

  13. Detection of Salmonella enteritidis in pooled poultry environmental samples using a serotype-specific real-time-polymerase chain reaction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Derek R; Stensland, Wendy R; Wang, Chong H; O'Connor, Annette M; Trampel, Darrell W; Harmon, Karen M; Strait, Erin L; Frana, Timothy S

    2013-03-01

    While real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR) has been used as a rapid test for detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in recent years, little research has been done to assess the feasibility of pooling poultry environmental samples with a Salmonella Enteritidis-specific RT PCR assay. Therefore the objective of this study was to compare RT PCR Salmonella Enteritidis detection in individual and pooled (in groups of two, three, and four) poultry environmental drag swab samples to traditional cultural methods. The drag swabs were collected from poultry facilities previously confirmed positive for Salmonella Enteritidis and were cultured according to National Poultry Improvement Plan guidelines. Initial, Salmonella Enteritidis-specific RT PCR assay threshold cycle cutoff values of Salmonella Enteritidis was cultured in 7 of 208 environmental samples (3.4%). Individual samples were 99.0%, 100%, and 100% in agreement with the RT PCR at threshold cycle (C(t)) cutoff values of < or = 36, < or = 30, and < or = 28 respectively. The agreement for pooled samples also followed the same trend with highest agreement at C(t) < or = 28 (pool of 2 = 100.0%, pool of 3 = 100.0%, pool of 4 = 100.0%), midrange agreement at C(t) < or = 30 (pool of 2 = 99.0%, pool of 3 = 100.0%, pool of 4 = 100.0%), and lowest agreement at C(t) < or = 36 (pool of 2 = 98.1%, pool of 3 = 97.1%, pool of 4 = 98.1%). In conclusion, regardless of the level of pooling after tetrathionate enrichment, sensitivity was very good, and results would be comparable to what would have been found with individual culture or individual RT PCR at C(t) < or = 36.

  14. Space–time dynamics of carbon and environmental parameters related to carbon dioxide emissions in the Buor-Khaya Bay and adjacent part of the Laptev Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Semiletov

    2013-09-01

    .8 mmol m−2 day−1, respectively, while the CO2 efflux can be one order lower after a strong storm such as in September 2011. Atmospheric CO2 emissions from a thawed coastal ice complex in the BKB area varied from 9 to 439 mmol m−2 day−1, with the mean value ranged from 75.7 to 101 mmol m−2 day−1 in two years (September 2006 and 2009, suggesting that at the time of observations the eroded coastal area served as a more significant source of CO2 to the atmosphere than the tundra (mean value: 22.7 mmol m−2 day−1 on the neighboring Primorsky coastal plain (September 2006. The observed increase in the Lena River discharge since the 1990s suggests that increased levels of "satellite-derived" annual primary production could be explained by an increasing load of humic acids delivered to shelf water; in this water the color resulting from the presence of CDOM (colored dissolved organic matter mimics the color resulting from the presence of Chl a when seen from space. Because the BKB area can be employed as an integrator of ongoing changes in the surrounding environment, we suggest that under ongoing changes, more nutrients, products of eroded OC transformation and river transport, will be delivered to the Arctic Ocean with its shrinking ice cover, potentially increasing primary production outside of the shallow East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS. At the same time, because the ESAS is characterized by very low transparency which limits euphotic layer thickness, excessive pCO2 will not be utilized by photosynthesis but will rather be emitted to the atmosphere at increasing rates, affecting regional CO2 balance.

  15. Space-time dynamics of carbon and environmental parameters related to carbon dioxide emissions in the Buor-Khaya Bay and adjacent part of the Laptev Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiletov, I. P.; Shakhova, N. E.; Pipko, I. I.; Pugach, S. P.; Charkin, A. N.; Dudarev, O. V.; Kosmach, D. A.; Nishino, S.

    2013-09-01

    , respectively), while the CO2 efflux can be one order lower after a strong storm such as in September 2011. Atmospheric CO2 emissions from a thawed coastal ice complex in the BKB area varied from 9 to 439 mmol m-2 day-1, with the mean value ranged from 75.7 to 101 mmol m-2 day-1 in two years (September 2006 and 2009), suggesting that at the time of observations the eroded coastal area served as a more significant source of CO2 to the atmosphere than the tundra (mean value: 22.7 mmol m-2 day-1) on the neighboring Primorsky coastal plain (September 2006). The observed increase in the Lena River discharge since the 1990s suggests that increased levels of "satellite-derived" annual primary production could be explained by an increasing load of humic acids delivered to shelf water; in this water the color resulting from the presence of CDOM (colored dissolved organic matter) mimics the color resulting from the presence of Chl a when seen from space. Because the BKB area can be employed as an integrator of ongoing changes in the surrounding environment, we suggest that under ongoing changes, more nutrients, products of eroded OC transformation and river transport, will be delivered to the Arctic Ocean with its shrinking ice cover, potentially increasing primary production outside of the shallow East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS). At the same time, because the ESAS is characterized by very low transparency which limits euphotic layer thickness, excessive pCO2 will not be utilized by photosynthesis but will rather be emitted to the atmosphere at increasing rates, affecting regional CO2 balance.

  16. Drug absorption efficiency in Caenorhbditis elegans delivered by different methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Qing Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Caenorhbditis elegans has being vigorously used as a model organism in many research fields and often accompanied by administrating with various drugs. The methods of delivering drugs to worms are varied from one study to another, which make difficult in comparing results between studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the drug absorption efficiency in C. elegans using five frequently used methods with resveratrol with low aqueous solubility and water-soluble 5-Fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FUDR as positive compounds. The drugs were either applied to the LB medium with bacteria OP50, before spreading onto Nematode Growth Medium (NGM plates (LB medium method, or to the NGM with live (NGM live method or dead bacteria (NGM dead method, or spotting the drug solution to the surface of plates directly (spot dead method, or growing the worms in liquid medium (liquid growing method. The concentration of resveratrol and FUDR increased gradually within C. elegans and reached the highest during 12 hours to one day and then decreased slowly. At the same time point, the higher the drug concentration, the higher the metabolism rate. The drug concentrations in worms fed with dead bacteria were higher than with live bacteria at the same time point. Consistently, the drug concentration in medium with live bacteria decreased much faster than in medium with dead bacteria, reach to about half of the original concentration within 12 hours. CONCLUSION: Resveratrol with low aqueous solubility and water-soluble FUDR have the same absorption and metabolism pattern. The drug metabolism rate in worms was both dosage and time dependent. NGM dead method and liquid growing method achieved the best absorption efficiency in worms. The drug concentration within worms was comparable with that in mice, providing a bridge for dose translation from worms to mammals.

  17. Biodegradable nanocomposite microparticles as drug delivering injectable cell scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yanhong; Gallego, Monica Ramos; Nielsen, Lene Feldskov; Jorgensen, Lene; Everland, Hanne; Møller, Eva Horn; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2011-11-30

    Injectable cell scaffolds play a dual role in tissue engineering by supporting cellular functions and delivering bioactive molecules. The present study aimed at developing biodegradable nanocomposite microparticles with sustained drug delivery properties thus potentially being suitable for autologous stem cell therapy. Semi-crystalline poly(l-lactide/dl-lactide) (PLDL70) and poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA85) were used to prepare nanoparticles by the double emulsion method. Uniform and spherical nanoparticles were obtained at an average size of 270-300 nm. The thrombin receptor activator peptide-6 (TRAP-6) was successfully loaded in PLDL70 and PLGA85 nanoparticles. During the 30 days' release, PLDL70 nanoparticles showed sustainable release with only 30% TRAP-6 released within the first 15 days, while almost 80% TRAP-6 was released from PLGA85 nanoparticles during the same time interval. The release mechanism was found to depend on the crystallinity and composition of the nanoparticles. Subsequently, mPEG-PLGA nanocomposite microparticles containing PLDL70 nanoparticles were produced by the ultrasonic atomization method and evaluated to successfully preserve the intrinsic particulate properties and the sustainable release profile, which was identical to that of the nanoparticles. Good cell adhesion of the human fibroblasts onto the nanocomposite microparticles was observed, indicating the desired cell biocompatibility. The presented results thus demonstrate the development of nanocomposite microparticles tailored for sustainable drug release for application as injectable cell scaffolds.

  18. Mouse embryonic retina delivers information controlling cortical neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Bonetti

    Full Text Available The relative contribution of extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms to cortical development is an intensely debated issue and an outstanding question in neurobiology. Currently, the emerging view is that interplay between intrinsic genetic mechanisms and extrinsic information shape different stages of cortical development. Yet, whereas the intrinsic program of early neocortical developmental events has been at least in part decoded, the exact nature and impact of extrinsic signaling are still elusive and controversial. We found that in the mouse developing visual system, acute pharmacological inhibition of spontaneous retinal activity (retinal waves-RWs during embryonic stages increase the rate of corticogenesis (cell cycle withdrawal. Furthermore, early perturbation of retinal spontaneous activity leads to changes of cortical layer structure at a later time point. These data suggest that mouse embryonic retina delivers long-distance information capable of modulating cell genesis in the developing visual cortex and that spontaneous activity is the candidate long-distance acting extrinsic cue mediating this process. In addition, these data may support spontaneous activity to be a general signal coordinating neurogenesis in other developing sensory pathways or areas of the central nervous system.

  19. Development of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of the invasive Mediterranean fanworm, Sabella spallanzanii, in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Susanna A; Zaiko, Anastasija; Richter, Ingrid; Inglis, Graeme J; Pochon, Xavier

    2017-07-01

    The Mediterranean fanworm, Sabella spallanzanii Gmelin 1791, was first detected in the Southern Hemisphere in the 1990s and is now abundant in many parts of southern Australia and in several locations around northern New Zealand. Once established, it can proliferate rapidly, reaching high densities with potential ecological and economic impacts. Early detection of new S. spallanzanii incursions is important to prevent its spread, guide eradication or control efforts and to increase knowledge on the species' dispersal pathways. In this study, we developed a TaqMan probe real-time polymerase chain reaction assay targeting a region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene. The assay was validated in silico and in vitro using DNA from New Zealand and Australian Sabellidae with no cross-reactivity detected. The assay has a linear range of detection over seven orders of magnitude with a limit of detection reached at 12.4 × 10(-4) ng/μL of DNA. We analysed 145 environmental (water, sediment and biofouling) samples and obtained positive detections only from spiked samples and those collected at a port where S. spallanzanii is known to be established. This assay has the potential to enhance current morphological and molecular-based methods, through its ability to rapidly and accurately identify S. spallanzanii in environmental samples.

  20. Oral microflora in infants delivered vaginally and by caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelun Barfod, Mette; Magnusson, Kerstin; Lexner, Michala Oron; Blomqvist, Susanne; Dahlén, Gunnar; Twetman, Svante

    2011-11-01

    BACKGROUND.  Early in life, vaginally delivered infants exhibit a different composition of the gut flora compared with infants delivered by caesarean section (C-section); however, it is unclear whether this also applies to the oral cavity. AIM.  To investigate and compare the oral microbial profile between infants delivered vaginally and by C-section. DESIGN.  This is a cross-sectional case-control study. Eighty-four infants delivered either vaginally (n = 42) or by C-section (n = 42) were randomly selected from the 2009 birth cohort at the County Hospital in Halmstad, Sweden. Medically compromised and premature children (oral health need to be further investigated.

  1. Delivering Physical Education in selected schools in Soweto, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Delivering Physical Education in selected schools in Soweto, South Africa: ... Principals and sport masters of all five schools made up the 10 interviewees. ... preparedness of teachers, as well as the level of motivation and workload of teachers.

  2. Maximising the potential of social media to deliver academic library ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maximising the potential of social media to deliver academic library services to ... that academic libraries in Kenya are currently using Facebook, WhatsApp, ... The Technical University of Kenya library, social media, social media marketing ...

  3. Capacity to deliver pharmaceutical care by community pharmacies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The capacity of community pharmacies to deliver pharmaceutical care was studied ... Ninety five percent (95%) of the respondents always educated customers on ... of the principles of Millennium Development Goals and pharmaceutical care ...

  4. D Recording for 2d Delivering - the Employment of 3d Models for Studies and Analyses -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, A.; Baratti, G.; Jiménez, B.; Girardi, S.; Remondino, F.

    2011-09-01

    In the last years, thanks to the advances of surveying sensors and techniques, many heritage sites could be accurately replicated in digital form with very detailed and impressive results. The actual limits are mainly related to hardware capabilities, computation time and low performance of personal computer. Often, the produced models are not visible on a normal computer and the only solution to easily visualized them is offline using rendered videos. This kind of 3D representations is useful for digital conservation, divulgation purposes or virtual tourism where people can visit places otherwise closed for preservation or security reasons. But many more potentialities and possible applications are available using a 3D model. The problem is the ability to handle 3D data as without adequate knowledge this information is reduced to standard 2D data. This article presents some surveying and 3D modeling experiences within the APSAT project ("Ambiente e Paesaggi dei Siti d'Altura Trentini", i.e. Environment and Landscapes of Upland Sites in Trentino). APSAT is a multidisciplinary project funded by the Autonomous Province of Trento (Italy) with the aim documenting, surveying, studying, analysing and preserving mountainous and hill-top heritage sites located in the region. The project focuses on theoretical, methodological and technological aspects of the archaeological investigation of mountain landscape, considered as the product of sequences of settlements, parcelling-outs, communication networks, resources, and symbolic places. The mountain environment preserves better than others the traces of hunting and gathering, breeding, agricultural, metallurgical, symbolic activities characterised by different lengths and environmental impacts, from Prehistory to the Modern Period. Therefore the correct surveying and documentation of this heritage sites and material is very important. Within the project, the 3DOM unit of FBK is delivering all the surveying and 3D material to

  5. Passive sampling approaches used for time-integrated environmental monitoring and Risk Assessment in the tropical Río Tapezco catchment in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Frederik; Wey, Hannah; Stamm, Christian; Ruepert, Clemens; Zurbrügg, Christian; Eggen, Rik

    2017-04-01

    Highest pesticide application rates and high surface runoff potentials are found in tropical countries. Global data indicate that among these countries, Costa Rica's agriculture is one of the most pesticide intensive worldwide. After use, pesticides can be transported from the fields into surface water through heavy raining events via wash-off, leaching, surface runoff and erosion processes, or direct as point source due to poor pesticide application practices and deteriorate the water quality and impair aquatic organisms. Even if the risk of pesticide pollution is well documented in Costa Rica, comprehensive information about the diffuse and direct pesticide entry routes, their environmental behavior, and the degree of water pollution is often lacking. Generally, only grab samples are taken and time integrated methods for environmental monitoring are seldom used so far. There is a need for more time integrated data at catchment scale. Current passive sampling techniques are low-costs options that, when combined with advanced analytical screening methods, allow for a broad assessment of pesticide pollution in streams. This will lead to a better systematic understanding of the environmental fate of pesticides and to describe their impacts to non-target organisms in tropical aquatic environments in the short- and long-term. We implemented such an approach in the tropical Río Tapezco catchment in the Zarcero canton, Costa Rica. The area covers 5112 ha, ranges between an altitude of 1100 and 2200 m above sea level and receives an average annual precipitation of 2000 - 2500 mm/yr. The catchment is intensively used for the horticultural production of vegetables, potatoes and herbs and it is specially characterized by its agricultural fields with steep slopes. The area is a hot spot of pesticide use with an average application rate of about 22 kg/ha of arable land and cropping cycle. For time-integrated monitoring, the rivers of the study area were sampled at five points

  6. Environmental Compliance Issue Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    An order to establish the Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for coordination of significant environmental compliance issues to ensure timely development and consistent application of Departmental environmental policy and guidance

  7. Assessment of the Effect of Gene Polymorphisms and Environmental Risk Factors on Low HDL Over Time: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrabi Yadollah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Due to existing association between high-density lipoprotein (HDL and cardiovascular disease, detection of factors affecting this lipid is important. Environmental factors and genetic variations have an important role in HDL level. The effects of these risk factors can be time-dependent; so, study of their effects on HDL level over time is important. In this study, we used transition model to analyze binary longitudinal data to investigate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and other risk factors affecting low HDL over time. Materials and Methods: Data of 329 participants of 3 phases of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS was analyzed using marginal transition model. This model has a formulation which allows first and second order Markov dependence to take into account the correlation among successive observations of the same individual in longitudinal binary response for which the marginal probability of success is modelled via a form of logistic regression. Results: Results of first order transition model showed that the odds ratio (OR for having low HDL in women compared to men was 1.54 (95% CI: 1.02, 2.24. High waist circumference (OR = 1.67, CI 95%: 1.16, 2.39, high blood pressure (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.85, high triglyceride (OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.30, 2.65 and being homozygous for the minor allele of SRB1 (OR = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.74 were significantly associated with low HDL. Also, the OR of low HDL in phase 2 of study compared to phase 1 was 1.76 (95% CI: 1.32, 2.35. The result of second order transition model was fairly similar to first order. The parameter estimates of serial dependency are markedly significant, pointing clearly to a first and second-order serial dependence (P < .001. Conclusion: Considering the identification of genetic and environmental factors affecting low HDL over time, transition model was used and the most important risk factors were identified.

  8. Mitigating the risk of food handling in the home-delivered meal program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkung, Young; Ismail, Joseph A; Almanza, Barbara A; Nelson, Douglas C

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the length of time between packing and delivery of home-delivered meals, and the extent of foodborne illness risk to the elderly. Procedures to mitigate that risk were also evaluated. Researchers surveyed 95 drivers from home-delivered meal preparation sites in six states across the United States to determine the average length of time that passed during packing, loading, leaving, and delivery. The efficiency of various risk mitigation methods were evaluated and used to adjust the actual delivery time. Total average delivery time from packing to last delivery was 1.92 hours. This study suggests that the risk associated with the actual 1.92 hours of total delivery time could be mitigated to represent approximately 1.55 hours of effective time with proper packing and holding conditions. This methodology proposes a single measure for evaluating the effectiveness of various handling procedures associated with distributing home-delivered meals, which can be utilized to evaluate overall risk when combined with in-house preparation and client-handling behaviors.

  9. Determination of the delivered hemodialysis dose using standard methods and on-line clearance monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatković Vlastimir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/aim: Delivered dialysis dose has a cumulative effect and significant influence upon the adequacy of dialysis, quality of life and development of co-morbidity at patients on dialysis. Thus, a great attention is given to the optimization of dialysis treatment. On-line Clearance Monitoring (OCM allows a precise and continuous measurement of the delivered dialysis dose. Kt/V index (K = dialyzer clearance of urea; t = dialysis time; V = patient's total body water, measured in real time is used as a unit for expressing the dialysis dose. The aim of this research was to perform a comparative assessment of the delivered dialysis dose by the application of the standard measurement methods and a module for continuous clearance monitoring. Methods. The study encompassed 105 patients who had been on the chronic hemodialysis program for more than three months, three times a week. By random choice, one treatment per each controlled patient was taken. All the treatments understood bicarbonate dialysis. The delivered dialysis dose was determined by the calculation of mathematical models: Urea Reduction Ratio (URR singlepool index Kt/V (spKt/V and by the application of OCM. Results. Urea Reduction Ratio was the most sensitive parameter for the assessment and, at the same time, it was in the strongest correlation with the other two, spKt/V indexes and OCM. The values pointed out an adequate dialysis dose. The URR values were significantly higher in women than in men, p < 0.05. The other applied model for the delivered dialysis dose measurement was Kt/V index. The obtained values showed that the dialysis dose was adequate, and that, according to this parameter, the women had significantly better dialysis, then the men p < 0.05. According to the OCM, the average value was slightly lower than the adequate one. The women had a satisfactory dialysis according to this index as well, while the delivered dialysis dose was insufficient in men. The difference

  10. Traditional Merchandising Enterprises' Innovation in Sales Management in Time of Cyber Marketing --From the Perspective of Customer Delivered Value%网络营销时代的传统商业企业营销管理创新探讨——基于顾客让渡价值视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨剑英

    2012-01-01

    In an era of cyber marketing, more and more traditional merchandising enterprises are suffering extraordinarily immense pressure caused by impacts from all walks of life. Therefore, it is extremely necessary for those traditional merchandising enterprises to carry out innovation in terms of sales management. Without relevant innovation, there would be no space for further and sounder development. Aiming to highlight how to bring up customer delivered value, this article elaborates how traditional companies make use of online and offline re- sources in the tide of cyber marketing, draws up several modem approaches of marketing management and pro- poses how to exploit better opportunities for self-improvement that derive from loyal customers.%网络营销时代,越来越多的传统商业企业面临着冲击,传统商业企业必须进行营销管理创新,才能为自己赢得更大的发展空间,本文从提升顾客让渡价值的视角提出在网络营销时代传统商业企业如何利用线上和线下资源,创新营销管理的方法和思路,以更大程度地提升顾客让渡价值,培养顾客忠诚,从而使自身获得更好的发展空间。

  11. Real-time cell analysis and heat shock protein gene expression in the TcA Tribolium castaneum cell line in response to environmental stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Reina, Andrés; Rodríguez-García, María Juliana; Ramis, Guillermo; Galián, José

    2015-12-17

    The rust red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is a pest of stored grain and one of the most studied insect model species. Some of the previous studies involved heat response studies in terms of survival and heat shock protein expression, which are regulated to protect other proteins against environmental stress conditions. In the present study, we characterize the impedance profile with the xCELLigence Real-Time Cell Analyzer and study the effect of increased temperature in cell growth and viability in the cell line BCIRL-TcA-CLG1 (TcA) of T. castaneum. This novel system measures cells behavior in real time and is applied for the first time to insect cells. Additionally, cells are exposed to heat shock, increased salinity, acidic pH and UV-A light with the aim of measuring the expression levels of Hsp27, Hsp68a and Hsp83 genes. Results show a high thermotolerance of TcA in terms of cell growth and viability. This result is likely related to gene expression results in which a significant up-regulation of all studied Hsp genes is observed after one hour of exposure to 40 ºC and UV light. All three genes show similar expression patterns, but Hsp27 seems to be the most affected. The results of this study validate the RTCA method and reveal the utility of insect cell lines, real-time analysis and gene expression studies to better understand the physiological response of insect cells, with potential applications in different fields of biology such as conservation biology and pest management. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Real-time PCR detection of Fe-type nitrile hydratase genes from environmental isolates suggests horizontal gene transfer between multiple genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Lee; Owens, Erica; Tambling, Karen; O'Neill, David; O'Connor, Laura; O'Reilly, Catherine

    2010-11-01

    Nitriles are widespread in the environment as a result of biological and industrial activity. Nitrile hydratases catalyse the hydration of nitriles to the corresponding amide and are often associated with amidases, which catalyze the conversion of amides to the corresponding acids. Nitrile hydratases have potential as biocatalysts in bioremediation and biotransformation applications, and several successful examples demonstrate the advantages. In this work a real-time PCR assay was designed for the detection of Fe-type nitrile hydratase genes from environmental isolates purified from nitrile-enriched soils and seaweeds. Specific PCR primers were also designed for amplification and sequencing of the genes. Identical or highly homologous nitrile hydratase genes were detected from isolates of numerous genera from geographically diverse sites, as were numerous novel genes. The genes were also detected from isolates of genera not previously reported to harbour nitrile hydratases. The results provide further evidence that many bacteria have acquired the genes via horizontal gene transfer. The real-time PCR assay should prove useful in searching for nitrile hydratases that could have novel substrate specificities and therefore potential in industrial applications.

  13. Real-time PCR assays for the detection and quantification of carbapenemase genes (bla KPC, bla NDM, and bla OXA-48) in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subirats, Jèssica; Royo, Elena; Balcázar, José Luis; Borrego, Carles M

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we have developed real-time PCR assays using SYBR Green chemistry to detect all known alleles of bla KPC, bla NDM, and bla OXA-48-like carbapenemase genes in water, sediment, and biofilm samples collected from hospital and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and rivers receiving chronic WWTP discharges. The amplification of bla KPC, bla NDM, and bla OXA-48 DNA was linear over 7 log dilutions (R (2) between 0.995 and 0.997) and showing efficiencies ranging from 92.6% to 100.3%. The analytical sensitivity indicated that the reaction for bla KPC, bla NDM, and bla OXA-48-like genes was able to detect 35, 16, and 19 copy numbers per assay, respectively. The three carbapenemase genes were detected in hospital effluents, whereas only the bla KPC and bla NDM genes were detected in biofilm and sediment samples collected from wastewater-impacted rivers. The detection of bla KPC, bla NDM, and bla OXA-48-like genes in different matrices suggests that carbapenem-resistant bacteria occur in both planktonic and benthic habitats thus expanding the range of resistance reservoirs for last-resort antibiotics. We believe that these real-time PCR assays would be a powerful tool for the rapid detection and quantification of bla KPC, bla NDM, and bla OXA-48-like genes in complex environmental samples.

  14. Evaluation of applied biosystems MicroSEQ real-time PCR system for detection of Listeria spp. in food and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrauskene, Olga V; Cao, Yanxiang; Zoder, Patrick; Wong, Lily Y; Balachandran, Priya; Furtado, Manohar R; Tebbs, Robert S

    2012-01-01

    A complete system for real-time PCR detection of Listeria species was validated in five food matrixes and five environmental surfaces, namely, hot dogs, roast beef, lox (smoked salmon), pasteurized whole cow's milk, dry infant formula, stainless steel, plastic cutting board, ceramic tile, rubber sheets, and sealed concrete. The system consists of the MicroSEQ Listeria spp. Detection Kit, two sample preparation kits (PrepSEQ Nucleic Acid Extraction Kit and PrepSEQ Rapid Spin Sample Preparation Kit), the Applied Biosystems 7500 Fast Real-Time PCR instrument, and the RapidFinderTM Express v1.1 Software for data analysis. The test method was compared to the ISO 11290-1 reference method using an unpaired study design. The MicroSEQ Listeria spp. Detection Kit and the ISO 11290-1 reference method showed equivalent detection based on Chi-square analysis for all matrixes except hot dogs. For hot dogs, the MicroSEQ method detected more positives than the reference method for the low- and high-level inoculations, with all of the presumptive positives confirmed by the reference method. An independent validation study confirmed these findings on lox and stainless steel surface. The MicroSEQ kit detected all 50 Listeria strains tested and none of the 31 nontarget bacteria strains.

  15. Carbohydrate Biopolymers Enhance Antibody Responses to Mucosally Delivered Vaccine Antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, A.; Makin, J.; Sizer, P. J.; Jabbal-Gill, I.; Hinchcliffe, M.; Illum, L.; Chatfield, S.; Roberts, M.

    2000-01-01

    We have evaluated the ability of two carbohydrate biopolymers, chitosan and gellan, to enhance antibody responses to subunit influenza virus vaccines delivered to the respiratory tracts of mice. Groups of mice were vaccinated three times intranasally (i.n.) with 10 μg of purified influenza B/Panama virus surface antigens (PSAs), which consist of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), either alone or admixed with chitosan or gellan solutions. Separate groups were vaccinated subcutaneously (s.c.) with PSAs adsorbed to Alhydrogel or chitosan or gellan alone i.n. Serum antibody responses were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for influenza virus-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and by HA inhibition (HAI) and NA inhibition (NAI) assays. The local respiratory immune response was measured by assaying for influenza virus-specific IgA antibody in nasal secretions and by enumerating nasal and pulmonary lymphocytes secreting IgA, IgG, and IgM anti-influenza virus-specific antibodies by enzyme-linked immunospotting (ELISPOT). When administered alone i.n., B/Panama PSA was poorly immunogenic. Parenteral immunization with B/Panama PSA with Alhydrogel elicited high titers of anti-B/Panama antibodies in serum but a very poor respiratory anti-B/Panama IgA response. In contrast, i.n. immunization with PSA plus chitosan stimulated very strong local and systemic anti-B/Panama responses. Gellan also enhanced the local and serum antibody responses to i.n. PSA but not to the same extent as chitosan. The ability of chitosan to augment the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines given i.n. was confirmed using PSA prepared from an influenza A virus (A/Texas H1N1). PMID:10992483

  16. Overview of the Brooklyn traffic real-time ambient pollutant penetration and environmental dispersion (B-TRAPPED) study: theoretical background and model for design of field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Intaek; Wiener, Russell W; Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Brixey, Laurie A; Henkle, Stacy W

    2009-12-01

    The Brooklyn traffic real-time ambient pollutant penetration and environmental dispersion (B-TRAPPED) study was a multidisciplinary field research project that investigated the transport, dispersion, and infiltration processes of traffic emission particulate matter (PM) pollutants in a near-highway urban residential area. The urban PM transport, dispersion, and infiltration processes were described mathematically in a theoretical model that was constructed to develop the experimental objectives of the B-TRAPPED study. In the study, simultaneous and continuous time-series PM concentration and meteorological data collected at multiple outdoor and indoor monitoring locations were used to characterize both temporal and spatial patterns of the PM concentration movements within microscale distances (dispersion of PM; (3) studying the influence of meteorological variables on the transport, dispersion, and infiltration processes; (4) characterizing the relationships between the building parameters and the infiltration mechanisms; (5) establishing a cause-and-effect relationship between outdoor-released PM and indoor PM concentrations and identifying the dominant mechanisms involved in the infiltration process; (6) evaluating the effectiveness of a shelter-in-place area for protection against outdoor-released PM pollutants; and (7) understanding the predominant airflow and pollutant dispersion patterns within the neighborhood using wind tunnel and CFD simulations. The 10 papers in this first set of papers presenting the results from the B-TRAPPED study address these objectives. This paper describes the theoretical background and models representing the interrelated processes of transport, dispersion, and infiltration. The theoretical solution for the relationship between the time-dependent indoor PM concentration and the initial PM concentration at the outdoor source was obtained. The theoretical models and solutions helped us to identify important parameters in the

  17. Delivering Left-Skewed Portfolio Payoff Distributions in the Presence of Transaction Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek B Krawczyk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available For pension-savers, a low payoff is a financial disaster. Such investors will most likely prefer left-skewed payoff distributions over right-skewed payoff distributions. We explore how such distributions can be delivered. Cautious-relaxed utility measures are cautious in ensuring that payoffs don’t fall much below a reference value, but relaxed about exceeding it. We find that the payoff distribution delivered by a cautious-relaxed utility measure has appealing features which payoff distributions delivered by traditional utility functions don’t. In particular, cautious-relaxed distributions can have the mass concentrated on the left, hence be left-skewed. However, cautious-relaxed strategies prescribe frequent portfolio adjustments which may be expensive if transaction costs are charged. In contrast, more traditional strategies can be time-invariant. Thus we investigate the impact of transaction costs on the appeal of cautious-relaxed strategies. We find that relatively high transaction fees are required for the cautious-relaxed strategy to lose its appeal. This paper contributes to the literature which compares utility measures by the payoff distributions they produce and finds that a cautious-relaxed utility measure will deliver payoffs that many investors will prefer.

  18. Innovative model of delivering quality improvement education for trainees – a pilot project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Ramar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: After incorporating quality improvement (QI education as a required curriculum for our trainees in 2010, a need arose to readdress our didactic sessions as they were too long, difficult to schedule, and resulting in a drop in attendance. A ‘flipped classroom’ (FC model to deliver QI education was touted to be an effective delivery method as it allows the trainees to view didactic materials on videos, on their own time, and uses the classroom to clarify concepts and employ learned tools on case-based scenarios including workshops. Methods: The Mayo Quality Academy prepared 29 videos that incorporated the previously delivered 17 weekly didactic sessions, for a total duration of 135 min. The half-day session clarified questions related to the videos, followed by case examples and a hands-on workshop on how to perform and utilize a few commonly used QI tools and methods. Results: Seven trainees participated. There was a significant improvement in knowledge as measured by pre- and post-FC model test results [improvement by 40.34% (SD 16.34, p<0.001]. The survey results were overall positive about the FC model with all trainees strongly agreeing that we should continue with this model to deliver QI education. Conclusions: The pilot project of using the FC model to deliver QI education was successful in a small sample of trainees.

  19. Setting Environmental Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Gershon

    1975-01-01

    Recent court decisions have pointed out the complexities involved in setting environmental standards. Environmental health is composed of multiple causative agents, most of which work over long periods of time. This makes the cause-and-effect relationship between health statistics and environmental contaminant exposures difficult to prove in…

  20. Locally-Delivered T-Cell-Derived Cellular Vehicles Efficiently Track and Deliver Adenovirus Delta24-RGD to Infiltrating Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutger K. Balvers

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic adenoviral vectors are a promising alternative for the treatment of glioblastoma. Recent publications have demonstrated the advantages of shielding viral particles within cellular vehicles (CVs, which can be targeted towards the tumor microenvironment. Here, we studied T-cells, often having a natural capacity to target tumors, for their feasibility as a CV to deliver the oncolytic adenovirus, Delta24-RGD, to glioblastoma. The Jurkat T-cell line was assessed in co-culture with the glioblastoma stem cell (GSC line, MGG8, for the optimal transfer conditions of Delta24-RGD in vitro. The effect of intraparenchymal and tail vein injections on intratumoral virus distribution and overall survival was addressed in an orthotopic glioma stem cell (GSC-based xenograft model. Jurkat T-cells were demonstrated to facilitate the amplification and transfer of Delta24-RGD onto GSCs. Delta24-RGD dosing and incubation time were found to influence the migratory ability of T-cells towards GSCs. Injection of Delta24-RGD-loaded T-cells into the brains of GSC-bearing mice led to migration towards the tumor and dispersion of the virus within the tumor core and infiltrative zones. This occurred after injection into the ipsilateral hemisphere, as well as into the non-tumor-bearing hemisphere. We found that T-cell-mediated delivery of Delta24-RGD led to the inhibition of tumor growth compared to non-treated controls, resulting in prolonged survival (p = 0.007. Systemic administration of virus-loaded T-cells resulted in intratumoral viral delivery, albeit at low levels. Based on these findings, we conclude that T-cell-based CVs are a feasible approach to local Delta24-RGD delivery in glioblastoma, although efficient systemic targeting requires further improvement.

  1. Nature, Empire, and Paradox in Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, David A.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the 2009 North American Association of Environmental Education Research Symposium, this article addresses the cultural and theoretical frameworks that we bring to environmental education, the web of ideas and experiences that define the scope and purpose of the work in its geopolitical context. Originally delivered as a keynote address…

  2. Molecular beacon-based real-time PCR detection of primary isolates of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis in environmental and clinical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Maria A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A fast and simple two-step multiplex real-time PCR assay has been developed to replace the traditional, laborious Salmonella serotyping procedure. Molecular beacons were incorporated into the assay as probes for target DNA. Target sequences were regions of the invA, prot6E and fliC genes specific for Salmonella spp. Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, respectively, the two most clinically relevant serotypes. An internal amplification positive control was included in the experiment to ensure the optimal functioning of the PCR and detect possible PCR inhibition. Three sets of primers were used for the amplification of the target sequences. The results were compared to those of the Kauffmann-White antigenic classification scheme. Results The assay was 100% sensitive and specific, correctly identifying all 44 Salmonella strains, all 21 samples of S. Enteritidis and all 17 samples of S. Typhimurium tested in this work. Therefore, the entire experiment had specificity and sensitivity of 100%. The detection limit was down to 10 copies of DNA target per 25 μl reaction. Conclusion The assay can amplify and analyse a large number of samples in approximately 8 hours, compared to the 4 to 5 days conventional identification takes, and is thus considered a very promising method for detecting the two major serotypes of Salmonella quickly and accurately from clinical and environmental samples.

  3. Screening of environmental contaminants in honey bee wax comb using gas chromatography-high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ramos, M M; García-Valcárcel, A I; Tadeo, J L; Fernández-Alba, A R; Hernando, M D

    2016-03-01

    This study reports an analytical approach intended to be used for investigation of non-targeted environmental contaminants and to characterize the organic pollution pattern of bee wax comb samples. The method comprises a generic extraction followed by detection with gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS), operated in electron impact ionization (EI) mode. The screening approach for the investigation of non-targeted contaminants consisted of initial peak detection by deconvolution and matching the first-stage mass spectra EI-MS(1) with a nominal mass spectral library. To gain further confidence in the structural characterization of the contaminants under investigation, the molecular formula of representative ions (molecular ion when present in the EI spectrum) and, for at least other two fragment ions, was provided for those with an accurate mass scoring (mass error bee wax comb. This approach has allowed the tentative identification of some GC-amenable contaminants belonging to different chemical groups, among them, phthalates and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), along with residues of veterinary treatments used in apiculture.

  4. MPN- and Real-Time-Based PCR Methods for the Quantification of Alkane Monooxygenase Homologous Genes (alkB) in Environmental Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-de-Mora, Alfredo; Schulz, Stephan; Schloter, Michael

    Hydrocarbons are major contaminants of soil ecosystems as a result of uncontrolled oil spills and wastes disposal into the environment. Ecological risk assessment and remediation of affected sites is often constrained due to lack of suitable prognostic and diagnostic tools that provide information of abiotic-biotic interactions occurring between contaminants and biological targets. Therefore, the identification and quantification of genes involved in the degradation of hydrocarbons may play a crucial role for evaluating the natural attenuation potential of contaminated sites and the development of successful bioremediation strategies. Besides other gene clusters, the alk operon has been identified as a major player for alkane degradation in different soils. An oxygenase gene (alkB) codes for the initial step of the degradation of aliphatic alkanes under aerobic conditions. In this work, we present an MPN- and a real-time PCR method for the quantification of the bacterial gene alkB (coding for rubredoxin-dependent alkane monooxygenase) in environmental samples. Both approaches enable a rapid culture-independent screening of the alkB gene in the environment, which can be used to assess the intrinsic natural attenuation potential of a site or to follow up the on-going progress of bioremediation assays.

  5. How to measure environmental sustainability through time. A methodology; Misurare la variazione nel tempo della sostenibilita' ambientale. Una proposta metodologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrarini, A. [comp. (Italy)

    2001-10-01

    Environmental sustainability (E.S.) is a key-issue for future landscape planning and natural resources management. It can be measured through space and time: the first dimension gives an overall idea of how the landscape changes along spatial tran sects, while the second is a key-stone for the analysis of its stability. In this view, the author suggests the use of principal component analysis (PCA) as an easily interpretable statistic tool for the investigation of the changes that occur to the indicators of E.S. [Italian] Misurare le modifiche temporali di indicatori socio-economico-ambientali e' fondamentale per comprendere l'evoluzione intrapresa dalle unita' amministrative nel management del territorio. Le tecniche statistiche piu' utilizzate a tale riguardo risultano spesso di non agevole applicazione poiche' non richiedono lunghe serie storiche di dati e competenze matematico-statistiche elevate. L'utilizzo delle PCA risulta, al contrario, un mezzo applicabile a serie storiche brevi, computazionalmente agevole e facilmente interpretabile per monitorare i cambiamenti della sostenibilita' ambientale lungo la dimensione temporale.

  6. Effectiveness of an Electronic Booster Session Delivered to Mandated Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linowski, Sally A; DiFulvio, Gloria T; Fedorchak, Diane; Puleo, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    College student drinking continues to be a problem in the United States. Students who have violated campus alcohol policy are at particularly high risk for dangerous drinking. While Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) has been found to be an effective strategy in reducing high-risk drinking and associated consequences, questions remain about ways to further reduce risk or sustain changes associated with a face-to face intervention. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a computer-delivered personalized feedback (electronic booster) delivered to policy violators who completed a mandated BASICS program. At 3-month post-intervention, 346 participants (60.4% male and 39.6% female) were randomized to one of two conditions: assessment only (n = 171) or electronic booster feedback (n = 175). Follow-up assessments were given to all participants at 3, 6, and 12-month post-initial intervention. Both groups showed reductions in drinking after the in-person BASICS intervention, but no additional reductions were seen with the addition of an electronic booster session. Findings suggest that although brief motivational interventions delivered in person to mandated students have been shown to be effective with mandated students, there is no additional benefit from an electronic booster session delivered 3-month post-intervention for this population.

  7. The Challenges of Globalisation: Delivering an MBA Programme in Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dence, Roger; O'Toole, John

    1999-01-01

    Describes the experiences of delivering an MBA (Master in Business Administration) program in Eritrea (North East Africa) through the United Kingdom's Open University. Discusses tutoring teams that travel to Eritrea, localizing case examples and assignments, sensitivity to local cultural contexts, writing assignments, student assessment, and…

  8. Lessons from VET Providers Delivering Degrees: Case Studies. Support Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Victor J.; Bowman, Kaye

    2015-01-01

    The recent growth in the number of registered vocational education and training (VET) providers delivering associate degrees and bachelor degrees in their own right has been well publicized. However, little is known about why these VET providers have made this transition, what support is being provided to their staff and students, and how the…

  9. Justice Delivered Locally : Systems, Challenges, and Innovations in Solomon Islands

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the research findings of the Justice Delivered Locally (JDL) initiative of Solomon Islands' Ministry of Justice and Legal Affairs, which was supported by the World Bank's Justice for the Poor (J4P) program. JDL supports the Solomon Islands Government (SIG) policy of reinvigorating local-level justice systems. This is based on an understanding that developmentally impor...

  10. Designing and Delivering Intensive Interventions: A Teacher's Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christy S.; Coleman, Meghan A.; Vaughn, Sharon; Wanzek, Jeanne; Roberts, Greg

    2012-01-01

    This toolkit provides activities and resources to assist practitioners in designing and delivering intensive interventions in reading and mathematics for K-12 students with significant learning difficulties and disabilities. Grounded in research, this toolkit is based on the Center on Instruction's "Intensive Interventions for Students Struggling…

  11. Environmental evolution of the Rio Grande drainage basin and Nasca region (Peru) in 2003-2007 using ENVISAT ASAR and ASTER time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigna, Francesca; Tapete, Deodato; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola

    2013-04-01

    Recent palaeo-environmental studies and remote sensing investigations demonstrated that the Rio Grande drainage basin in Southern Peru is a still evolving landscape, and impacts due to its changes have implications for the preservation of both the natural and cultural features of the Nasca region, well-known for the evidences of the ancient Paracas and Nasca Civilizations, who flourished from the 4th century BC to the 6th century AD. To image the modifications occurred in the last decade, we exploited the entire 4year-long stack of ENVISAT ASAR C-band archive imagery available over the region, which was provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) via the Cat-1 project 11073. The latter supports the activities of the Italian mission of heritage Conservation and Archaeogeophysics (ITACA), which directly involve researchers from the Institute for Archaeological and Monumental Heritage (IBAM) and the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis (IMAA), National Research Council (CNR) of Italy. With the aim of reconstructing the temporal evolution of the Rio Grande drainage basin and its effects and implications for the heritage of the region, we processed 8 ASAR Image Mode IS2 scenes acquired in descending mode between 04/02/2003 and 15/11/2005 and 5 images in ascending mode between 24/07/2005 and 11/11/2007, and focused on SAR backscattering information, amplitude change detection methods and extraction of ASAR-derived time series of the backscattering coefficient over target areas of interest. The ASAR 2003-2007 analysis was coupled and integrated with NDVI-based soil moisture and vegetation change assessment performed by using ASTER multi-spectral data acquired during the same time frame of the ASAR stacks, on 30/05/2003, 01/06/2004 and 10/06/2007. The research was performed both at the regional scale over the entire Rio Grande drainage basin, with particular focus on its tributaries Rio Ingenio, Rio Nazca and Rio Taruga, and at the local scale over the

  12. Life cycle assessment perspectives on delivering an infant in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campion, Nicole [University of Pittsburgh, 949 Benedum Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Thiel, Cassandra L., E-mail: clt31@pitt.edu [University of Pittsburgh, 949 Benedum Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); DeBlois, Justin [University of Pittsburgh, 949 Benedum Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Woods, Noe C. [Magee-Womens Hospital of UPMC, 300 Halket Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15235 (United States); Landis, Amy E. [Arizona State University, P.O. Box 875306, Tempe, AZ 85287-5306 (United States); Bilec, Melissa M. [University of Pittsburgh, 949 Benedum Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    This study introduces life cycle assessment as a tool to analyze one aspect of sustainability in healthcare: the birth of a baby. The process life cycle assessment case study presented evaluates two common procedures in a hospital, a cesarean section and a vaginal birth. This case study was conducted at Magee-Womens Hospital of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, which delivers over 10,000 infants per year. The results show that heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), waste disposal, and the production of the disposable custom packs comprise a large percentage of the environmental impacts. Applying the life cycle assessment tool to medical procedures allows hospital decision makers to target and guide efforts to reduce the environmental impacts of healthcare procedures. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Life cycle assessment helps identify the environmental impacts of medical procedures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Disposable custom packs represent a large portion of environmental impacts of births. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electricity loading contributes to global warming potential and respiratory effects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impact improvements should focus on heating, ventilation, and air conditioning and disposable custom packs.

  13. Using Tele-Coaching to Increase Behavior-Specific Praise Delivered by Secondary Teachers in an Augmented Reality Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elford, Martha Denton

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the effects of real-time feedback on teacher behavior in an augmented reality simulation environment. Real-time feedback prompts teachers to deliver behavior-specific praise to students in the TeachLivE KU Lab as an evidence-based practice known to decrease disruptive behavior in inclusive classrooms. All educators face the…

  14. Using Tele-Coaching to Increase Behavior-Specific Praise Delivered by Secondary Teachers in an Augmented Reality Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elford, Martha Denton

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the effects of real-time feedback on teacher behavior in an augmented reality simulation environment. Real-time feedback prompts teachers to deliver behavior-specific praise to students in the TeachLivE KU Lab as an evidence-based practice known to decrease disruptive behavior in inclusive classrooms. All educators face the…

  15. A cost-analysis of complex workplace nutrition education and environmental dietary modification interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Sarah; Kirby, Ann; Murphy, Aileen; Geaney, Fiona; Perry, Ivan J

    2017-01-09

    The workplace has been identified as a priority setting to positively influence individuals' dietary behaviours. However, a dearth of evidence exists regarding the costs of implementing and delivering workplace dietary interventions. This study aimed to conduct a cost-analysis of workplace nutrition education and environmental dietary modification interventions from an employer's perspective. Cost data were obtained from a workplace dietary intervention trial, the Food Choice at Work Study. Micro-costing methods estimated costs associated with implementing and delivering the interventions for 1 year in four multinational manufacturing workplaces in Cork, Ireland. The workplaces were allocated to one of the following groups: control, nutrition education alone, environmental dietary modification alone and nutrition education and environmental dietary modification combined. A total of 850 employees were recruited across the four workplaces. For comparison purposes, total costs were standardised for 500 employees per workplace. The combined intervention reported the highest total costs of €31,108. The nutrition education intervention reported total costs of €28,529. Total costs for the environmental dietary modification intervention were €3689. Total costs for the control workplace were zero. The average annual cost per employee was; combined intervention: €62, nutrition education: €57, environmental modification: €7 and control: €0. Nutritionist's time was the main cost contributor across all interventions, (ranging from 53 to 75% of total costs). Within multi-component interventions, the relative cost of implementing and delivering nutrition education elements is high compared to environmental modification strategies. A workplace environmental modification strategy added marginal additional cost, relative to the control. Findings will inform employers and public health policy-makers regarding the economic feasibility of implementing and scaling dietary

  16. Maximizing Productivity and Reducing Environmental Impacts of Full-Scale Algal Production through Optimization of Open Pond Depth and Hydraulic Retention Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béchet, Quentin; Shilton, Andy; Guieysse, Benoit

    2016-04-05

    The ability to dynamically control algal raceway ponds to maximize biomass productivity and reduce environmental impacts (e.g., land and water use) with consideration of local constraints (e.g., water availability and climatic conditions) is an important consideration in algal biotechnology. This paper presents a novel optimization strategy that seeks to maximize growth (i.e., optimize land use), minimize respiration losses, and minimize water demand through regular adjustment of pond depth and hydraulic retention time (HRT) in response to seasonal changes. To evaluate the efficiency of this strategy, algal productivity and water demand were simulated in five different climatic regions. In comparison to the standard approach (constant and location-independent depth and HRT), dynamic control of depth and HRT was shown to increase productivity by 0.6-9.9% while decreasing water demand by 10-61% depending upon the location considered (corresponding to a decrease in the water footprint of 19-62%). Interestingly, when the fact that the water demand was limited to twice the local annual rainfall was added as a constraint, higher net productivities were predicted in temperate and tropical climates (15.7 and 16.7 g m(-2) day(-1), respectively) than in Mediterranean and subtropical climates (13.0 and 9.7 g m(-2) day(-1), respectively), while algal cultivation was not economically feasible in arid climates. Using dynamic control for a full-scale operation by adjusting for local climatic conditions and water constraints can notably affect algal productivity. It is clear that future assessments of algal cultivation feasibility should implement locally optimized dynamic process control.

  17. Use of a real time PCR assay for detection of the ctxA gene of Vibrio cholerae in an environmental survey of Mobile Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, George M; Nordstrom, Jessica L; Bowen, Michael D; Meyer, Richard F; Imbro, Paula; DePaola, Angelo

    2007-02-01

    Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of cholera, is a natural inhabitant of the marine environment and causes severe diarrheal disease affecting thousands of people each year in developing countries. It is the subject of extensive testing of shrimp produced and exported from these countries. We report the development of a real time PCR (qPCR) assay to detect the gene encoding cholera toxin, ctxA, found in toxigenic V. cholerae strains. This assay was tested against DNA isolated from soil samples collected from diverse locations in the US, a panel of eukaryotic DNA from various sources, and prokaryotic DNA from closely related and unrelated bacterial sources. Only Vibrio strains known to contain ctxA generated a fluorescent signal with the 5' nuclease probe targeting the ctxA gene, thus confirming the specificity of the assay. In addition, the assay was quantitative in pure culture across a six-log dynamic range down to Mobile Bay, AL, were analyzed by qPCR and traditional culture methods. The assay was applied to overnight alkaline peptone water enrichments of these matrices after boiling the enrichments for 10 min. Toxigenic V. cholerae strains were not detected by either qPCR or conventional methods in the 16 environmental samples examined. A novel exogenous internal amplification control developed by us to prevent false negatives identified the samples that were inhibitory to the PCR. This assay, with the incorporated internal control, provides a highly specific, sensitive, and rapid detection method for the detection of toxigenic strains of V. cholerae.

  18. Assessing program sustainability in an eating disorder prevention effectiveness trial delivered by college clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Butryn, Meghan L; Stice, Eric

    2015-09-01

    Sustainability of the Body Project, a dissonance-based selective eating disorder prevention program supported by efficacy and effectiveness trials, has not previously been examined. This mixed-methods study collected qualitative and quantitative data on training, supervision, and the intervention from 27 mental health clinicians from eight US universities who participated in an effectiveness trial and quantitative data on 2-year sustainability of program delivery. Clinicians, who were primarily masters-level mental health providers, had limited experience delivering manualized interventions. They rated the training and manual favorably, noting that they particularly liked the role-plays of session activities and intervention rationale, but requested more discussion of processes and group management issues. Clinicians were satisfied receiving emailed supervision based on videotape review. They reported enjoying delivering the Body Project but reported some challenges with the manualized format and time constraints. Most clinicians anticipated running more groups after the study ended but only four universities (50%) reported providing additional Body Project groups at the 1-year follow-up assessment and sustained delivery of the groups decreased substantially two years after study completion, with only one university (12%) continuing to deliver groups. The most commonly reported barriers for conducting additional groups were limited time and high staff turnover.

  19. Novel decapeptides that bind avidly and deliver radioisotope to colon cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Abraham

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing field of targeted tumor therapy often utilizes an antibody, sometimes tagged with a tumor-ablating material such as radioisotope, directed against a specific molecule.This report describes the discovery of nine novel decapeptides which can be radioactively labeled, bind to, and deliver (32P to colon cancer cells. The decapeptides vary from one another by one to three amino acids and demonstrate vastly different binding abilities. The most avidly binding decapeptide can permanently deliver very high levels of radioisotope to the adenocarcinoma cancer cell lines at an efficiency 35 to 150 times greater than to a variety of other cell types, including cell lines derived from other types of cancer or from normal tissue.This experimental approach represents a new example of a strategy, termed peptide binding therapy, for the potential treatment of colorectal and other adenocarcinomas.

  20. Achievable peak electrode voltage reduction by neurostimulators using descending staircase currents to deliver charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the achievable reduction in peak voltage across two driving terminals of an RC circuit when delivering charge using a stepped current waveform, comprising a chosen number of steps of equal duration, compared with using a constant current over the total duration. This work has application to the design of neurostimulators giving reduced peak electrode voltage when delivering a given electric charge over a given time duration. Exact solutions for the greatest possible peak voltage reduction using two and three steps are given. Furthermore, it is shown that the achievable peak voltage reduction, for any given number of steps is identical for simple series RC circuits and parallel RC circuits, for appropriate different values of RC. It is conjectured that the maximum peak voltage reduction cannot be improved using a more complicated RC circuit.

  1. Marine Environmental History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    This essay provides an overview of recent trends in the historiography of marine environmental history, a sub-field of environmental history which has grown tremendously in scope and size over the last c. 15 years. The object of marine environmental history is the changing relationship between...... human society and natural marine resources. Within this broad topic, several trends and objectives are discernable. The essay argue that the so-called material marine environmental history has its main focus on trying to reconstruct the presence, development and environmental impact of past fisheries...... and whaling operations. This ambition often entails a reconstruction also of how marine life has changed over time. The time frame rages from Paleolithicum to the present era. The field of marine environmental history also includes a more culturally oriented environmental history, which mainly has come...

  2. Hipparcos to deliver its final results catalogue soon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    them, almost 30 years ago, to propose carrying out these observations from the relatively benign environment of space. Hipparcos is, by present standards, a medium-sized satellite, with a 30 cm telescope sensing simply ordinary light. But it has been described as the most imaginative in the short history of space astronomy. This foresight has been amply repaid. In the long history of stargazing it ranks with the surveys by Hipparchus the Greek in the 2nd Century BC and by Tichy Brahe the Dane in the 16th Century AD, both of which transformed human perceptions of the Universe. Positions derived from the Hipparcos satellite are better than a millionth of a degree, and newly a thousand times more accurate than star positions routinely determined from he ground. This accuracy makes it possible to measure directly the distances to the stars. While it took 250 years between astronomers first setting out on the exacting task of measuring the distance to a star, and a stellar distance being measured for the first time, ESA's Hipparcos mission has revolutionised this long, painstaking, and fundamental task by measuring accurate distances and movements of more than one hundred thousand. The measurement concept involved he satellite triangulating its way between he stars all wound the sky, building up a celestial map in much the same way as land surveyors use triangulation between hill-tops to measure distances accurately. Only the angles involved are much smaller : the accuracy that has been achieved with the Hipparcos Catalogue is such that he two edges of a coin, viewed from he other side of the Atlantic Ocean, could be distinguished. The results from Hipparcos will deliver scientists with long-awaited details of our place in he Milky Way Galaxy. Most of he stars visible to the naked eye are, to a large extent, companions of the Sun, in a great orbital march around the centre of the Galaxy, a journey so long that it takes individual stars 250 million years to complete, in

  3. Delivering Collaborative Web Labs as a Service for Engineering Education

    OpenAIRE

    Bochicchio, Mario A.; Antonella Longo

    2012-01-01

    As Internet speed grows up and academic networks reach more users, engineering schools take interest in online laboratories as a mean to increase the spectrum of offered services and to reduce costs by sharing expensive lab equipments. In this perspective, online labs must comply both with the scientific and pedagogic requirements coming from the lab users (students, researchers, …) and with the requirements coming from the administrative and technical staff in charge to manage and deliver th...

  4. FY-2E Delivered And FY-3A Performs Well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The FY-2E meteorological satellite was delivered to China Meteorological Administration (CMA) on May 19, 2009. Developed by Shanghai Academy of Spacefiight Technology (SAST), a subsidiary of CASC, the satellite was launched atop a LM-3A from Xichang Satellite Launch Center (XSLC). The satellite passed in-orbit testing on February 28,2009 and all the onboard systems performed well when the satellite was in the Earth's shadow.

  5. Delivering business analytics practical guidelines for best practice

    CERN Document Server

    Stubbs, Evan

    2013-01-01

    AVOID THE MISTAKES THAT OTHERS MAKE - LEARN WHAT LEADS TO BEST PRACTICE AND KICKSTART SUCCESS This groundbreaking resource provides comprehensive coverage across all aspects of business analytics, presenting proven management guidelines to drive sustainable differentiation. Through a rich set of case studies, author Evan Stubbs reviews solutions and examples to over twenty common problems spanning managing analytics assets and information, leveraging technology, nurturing skills, and defining processes. Delivering Business Analytics also outlines the Data Scientist's Code, fifteen principle

  6. Environmental Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Ekelund, Kathrine

    2015-01-01

    The philosophical subfield environmental aesthetics can contribute to the design of sustainable futures. Environmental aesthetics provides a conceptual framework for understanding the relationship between nature and culture. Current positions in environmental aesthetics are lined out and used...

  7. Integrating Interdisciplinary Perspectives into Traditional Environmental Law Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Ruby

    1999-01-01

    Examines a case study relating to the delivering of an environmental law module at Staffordshire University (England) and describes the practices that were implemented to facilitate interdisciplinarity and learning of environmental law. Concludes that the changes to the environmental law course at Staffordshire demonstrate the possibility to…

  8. Can physical therapists deliver a pain coping skills program? An examination of training processes and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Christina; Lewis, Prudence; Bennell, Kim L; Ahamed, Yasmin; Crough, Denae; Jull, Gwendolen A; Kenardy, Justin; Nicholas, Michael K; Keefe, Francis J

    2014-10-01

    Physical therapists are well established as providers of treatments for common, painful, and disabling conditions, such as knee osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, they are well placed to deliver treatments that integrate physical and psychosocial elements. Attention is usually given to outcomes of such programs, but few studies have examined the processes and outcomes of training physical therapists to deliver such treatments. The aim of this study was to describe the processes in training physical therapists: (1) to deliver a standardized pain coping skills treatment and (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of that training. This study was an analysis of data relating to therapist performance in a randomized clinical trial. Eleven physical therapists were trained to deliver a 10-session pain coping skills training program for people with knee OA as part of a randomized controlled trial (N=222). The initial training was provided in a workshop format and included extensive, ongoing supervision by a psychologist and rigorous use of well-defined performance criteria to assess competence. Adherence to the program, ratings of performance, and use of advanced skills were all measured against these criteria in a sample (n=74, 10%) of the audio recordings of the intervention sessions. Overall, the physical therapists achieved a very high standard of treatment delivery, with 96.6% adherence to the program and mean performance ratings all in the satisfactory range. These results were maintained throughout the intervention and across all sessions. Only 10% of the delivered sessions were analyzed, and the physical therapists who took part in the study were a self-selected group. This study demonstrated that a systematic approach to training and accrediting physical therapists to deliver a standardized pain coping skills program can result in high and sustained levels of adherence to the program. Training fidelity was achieved in this group of motivated clinicians, but the supervision

  9. Media and Environmental Non-Governmental Organizations (ENGOs) Roles in Environmental Sustainability Communication in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Saifudin, Mohamad Saleh

    2017-01-01

    Considering the massive environmental problems occurring in Malaysia, the media and the ENGOs are said to play pivotal roles in delivering environmental information to the mass society in order to increase their awareness, knowledge and practices towards the environment and sustainability. This study sought to shed the light on the type of roles…

  10. Typhoid Fever and Its Association with Environmental Factors in the Dhaka Metropolitan Area of Bangladesh: A Spatial and Time-Series Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Ashraf M.; Corner, Robert; Hashizume, Masahiro; Ongee, Emmanuel T.

    2013-01-01

    Typhoid fever is a major cause of death worldwide with a major part of the disease burden in developing regions such as the Indian sub-continent. Bangladesh is part of this highly endemic region, yet little is known about the spatial and temporal distribution of the disease at a regional scale. This research used a Geographic Information System to explore, spatially and temporally, the prevalence of typhoid in Dhaka Metropolitan Area (DMA) of Bangladesh over the period 2005–9. This paper provides the first study of the spatio-temporal epidemiology of typhoid for this region. The aims of the study were: (i) to analyse the epidemiology of cases from 2005 to 2009; (ii) to identify spatial patterns of infection based on two spatial hypotheses; and (iii) to determine the hydro-climatological factors associated with typhoid prevalence. Case occurrences data were collected from 11 major hospitals in DMA, geocoded to census tract level, and used in a spatio-temporal analysis with a range of demographic, environmental and meteorological variables. Analyses revealed distinct seasonality as well as age and gender differences, with males and very young children being disproportionately infected. The male-female ratio of typhoid cases was found to be 1.36, and the median age of the cases was 14 years. Typhoid incidence was higher in male population than female (χ2 = 5.88, ptyphoid between urban and rural environments (p>0.05). A statistically significant inverse association was found between typhoid incidence and distance to major waterbodies. Spatial pattern analysis showed that there was a significant clustering of typhoid distribution in the study area. Moran's I was highest (0.879; ptyphoid incidence was seen to increase with temperature, rainfall and river level at time lags ranging from three to five weeks. For example, for a 0.1 metre rise in river levels, the number of typhoid cases increased by 4.6% (95% CI: 2.4–2.8) above the threshold of 4.0 metres (95% CI

  11. Typhoid Fever and its association with environmental factors in the Dhaka Metropolitan Area of Bangladesh: a spatial and time-series approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M Dewan

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever is a major cause of death worldwide with a major part of the disease burden in developing regions such as the Indian sub-continent. Bangladesh is part of this highly endemic region, yet little is known about the spatial and temporal distribution of the disease at a regional scale. This research used a Geographic Information System to explore, spatially and temporally, the prevalence of typhoid in Dhaka Metropolitan Area (DMA of Bangladesh over the period 2005-9. This paper provides the first study of the spatio-temporal epidemiology of typhoid for this region. The aims of the study were: (i to analyse the epidemiology of cases from 2005 to 2009; (ii to identify spatial patterns of infection based on two spatial hypotheses; and (iii to determine the hydro-climatological factors associated with typhoid prevalence. Case occurrences data were collected from 11 major hospitals in DMA, geocoded to census tract level, and used in a spatio-temporal analysis with a range of demographic, environmental and meteorological variables. Analyses revealed distinct seasonality as well as age and gender differences, with males and very young children being disproportionately infected. The male-female ratio of typhoid cases was found to be 1.36, and the median age of the cases was 14 years. Typhoid incidence was higher in male population than female (χ(2 = 5.88, p0.05. A statistically significant inverse association was found between typhoid incidence and distance to major waterbodies. Spatial pattern analysis showed that there was a significant clustering of typhoid distribution in the study area. Moran's I was highest (0.879; p<0.01 in 2008 and lowest (0.075; p<0.05 in 2009. Incidence rates were found to form three large, multi-centred, spatial clusters with no significant difference between urban and rural rates. Temporally, typhoid incidence was seen to increase with temperature, rainfall and river level at time lags ranging from three to five

  12. Delivering care to oncology patients in the community: an innovative integrated approach.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanan, Terry

    2014-08-01

    A community oncology nursing programme was developed in Ireland between the hospital and community health services for patients receiving systemic cancer therapy, in response to a service need. A robust evaluation of the pilot programme was undertaken, which found that defined clinical procedures traditionally undertaken in hospitals were safely undertaken in the patient\\'s home with no adverse effects. There was a dramatic decrease in hospital attendances for these defined clinical procedures, and hospital capacity was consequently freed up. Patients valued having aspects of their care delivered at home and reported that it improved their quality of life, including reduced hospital visits and travel time. Community nurses expanded their scope of practice and became partners with oncology day-ward nurses in caring for these patients. Community nurses developed the competence and confidence to safely deliver cancer care in the community. This initiative shows that defined elements of acute cancer care can be safely delivered in the community so long as the training and support are provided. The findings and recommendations of the evaluation resulted in university accreditation and approval for national roll-out of the programme. Integration of services between primary and secondary care is a key priority. This innovative programme is a good example of shared integrated care that benefits both patients and health-care providers.

  13. Using Lunar Impact Glasses to Inform the Amount of Organic Material Delivered to the Early Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Pham; Zellner, Nicolle

    2017-01-01

    The delivery of organic material via comets and asteroids during the early history of Earth plays an important role in some theories about the origin of life on Earth. Given the close proximity of the Moon to the Earth, the Moon’s impact history can be used to estimate the amount of organic material delivered to the early Earth. Analysis of lunar impact glasses, derived from energetic impacts on the Moon, provide valuable data that can be used to interpret the Moon’s impact flux. Here we present the results of a study of the non-volatile lithophile element compositions of over 500 impact glass samples from the Apollo 14, 16, and 17 landing sites, along with associated ages of a subset of them. Our analyses show that many of the impact glasses possess compositions exotic to the local regolith in which they were found. Coupled with their ages, these glasses suggest material transport from distant regions of the Moon and may allow an estimate of the number of lunar (and terrestrial) impactors in a given time period. These results have important implications for constraining the Moon’s impact flux and also the amount of organic material delivered to the early Earth. Results of our preliminary study, which investigates the amounts of organic material delivered by comets and asteroids to the Moon (and Earth), will be presented.

  14. Green electricity: Tracking systems for environmental disclosure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biewald, B.E.; Ramey, J.A. [Synapse Energy Economics, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    For the first time, electricity consumers in the US are beginning to choose their generation providers. One of the opportunities created by the introduction of retail choice in electricity is the chance for customers to influence the mix of generating resources through their purchasing decisions. Some environmentally aware consumers will want {open_quotes}clean,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}green,{close_quotes} or renewable power. While some suppliers will attempt to differentiate themselves according to their environmental performance, such claims for green electricity can be particularly difficult to verify given the complexity of the interconnected electric system. Because electricity is delivered over an integrated transmission grid and kilowatt-hours at the point of retail sale are indistinguishable from each other; disclosure requires tracking protocols to attribute generation at power plants to sales at the customers` meters. Fortunately, it is possible to implement a workable disclosure system. Some states have already included disclosure requirements in their electric industry restructuring orders and legislation. In this paper, a set of design criteria for an environmental disclosure system are presented along with two methods for disclosure: the company approach and the product approach. In addition, the authors discuss of power pools, data availability issues, and propose a company-based disclosure system using a {open_quotes}wholesale sales first{close_quotes} approach to transaction accounting.

  15. Assessing the efficacy of spray-delivered 'eco-friendly' chemicals for the control and eradication of marine fouling pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piola, Richard F; Dunmore, Robyn A; Forrest, Barrie M

    2010-01-01

    Despite its frequent use in terrestrial and freshwater systems, there is a lack of published experimental research examining the effectiveness of spray-delivered chemicals for the management of non-indigenous and/or unwanted pests in marine habitats. This study tested the efficacy of spraying acetic acid, hydrated lime and sodium hypochlorite for the control of marine fouling assemblages. The chemicals are considered relatively 'eco-friendly' due to their low toxicity and reduced environmental persistence compared to synthetic biocides, and they were effective in controlling a wide range of organisms. Pilot trials highlighted acetic acid as the most effective chemical at removing fouling cover, therefore it was selected for more comprehensive full-scale trials. A single spray of 5% acetic acid with an exposure time of 1 min effectively removed up to 55% of the invertebrate species present and 65% of the cover on fouled experimental plates, while one application of 10% acetic acid over 30 min removed up to 78% of species present and 95% of cover. Single-spray treatments of 5% acetic acid reduced cover of the tunicate pest species Didemnum vexillum by up to 100% depending on the exposure duration, while repeat-spraying ensured that even short exposure times (1 min) achieved approximately 99% mortality. Both 5 and 10% acetic acid solutions appeared equally effective at removing the majority of algal species. This technique could be used for controlling the introduction of unwanted species or preventing the spread of pests, and is applicable to use on a variety of natural and artificial substrata, or for the treatment of structures that can be removed from the water.

  16. The Europa Seismic Package (ESP): 2. Meeting the Environmental Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedar, S.; Pike, W. T.; Standley, I. M.; Calcutt, S. B.; Bowles, N.; Blaes, B.; Irom, F.; Mojarradi, M.; Vance, S. D.; Bills, B. G.

    2016-10-01

    We outline a pathway for adapting the SP microseismometer delivered to InSight to provide a Europa Seismic Package that overcomes the three significant challenges in the environmental conditions, specifically gravity, temperature and radiation.

  17. EPA Releases the First of Four Preliminary Risk Assessments for Insecticides Potentially Harmful to Bees/First-of-its-kind assessment delivers on President Obamas National Pollinator Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delivering on the President's National Pollinator Strategy means EPA is committed not only to protecting bees and reversing bee loss, but for the first time assessing the health of the colony for the neonicotinoid pesticides, said Jim Jones Assista

  18. Delivering a medical school elective with massive open online course (MOOC) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The educational technology of massive open online courses (MOOCs) has been successfully applied in a wide variety of disciplines and are an intense focus of educational research at this time. Educators are now looking to MOOC technology as a means to improve professional medical education, but very little is known about how medical MOOCs compare with traditional content delivery. A retrospective analysis of the course evaluations for the Medicine as a Business elective by fourth-year medical students at Southern Illinois University School of Medicine (SIU-SOM) for the 2012-2015 academic years was conducted. This course was delivered by small group flipped classroom discussions for 2012-2014 and delivered via MOOC technology in 2015. Learner ratings were compared between the two course delivery methods using routinely collected course evaluations. Course enrollment has ranged from 6-19 students per year in the 2012-2015 academic years. Student evaluations of the course are favorable in the areas of effective teaching, accurate course objectives, meeting personal learning objectives, recommending the course to other students, and overall when rated on a 5-point Likert scale. The majority of all student ratings (76-95%) of this elective course are for the highest possible choice (Strongly agree or Excellent) for any criteria, regardless if the course was delivered via a traditional or MOOC format. Statistical analysis of these ratings suggests that the Effective Teacher and Overall Evaluations did not statistically differ between the two delivery formats. Student ratings of this elective course were highly similar when delivered in a flipped classroom format or by using MOOC technology. The primary advantage of this new course format is flexibility of time and place for learners, allowing them to complete the course objectives when convenient for them. The course evaluations suggest this is a change that is acceptable to the target audience. This study suggests that

  19. A service model for delivering care closer to home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Joanna; Taylor, Charlotte Elizabeth; Bunyan, Paul; White, Philippa Mary; Thomas, Siân Myra; Upton, Dominic

    2011-04-01

    Upton Surgery (Worcestershire) has developed a flexible and responsive service model that facilitates multi-agency support for adult patients with complex care needs experiencing an acute health crisis. The purpose of this service is to provide appropriate interventions that avoid unnecessary hospital admissions or, alternatively, provide support to facilitate early discharge from secondary care. Key aspects of this service are the collaborative and proactive identification of patients at risk, rapid creation and deployment of a reactive multi-agency team and follow-up of patients with an appropriate long-term care plan. A small team of dedicated staff (the Complex Care Team) are pivotal to coordinating and delivering this service. Key skills are sophisticated leadership and project management skills, and these have been used sensitively to challenge some traditional roles and boundaries in the interests of providing effective, holistic care for the patient.This is a practical example of early implementation of the principles underlying the Department of Health's (DH) recent Best Practice Guidance, 'Delivering Care Closer to Home' (DH, July 2008) and may provide useful learning points for other general practice surgeries considering implementing similar models. This integrated case management approach has had enthusiastic endorsement from patients and carers. In addition to the enhanced quality of care and experience for the patient, this approach has delivered value for money. Secondary care costs have been reduced by preventing admissions and also by reducing excess bed-days. The savings achieved have justified the ongoing commitment to the service and the staff employed in the Complex Care Team. The success of this service model has been endorsed recently by the 'Customer Care' award by 'Management in Practice'. The Surgery was also awarded the 'Practice of the Year' award for this and a number of other customer-focussed projects.

  20. Applying State-of-the-Art Technologies to Reduce Escape Times from Fires Using Environmental Sensing, Improved Occupant Egress Guidance, and Multiple Communication Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-06

    that could monitor sensors, evaluate environmental 4 conditions, and control visual and sound devices was conducted. The home automation products used...the prototype system. Use of off-the-shelf home automation products allowed the implementation of an egress control prototype suitable for test and

  1. Confocal epifluorescence detection for microspheres delivered on disposable microfluidic chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Honghua Hu; Xiyun Hou; Guoguang Yang

    2006-01-01

    @@ The laser induced fluorescence (LIF) detection system for 5-μm microspheres delivered on microfluidic chip is presented employing confocal optical scheme. The parameters of the optical system are specifically optimized for single microsphere detection. With the excitation laser spot size of 4.6 μm and optical sectioning power of 27 μm, the lowest concentration detection limit is 0.45 nmol/L, corresponding to only 122 molecules in probe volume. The microsphere detection is carried on successfully with the maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 55.7, which provides good detection sensitivity.

  2. Delivering a Remote Laboratory Course within an Undergraduate Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul Azad

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the offering of anundergraduate laboratory course over the Internet. Thepaper provides a brief description of a modular Internetbasedlaboratory facility using commercially availablehardware and software, in-built password control and usertracking, and simultaneously accessibility to multipleclients. The modules are adaptable with a variety oflaboratory experiments with little effort. The facility wasused to deliver a remote laboratory course for anundergraduate digital electronics laboratory. An evaluationscheme was implemented to assess the effectiveness of thesystem as well students’ learning outcomes. In-builtcapability to collect systems’ operational data and weeklysurvey are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the system,while pre- and post-tests

  3. Bench Crater Meteorite: Hydrated Asteroidal Material Delivered to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, K. H.; Messenger, S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Frank, D. R.; Kring, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    D/H measurements from the lunar regolith agglutinates [8] indicate mixing between a low D/H solar implanted component and additional higher D/H sources (e.g., meteoritic/ cometary/volcanic gases). We have determined the range and average D/H ratio of Bench Crater meteorite, which is the first direct D/H analysis of meteoritic material delivered to the lunar surface. This result provides an important ground truth for future investigations of lunar water resources by missions to the Moon.

  4. Twin delivery: how should the second twin be delivered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, P; Rydhström, H

    1985-11-01

    In a series of 803 pairs of twins born between 1973 and 1982, 0.33% of second twins were delivered by cesarean section after vaginal delivery of the first twin. During the last year the frequency has increased to 7%, calling attention to the problem of declining obstetric skills and experience. This has caused us to update the routines of intrapartum management of twin gestations. In the present program only commonly available obstetric techniques are used. The potentially hazardous twin delivery is excluded from a trial of vaginal delivery. Hopefully, the program will help other obstetricians to decide in favor of vaginal delivery in selected twin gestations.

  5. Color View of 'Rosy Red' Delivered to TEGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this false color image on Sol 72 (August 7, 2008), the 72nd Martian day after landing. It shows a soil sample from a trench informally called 'Rosy Red' after being delivered to a gap between partially opened doors on the lander's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Delivering Sustainability Through Supply Chain Distribution Network Redesign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Ravet

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - Companies could gain (cost, service, green/sustainable competitive advantage through the supply chain network. The goal of this article is to study how to deliver sustainability through the supply chain distribution network redesign.Design/methodology/approach - A literature review is conducted to examine research relating to sustainable supply chain strategies and supply chain distribution network redesign.Findings - A study of the supply chain literature reveals the importance to rethink the supply chain distribution network design and to treat sustainability as integral to operations.

  7. EU Commissioner Delivers a Speech at CAS Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ European Union (EU) Environment Commissioner Margot Wallstrom gave a talk on cooperation between the EU and China on environmental issues during her trip to the CAS Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resource Research (IGSNRR) on Nov. 13.

  8. The Environmental Accounting: an Instrument for Promoting the Environmental Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra Sendroiu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Companies and managers usually believe that environmental costs are not significant tothe operation of their businesses. However, often it does not occur to them that some production costshave an environmental component. By identifying and controlling environmental costs, environmentalaccounting systems can help environmental managers to justify these cleaner production projects, and toidentify new ways of saving money and improving environmental performance at the same time.

  9. Administration and environmental protection

    OpenAIRE

    Milkov, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental protection is a very important task of the state. The state in this area deals in a preventative manner, and at the same time controls the application of laws and regulations. The aim of this paper is to carry out the identification of administrative bodies dealing with environmental protection at the national, provincial and local levels. There are administrative bodies dealing directly with matters of environmental protection. On the other hand, within the scope of some admini...

  10. Design and Implementation of a Real-time Processing System of Full Resolution Quick-look Image of HJ-1 Environmental Satellite C SAR Based on High Performance Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing-shan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the design and implementation of a real-time processing system of full resolution quick-look image of HJ-1 environmental satellite C SAR based on high-performance clusters. The system processes the first quick-look SAR image on December 9, 2012. The results show that the design and implementation of the quick-look processing system satisfies the real-time SAR image processing performance requirements at full resolution. Moreover, this system is the first real-time business system of full-resolution quick-look spaceborne SAR images in China.

  11. INVESTIGATION OF BIRTHS DELIVERED IN A UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Senih MAYDA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the records of the births delivered in the Hospital of Duzce Medical School to determine the frequency of low birth weight, stillbirth, sezerian ratio; the relation between these variables and age of mother, number of pregnancy, birth weight, sex of the baby, way of the delivery. Data of this descriptive study was obtained from all the records of births delivered in this hospital from February 2001 to 2005 October. Number of total births according to the records was 2562. According to 2495 (97.4% birth records in which data if the baby was stillbirth or not had been written the number of stillbirth was 112 (4.5%. According to 2491 (97.25 birth records data about birth weight had been written the number of babies with low birth weight (less than 2500 gr was 564 (22.6%. Stillbirth was found related with low birth weight (x2=193.186, p<0.001; and low birth weight with female sex of the baby (x2 = 16.16, p<0.001, and less than 19 years of mothers’ ages. Of 2521 births, 1190 (47.2% was cesarean section. The results of this study showed that birth record of this hospital hasn’t included the data which must be at birth records. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(6.000: 408-415

  12. Expert assessment concludes negative emissions scenarios may not deliver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Naomi E.; Gough, Clair

    2016-09-01

    Many integrated assessment models (IAMs) rely on the availability and extensive use of biomass energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) to deliver emissions scenarios consistent with limiting climate change to below 2 °C average temperature rise. BECCS has the potential to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, delivering ‘negative emissions’. The deployment of BECCS at the scale assumed in IAM scenarios is highly uncertain: biomass energy is commonly used but not at such a scale, and CCS technologies have been demonstrated but not commercially established. Here we present the results of an expert elicitation process that explores the explicit and implicit assumptions underpinning the feasibility of BECCS in IAM scenarios. Our results show that the assumptions are considered realistic regarding technical aspects of CCS but unrealistic regarding the extent of bioenergy deployment, and development of adequate societal support and governance structures for BECCS. The results highlight concerns about the assumed magnitude of carbon dioxide removal achieved across a full BECCS supply chain, with the greatest uncertainty in bioenergy production. Unrealistically optimistic assumptions regarding the future availability of BECCS in IAM scenarios could lead to the overshoot of critical warming limits and have significant impacts on near-term mitigation options.

  13. Delivering innovation and choice in water supply in Kenya's informal settlements

    OpenAIRE

    O'Regan, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Improved access to water and sanitation in the worlds slums were among the key targets in the Millennium Development Goals. In Kenya, water is generally accessed in slum areas by filling 20l jerrycans at standposts and water kiosks and carrying back to households, with residents paying up to nine times more than utility bulk water prices and spending large parts of their day collecting water. The aim of this research was to assess consumers’ response and reaction to a series of water deliv...

  14. Environmental Participation and Environmental Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Torgler, Benno; María A. García Valiñas; Macintyre, Alison

    2009-01-01

    We explore whether environmental motivation affects environmental behavior by focusing on volunteering. The paper first introduces a theoretical model of volunteering in environmental organizations. In a next step, it tests the hypothesis working with a large micro data set covering 32 countries from both Western and Eastern Europe using several different proxies to measure environmental motivation. Our results indicate that environmental motivation has a strong impact on individuals? volunta...

  15. Corporate environmental management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    With increasing population and economic growth and related demand for energy and natural resources as well, pollution, waste production and environmental sustainability have become issues of uttermost importance. For quite some time self-regulation, i.e. voluntary implementation of environmental...

  16. Sensing Environmental Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Alan

    2003-01-01

    The field of environmental education research has been moving away from scientistic and positivistic discourses for some time now ("Environmental Education Research," 2000; Hart & Nolan, 1999). However, it has been noted that the meta-discourse about this research continues to draw on their framings, registers, and lexicons (Hart, 2000;…

  17. Delivering diversity: newly regulated midwifery returns to Manitoba, Canada, one community at a time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiner, Meta

    2009-01-01

    Through its publicly funded health care system, Canada is committed to offering accessible, quality maternity health services to all its citizens, yet this remains a challenge in its First Nations, rural and immigrant communities. With the implementation of midwifery as a self-regulating health profession in Manitoba, Canada, in 2000, initiatives were incorporated into the structure of the profession to try to address this issue. This qualitative investigation documents and explores these initiatives through a case study combining semistructured interviews and documentary sources. The innovations discussed include the development of an Aboriginal midwifery degree program, the supports put in place to assist rural midwifery practices, and the efforts to increase ethnic diversity and cultural competence within the midwifery profession. What unites these efforts is a community building approach which attempts to strengthen communities through local midwifery services and midwives drawn from community members.

  18. Environmental strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabkar, Vesna; Cater, Tomaz; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    Environmental issues and the inclusion of environmental strategies in strategic thinking is an interesting subject of investigation. In general, managerial practices organized along ecologically sound principles contribute to a more environmentally sustainable global economy. From the managerial...... perspective, appropriate environmental strategies in compliance with environmental requirements aim at building competitive advantages through sustainable development. There is no universal “green” strategy that would be appropriate for each company, regardless of its market requirements and competitive...... situations. Instead, managers undertake careful consideration of the circumstances in which their company operates, paying special attention to their customers’ environmental preferences....

  19. Environmental fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marier, J.R.; Rose, D.

    1971-01-01

    Modern-day man is probably exposed to more environmental fluoride than was heretofore suspected, and consideration must be given to the total ingestion from various sources as well as the types of fluoride present in air, foods, beverages, and other commodities. An effort should also be made to study the symptomology of chronic fluorine intoxication, especially the early non-skeletal manifestations of arthritic-like symptoms that may be complicated by metabolic and/or nutritional inadequacies. Finally, it must be emphasized again that dental fluorosis (i.e. mottling) will only be seen in subjects who have been exposed to fluoride during the time when the enamel of the permanent teeth is being formed, and its absence cannot be assumed to indicate freedom from other fluoride-induced effects including effects of organofluorides and their metabolites. 168 references.

  20. The ABC's of Delivering A Research-Driven Adventure Learning Program From the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregont, P.; Porsild, M.

    2008-12-01

    A is for anchoring the delivery of your research to your audience in a standard-aligned curriculum. B is for BGAN Satellite Communication System assisting in delivering real-time authentic media. C is for a collaborative online learning environment to engage learners" Z is for the peaceful sleep you will get once your program is up and running! As part of Team GoNorth! (http://www.PolarHusky.com) it is our job to deliver adventure learning. We set out to do this back when the computer was a 4-foot, 50-lb box powered by a hand-crank where one would have a window of ten minutes in a 24-hour period to catch the satellite (before Al Gore created the Internet!). Every year we review the quantum leaps in what is now possible from the field and in the classroom, and over the years we have wrestled technical issues, solutions and numerous re-structures in the process of our of curriculum development. With this presentation we will provide some basic ABC's on how you can remained focused on your research, yet deliver an adventure learning program for learners to investigate real-world issues within your scientific research. Our scales are most likely different. The volume of our curriculum is an annual production of 4-500 pages to be used from Kindergarden through 12th grade around the world. The framework of our online learning environment must be able to supports millions of users at a time. "In the field" means on a a 3-4 month dogsled expedition - so sending out our live updates involve thawing out the computers and setting up the satellite communication system to work in a ground blizzard! But regardless of the scope and location of your field research, you can probably build on some of our experiences in the planning of an upcoming adventure learning program to engage learners of all or any ages in your scientific explorations!

  1. Regional Primary Care Team to Deliver Best-Practice Diabetes Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Leonie; Leach, Matthew J.; May, Esther; Turnbull, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Best-practice diabetes care can reduce the burden of diabetes and associated health care costs. But this requires access to a multidisciplinary team with the right skill mix. We applied a needs-driven evidence-based health workforce model to describe the primary care team required to support best-practice diabetes care, paying particular attention to diverse clinic populations. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Care protocols, by number and duration of consultations, were derived for twenty distinct competencies based on clinical practice guidelines and structured input from a multidisciplinary clinical panel. This was combined with a previously estimated population profile of persons across 26 patient attributes (i.e., type of diabetes, complications, and threats to self-care) to estimate clinician contact hours by competency required to deliver best-practice care in the study region. RESULTS A primary care team of 22.1 full-time-equivalent (FTE) positions was needed to deliver best-practice primary care to a catchment of 1,000 persons with diabetes with the attributes of the Australian population. Competencies requiring greatest contact time were psychosocial issues and dietary advice at 3.5 and 3.3 FTE, respectively (1 FTE/∼300 persons); home (district) nursing at 3.2 FTE; and diabetes education at 2.8 FTE. The annual cost of delivering care was estimated at just over 2,000 Australian dollars (∼2,090 USD) (2012) per person with diabetes. CONCLUSIONS A needs-driven approach to primary care service planning identified a wider range of competencies in the diabetes primary and community care team than typically described. Access to psychosocial competences as well as medical management is required if clinical targets are to be met, especially in disadvantaged groups. PMID:23393210

  2. Corporate environmental management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    With increasing population and economic growth and related demand for energy and natural resources as well, pollution, waste production and environmental sustainability have become issues of uttermost importance. For quite some time self-regulation, i.e. voluntary implementation of environmental......: how does industry respond to the environmental challenge? The paper concludes that despite the apparent attractiveness of self-regulation in industry, voluntary options tend not to be widely adopted thus pointing to a continued strong need for an effective regulation of industry’s environmental...

  3. 3D RECORDING FOR 2D DELIVERING – THE EMPLOYMENT OF 3D MODELS FOR STUDIES AND ANALYSES –

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rizzi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, thanks to the advances of surveying sensors and techniques, many heritage sites could be accurately replicated in digital form with very detailed and impressive results. The actual limits are mainly related to hardware capabilities, computation time and low performance of personal computer. Often, the produced models are not visible on a normal computer and the only solution to easily visualized them is offline using rendered videos. This kind of 3D representations is useful for digital conservation, divulgation purposes or virtual tourism where people can visit places otherwise closed for preservation or security reasons. But many more potentialities and possible applications are available using a 3D model. The problem is the ability to handle 3D data as without adequate knowledge this information is reduced to standard 2D data. This article presents some surveying and 3D modeling experiences within the APSAT project ("Ambiente e Paesaggi dei Siti d’Altura Trentini", i.e. Environment and Landscapes of Upland Sites in Trentino. APSAT is a multidisciplinary project funded by the Autonomous Province of Trento (Italy with the aim documenting, surveying, studying, analysing and preserving mountainous and hill-top heritage sites located in the region. The project focuses on theoretical, methodological and technological aspects of the archaeological investigation of mountain landscape, considered as the product of sequences of settlements, parcelling-outs, communication networks, resources, and symbolic places. The mountain environment preserves better than others the traces of hunting and gathering, breeding, agricultural, metallurgical, symbolic activities characterised by different lengths and environmental impacts, from Prehistory to the Modern Period. Therefore the correct surveying and documentation of this heritage sites and material is very important. Within the project, the 3DOM unit of FBK is delivering all the surveying

  4. Delivering quality pain management: the challenge for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Kim; Gordon, Debra B

    2015-03-01

    The delivery of high-quality pain management in the perioperative environment can be challenging and difficult to quantify. Commonly used tools in delivering care, such as pain intensity ratings, individual pain experience reporting, assessments of individual patients' expectations, and patient satisfaction scores, have limitations and are not always useful when addressing quality improvement measures. Despite clinical advances in pain management, patients continue to experience inadequate pain control and inconsistent pain management practices. In this article, we discuss the challenges in providing consistent quality pain management, the need for a coordinated plan of care with a goal of meeting desired pain outcomes, and the essential role that perianesthesia and perioperative nurses play throughout the transitions in perioperative care to promote optimal pain management interventions based on the patient's individual needs.

  5. Delivering cervical cancer prevention services in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J; Barone, M; Mahé, C; Lewis, R; Luciani, S

    2005-05-01

    The goals of any cervical cancer prevention program should be threefold: to achieve high coverage of the population at risk, to screen women with an accurate test as part of high-quality services, and to ensure that women with positive test results are properly managed. This article focuses on the experiences of the Alliance for Cervical Cancer Prevention (ACCP) in delivery of screening and treatment services as part of cervical cancer prevention projects in Africa, Latin America, and Asia. Research and experience show that cervical cancer can be prevented when strategies and services are well planned and well managed and when attention is paid to program monitoring and evaluation. Coordination of program components, reduction of the number of visits, improvement of service quality, and flexibility in how services are delivered are all essential features of an effective service.

  6. Adaptation finance: How can Durban deliver on past promises?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciplet, David; Roperts, J. Timmons; He, Linlang; Fields, Spencer [Brown University (United States); Khan, Mizan [North South University (Bangladesh)

    2011-11-15

    There is an ever-widening chasm between the support developing countries need to adapt to climate change, and the funding promised and delivered by wealthy nations. While UN climate meetings endlessly debate terms such as 'new and additional' or 'balanced allocation', even some basic commitments to adaptation funding are going unfulfilled. And as we approach the final year of the 'fast-start' phase for climate finance, there is no plan for the crucial 'scale-up' period of 2013–2019, when contributions must swell tenfold. At the Durban negotiations, countries should take three steps to ensure the developed world can meet its agreed responsibilities: establish funding sources based on international trade; define annual targets for the scale-up; and adopt a transparent, centralised accounting system.

  7. A Fetus with Iniencephaly Delivered at the Third Trimester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Cinar Tanriverdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Iniencephaly is an uncommon neural tube defect, having retroflexion of the head without a neck and severe distortion of the spine. Iniencephaly is classified into two groups, iniencephaly apertus (with encephalocele and iniencephaly clausus (without encephalocele. Incidence ranges from 0.1 to 10 in 10.000 pregnancies and it is seen more frequently in girls. Most of the fetuses with this defect die before birth or soon after birth, while those with the milder forms may live through childhood. Recurrence risk is around 1–5%. Family should be offered termination to reduce maternal risks and counseled for folic acid supplementation before the next planned pregnancy. Here we present a rare case of iniencephaly clausus which was diagnosed at 18th week of gestation by ultrasonography and delivered in the third trimester of pregnancy due to rejection of termination.

  8. Delivering sound energy along an arbitrary convex trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sipei; Hu, Yuxiang; Lu, Jing; Qiu, Xiaojun; Cheng, Jianchun; Burnett, Ian

    2014-10-15

    Accelerating beams have attracted considerable research interest due to their peculiar properties and various applications. Although there have been numerous research on the generation and application of accelerating light beams, few results have been published on the generation of accelerating acoustic beams. Here we report on the experimental observation of accelerating acoustic beams along arbitrary convex trajectories. The desired trajectory is projected to the spatial phase profile on the boundary which is discretized and sampled spatially. The sound field distribution is formulated with the Green function and the integral equation method. Both the paraxial and the non-paraxial regimes are examined and observed in the experiments. The effect of obstacle scattering in the sound field is also investigated and the results demonstrate that the approach is robust against obstacle scattering. The realization of accelerating acoustic beams will have an impact on various applications where acoustic information and energy are required to be delivered along an arbitrary convex trajectory.

  9. Source-identifying biomarker ions between environmental and clinical Burkholderia pseudomallei using whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthamat Niyompanich

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, which is an endemic disease in Northeast Thailand and Northern Australia. Environmental reservoirs, including wet soils and muddy water, serve as the major sources for contributing bacterial infection to both humans and animals. The whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS has recently been applied as a rapid, accurate, and high-throughput tool for clinical diagnosis and microbiological research. In this present study, we employed a whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS approach for assessing its potency in clustering a total of 11 different B. pseudomallei isolates (consisting of 5 environmental and 6 clinical isolates with respect to their origins and to further investigate the source-identifying biomarker ions belonging to each bacterial group. The cluster analysis demonstrated that six out of eleven isolates were grouped correctly to their sources. Our results revealed a total of ten source-identifying biomarker ions, which exhibited statistically significant differences in peak intensity between average environmental and clinical mass spectra using ClinProTools software. Six out of ten mass ions were assigned as environmental-identifying biomarker ions (EIBIs, including, m/z 4,056, 4,214, 5,814, 7,545, 7,895, and 8,112, whereas the remaining four mass ions were defined as clinical-identifying biomarker ions (CIBIs consisting of m/z 3,658, 6,322, 7,035, and 7,984. Hence, our findings represented, for the first time, the source-specific biomarkers of environmental and clinical B. pseudomallei.

  10. 3D delivered dose assessment using a 4DCT-based motion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Weixing; Hurwitz, Martina H.; Williams, Christopher L.; Dhou, Salam; Berbeco, Ross I.; Mishra, Pankaj, E-mail: wcai@lroc.harvard.edu, E-mail: jhlewis@lroc.harvard.edu; Lewis, John H., E-mail: wcai@lroc.harvard.edu, E-mail: jhlewis@lroc.harvard.edu [Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Seco, Joao [Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to develop a clinically feasible method of calculating actual delivered dose distributions for patients who have significant respiratory motion during the course of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods: A novel approach was proposed to calculate the actual delivered dose distribution for SBRT lung treatment. This approach can be specified in three steps. (1) At the treatment planning stage, a patient-specific motion model is created from planning 4DCT data. This model assumes that the displacement vector field (DVF) of any respiratory motion deformation can be described as a linear combination of some basis DVFs. (2) During the treatment procedure, 2D time-varying projection images (either kV or MV projections) are acquired, from which time-varying “fluoroscopic” 3D images of the patient are reconstructed using the motion model. The DVF of each timepoint in the time-varying reconstruction is an optimized linear combination of basis DVFs such that the 2D projection of the 3D volume at this timepoint matches the projection image. (3) 3D dose distribution is computed for each timepoint in the set of 3D reconstructed fluoroscopic images, from which the total effective 3D delivered dose is calculated by accumulating deformed dose distributions. This approach was first validated using two modified digital extended cardio-torso (XCAT) phantoms with lung tumors and different respiratory motions. The estimated doses were compared to the dose that would be calculated for routine 4DCT-based planning and to the actual delivered dose that was calculated using “ground truth” XCAT phantoms at all timepoints. The approach was also tested using one set of patient data, which demonstrated the application of our method in a clinical scenario. Results: For the first XCAT phantom that has a mostly regular breathing pattern, the errors in 95% volume dose (D95) are 0.11% and 0.83%, respectively for 3D fluoroscopic images

  11. Prediction of bone density around orthopedic implants delivering bisphosphonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Vincent A; Terrier, Alexandre; Gauthier, O; Bouler, J-M; Pioletti, Dominique P

    2009-06-19

    The fixation of an orthopedic implant depends strongly upon its initial stability. Peri-implant bone may resorb shortly after the surgery. This resorption is directly followed by new bone formation and implants fixation strengthening, the so-called secondary fixation. If the initial stability is not reached, the resorption continues and the implant fixation weakens, which leads to implant loosening. Studies with rats and dogs have shown that a solution to prevent peri-implant resorption is to deliver bisphosphonate from the implant surface. The aims of the study were, first, to develop a model of bone remodeling around an implant delivering bisphosphonate, second, to predict the bisphosphonate dose that would induce the maximal peri-implant bone density, and third to verify in vivo that peri-implant bone density is maximal with the calculated dose. The model consists of a bone remodeling equation and a drug diffusion equation. The change in bone density is driven by a mechanical stimulus and a drug stimulus. The drug stimulus function and the other numerical parameters were identified from experimental data. The model predicted that a dose of 0.3 microg of zoledronate on the implant would induce a maximal bone density. Implants with 0.3 microg of zoledronate were then implanted in rat femurs for 3, 6 and 9 weeks. We measured that peri-implant bone density was 4% greater with the calculated dose compared to the dose empirically described as best. The approach presented in this paper could be used in the design and analysis processes of experiments in local delivery of drug such as bisphosphonate.

  12. environmental stress indicators system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Therefore, if proper measures are not adopted in time, the current weak sustainability will lead ... land area as a transit basis for the carrying capacity of productivity and ..... results we know that environmental stress grew synchronously with ...

  13. Capacity of mesoporous bioactive glass nanoparticles to deliver therapeutic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fiqi, Ahmed; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Meeju; Eltohamy, Mohamed; Won, Jong-Eun; Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Hae-Won

    2012-11-01

    Inorganic bioactive nanomaterials are attractive for hard tissue regeneration, including nanocomponents for bone replacement composites and nanovehicles for delivering therapeutics. Bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGn) have recently gained potential usefulness as bone and tooth regeneratives. Here we demonstrate the capacity of the BGn with mesopores to load and deliver therapeutic molecules (drugs and particularly genes). Spherical BGn with sizes of 80-90 nm were produced to obtain 3-5 nm sized mesopores through a sono-reacted sol-gel process. A simulated body fluid test of the mesoporous BGn confirmed their excellent apatite forming ability and the cellular toxicity study demonstrated their good cell viability up to 100 μg ml-1. Small molecules like chemical drug (Na-ampicillin) and gene (small interfering RNA; siRNA) were introduced as model drugs considering the mesopore size of the nanoparticles. Moreover, amine-functionalization allowed switchable surface charge property of the BGn (from -20-30 mV to +20-30 mV). Loading of ampicillin or siRNA saturated within a few hours (~2 h) and reflected the mesopore structure. While the ampicillin released relatively rapidly (~12 h), the siRNA continued to release up to 3 days with almost zero-order kinetics. The siRNA-nanoparticles were easily taken up by the cells, with a transfection efficiency as high as ~80%. The silencing effect of siRNA delivered from the BGn, as examined by using bcl-2 model gene, showed dramatic down-regulation (~15% of control), suggesting the potential use of BGn as a new class of nanovehicles for genes. This, in conjunction with other attractive properties, including size- and mesopore-related high surface area and pore volume, tunable surface chemistry, apatite-forming ability, good cell viability and the possible ion-related stimulatory effects, will potentiate the usefulness of the BGn in hard tissue regeneration.Inorganic bioactive nanomaterials are attractive for hard tissue regeneration

  14. Environmental Performance Report 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braus, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-06

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Environmental Performance Report provides a description of the laboratory's environmental management activities for 2016, including information on environmental and sustainability performance, environmental compliance activities and status, and environmental protection programs, highlights, and successes. The purpose of this report is to ensure that U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the public receive timely, accurate information about events that have affected or could adversely affect the health, safety, and security of the public or workers; the environment; or the operations of DOE facilities. This report meets the requirements of the Annual Site Environmental Report and is prepared in accordance with the DOE Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.

  15. Environmental Performance Report 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Environmental Performance Report provides a description of the laboratory's environmental management activities for 2015, including information on environmental and sustainability performance, environmental compliance activities and status, and environmental protection programs, highlights, and successes. The purpose of this report is to ensure that U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the public receive timely, accurate information about events that have affected or could adversely affect the health, safety, and security of the public or workers; the environment; or the operations of DOE facilities. This report meets the requirements of the Annual Site Environmental Report and is prepared in accordance with the DOE Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.

  16. Environmental strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabkar, Vesna; Cater, Tomaz; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    perspective, appropriate environmental strategies in compliance with environmental requirements aim at building competitive advantages through sustainable development. There is no universal “green” strategy that would be appropriate for each company, regardless of its market requirements and competitive...... situations. Instead, managers undertake careful consideration of the circumstances in which their company operates, paying special attention to their customers’ environmental preferences....

  17. Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    as its starting point to investigate liveness within a specific kind of contemporary performance: ‘environmental performances’. Environmental performances are arts practices that take environmental processes as their focus by framing activities of non-human performers such as clouds, wind and weeds - key...

  18. Partnerships for Urban Forestry and Green Infrastructure Delivering Services to People and the Environment: A Review on What They Are and Aim to Achieve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Hansmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Partnerships are a key mechanism in the planning, delivery and management of urban forestry (UF and green infrastructure (GI. They can facilitate locally rooted co-management and polycentric governance. They can also achieve synergies by combining the resources, commitment and expertise of diverse stakeholder groups in order to generate valuable outcomes and build social capital. Unfortunately, the term “partnerships” is not used consistently in literature and requires clarification. The characteristics which distinguish a partnership approach from other modes of co-operation are identified and described. The diversity of existing UF and GI oriented partnerships is outlined, with reference to their stakeholders, drivers, activities and goals, together with potential advantages of the partnership approach. Considerations to be made in their evaluation are derived from this background analysis and possible success factors are discussed. Materials and Methods: The diversity, aims and defining characteristics of a partnership approach are based on an extensive literature review. Results: Partnerships focus on diverse aspects and delivery phases of UF, ranging from the planning, design and creation of urban forests and GI to their management and use. Benefits delivered by such partnerships include environmental and economic services as well as social and cultural services such as environmental education, health, leisure and tourism. Generating valuable services whilst at the same time nurturing relationships between stakeholders helps to develop social capital and build capacity. In addition to environmental, economic and social benefits, the evaluation of partnerships may also address internal process variables such as social learning, the relationship between partners, and motivational outcomes that can influence future co-operation. Conclusions: Co-operative partnerships offer a promising approach for delivery in UF

  19. 2004 Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althouse, P E; Bertoldo, N A; Brown, R A; Campbell, C B; Clark, L M; Gallegos, G M; Grayson, A R; Harrach, R J; Jones, H E; MacQueen, D H; Mathews, S; Nisbet, B A; Noyes, C D; Paterson, L; Peterson, S R; Revelli, M A; Rueppel, D; Sanchez, L; Taffet, M J; Tate, P J; Wilson, K

    2005-09-28

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) annual Environmental Report, prepared for the Department of Energy (DOE) and made available to the public, presents summary environmental data that characterizes site environmental management performance, summarizes environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year, confirms compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and highlights significant programs and efforts. By explaining the results of effluent and environmental monitoring, mentioning environmental performance indicators and performance measure programs, and assessing the impact of Laboratory operations on the environment and the public, the report also demonstrates LLNL's continuing commitment to minimize any potentially adverse impact of its operations. The combination of environmental and effluent monitoring, source characterization, and dose assessment showed that radiological doses to the public caused by LLNL operations in 2004 were less than 0.26% of regulatory standards and more than 11,000 times smaller than dose from natural background. Analytical results and evaluations generally showed continuing low levels of most contaminants; remediation efforts further reduced the concentrations of contaminants of concern in groundwater and soil vapor. In addition, LLNL's extensive environmental compliance activities related to water, air, endangered species, waste, wastewater, and waste reduction controlled or reduced LLNL's effects on the environment. LLNL's environmental program clearly demonstrates a commitment to protecting the environment from operational impacts.

  20. The use of Endo-Porter to deliver morpholinos in kidney organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikopoulos, George N; Adams, Tamara L; Adams, Derek; Oxburgh, Leif; Prudovsky, Igor; Verdi, Joseph M

    2008-04-01

    Cellular interactions in development of the kidney are used as a model of reciprocal inductive events between epithelium and mesenchyme. Time- and labor-intensive methods have been developed to study this phenomenon. For example, in mice, the targeted disruption of genes in vivo has been used to modify the genetic program directing kidney development. However, gene targeting is a resource-intensive approach and alternative strategies for gene and protein modification in the kidney need to be developed. Herein, we have developed an efficient system for the delivery of antisense morpholino to alter normal protein expression. We describe the use of Endo-Porter to effectively deliver morpholinos to all parts and regions of the kidney explant. Also, we definitively show via confocal microscopy and Western blot analysis that the use of Endo-Porter in delivering antisense morpholinos is robust throughout the entire kidney explant, providing efficient suppression of protein expression. This method saves time and cost when compared with targeted disruption and is an improvement upon previous kidney organ culture methods.

  1. Environmental Compliance Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-01

    The Guide is intended to assist Department of Energy personnel by providing information on the NEPA process, the processes of other environmental statutes that bear on the NEPA process, the timing relationships between the NEPA process and these other processes, as well as timing relationships between the NEPA process and the development process for policies, programs, and projects. This information should be helpful not only in formulating environmental compliance plans but also in achieving compliance with NEPA and various other environmental statutes. The Guide is divided into three parts with related appendices: Part I provides guidance for developing environmental compliance plans for DOE actions; Part II is devoted to NEPA with detailed flowcharts depicting the compliance procedures required by CEQ regulations and Department of Energy NEPA Guidelines; and Part III contains a series of flowcharts for other Federal environmental requirements that may apply to DOE projects.

  2. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2016-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...... for solutions and policies, is the agenda for an engaged environmental history from now on....

  3. Environmental Variation Generates Environmental Opportunist Pathogen Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, Jani; Kaitala, Veijo; Laakso, Jouni; Ruokolainen, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Many socio-economically important pathogens persist and grow in the outside host environment and opportunistically invade host individuals. The environmental growth and opportunistic nature of these pathogens has received only little attention in epidemiology. Environmental reservoirs are, however, an important source of novel diseases. Thus, attempts to control these diseases require different approaches than in traditional epidemiology focusing on obligatory parasites. Conditions in the outside-host environment are prone to fluctuate over time. This variation is a potentially important driver of epidemiological dynamics and affect the evolution of novel diseases. Using a modelling approach combining the traditional SIRS models to environmental opportunist pathogens and environmental variability, we show that epidemiological dynamics of opportunist diseases are profoundly driven by the quality of environmental variability, such as the long-term predictability and magnitude of fluctuations. When comparing periodic and stochastic environmental factors, for a given variance, stochastic variation is more likely to cause outbreaks than periodic variation. This is due to the extreme values being further away from the mean. Moreover, the effects of variability depend on the underlying biology of the epidemiological system, and which part of the system is being affected. Variation in host susceptibility leads to more severe pathogen outbreaks than variation in pathogen growth rate in the environment. Positive correlation in variation on both targets can cancel the effect of variation altogether. Moreover, the severity of outbreaks is significantly reduced by increase in the duration of immunity. Uncovering these issues helps in understanding and controlling diseases caused by environmental pathogens.

  4. (Environmental technology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boston, H.L.

    1990-10-12

    The traveler participated in a conference on environmental technology in Paris, sponsored by the US Embassy-Paris, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the French Environmental Ministry, and others. The traveler sat on a panel for environmental aspects of energy technology and made a presentation on the potential contributions of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to a planned French-American Environmental Technologies Institute in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Evry, France. This institute would provide opportunities for international cooperation on environmental issues and technology transfer related to environmental protection, monitoring, and restoration at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The traveler also attended the Fourth International Conference on Environmental Contamination in Barcelona. Conference topics included environmental chemistry, land disposal of wastes, treatment of toxic wastes, micropollutants, trace organics, artificial radionuclides in the environment, and the use biomonitoring and biosystems for environmental assessment. The traveler presented a paper on The Fate of Radionuclides in Sewage Sludge Applied to Land.'' Those findings corresponded well with results from studies addressing the fate of fallout radionuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. There was an exchange of new information on a number of topics of interest to DOE waste management and environmental restoration needs.

  5. Environmental spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    Using the development of intergovernmental environmental cooperation in the Baltic Sea area as a concrete example, the aim of this study is to explore how the 'environment' in situations of environmental interdependence is identified and institutionalised as political-geographical objects....... 'Environmental interdependence' is to this end conceptualised as a tension between 'political spaces' of discrete state territories and 'environmental spaces' of spatially nested ecosystems. This tension between geographies of political separateness and environmental wholeness is the implicit or explicit basis...... for a large and varied literature. But in both its critical and problemsolving manifestations, this literature tends to naturalise the spatiality of environmental concerns: environmental spaces are generally taken for granted. On the suggestion that there is a subtle politics to the specification...

  6. Leishmania Exosomes Deliver Preemptive Strikes to Create an Environment Permissive for Early Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Maxwell Silverman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we review evidence supporting a role for leishmania exosomes during early infection. We suggest a model in which leishmania secreted microvesicles released into the extracellular milieu deliver effector cargo to host target cells. This cargo mediates immunosuppression and functionally primes host cells for leishmania invasion. Leishmania ssp. release microvesicles and the amount of vesicle release and the specific protein cargo of the vesicles is sensitive to changes in environmental conditions that mimic infection. Leishmania exosomes influence the phenotype of treated immune cells. For example, ; wild-type (WT exosomes attenuate interferon-γ-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production (TNF-α by leishmania-infected monocytes while conversely enhancing production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. The leishmania proteins GP63 and elongation factor-1α (EF-1α are found in secreted vesicles and are likely important effectors responsible for these changes in phenotype. GP63 and EF-1α access host cell cytosol and activate multiple host protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs. Activation of these PTPs negatively regulates interferon-γ signaling and this prevents effective expression of the macrophage microbicidal arsenal, including TNF-α and nitric oxide. In addition to changing macrophage phenotype, WT vesicles dampen the immune response of monocyte-derived dendritic cells and CD4+ T lymphocytes. This capacity is lost when the protein cargo of the vesicles is modified, specifically when the amount of GP63 and EF-1α in the vesicles is reduced. It appears that exosome delivery of effector proteins results in activation of host PTPs and the negative regulatory effects of the latter creates a pro-parasitic environment. The data suggest that leishmania exosomes secreted upon initial infection are capable of delivering effector cargo to naïve target cells wherein the cargo primes host cells for infection by interfering with host cell

  7. Leishmania exosomes deliver preemptive strikes to create an environment permissive for early infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Judith Maxwell; Reiner, Neil E

    2011-01-01

    Herein, we review evidence supporting a role for Leishmania exosomes during early infection. We suggest a model in which Leishmania secreted microvesicles released into the extracellular milieu deliver effector cargo to host target cells. This cargo mediates immunosuppression and functionally primes host cells for Leishmania invasion. Leishmania ssp. release microvesicles and the amount of vesicle release and the specific protein cargo of the vesicles is sensitive to changes in environmental conditions that mimic infection. Leishmania exosomes influence the phenotype of treated immune cells. For example, wild-type (WT) exosomes attenuate interferon-γ-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production (TNF-α) by Leishmania-infected monocytes while conversely enhancing production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. The Leishmania proteins GP63 and elongation factor-1α (EF-1α) are found in secreted vesicles and are likely important effectors responsible for these changes in phenotype. GP63 and EF-1α access host cell cytosol and activate multiple host protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Activation of these PTPs negatively regulates interferon-γ signaling and this prevents effective expression of the macrophage microbicidal arsenal, including TNF-α and nitric oxide. In addition to changing macrophage phenotype, WT vesicles dampen the immune response of monocyte-derived dendritic cells and CD4+ T lymphocytes. This capacity is lost when the protein cargo of the vesicles is modified, specifically when the amount of GP63 and EF-1α in the vesicles is reduced. It appears that exosome delivery of effector proteins results in activation of host PTPs and the negative regulatory effects of the latter creates a pro-parasitic environment. The data suggest that Leishmania exosomes secreted upon initial infection are capable of delivering effector cargo to naïve target cells wherein the cargo primes host cells for infection by interfering with host cell signaling pathways.

  8. Controlling torque and cutting costs: steerable drill bits deliver in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Steve; Garcia, Alexis; Amorim, Dalmo [ReedHycalog, Stonehouse (United Kingdom); Iramina, Wilson [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Herrera, Gabriel

    2008-07-01

    Tool face Control is widely regarded as one of the greatest directional drilling challenges with a Fixed Cutter (FC) drill bit on a Steerable Motor assembly. Tool face offset is proportional to the torque generated by the bit, and by nature, FC bits are capable of generating high levels of torque. If large changes in downhole torque are produced while drilling, this will cause rotation of the drill string, and loss of tool face orientation. This results in inefficient drilling and increases risk of bit and downhole tool damage. This paper examines the effect of various FC drill bit components to determine the key design requirements to deliver a smooth torque response and an improved directional performance. Included is a review of the results from comprehensive laboratory testing to determine the effectiveness of a number of different configurations of removable Torque Controlling Components (TCC). These, in combination with specific cutting structure layouts, combine to provide predictable torque response while optimized for high rates of penetration. In addition, unique gauge geometry is disclosed that was engineered to reduce drag and deliver improved borehole quality. This gauge design produces less torque when sliding and beneficial gauge pad interaction with the borehole when in rotating mode. Field performance studies from within Latin America clearly demonstrate that matching TCC, an optimized cutting structure, and gauge geometry to a steerable assembly delivers smooth torque response and improved directional control. Benefits with regard to improved stability are also discussed. Successful application has resulted in significant time and cost savings for the operator, demonstrating that Stability and Steerability improvements can be achieved with an increase in penetration rate. (author)

  9. Defibrillation delivered during the upstroke phase of manual chest compression improves shock success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqin; Wang, Hao; Cho, Jun Hwi; Quan, Weilun; Freeman, Gary; Bisera, Joe; Weil, Max Harry; Tang, Wanchun

    2010-03-01

    The current standard of manual chest compression during cardiopulmonary resuscitation requires pauses for rhythm analysis and shock delivery. However, interruptions of chest compression greatly decrease the likelihood of successful defibrillations, and significantly better outcomes are reported if this interruption is avoided. We therefore undertook a prospective randomized controlled animal study in an electrically induced ventricular fibrillation pig model to assess the effects of timing of defibrillation on the manual chest compression cycle on the defibrillation threshold. Prospective, randomized, controlled animal study. University-affiliated research laboratory. Yorkshire-X domestic pigs (Sus scrofa). In eight domestic male pigs weighing between 24 and 31 kg, ventricular fibrillation was electrically induced and untreated for 10 secs. Manual chest compression was then performed and continued for 25 secs with the protection of an isolation blanket. The depth and frequency of chest compressions were guided by a cardiopulmonary resuscitation prompter. Animals were randomized to receive a biphasic electrical shock in five different compression phases with a predetermined energy setting. A control phase was chosen at a constant 2 secs after discontinued chest compression. A grouped up-down defibrillation threshold testing protocol was used to compare the success rate at different coupling phases. After a recovery interval of 4 mins, the sequence was repeated for a total of 60 test shocks for each animal. No difference in coronary perfusion pressure before delivering of the shock was observed among the six study phases. The defibrillation success rate, however, was significantly higher when shocks were delivered in the upstroke phase of manual chest compression. Defibrillation efficacy is maximal when electrical shock is delivered during the upstroke phase of manual chest compression.

  10. 76 FR 59963 - Closed Captioning of Internet Protocol-Delivered Video Programming: Implementation of the Twenty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 15 and 79 Closed Captioning of Internet Protocol-Delivered Video Programming...'') that mandate rules for closed captioning of certain video programming delivered using Internet protocol... owners of IP-delivered video programming, as well as the devices that display such programming....

  11. 77 FR 46632 - Closed Captioning of Internet Protocol-Delivered Video Programming: Implementation of the Twenty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... distributors of video programming delivered using Internet protocol (IP). Pursuant to Section 203 of the CVAA... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 79 Closed Captioning of Internet Protocol-Delivered Video Programming: Implementation... captioning of Internet protocol-delivered video programming and apparatus closed captioning...

  12. Mechanical Properties and Real-Time Damage Evaluations of Environmental Barrier Coated SiC/SiC CMCs Subjected to Tensile Loading Under Thermal Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Matthew; Zhu, Dongming; Morscher, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) require new state-of-the art environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) to withstand increased temperature requirements and high velocity combustion corrosive combustion gasses. The present work compares the response of coated and uncoated SiC/SiC CMC substrates subjected to simulated engine environments followed by high temperature mechanical testing to asses retained properties and damage mechanisms. Our focus is to explore the capabilities of electrical resistance (ER) measurements as an NDE technique for testing of retained properties under combined high heat-flux and mechanical loading conditions. Furthermore, Acoustic Emission (AE) measurements and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) were performed to determine material damage onset and accumulation.

  13. Short-term environmental enrichment, in the absence of exercise, improves memory, and increases NGF concentration, early neuronal survival, and synaptogenesis in the dentate gyrus in a time-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Amy M; McGarry, Niamh B; Kelly, Aine M

    2013-06-01

    Environmental manipulations can enhance neuroplasticity in the brain, with enrichment-induced cognitive improvements being linked to increased expression of growth factors, such as neurotrophins, and enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis. There is, however, a great deal of variation in environmental enrichment protocols used in the literature, making it difficult to assess the role of particular aspects of enrichment upon memory and the underlying associated mechanisms. This study sought to evaluate the efficacy of environmental enrichment, in the absence of exercise, as a cognitive enhancer and assess the role of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF), neurogenesis and synaptogenesis in this process. We report that rats housed in an enriched environment for 3 and 6 weeks (wk) displayed improved recognition memory, while rats enriched for 6 wk also displayed improved spatial and working memory. Neurochemical analyses revealed significant increases in NGF concentration and subgranular progenitor cell survival (as measured by BrdU+ nuclei) in the dentate gyrus of rats enriched for 6 wk, suggesting that these cellular changes may mediate the enrichment-induced memory improvements. Further analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between recognition task performance and BrdU+ nuclei. In addition, rats enriched for 6 wk showed a significant increase in expression of synaptophysin and synapsin I in the dentate gyrus, indicating that environmental enrichment can increase synaptogenesis. These data indicate a time-dependent cognitive-enhancing effect of environmental enrichment that is independent of physical activity. These data also support a role for increased concentration of NGF in dentate gyrus, synaptogenesis, and neurogenesis in mediating this effect.

  14. Time Series Momentum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moskowitz, Tobias J.; Ooi, Yao Hua; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    under-reaction and delayed over-reaction. A diversified portfolio of time series momentum strategies across all asset classes delivers substantial abnormal returns with little exposure to standard asset pricing factors and performs best during extreme markets. Examining the trading activities...... of speculators and hedgers, we find that speculators profit from time series momentum at the expense of hedgers....

  15. Internet-delivered cognitive therapy for PTSD: a development pilot series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Wild

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Randomised controlled trials have established that face-to-face cognitive therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (CT-PTSD based on Ehlers and Clark's cognitive model of PTSD is highly effective and feasible with low rates of dropout. Access to evidence-based psychological treatments for PTSD is insufficient. Several studies have shown that therapist-assisted treatment delivery over the Internet is a promising way of improving access to cognitive behavioural therapy interventions. Objective: To develop an Internet version of CT-PTSD that significantly reduces therapist contact time without compromising treatment integrity or retention rates. Methods: We describe the development of an Internet version of CT-PTSD. It implements all the key procedures of face-to-face CT-PTSD, including techniques that focus on the trauma memory, such as memory updating, stimulus discrimination and revisiting the trauma site, as well as restructuring individually relevant appraisals relating to overgeneralisation of danger, guilt, shame or anger, behavioural experiments and planning activities to reclaim quality of life. A cohort of 10 patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for PTSD worked through the programme, with remote guidance from a therapist, and they were assessed at pre- and post-treatment on PTSD outcome, mood, work and social adjustment and process measures. Results: No patients dropped out. Therapists facilitated the treatment with 192 min of contact time per patient, plus 57 min for reviewing the patient's progress and messages. Internet-delivered CT-PTSD was associated with very large improvements on all outcome and process measures, with 80% of patients achieving clinically significant change and remission from PTSD. Conclusions: Internet-delivered cognitive therapy for PTSD (iCT-PTSD appears to be an acceptable and efficacious treatment. Therapist time was reduced to less than 25% of time in face-to-face CT-PTSD. Randomised controlled trials

  16. Real-time environmental monitoring system: drilling campaign BM-CAL-4 Block, Camanu-Almada Basin, Bahia, Brazil; Sistema de monitoramento ambiental em tempo-real: Bloco BM-CAL-4, Bacia de Camamu-Almada, Bahia, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Pedro [El Paso Oleo e Gas, Natal, RN (Brazil); Cabral, Alexandre P. [Fugro OceansatPeg (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Between February and November 2007, the El Paso Oleo e Gas do Brasil Ltda. carried out a second exploratory campaign at the BM-CAL-4 Block (Camamu-Almada Basin), installing a real-time transmission metocean data monitoring system. Two metocean Wavescan (WS) buoys from Fugro were installed, transmitting current, wave and wind data to the El Paso crises room. The WS1 was positioned near the oil (10,5 km from the shore, at 22m depth), and the WS2 was located near the entrance of Barra Grande area (4,w km from the coast, at 10m depth). The real rime data fed the mathematical simulation using an oil spill model from Fugro Oceansatpeg. The metocean data Real-Time Environmental Monitoring System proved to be an important tool in the environmental management of the drilling activity located near the coastline. The sampling and real-time transmission of the current, wind and wave data allowed a better decision making regarding the selection of the best response strategies, saving time and resources in the simulation exercises, a vital issue in case of a real oil spill accident. (author)

  17. 需求带时间窗的环保多车型组合配送路径优化%Environmental multi-model combination distribution routing optimization for demand with time windows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑琴; 杨斌; 赵磊; 易宣齐

    2013-01-01

    Based on the concept of low carbon logistics, with the goal of reducing cost, improving customer satisfaction and reducing the environmental pollution, a new research direction, environmental multi-model combination distribution routing optimization was proposed. An environmental multi-model vehicle routing problem model with the soft time windows was established, and multi-constraint processing method about the vehicle load capacity, time window of demand, and multi-model were discussed. A simulated annealing algorithm was designed and realized through simulation experiment. A sensitivity analysis was conducted in order to identify the influence of vehicle with different environmental performance. The results show that the maximum speed of the vehicle has strong correlation with the operation cost and environmental pollution, while the load capacity has great influence on the operation cost, customer satisfaction and environmental pollution level. Meanwhile , the test proses the effectiveness of simulated annealing algorithm in this optimization problem.%以降低成本、提高客户满意度、减少环境污染为目标,提出环保多车型组合配送的低碳路径优化问题.建立带软时间窗约束的多车型车辆路径优化模型,研究多车型车辆调度中载重量、需求的时间窗和多车型等多种约束的处理方法,并且设计模拟退火算法,进行仿真试验.通过对参数进行敏感性分析,研究不同环保性能车辆的影响,结果表明,车辆最大行驶速度与运行成本和客户满意度有着较强的相关性,而载重量则对运营成本和环境污染程度均有较大影响,同时试验结果表明模拟退火算法在该问题求解上的有效性.

  18. Days available for harvesting switchgrass and the cost to deliver switchgrass to a biorefinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seonghuyk

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to estimate the number of suitable field workdays per month in which switchgrass can be harvested in Oklahoma at different probability levels. This study also sought to determine the effect of the number of workdays on the cost to deliver a flow of feedstock to a biorefinery. A soil moisture balance model, drying model of cut grasses, and empirical CDF were used to determine the number of field workdays for mowing and baling operations at different probability levels. A mixed integer mathematical programming model was used to determine the optimal biorefinery location, the quantity of biomass feedstock, monthly harvest and storage quantities, optimal number of mowing and raking-baling-stacking harvest machines, and the cost to deliver feedstock to a biorefinery. Findings and conclusions. Harvest cost depends on the number of required harvest machines, which are constrained by the number of field workdays during the harvest window. The number of workdays for mowing and baling varies across months and regions. At the 95 percent probability level, October is the month with the least amount of time for baling switchgrass (average nine days). The southeast region of Oklahoma, which on average receives the most precipitation, has the least number of available workdays (174 mowing days and 115 baling days for a year). This information was used to determine the investment required in harvest machines to provide lignocellulosic biomass to a biorefinery. The optimal number of harvest units was 48 for mowing and 20 for raking-baling-stacking, which requires an average investment in harvest machines of 11.2 million for a 2,000 dry tons per day biorefinery. The estimated cost to deliver feedstock was 49.7 per ton and harvest cost was 17.0. Under the assumption of only three days available in each month as workdays, the estimated cost to deliver feedstock and harvest cost were 141 and $109, respectively. Ignoring or using

  19. Delivering effective science communication: advice from a professional science communicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Sam

    2017-04-12

    Science communication is becoming ever more prevalent, with more and more scientists expected to not only communicate their research to a wider public, but to do so in an innovative and engaging manner. Given the other commitments that researchers and academics are required to fulfil as part of their workload models, it is unfair to be expect them to also instantly produce effective science communication events and activities. However, by thinking carefully about what it is that needs to be communicated, and why this is being done, it is possible to develop high-quality activities that are of benefit to both the audience and the communicator(s). In this paper, I present some practical advice for developing, delivering and evaluating effective science communication initiatives, based on over a decade of experience as being a professional science communicator. I provide advice regarding event logistics, suggestions on how to successfully market and advertise your science communication initiatives, and recommendations for establishing effective branding and legacy. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Public Private Partnership Benefits in Delivering Public Facilities in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapri M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of infrastructure in developing country such as Malaysia was increasingly founded by the Public–Private Partnership (PPP scheme. Collaboration with private sector has become popular as a means to improve the delivery of public facilities. Yet, empirical evidence on how PPP initiative has benefits the delivery of public facilities within Malaysia context is lagging. The purpose of this paper is to identify and assess the perception of stakeholders on the benefits of adopting PPP in delivering public facilities in Malaysia. Literature review was carried out to identify PPP benefits, which were then incorporated into the questionnaire. The mean score and mean score ranking was conducted to assess the agreement level of stakeholders towards the PPP benefits. The overall findings show that the implementation of PPP has benefitted the delivery of public facilities in both financial and non-financial aspects. From the analysis, improvement in service quality is perceived as the top advantage followed by innovation in design and transfer of risk. The findings provide more informed basis on the rationale of PPP implementation and its potential in improving the delivery of public facilities within Malaysia context.

  1. Analytical characterization of an orally-delivered peptide pharmaceutical product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Wayne P; Chen, Shujun; Floyd, Philip D; Hu, Ping; Kapsi, Shiva G; Kord, Alireza S; Sun, Mingjiang; Vogt, Frederick G

    2012-05-15

    The characterization of orally-delivered peptide pharmaceuticals presents several challenges to analytical methods in comparison to characterization of conventional small-molecule drugs. These challenges include the analysis and characterization of difficult-to-separate impurities, secondary structure, the amorphous solid-state form, and the integrity of enteric-coated drug delivery systems. This work presents the multidisciplinary analytical characterization of a parathyroid hormone (PTH) peptide active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and an oral formulation of this API within enteric-coated sucrose spheres. The analysis of impurities and degradation products in API and formulated drug product was facilitated by the development of an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method for analysis by high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS). The use of UHPLC allowed for additional resolution needed to detect impurities and degradation products of interest. The secondary structure was probed using a combination of solution-state NMR, infrared, and circular dichroism spectroscopic methods. Solid-state NMR is used to detect amorphous API in a nondestructive manner directly within the coated sucrose sphere formulation. Fluorescence and Raman microscopy were used in conjunction with Raman mapping to show enteric coating integrity and observe the distribution of API beneath the enteric-coating on the sucrose spheres. The methods are combined in a multidisciplinary approach to characterize the quality of the enteric-coated peptide product.

  2. Lipid Nanoparticles to Deliver miRNA in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campani, Virginia; De Rosa, Giuseppe; Misso, Gabriella; Zarone, Mayra R; Grimaldi, Anna

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of post-transcriptional gene expression modulators. In the past two decades, over 1500 human miRNAs were discovered. These small non-coding RNAs regulate various biological processes, including cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and cell death. Thus, miRNAs have been proposed as new therapeutical agents in different multifactorial diseases such as cancer. Since miRNAs therapies represent a great promise, many research studies have been focused on the development of delivery strategies to overcome miRNAs biopharmaceutical issues. Lipid delivery systems are undoubtedly the non-viral carriers most largely investigated due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, easy production, low toxicity and immunogenicity, possibility to easily modify the carriers for targeting strategies. In this mini-review we provide a rapid and updated overview on the lipid delivery system currently used to deliver miRNAs, pointing out the progresses achieved in the optimization of these nanovectors, which led up to the first clinical trial.

  3. Documentation for the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) models from the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) (NODC Accession 0026419)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This NODC accession contains documentation files that apply to all data collections archived at NODC relating to the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System...

  4. Environmental taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekins, P.; Andersen, Mikael Skou; Vos, H.

    & competitiveness; c) employment, and d) the tax system. These are the main conclusions of a report on environmental taxes by the European Environment Agency (EEA), requested by the European Parliament. The report provides an overview of the main issues involved in environmental taxes, with a particular focus......EXECUTIVE SUMMARY1.Although the 5th Environmental Action Programme of the EU in 1992 recommended the greater use of economic instruments such as environmental taxes, there has been little progress in their use since then at the EU level. At Member State level, however, there has been a continuing...... increase in the use of environmental taxes over the last decade, which has accelerated in the last 5-6 years. This is primarily apparent in Scandinavia, but it is also noticeable in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom.2.Evaluation studies of 16 environmental taxes have...

  5. Effectiveness of Group-Delivered Cognitive Therapy and Treatment Length in Women Veterans with PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane T. Castillo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness and length of group-delivered cognitive treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD was examined in a sample of women veterans. The sample included 271 primarily non-Hispanic white (61% and Hispanic (25% women veterans treated in 8-, 10-, or 12-group length sessions with manualized cognitive therapy for PTSD. Outcome was measured with the PTSD Symptom Checklist (PCL in an intention-to-treat analysis (N = 271, in completer subjects (n = 172, and with group as the unit of analysis (n = 47 groups. Significant decreases in PTSD were found in the full sample (effect size [ES] range = 0.27 to 0.38, completers (ES range = 0.37 to 0.54, and group as the unit of analysis (ES range = 0.71 to 0.92, suggesting effectiveness of cognitive group treatment for PTSD. PCL scores significantly improved in the 8, 10, and 12 group lengths, with no differences between each. Clinical improvement showed a third decreasing 10 or more PCL points and 22% no longer meeting PTSD diagnostic criteria, with the best results in the 10-session group. The results suggest group-delivered cognitive therapy is an effective, efficient, time-limited treatment for PTSD.

  6. Satisfaction with Cognitive Rehabilitation Delivered via the Internet in Persons with Acquired Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Bergquist

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the level of satisfaction with cognitive rehabilitation delivered via the Internet in persons with moderate to severe acquired brain injury (ABI. Fifteen adults with moderate to severe ABI were randomized to 30 days of Internet-based active treatment (AT or to a wait list (WL group, and crossed over to the opposite condition after 30 sessions. Both caregivers and participants were assessed at three time points during the study. This study focused on participant satisfaction with receiving treatment in this manner. Though the results of this study showed no significant treatment effect, the vast majority of participants (>87% were satisfied with treatment. Treatment satisfaction accounted for 25% of additional variance in predicting lower family ratings of mood difficulties after final assessment (p<.03. Greater satisfaction with treatment was positively correlated with greater employment rate after treatment (r=.63, p=.02, as well as lower family ratings of memory and mood difficulties after final assessment (r=-.59, p=.03; r=-.58, p=.03,. Results suggest that treatment satisfaction in persons with ABI is related to less activity limitations, and maintaining employment after cognitive rehabilitation delivered via the Internet.  

  7. Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction to deliver siRNA cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Andrew R; McTiernan, Charles F; Lavery, Linda; Grata, Michelle; Leng, Xiaoping; Wang, Jianjun; Chen, Xucai; Villanueva, Flordeliza S

    2012-12-01

    Microbubble contrast agents can specifically deliver nucleic acids to target tissues when exposed to ultrasound treatment parameters that mediate microbubble destruction. In this study, we evaluated whether microbubbles and ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) could be used to enhance delivery of EGF receptor (EGFR)-directed siRNA to murine squamous cell carcinomas. Custom-designed microbubbles efficiently bound siRNA and mediated RNAse protection. UTMD-mediated delivery of microbubbles loaded with EGFR-directed siRNA to murine squamous carcinoma cells in vitro reduced EGFR expression and EGF-dependent growth, relative to delivery of control siRNA. Similarly, serial UTMD-mediated delivery of EGFR siRNA to squamous cell carcinoma in vivo decreased EGFR expression and increased tumor doubling time, relative to controls receiving EGFR siRNA-loaded microbubbles but not ultrasound or control siRNA-loaded microbubbles and UTMD. Taken together, our results offer a preclinical proof-of-concept for customized microbubbles and UTMD to deliver gene-targeted siRNA for cancer therapy.

  8. Welding in the dental office by fiber-delivered laser: a new technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaini, Carlo; Bertrand, Caroline; Bonanini, Mauro; Rocca, Jean-Paul; Nammour, Sam

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate the ability of dentists to weld different metals during daily practice using a fiber-delivered laser normally used for dental surgery, and to evaluate the possibilities offered by this new technique. Laser welding is a common technique that has long been used in dental technician laboratories. It has many advantages over conventional techniques: it may be applied directly to master casts, and it avoids damage to the acrylic or ceramic portions close to the welded area. In addition, it may be applied on different types of metallic alloys, and it may provide a stronger attachment than other more traditional techniques. The cost, size, and limited flexibility of laser transmission systems using fixed lenses have restricted their use to dental technician laboratories. The authors detail their experience with welding using an Nd:YAG fiberoptic-delivered laser that is normally used for dental therapy. This work describes some clinical cases that demonstrate the ease of use of this technique to weld broken appliances for both prosthetic and orthodontic therapy. Dentists using this technique can carry out immediate restoration of metallic fixed, removable, and orthodontic broken prostheses in their own offices, thus reducing the time needed for such repairs.

  9. Voice Over the Internet Protocol as a Medium for Delivering Reading Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Wright

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Voice Over the Internet Protocol (VoIP holds promise as a platform by which services can be delivered to students in rural and remote regions who have reading difficulties. VoIP is an Internet-based protocol that allows two or more individuals to videoconference from remote locations. This study used a single-case research design to investigate whether VoIP would produce significant gains in reading ability in BM, a 10-year-old with long-standing word-level reading problems. BM was provided with a theoretically motivated reading intervention 4 times weekly. The intervention was delivered remotely using the Apple iChat software. Substantial growth in regular- and nonword reading covaried with onset and removal of treatment. Treatment gains were maintained at 10-week follow-up. Meaningful gains were also seen in text-reading accuracy and reading comprehension. VoIP-based instruction represents an important avenue for future research and is a teaching method that holds much promise for rural and remote students.

  10. Environmental Risk

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Identified Sites coverage, used to support the environmental quality program, references types and concentrations of contaminants, contaminated media and...

  11. Understanding Participant and Practitioner Outcomes of Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental education can deliver benefits to individuals, society and the environment, but few studies have asked practitioners or participants what they feel these benefits are. This research compares the perspectives of practitioners and participants in environmental education projects, using questionnaires, focus groups and participant…

  12. Understanding Participant and Practitioner Outcomes of Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental education can deliver benefits to individuals, society and the environment, but few studies have asked practitioners or participants what they feel these benefits are. This research compares the perspectives of practitioners and participants in environmental education projects, using questionnaires, focus groups and participant…

  13. Parotid Glands Dose–Effect Relationships Based on Their Actually Delivered Doses: Implications for Adaptive Replanning in Radiation Therapy of Head-and-Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, Klaudia U. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Fernandes, Laura L. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Vineberg, Karen A.; McShan, Daniel; Antonuk, Alan E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Cornwall, Craig [Department of Hospital Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Feng, Mary [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Schipper, Mathew J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Balter, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Eisbruch, Avraham, E-mail: eisbruch@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Doses actually delivered to the parotid glands during radiation therapy often exceed planned doses. We hypothesized that the delivered doses correlate better with parotid salivary output than the planned doses, used in all previous studies, and that determining these correlations will help make decisions regarding adaptive radiation therapy (ART) aimed at reducing the delivered doses. Methods and Materials: In this prospective study, oropharyngeal cancer patients treated definitively with chemoirradiation underwent daily cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) with clinical setup alignment based on the C2 posterior edge. Parotid glands in the CBCTs were aligned by deformable registration to calculate cumulative delivered doses. Stimulated salivary flow rates were measured separately from each parotid gland pretherapy and periodically posttherapy. Results: Thirty-six parotid glands of 18 patients were analyzed. Average mean planned doses was 32 Gy, and differences from planned to delivered mean gland doses were −4.9 to +8.4 Gy, median difference +2.2 Gy in glands in which delivered doses increased relative to planned. Both planned and delivered mean doses were significantly correlated with posttreatment salivary outputs at almost all posttherapy time points, without statistically significant differences in the correlations. Large dispersions (on average, SD 3.6 Gy) characterized the dose–effect relationships for both. The differences between the cumulative delivered doses and planned doses were evident at first fraction (r=.92, P<.0001) because of complex setup deviations (eg, rotations and neck articulations), uncorrected by the translational clinical alignments. Conclusions: After daily translational setup corrections, differences between planned and delivered doses in most glands were small relative to the SDs of the dose–saliva data, suggesting that ART is not likely to gain measurable salivary output improvement in most cases. These differences were

  14. A feedback circuit involving let-7-family miRNAs and DAF-12 integrates environmental signals and developmental timing in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammell, Christopher M; Karp, Xantha; Ambros, Victor

    2009-11-03

    Animal development is remarkably robust; cell fates are specified with spatial and temporal precision despite physiological and environmental contingencies. Favorable conditions cause Caenorhabditis elegans to develop rapidly through four larval stages (L1-L4) to the reproductive adult. In unfavorable conditions, L2 larvae can enter the developmentally quiescent, stress-resistant dauer larva stage, enabling them to survive for prolonged periods before completing development. A specific progression of cell division and differentiation events occurs with fidelity during the larval stages, regardless of whether an animal undergoes continuous or dauer-interrupted development. The temporal patterning of developmental events is controlled by the heterochronic genes, whose products include microRNAs (miRNAs) and regulatory proteins. One of these proteins, the DAF-12 nuclear hormone receptor, modulates the transcription of certain let-7-family miRNAs, and also mediates the choice between the continuous vs. dauer-interrupted life history. Here, we report a complex feedback loop between DAF-12 and the let-7-family miRNAs involving both the repression of DAF-12 by let-7-family miRNAs and the ligand-modulated transcriptional activation and repression of the let-7-Fam miRNAs by DAF-12. We propose that this feedback loop functions to ensure robustness of cell fate decisions and to coordinate cell fate with developmental arrest.

  15. Human choices and environmental constraints: deciphering the variability of large game procurement from Mousterian to Aurignacian times (MIS 5-3) in southwestern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discamps, Emmanuel; Jaubert, Jacques; Bachellerie, François

    2011-09-01

    The evolution in the selection of prey made by past humans, especially the Neandertals and the first anatomically modern humans, has been widely debated. Between Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5 and 3, the accuracy of absolute dating is still insufficient to precisely correlate paleoclimatic and archaeological data. It is often difficult, therefore, to estimate to what extent changes in species procurement are correlated with either climate fluctuations or deliberate cultural choices in terms of subsistence behavior. Here, the full development of archeostratigraphy and Bayesian statistical analysis of absolute dates allows the archeological and paleoclimatic chronologies to be compared. The variability in hunted fauna is investigated using multivariate statistical analysis of quantitative faunal lists of 148 assemblages from 39 archeological sequences from MIS 5 through MIS 3. Despite significant intra-technocomplex variability, it is possible to identify major shifts in the human diet during these stages. The integration of archeological data, paleoclimatic proxies and the ecological characteristics of the different species of prey shows that the shifts in large game hunting can be explained by an adaptation of the human groups to climatic fluctuations. However, even if Middle and Early Upper Paleolithic men adapted to changes in their environment and to contrasting landscapes, they ultimately belonged to the ecosystems of the past and were limited by environmental constraints.

  16. Evolution of households’ responses to the groundwater arsenic crisis in Bangladesh: information on environmental health risks can have increasing behavioral impact over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanya, Soumya; Pfaff, Alexander; Bennear, Lori; Tarozzi, Alessandro; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Schoenfeld, Amy; van Geen, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    A national campaign of well testing through 2003 enabled households in rural Bangladesh to switch, at least for drinking, from high-arsenic wells to neighboring lower-arsenic wells. We study the well-switching dynamics over time by re-interviewing, in 2008, a randomly selected subset of households in the Araihazar region who had been interviewed in 2005. Contrary to concerns that the impact of arsenic information on switching behavior would erode over time, we find that not only was 2003–2005 switching highly persistent but also new switching by 2008 doubled the share of households at unsafe wells who had switched. The passage of time also had a cost: 22% of households did not recall test results by 2008. The loss of arsenic knowledge led to staying at unsafe wells and switching from safe wells. Our results support ongoing well testing for arsenic to reinforce this beneficial information. PMID:25383015

  17. School nurses' experiences of delivering the UK HPV vaccination programme in its first year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedford Helen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United Kingdom (UK in September 2008, school nurses began delivering the HPV immunisation programme for girls aged 12 and 13 years old. This study offers insights from school nurses' perspectives and experiences of delivering this new vaccination programme. Methods Thirty in-depth telephone interviews were conducted with school nurses working across the UK between September 2008 and May 2009. This time period covers the first year of the HPV vaccination programme in schools. School nurses were recruited via GP practices, the internet and posters targeted at school nurse practitioners. Results All the school nurses spoke of readying themselves for a deluge of phone calls from concerned parents, but found that in fact few parents telephoned to ask for more information or express their concerns about the HPV vaccine. Several school nurses mentioned a lack of planning by policy makers and stated that at its introduction they felt ill prepared. The impact on school nurses' workload was spoken about at length by all the school nurses. They believed that the programme had vastly increased their workload leading them to cut back on their core activities and the time they could dedicate to offering support to vulnerable pupils. Conclusion Overall the first year of the implementation of the HPV vaccination programme in the UK has exceeded school nurses' expectations and some of its success may be attributed to the school nurses' commitment to the programme. It is also the case that other factors, including positive newsprint media reporting that accompanied the introduction of the HPV vaccination programme may have played a role. Nevertheless, school nurses also believed that the programme had vastly increased their workload leading them to cut back on their core activities and as such they could no longer dedicate time to offer support to vulnerable pupils. This unintentional aspect of the programme may be worthy of further

  18. Delivering the promise of SFC: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindskog, Maria A; Nelander, Hanna; Jonson, Anna C; Halvarsson, Torbjörn

    2014-10-01

    During the past years there has been a rapid development in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) instrumentation making it a highly efficient and robust technique. Although much is written about the advantages of SFC over liquid chromatography (LC), there are not many direct comparisons detailing the gain in purification throughput, the savings in solvent consumption and the reduced environmental impact for large-scale SFC applications. We will show that a research scale separation laboratory built to handle multigram amounts can be used for kilogram separations when moving from LC to SFC.

  19. Therapeutic Silencing of KRAS using Systemically Delivered siRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecot, Chad V.; Wu, Sherry Y.; Bellister, Seth; Filant, Justyna; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Hisamatsu, Takeshi; Bhattacharya, Rajat; Maharaj, Anshumaan; Azam, Salma; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Nagaraja, Archana S.; Morelli, Maria Pia; Gharpure, Kshipra M.; Waugh, Trent A.; Gonzalez-Villasana, Vianey; Zand, Behrouz; Dalton, Heather J.; Kopetz, Scott; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Ellis, Lee M.; Sood, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    Despite being amongst the most common oncogenes in human cancer, to date there are no effective clinical options for inhibiting KRAS activity. We investigated whether systemically delivered KRAS siRNAs have therapeutic potential in KRAS mutated cancer models. We identified KRAS siRNA sequences with notable potency in knocking-down KRAS expression. Using lung and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines, we assessed anti-proliferative effects of KRAS silencing in vitro. For in vivo experiments, we used a nano-liposomal delivery platform, DOPC, for systemic delivery of siRNAs. Various lung and colon cancer models were utilized to determine efficacy of systemic KRAS siRNA based on tumor growth, development of metastasis and down-stream signaling. KRAS siRNA sequences induced >90% knock-down of KRAS expression, significantly reducing viability in mutant cell lines. In the lung cancer model, KRAS siRNA treatment demonstrated significant reductions in primary tumor growth and distant metastatic disease, while the addition of CDDP was not additive. Significant reductions in Ki-67 indices were seen in all treatment groups, while significant increases in caspase-3 activity was only seen in the CDDP treatment groups. In the colon cancer model, KRAS siRNA reduced tumor KRAS and pERK expression. KRAS siRNAs significantly reduced HCP1 subcutaneous tumor growth, as well as outgrowth of liver metastases. Our studies demonstrate a proof-of-concept approach to therapeutic KRAS targeting using nanoparticle delivery of siRNA. This study highlights the potential translational impact of therapeutic RNA interference, which may have broad applications in oncology, especially for traditional “undruggable” targets. PMID:25281617

  20. Electrotactile stimuli delivered across fingertips inducing the Cutaneous Rabbit Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jay P; Santello, Marco; Helms Tillery, Stephen I

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies have been unable to induce the Cutaneous Rabbit Effect (CRE) when the most likely perceived location of the illusory stimulus is on a non-continuous skin area. To determine whether the CRE could be elicited when each of the delivered stimuli were on non-continuous skin areas, we developed a new electrotactile stimulation paradigm attempting to induce the CRE across the fingertips. Though our stimulation paradigm differed from classic reduced CRE paradigms through the use of electrotactile stimuli, focusing the subject attention to a 'likely' illusory site, and the inclusion of a fourth stimulation site (two stimuli after the illusory stimulus), these factors were not the cause of the illusory effect we observed. Experiments conducted on the forearm validated that our paradigm elicited similar results to those reported in previous CRE studies that used either 3-stimulation-point mechanical or electrotactile stimuli with subject attention focused on the 'likely' illusory site. Across the fingertips, we observed an increase in stimulus mislocalization onto the middle fingertip, the 'likely' perceived location of the illusory stimuli, under Illusory Rabbit Trains compared to the Motion Bias Trains. Because the Motion Bias Trains should not induce a perceived location shift of the illusory stimulus but stimulates the adjacent digits in a similar way to the Illusory Rabbit Trains, differences observed between their mislocalization rates between these trains indicate that the CRE can be induced across the fingertips. These results provide the first evidence that the CRE can 'jump' when the stimuli occur across non-continuous skin areas.

  1. CURRICULUM LEADERSIHP: STRATEGIES FOR LINKING THE WRITTEN AND DELIVERED CURRICULIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Damovska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus will be put on teachers as curriculum leaders, being challenged on a daily basis by how to attend to the delivered curriculum(the practice without neglecting the written curriculum(the theory, and vice versa, all the while analyzing strategies that will link both curricula and implement these conclusions in their further teaching practice.Curricula present written guides identifying the content and material that should be covered, and are given to teachers (sometimes as a detailed guide to follow religiously. However, as opposed to theory, practice is a different and delicate matter, as the teachers tries not to overstep the boundaries of the curriculum already include as much of their own creative energy as possible.These points will be expanded through analysis of the results of a qualitative research on the understanding of the content of leadership, done on pre-school and primary school teachers, whose everyday contact with their pupils will illustrate the reality of leadership in schools in the local context of R. Macedonia.Furthermore, the “how” of overcoming the challenges on the path of successful school leadership, however tricky they might be will be analyzed from firsthand experiences and compared through the matrix of what is considered able to “correct”. As educators, we successfully bridge the gap between theory and practice, to apply the theoretical know-how in a realistic classroom setting, and to convert the written paradigms into practice, thus only through educational leadership can we overcome the pedagogical challenges and  effectively transfer the knowledge to the students, bringing about positive outcomes.

  2. Two-compartment model of radioimmunotherapy delivered through cerebrospinal fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Ping [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kramer, Kim; Cheung, Nai-Kong V. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pediatrics, New York, NY (United States); Smith-Jones, Peter; Larson, Steven M. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Zanzonico, Pat; Humm, John [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics, New York, NY (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using {sup 131}I-3F8 injected into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was a safe modality for the treatment of leptomeningeal metastases (JCO, 25:5465, 2007). A single-compartment pharmacokinetic model described previously (JNM 50:1324, 2009) showed good fitting to the CSF radioactivity data obtained from patients. We now describe a two-compartment model to account for the ventricular reservoir of {sup 131}I-3F8 and to identify limiting factors that may impact therapeutic ratio. Each parameter was examined for its effects on (1) the area under the radioactivity concentration curve of the bound antibody (AUC[C{sub IAR}]), (2) that of the unbound antibody AUC[C{sub IA}], and (3) their therapeutic ratio (AUC[C{sub IAR}]/AUC[C{sub IA}]). Data fitting showed that CSF kBq/ml data fitted well using the two-compartment model (R = 0.95 {+-} 0.03). Correlations were substantially better when compared to the one-compartment model (R = 0.92 {+-} 0.11 versus 0.77 {+-} 0.21, p = 0.005). In addition, we made the following new predictions: (1) Increasing immunoreactivity of {sup 131}I-3F8 from 10% to 90% increased both (AUC[C{sub IAR}]) and therapeutic ratio (AUC[C{sub IAR}]/AUC[C{sub IA}]) by 7.4 fold, (2) When extrapolated to the clinical setting, the model predicted that if {sup 131}I-3F8 could be split into 4 doses of 1.4 mg each and given at {>=}24 hours apart, an antibody affinity of K{sub D} of 4 x 10{sup -9} at 50% immunoreactivity were adequate in order to deliver {>=}100 Gy to tumor cells while keeping normal CSF exposure to <10 Gy. This model predicted that immunoreactivity, affinity and optimal scheduling of antibody injections were crucial in improving therapeutic index. (orig.)

  3. FedExosomes: Engineering Therapeutic Biological Nanoparticles that Truly Deliver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle E. Marcus

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many aspects of intercellular communication are mediated through “sending” and “receiving” packets of information via the secretion and subsequent receptor-mediated detection of biomolecular species including cytokines, chemokines, and even metabolites. Recent evidence has now established a new modality of intercellular communication through which biomolecular species are exchanged between cells via extracellular lipid vesicles. A particularly important class of extracellular vesicles is exosomes, which is a term generally applied to biological nanovesicles ~30–200 nm in diameter. Exosomes form through invagination of endosomes to encapsulate cytoplasmic contents, and upon fusion of these multivesicular endosomes to the cell surface, exosomes are released to the extracellular space and transport mRNA, microRNA (miRNA and proteins between cells. Importantly, exosome-mediated delivery of such cargo molecules results in functional modulation of the recipient cell, and such modulation is sufficiently potent to modulate disease processes in vivo. It is possible that such functional delivery of biomolecules indicates that exosomes utilize native mechanisms (e.g., for internalization and trafficking that may be harnessed by using exosomes to deliver exogenous RNA for therapeutic applications. A complementary perspective is that understanding the mechanisms of exosome-mediated transport may provide opportunities for “reverse engineering” such mechanisms to improve the performance of synthetic delivery vehicles. In this review, we summarize recent progress in harnessing exosomes for therapeutic RNA delivery, discuss the potential for engineering exosomes to overcome delivery challenges and establish robust technology platforms, and describe both potential challenges and advantages of utilizing exosomes as RNA delivery vehicles.

  4. An Analysis of the Corporate Culture of U.S. Army Health Services Command during a time of Organizational and Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    over 50% of organizational effectiveness is a result of leadership. Martin Luther King , Jr. can be quoted as saying " If you want to move people, it...be perceived to be unethical . Many times psychosocial tests are used and these tests may later 33 be used against the employee after they have been

  5. Use of a high resolution melt real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the environmental monitoring of Vibrio cholerae

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Rouw, Wouter J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay utilizing high resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis was developed and tested for the monitoring of Vibrio cholerae in water samples. The assay utilized previously published primers that are specific...

  6. Environmental Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert, T.; Vanmarcke, H

    1998-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's programme on environmental restoration are (1) to optimize and validate models for the impact assessment from environmental, radioactive contaminations, including waste disposal or discharge; (2) to support the policy of national authorities for public health and radioactive waste management. Progress and achievements in 1997 are reported.

  7. Environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, M C; Tennant, J

    1997-11-01

    The significance, standard elements, components, and documentation of an environmental assessment in home care are discussed. This assessment is delineated within Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and from a functional perspective. An Environmental Assessment Form that can be used as a documentation tool is included.

  8. Environmental occurrences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the onsite and offsite releases of radioactive and regulated materials. The specific agencies notified of the releases depended on the type, amount, and location of the individual occurrences. The more significant of these off-normal environmental occurrences are summarized in this section.

  9. Corporate environmentalism and environmental innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Hsing; Sam, Abdoul G

    2015-04-15

    Several papers have explored the effect of tighter environmental standards on environmental innovation. While mandatory regulation remains the central tenet of US environmental policy, the regulatory landscape has changed since the early 1990s with the increased recourse by federal and state agencies to corporate environmentalism--voluntary pollution prevention (P2) by firms--to achieve environmental improvements. We therefore estimate the effects of voluntary P2 activities on the patenting of environmental technologies by a sample of manufacturing firms. With our panel data of 352 firms over the 1991-2000 period, we adopt an instrumental variable Poisson framework to account for the count nature of patents and the endogeneity of the P2 adoption decision. Our results indicate that the adoption of voluntary P2 activities in the manufacturing sector has led to a statistically and economically significant increase in the number of environmental patents, suggesting that corporate environmentalism can act as a catalyst for investments in cleaner technologies. Our findings are internationally relevant given the increasing ubiquity of corporate environmentalism in both developed and developing economies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekins, P.; Andersen, Mikael Skou; Vos, H.

    on their environmental effectiveness and on the political barriers to their implementation. It provides illustrative examples of environmental taxes only; comprehensive reviews are available from OECD (1995).http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/92-9167-000-6-sum/page002.html [Summary available in 10 languages]...... been identified and reviewed in this report. Within the limitations of the studies, it appears that these taxes have been environmentally effective (achieving their environmental objectives) and they seem to have achieved such objectives at reasonable cost. Examples of particularly successful taxes...... to implementation, especially of energy (particularly on specific sectors or regions); and on low income groups can be overcome by: a) careful design, b) the use of environmental taxes and respective revenues as part of policy packages and green tax reforms, c) gradual implementation; d) extensive consultation...

  11. Both increases in immature dentate neuron number and decreases of immobility time in the forced swim test occurred in parallel after environmental enrichment of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens-Martín, M V; Rueda, N; Martínez-Cué, C; Torres-Alemán, I; Flórez, J; Trejo, J L

    2007-07-13

    A direct relation between the rate of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mice and the immobility time in a forced swim test after living in an enriched environment has been suggested previously. In the present work, young adult mice living in an enriched environment for 2 months developed considerably more immature differentiating neurons (doublecortin-positive, DCX(+)) than control, non-enriched animals. Furthermore, we found that the more DCX(+) cells they possessed, the lower the immobility time they scored in the forced swim test. This DCX(+) subpopulation is composed of mostly differentiating dentate neurons independently of the birthdates of every individual cell. However, variations found in this subpopulation were not the result of a general effect on the survival of any newborn neuron in the granule cell layer, as 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled cells born during a narrow time window included in the longer lifetime period of DCX(+) cells, were not significantly modified after enrichment. In contrast, the survival of the mature population of neurons in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus in enriched animals increased, although this did not influence their performance in the Porsolt test, nor did it influence the dentate gyrus volume or granule neuronal nuclei size. These results indicate that the population of immature, differentiating neurons in the adult hippocampus is one factor directly related to the protective effect of an enriched environment against a highly stressful event.

  12. A geodata warehouse: Using denormalisation techniques as a tool for delivering spatially enabled integrated geological information to geologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingdon, Andrew; Nayembil, Martin L.; Richardson, Anne E.; Smith, A. Graham

    2016-11-01

    New requirements to understand geological properties in three dimensions have led to the development of PropBase, a data structure and delivery tools to deliver this. At the BGS, relational database management systems (RDBMS) has facilitated effective data management using normalised subject-based database designs with business rules in a centralised, vocabulary controlled, architecture. These have delivered effective data storage in a secure environment. However, isolated subject-oriented designs prevented efficient cross-domain querying of datasets. Additionally, the tools provided often did not enable effective data discovery as they struggled to resolve the complex underlying normalised structures providing poor data access speeds. Users developed bespoke access tools to structures they did not fully understand sometimes delivering them incorrect results. Therefore, BGS has developed PropBase, a generic denormalised data structure within an RDBMS to store property data, to facilitate rapid and standardised data discovery and access, incorporating 2D and 3D physical and chemical property data, with associated metadata. This includes scripts to populate and synchronise the layer with its data sources through structured input and transcription standards. A core component of the architecture includes, an optimised query object, to deliver geoscience information from a structure equivalent to a data warehouse. This enables optimised query performance to deliver data in multiple standardised formats using a web discovery tool. Semantic interoperability is enforced through vocabularies combined from all data sources facilitating searching of related terms. PropBase holds 28.1 million spatially enabled property data points from 10 source databases incorporating over 50 property data types with a vocabulary set that includes 557 property terms. By enabling property data searches across multiple databases PropBase has facilitated new scientific research, previously

  13. Remanufacturing Aided Added-Value Creation, Innovations Meeting to Deliver Sustainable Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq Abullah, Ziyad; Guo, Shun Sheng; Yun, Sheng Bu

    2015-05-01

    End-of-life scrap steel such as vehicles bulks and bodies, steel wheel and shells are easily land filled at the end-of-life when treated in a developing country with non-industrial infrastructure. Research idea is about composite shape steel remanufacturing to be sheet steel for construction application through nested recovered pieces of scrap steel within new sheet steel base to meet innovation value creation of remanufactured steel and innovation eco-design of steel products to close supply chain through linkage developed and developing countries of non-industrial infrastructure economy. That can be satisfied through comprehensive business- education-training model conduction firstly at the developing countries to reduce costs and change the intensive labour remanufacturing paradigm collaboratively. Sustainable remanufacturing business model can be applied based on infrastructure of educational institutions such as institutes of technology to adopt environmental, economic, and social developments as triple bottom line sustainability. Such innovation value creation is driven by eco-design and eco-innovation enabling where the meet to deliver human development, employment, and education conscious environment and bench mark recommendations of development directions for upgrading to apply business that allows eco-societies to emerge, through cooperative steel scrap processing.

  14. Development of an alginate hydrogel to deliver aqueous bait for pest ant management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Jia-Wei; Hoddle, Mark S; Mulchandani, Ashok; Choe, Dong-Hwan

    2017-10-01

    Insecticide sprays used for ant control cause environmental contamination. Liquid bait is a safe and effective alternative, but it requires bait stations to dispense the toxicant. We developed a biodegradable hydrogel to deliver liquid bait obviating the need for bait stations. Alginate hydrogel beads with preferred rigidity and maximum hydration in 25% sucrose solution were engineered by optimizing a crosslinking process. The moisture content of the substrate on which the beads were placed and the relative atmospheric humidity significantly influenced water loss dynamics of the hydrated hydrogel beads. Laboratory choice studies indicated that hydrated hydrogel beads had reduced palatability to foraging ants when they lost ≥50% water. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) indicated that the insecticide thiamethoxam added to sucrose solution was absorbed into the hydrogel beads. Hydrogel beads conditioned in sucrose solution with 1 mg L(-1) thiamethoxam provided complete control of all castes of Argentine ant Linepithema humile (Mayr) colony by 14 days post treatment in the laboratory trial and provided a 79% reduction in ant activity after 8 weeks in the field trial. Alginate hydrogel beads provided an effective delivery system for liquid baits laced with low concentrations of insecticide to control Argentine ants. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Application of Wnt Pathway Inhibitor Delivering Scaffold for Inhibiting Fibrosis in Urethra Strictures: In Vitro and in Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaile Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the mechanical property and biocompatibility of the Wnt pathway inhibitor (ICG-001 delivering collagen/poly(l-lactide-co-caprolactone (P(LLA-CL scaffold for urethroplasty, and also the feasibility of inhibiting the extracellular matrix (ECM expression in vitro and in vivo. Methods: ICG-001 (1 mg (2 mM was loaded into a (P(LLA-CL scaffold with the co-axial electrospinning technique. The characteristics of the mechanical property and drug release fashion of scaffolds were tested with a mechanical testing machine (Instron and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Rabbit bladder epithelial cells and the dermal fibroblasts were isolated by enzymatic digestion method. (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT assay and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were used to evaluate the viability and proliferation of the cells on the scaffolds. Fibrolasts treated with TGF-β1 and ICG-001 released medium from scaffolds were used to evaluate the anti-fibrosis effect through immunofluorescence, real time PCR and western blot. Urethrography and histology were used to evaluate the efficacy of urethral implantation. Results: The scaffold delivering ICG-001 was fabricated, the fiber diameter and mechanical strength of scaffolds with inhibitor were comparable with the non-drug scaffold. The SEM and MTT assay showed no toxic effect of ICG-001 to the proliferation of epithelial cells on the collagen/P(LLA-CL scaffold with ICG-001. After treatment with culture medium released from the drug-delivering scaffold, the expression of Collagen type 1, 3 and fibronectin of fibroblasts could be inhibited significantly at the mRNA and protein levels. In the results of urethrography, urethral strictures and fistulas were found in the rabbits treated with non-ICG-001 delivering scaffolds, but all the rabbits treated with ICG-001-delivering scaffolds showed wide caliber in urethras. Histology results showed less collagen but more

  16. Using technology to deliver cost-effective Continuing Professional Development (CPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is based on engineering the audio video contents of the didactic presentations at the Regional Symposium on Sleep Medicine delivered to the target audience at NAMSCON 2013. The audio was extracted and then synchronized with Power Points, re-synthesized as SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model compliant packages and integrated with Moodle (Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment as Learning Management System (LMS. The preliminary evaluation results showed high satisfaction with the content, its short loading time and smooth playback. These attributes were demonstrated to be effective in enhancing learning. The Moodle as LMS also allows tracking the participants' progress, involving them in social groups and open discussion forum for further enriching the online content and also helps in statistical analysis through its inbuilt web analytics. The technology is not only flexible and economical but also an effective delivery method for Continuing Professional Development Programmes.Key words: Continuing Professional Development, Learning Management System

  17. A Designed Framework for Delivering Systems Thinking Skills to Small Business Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daowei Sun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many small businesses suffer from inadequate management skills which can lead to poor business performance and unsustainable businesses. Research to date has focused on traditional skills such as communication, time management and people skills, yet critically many business managers have no systems thinking skills. This paper presents a framework targeted at delivering systems thinking skills to managers of small businesses utilizing some key characteristic of small business managers. The design is also based on a systems analysis and guided by both adult learning theory and teaching theory. The quality of a training framework depends on the quality of the content design and the right training delivery methods. The systems thinking skills training framework structured systems thinking knowledge into three modules in order to meet the needs of different levels of managers. The framework advocates blended training delivery methods and it also presents possible pitfalls based on training experiences. Additionally, the framework incorporates a continuous improvement process for ongoing systemic improvement.

  18. Delivering the Goods: Scaling out Results of Natural Resource Management Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Harrington

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To help integrated natural resource management (INRM research "deliver the goods" for many of the world's poor over a large area and in a timely manner, the authors suggest a problem-solving approach that facilitates the scaling out of relevant agricultural practices. They propose seven ways to foster scaling out: (1 develop more attractive practices and technologies through participatory research (2 balance supply-driven approaches with resource user demands, (3 use feedback to redefine the research agenda, (4 encourage support groups and networks for information sharing, (5 facilitate negotiation among stakeholders, (6 inform policy change and institutional development, and (7 make sensible use of information management tools, including models and geographic information systems (GIS. They also draw on experiences in Mesoamerica, South Asia, and southern Africa to describe useful information management tools, including site similarity analyses, the linking of simulation models with GIS, and the use of farmer and land type categories.

  19. Goals Set After Completing a Teleconference-Delivered Program for Managing Multiple Sclerosis Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Miho; Preissner, Katharine; Duffy, Rose; Meixell, Maggie

    2015-01-01

    Setting goals can be a valuable skill to self-manage multiple sclerosis (MS) fatigue. A better understanding of the goals set by people with MS after completing a fatigue management program can assist health care professionals with tailoring interventions for clients. This study aimed to describe the focus of goals set by people with MS after a teleconference-delivered fatigue management program and to evaluate the extent to which participants were able to achieve their goals over time. In total, 485 goals were set by 81 participants. Over a follow-up period, 64 participants rated 284 goals regarding progress made toward goal achievement. Approximately 50% of the rated goals were considered achieved. The most common type of goal achieved was that of instrumental activities of daily living. Short-term goals were more likely to be achieved. This study highlights the need for and importance of promoting and teaching goal-setting skills to people with MS. PMID:25871602

  20. Delivering high-resolution landmarks using inkjet micropatterning for spatial monitoring of leaf expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cronk Quentin CB

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inkjet micropatterning is a versatile deposition technique with broad applications in numerous fields. However, its application in plant science is largely unexplored. Leaf expansion is one of the most important parameters in the field of plant science and many methods have been developed to examine differential expansion rates of different parts of the leaf lamina. Among them, methods based on the tracking of natural landmarks through digital imaging require a complicated setup in which the leaf must remain fixed and under tension. Furthermore, the resolution is limited to that of the natural landmarks, which are often difficult to find, particularly in young leaves. To study the fine scale expansion dynamics of the leaf lamina using artificial landmarks it is necessary to place small, noninvasive marks on a leaf surface and then recover the location of those marks after a period of time. Results To monitor leaf expansion in two dimensions, at very fine scales, we used a custom designed inkjet micropatterning system to print a grid composed of c. 0.19 mm2 cells on small developing leaves of ivy (Hedera helix using 40 μm dots at a spacing of c. 91 μm. The leaves in different growing stages were imaged under magnification to extract the coordinates of the marks which were then used in subsequent computer-assisted leaf expansion analyses. As an example we obtained quantified global and local expansion information and created expansion maps over the entire leaf surface. The results reveal a striking pattern of fine-scale expansion differences over short periods of time. In these experiments, the base of the leaf is a "cold spot" for expansion, while the leaf sinuses are "hot spots" for expansion. We have also measured a strong shading effect on leaf expansion. We discuss the features required to build an inkjet printing apparatus optimized for use in plant science, which will further maximize the range of tissues that can be

  1. Delivering stepped care: an analysis of implementation in routine practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richards David A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United Kingdom, clinical guidelines recommend that services for depression and anxiety should be structured around a stepped care model, where patients receive treatment at different 'steps,' with the intensity of treatment (i.e., the amount and type increasing at each step if they fail to benefit at previous steps. There are very limited data available on the implementation of this model, particularly on the intensity of psychological treatment at each step. Our objective was to describe patient pathways through stepped care services and the impact of this on patient flow and management. Methods We recorded service design features of four National Health Service sites implementing stepped care (e.g., the types of treatments available and their links with other treatments, together with the actual treatments received by individual patients and their transitions between different treatment steps. We computed the proportions of patients accessing, receiving, and transiting between the various steps and mapped these proportions visually to illustrate patient movement. Results We collected throughput data on 7,698 patients referred. Patient pathways were highly complex and very variable within and between sites. The ratio of low (e.g., self-help to high-intensity (e.g., cognitive behaviour therapy treatments delivered varied between sites from 22:1, through 2.1:1, 1.4:1 to 0.5:1. The numbers of patients allocated directly to high-intensity treatment varied from 3% to 45%. Rates of stepping up from low-intensity treatment to high-intensity treatment were less than 10%. Conclusions When services attempt to implement the recommendation for stepped care in the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines, there were significant differences in implementation and consequent high levels of variation in patient pathways. Evaluations driven by the principles of implementation science (such as targeted planning

  2. SU-E-T-357: Electronic Compensation Technique to Deliver Total Body Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakeman, T [State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States); Wang, I; Podgorsak, M [State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States); Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) uses large parallel-opposed radiation fields to suppress the patient’s immune system and eradicate the residual cancer cells in preparation of recipient for bone marrow transplant. The manual placement of lead compensators has conventionally been used to compensate for the varying thickness through the entire body in large-field TBI. The goal of this study is to pursue utilizing the modern electronic compensation technique to more accurately and efficiently deliver dose to patients in need of TBI. Methods: Treatment plans utilizing electronic compensation to deliver a total body dose were created retrospectively for patients for whom CT data had been previously acquired. Each treatment plan includes two, specifically weighted, pair of opposed fields. One pair of open, large fields (collimator=45°), to encompass the patient’s entire anatomy, and one pair of smaller fields (collimator=0°) focused only on the thicker midsection of the patient. The optimal fluence for each one of the smaller fields was calculated at a patient specific penetration depth. Irregular surface compensators provide a more uniform dose distribution within the smaller opposed fields. Results: Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were calculated for the evaluating the electronic compensation technique. In one case, the maximum body doses calculated from the DVH were reduced from the non-compensated 195.8% to 165.3% in the electronically compensated plans, indicating a more uniform dose with the region of electronic compensation. The mean body doses calculated from the DVH were also reduced from the non-compensated 120.6% to 112.7% in the electronically compensated plans, indicating a more accurate delivery of the prescription dose. All calculated monitor units were well within clinically acceptable limits. Conclusion: Electronic compensation technique for TBI will not substantially increase the beam on time while it can significantly reduce the compensator

  3. Delivering Sustainable Facilities Management in Danish Housing Estates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Jensen, Per Anker

    2009-01-01

    management is supporting social, economical and environmental sustainable development. Sustainable facility management (SFM) is as an 'umbrella' for various ways of reducing flows of energy, water and waste in the daily operation of the buildings, for instance by regular monitoring the consumption, by using......Housing is an area, which ay a central role in sustainable development due to large resource consumption and as transition agent towards sustainable lifestyles. The aim is to evaluate current practice of housing administration in Denmark in order to evaluate if and how sustainable facilities......, but the entire FM‐setting including the ownership of the building, the organisation of daily operation, the roles and relation between stakeholders are equally important in order to utilise the monitoring as a mean for transformation towards sustainable buildings and lifestyles....

  4. Delivering Sustainable Facilities Management in Danish Housing Estates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Jensen, Per Anker

    2009-01-01

    Housing plays a central role in sustainable development due to large resource consumption and as transition agent towards sustainable lifestyles. The aim is to evaluate current practice of housing administration in Denmark in order to evaluate if and how sustainable facilities management...... is supporting social, economical and environmental sustainable development. Sustainable facility management (SFM) is as an 'umbrella' for various ways of reducing flows of energy, water and waste in the daily operation of the buildings, for instance by regular monitoring the consumption, by using 'green......-setting including the ownership of the building, the organisation of daily operation, the roles and relation between stakeholders are equally important in order to utilise the monitoring as a mean for transformation towards sustainable buildings and lifestyles....

  5. Environmental Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin

    The doctoral research project is co-financed by DUCED-I&UA and is part of a joint effort of Thai, Malay, South African and Danish universities to conduct collaborative research on the overarching theme "Environmental Management: Globalisation and Industrial Governance in Developing Countries......". The PhD project is expected to conclude ultimo 2005. Environmental management and cleaner production (CP) are both internationally recognised as tools for minimising environmental impacts of production or services. However, several studies have shown that especially SMEs, which probably amount to more...

  6. Environmental Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin

    The doctoral research project is co-financed by DUCED-I&UA and is part of a joint effort of Thai, Malay, South African and Danish universities to conduct collaborative research on the overarching theme "Environmental Management: Globalisation and Industrial Governance in Developing Countries......". The PhD project is expected to conclude ultimo 2005. Environmental management and cleaner production (CP) are both internationally recognised as tools for minimising environmental impacts of production or services. However, several studies have shown that especially SMEs, which probably amount to more...

  7. Quantitative real-time PCR assay for rapid detection of plant and human pathogenic Macrophomina phaseolina from field and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Bandamaravuri Kishore; Mesapogu, Sukumar; Sharma, Anu; Somasani, Saida Reddy; Arora, Dilip K

    2011-01-01

    A real-time qPCR assay was developed to detect and quantify Macrophomina phaseolina abundance in rhizosphere soil and plant tissue. Both TaqMan and SYBR green techniques were targeted on ~ 1 kb sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) of M. phaseolina and two sets of specific primers were designed for SYBR green (MpSyK) and TaqMan (MpTqK) assays. No cross-hybridization and no fluorescent signal exceeding the baseline threshold was observed in TaqMan and SYBR green assays, respectively. The minimum detection limit or sensitivity of TaqMan assay was 30 fg/μL of M. phaseolina DNA and limit of quantification of M. phaseolina viable population was estimated as 0.66 × 10(5) CFU/g soil(-1) equivalent to 10 pg/μL of target DNA. This is the first report which demonstrated real-time qPCR assays with greater specificity and sensitivity to detect M. phaseolina population in soil and plant materials.

  8. Comparison of secondary organic aerosol formed with an aerosol flow reactor and environmental reaction chambers: effect of oxidant concentration, exposure time and seed particles on chemical composition and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Lambe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We performed a systematic intercomparison study of the chemistry and yields of SOA generated from OH oxidation of a common set of gas-phase precursors in a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM continuous flow reactor and several environmental chambers. In the flow reactor, SOA precursors were oxidized using OH concentrations ranging from 2.0×108 to 2.2&times1010 molec cm−3 over exposure times of 100 s. In the environmental chambers, precursors were oxidized using OH concentrations ranging from 2×106 to 2×107 molec cm−3 over exposure times of several hours. The OH concentration in the chamber experiments is close to that found in the atmosphere, but the integrated OH exposure in the flow reactor can simulate atmospheric exposure times of multiple days compared to chamber exposure times of only a day or so. A linear correlation analysis of the mass spectra (m=0.91–0.92, r2=0.93–0.94 and carbon oxidation state (m=1.1, r2=0.58 of SOA produced in the flow reactor and environmental chambers for OH exposures of approximately 1011 molec cm−3 s suggests that the composition of SOA produced in the flow reactor and chambers is the same within experimental accuracy as measured with an aerosol mass spectrometer. This similarity in turn suggests that both in the flow reactor and in chambers, SOA chemical composition at low OH exposure is governed primarily by gas-phase OH oxidation of the precursors, rather than heterogeneous oxidation of the condensed particles. In general, SOA yields measured in the flow reactor are lower than measured in chambers for the range of equivalent OH exposures that can be measured in both the flow reactor and chambers. The influence of sulfate seed particles on isoprene SOA yield measurements was examined in the flow reactor. The studies show that seed particles increase the yield of SOA produced in flow reactors by a factor of 3 to 5 and may also account in part for higher SOA yields obtained in the chambers, where seed

  9. Mapping real-time air pollution health risk for environmental management: Combining mobile and stationary air pollution monitoring with neural network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew D; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution poses health concerns at the global scale. The challenge of managing air pollution is significant because of the many air pollutants, insufficient funds for monitoring and abatement programs, and political and social challenges in defining policy to limit emissions. Some governments provide citizens with air pollution health risk information to allow them to limit their exposure. However, many regions still have insufficient air pollution monitoring networks to provide real-time mapping. Where available, these risk mapping systems either provide absolute concentration data or the concentrations are used to derive an Air Quality Index, which provides the air pollution risk for a mix of air pollutants with a single value. When risk information is presented as a single value for an entire region it does not inform on the spatial variation within the region. Without an understanding of the local variation residents can only make a partially informed decision when choosing daily activities. The single value is typically provided because of a limited number of active monitoring units in the area. In our work, we overcome this issue by leveraging mobile air pollution monitoring techniques, meteorological information and land use information to map real-time air pollution health risks. We propose an approach that can provide improved health risk information to the public by applying neural network models within a framework that is inspired by land use regression. Mobile air pollution monitoring campaigns were conducted across Hamilton from 2005 to 2013. These mobile air pollution data were modelled with a number of predictor variables that included information on the surrounding land use characteristics, the meteorological conditions, air pollution concentrations from fixed location monitors, and traffic information during the time of collection. Fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide were both modelled. During the model fitting process we reserved

  10. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify contaminants in water: an insight on environmental forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiá, Ana; Campo, Julian; Blasco, Cristina; Picó, Yolanda

    2014-06-06

    Ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqTOF-MS) acquiring full scan MS data for quantification, and automatic data dependent information product ion spectra (IDA-MS/MS) without any predefinition of the ions by the user was checked for identifying organic contaminants in water samples. The use of a database with more than 2000 compounds achieved high confidence results for a wide number of contaminants based upon retention time, accurate mass, isotopic pattern and MS/MS library searching. More than 20 contaminants, mostly pharmaceuticals, but also mycotoxins and polyphenols were unambiguously identified. Furthermore, the combination of statistical data analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) followed by empirical formula calculation, on-line database searching and MS/MS fragment ion interpretation achieves not only the successful detection of unknown contaminants but also the selection of those relevant to different types of waters. Unknown compounds, such as C₂₀H₃₄O₃, were identified in waste water showing the prospects of this technique. A group of 42 currently used pesticides were selected as target compounds to evaluate the quantitative possibilities. Mean recoveries and percentage relative standard deviation (RSD) were 48-79% (4-20% RSD). The limit of detections ranged from 0.02 to 2 ng L(-1), with a validated limit of quantification of 2 ng L(-1) for water after solid-phase (SPE) isolation and concentration. The quantitative data obtained using UHPLC-QqTOF-MS were compared with those obtained using conventional LC-MS/MS with a triple quadrupole (QqQ).

  11. Storage filters upland suspended sediment signals delivered from watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzuto, James E.; Keeler, Jeremy; Skalak, Katherine; Karwan, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Climate change, tectonics, and humans create long- and short-term temporal variations in the supply of suspended sediment to rivers. These signals, generated in upland erosional areas, are filtered by alluvial storage before reaching the basin outlet. We quantified this filter using a random walk model driven by sediment budget data, a power-law distributed probability density function (PDF) to determine how long sediment remains stored, and a constant downstream drift velocity during transport of 157 km/yr. For 25 km of transport, few particles are stored, and the median travel time is 0.2 yr. For 1000 km of transport, nearly all particles are stored, and the median travel time is 2.5 m.y. Both travel-time distributions are power laws. The 1000 km travel-time distribution was then used to filter sinusoidal input signals with periods of 10 yr and 104 yr. The 10 yr signal is delayed by 12.5 times its input period, damped by a factor of 380, and is output as a power law. The 104 yr signal is delayed by 0.15 times its input period, damped by a factor of 3, and the output signal retains its sinusoidal input form (but with a power-law “tail”). Delivery time scales for these two signals are controlled by storage; in-channel transport time is insignificant, and low-frequency signals are transmitted with greater fidelity than high-frequency signals. These signal modifications are essential to consider when evaluating watershed restoration schemes designed to control sediment loading, and where source-area geomorphic processes are inferred from the geologic record.

  12. Environmental sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwa, C.; Wright, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    The environmental sciences are engaged in a remarkable effort of interdisciplinary cooperation and integration. Some long-running international scientific programs, notably the World Climate Research Programme and the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, play an important role therein. The

  13. Environmental decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, G.A.; Jernigan, H.C. (eds.)

    1981-02-01

    The record of the proceedings of the workshop on environmental decontamination contains twenty-seven presentations. Emphasis is placed upon soil and surface decontamination, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and assessments of instrumentation and equipment used in decontamination. (DLS)

  14. Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our environment affects our health. If parts of the environment, like the air, water, or soil become polluted, it ... in the home can trigger asthma attacks. Some environmental risks are a part of the natural world, ...

  15. Uncertainty in delivered dose resulting from the distribution of source activities in a Selectron LDR afterloader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, A.K.; Castiglione, Robert; Podgorsak, M.B.; Sibata, C.H.; Shin, K.H. (Roswell Park Cancer Inst., Buffalo, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Medicine)

    1994-11-01

    The uncertainty in the delivered dose resulting from the distribution of [sup 137]Cs source activity in a clinical Selectron LDR unit has been studied. A comparison is made of the dose delivered to a point 'A' in an implant with sources of equal activity to the actual dose delivered in the same implant with source activities randomly chosen from the population in the afterloader. (author).

  16. The Environmental Virtual Observatory: A New Vision for Catchment Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, R.; Emmett, B.; McDonald, A.; Blair, G.; Buytaert, W.; Freer, J. E.; Haygarth, P.; Rees, G.; Tetzlaff, D.; EVO Science Team

    2011-12-01

    Environmental scientists need to make predictions that are increasingly cross-disciplinary, bringing together observations and models in both physical and biological systems, and visualising the results. Observations can be from multiple platforms, and there are often many competing models that could be used. At the same time, catchment managers and policy makers face a challenging future trying to ensure a wide range of ecosystem and hydrological services are delivered from increasingly constrained budgets whilst complying with a range of regulation requirements. There is also a greater requirement for transparency and access to data and making regulatory decision making processes visible to the public. The Environmental Virtual Observatory Pilot project (EVOp) is a new initiative from the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) designed to explore new tools and approaches to support these challenges. The long term vision of the Environmental Virtual Observatory is to: - Make environmental data more visible and accessible to a wide range of scientists and potential users including for public good applications; - Provide tools to facilitate the integrated analysis of data to give greater access to added knowledge and expert analysis and to visualisation of the results; - Develop new, added-value knowledge from public and private sector data assets to help tackle environmental challenges. The EVO will exploit cloud computing to give a shared working space for data, models and analysis tools; in this two year pilot project we will develop five local and national exemplars to demonstrate and test the opportunities and constraints from such an approach. The question-based exemplars being developed are focused on (i) management options for flooding and diffuse pollution at local and national scales, (ii) approaches for transferring hydrological models for both flooding and drought from data rich to data poor areas and (iii) defining the uncertainty bounds of

  17. Environmental teratogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Brent, R. L.; Beckman, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    By far the largest category of malformations, 65% falls into the group of those with an unknown cause(s). Purely genetic causes of malformations (autosomal and cytogenetic), estimated to produce 20 to 25% of all human malformations, comprise the largest group of congenital malformations with known etiology. Although environmental causes of human malformations account for 10% or fewer of malformations, most of these environmentally induced malformations are related to maternal disease states. ...

  18. Delivering successful projects with TSP(SM) and six sigma a practical guide to implementing team software process(SM)

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Mukesh

    2008-01-01

    Delivering successful projects means the ability to produce high quality software within budget and on time-consistently, but when one mentions quality to software engineers or project managers, they talk about how impossible it is to eliminate defects from software. This assumption is passed on and on until it becomes accepted wisdom, with the power of a self-fulfilling prophecy. And when a project fails to arrive on time or up to standards, team members will turn on each other. The project got delayed because the engineers did a poor job in development or too much was promised upfront for this short of a timeline.In Delivering Successful Projects with TSPSM and Six Sigma: A Practical Guide to Implementing Team Software ProcessSM, you will learn how to effectively manage the development of a software project and deliver it in line with customer expectations. This refreshing volume -Offers real-world case studies about the author's experience at Microsoft successfully implementing TSP to achieve higher qualit...

  19. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation of the impulse delivering from laser-produced plasma to solid target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yan-Nan; Yang Bo; Zhu Jin-Rong; Shen Zhong-Hua; Lu Jian; Ni Xiao-Wu

    2008-01-01

    A plasma is produced in air by using a high-intensity Q-switch Nd:YAG pulsed laser to irradiate a solid target,and the impulses delivering from the plasma to the target are measured at different laser power densities. Analysing the formation process of laser plasma and the laser supported detonation wave (LSDW) and using fluid mechanics theory and Pirri's methods, an approximately theoretical solution of the impulse delivering from the plasma to the target under our experimental condition is found. Furthermore, according to the formation time of plasma and the variation of pressure in plasma in a non-equilibrium state, a physical model of the interaction between the pulse laser and the solid target is developed. The plasma evolutions with time during and after the laser pulse irradiating the target are simulated numerically by using a three-dimensional difference scheme. And the numerical solutions of the impulse delivering from the plasma to the target are obtained. A comparison among the theoretical, numerical and experimental results and their analyses are performed. The experimental results are explained reasonably. The consistency between numerical results and experimental results implies that the numerical calculation model used in this paper can well describe the mechanical action of the laser on the target.

  20. Information Selection and Delivery Algorithm for Delivering Advertisements Suitable for the Pedestrians Present at a Particular Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi MATSUOKA

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider a service that shows an advertisement suitable for the preferences of the pedestrians present at the site where the display is installed. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of this service by a simulation that reflects the reality well, we propose evaluation functions that take account of the line of sight of moving pedestrians. The evaluation functions incorporate two independent variables: Category and Producer. Based on this evaluation functions, we also propose an algorithm of multicasting an advertisement to different sites in order to deliver advertisements efficiently over a network while ensuring a high advertisement relevance rate. The evaluation results show that the proposed algorithm always scores a higher advertisement relevance rate than conventional advertising media. It is also shown that the proposed algorithm can reduce the delivery time by about 37%, and the volume of data delivered from the server by about 39% compared with unicast delivery.

  1. Preparing pharmacists to deliver a targeted service in hypertension management: evaluation of an interprofessional training program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bajorek, Beata V; Lemay, Kate S; Magin, Parker J; Roberts, Christopher; Krass, Ines; Armour, Carol L

    2015-01-01

    ...) control in hypertension. In this study, a training program was designed to enable community pharmacists to deliver a service in hypertension management targeting therapeutic adjustments and medication adherence...

  2. Current perspectives on Internet delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for adults with anxiety and related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mewton L

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Louise Mewton, Jessica Smith, Pieter Rossouw, Gavin Andrews Clinical Research Unit for Anxiety and Depression, St Vincent’s Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: The aim of the current review is to provide a summary of research into Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT for anxiety disorders. We include 37 randomized controlled trials that examined the efficacy of iCBT programs in adults (aged over 18 years, as compared with waiting list or active control. The included studies were identified from Medline searches and from reference lists, and only published data were included. Several trials of iCBT for generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social phobia were identified. Two trials of iCBT for obsessive-compulsive disorder were identified, whilst one trial each was identified for hypochondriasis, specific phobia (spiders, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Finally, there were five trials that focused on transdiagnostic therapy for either a range of comorbid anxiety disorders or comorbid anxiety and depression. Between-group effect sizes were moderate to large for all disorders, and ranged from 0.30 to 2.53. iCBT was found to be commensurate with face-to-face cognitive behavioral therapy whether delivered individually or in group format. Guidance may not be necessary for iCBT to be effective for immediate gains, but may be more important in longer-term maintenance of symptom improvement and maximizing patient adherence. The clinical experience of the individual providing guidance does not appear to impact treatment outcomes. Future research needs to focus on the optimal level of guidance required to generate maximum patient benefits, whilst balancing the efficient use of clinician time and resources. Evidence-based contraindications to iCBT should also be developed so that the choice of treatment modality accurately reflects patients’ needs. Further research should be conducted into the effective elements of

  3. Associations between metals in residential environmental media and exposure biomarkers over time in infants living near a mining-impacted site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zota, Ami R.; Riederer, Anne M.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Schaider, Laurel A.; Shine, James P.; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J.; Wright, Robert O.; Spengler, John D.

    2017-01-01

    Infant exposures to metals are a concern for mining-impacted communities, although limited information is available to assess residential exposures over the first year of life. We measured lead (Pb), manganese, arsenic, and cadmium in indoor air, house dust, yard soil, and tap water from 53 infants’ homes near the Tar Creek Superfund Site (Oklahoma, USA) at two time points representing developmental stages before and during initial ambulation (age 0–6 and 6–12 months). We measured infant metal biomarkers in: umbilical cord blood (n = 53); 12- (n = 43) and 24- (n = 22) month blood; and hair at age 12 months (n = 39). We evaluated cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between infant residential and biomarker concentrations. A doubling of mean dust Pb concentration was consistently associated with 36–49% higher 12-month blood Pb adjusting for cord blood Pb (P≤ 0.05). Adjusted dust concentration explained 29–35% of blood Pb variance, and consistent associations with other media were not observed. Although concentrations in dust and blood were generally low, strong and consistent associations between dust and body burden suggest that house dust in mining-impacted communities may impact children’s health. These relationships were observed at a young age, typically before blood Pb levels peak and when children’s development may be particularly vulnerable to toxic insult. PMID:26648247

  4. This Time It's Personal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Educators have known for some time now that a one-size-fits-all approach to learning does not lead to the level of student engagement and academic success that schools strive to achieve. In their search for a more customized approach to delivering instruction, they've explored project-based learning, addressed different learning styles, and…

  5. Learning at Eco-Attractions: Exploring the Bifurcation of Nature and Culture through Experiential Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, Ria Ann

    2016-01-01

    This article explores informal environmental education (EE) experiences at eco-attractions. A consortium of three UK-based environmental charities designed an eco-attraction-based EE program aiming to inspire responses to environmental change. Over six months, educators at six eco-attractions delivered this two-day program to 430 young people.…

  6. Tracking Environmental Compliance and Remediation Trajectories Using Image-Based Anomaly Detection Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K. Lein

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent interest in use of satellite remote sensing for environmental compliance and remediation assessment has been heightened by growing policy requirements and the need to provide more rapid and efficient monitoring and enforcement mechanisms. However, remote sensing solutions are attractive only to the extent that they can deliver environmentally relevant information in a meaningful and time-sensitive manner. Unfortunately, the extent to which satellite-based remote sensing satisfies the demands for compliance and remediation assessment under the conditions of an actual environmental accident or calamity has not been well documented. In this study a remote sensing solution to the problem of site remediation and environmental compliance assessment was introduced based on the use of the RDX anomaly detection algorithm and vegetation indices developed from the Tasseled Cap Transform. Results of this analysis illustrate how the use of standard vegetation transforms, integrated into an anomaly detection strategy, enable the time-sequenced tracking of site remediation progress. Based on these results credible evidence can be produced to support compliance evaluation and remediation assessment following major environmental disasters.

  7. Reanalyses of the historical series of UK variety trials to quantify the contributions of genetic and environmental factors to trends and variability in yield over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, I; Horwell, A; Garner, J; White, J; McKee, J; Philpott, H

    2011-01-01

    Historical datasets have much to offer. We analyse data from winter wheat, spring and winter barley, oil seed rape, sugar beet and forage maize from the UK National List and Recommended List trials over the period 1948-2007. We find that since 1982, for the cereal crops and oil seed rape, at least 88% of the improvement in yield is attributable to genetic improvement, with little evidence that changes in agronomy have improved yields. In contrast, in the same time period, plant breeding and changes in agronomy have contributed almost equally to increased yields of forage maize and sugar beet. For the cereals prior to 1982, contributions from plant breeding were 42, 60 and 86% for winter barley, winter wheat and spring barley, respectively. These results demonstrate the overwhelming importance of plant breeding in increasing crop productivity in the UK. Winter wheat data are analysed in more detail to exemplify the use of historical data series to study and detect disease resistance breakdown, sensitivity of varieties to climatic factors, and also to test methods of genomic selection. We show that breakdown of disease resistance can cause biased estimates of variety and year effects, but that comparison of results between fungicide treated and untreated trials over years may be a means to screen for durable resistance. We find the greatest sensitivities of the winter wheat germplasm to seasonal differences in rainfall and temperature are to summer rainfall and winter temperature. Finally, for genomic selection, correlations between observed and predicted yield ranged from 0.17 to 0.83. The high correlation resulted from markers predicting kinship amongst lines rather than tagging multiple QTL. We believe the full value of these data will come from exploiting links with other experiments and experimental populations. However, not to exploit such valuable historical datasets is wasteful.

  8. Feasibility and acceptability of delivering adolescent health interventions alongside HPV vaccination in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Jones, Deborah; Lees, Shelley; Mwanga, Joseph; Neke, Nyasule; Changalucha, John; Broutet, Nathalie; Maduhu, Ibrahim; Kapiga, Saidi; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Bloem, Paul; Ross, David A

    2016-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination offers an opportunity to strengthen provision of adolescent health interventions (AHI). We explored the feasibility of integrating other AHI with HPV vaccination in Tanzania. A desk review of 39 policy documents was preceded by a stakeholder meeting with 38 policy makers and partners. Eighteen key informant interviews (KIIs) with health and education policy makers and district officials were conducted to further explore perceptions of current programs, priorities and AHI that might be suitable for integration with HPV vaccination. Fourteen school health interventions (SHI) or AHI are currently being implemented by the Government of Tanzania. Most are delivered as vertical programmes. Coverage of current programs is not universal, and is limited by financial, human resource and logistic constraints. Limited community engagement, rumours, and lack of strategic advocacy has affected uptake of some interventions, e.g. tetanus toxoid (TT) immunization. Stakeholder and KI perceptions and opinions were limited by a lack of experience with integrated delivery and AHI that were outside an individual's area of expertise and experience. Deworming and educational sessions including reproductive health education were the most frequently mentioned interventions that respondents considered suitable for integrated delivery with HPV vaccine. Given programme constraints, limited experience with integrated delivery and concern about real or perceived side-effects being attributed to the vaccine, it will be very important to pilot-test integration of AHI/SHI with HPV vaccination. Selected interventions will need to be simple and quick to deliver since health workers are likely to face significant logistic and time constraints during vaccination visits. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  9. The effectiveness of nurse-delivered aromatherapy in an acute care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jill R; Rivard, Rachael L; Griffin, Kristen H; Kolste, Alison K; Joswiak, Denise; Kinney, Mary Ellen; Dusek, Jeffery A

    2016-04-01

    To examine the use and effectiveness of essential oil therapeutic interventions on pain, nausea, and anxiety, when provided by nurses to patients in acute hospital settings across a large health system. This study expands upon the limited body of literature on aromatherapy use among inpatients. Retrospective, effectiveness study using data obtained from electronic health records. Ten Allina Health hospitals located in Minnesota and western Wisconsin. Nurse-delivered aromatherapy. Change in patient-reported pain, anxiety, and nausea, rated before and after receiving aromatherapy using a numeric rating scale (0-10). There were 10,262 hospital admissions during the study time frame in which nurse-delivered aromatherapy was part of patient care. The majority of admissions receiving aromatherapy were females (81.71%) and white (87.32%). Over 75% of all aromatherapy sessions were administered via inhalation. Lavender had the highest absolute frequency (49.5%) of use regardless of mode of administration, followed by ginger (21.2%), sweet marjoram (12.3%), mandarin (9.4%), and combination oils (7.6%). Sweet marjoram resulted in the largest single oil average pain change at -3.31 units (95% CI: -4.28, -2.33), while lavender and sweet marjoram had equivalent average anxiety changes at -2.73 units, and ginger had the largest single oil average change in nausea at -2.02 units (95% CI: -2.55, -1.49). Essential oils generally resulted in significant clinical improvements based on their intended use, although each oil also showed ancillary benefits for other symptoms. Future research should explore use of additional essential oils, modes of administration, and different patient populations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Repetitive prenatal glucocorticoids increase lung endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in ovine fetuses delivered at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, T R; Ackerman, K G; Le Cras, T D; Jobe, A H; Abman, S H

    2000-07-01

    Antenatal administration of glucocorticoids has been shown to improve postnatal lung function after preterm birth in the ovine fetus. Mechanisms of steroid-induced lung maturation include increased surfactant production and altered parenchymal lung structure. Whether steroid treatment also affects lung vascular function is unclear. Because nitric oxide contributes to the fall in pulmonary vascular resistance at birth, we hypothesized that the improvement of postnatal lung function of preterm lambs after treatment with prenatal glucocorticoids may be in part caused by an increase in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. To determine whether glucocorticoid treatment increases lung eNOS expression, we measured eNOS protein content by Western blot analysis of distal lung homogenates and immunostaining of formalin-fixed lungs from ovine fetuses delivered at preterm and term gestation after prenatal administration of glucocorticoids. Treatment protocols were followed in which ewes were treated with intramuscular betamethasone (0.5 mg/kg) at single or multiple doses at weekly intervals, and fetuses were delivered at 125, 135, or 145 d gestation. All groups were compared with saline-treated controls. Western blot analysis of whole lung homogenates demonstrated a 4-fold increase in eNOS protein content in lambs treated with repetitive doses of glucocorticoids and delivery at term (145 d; p preterm ages (125 and 135 d). Immunostaining showed eNOS predominantly in the vascular endothelium in all vessel sizes. Pattern of staining was not altered by treatment with antenatal glucocorticoids. We conclude that maternal treatment with glucocorticoids increases lung eNOS content after multiple doses and delivery at term gestation. We speculate that antenatal glucocorticoids may up-regulate eNOS but that the timing and duration of steroid administration appears to be critical to this response.

  11. Current perspectives on Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for adults with anxiety and related disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewton, Louise; Smith, Jessica; Rossouw, Pieter; Andrews, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current review is to provide a summary of research into Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) for anxiety disorders. We include 37 randomized controlled trials that examined the efficacy of iCBT programs in adults (aged over 18 years), as compared with waiting list or active control. The included studies were identified from Medline searches and from reference lists, and only published data were included. Several trials of iCBT for generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social phobia were identified. Two trials of iCBT for obsessive-compulsive disorder were identified, whilst one trial each was identified for hypochondriasis, specific phobia (spiders), and post-traumatic stress disorder. Finally, there were five trials that focused on transdiagnostic therapy for either a range of comorbid anxiety disorders or comorbid anxiety and depression. Between-group effect sizes were moderate to large for all disorders, and ranged from 0.30 to 2.53. iCBT was found to be commensurate with face-to-face cognitive behavioral therapy whether delivered individually or in group format. Guidance may not be necessary for iCBT to be effective for immediate gains, but may be more important in longer-term maintenance of symptom improvement and maximizing patient adherence. The clinical experience of the individual providing guidance does not appear to impact treatment outcomes. Future research needs to focus on the optimal level of guidance required to generate maximum patient benefits, whilst balancing the efficient use of clinician time and resources. Evidence-based contraindications to iCBT should also be developed so that the choice of treatment modality accurately reflects patients’ needs. Further research should be conducted into the effective elements of iCBT, as well as the extent to which therapy enhancers and advancing technology can be accommodated into established iCBT frameworks. PMID:24511246

  12. Agrobacterium delivers VirE2 protein into host cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyang; Pan, Shen Q.

    2017-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens can cause crown gall tumors on a wide range of host plants. As a natural genetic engineer, the bacterium can transfer both single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) [transferred DNA (T-DNA)] molecules and bacterial virulence proteins into various recipient cells. Among Agrobacterium-delivered proteins, VirE2 is an ssDNA binding protein that is involved in various steps of the transformation process. However, it is not clear how plant cells receive the T-DNA or protein molecules. Using a split–green fluorescent protein approach, we monitored the VirE2 delivery process inside plant cells in real time. We observed that A. tumefaciens delivered VirE2 from the bacterial lateral sides that were in close contact with plant membranes. VirE2 initially accumulated on plant cytoplasmic membranes at the entry points. VirE2-containing membranes were internalized through clathrin-mediated endocytosis to form endomembrane compartments. VirE2 colocalized with the early endosome marker SYP61 but not with the late endosome marker ARA6, suggesting that VirE2 escaped from early endosomes for subsequent trafficking inside the cells. Dual endocytic motifs at the carboxyl-terminal tail of VirE2 were involved in VirE2 internalization and could interact with the μ subunit of the plant clathrin-associated adaptor AP2 complex (AP2M). Both the VirE2 cargo motifs and AP2M were important for the transformation process. Because AP2-mediated endocytosis is well conserved, our data suggest that the A. tumefaciens pathogen hijacks conserved endocytic pathways to facilitate the delivery of virulence factors. This might be important for Agrobacterium to achieve both a wide host range and a high transformation efficiency.

  13. The effectiveness of psychosocial interventions delivered by general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibers, M.J.H.; Beurskens, A.J.H.M.; Bleijenberg, G.; Schayck, C.P. van

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients visit their general practitioner (GP) because of problems that are psychosocial in origin. However, for many of these problems there is no evidence-based treatment available in primary care, and these patients place time-consuming demands on their GP. Therefore, GPs could b

  14. Comparability of Computer Delivered versus Traditional Paper and Pencil Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strader, Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    There are many advantages supporting the use of computers as an alternate mode of delivery for high stakes testing: cost savings, increased test security, flexibility in test administrations, innovations in items, and reduced scoring time. The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of computers as the mode of delivery had any…

  15. Delivering Extension to the Living Room Using Internet TV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Grant G., III

    2014-01-01

    Television is a widely adopted source for viewing educational information. Unfortunately, producing a television show on network television can be costly and time consuming. Internet TV offers Extension video content producers the opportunity to create a niche topic channel quickly and at low cost. Internet TV offers viewers a low-cost and…

  16. Use of Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season to Assess Effectiveness of Agricultural and Environmental Best Management Practices in California and Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, J. L.; Schlegel, B.; Hutchins, J.

    2014-12-01

    Long-term data sets on stream-water quality and discharge can be used to assess whether best management practices (BMPs) are restoring beneficial uses of impaired water as required under the Clean Water Act. In this study, we evaluated a greater than 20-year record of water quality from selected streams in the Central Valley (CV) of California and Lake Tahoe (California and Nevada, USA). The CV contains a mix of agricultural and urbanized land, while the Lake Tahoe area is mostly forested, with seasonal residents and tourism. Because nutrients and fine sediments cause a reduction in water clarity that impair Lake Tahoe, BMPs were implemented in the early 1990's, to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus loads. The CV does not have a current nutrient management plan, but numerous BMPs exist to reduce pesticide loads, and it was hypothesized that these programs could also reduce nutrient levels. In the CV and Lake Tahoe areas, nutrient concentrations, loads, and trends were estimated by using the recently developed Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) model. Sufficient data were available to compare trends during a voluntary and enforcement period for seven CV sites within the lower Sacramento and San Joaquin Basins. For six of the seven sites, flow-normalized mean annual concentrations of total phosphorus and nitrate decreased at a faster rate during the enforcement period than during the earlier voluntary period. Concentration changes during similar years and ranges of flow conditions suggest that BMPs designed for pesticides also reduced nutrient loads in the CV. A trend analysis using WRTDS was completed for six streams that enter Lake Tahoe during the late 1980's through 2008. The results of the model confirm that nutrient loading is influenced strongly by season, such as by spring runoff from snowmelt. The highest nutrient concentrations in the late 1980's and early 1990's correlate with high flows, followed by statistically significant decreases

  17. Development of Early Conceptions in Systems Thinking in an Environmental Context: An Exploratory Study of Preschool Students' Understanding of Stocks & Flows, Behavior Over Time and Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmeister, Kristina M.

    Systems thinking allows learners to look at the world as a series of interconnected parts of a whole. A debate exists in early childhood research literature about whether or not children have the capacity to hold systems thinking conceptions due to the complex thought processing needed for systems thinking. Additionally, many researchers question whether children have enough life experience or cognitive schema to participate fully in systems thinking. However, this study's findings indicate that young children do show signs of more complex understanding in systems thinking than what previous literature suggests a young child has the ability to do. This three part research study was conducted in a universal pre-kindergarten (UPK) classroom in a first-ring suburb of a rust-belt city in the Northeastern United States. The study was grounded in a desire to uncover young children's understanding of systems thinking through everyday classroom activities. Twenty students participated in this qualitative study which utilized read-aloud, water play and the interpretation and creation of graphs through associated structured and semi-structured interviews. Data from student's observations and interviews was transcribed, segmented, coded and analyzed. This student-centered process approach (Gotwals & Alonzo, 2012) allowed for children's ideas to emerge naturally during the research tasks. Data was analyzed according to a three step analysis process using a real-world lens, a systems thinking skills lens, and the development of lower anchors for future learning progressions lens. Across a group of 20 preschool children there was an overarching theme that the ability to think in systems and utilize simple systems thinking tools, such as stock-flow maps, feedback loops and behavior over time graphs, was present. Since children are ready to reason using rudimentary systems thinking, then systems thinking opportunities should be incorporated into their informal and formal learning

  18. Enhanced cytotoxicity of anticancer drug delivered by novel nanoscale polymeric carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoika, R.; Boiko, N.; Senkiv, Y.; Shlyakhtina, Y.; Panchuk, R.; Finiuk, N.; Filyak, Y.; Bilyy, R.; Kit, Y.; Skorohyd, N.; Klyuchivska, O.; Zaichenko, A.; Mitina, N.; Ryabceva, A.

    2013-04-01

    We compared in vitro action of highly toxic anticancer drug doxorubicin under its delivery to the mammalian tumor cells in free form and after encapsulation in novel bio-functionalized nanoscale polymeric carrier. Such encapsulation was found to enhance significantly drug uptake by the targeted cells, as well as its cytotoxic action. 10 times higher cytotoxicity of the carrier-immobilized doxorubicin comparing to its free form was demonstrated by direct cell counting, and 5 times higher cytotoxicity of encapsulated doxorubicin was shown by FACS analysis. The polymeric carrier itself did not possess significant toxicity in vitro or in vivo (laboratory mice). The carrier protected against negative side effects of doxorubicin in mice with experimental NK/Ly lymphoma. The life duration of tumor-bearing animals treated with doxorubicin-carrier complex was significantly longer than life duration in animals treated with free doxorubicin. Besides, the effective treatment dose of the carrier-delivered doxorubicin in tumor-bearing mice was 10 times lower than such dose of free doxorubicin. Thus, novel nanoscale polymers possess high potential as drug carrier.

  19. Advanced sensing technology in environmental field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakida, Shin-ichi

    2009-01-01

    Before the introduction of advanced sensing technology in environmental fields, environmental issues were discussed as several categories, such as local environmental issues in the 1970s, global environmental issues in the 1980s, living environmental issues in the 2000s and environmental stress issues in near future, which are of increasing interest in Japan. Using advanced sensing technologies, such as electrochemical sensors, chemically-sensitive field-effect transistors (ChemFETs) based on micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS) micromachining technology and subsequently electrophoretic separation and microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip using MEMS technology, we have steered several kinds of environmental monitoring projects timely in response to the environmental issues for over the last 25 years. Among the local environmental issues, the global environmental issues and the living environmental issues, some fruits of R&D project will be introduced. Finally, our latest concern of the environmental stress monitoring was discussed and preliminary results were also introduced.

  20. Socio-Demographic, Social-Cognitive, Health-Related and Physical Environmental Variables Associated with Context-Specific Sitting Time in Belgian Adolescents: A One-Year Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busschaert, Cedric; Ridgers, Nicola D.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Cocker, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    Introduction More knowledge is warranted about multilevel ecological variables associated with context-specific sitting time among adolescents. The present study explored cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of ecological domains of sedentary behaviour, including socio-demographic, social-cognitive, health-related and physical-environmental variables with sitting during TV viewing, computer use, electronic gaming and motorized transport among adolescents. Methods For this longitudinal study, a sample of Belgian adolescents completed questionnaires at school on context-specific sitting time and associated ecological variables. At baseline, complete data were gathered from 513 adolescents (15.0±1.7 years). At one-year follow-up, complete data of 340 participants were available (retention rate: 66.3%). Multilevel linear regression analyses were conducted to explore cross-sectional correlates (baseline variables) and longitudinal predictors (change scores variables) of context-specific sitting time. Results Social-cognitive correlates/predictors were most frequently associated with context-specific sitting time. Longitudinal analyses revealed that increases over time in considering it pleasant to watch TV (p < .001), in perceiving TV watching as a way to relax (p < .05), in TV time of parents/care givers (p < .01) and in TV time of siblings (p < .001) were associated with more sitting during TV viewing at follow-up. Increases over time in considering it pleasant to use a computer in leisure time (p < .01) and in the computer time of siblings (p < .001) were associated with more sitting during computer use at follow-up. None of the changes in potential predictors were significantly related to changes in sitting during motorized transport or during electronic gaming. Conclusions Future intervention studies aiming to decrease TV viewing and computer use should acknowledge the importance of the behaviour of siblings and the pleasure adolescents experience during

  1. Elements of environmental management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antweiler, Werner

    2014-01-01

    ... important area of expertise. This book is an interdisciplinary texbook that integrates corporate environmental strategy with environmental economics, environmental law, and environmental engineering...

  2. Characterization (environmental Signature) and Function of the Main Instrumented (monitoring Water Quality Network in Real Time) Rivers Atoyac and Zahuapan in High Atoyac Basin; in Dry, Rain and Winter Season 2013-2014; Puebla-Tlaxcala Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavera, E. M.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, P. F.; Morales-Garcia, S. S.; Muñoz-Sevilla, N. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Zahuapan and Atoyac rivers were characterized in the Upper Atoyac through the integration of physical and chemical parameters (environmental firm) determining the behavior and function of the basin as a tool for measuring and monitoring the quality and management of water resources of the water in one of the most polluted rivers in Mexico. For the determination of the environmental signature proceeded to characterize the water through 11 physicochemical parameters: temperature (T), potential hydrogen (pH), dissolved oxygen (DO), spectral absorption coefficient (SAC), the reduction of oxide potential (ORP), turbidity (Turb), conductivity (l), biochemical oxygen demand in 5 days (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids (TDS ), which were evaluated in 49 sites in the dry season, 47 for the rainy season and 23 for the winter season in the basin and Atoyac Zahuapan Alto Atoyac, Puebla-Tlaxcala, Mexico river; finding a mathematical algorithm to assimilate and better represent the information obtained. The algorithm allows us to estimate correlation greater than 0.85. The results allow us to propose the algorithm used in the monitoring stations for purposes of processing information assimilated form.This measurement and monitoring of water quality supports the project, the monitoring network in real time and the actions to clean up Atoyac River, in the urban area of the city of Puebla.

  3. Delivering Savings with Open Architecture and Product Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-30

    Software-Reliant Systems Lawrence Jones and John Bergey , Software Engineering Institute Advances in the Acquisition of Secure Systems Based on Open...reduction in training costs (Clements & Bergey , 2005). Shorter Development Schedules Developing hardware or software from scratch takes more time...Chesbrough, H. (2006). Open business models. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Clements, P., & Bergey , J. (2005, September). The U.S. Army’s

  4. Transforming cities: mapping opportunities to deliver sustainable urban form

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Cities are dynamic settings that are constantly evolving. Physical changes, at varying scales, occur across time. These changes are often complex and slow-moving but all contribute to ongoing transformation of the urban form. The urban form of a city, town or settlement is important as it defines the size, shape and configuration of that urban area. It is within this structural framework that the functional qualities of the city are played out; the movement of people and information, the acti...

  5. Environmental Tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Elliot

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental tracers continue to provide an important tool for understanding the source, flow and mixing dynamics of water resource systems through their imprint on the system or their sensitivity to alteration within it. However, 60 years or so after the first isotopic tracer studies were applied to hydrology, the use of isotopes and other environmental tracers are still not routinely necessarily applied in hydrogeological and water resources investigations where appropriate. There is therefore a continuing need to promote their use for developing sustainable management policies for the protection of water resources and the aquatic environment. This Special Issue focuses on the robustness or fitness-for-purpose of the application and use of environmental tracers in addressing problems and opportunities scientifically, to promote their wider use and to address substantive issues of vulnerability, sustainability, and uncertainty in (groundwater resources systems and their management.

  6. Environmental teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, R. L.; Beckman, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    By far the largest category of malformations, 65% falls into the group of those with an unknown cause(s). Purely genetic causes of malformations (autosomal and cytogenetic), estimated to produce 20 to 25% of all human malformations, comprise the largest group of congenital malformations with known etiology. Although environmental causes of human malformations account for 10% or fewer of malformations, most of these environmentally induced malformations are related to maternal disease states. Fewer than 1% of all human malformations are related to drug exposure, chemicals, or radiation, but studies of environmentally induced malformations are important because they may teach us how to predict and test for teratogenicity, understand the mechanisms of teratogenesis from all etiologies, and provide a means by which human malformations can be prevented. PMID:2194610

  7. Environmental teratogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent, R.L.; Beckman, D.A. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1990-03-01

    By far the largest category of malformations, 65% falls into the group of those with an unknown cause(s). Purely genetic causes of malformations (autosomal and cytogenetic), estimated to produce 20 to 25% of all human malformations, comprise the largest group of congenital malformations with known etiology. Although environmental causes of human malformations account for 10% or fewer of malformations, most of these environmentally induced malformations are related to maternal disease states. Fewer than 1% of all human malformations are related to drug exposure, chemicals, or radiation, but studies of environmentally induced malformations are important because they may teach us how to predict and test for teratogenicity, understand the mechanisms of teratogenesis from all etiologies, and provide a means by which human malformations can be prevented.298 references.

  8. 20 CFR 669.330 - How are services delivered to the customer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are services delivered to the customer... Farmworker Jobs Program Customers and Available Program Services § 669.330 How are services delivered to the customer? To ensure that all services are focused on the customer's needs, services are provided through a...

  9. Some like to join, others to deliver: an econometric analysis of farmers' relationships with agricultural cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascucci, S.; Gardebroek, C.; Dries, L.K.E.

    2012-01-01

    In many European countries, farmers are a member of a processing or marketing co-operative, and most of these farmers deliver their products to that co-operative. However, an extensive data set of Italian farmers shows that not all members deliver to their co-op, and that there are also non-members

  10. Using a NLSI to deliver the Effective Learning Programme: problems and practicalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Hunter

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1996 the University of Lincolnshire and Humberside implemented its Effective Learning programme (ELP. This is delivered by a Networked Learning Support Intranet (NLSI. This paper discusses some of the issues raised in linking NLSI to centralised databases and the changing staff roles within Learning Support required to develop, deliver and support ELP and the NLSI.

  11. The effect of support on internet-delivered treatment for Insomnia : Does baseline depression severity matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancee, Jaap; Sorbi, Marjolijn J.; Eisma, Maarten C.; van Straten, Annemieke; van den Bout, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral treatment is effective for insomnia. However, little is known about the beneficial effects of support. Recently we demonstrated that motivational support moderately improved the effects of Internet-delivered treatment for insomnia. In the present study, we tes

  12. Promised and Delivered Inducements and Contributions: An Integrated View of Psychological Contract Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Lisa Schurer

    2011-01-01

    The reciprocal exchange of employees' work for pay that is central to employment relationships is viewed here through the lens of the psychological contract. A psychological contract involves promised inducements, promised contributions, delivered inducements, and delivered contributions: How an employee cognitively integrates these 4 elements is…

  13. 77 FR 19479 - Closed Captioning of Internet Protocol-Delivered Video Programming: Implementation of the Twenty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... Act of 2010, the FCC revises its regulations to require closed captioning of IP-delivered video... who are deaf or hard of hearing to view IP-delivered video programming, as Congress intended. DATES... Commission's Consumer and Governmental Affairs Bureau at (202) 418-0530 (voice), (202) 418-0432 (TTY...

  14. 78 FR 39619 - Closed Captioning of Internet Protocol-Delivered Video Programming: Implementation of the Twenty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... for video programming delivered using Internet protocol (``IP'') and apparatus used by consumers to..., providers, and distributors of IP-delivered video programming and rules governing the closed captioning... the Commission's Consumer and Governmental Affairs Bureau at (202) 418-0530 (voice), (202) 418-0432...

  15. A water-renewal system that accurately delivers small volumes of water to exposure chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumwalt, D. C.; Dwyer, F.J.; Greer, I.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a system that can accurately deliver small volumes of water (50 ml per cycle) to eight 300-ml beakers. The system is inexpensive <$100), easy to build (<8 h), and easy to calibrate (<15 min), and accurately delivers small volumes of water (<5% variability).

  16. The effect of support on Internet-delivered treatment for insomnia: Does baseline depression severity matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancee, J.; Sorbi, M.J.; Eisma, M.C.; van Straten, A.; van den Bout, J.

    2014-01-01

    Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral treatment is effective for insomnia. However, little is known about the beneficial effects of support. Recently we demonstrated that motivational support moderately improved the effects of Internet-delivered treatment for insomnia. In the present study, we tes

  17. A gray wolf (Canis lupus) delivers live prey to a pup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2014-01-01

    A two-year-old sibling Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) carefully captured an Arctic Hare (Lepus arcticus) leveret alive on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, and delivered it alive to a pup 28–33 days old. This appears to be the first observation of a Gray Wolf delivering live prey to a pup.

  18. The effect of support on internet-delivered treatment for Insomnia : Does baseline depression severity matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancee, Jaap; Sorbi, Marjolijn J.; Eisma, Maarten C.; van Straten, Annemieke; van den Bout, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral treatment is effective for insomnia. However, little is known about the beneficial effects of support. Recently we demonstrated that motivational support moderately improved the effects of Internet-delivered treatment for insomnia. In the present study, we tes

  19. Selective extraction of halogenated compounds from data measured by comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatography/high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry for non-target analysis of environmental and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shunji; Zushi, Yasuyuki; Fushimi, Akihiro; Takazawa, Yoshikatsu; Tanabe, Kiyoshi; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2013-03-22

    We developed a method that selectively extracts a subset from comprehensive 2D gas chromatography (GC×GC) and high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HRTOFMS) data to detect and identify trace levels of organohalogens. The data were obtained by measuring several environmental and biological samples, namely fly ash, soil, sediment, the atmosphere, and human urine. For global analysis, some samples were measured without purification. By using our novel software, the mass spectra of organochlorines or organobromines were then extracted into a data subset under high mass accuracy conditions that were approximately equivalent to a mass resolution of 6000 for some samples. Mass defect filtering as pre-screening for the data extraction was very effective in removing the mass spectra of hydrocarbons. Those results showed that data obtained with HRTOFMS are valuable for global analysis of organohalogens, and probably of other compounds if specific data extraction methods can be devised.

  20. NOAA's Regional Climate Services Program: Building Relationships with Partners and Customers to Deliver Trusted Climate Information at Usable Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecray, E. L.; Dissen, J.

    2016-12-01

    Federal agencies across multiple sectors from transportation to health, emergency management and agriculture, are now requiring their key stakeholders to identify and plan for climate-related impacts. Responding to the drumbeat for climate services at the regional and local scale, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) formed its Regional Climate Services (RCS) program to include Regional Climate Services Directors (RCSD), Regional Climate Centers, and state climatologists in a partnership. Since 2010, the RCS program has engaged customers across the country and amongst many of the nation's key economic sectors to compile information requirements, deliver climate-related products and services, and build partnerships among federal agencies and their regional climate entities. The talk will include a sketch from the Eastern Region that may shed light on the interaction of the multiple entities working at the regional scale. Additionally, we will show examples of our interagency work with the Department of Interior, the Department of Agriculture, and others in NOAA to deliver usable and trusted climate information and resources. These include webinars, print material, and face-to-face customer engagements to gather and respond to information requirements. NOAA/National Centers for Environmental Information's RCSDs work on-the-ground to learn from customers about their information needs and their use of existing tools and resources. As regional leads, the RCSDs work within NOAA and with our regional partners to ensure the customer receives a broad picture of the tools and information from across the nation.